Pale, once a just a village when Bosnia's war ended 13 years ago, is now a bustling town, the hub of "Serbian Sarajevo," and home to several divisions of the Bosnian Serbs' University of East Sarajevo, their homegrown alternative to the multiethnic University of Sarajevo. It was in Pale that Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic, the Bosnian Serbs'…
Feichter, Pat; And Others
Presents three brief articles recalling US teachers' experiences conducting civic education workshops in Bosnia. Pat Feichter writes "Would I Return? In a Heartbeat." Gail Huschle examines "Beauty in the Midst of Devastation." Mary Bristol considers "Making Connections between Cultures." (MJP)
McCreight, Richard Douglas
This book investigates the forces shaping the development of education systems in Bosnia and the impact those historical forces may, or may not, have on the condition of secondary education in Bosnia today. Initial chapters offer historical background about educational development in the Balkans and in Bosnia. The volume outlines the accumulative…
Richards, Lynn Altman
Describes how educators from Bosnia-Herzegovina and the United States came to terms with informal drama activities through a sharing of cultural experiences and pedagogical approaches during an inservice program in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Discusses preparation for workshop projects, methods of reaching and relaxing the audience, and adjustments made…
Agic, Sejfudin; Glumac, Nijaz; Gozo, Zehra; Hoso, Narcis; Jonic, Damir; Kudumovic, Mensura; Moldovan, Dragana; Muminovic, Aida; Pjevalica, Zeljana; Sadikovic, Azra; Serbic, Miso
During International Adult Learners Week, a learning festival organized by a humanitarian organization celebrated the resilience and learning focus of the people of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Evaluations identified a need for more government support for adult education and the contributions of nongovernmental organizations. (SK)
Dizdarevic, Alma; Vantic-Tanjic, Medina; Nikolic, Milena
This paper describes the different challenges faced by all members of the local community who are directly or indirectly responsible for the educational reform regarding the process of inclusion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Yugoslavia education system is regulated in canton legislature. Each canton has its own law on preschool, elementary school,…
Content analysis of the curriculum and textbooks for the last four grades of compulsory education used in Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented. The major aim in this research has been to identify how issues related to democracy and human rights are presented.--Do the curriculum and textbooks support the ideas and behaviours recognized as…
Lupinc, L; Markwalder, K; Nigg, C
We describe reference to a family from Bosnia that the diagnosis of Trichinellosis can be difficult despite notice of travel-history and eosinophilia but lack of further epidemiological datas and due to the rarity of this zoonosis. Clinical pattern of trichinellosis are fever, headache, myalgia, periorbital oedema, less frequently diarrhea and abdominal pain. Dreaded complications are myocarditis and encephalitis. High eosinophilia and increased creatine phosphocinase activity are the most frequently observed laboratory features. The detection of specific circulating antibodies or the parasitological examination of a muscle biopsy will confirm the diagnosis. The medical treatment includes albendazol and steroid. PMID:14727477
Bašić, B; Beganović, A; Skopljak-Beganović, A; Samek, D
Monitoring of occupationally exposed workers in Bosnia and Herzegovina started in 1960s and it was interrupted in 1992. Dosimetry service resumed in 1999 when the International Atomic Energy Agency provided Radiation Protection Centre with Harshaw 4500 Thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD)-reader and the first set of TLDs. The highest doses are received by professionals working in interventional procedures (radiology, cardiology, gastroenterohepatology etc.). Number of these procedures is increasing each year (just in cardiology this increase is 24 % per year). Results from two TLDs are used to estimate effective dose. One is worn under the apron (chest level), and the other above (neck level). Calculation is performed using Niklason's methodology. Total number of occupationally exposed persons in interventional radiology is 90. The collective dose they receive is 67 person mSv, while the mean dose is 0.77 mSv (based on 12-month period). Highest doses are received by physicians (3.7 mSv), while radiographers and nurses receive 2.1 and 1.9 mSv respectively. This occurs due to the fact that physicians stand closer to the source (patient). The lead apron is proven to be the most efficient radiation protection equipment, but, also, lead thyroid shield and glasses can significantly lower doses received by professionals. The use of this equipment is highly recommended. PMID:21138927
The health informatics profession in Bosnia and Herzegovina has relatively long history. Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, thirty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, twenty years from the establishment of the Scientific journal “Acta Informatica Medica (Acta Inform Med”, indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central Scopus, Embase, etc.), twenty years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ten years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article is eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24648621
Many scientists have written about Turkish, Arabic and medical books. The most important authors among them are: Osman Sokolović: "Orijentalne medicinske knjige moje knjiznice", Hrvatska drzavna tiskara, Zagreb, Podruznica Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 1945, od 10-15; Prim. dr. Hamdija Karamehmedović; Ibn al-Nefis, "Mudzez al-Kanum", Republicki zavod za zdravstvenu zastitu Sarajevo, 1961, 1-219; Mr ph Samuel Elazar, Ajnija Omanić: "Bibliografija medicinskih djela u SR BiH do 1895." Medicinska knjiga Beograd-Zagreb 1984; Besides, the great contribution in bibliography was given by dr Lujo Taler, prof. dr. Drazen Grmek, dr. Jasa Roman, Kasim ef. Dobraca, Radmila Fabijanić, Hivzija ef. Hasandedić, prof. dr. Zdravko Devetak, prim. dr. Alija Karahasanović, Salih ef. Trako i Lejla Gazić. The first list of medical books from the territory of The Former Yugoslavia was prepared and published by Jasa Roman: Jugoslovenska bibliografija Ijekarusa i narodnih medicinskih rukopisam Naucno drustvo za istoriju zdravstvene culture Jugoslavije, Beograd, 1973. But, there are also many writings and book ("the old books") that have not been evidented yet. The reason for this is the fact that catalogues in private and public chemistries were not updated. This is why numerous documents have not been processed. These documents are the most important source of data about our health past, and that is why it is necessary to investigate, note and process them permanently in all aspects. The goal of this paper is to make a short preview of updated bibliography in Bosnia and Herzagovina, and to analyse methodology of making them. PMID:9324576
Pasalic-Kreso, Adila; Russo, Charles J.
In the postwar transitional phase, restoration of a comprehensive education system in Bosnia has been impeded by inadequate resources and capacity to repair and/or upgrade existing facilities, debate over curricular content, differing school management systems, and student displacement. Rebuilding must stress democratic, multicultural principles.…
Presents a brief overview of the circumstances and outcomes of the war in Bosnia, discusses some of the clinical issues being faced by Bosnian children, such as post traumatic stress disorders, and describes volunteer training efforts designed to train teachers as lay therapists. (CR)
Catic, Tarik; Mekic-Abazovic, Alma; Sulejmanovic, Samra
Febrile neutropenia is common chemotherapy complication significantly impacting patient’s outcomes, quality of life and costs, too. Febrile neutropenia (FN) often leads to hospitalization, the need for intravenous antibiotics and use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (GCSF) in order to avoid its complications. Cost of febrile neutropenia is well described in literature, but no study has been performed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We have conducted observational cohort study with aim to describe and present costs of FN treatment from payers’ (provider’s) perspective. Only direct medical costs from one middle-sized oncology Clinic in Bosnia and Herzegovina database have been included and presented. We found that overall cost in five months period (January-May 2015) were almost 30.000 euros, or 1.0035 euro per episode/patient in average. The highest cost are allocated to hospitalization (40%), followed by GCSF (36%), while rest of costs are generated by laboratory tests performed and drug application. Proportion of costs is in line with other published studies even with huge differences in absolute values, mainly to low prices of services in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This was the first study on costs of chemotherapy induced FN in Bosnia and Herzegovina suggesting that significant costs are inquired by this conditions and that further research should be performed including larger patient population and other clinical oncology data, including pharmacoeconomic analysis. PMID:27147916
Catic, Tarik; Mekic-Abazovic, Alma; Sulejmanovic, Samra
Febrile neutropenia is common chemotherapy complication significantly impacting patient's outcomes, quality of life and costs, too. Febrile neutropenia (FN) often leads to hospitalization, the need for intravenous antibiotics and use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (GCSF) in order to avoid its complications. Cost of febrile neutropenia is well described in literature, but no study has been performed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We have conducted observational cohort study with aim to describe and present costs of FN treatment from payers' (provider's) perspective. Only direct medical costs from one middle-sized oncology Clinic in Bosnia and Herzegovina database have been included and presented. We found that overall cost in five months period (January-May 2015) were almost 30.000 euros, or 1.0035 euro per episode/patient in average. The highest cost are allocated to hospitalization (40%), followed by GCSF (36%), while rest of costs are generated by laboratory tests performed and drug application. Proportion of costs is in line with other published studies even with huge differences in absolute values, mainly to low prices of services in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This was the first study on costs of chemotherapy induced FN in Bosnia and Herzegovina suggesting that significant costs are inquired by this conditions and that further research should be performed including larger patient population and other clinical oncology data, including pharmacoeconomic analysis. PMID:27147916
In postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina, segregation along ethno-nationalistic lines and divergent pedagogies within the education system have presented challenges to social cohesion and the long-term stability of a society that is still struggling to rebuild, reconcile, and regain trust (Jancic, 2008). This article examines the current state of the…
Rizvic, S.; Sadzak, A.; Ramic-Brkic, B.; Hulusic, V.
Bosnia and Herzegovina always has been a place where the East meets the West. Over 1000 years, different cultures, religions and civilizations have left their remains in this small country in Western Balkans. Despite all wars and tragic destructions, today in the heart of Sarajevo one can find mosques, Catholic and Orthodox churches and Jewish synagogues next to each other and people of different nations and religions living together in mutual respect and friendship. Multiethnic spirit of Bosnia and Herzegovina lives through its cultural heritage. Therefore our task is to ensure its presentation and preservation using Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). So far researchers have achieved significant results by creating several virtual museums. In this paper we will present the Museum of Bosnian Traditional Objects, Digital Catalogue of Stecaks and the Virtual Museum of Sarajevo Assassination, giving an overview of the process of creating virtual environments from multiple data sources based on various 3D digitization technologies: some based on traditional 3D modeling, other based on laser scanning or photogrametric techniques.
Winterhalter-Jadrić, Mira; Causević, Adlija; Jadrić, Radivoj; Corić, Jozo; Hasić, Sabaheta; Kiseljaković, Emina
In this paper we would like to briefly introduce readers to the situation in the field of laboratory medicine in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a focus on training in the field of medical biochemistry. As in some of neighboring countries, term Medical biochemist is the usual name for the Clinical biochemist or Clinical chemist in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Despite the difficult period through which the profession had passed in the last two decades, laboratory work, particularly clinical biochemistry, has managed to retain the necessary quality and keep pace with the developed world. In post war period, Society of Medical Biochemists of Bosnia and Herzegovina held regular meetings each year as a part of "life long learning" process, where both scientific and vocational lecturers presented their work. A single law on the state level would provide us with more defined and precise answers, such as: who can get a specialization, how long should last the training for medical biochemistry specialists (duration in years). This law should be in consent with the program described in EC4 or other documents given by the EFCC (European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine) and IFCC (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine). PMID:22141200
... involving those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian Serb forces... (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA... Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian Serb forces. Sections 585.201(c) and...
Cox, John K.
This digest provides facts and explanations about: (1) the peoples and places of the former Yugoslavia, including Bosnia- Hercegovina; (2) the collapse of Yugoslavia and the crisis in Bosnia-Hercegovina or "Bosnia"; and (3) the causes, conditions, and consequences of the Bosnian war. The history of Yugoslavia from 1918 to 1990 is discussed as well…
The article addresses the issue of possible curriculum models in post-conflict countries, taking as an example the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1996 and 2004. Following the Dayton agreement, the education system in Bosnia and Herzegovina was divided between 13 ministries administering different Bosnian, Serb and Croat cantons. Despite…
This article focuses on a bookmaking project that was conducted with pre-adolescent Serbian and Bosnian girls at a summer camp outside Sarajevo, Bosnia in 2005. During this camp, children from Bosnia, Serbia and Croatia were brought together by the Global Children's Organisation to engage in a variety of activities, including conflict resolution,…
Mujić, N.; Muminović, M.
Inspired by similar networks in the region, a video meteor network began since the spring of 2013 in Bosnia and Herzegovina which currently includes eight stations. Further expansion of the network is under preparation by setting up another 2 stations. The Network is managed by the Astronomical Society Orion Sarajevo together with the Federal Hydrometeorological Institute in Sarajevo whose meteorological stations were used for the installation of the cameras. By mid-June 2015 the cameras of the BH meteor network had recorded over 20000 meteors and we had calculated more than 4000 orbits. In this paper we present the results of the first two years of operation of our meteor network.
The end of the Bi-polar world has increased the requirement for and scope of UN peace operations. This paper examines the current situation in Bosnia from an Operational Command and Control perspective. It points out the shortfalls of force structure, clear direction on both the strategic/operational level and the UN`s inability to coordinate their and NATO`s efforts. It will also discuss the need and framework for `robust` peace operations. It concludes with an examination of options for a command and control structure for future UN peace operations.
Ümit, Göktolga; Izetbegovic, Sebija; Admir, Rama; Spahovic, Hajrudin; Cihan, Göktaş
Introduction: Infertility or sterility or barrenness is defined as a state of inability to conceive after a year of unprotected intercourse. Ovulation problems, uterine tube problems, endometriosis, uterine etiology problems, chromosomal problems which are not so rare, spermatogenesis disorders and azoospermia are stated as the most common causes of infertility. Objective: Main objective of this research is to present most common causes of marital infertility in Bosnia-Herzegovina population. Material and methods: Retrospective, descriptive- epidemiological study has been published at Bahceci IVF center in Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). The research covered a time-period of two years. During the time-period in question, 826 marital couples from Bosnia and Herzegovina diagnosed with marital sterility approached the Center. Results: Analysis of female patients as per age groups determined that the largest number of respondents belonged to the 36 – 39 age group with a total number of 293 patients, followed by 30 – 35 age group with a total number of 245 patients, and the third most frequent age group included those of ≥ 40 years of age with 179 patients in total, followed by 25–29 age group with 98 respondents. In 42% (n=350) of the couples diagnosed with marital infertility, female sterility was established as the reason, while in 36 % (n=294) of the couples, male sterility was the reason. Both marital spouses were infertile in 11% of the couples (n=92), while in remaining 11% of the couples, no diagnosis was determined and they belonged in the group of unexplainable sterility. The most common cause of sterility in women is diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), as was the case in 38.57% of respondents. This diagnosis is in direct correlation with the age of a woman. Among causes of sterility of organic and functional origin, the most common is ovarian tube problem – in 31.4% of the cases, then ovulatory problems – in 12.86% of the cases, and polycystic
Carballo, M; Serdarevic, D; Zulic, I
Part of the impact of the war in ex-Yugoslavia and especially Bosnia and Herzegovina was to limit the supply of therapeutic drugs they had used before the war. The difficulties encountered made the health care system temporarily dependent on humanitarian assistance agencies which applied the concept of essential drugs; and, after initial difficulties, national health staff adapted to the need to prescribe from a very limited range of drugs. Meanwhile, national drug policy and procurement and prescribing practices were reviewed by working groups and a national List of Essential Drugs was drawn up by national experts with international support. This list has now been passed into legislation. PMID:9227382
Mulic, M.; Bilajbegovic, A.
Availability of the reprocessed IGS05 precise orbits opened the door to the possibilities of the re-processing of two GPS campaigns in the Bosnia and Herzegovina, organized in the year 2000 and 2005. The data of the GPS observations processed using the Bernese software, version 5.0. Results were in the IGS05 reference frame. Corrections for the delays of GPS signals passing through the troposphere were estimated for every 2 hours, and their projection on the observed height of the stations was calculated using wet Neill mapping functions, but horizontal gradients were estimated for every 4 hours. Results of reprocessing shows improved accuracy. It could be generally said that the accuracy of the all three components of the positions were within the 10 mm and accuracy of the processed velocities for the identical stations were about 1mm/year. Common campaign in the middle epoch used to evaluate velocities of identical stations. For stations that are not observed in both of these campaigns, velocities were interpolated using a polynomial of third degree. So, re-processing of the campaigns resulted in the improved accuracy of the realization of a geodetic reference network for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Selimovic, Amina; Mujicic, Ermina; Milisic, Selma; Mesihovic-Dinarevic, Senka; Dzinovic, Amra; Cengic, Selma; Bakalovic, Ganimeta; Moro, Mahir; Djozic, Meliha; Lukic-Bilela, Lada
Aim: The aim of this study is to present the first total number of tested children in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the number of children with positive sweat test. During the study we determined the number of ill children, the median age of children with cystic fibrosis, date of initial diagnosis, an average amount of chloride in the sweat. Material and methods: The study was a retrospective, conducted at the Department of Pulmonology Pediatric Clinic of University Clinical Center of Sarajevo. Results: In the period from March 2003 to December 2014, we have tested 625 children. 351 child were from Sarajevo Canton and 272 children from other cantons. Female children were more affected then male children, in the ratio of 1: 1,105. An average age of female children was 4.19±4.26 years, and the male 2.15±3.11 years. The median concentration of chloride in the sweat measured by sweat test was for male children 103.05±21.29 mmol/L, and for the female children 96.05±28.85 mmol/L. Conclusion: Most of children in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have ∆F508 gene mutation. In the post-war period we started to use a sweat test. Male children tend to live longer than female children with CF. PMID:26543305
Obradović, Zarema; Velić, Ramiz
Aim To analyze the frequency and distribution of human brucellosis in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period 2001-2008, and measures and activities undertaken for prevention and control of the disease. Method In this descriptive, retrospective study, we used official reports on infectious diseases from public health institutes at the federal and cantonal level, as well as epidemiological surveys. For comparison with animal brucellosis cases, we used the distribution data from veterinary surveillance. Results Since 2001, the number of infected people has rapidly increased and brucellosis has become a very important public health problem. In the period 2001-2008, there were 1639 human brucellosis cases and the number of cases increased every year. The morbidity rate over the study period ranged from 3.8 to 33.4 per 100 000 inhabitants. According to epidemiological surveys, in villages human brucellosis was transmitted mostly by contact with infected animals and their products, and in cities by consumption of dairy products made from contaminated, unpasteurized milk. When test-and-slaughter control approach was used, the prevalence of seropositive livestock was 4.6% and approximately 70 000 animals were slaughtered after testing between 2001 and 2008. From 1 June 2009, this approach was replaced with mass vaccination of sheep and goats. Conclusion The large number of human brucellosis cases and seropositive livestock poses a very serious problem for Bosnia and Herzegovina. The solution may be the introduction of mass vaccination. PMID:20718088
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Last two years, the health informatics profession celebrated five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: thirty years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, twenty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, fifteen years from the establishment of the Scientific and Professional Journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“, fifteen years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and five years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article are eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24133382
Analyzes issues of fragmentation and reform in Bosnia-Herzegovina's higher education system, suggesting that a better appreciation of traditional university structures, rather than just Anglo-American central management, is important in achieving effective reform. (EV)
Omanic, Ajnija; Serdarevic, Mevlida; Ovcina, Amer; Omanic, Hajrunisa; Omanic, Jasna
Many authors have written about the participation of women in WW2 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly in health care. Participation of Bosnian and Herzegovinian women in the 1992-1995 war was also significant. According to Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina data, there were 5360 recruited women. Some were engaged in logistics and some were fighters. This review presents the characters of the brave women who have inspired current generations. PMID:21073250
The law legalizing abortion and implementing family planning, passed in former Yugoslavia in 1952, is still in effect in the newly created state of Bosnia-Herzegovina. This law has helped eliminate illegal, i.e. criminal, abortions, but existing arrangements providing family planning and promoting reproductive and sexual health are not effective enough, because too few people know enough about the rights to individual choice in family planning. The primary objective for the next twenty years is to educate the people--women, men and the young--about their rights to reproductive choice and sexual health, and about how to exercise those rights as fully and effectively as possible. Legal and financial assistance from WHO will be welcome, because the post-war Bosnian society and state lack funds for such initiatives. PMID:10536386
... Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian... YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND... and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian Serb...
Nelson, Briana S.
The 1992-1995 war in Bosnia-Herzegovina caused mush devastation in that region of the world. This article describes the themes and issues that emerged from information gained from interviews with Bosnian professionals through a project entitled "Trauma and Reconciliation in Bosnia-Herzegovina." Recommendations and implications for family and…
Terzic, Svjetlana; Jusufovic, Vahid; Vodencarevic, Amra Nadarevic; Asceric, Mensura; Pilavdzic, Adisa; Halilbasic, Meliha; Terzic, Amar
Introduction: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the world and represents a significant social and health problem. Early detection of glaucoma enables early initiation of treatment and may delay disease progression. The aim of this work is to determine whether it is possible to detect glaucoma in early stages. Methods: A public awareness campaign was carried out in University Clinic Center (UCC) in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) during 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 Glaucoma Week, with one-day, free of charge screening of individuals. This screening program was composed of getting brief medical history, slit-lamp examination including intraocular pressure and anterior chamber dept evaluation and non-mydriatic fundus exam with evaluation of the cup/disk ration. Results: A total of 682 individuals were screened, 277 were male and 405 were female. The youngest individual was 8 years old and the oldest individual was 84 years old. The mean age was 57.6 years. Intraocular pressure higher then 21,9 mmHg was found in 83 patients. Conclusion: Glaucoma is a disease that affects visual acuity and gradually leads to blindness. It occurs in all age groups in both sexes and in all races. Early detection of disease and proper treatment can prevent permanent loss of vision. Detection and early treatment of glaucoma must become one of the leading public health programs in B&H. PMID:27147791
Catic, Tarik; Jusufovic, Fatima Insanic; Tabakovic, Vedad
Community pharmacists play a significant role in patient/disease management and perception by patients is increasingly important. A self-administered questionnaire was developed consisted of sociodemographic part and 15 questions. Patients have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists that is comparable to most studies in Europe. Community pharmacists’ beyond dispensing drugs play a significant role in patient and disease management. This role of the pharmacist is performed through pharmaceutical care. Patient’s opinion is increasingly considered to be a useful component in the determination of care outcomes and consumer satisfaction is an integral component of the quality of primary health care. For the purpose of this study we developed self-administered questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic part, and 15 questions. Survey has been conducted in 10 pharmacies. Results are presented in tables and figures and descriptive statistics has been used. We found that patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and of the services offered from community pharmacies that is comparable to most studies in Europe, but there is still room for improvement of relationships and pharmaceutical services. PMID:24167438
Masić, I; Pandza, H; Knezević, Z; Toromanović, S
Bosnia and Herzegovina has been developing new Health Care System based on Electronic Registration Card. Developing countries proceeded from the manual and semiautomatic method of medical data processing to the new method of entering, storage, transfer, searching and protection of data using electronic equipment. Currently, many European countries have developed a Medical Card Based Electronic Information System. Both technologies offer the advantages and disadvantages. Three types of electronic card are currently in use: Hybrid Card, Smart Card and Laser Card. Hybrid Card offers characteristics of both Smart Card and Laser Card. The differences among these cards, such as a capacity, total price, price per byte, security system are discussed here. The dilemma is, which card should be used as a data carrier. The Electronic Family Registration Card is a question of strategic interest for B&H, but also a big investment. We should avoid the errors of other countries that have been developing card-based system. In this article we present all mentioned cards and compare advantages and disadvantages of different technologies. PMID:10870627
Catic, Tarik; Jusufovic, Fatima Insanic; Tabakovic, Vedad
Community pharmacists play a significant role in patient/disease management and perception by patients is increasingly important. A self-administered questionnaire was developed consisted of sociodemographic part and 15 questions. Patients have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists that is comparable to most studies in Europe. Community pharmacists' beyond dispensing drugs play a significant role in patient and disease management. This role of the pharmacist is performed through pharmaceutical care. Patient's opinion is increasingly considered to be a useful component in the determination of care outcomes and consumer satisfaction is an integral component of the quality of primary health care. For the purpose of this study we developed self-administered questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic part, and 15 questions. Survey has been conducted in 10 pharmacies. Results are presented in tables and figures and descriptive statistics has been used. We found that patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and of the services offered from community pharmacies that is comparable to most studies in Europe, but there is still room for improvement of relationships and pharmaceutical services. PMID:24167438
Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry
Assessments of mental health (GHQ-28) were performed on a Swedish battalion serving in Bosnia at 4 times: before deployment, immediately after deployment, 6 months after deployment, and 1 year after deployment. Complete responses were obtained from 316 participants (61% response rate). No significant change of mental health over time was noted. Individuals having experienced traumatic events in Bosnia, as well as stressful life events postdeployment, reported the poorest mental health. Logistic regression analysis showed that postdeployment stressors made the strongest contribution to registering a poor mental health score after one year. PMID:14690357
Uzunović-Kamberović, Selma; Zorman, Tina; Heyndrickx, Marc; Smole Možina, Sonja
Aim To investigate genetic diversity and specificity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from humans, retail poultry meat, and live farm chickens in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and identify the role of poultry meat in sporadic Campylobacter infections. Methods We determined the type of Campylobacter species using standard microbiological methods and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and performed pulsed field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of the flaA gene to investigate genetic diversity among the isolates. Results We isolated C jejuni and C coli from 75 (5.2%) of 1453 samples of consecutive outpatients with sporadic diarrhea; from 51 (34.7%) of 147 samples of poultry meat; and from 15 out of 23 farm chicken samples. The proportion of C coli found among human (30.1%), poultry meat (56.9%), and farm chicken isolates (53.3%), was greater than the proportion of C jejuni. Fourteen and 24 PFGE genotypes were identified among 20 C coli and 37 C jejuni isolates, respectively. Identical PFGE genotypes were found in two cases of human and poultry meat isolates and two cases of poultry meat and farm chicken isolates. Conclusion Only a minority of human Campylobacter isolates shared identical PFGE type with poultry meat isolates. Although poultry is the source of a certain number of human infections, there may be other more important sources. Further research is required to identify the environmental reservoir of Campylobacter spp responsible for causing human disease and the reason for the high prevalence of C coli human infections in this region. PMID:18074419
Vucijak, Branko; Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Antonelli, Francesca
The main aim of this paper is to present the results of the application of several methodologies for environmental flow assessment, in order to find appropriate one(s) to be used in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Several methods were tested, mostly belonging to the category of hydrological environmental flow assessment methods. Additionally, instream ecological values and critical parameters for environmental flow assessment were evaluated. Pilot areas were also assessed in terms of its geography, climate conditions, historic heritage of the river, demography, geology of the river and its tributaries, river hydrology and morphology, ecological characteristics, river pollution, river use and river management. The research highlited very important criteria for environmental flow evaluation are disregarded by the some of these methodologies, i.e. river ecology andr river morphology. As a consequence additional criteria were considered with the aim of preserving the river and riparian ecosystem. In the first phase of the project hydrological EF assessment method GEP (guaranteed ecological flow) was assessed in details and exercise carried out led to the conclusion that the GEP methodology provides some advantages, but also has remarkable disadvantages During next phase 4 selected methods of EF assessment were tested. Large difference was the cause of elimination for three of these methods for EF estimation. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of tested methods, MNQ approach was selected as the most acceptable method to use in BiH, still in need for important methodological improvements that are stressed. In case of protected areas or the presence of endangered and rare species, the holistic approach of EF assessment was proposed too and both of methods are part of drafted By-law on EF.
Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul
This paper describes the trials of the MINEHOUND TM dual sensor, land mine detector carried out in Cambodia, Bosnia and Angola. MINEHOUND TM has been developed for use in humanitarian demining as a means of improving the efficiency of clearance operations. The trials were sponsored by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). ERA Technology Ltd conducted the trials, which were monitored by staff drawn from the countries participating in the International Test and Evaluation Programme (ITEP) for humanitarian de-mining. Experienced deminers from the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA) used the pre-production units in live minefields. The objectives of the trial were: 1. To record information on the performance of MINEHOUND TM when used in a live minefield. 2. To determine the reduction in False Alarm Rate (FAR) that could be achieved using a dual sensor mine detector. The trials were conducted in three mine-affected countries for a period of eight weeks per country; the programme of trials ran from July 2005 to December 2005, with an additional smaller trial in late February 2006. The results of the trials showed that MINEHOUND TM achieved 100% detection of the mines encountered and an improvement in FAR of better than 5:1 compared with a basic metal detector. The trials enabled optimisation of the production design and clearly demonstrated that new technology can be brought to humanitarian clearance operations in a safe and controlled manner. As a result of the highly successful trials, Vallon and ERA will produce the MINEHOUND TM (Type number VMR1) starting in Q3 of 2006.
Obradovic, Zarema; Obradovic, Amina
Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction Travellers from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) travel to different world countries. The awareness of people is changing every day and nowadays travellers seek advices related to their travel and destination more often than before. In the previous years, travellers came to Travel Clinics almost only to get the vaccines which were obligatory for entry into a country. In B&H travel clinics are a part of public health institutes. The largest Travel Clinic which provides service for the highest number of travellers is in the Public Health Institute of Sarajevo Canton, in the city of Sarajevo, which is the capital of B&H. In the last years we have seen an increasing interest for travel to Africa because the highest number of travellers travel to African countries. Objective To show the characteristics of persons travelling to Africa, the reasons of their travel, the destination countries and the types of vaccines applied. Materials and methods We used protocol books of the Travel Clinic in Public Health Institute of Sarajevo Canton and the data from individual forms of travellers. Results Persons travelling to Africa make 55% of all travellers that are advised and vaccinated in the Travel Clinic in Public Health Institute of Sarajevo Canton. There are significantly more men than women among people travelling to Africa. The highest number of travellers is in the category of working population which means age group of 20-50 years. The most visited countries are Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia and Ghana. Travellers received the following vaccines: yellow fever, VHA, VHB, meningitis, tetanus. All travellers were given the advice on how to dress, feed and protect against malaria. PMID:24082834
Jabucar, Abdulah; Gakovic, Aleksandra; Hadrovic, Armin; Prohaska, Donald; Dokic, Gordana; Vlasic, Marija; Markotic, Mario; Mandic, Milena; Merlo, Mira; Praso, Murat; Jovic, Nebojsa; Leto, Ramiz; Sarajcic, Sahrudin; Mulac, Salih; Vlasic, Silvio; Numic, Suada; Licina, Svetozar; Gakovic, Vojislav
The state of the vocational education and training (VET) system in Bosnia and Herzegovina was reviewed to identify needed changes in policy and practice. The analysis focused on the following topics: (1) existing socioeconomic conditions; (2) existing labor market policies and employment patterns, unemployment, and employability; (3) modernization…
The global politics of reconciliation provide a blueprint for postconflict reconstruction projects around the world, including in South Africa, Rwanda, Northern Ireland, and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Of these, the B&H case is of particular interest due to the extensive involvement of some of the world's most powerful states and leading…
Hjort, Hanna; Frisen, Ann
The saliency of ethnicity and ethnic identity is influenced by contextual circumstances. In Bosnia-Herzegovina, due to the current ethno-political situation, ethnicity and ethnic identity most likely are important aspects of adolescents' lives. The main purpose of this study is to describe a group of young Mostarians in relation to ethnic identity…
Tiplic, Dijana; Welle-Strand, Anne
Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH) is seen as an intriguing case. Often described as a "miniature" of the Balkans due to its demographic pattern, the country has been exposed to a number of dramatic events during the past fifteen years. Today, international actors administer it as a sort of "semi-protectorate" concept, the definition of which is unclear…
Nash, James K.; Mujanovic, Eldan; Winfree, L. Thomas
Empirical and conceptual literature in the United States and Western Europe provides robust evidence of victimization as a risk factor for juvenile offending and parental monitoring as a protective factor. The current study examines relationships among victimization, monitoring, and offending using a sample of youth from Bosnia and Herzegovina…
Krogh, Suzanne L.
More than a dozen years ago, meetings held in Dayton, Ohio sponsored by the Clinton administration brought to an end three years of intense conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Of all the many organizational attempts at community building and democratization since then, one of the most successful has been the adoption of elementary and secondary…
Tsokova, Diana; Becirevic, Majda
This paper examines developments in inclusive education in Bulgaria (BG) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the context of actual and desired accession to the European Union respectively. It seeks to provide insights into the national special education traditions in these countries and aims to establish how these have influenced current…
Kreso, Adila Pasalic
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), much like other eastern-European countries, has faced a brief period of transition from the socialist system to capitalism. However, this was interrupted in BiH by a brutal war lasting four years. Social systems and infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, including education, which was harnessed during the war to…
Memisevic, Haris; Hodzic, Saudin
The aim of this study is to examine the attitudes of teachers in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) towards educational inclusion of students with intellectual disability into regular classes. The sample for this study consisted of 194 elementary school teachers from eight schools in BiH. The attitudes of the teachers were measured by "The Attitudes…
Šorgo, Andrej; Živkovic, Mate
Because of war and civil war on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, education in ethnically divided country has become fragmented. Because of postwar divisions thirteen different ministries of education or similar bodies are responsible for education, resulting in inefficiency and low quality. To overcome differences, a committee of experts…
Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven; Hrabac, Pero
In the research project on sexual abuse of men during the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, detailed information from 60 victims of such crimes was gathered. The aim of the research was to define key attributes of sexual abuse of men in war as well as consequences it had on the victims. A method of structured interview was used. Also, the…
Despite 15 years of sporadic efforts, religion today in Bosnia and Herzegovina is more of a hindrance than a help to promoting peaceful coexistence among the region's various ethnic and religious groups. Polarization and extremism make religions other than one's own even more distant, strange and threatening. Physical interaction that existed…
This article discusses methodological issues associated with education research in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and describes strategies taken to address them. Within a case study, mixed methods allowed the author to examine school leaders' perceptions multi-dimensionally. Multi-level analysis was essential to the understanding of policy-making…
This article explores the entanglement of gender, education and empire in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Habsburg period throughout the analysis of a unique institution: Sarajevo's Muslim Female School. Established at the very end of the nineteenth century, this pedagogical institution was the only school in Austria-Hungary specifically devoted…
Roberts, Ron; Becirevic, Majda; Baker, Tracy
Sixty-one children (aged 9-17) from the United Kingdom (31) and Bosnia (30) were interviewed about the war in Iraq. Significant differences emerged in their views of the war. The Bosnian children were more affected by the Iraq War, more aware of who is involved in it, had different views about its causes, viewed the consequences of the war with…
This paper is a summary of dissertation research regarding the ideas and problems contained in the astronomical manuscripts written in the Arabic alphabet and in Oriental languages, which are kept in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main aim of this paper is to show the role and development of the astronomical ideas contained in the manuscripts and the methods explaining the highlighted problems. According to the analyzed manuscripts, ideas in Bosnian science were mainly influenced by Arabic-Islamic countries, while European influence was less important. Even in the time of Copernican heliocentric ideas, the old Arabic astronomy was still current in Bosnia and Herzegovina, primarily for satisfying religious needs of Muslims, such as prayer timekeeping and sacred direction location, by scientific methods.
Hannam, J. A.; Dearing, J. A.
Electromagnetic properties of soils have negative impacts on metal detector performance during landmine clearance operations. In particular, topsoils with high concentrations of pedogenic viscous superparamagnetic minerals (magnetite/maghemite) as shown by high values of magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility limit the detector capability of identifying buried landmines. Thus a priori knowledge of the spatial extent of soils that may be problematic for landmine detection would aid strategic planning of clearance operations and ensure appropriate equipment is deployed. Here, we compare two approaches for estimating the broad magnetic properties of soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina: 1) an analogue approach, using data for magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility available for soil types from other temperate and Mediterranean regions; 2) magnetic measurements of a stratified sample of soil samples taken from the Bosnian National Soil Archive. The national soil magnetic maps produced estimate that the area of land inferred as problematic for metal detectors is 4% and 30% according to the analogue and measurement methods respectively. Combining soil type with soil parent material and climate explains the spatial variability of soil magnetic properties in terms of mechanisms of secondary ferrimagnetic mineral production and accumulation. The resulting maps indicate that the magnetic properties of dominant soils in northern Bosnia tend to be unproblematic for detectors, while in central Bosnia there is likely to be moderate detector interference. However, there is a high likelihood of dominant soils affecting detectors in southern and western Bosnia and Herzegovina, equivalent to ~ 30% of the total land area. The mapped outputs of susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility provide demining end-users with an indication of the likelihood of encountering problem soils in areas selected for clearance operations.
Kovačević, Lejla; Fatur-Cerić, Vera; Hadžić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir
Aim To detect polymorphisms of 23 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, including 6 new loci, in a reference database of male population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as to assess the importance of increasing the number of Y-STR loci utilized in forensic DNA analysis. Methods The reference sample consisted of 100 healthy, unrelated men originating from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sample collection using buccal swabs was performed in all geographical regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2010 to 2011. DNA samples were typed for 23 Y STR loci, including 6 new loci: DYS576, DYS481, DYS549, DYS533, DYS570, and DYS643, which are included in the new PowerPlex® Y 23 amplification kit. Results The absolute frequency of generated haplotypes was calculated and results showed that 98 samples had unique Y 23 haplotypes, and that only two samples shared the same haplotype. The most polymorphic locus was DYS418, with 14 detected alleles and the least polymorphic loci were DYS389I, DYS391, DYS437, and DYS393. Conclusion This study showed that by increasing the number of highly polymorphic Y STR markers, to include those tested in our analysis, leads to a reduction of repeating haplotypes, which is very important in the application of forensic DNA analysis. PMID:23771760
Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen
War experiences may have an extensive impact on the health status of the exposed populations. This population-based study aimed to examine the relationship between war experiences and self-reported general health in representative sample surveys from Bosnia-Herzegovina (n = 3,313) and Kosovo (n = 1,000). Data were collected with face-to-face interviews fielded in the winter of 2003-2004. Logistic regression analysis was used to compute unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs). The adjusted effects of the extensiveness of war experiences on poor health were positive in both countries, but they were statistically significant only for Bosnia-Herzegovina: OR = 1.04, 95% CI [1.00, 1.08] for Bosnia-Herzegovina and OR = 1.03, 95% CI [0.98, 1.09] for Kosovo. The strongest observed effect was found for Kosovo only: The extensiveness of war experiences was relatively strongly related to longstanding health problems, OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03, 1.15]. We found that war experiences may contribute to increased poorer health in the exposed populations; however, the effects 4-9 years after the war ended were modest. Hence, war experiences seemed to be more strongly related to war-related distress and posttraumatic stress disorder than to self-reported general health. PMID:26773795
Mobbing as a specific form of discrimination which applies only to the labor law, is a very young branch of labor law. It began to develop during the eighties of last century. This kind of psychoterror that appears in the workplace, was first spotted, formulated and diagnosed by the Swedish psychologist of German origin prof. Dr. Heinz Lejman (Heinz Leymann July 17, 1932.; Wolfenbuttel, Germany - 1999 Stockholm, Sweden). Today, the legal regulation of mobbing in terms of prevention, rules of behavior and sanctions is indispensable to every modern democratic state. I'll make a comparison of the legislative regulation provided by BiH with several European Union member states. I will compare the results of a survey conducted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Condition, during the year 2000. In the European Union Member States, with the results of the questionnaire for employees, which I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The conclusion I came to in this paper is: Bosnia and Herzegovina is lagging behind a lot of European Union member states, both in terms of prevention of mobbing, as well as legislation, that is insufficient to regulate this complex issue. Results of the questionnaire for the employees that I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina are devastating and alarming.
Poljanšek, S.; Ceglar, A.; Levanič, T.
We present the first summer sunshine reconstruction from tree-ring data for the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Summer sunshine is tightly connected with moisture stress in trees, because the moisture stress and therefore the width of annual tree-rings is under the influence of the direct and interactive effects of sunshine duration (temperature, precipitation, cloud cover and evapotranspiration). The reconstruction is based on a calibrated z-scored mean chronology, calculated from tree-ring width measurements from 7 representative black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) sites in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). A combined regression and scaling approach was used for the reconstruction of the summer sunshine. We found a significant negative correlation (r = -0.54, p < 0.0001) with mean June-July sunshine hours from Osijek meteorological station (Croatia). The developed model was used for reconstruction of summer sunshine for the time period 1660-2010. We identified extreme summer events and compared them to available documentary historical sources of drought, volcanic eruptions and other reconstructions from the broader region. All extreme summers with low sunshine hours (1712, 1810, 1815, 1843, 1899 and 1966) are connected with volcanic eruptions.
Santrac, Violeta; Nedic, Drago N; Maric, Jelena; Nikolic, Sonja; Stevanovic, Oliver; Vasilev, Sasa; Cvetkovic, Jelena; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana
The Balkans is endemic for nematodes of the genus Trichinella in both domestic and wild animals. The high prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens in animals linked with the food habits to consume raw meat and meat derived products resulted in a very high prevalence of trichinellosis in humans living in this European region. In spite of numerous epidemiological investigations carried out in this region, very few information is available on the Trichinella species circulating in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Trichinella spp. larvae were isolated from a domestic pig reared in a backyard and from a hunted wild boar whose meat had been the source of trichinellosis in one case. Both Trichinella pseudospiralis and T. spiralis have been identified in the domestic pig, whereas, T. britovi was detected in the wild boar. While, T. spiralis is the Trichinella species most frequently detected in domestic pigs, T. pseudospiralis has been previously documented in domestic pigs only three times in Russia, Slovakia and Croatia. The detection of T. britovi in the wild boar confirms that this nematode is the most frequent species circulating among wildlife of Europe. PMID:26204186
Andersson, N.; da Sousa, C. P.; Paredes, S.
OBJECTIVES--To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries. DESIGN--A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of land mines from the same communities. SETTING--206 communities, 37 in Afghanistan, 66 in Bosnia, 38 in Cambodia, and 65 in Mozambique. SUBJECTS--174,489 people living in 32,904 households in the selected communities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Effects of land mines on food security, residence, livestock, and land use; risk factors: extent of individual land mine injuries; physical, psychological, social, and economic costs of injuries during medical care and rehabilitation. RESULTS--Between 25% and 87% of households had daily activities affected by land mines. Based on expected production without the mines, agricultural production could increase by 88-200% in different regions of Afghanistan, 11% in Bosnia, 135% in Cambodia, and 3.6% in Mozambique. A total of 54,554 animals was lost because of land mines, with a minimum cash value of $6.5m, or nearly $200 per household. Overall, 6% of households (1964) reported a land mine victim; a third of victims died in the blast. One in 10 of the victims was a child. The most frequent activities associated with land mine incidents were agricultural or pastoral, except in Bosnia where more than half resulted from military activities, usually during patrols. Incidences have more than doubled between 1980-3 and 1990-3, excluding the incidents in Bosnia. Some 22% of victims (455/2100) were from households reporting attempts to remove land mines; in these households there was a greatly increased risk of injury (odds ratio 4.2 and risk difference 19% across the four countries). Lethality of the mines varied; in Bosnia each blast killed an average of 0.54 people and injured 1.4, whereas in Mozambique each blast
Jia, Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania
During Balkan conflicts in 1994-1995, depleted uranium (DU) ordnance was employed and was left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, radiological survey of DU in biological and water samples were carried out over the period 12-24 October 2002. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly lichens, mosses and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.27-35.7 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 0.24-16.8 Bq kg(-1) for (234)U, and 0.02-1.11 Bq kg(-1) for (235)U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control site. Moreover, the (236)U in some of the samples was detectable. The isotopic ratios of (234)U/(238)U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at most sites examined, but in very low levels. The presence of DU in the biological samples was as a result of DU contamination in air. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina were found to be in the range of 0.27-16.2 m Bq l(-1) for (238)U, 0.41-15.6 m Bq l(-1) for (234)U and 0.012-0.695 m Bq l(-1) for (235)U, and two water samples were observed to be DU positive; these values are much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for public drinking water. From radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of possible DU contamination of water and/or plants. PMID:16806612
Zobaníková, Marie; Čejková, Darina; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Chen, Lei; Giacani, Lorenzo; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David
Background T. pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN) is the causative agent of bejel (also known as endemic syphilis). Clinical symptoms of syphilis and bejel are overlapping and the epidemiological context is important for correct diagnosis of both diseases. In contrast to syphilis, caused by T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), TEN infections are usually spread by direct contact or contaminated utensils rather than by sexual contact. Bejel is most often seen in western Africa and in the Middle East. The strain Bosnia A was isolated in 1950 in Bosnia, southern Europe. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete genome of the Bosnia A strain was amplified and sequenced using the pooled segment genome sequencing (PSGS) method and a combination of three next-generation sequencing techniques (SOLiD, Roche 454, and Illumina). Using this approach, a total combined average genome coverage of 513× was achieved. The size of the Bosnia A genome was found to be 1,137,653 bp, i.e. 1.6–2.8 kbp shorter than any previously published genomes of uncultivable pathogenic treponemes. Conserved gene synteny was found in the Bosnia A genome compared to other sequenced syphilis and yaws treponemes. The TEN Bosnia A genome was distinct but very similar to the genome of yaws-causing T. pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) strains. Interestingly, the TEN Bosnia A genome was found to contain several sequences, which so far, have been uniquely identified only in syphilis treponemes. Conclusions/Significance The genome of TEN Bosnia A contains several sequences thought to be unique to TPA strains; these sequences very likely represent remnants of recombination events during the evolution of TEN treponemes. This finding emphasizes a possible role of repeated horizontal gene transfer between treponemal subspecies in shaping the Bosnia A genome. PMID:25375929
Poljanšek, S.; Ceglar, A.; Levanič, T.
We present the first spring and summer temperature reconstruction for the north-western part of the Balkan Peninsula. The reconstruction is based on tree-ring width measurements from 7 representative black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) sites in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). We found a significant, positive influence of above-average January-March temperatures on 4 sites (Blace, Peručica, Šator, Konjuh) and a negative influence of above-average May-August temperatures and a positive relationship with an above-average sum of May-August precipitation on tree-ring width formation from 3 sites (Krivaja, Prusac, Šipovo). A 31-yr running correlation between temperature and precipitation of the May-August period and tree-ring indices gave a stable relationship between 1901 and the 1960s, after which values of correlation coefficients decrease to the level of significance. A change in summer cyclones in the central part of the Adriatic Sea is presented as a possible cause of the divergence with the climate signal. In the period of calibration and verification of the linear model for the group of 3 sites (Krivaja, Prusac, Šipovo), the best relationship was found between tree-ring indices and mean May-August temperatures of the current year. For the group of 4 sites (Blace, Peručica, Šator, Konjuh), the relationship between tree-ring indices and mean January-March temperatures of the current year is the strongest. The developed models were used for reconstruction of May-August temperatures for BiH for the period 1701-1901 and January-March temperatures for the period 1685-1901. Using the method of percentiles (85th and 15th) we identified extreme hot/cool summers and warm/cold springs and compared them to available documentary historical sources and other reconstructions from the broader region.
Hodžić, Adnan; Alić, Amer; Klebić, Ismar; Kadrić, Mirsad; Brianti, Emanuele; Duscher, Georg Gerhard
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as reservoir of different cardiorespiratory parasites of veterinary and medical importance. Since data on cardiorespiratory parasites in foxes in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still lacking, the aims of the present study were to (i) investigate the prevalence and geographical distribution of these parasites, (ii) determine genetic diversity of detected parasite species, and (iii) to estimate the role of foxes in the transmission cycle to companion animals and humans. Four species, morphologically and molecularly identified as Eucoleus boehmi (64.6%; 51/79), Eucoleus aerophilus (69.7%; 154/221), Crenosoma vulpis (45.7%; 101/221) and Linguatula serrata (1.3%; 1/79) were retrieved from nasal cavity and lungs in 184 (83.3%) animals. The occurrence of heartworms, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis was not detected by necropsy or PCR. Furthermore, three distinct haplotypes of E. aerophilus (I, III, XV) and two of C. vulpis (I, II) previously reported in pet animals and wild carnivores were confirmed in this study. A new haplotype of C. vulpis (designated as haplotype V) was also identified based on 12S rRNA gene for the first time. The present study indicates a high prevalence and wide distribution of nasal and lung nematodes in fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and supports the existence of transmission patterns between wildlife and pet animals. PMID:27198779
Mehić-Basara, Nermana; Cerić, Ismet
Chronology of important historical events in Bosnia and Herzegovina during past two centuries indirectly influenced the incidence and prevalence of different psychoactive substances use and thus the organization of services for the treatment of persons who develop addiction symptoms. The organization of health system in the last war, 1992-1995, suffered enormous damage and the reform process which inevitably followed, included the area of mental health care services and the establishment of network of centers for mental health in the community (CMHC). The centers are functioning within the primary health care almost in whole country, with specialized centers for the prevention and treatment of addicts and the therapeutic communities, which today represents the basic organizational units to help people who have drug related issues. In this paper we will present the possibility of treatment of drug addicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from consulting services, psycho-education and early detection of disease, detoxification and substitution programs with Methadone and Suboxone, as well as programs of rehabilitation and resocialization. Although a very complicated political and administrative structure of the country, insufficient financial support, pronounced stigmatization of addicts, insufficient staffing and number of treatment centers are objective obstacles for progress in treatment of addicts, we believe that, with existing resources, these constraints can be converted into new opportunities in terms of improvement of treatment options in the future. PMID:23114823
Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin; Hodzić, Medin; Selimbasić, Zihnet
In Central and Eastern European countries, after abandoning communism, significant political, economic and social changes occurred, followed by the increase in income inequality and social disparity. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological symptoms and monthly income of employees in companies undergoing privatization. The study included 258 workers from seven companies undergoing privatization in the Tuzla Canton region. For the study purposes, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and a general questionnaire with questions about socio-demographic characteristics, income, and workplace, were used. Monthly income of the majority of workers (207 or 80.2%) was below the monthly income in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Workers with salaries below the average salary for Bosnia and Herzegovina have pronounced somatization, anxiety, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity and hostility. The BSI scale yielded significant negative correlation between the level of monthly salary and the expression of psychological symptoms (r = -0.184, p = 0.002) and between the level of family income and the expression of psychological symptoms (r = -0.123, p = 0.024). Based on the study results, it was determined that socio-economic factors such as the level of salary and total family income and job insecurity, educational level, marital status and gender may be predictors of psychological symptoms. PMID:22397229
Hadzic, L.; Dzino-Suta, A.; Eppich, R.; Vezic, A.; Izkara Martinez, J. L.
During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995) cultural heritage was explicitly targeted and the state of destruction was extensive to both sacral and secular monuments. Two decades after the end of hostilities the perception of the historic environment is still defined from the angles of national, religious or ethnic belonging. Enabling recognition, reconciliation, tolerance and respect within the community of Stolac, Bosnia & Herzegovina through a better understanding and sharing of cultural heritage was the focus of this project. Stolac is representative of the problems in the region and stands out for its particularly sharp divisions. Until recently there was segregation with local schools and their curriculum was divided with cultural heritage generally not addressed. How can this small community engage with heritage and develop a dialogue that encourages tolerance, respect and as a base for development? How does one understand, then document areas significance to the community? Finally, how can technology assist? The focus of this paper is to relate the experiences and findings of a project that incorporated participatory imaging mapping and the use of technology to bridge between the internal borders of this small community. It will outline a methodology, experiences of the participants and results from their exercises in order to assist other communities facing similar issues.
Maguen, Shira; Litz, Brett T
In this study, we assessed basic, physical, and mental health needs of peacekeepers; determined barriers to mental health treatment; and examined predictors of barriers to mental health care. Active duty peacekeepers were surveyed before and after their deployment to Kosovo (n = 203) concerning their stress symptoms and attitudes about seeking mental health care after peacekeeping. Sixty-five peacekeepers were evaluated before and after their peacekeeping deployment to Bosnia. Upon returning from their mission, between 5% and 9% of Kosovo and Bosnia peacekeepers reported needing help for anger or hostility, depression, or deployment-related stress. The most frequently endorsed barrier was concern about the personal cost of mental health care. Among Kosovo peacekeepers, pre- and postdeployment post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were the most robust predictors of mental health treatment barriers. Peacekeepers report a number of treatment needs and barriers that could prevent them from receiving care. The soldiers most in need of services are also those who report the most barriers to care. PMID:16761899
Bolton, Matthew; Jeffrey, Alex
Following international interventions in Bosnia-Herzegovina(1) and Iraq, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have played a central role in delivering humanitarian relief, encouraging participation in new systems of government, and advocating on behalf of marginalised groups. Although intervening agencies have framed such autonomous organisations as unquestionably virtuous, scholars have increasingly questioned the agency of NGOs, pointing to the constraining effects of funding and regulatory mechanisms. This paper contributes to this body of work by offering a detailed examination of legislation requiring NGOs to register with nascent state institutions. Drawing on case study material from Bosnia and Iraq, it argues that NGO registration should not be dismissed as a technical or legal matter, but that it should be embraced as a significant political practice embedded in relations of power. Registration legislation has increased the transparency of NGO funding origins and institutional practices, yet it has simultaneously acted as a barrier to smaller organisations and led to the transmission of international objectives through civil society entities. PMID:18479474
Miller, Kevin J.
This article discusses the experiences of an American team who worked with the Bosnia Speech and Hearing Project. The team collaborated with Bosnian teachers of children with deafness and speech-language pathologists in to share therapy ideas and model strategies that parents could utilize to promote speech and language development. (Author/CR)
This study examines the national division of history teaching in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the war and post-war period. The process of division of schooling into three curricula (Bosnian Serb, Bosnian Croat, and Bosniak) is presented. Representations of other national groups are central in 8th-grade history textbooks used by the three national…
This paper presents an account of the author's firsthand experiences between 2006 and 2010, relating to his involvement in the establishment of the English Language and Literature department at the International University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and of the difficulties and challenges of the venture in the post-war country, whose…
This article investigates the encounter of EU-unionization with a domesticated practice of corruption in Bosnian higher education. Relying on primary data collected in Bosnia's public higher education system, the study finds that the country's corrupt higher education is in conflict with the Bologna-themed reforms that would arguably…
Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla
Introduction: Currently in Bosnia and Herzegovina there are 25 journals in the field of biomedicine, 6 of them are indexed in Medline/PubMed base (Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica, Acta Informatica Medica, Acta Medica Academica, Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Glasnik), and one (BJBMS) is indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base. Aim: The aim of this study was to show the scope of work of the journals that were published by Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica. Material and Methods: The research presents a meta-analysis of three journals, or their issues, during the calendar year 2015 (retrospective and descriptive character). Results: During 2015 calendar year a total of 286 articles were published (in Medical Archives 104 (36.3%), in Materia Socio-Medica 99 (34.6%), and in Acta Informatica Medica 83 (29%)). Original articles are present in the highest number in all three journals (in Medical Archives 80.7%, in Materia Socio Medica 77.7%, and in Acta Informatica Medica 68.6%). In Medical Archives, 90.3% of the articles were related to the field of clinical medicine. In Materia Socio-Medica, the domain of clinical medicine and public health was the most represented. Preclinical areas are most frequent in Acta Informatica Medica. The period of 50-60 days for a decision on the admission of article is most common in all three journals, with trend of shortening of that period. Articles came from 19 countries, mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, then from Iran, Kosovo, Saudi Arabia and Greece. Conclusion: In Medical Archives original articles in the field of clinical medicine (usually internal and surgical disciplines) are most often present, and that is the case in last four years. The number of articles in Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica is growing from year to year. In Materia Socio-Medica there is a
Concentration camp survivors from Bosnia-Herzegovina, now refugees in the Netherlands, were given early outpatient treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for 6 months. They were tested with the Watson Questionnaire before entering therapy, after 6 months and 3 years later when a structured interview designed to obtain information on psychosocial status was administered. Data were analyzed with PCA-STAT 1.1 statistical package. The treatment was effective on a short-term basis with some long-term effects. Elderly people were no more vulnerable to the onset of PTSD than younger ones but were more resistant to therapy. Psychosocial factors had neither protective nor risk value for the development of PTSD in this group. PMID:9368546
Byčenko, B.; Grin, E.; Matveev, K. I.; Cvjetanović, B.; Vorst, E. A.; Stroganova, M.
Determination of the level of tetanus immunity in different age groups of a population is important in relation to the results of mass immunization of the population with vaccines containing tetanus toxoid. In this study, the level of tetanus antitoxin in sera from 1053 inhabitants of 6 villages in Bosnia and Herzegovina was determined by means of the passive haemagglutination test. The results show that children from 1 to 14 years of age regularly immunized with DT and DTP vaccines possessed a high level of immunity against tetanus (geometric mean antitoxin titre ≥0.8 IU/ml) and were protected against tetanus in 80-95% of cases. The adult inhabitants (men and women over 29 years of age) were not sufficiently protected against tetanus, the concentrations of antitoxin in their sera being equal to or greater than 0.01 IU/ml in less than 50% of cases. PMID:5317081
Sabanovic, Zekerijah; Masic, Izet; Salihefendic, Nizama; Zildzic, Muharem; Zunic, Lejla; Dedovic, Samir
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED PAPERAIM SUMMARY. The development of the digital Information Communication Technology (ICT) has definitely changed healthcare system in all its areas. The development of standardized electronic medical record (EMR) make possible other forms of E-Health like transmural care, telemedicine etc. In this paper was described Health Information System (HIS) of Tuzla Canton and Brčko DC (whose citizens gravitate toward Tuzla Clinical Center). Tuzla Clinical Center is the only Clinic for tertiary healthcare in this region. To estimate level and types of the HIS, telecommunications and information management we have designed questionnaire. Based on this research we have presented current state of E-Health in Canton and the most important problems in this area. Also, based on this research and our experiences, we have identified the main directions of the HIS development, its standardization and integration as the base for E-Heath in Bosnia. PMID:24109160
Černi Obrdalj, Edita; Rumboldt, Mirjana
Aim To compare the prevalence and characteristics of bullying between two towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina – Stolac, which was exposed to firearm conflict during the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Posušje, which was not. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we included 484 primary school pupils attending 4th-8th grade of elementary school, 217 (44.8%) of them from Stolac and 267 (55.2%) from Posušje. The pupils were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire on the experience of bullying. Results Every sixth student (16.4%) experienced at least one form of bullying almost every day, while 34 (7.0%) of pupils constantly bullied other children. Sixth-eighth graders were more often bullies than 4th-5th graders (P = 0.044). Girls were most often victims of bullying, while boys were most often bullies (P = 0.036). The expected difference in bullying between the two towns was not observed, except for older pupils in Posušje, who were more violent than their peers in Stolac (P = 0.044). Among the analyzed variables of sex, age, town, and school achievement, only male sex was significant predictor of bullying (P = 0.010), increasing the relative risk by 3.005 times. Conclusion Bullying among primary school pupils did not differ between areas that experienced war activities in 1992-1995. Our results could be useful in the introduction of specific prevention measures against bullying in postwar situation. PMID:18717000
Pranjić, Nurka; Maleš-Bilić, Ljiljana; Beganlić, Azijada; Mustajbegović, Jadranka
Aim To assess the frequency of reported mobbing and the association among mobbing, working environment factors, stress, health outcome, personality type, and work ability index in a sample of physicians in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Method We conducted a questionnaire survey using a validated self-reported questionnaire among 511 physicians in national health sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The questions covered five major categories of mobbing behavior. Characteristics of the work, perceived work environment and its effects, stress, health, and satisfaction with work and life were assessed by the standardized abridged form of Occupational Stress Questionnaire (OSQ). A standardized questionnaire Work Ability Index (WAI) was used to determine the relation between mobbing and work ability. Results Of 511 surveyed physicians, 387 (76%) physicians self-reported mobbing behavior in the working environment and 136 (26%) was exposed to persistent mobbing. More than a half of the physicians experienced threats to their professional status and almost a half felt isolated. Logistic regression analysis showed that lack of motivation, loss of self-esteem, loss of confidence, fatigue, and depressiveness were significantly associated with lack of support from colleagues. Intention to leave work was associated with lack of support from colleagues (OR 2.3, 95% CI, 1.065-3.535, t = 4.296, P = 0.003) and lack of support from superiors (OR 1.526, 95% CI, 0.976-2.076, t = 5.753; P = 0.001). Isolation or exclusion and threats to professional status were predictors for mental health symptoms. Persistent mobbing experience was a significant predictor for sick leave. Conclusion Exposure to persistent threat to professional status and isolation or exclusion as forms of mobbing are associated with mental health disturbances and lack of self-esteem and confidence. Setting up a system of support for physicians exposed to mobbing may have important benefits. PMID:17042067
Mumic, Edin; Glade, Thomas; Hasel, Stefan
In many countries in the world, landslide information is sparsely available. This is also the case in Tuzla in Bosnia and Herzegowina, although landslides cause regularly significant damage and occur widespread in different catchments. Therefore, this research aims to summarize all available landslide information in the Tuzla region for a sequence of rainstorms in 2010, to analyse the trigger conditions, to investigate the damages and to examine the anthropogenic cause for the landslide initiation. Numerous interviews have been carried out with responsible institutions but also affected population. In addition, the accessible local archives have been investigated. The results show that severe consequences from landslide occurrence on the population are often due to illegal construction of houses. The geological setting and the regolith are clearly predisposing factors, however, the human modifications alter the landslide process significantly. The spatial distribution of landslides and their geophysical properties are analysed and displayed within a GIS. By applying the Intensity-Duration rainfall model it was determined that in the area of the Tuzla landslides, the triggering conditions are reached by 72 hours precipitation conditions with an average intensity of 1.42 mm/h, however, ranging between 0.5 and 20 mm/h in shorter periods. Furthermore, the landslide initiation is clearly highly influenced by anthropogenic factors such as mining, deforestation and slope cutting. These results demonstrate, that a sound and through analysis of landslides in this area, but also throughout Bosnia and Herzegowina would be necessary in order to protect the society from the intense negative consequences.
Klarin, Mira; Pororoković, Ana; Šašić, Slavica Šimić; Arnaudova, Violeta
Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self
Basić, B; Beganović, A; Samek, D; Skopljak-Beganović, A; Gazdić-Santić, M
Monitoring of occupationally exposed persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina started in 1960s and it was interrupted in 1992. Dosimetry service resumed in 1999 when the International Atomic Energy Agency provided Harshaw 4500 TLD-reader and the first set of TLDs for the Radiation Protection Centre (RPC) of the Institute of Public Health of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In January 2009, the RPC covered 1279 professionals with personal dosimetry, which is more than 70 % of all radiation workers in the country. Most of the TLD users work in medical institutions. In period 1999-2003 RPC provided 984 workers with dosemeters. In the next 5 y period (2004-2008), the number of persons covered by dosimetry increased by an average of 51 %. The mean and collective effective dose in the period 1999-2003 were 1.55 mSv and 1.54 personSv, respectively. In the period 2004-2008, the mean doses changed by 1 % on average, but the collective effective dose increased by 53 % for all practices. Mean and collective effective dose were 1.57 mSv and 2.34 personSv, respectively. The highest personal doses are associated with industrial radiography, than exposures in nuclear medicine. Radiology plays a significant role in collective dose only, whereas other exposures are low. Results correspond to results found in the literature. New practices in industry and medicine emphasise the need for more personal dosemeters, as well as specialised dosemeters for extremities monitoring, etc. PMID:20150230
Selmanovic, Kenan; Zec, Svjetlana Loga; Vanis, Nenad; Zecevic, Lamija; Setkic, Manja; Rasic, Azra; Zerem, Enver
Objective: Expenditures for drugs are increasingly burdening already insufficient funds for health protection. This is especially evident in less developed European countries such as Bosnia and Herzegovina. The question is whether such analyses can help save funds for financing treatment for diseases, with an emphasis on a more rational choice of drug for appropriate indication, whereby clinical complications of hypertension would be prevented and patients would have quality of their lives improved. Aim: Focus of research has been set on analysis of use of antihypertensive drugs in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the time-period January 2013–March 2015. Use of all drugs for treatment of hypertension in that time-period in the country has been shown in an unbiased manner. Methods: The study is designed as retrospective-prospective comparative research of use of antihypertensive drugs in BiH in a certain time-period. Data are collected from relevant drug utilisation database which has been established in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2013. Results: We have calculated financial expenditure for prescribed antihypertensives in the time- period of 2013, 2014 and Q1 2015. Use of antihypertensives at the country level for this time-period is BAM 200,242,218. At the country level, physicians are most often opting for combination therapy: ACE inhibitors + diuretics (20.2%) and ACE inhibitors + Ca channel antagonists (18.0%). Conclusion: In this research, it has been shown that modern drugs are used for treatment of hypertension in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These drugs are used in the same order as they are prescribed in developed countries. PMID:27147917
Dogan, Serkan; Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir
Aim To explore the distribution and polymorphisms of 23 short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the Y chromosome in the Turkish population recently settled in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and to investigate its genetic relationships with the homeland Turkish population and neighboring populations. Methods This study included 100 healthy unrelated male individuals from the Turkish population living in Sarajevo. Buccal swab samples were collected as a DNA source. Genomic DNA was extracted using the salting out method and amplification was performed using PowerPlex Y 23 amplification kit. The studied population was compared to other populations using pairwise genetic distances, which were represented with a multi-dimensional scaling plot. Results Haplotype and allele frequencies of the sample population were calculated and the results showed that all 100 samples had unique haplotypes. The most polymorphic locus was DYS458, and the least polymorphic DYS391. The observed haplotype diversity was 1.0000 ± 0.0014, with a discrimination capacity of 1.00 and the match probability of 0.01. Rst values showed that our sample population was closely related in both dimensions to the Lebanese and Iraqi populations, while it was more distant from Bosnian, Croatian, and Macedonian populations. Conclusion Turkish population residing in Sarajevo could be observed as a representative Turkish population, since our results were consistent with those previously published for the homeland Turkish population. Also, this study once again proved that geographically close populations were genetically more related to each other. PMID:25358886
Alicelebić, Selma; Kapić, Dina; Mornjaković, Zakira
Congenital anomalies of the urinary system are relatively common anomalies. In Bosnia and Herzegovina there is no existent unique evidence of congenital anomalies and registries. The aim of this study was to obtain the frequency of different urinary tract anomalies types and their sex distribution among cases hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the period from January 2002 to December 2006. Retrospective study was carried out on the basis of clinical records. Standard methods of descriptive statistics were performed for the data analysis. Among 289 patients that were surgically treated 62,37% of the patients were male patients, while 37,63% were female patients. Twenty nine different urinary system anomalies types were found in this study. These were: vesicoureteral reflux (99 cases or 30,75%), hypospadias (62 cases or 19,26%), pelviureteric junction obstruction (42 cases or 13,04%), megaureter (35 cases or 10,87%), duplex pelvis and ureter (16 cases or 4,97%), bladder diverticulum (8 cases or 2,48%), ureterocoele (7 cases or 2,17%), stenosis of the external urethral opening (6 cases or 1,86%), ectopic kidney, duplex kidney and pelvis (each 5 cases or 1,55%), polycystic kidneys and urethral stricture (each 4 cases or 1,24%), multicystic kidney (3 cases or 0,93%), kidney agenesis, ureter agenesis, urethral diverticulum, ectopic ureter, horseshoe kidney and fetal kidney (each 2 cases or 0,62%), renal aplasia, urethral atresia, renal cyst, urachal cyst, epispadias, bladder exstrophy, renal hypoplasia, renal malrotation and Prune-Belly syndrome (each 1 case or 0,31%). According to this study, urinary tract anomalies were more common in male than in female patients (62,37%). Generally, the most frequent anomaly type was vesicoureteral reflux in total number of 99 cases, and in females (66 cases), but hypospadias was the most common anomaly in males (62 cases). The anomalies of
Magill, Clare; Hamber, Brandon
This article, based on empirical research from Northern Ireland and Bosnia and Herzegovina, explores how young people conceptualize reconciliation and examines the meaning this concept holds for them. Qualitative data are collected through one-to-one interviews with young people aged 16 to 18 living in Northern Ireland (N = 15) and Bosnia and…
McDonald, Laura; Mollica, Richard F; Douglas Kelley, Susan; Tor, Svang; Halilovic, Majda
This exploratory study aimed to obtain insight into field-level care providers' views on suffering and healing as well as existing obstacles and needs related to providing care to their clients. This research provides a "snapshot" for a better understanding of existing care systems in two post-conflict settings. By identifying existing approaches to care and the needs of the care provider community, this research might be useful in guiding psychosocial assistance programming in post-conflict settings. Utilizing a semi-structured questionnaire, 45 care providers were interviewed, including local health care practitioners, traditional/ spiritual healers, and humanitarian relief workers, in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cambodia. This study found that the majority of care providers in both settings perceived poverty and violence as significant causes and consequences of human suffering and, at the same time, felt ill-equipped in addressing these issues and related problems. Other issues that hindered these healers in providing care included: limited government/institutional support; lack of training; material resources and funding. Study findings point to a new framework for developing effective interventions and the need for further emphasis on supporting care providers in their work, and most specifically, in identifying and responding to poverty and violence. PMID:23331393
Budimir, Danijela; Curić, Ivo; Curić, Snjezana
The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of acute tonsillopharyngitis diagnosis and treatment in the family care physicians in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. All patients diagnosed with acute tonsillopharyngitis in the Center of Family Medicine in Mostar in 2005 and 2006 were included in this study. Data were collected from medical records, including age and sex, month in which they visited their physician, symptoms and signs that they had (McIsaac's clinical score was calculated accordingly) and treatment. Results showed that there were no gender differences regarding diagnosis. Mean age was 32.6 +/- 16.9 years. The most patients were recorded during the January-March period. Total of 65.6% patients received antibiotic treatment. Phenoxymethylpenicillin, considered as the recommended antibiotic was used in 46.3% cases only. In conclusion, this first critical assessment of the existing family practice records on treating patients with tonsillopharyngitis suggested that physicians have to be more critical when treating patients with this diagnosis and that the knowledge and treatment of patients with pharyngitis need to be continuously improved in general medical practice. PMID:19408639
Milanolo, Simone; Gabrovšek, Franci
The results of one year’s monitoring in Srednja Bijambarska Cave (Bosnia and Herzegovina) are presented and discussed. Temporal variations of the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration are controlled by the switching between two ventilation regimes driven by outside temperature changes. A regression model with a simple perfectly mixed volume applied to a cave sector (“Music hall”) resulted in an estimate of ventilation rates between 0.02 h-1 and 0.54 h-1. Carbon dioxide input per plan surface unit is estimated by the model at around 50 × 10-6 mh-1 during the winter season and up to more than 1000 × 10-6 mh-1 during the first temperature falls at the end of summer (0.62 μmoles m-2 s-1 and 12.40 μmoles m-2 s-1 for normal conditions respectively). These values have been found to be related to the cave ventilation rate and dependent on the availability of CO2 in the surrounding environment. For airflow close to zero the values of CO2 input per plan surface have a range in the order of magnitude of a few units × 10-6 mh-1. Based on two experiments, the anthropogenic contribution from cave visitors has been calculated, at between 0.35 lCO2 min-1 person-1 and 0.45 lCO2min-1person-1.
Mancini, F.; Stecchi, F.; Zanni, M.; Gabbianelli, G.
Salt mining induced ground subsidence is a major hazard in the city of Tuzla (Northeastern sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina) and its surroundings since 1950, when solution mining of salt deposits by boreholes began. An analysis of the large (and never before processed) amount of topographical data collected during two periods: from 1956 to the Balkan War, and from 1992 to 2003 has been made. The analysis reveals a cumulative subsidence as high as 12 m during the whole period, causing damage to buildings and infrastructures within an area that includes a large portion of the historical town. Human-induced subsidence, (with rates up to 40 cm/year in the most developed area), has been investigated to recognize the areas affected by the sinking phenomenon and to produce a subsidence hazard. The time series of topographical observations have been enlarged by conducting new surveys in the urban area by modern space-geodesy methodologies, such as static relative GPS (Global Positioning System) and high resolution satellite imageries. The GPS monitoring started in 2004 and detected a decrease in the subsidence rates to 20 cm/year related to the reduction of salt exploitation. There is close correlation between the average subsidence rate and the annual amount of salt extracted.
Dellantonio, Alex; Fitz, Walter J; Custovic, Hamid; Repmann, Frank; Schneider, Bernd U; Grünewald, Holger; Gruber, Valeria; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Zerem, Nijaz; Carter, Claudia; Markovic, Mihajlo; Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter W
The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) has led to a significant consumption of land in the West Balkan region. In Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) we studied previously soil-covered (farmed) and barren CCR landfills including management practises, field ageing of CCR and the transfer of trace elements into crops, wild plants and wastewaters. Soil tillage resulted in mixing of cover soil with CCR. Medicago sativa showed very low Cu:Mo ratios (1.25) which may cause hypocuprosis in ruminants. Total loads of inorganic pollutants in the CCR transport water, but not pH ( approximately 12), were below regulatory limits of most EU countries. Arsenic concentrations in CCR transport water were <2microgl(-1) whereas reductive conditions in an abandoned landfill significantly enhanced concentrations in leachates (44microgl(-1)). The opposite pattern was found for Cr likely due to large initial leaching of CrVI. Public use of landfills, including farming, should be based on a prior risk assessment due to the heterogeneity of CCR. PMID:17949870
Lipovac, Krsto; Tešić, Milan; Marić, Bojan; Đerić, Miroslav
The issue of seat belt use in middle- and low-income countries is strongly evident and has as a result higher rates of fatalities and seriously injured on the roads. The first systematic field research of the seat belt use while driving was carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 2011-2012. Research methodology consisted of two mutually conditioned parts (observation and self-reported behavior). Specific features of the methodology used are in the relationship between the observed and interviewed drivers which enabled the analysis of their observed and self-reported behavior while driving. The logistic regression method was used in this work to make the analysis of the influence of personal human characteristics (gender, age, education, exposure) and vehicles' characteristics (age) on the observed and self-reported driving behavior, from the point of view of seat belt use while driving. The influence of the listed factors on driving behavior, depending on road type (urban or rural), was given special attention in the analysis. The paper shows that certain factors do not have the same impact on driving behavior, in various conditions. Based on results from this study, it will be possible to define certain critical groups of road users and the way in which they must be addressed in order to increase the seat belt wearing rate. PMID:26320737
Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Kralik, Gordana; Bogut, Stjepan; Horvatić, Janja; Cacić, Milan; Cacić, Ivan
Heavy metals concentration (mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, zinc and chromium) in tissues (muscles, liver, kidney and gonads) of Dalmatian barbelgudgeon, the nase, the souffie and brown trout, inhabiting waters of Busko Blato reservoir in Bosnia and Herzegovina, has been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The meat of the tested fish sorts does not contain elevated concentration of most analyzed heavy metals with exception of lead (higher than MAC in Italy, Germany and Denmark) and mercury (in muscles of brown trout higher than MAC in most countries). The lowest level of all heavy metals is always detected in gonads, with higher values in fry compared to milt for copper, zinc, chromium and arsenic. The highest copper concentration is observed in the liver from the souffie which is suggested as a suitable biomonitor for copper intoxication. In muscles of all fish sorts, lead was always present in much higher concentration than cadmium, while in kidneys of most fish sorts, lead and cadmium concentrations were similar. We showed that bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in the fish sorts analyzed is tissue and sex dependent. Also, we concluded that the small water exchange in reversible shallow reservoir does not induce elevated concentration of heavy metals in fish tissues inhabiting Busko Blato. PMID:17342437
Kiseljakovic, Emina; Mackic-Djurovic, Mirela; Hasic, Sabaheta; Beciragic, Amela; Valjevac, Amina; Alic, Lejla; Resic, Halima
Introduction: Renalase is a protein secreted in kidneys and considered as a blood pressure modulator. High rates of hypertension and its regulation in patients on hemodialysis demands search for potential cause and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the genotype and allele frequencies of renalase gene rs2576178 polymorphism in population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Also, the objective of present study was to find the possible association between renalase gene rs2576178 polymorphism and hypertension in patients on hemodialysis. Material and Methods: The genotype of renalase gene rs2576178 polymorphism was determined in 137 participants (100 patients on hemodialysis and 37 controls), using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent cleavage with MspI restriction endonuclease. Genotype and allele frequencies were assessed for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using a Chi-squared test. The value of P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Comparison of genotype distribution and allele frequency in participants on hemodialysis with and without hypertension, and healthy control showed no statistical difference. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that renalase gene rs2576178 polymorphism is not a factor that influences blood pressure in patients on hemodialysis. PMID:26980928
Memišević, Haris; Sinanović, Osman
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is very frequent in children with intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of ADHD in children with intellectual disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina with regard to their sex, etiology and level of intellectual disability. The method for data collection was the examination of the children's medical records. The sample consisted of 167 children attending two special education facilities in Sarajevo. Overall occurrence of the disorder was found to be 20.4%, a finding which is in accordance with existing studies. The results in this study revealed different male to female ratio (1.5:1) of the disorder as compared to existing studies. A difference in the prevalence of ADHD was found in relation to the level of intellectual disability. There are many children with dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and ADHD. It is necessary that multidisciplinary team is involved in the creation of behavioral and educational programs for these children. PMID:26040064
Kreso, Adila Pašalić
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), much like other eastern-European countries, has faced a brief period of transition from the socialist system to capitalism. However, this was interrupted in BiH by a brutal war lasting four years. Social systems and infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, including education, which was harnessed during the war to divide the country and then perpetuate these divisions. The author deals with some of the strongest and most enduring impacts that the war has had on education, which even now, more than 10 years after the war, pose a serious threat to this young country. The most obvious include the division of youth according to nationality, religion or language, the unequal positions of certain groups in education, and very clear segregation and discrimination. She points out some of the most frequent and overt ways in which intolerance towards other nationalities is displayed through textbooks, especially those used in parts of BiH subject to a struggle for independence during the war.
Hébert, Luc Jean; Rowe, Peter
The musculoskeletal injuries and soldiers' demographic profiles observed by physiotherapy (PT) officers during the Canadian Forces peacekeeping mission Op-Palladium in Bosnia between 2000 and 2004 were characterized. The number of PT visits (N = 4,167; range, 310-974) and gender distribution (N = 2,558 cases; male, 80.8%-91%; female, 9.0%-16.4%) varied between tours. On average, >30% of the entire Canadian Forces contingent required PT services. Lower limb injuries were the single leading reason for PT treatment (41.8%) followed by the spine (28.5%) and the upper limb (21.5%). The most commonly affected joints were the knee (17.2%) and ankle (16.1%), the shoulder (14.4%), and the lumbar spine (14.4%). The 26 to 35 age group and combat arms showed the highest incidence of musculoskeletal injuries (p < 0.001). The majority of cases seen were subacute and chronic (68%). Primary prevention activities and the capacity to provide the full scope of PT services were identified as two key factors contributing to the maintenance of operational readiness of the troops. PMID:17803074
Hazardous and harmful use of alcohol and drugs, accompany human race for centuries, and represents transcultural phenomena as well as one of the problems that still does not have solution. According to consequences that it's causing to individual, family and community it is one of the most severe social problems. Although, international community is investing more and more efforts and money to prevent illicit drug traffic, reduce consumption of alcohol and improve prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of addicts, still some significant results are not reached. War in Bosnia and Herzegovina cause severe injuries to population and left devastation and misery. War crimes are reflected in 200,000 deaths, several thousand wounded and over one million traumatized. Transition societies, as our, are characterized with big social changes such as migrations, urbanization and destruction of traditional social values. Due to this extensive drinking and drug use, as a form of escape from the reality and social difficulties are characteristic of our society and current civilization. It is estimated that currently in B&H exist 10,000 opioid addicts, and 20,000 alcoholics. Rapid incensement in number of addicts, and problems caused by that was the reason why we after the war started with preparations of Preventive Programme with focus on primary prevention. Beside programs that was made on the local levels, during 2002 Federal Programme of prevention was accepted which anticipated activities at all three preventive levels. PMID:15022565
Čengić, Izet; Čengić, Mirza
In the north-eastern part of Bosnia were represented quartz sands formations of the upper Miocene and lower Pliocene (Luković, M., 1929., Soklić, I, 1964., Schmidt, S., and Veselinović, N. 1996.). In these sediments were formed shallow and "light" soils (Jakšić, V., 1970. Malović, P., and Jakšić, V., 1973., Veselinović, N., et al., 1984., Čengić I., 2004., 2011.) with dominantly represented two types of vegetation communities: (i) the thermopile forest communities, (ii) extensive agricultural systems. The climate changes contribute to the processes of desertification in the analyzed area which have the following trends (50 year period): (i) increasing temperature, (ii) increasing water deficits, (iii) reduction water surplus, (iv) increasing PET, (v) reduction SET. Activities on surface mining for the coal extraction also act on the environment changes. This process has strong influence on geographical changes of landscape, characteristics of vegetation and dynamics of water. To the processes of desertification contribute deforestation and agricultural activities. Soils on quartz sands as bearers of vegetation system have a small capacities for water conservation. The small water capacity of the soil are presented through the following elements: (i) the shallow soils - depth interval of the solum, 6 cm - 24 cm, (ii) low humus content; forest soils - Ah horizon, 3.52% - 10.77%; agricultural soil - Ap horizon, 1.79% - 10.68%, (iii) high % content of sand. Above factors which have influence on small conservation capacity of water in the soil, as well as climate and the environmental changes, contribute to the further desertification processes. Key words: desertification, surface mining, humus, sandy soils
Redzić, Sulejman S
This paper contains first systematical revision of the results on traditional use of wild medicinal and aromatic herbs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)--west of Balkan Peninsula; Southeast of Europe. There have been detected 227 plants belonging to 71 different plant families, which are being used with ethno therapeutic purpose. Results were obtained by method of open ethno botanical interview which comprised 150 persons, whose average age was 63. Medicinal plants in ethno therapy are being used either in fresh, raw or dried condition. Different herbal parts, depending on period of vegetation season, sometimes even in winter, are basis for preparation of infusions (59%), decoct (19%), tinctures (4%). Especially original are balms known as Bosnian "mehlems", which are fresh cuted herbal parts mixed with lukewarm resin, raw cow butter or honey. In ethno therapy are mostly being used aerial plant organs. Majority of herbs is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%), gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases (16%). The most original plants on the field of ethno pharmacology, comparing with ethno therapy practice of other regions, are as follows: Ballota nigra, Aesculus hippocastanum, Calluna vulgaris, Centaurea cyanus, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Geranium robertianum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Helichrysum italicum, Lycopodium clavatum, Marrubium vulgare, Nepeta cataria, Populus tremula, Ruta graveolens, Tamus communis, Teucrium montanum, T. chamaedrys, and endemic plants Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Teucrium arduini, Micromeria thymifolia, Satureja montana, S. subspicata, Rhamnus fallax and Viola elegantula. There haven't been noticed significant differences in the frequencies of medicinal plants use among different ethnical groups. But, it has been perceived that longer ethno therapeutic tradition possess inhabitants of sub- and
Smajlović, Dzevdet; Salihović, Denisa; Ibrahimagić, Omer C; Sinanović, Osman
The aim of the study was to analyze stroke in young adults in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. From January 2001 to December 2005, 3864 patients with first-ever stroke were admitted at the Department of Neurology Tuzla. A retrospective analysis of risk factors, stroke types, severity and one month outcome in all young adults (18-45 years of age) with first-ever stroke was carried out. Out of total, there were 154 (4%) young adults with stroke. Mean age was 38.8 +/- 5.7 years and 47% were women. The leading risk factors were smoking (56%) and hypertension (45%). Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was more frequent in young adults compared with older patients (> 45 years of age) (22% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.0001), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was similar in both groups (16.9% vs. 15.8%, p = 0.7), but ischemic stroke (IS) was predominant stroke type in the older group (61% vs. 74%, p = 0.0004). Young adults had more frequent lacunar stroke (26.6% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.01) and stroke due to other etiology (8.5% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.0004) than stroke patients over 45 years of age. Stroke severity at admission was lower in young adults than in older patients (p < 0.0001), as well as mortality at one month (11% vs. 30%, p < 0.0001). Favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale < or = 2) had 71% of young adults compared with only 53% of patients in the older group (p = 0.0003). Stroke in young adults in Tuzla Canton is rare. Risk factors profile, stroke types, severity and outcome at one month in young adults are different from those in older patients. PMID:23940998
Huel, René L. M.; Bašić, Lara; Madacki-Todorović, Kamelija; Smajlović, Lejla; Eminović, Izet; Berbić, Irfan; Miloš, Ana; Parsons, Thomas J.
Aim To present a compendium of off-ladder alleles and other genotyping irregularities relating to rare/unexpected population genetic variation, observed in a large short tandem repeat (STR) database from Bosnia and Serbia. Methods DNA was extracted from blood stain cards relating to reference samples from a population of 32 800 individuals from Bosnia and Serbia, and typed using Promega’s PowerPlex®16 STR kit. Results There were 31 distinct off-ladder alleles were observed in 10 of the 15 STR loci amplified from the PowerPlex®16 STR kit. Of these 31 alleles, 3 have not been previously reported. Furthermore, 16 instances of triallelic patterns were observed in 9 of the 15 loci. Primer binding site mismatches that affected amplification were observed in two loci, D5S818 and D8S1179. Conclusion Instances of deviations from manufacturer’s allelic ladders should be expected and caution taken to properly designate the correct alleles in large DNA databases. Particular care should be taken in kinship matching or paternity cases as incorrect designation of any of these deviations from allelic ladders could lead to false exclusions. PMID:17696304
Ahmetagic, Sead; Salkic, Nermin; Ahmetagic, Aldina; Custovic, Amer; Tihic, Nijaz; Smajlovic, Jasmina; Porobic-Jahic, Humera
Introduction: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is currently the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea, but almost nothing is known about the extent of C. difficile infection (CDI) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Goal: We aimed to retrospectively analyze CDI in hospitalized patients at University Clinical Center (UCC) Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina from January 2009 through June 2012. Methods: We analyzed all patients (except children ages 0-2), diagnosed with CDI based on anamnestic and epidemiological, clinical picture and microbiological tests (proof of toxins in the stool by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results: From a total of 989 patients tested for C. difficile toxin (60.2 per 10,000 inpatient days) 347 (35.08%) were positives. The mean incidence rate of CDI was 2.23 per 10,000 inpatient days (range 1.32-2.87). Annual rates of hospitalization were 15.68 per 10,000 admissions (range 8.99-20.35). Most patients had a previously identified risk profile of old age, comorbidity and recent use of antibiotics. 41/276 (14.86%) patients had died, and 11/41 (26.82%) were CDI-associated deaths. Complicated CDI were registered in 53/276 (19.21%) patients, and recurrent infections in 65/276 (23.55%). Conclusion: Our data suggest that CDI is largely present in our setting which represents a serious problem and points to the importance of international surveillance, detection and control of CDI. PMID:24167425
Valjevac, Amina; Mehić, Bakir; Kiseljaković, Emina; Ibrulj, Slavka; Garstka, Agnieszka; Adler, Grażyna
Factor V is the liver-synthesized multidomain glycoprotein encoded by a gene localised on chromosome 1q23. The point mutation 1691G>A in this gene results in formation of an altered protein of V Factor resistant to activated protein C (APC) cleavage. This mutation alone is the most frequent cause of inborn thrombophilia and the most widely acknowledged genetic risk factor for venous thrombosis in a Caucasian population. This study was designed to provide the first estimate of the frequency of the allele 1691A FV in the Bosnian female population. The 1691G>A FV mutation was examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, in a group of 67 women, mean age of 58.6 years with no history of cardiovascular incident. Our findings revealed an absence of the mutated allele 1691A FV in the studied group. This is the first report on the 1691G>A FV mutation in a population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Further research is needed to establish prevalence of the mutated allele in the population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:23448608
Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.
The conflict in Bosnia (Yugoslavia) has confronted U.S. leaders with fundamental questions about the use and capability of U.S. power abroad. This document brings the decision facing the United States into the classroom. The unit features a set of four divergent options for U.S. policy toward the Bosnian conflict, and a brief account of…
This paper presents a political analysis of school-based management reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). School-based management (SBM), based on the principle of school autonomy and community participation, is a school governance system introduced in many parts of the world, including post-conflict nations. Such a phenomenon seems to follow the…
Stevanovic, J; Stanimirovic, Z; Radakovic, M; Kovacevic, S R
In this work, Apis mellifera carnica and A. m. macedonica honey bees from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia were analysed using molecular techniques in order to improve our knowledge about biogeography of A. mellifera on the Balkan peninsula. This is the first time that the indigenous honey bees from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia have been analyzed using a molecular approach. Sampling was carried out from 560 stationary apiaries where bees were kept in traditional hives (woven skeps). The COI-COII regions of 1680 samples were PCR-amplified and sequenced. To reveal the haplotype of studied bees, the obtained sequences were aligned with published sequence data of haplotypes that belong to A. mellifera C phylogenetic lineage. The C2D mtDNA haplotype was found in all honey bees sampled from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia. These results show that A. m. carnica and A. m. macedonica share the same C2D mtDNA haplotype. COI gene segments of 1680 samples were PCR-amplified and digested with restriction enzymes NcoI and StyI in order to discriminate A. m. macedonica from A. m. carnica. Amplified fragment patterns produced by both restriction enzymes matched with diagnostic pattern characteristic for A. m. macedonica in case of samples from east, south and south-west parts of Serbia, and Republic of Macedonia, fragments of samples from northern part of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina did not include NcoI and StyI restriction sites. These results indicate that honey bees from east, south and south-west parts of Serbia, and Republic of Macedonia belong to the A. m. macedonica, and honey bees from northern part of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina belong to another subspecies, probably to the A. m. carnica. Therefore A. m. macedonica has much wider area of distribution than it was previously considered. PMID:20583605
Hajdarevic, Braco; Slaku, Jasmina; Masic, Izet
Medicine and the media are two areas important in the life of every man, which are in almost daily contact with each other and in dependence. Their relations in BiH are currently elemental, focused on direct, immediate needs, without defined rules, with a lot of disorientation, incompetence and irresponsibility, often without respect for at least the minimum rules of conduct and respect, often with a lot of conflict and hostility. The goal of our work is based on the analysis of newspaper articles, TV programs and Web sites in the period of one year and was to assess the current situation and suggest solutions. In order to acquire objective insight into the current situation, in the preparation of the symposium "Medicine and Media" in Mostar, we analyzed all stories related to medicine in two daily newspapers, two weekly, three TV stations in the period from September 1st 2008 to August 31st 2009, and the web sites of hospital institutions, Department of Health Insurance in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Ministries of Health which were available online on 1st and 2nd September 2009. In total we managed to process 402 contents as written content, TV shows or stories in TV shows and 28 web pages, and we believe that our sample is representative. We have found the following characteristics of the current situation in BiH that have to be changed: Topics in the press, web sites or programs on health services should have some kind of certification, i.e. licensing so that is clear that the contents of the announcement is made under control of health care professionals, i.e., licensed or of optional entertainment content; In cases of professional accusation of any specific person, usually a doctor, not to state full name of the before the existence of binding court decisions, or in case of possible litigation not to allow favoring of any party of the dispute; In addition to the interest in the work of health institutions it is necessary to direct media attention towards
Hajdarevic, Braco; Slaku, Jasmina; Masic, Izet
Summary Medicine and the media are two areas important in the life of every man, which are in almost daily contact with each other and in dependence. Their relations in BiH are currently elemental, focused on direct, immediate needs, without defined rules, with a lot of disorientation, incompetence and irresponsibility, often without respect for at least the minimum rules of conduct and respect, often with a lot of conflict and hostility. The goal of our work is based on the analysis of newspaper articles, TV programs and Web sites in the period of one year and was to assess the current situation and suggest solutions. In order to acquire objective insight into the current situation, in the preparation of the symposium “Medicine and Media” in Mostar, we analyzed all stories related to medicine in two daily newspapers, two weekly, three TV stations in the period from September 1st 2008 to August 31st 2009, and the web sites of hospital institutions, Department of Health Insurance in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Ministries of Health which were available online on 1st and 2nd September 2009. In total we managed to process 402 contents as written content, TV shows or stories in TV shows and 28 web pages, and we believe that our sample is representative. We have found the following characteristics of the current situation in BiH that have to be changed: Topics in the press, web sites or programs on health services should have some kind of certification, i.e. licensing so that is clear that the contents of the announcement is made under control of health care professionals, i.e., licensed or of optional entertainment content; In cases of professional accusation of any specific person, usually a doctor, not to state full name of the before the existence of binding court decisions, or in case of possible litigation not to allow favoring of any party of the dispute; In addition to the interest in the work of health institutions it is necessary to direct media
Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla
Introduction: Medical Archives is the oldest medical journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) (founded in 1947.). A total of 104 articles were published in Medical Archives during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015–80.7% (in last seven years, 561 (76%) were original out of 738). In last seven years, 651 (88.2%) articles were from the field of clinical medicine (preclinical disciplines, in the last three years are more represented than in previous years). Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,92. Articles written in collaboration of five authors (21.1 %) are found to be predominant. From year to year, most often required time for a decision on acceptance or on the revision prior acceptance is between 50 and 60 days (30% of cases in 2015). During 2015, 47.1% of articles were originally from B&H (eleven countries were represented). H index of Medical Archive for 2014 was 12, and does not vary during the last decade. Findings: In 2015 in B&H about twenty-five journals are issued in the field of biomedical and life sciences in general (six are indexed on Medline/PubMed, one is indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base). According to GoogleScholar the biggest h5 index has Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Archives, while the biggest h5 median has BJBMS i Acta Informatica Medica. The highest H-index (13) in B&H has Izet Masic MD, PhD, Enver Zerem MD, PhD and Semir Vranic MD, PhD, while highest g-index (22) has Enver Zerem MD, PhD (analyzed by software package “Publish or Perish”). Conclusion: By comparing the state of medical publishing in B&H with neighboring countries (Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro), we have concluded that B&H is behind Croatia and Serbia by following parameters: Total Documents, Total Cites and H index but in front of Montenegro. PMID:26980926
Avdibegović, Esmina; Sinanović, Osman
Aim To assess psychological consequences of domestic violence, and determine the frequency and forms of domestic violence against women in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The study was carried out in the Tuzla Canton region in the period from 2000 to 2002, and included 283 women aged 43 ± 9.6 years. Out of 283 women, 104 received psychiatric treatment at the Department for Psychiatry of the University Clinical Center Tuzla, 50 women were refugees; and 129 were domicile inhabitants of the Tuzla Canton. Domestic Violence Inventory, Cornell Index, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, PTSD Checklist Version for Civilians, and Beck Depression Inventory were used for data collection. Basic sociodemographic data and information from the medical documentation of the Department for Psychiatry of the University Clinical Center Tuzla was also collected. Results Out of 283 women, 215 (75.9%) were physically, psychologically, and sexually abused by their husbands. Among the abused, 107 (50.7%) experienced a combination of various forms of domestic violence. The frequency of domestic violence was high among psychiatric patients (78.3%). Victims of domestic violence had a significantly higher rate of general neuroticism, depression, somatization, sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and paranoid tendency than women who were not abused. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms according to the type of trauma was higher in women with the history of childhood abuse (8/11) and domestic violence (53/67) than in women who experienced war trauma (26/57) and the loss of loved ones (24/83). The majority of 104 psychiatric patients suffered from PTSD in comorbidity with depression (n = 45), followed by depression (n = 17), dissociative disorder (n = 13), psychotic disorder (n = 7), and borderline personality disorder with depression (n = 7). The intensity of psychological symptoms, depression, and Global Severity Index for
Smajlović, Lejla; Davoren, Jon; Heyman, Paul; Cochez, Christel; Haas, Cordula; Maake, Caroline; Hukić, Mirsada
Hantavirus-specific serology tests are the main diagnostic technique for detection of hantavirus infection in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In order to enhance hantavirus infections monitoring a sensitive PCR based assay was developed to detect Dobrava (DOBV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantaviruses. Nested primer sets were designed within three different regions of the viral RNA (S and M segment of DOBV and M segment of PUUV) based on highly similar regions from a number of different European hantavirus strains. Assay conditions were optimized using cell cultures infected with DOBV Slovenia, PUUV Sotkamo and PUUV CG 18-20. This sensitive and specific assay has proven to be useful for detection of both Puumala and Dobrava hantaviruses. PMID:22433513
Šimunović, Vladimir J
Market-based health care reform during democratic transition in Bosnia and Herzegovina was complicated by the 1992–1995 war, that devastated the country and greater part of its health care infrastructure. The course of the transition and consequences of war for the health system and health professionals are presented here from the perspective of the author. The description of real-life situations and their context is used to illustrate the problems physicians, as well as international community, were faced with and how they tried to cope with them during and after the war. Speaking openly about the mistakes that were made in those times is the first step in preventing them from happening again and an invitation for exchange of opinions and open academic discussion. PMID:17535419
Lončar, Mladen; Medved, Vesna; Jovanović, Nikolina; Hotujac, Ljubomir
Aim To explore the short- and long-term psychological consequences of rape on women victims of rape during the 1992-1995 war against Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The study included 68 women victims of rape and was conducted at the Medical Center for Human Rights, Zagreb, Croatia, from 1992 to 1995. Testimony method and a questionnaire were used to obtain the description of rapes and symptoms women suffered immediately after rape and at the time of the study, ie, 11.9 ± 2.4 months after the trauma. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to diagnose psychiatric disorders that were present at the time of study, according to the third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results The raped women were Croatian and Muslim (Bosniak) women, residents of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Forty-four of them were raped more than once, 21 were raped every day during their captivity, and 18 were forced to witness rapes. Most of the rapes (n = 65) were accompanied by physical torture. The most frequent psychological symptoms felt immediately after the rape were depressiveness (n = 58), avoidance of thoughts or conversations associated with the trauma (n = 40), and suicidal ideas (n = 25). Although none of the women had a psychiatric history before the rape, at the time of study 52 suffered from depression, 51 from social phobia, 21 from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 17 had sexual dysfunctions. These disorders were often comorbid. Out of 29 women who got pregnant after rape, 17 had artificial abortion. The decision to have an abortion was strongly predicted by suicidal thoughts and impulses (odds ratio, 25.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-263.2). Conclusion War-time rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women victims of rapes and their social and interpersonal functioning. PMID:16489699
Atun, Rifat A; Kyratsis, Ioannis; Jelic, Gordan; Rados-Malicbegovic, Drazenka; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek
Most transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia are engaged in health reform initiatives aimed at introducing primary health care (PHC) centred on family medicine to enhance performance of their health systems. But, in these countries the introduction of PHC reforms has been particularly challenging; while some have managed to introduce pilots, many have failed to these scale up. Using an innovation lens, we examine the introduction and diffusion of family-medicine-centred PHC reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), which experienced bitter ethnic conflicts that destroyed much of the health systems infrastructure. The study was conducted in 2004-05 over a 18-month period and involved both qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry. In this study we report the findings of the qualitative research, which involved in-depth interviews in three stages with key informants that were purposively sampled. In our research, we applied a proprietary analytical framework which enables simultaneous and holistic analysis of the context, the innovation, the adopters and the interactions between them over time. While many transition countries have struggled with the introduction of family-medicine-centred PHC reforms, in spite of considerable resource constraints and a challenging post-war context, within a few years, BiH has managed to scale up multifaceted reforms to cover over 25% of the country. Our analysis reveals a complex setting and bidirectional interaction between the innovation, adopters and the context, which have collectively influenced the diffusion process. Family-medicine-centred PHC reform is a complex innovation-involving organizational, financial, clinical and relational changes-within a complex adaptive system. An important factor influencing the adoption of this complex innovation in BiH was the perceived benefits of the innovation: benefits which accrue to the users, family physicians, nurses and policy makers. In the case of Bi
Wolters, Steffen; Enters, Dirk; Bittmann, Felix
The inland areas of the northwestern Balkan peninsula and in particular of Bosnia and Herzegovina are poor in natural archives suitable for the reconstruction of past environmental changes and vegetation history. Consequently, palaeoenvironmental analyses are scarce with only three palynological studies available dating back to 1973, 1956 and 1934. Central Bosnia, however, is rich in archaeological heritage, featuring numerous prehistoric settlement sites along the river Bosna starting in the early Neolithic. This generates the need for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions to support and complement recent archaeological research in this area. Here we present results from a 450 cm gyttja-peat sequence from Seoce Jezero, a small mire located at 600 m NN on a plateau above a tributary of the river Bosna 30 km northwest of Sarajevo (central Bosnia). Fourteen AMS C-14 dates provide a robust time-depth-relationship which covers natural and anthropogenic environmental changes at Seoce Jezero from the Bronze Age to early Medieval Times. Pollen, macrofossil and geochemical analyses of 167 samples produce a high resolution record of land-use and vegetation change up to a half-decadal time scale. The palaeoenvironmental record starts ca. 1800 BC (3750 cal. BP) and reveals an initially relatively undisturbed landscape dominated by Fagus- and Quercus-Carpinus woodland. Anthropogenic influence is clearly visible from 1400 BC (3350 cal. BP) onwards and comprises woodland clearances, pasturing and crop cultivation. Pollen analyses confirm several consecutive phases of different land-use character and intensity. Phases of high land-use pressure culminated at the transition Bronze Age/Iron Age (1100 BC), the late Iron Age (400 BC), late Roman times (AD 300) and from AD 700 onwards. In between, stages of forest regeneration could be detected, most pronounced in the period between 70 BC and AD 150 (2020-1800 cal. BP), when anthropogenic influence virtually ceased. Whereas land use in
Alić, Amer; Hodžić, Adnan; Kadrić, Mirsad; Beširović, Hajrudin; Prašović, Senad
Pearsonema plica is a widely distributed nematode parasite that occurs in the urinary tract of various domestic and wild carnivores. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and geographical distribution of P. plica and associated urinary bladder pathology in 112 red foxes (70 males, 42 females; 87 adults >1 year, 25 juveniles <1 year) from six different geographical regions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The urinary bladders of the red foxes were subjected to gross examination and histopathology. Urine content (n = 40) and mucosal smears (n = 71) of the urinary bladders were examined microscopically for the presence of P. plica. Overall, adults and eggs of P. plica were detected in 65 (58.0 %; 95% CI 48.9-67.2%) of the foxes. Out of the positive foxes, 42 were males (64.6%) and 23 females (35.3%). According to age, 49 adults (75.3%) and 16 juveniles (24.6%) were positive. There were no statistically significant differences in the infection prevalence between the geographical regions (p = 0.701), sex (p = 0.693), or age (p = 0.646) of the host. Also, no significant differences in the prevalence of parasites in urine content (48.7%; 20/41) and mucosal smears (63.3%; 45/71) were observed (p = 0.165). Eosinophilic cystitis characterized with mild to severe infiltrates of eosinophils in the propria of the bladder mucosa accompanied by hyperemia and edema was observed in 36 examined foxes, 24 of which were P. plica positive. Parasites attached and embedded into the mucosa and free in the lumen were recorded in both cystitis positive and negative foxes. Beside clear numerical differences, the influence of P. plica infection on the occurrence of cystitis was not significant (p = 0.309). The results of this study give the first insight into the distribution of P. plica infection among the red fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Observed microscopic changes may contribute toward a better understanding of pathology caused by this
Solakovic, Sid; Totic, Dragan; Vukas, Haris; Djedovic, Muhamed
Introduction: Androgenic-anabolic steroids are rarely used by sportsmen who want to improve physical performance in competition sport. Despite that they are well aware of the side effects of anabolic steroids, many young athletes in Bosnia and Herzegovina without competition motivation come in temptation, trying to achieve better muscle proportion and physical performance unknowing consequence of side effects and what is hiding behind. Risk factors such as increasing of lipid levels and arterial hypertension are major factors which have important role in the Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and are responsible for occurrence of cardiovascular disease even causing a sudden death in young athletes. Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of misusing of androgenic anabolic steroid drugs in young recreational sportsmen without competition motivation. This study will try to estimate vascular and lipid status, analyzing the side effects of steroids in young recreational athletes under the age of 35, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The study included 70 individuals in period of 2010 till 2015 on recreational exercising program; 35 individuals misusing androgenic anabolic steroids during the period of 5 years were compared with 35 individuals which do not use androgenic anabolic steroids. Non-invasive methods were used in all individual (clinical examination and vascular ultrasound examination of vein system). The routine of training units in both groups was approximately two hours 4-6 times per week. Results: Final analysis has reveal that in androgenic anabolic steroids group in 18 individuals or 55.7% arterial hypertension with hyperlipidemia was more represented, compared with the group without using anabolic steroids, represented by 2 individuals or 5.7% and it was statistically considered significant by using p value less than 0.05. (p<0.05). Statistically dominant population using anabolic steroids drugs are males (100%) or 35 individuals
Dilić, M; Terzić, I; Kulić, M
Reperfusion is the most effective therapy for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Time from symptom onset to reperfusion is the most important factor influencing short and long-term mortality. There are several modes of reperfusion therapy. Fibrinolysis (either in pre-hospital or in-hospital setting), and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) or a combination of both are the most relevant treatment options. Primary p-PCI is the preferred option in centers with experienced teams and a high volume of reperfusion procedures. Cardiovascular mortality rate in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is among the highest in Europe, 545/100,000, and the rate of acute myocardial infarction is approximately 7000 per year. Despite recent improvement in reperfusion therapy in the last 5years, mortality of STEMI still patients remains high. The goal of this perspective article is to describe the current situation of p-PCI network in B&H. Establishing networks of reperfusion at regional and national level, implies a broad spectrum and close collaboration between all the actors involved in reperfusion therapy, namely hospitals, cardiology units emergency medical services, and primary care physicians. PMID:27381862
Vaccari, Mentore; Di Bella, Veronica; Vitali, Francesco; Collivignarelli, Carlo
In Bosnia and Herzegovina only 50% of the municipalities have a well-organized service for (mixed) waste collection and disposal. Illegal dumping is very common, in particular in rural areas, which are not regularly served by any service of collection. This situation leads to serious risks for public health and has dangerous environmental impacts. In Zavidovići the municipality is trying to meet high standards in the delivery of services of waste collection, but is constrained by scarce financial and technical resources. Different scenarios for the implementation of a system of separate collection in Zavidovići were elaborated in order to provide a useful tool for decision making by comparing costs and environmental & economic benefits of each scenario. Six scenarios were considered, based on different recovery rates for plastic, paper & cardboard, and metals. Benefits resulting from the implementation of each of the proposed scenarios are compared in terms of savings of landfill volume and costs. The study concludes that the adoption of a system of separate collection could generate positive impacts on all the stakeholders involved in the solid waste management sector in Zavidovići and could contribute to the compliance of European standards in many Central and Eastern European countries as established by a number of national environmental protection strategies. PMID:23177566
Kirkpatrick, Jeffrey S
Deployments of U.S. Forces to the Persian Gulf (1991), Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995), and Kosovo (1999) were associated with diverse, potential environmental exposures. Health effects possibly associated with these exposures were cause for concern among service members, veterans, and military and civilian leaders. A need for the military to effectively respond to these exposures, and more importantly, to assess and mitigate exposures before deployments and to conduct environmental surveillance during deployments was identified. The Department of Defense encountered many obstacles in dealing with the exposures of 1991. Even though these obstacles were being identified, and in some cases, addressed, responses to historical exposure concerns continued to be reactive. In 1996, efforts were intensified to improve policy and doctrine, field sampling equipment, risk assessment processes, geographic information systems, and other tools needed to effectively identify and reduce the impact of exposures before troops deploy and to conduct environmental surveillance while deployed. Success in these efforts resulted in a comprehensive, planned approach being implemented to address environmental health concerns during the 1999 Kosovo deployment. PMID:21916329
Fejzic, Nihad; Begagic, Muris; Šerić-Haračić, Sabina; Smajlovic, Muhamed
Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis. Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow's milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx), Rosa Charm β Lactam test and Inhibition MRL test. Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb). In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis). Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level - MLR). Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues. PMID:25172975
Hrabac, Boris; Spasojevic, Nada
Aim: The aim of this study is to represent the prevalence of non-communicable diseases risks among patients of family medicine practices in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Risks prevalence was obtained from an organized massive screening being performed by 100 family medicine teams in four cities of the Federation of B&H during 2013. Material and Methods: Our concept of “preventive treatment of a patient” included detecting and monitoring the following chronic non-communicable diseases risk factors: (a) hypertension; (b) obesity; (c) smoking; (d) physical inactivity; and (e) dyslipidemia; (f) diabetes mellitus. Our sample of examined patients was 46.638. Results: Highest risk prevalence within entire F B&H is observed for dyslipidemia (90.3%) and physical inactivity (64.7%). Lowest prevalence was found for blood sugar and hypertension at 19.2% and 21.6%, respectively. Smoking prevalence of the examined patients was 28.4%. Prevalence of the obesity as health risk (ITM > 30) was 25.5 %. It is of interest that statistically significant differences of individual risk prevalence among cities are evident. Risk distribution among cities ranked from highest to lowest prevalence, shows clearly that Sarajevo is leading in four risks compared to the other cities, while Zenica is ranked lowest for four risk factors. The examined population of the four cities can be ranked from lowest to highest prevalence of the examined risk factors as follows: Sarajevo, Mostar, Tuzla, and Zenica. PMID:27047259
Šarić-Kundalić, Broza; Fritz, Elisabeth; Dobeš, Christoph; Saukel, Johannes
The results of an ethnobotanical study conducted in the pristine village of Prokoško Lake (Vranica Mountain, Bosnia and Herzegovina) in summer 2007 is presented. Informal interviews involving 12 informants known as “traditional healers” provided data from 43 plants used in 82 prescriptions. The applied plants were used for a broad spectrum of indications. The most frequent were gastro-intestinal tract ailments, blood system disorders, skin ailments, respiratory tract ailments and urinary-genital tract ailments. The most frequent preparation was an infusion. Other often used preparations were ointments or balms and decocts. The special Bosnian balms known as “mehlems” were prepared from freshly chopped or freshly pressed herbal parts of various plant species. Warmed resins from Abies or Picea species, raw cow or pig lard, olive oil and honey served as basis. The traditional doctors, who usually worked as a team, enjoyed such a good reputation that people from all over the country were visiting in search of alternative ways to cure their ailments and diseases. The practical techniques applied by the healers and some of their attitudes and values are reported. PMID:21179347
Koluder-Cimic, Nada; Masic, Izet
SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared There is a relatively low amount of historical data about development of infectology in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but that does not mean that these medical disciplines didn’t have important events and actors that are important for the development of this medical discipline in B&H. In this review we intent to show your several characteristic events and important persons, which left a lasting impression in the development of infectology service in BIH and especially in Sarajevo. Development center for this discipline was in Sarajevo. Experts on infectious diseases were sent from Sarajevo to other health centers to organize new ministry there. Infectology as an organized health care dates back to the Austro-Hungarian period, when a part of the State Hospital in Sarajevo formed a separate Department of Infectious Diseases. Thanks to the competent professional and later teaching staff in this discipline and the importance of health care of patients with infectious diseases, in Sarajevo and other cities in Bosnia, infectious diseases care has experienced expansion and increasing importance and quality. Infectious disease specialists were very quick in organizing their professional association and with exchange of knowledge and experience have contributed substantially to the above assertion. The “Association of infectious diseases of Bosnia and Herzegovina” was founded during the aggression on BIH, in 1994 and in 1997 they organized the first scientific congress of the Association of the infectious disease specialist with international participation. Improving the health of the population in the area of infectious diseases was significantly helped by infectious diseases clinics at clinical centers in BIH and departments for infectious diseases within the hospitals in B&H. Association of the infectious disease is a significant coordinator for scientific and professional activities, but also the environment in which
Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet
Significant role in how they played, and Jews Sephardim who came to Bosnia from Spain and Portugal in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. It is those were the first owners of districts–Shop herbs or pharmacy. Along with them were developed and Muslim attars, who founded and attars marketplace in Sarajevo. Experience and knowledge in the domain of medicine and healing practiced by old Bosnian Sephardim been acquired for centuries, is now mainly found on the shelves. PMID:25870533
Bilovitz, Peter O.; Mayrhofer, Helmut
Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:22121302
Witmer, Frank D. W.
The use of satellite technology by military planners has a relatively long history as a tool of warfare, but little research has used satellite technology to study the effects of war. This research addresses this gap by applying satellite remote sensing imagery to study the effects of war on land-use/land-cover change in northeast Bosnia. The war in Bosnia, 1992-1995, resulted in over 100,000 deaths, many more wounded, and the mass displacement of nearly half the population of 4.2 million. When combined with the destruction of much of the transportation infrastructure and housing stock, widespread mine placement, and loss of agricultural machinery, the impacts to both the people and land were dramatic. Though the most severe war impacts are visible at local scales (e.g. destroyed buildings), this study focuses on impacts to agricultural land, a larger scale visible to satellite sensors. Multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data (30m pixels) from before and during the war in addition to recent imagery from 2004/05 were used to detect abandoned agricultural land. The satellite images were co-registered to enable a perpixel analysis of changes based on the statistical properties of the pixels using multiple change detection methods. Ground reference data were collected in May of 2006 at survey sites selected using a stratified random sampling approach based on the derived map of abandoned agricultural land. Fine resolution (60cm) Quickbird imagery was also used to verify the accuracy of the classification. The remote sensing analysis results were then used to test two hypotheses related to war outcomes: (a) land abandonment is due to wartime minefields and (b) land abandonment is greater in pre-war Croat areas and areas where ethnic cleansing was heaviest. The effects of minefields on land abandonment was first tested in a geographic information system (GIS), and then by using multiple regression models that account for spatial autocorrelation among observations
During the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH), Croatian people in BH had 19,600 (2.6%) killed and 135,000 (17.6%) displaced persons, and 222,500 (28.9%) refugees. They lost around two thirds of both physicians and other health personnel, and were left with 8. 5% of prewar patient beds. Fortunately, the organized defence against Serbs was initiated in time and Croats defended the territories where they formed majority. The first defense unit established was the Medical Corps Headquarters (MCH), caring for soldiers and civilians alike. The MCH was soon incorporated in the Croatian Defense Council (CDC, armed forces of Croatian people in BH). The MCH had two chains of command. One went through the district commanders of medical services and their subordinated physicians to paramedics in military units, and the other directly to the commanders of 14 war hospitals. After its formation in 1993, the Ministry of Health took the jurisdiction over the civilian medical services and after the Washington Peace Agreement (April 1994) over the war hospitals, too, whereas the medical services within military units remained under control of the Ministry of Defense. Dayton Peace Agreement divided BH into the Federation of BH and Republic Srpska, each with their own army. The Federation of BH Army is composed of the CDC and Bosniac-controlled Army of BH, with overall numerical ratio 1:2.3 for Bosniacs, and organized in accordance with NATO standards. Military medical services are provided by the Logistics Sector of both Ministry of Defense and Military Corps Headquarters (Joint Command). PMID:10853039
Hudic, Igor; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Skokic, Fahrija; Fatusic, Zlatan; Zildzic-Moralic, Aida; Skokic, Maida; Fatusic, Jasenko
The aim: of the study was to determine the situation of preterm births and early neonatal mortality during 2007-2014 in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The study covers a 8-year period and is based on the protocols at the Tuzla Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics that covers all birth in Tuzla Canton area. We analyzed the gestational age of all newborns and recorded the number of neonatal deaths in the first week after birth. Demographics, pregnancy and birth characteristics were collected from the maternal records. Results: The total number of births in the period was 32738. Preterm birth was identified in 2401 (7.3%) cases with 12,5% occurring before 32 gestational weeks and 64% in 35-36 gestational weeks. The mothers of the 24-31 gws preterm group were significantly younger that those in the 32-36 group. In the 32-36 group there were significantly greater proportions of mothers with assisted reproductive technology and pre-eclampsia and 16.7% was medical induced preterm births versus 11.4 % in the 24-31 PTB group, p<0.05. The incidence of PTB did no vary significantly during the period, the lowest rate was found in 2010 (6.4%). A total of 221 children died giving a early mortality rate of 6.8 per 1000 live born over the 8 years. The majority 156 dying infants (70.6%) were preterm, only 5.7% died being born in the 35-36 gestational week (5.9 per 1000). Overall the preterm early mortality (7.3 per 1000) has shown a decreasing tendency during the latter years. Conclusion: During the last 8 years there have been no significant decline in preterm birth in the Tuzla region while a decline in early neonatal death has been registered. PMID:27047264
Sotonica, Mia; Mackic-Djurovic, Mirela; Hasic, Sabaheta; Kiseljakovic, Emina; Jadric, Radivoj; Ibrulj, Slavka
Background: Advanced paternal and/or maternal age is a classic risk factor for Down syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of Down syndrome types in children and its association with maternal and paternal age in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Subjects and Methods: The cross sectional, observational study included 127 children, 49 girls and 78 boys, aged 1-180 months suspected to have Down syndrome, admitted to the Centre for Genetics, Faculty of Medicine University of Sarajevo, for cytogenetic analysis and differential diagnosis of Down syndrome during the period from January 2010 to May 2015. Standard method of 72 hours cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been applied. The accepted level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Study Results: The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy (86.6%), comparing to translocation and mosaicism (7.1%; 6.3%, respectively). The highest frequency of Down syndrome cases was in mother and father’s group from 30-39 years old (57; 57 children, respectively) compared to mother and father’s groups with younger than 30 (44; 29, respectively) and 40 and older (26; 41, respectively). The significant difference was found in maternal age between translocation and mosaicism groups (p=0.036). Difference between parental years and type of Down syndrome was significant when Standard trisomy 21 and translocation (p=0.045), as well as mosaicism and translocation (p=0.036), were compared. Conclusion: The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy 21, with highest occurrence in parents from 30 to 39 years old. Parents were the youngest in translocation group. Obtained results suggest that multidisciplinary approach to identifying the trigger for trisomy appearance and the influence of maternal age is required. PMID:27147778
Salimović-Bešić, I; Šeremet, M; Hübschen, J M; Hukić, M; Tihić, N; Ahmetagić, S; Delibegović, Z; Pilav, A; Mulaomerović, M; Ravlija, J; Muller, C P; Dedeić-Ljubović, A
A measles outbreak with two epidemic waves involving 4649 probable and laboratory-confirmed cases was recorded in six out of ten cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina between February 2014 and April 2015. The majority of the patients had never received measles vaccination (3115/4649, 67.00%), and the vaccination status of another 23% was unknown (1066/4649). A total of 281 blood samples were tested serologically. Virus detection was performed using 44 nasopharyngeal swabs. About 57% (161/281) of the laboratory-investigated sera were immunoglobulin M positive, and 95% (42/44) of the swabs were reverse transcriptase-PCR positive. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences obtained from 30 swab samples showed circulation of two variants of genotype D8, but no genotype D4 strains as detected in 2007. Similar involvement of all age groups indicates a problem with vaccine refusal resulting from antivaccination activities in addition to gaps in immunization coverage during the war and postwar period (1992-1998). Differences in ethnicity, vaccine coverage, compliance with review policies of vaccination records and potentially also travel habits may partially explain why only six of ten cantons were affected by the outbreak. The second epidemic wave may in part be due to large-scale migrations due to catastrophic floods in 2014. As a result of the epidemic, 6- to 12-month-old children may now be vaccinated against measles during outbreaks, and public health recommendations for interventions have been strengthened. Additional efforts are required to implement the measures throughout the cantons. PMID:26928202
Hrnčić, Nermin; Goga, Amna; Hrnčić, Selma; Filipovska-Mušanović, Marijana; Hatibović, Haris; Hodžić, Ðenad
Aim To determine frequency and type of thyroid cancer (TC) as well as gender and age distribution of patients operated at the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT), Cantonal Hospital Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods A retrospective analysis of data obtained from an operating protocol and disease history of patients operated in the eightyear period (2007- 2014) was made according to the frequency and type of thyroid cancer, as well as age and gender of the patients. χ2 test was used for statistical with p<0.05. Results A total of 818 surgeries of the thyroid gland were conducted, in 714 (87.29%) female and 104 (12.71%) male patients. Malignancies were diagnosed in 74 (9.05%) patients, of whom 64 (86.49%) were females and 10 (13.51%) were males, resulting in the gender prevalence of 8.96% and 9.62%, respectively. The most often presented type was papillary carcinoma, in 48(out of 74, 64.86%) patients, followed by follicular carcinoma in 10 (13.51%), medullary carcinoma in four (5.41%), Hurthle cell carcinoma in four (5.41%) patients, while anaplastic carcinoma was found in one (1.35%) patient. The number of diagnosed malignancy varied from 0% (in 2007) to 13.91% (in 2014) (p=0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of thyroid cancer is low, but has an increasing trend. A large number of unnecessary surgeries on thyroid gland was performed. Preoperative diagnostic procedures for diseases of the thyroid gland in Cantonal Hospital Zenica should be improved in order to avoid unessential surgeries. PMID:27313111
Uzunović, Selma; Ibrahimagić, Amir; Hodžić, Dunja; Bedenić, Branka
Aim To investigate prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characteristics, and genetic relationship of AmpC- and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)- producing Proteus spp. clinical isolates in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods according to CLSI guidelines. Double-disk synergy test was performed in order to screen for ESBLs, and combined disk test with phenylboronic acid to detect AmpC β -lactamases. PCR was used to detect blaESBL/blacarb genes. Genetic relatedness of the strains was determined by pulsed-fieldgel-electrophoresis (PFGE). Results Eleven ESBL-producing isolates were included in the study (six inpatients and five outpatients). Susceptibility rate to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, imipenem and meropenem was 100%. Resistance rate to cefuroxime was 100%, gentamicine 90.9%, piperacillin/tazobactam 81.8%, cefotaxim, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime 72.7%, cefoxitine and ciprofloxacine 63.6% and to cefepime 45.5%. In five (out of 11) isolates multi-drug resistance (MDR) to cephalosporins, cefamicines, amynocligosides and fluoroquinolones was detected. Besides TEM-1 which was detected in all isolates, CTX-M+OXA-1 β-lactamases were detected in seven (out of 11; 63.6%) isolates (five blaCTX-M-1 and two blaCTX-M-15 genes), and CMY-2 β-lactamase in two isolates. PFGE showed no genetic relatedness. Conclusion Because of high prevalence of MDR strains in epidemiologically unrelated patients with AmpC- and/or ESBL producing Proteus spp. infection, further surveillance is needed. Molecular characterization and strain typing, or at least phenotypic test for AmpC/ESBL production is important for appropriate therapy and the detection of sources and modes of spread, which is the main step in order to design targeted infection control strategies. PMID:27313108
Theobalt, D.; Mandic, O.
Badenian transgression is well exposed in the open coal pit Bogutovo Selo near Ugljevik in NE Bosnia and Herzegovina, located at the southern margin of the Pannonian Basin. Middle Miocene marine sediments superpose Late Oligocene lignite bearing lacustrine deposits. The studied succession is about 62 m thick and includes the uppermost part of the lake deposits, comprising clays, sands and coal seams, followed by marine sediments. These consist mainly of gray marls, which show some intercalations of thin, dark clay layers, volcanic ash layers and fossiliferous beds as well as carbonate bodies of different thicknesses. The presence of Orbulina suturalis allows a biostratigraphic correlation of the marine transgression horizon with the upper part of the Lower Badenian. 28 planktonic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated using quantitative analysis to evaluate the climate development during the initial marine flooding by the Paratethys Sea. Further on the samples were statistically treated to find out if there are significant differences in assemblages from the marine sediments deposited before and after the initial Serravallian cooling event coinciding with the onset of the Middle Badenian (Wielician) Salinity Crisis. 17 planktonic foraminiferal species were grouped by their palaeoclimatic significance into cool (Globigerina bulloides, G. praebulloides, G. diplostoma, G. concinna, G. tarchanensis, G. falconensis, Turborotalita quinqueloba), temperate (Globorotalia bykovae, G. transsylvanica, G. peripheroronda, Globoturborotalita woodi), warm-temperate (Globigerinella regularis, Tenuitellinata angustiumbilicata) and warm indicators (Globigerinoides trilobus, G. quadrilobatus, Orbulina suturalis, Globoquadrina cf. altispira). The counts were performed mainly on generic level. Upper Lower Badenian (Upper Lagenidae Zone) is represented in the marly succession in the lower part of the section, where the foraminiferal assemblages indicate warmer conditions with high
Novo, Ahmed; Subotic-popovic, Andreja; Strbac, Savka; Kandic, Alma; Horga, Mihai
Introduction: Federal Minister of Health and Minister of Health and Social Welfare of the Republika Srpska as a Governmental health authorities in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and the Republika Srpska nominated/appointed health professionals as their representatives to a multidisciplinary Guidelines Adaptation Group (GAG). This group started with its work in September 2015. The main purpose of the guidelines development exercise is to develop guidelines with worldwide recognized methodology for clinical guidelines development and adaptation. At the end of this consultancy, GAG would have develop a clinical practice guideline on Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) through the adaptation method, starting from published international clinical guidelines and adapting it according to the country specific requirements. Methodology: During the process of identifying the best guideline for adaptation, the GAG had to pass several steps. One of the crucial steps was to identify the questions related to clinical practice and health policy for which answers are needed to be addressed by the guideline. These questions included relevant issues regarding the topic area such as diagnosis, prognosis, intervention, service delivery, and training. After that, six guidelines have been researched by the six members of the GAG to see if they answered the identified questions. Evaluating the methodological quality of the selected clinical guidelines was a second essential step before deciding which ones could best fit the needs and interests. AGREE II instrument has been chosen as methods for evaluating clinical guideline quality and appropriateness. Four appraisers conducted the assessment of each of the selected guidelines for PPH. All appraisers passed the training for the AGREE II instrument before conducting appraisals, as recommended by the AGREE collaboration. Each of the four guidelines was rated independently with the AGREE II tool by each appraiser. Results: The highest
Palinkaš, Sabina Strmić; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Palinkaš, Ladislav A.
The Ljubija siderite deposits, hosted by a Carboniferous sedimentary complex within the Inner Dinarides, occur as stratabound replacement-type ore bodies in limestone blocks and as siderite-sulfides veins in shale. Three principal types of ore textures have been recognized including massive dark siderite and ankerite, siderite with zebra texture, and siderite veins. The ore and host rocks have been investigated by a combination of inorganic (major, trace, and rare earth element concentrations), organic (characterization of hydrocarbons including biomarkers), and stable isotope geochemical methods (isotope ratios of carbonates, sulfides, sulfates, kerogen, and individual hydrocarbons). New results indicate a marine origin of the host carbonates and a hydrothermal-metasomatic origin of the Fe mineralization. The differences in ore textures (e.g., massive siderite, zebra siderite) are attributed to physicochemical variations (e.g., changes in acidity, temperature, and/or salinity) of the mineralizing fluids and to the succession and intensity of replacement of host limestone. Vein siderite was formed by precipitation from hydrothermal fluids in the late stage of mineralization. The equilibrium fractionation of stable isotopes reveals higher formation temperatures for zebra siderites (around 245°C) then for siderite vein (around 185°C). Sulfur isotope ratios suggest Permian seawater or Permian evaporites as the main sulfur source. Fluid inclusion composition confirms a contribution of the Permian seawater to the mineralizing fluids and accord with a Permian mineralization age. Organic geochemistry data reflect mixing of hydrocarbons at the ore site and support the hydrothermal-metasomatic origin of the Ljubija iron deposits.
Grubić, Aleksandar; Radoičić, Rajka; Knežević, Mirjana; Cvijić, Ranko
Deformed lenses of red silty micrite interstratified with basaltic pillow lavas outcrop at the confluence of the River Crna Reka and Krvavac Creek on Mt. Kozara in northern Bosnia. Interbedded pelagic carbonates contain microfossils, notably several species of Globotruncana, of Upper Santonian-Lower Campanian age. The pillow lavas and sediments form part of ~ 50 km 2 tectonically emplaced body of mafic igneous rocks, composed of pillow lava, sheeted diabase and minor gabbro. This body is tectonically emplaced within melange of the Vardar zone western belt. The basic igneous body has been interpreted as the upper part of an ophiolite that was tectonically emplaced when Neotethys finally closed during latest Cretaceous time. Accordingly, the Late Cretaceous age of the interbedded pelagic sediments, as reported here, indicates that oceanic crust still existed in this region of the Tethyan orogen during Late Cretaceous time.
Mulaomerović, Alija; Softić-Taljanović, Sena; Kovacević, Jasminka; Elezović, Tigran
Bosnia and Hercegovina, as well as the rest of the world we live in, has a high level of exposure to various accident and catastrophes events with a consequence of big losses in human lives. These catastrophes often over warm capacities of health institutions. In those cases emergency medical services provides organized emergency medical assistance to injured and suddenly gone sick patients in place of injuring. It also provides transport to the health institution where patient will be admitted for further treatment. In order to provide adequate conditions for high level service, Emergency medical centre has a specialized team that provides highly qualified staff, adequate equipment and other means needed in rescue and medical assistance. Emergency medical centre Sarajevo also acts on requests by Federal civil defense, upon its given relevant information on mobilizing EMC resources when emergency signal is been issued. Purchase of new medical/rescue equipment is also prioritized. PMID:18283880
Hajrudinović, Alma; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Brown, Spencer C.; Pustahija, Fatima; Bourge, Mickael; Ballian, Dalibor; Bogunić, Faruk
Background and Aims Allopolyploidy and intraspecific heteroploid crosses are associated, in certain groups, with changes in the mating system. The genus Sorbus represents an appropriate model to study the relationships between ploidy and reproductive mode variations. Diploid S. aria and tetraploid apomictic S. austriaca were screened for ploidy and mating system variations within pure and sympatric populations in order to gain insights into their putative causalities. Methods Flow cytometry was used to assess genome size and ploidy level among 380 S. aria s.l. and S. austriaca individuals from Bosnia and Herzegovina, with 303 single-seed flow cytometric seed screenings being performed to identify their mating system. Pollen viability and seed set were also determined. Key Results Flow cytometry confirmed the presence of di-, tri- and tetraploid cytotype mixtures in mixed-ploidy populations of S. aria and S. austriaca. No ploidy variation was detected in single-species populations. Diploid S. aria mother plants always produced sexually originated seeds, whereas tetraploid S. austriaca as well as triploid S. aria were obligate apomicts. Tetraploid S. aria preserved sexuality in a low portion of plants. A tendency towards a balanced 2m : 1p parental genome contribution to the endosperm was shared by diploids and tetraploids, regardless of their sexual or asexual origin. In contrast, most triploids apparently tolerated endosperm imbalance. Conclusions Coexistence of apomictic tetraploids and sexual diploids drives the production of novel polyploid cytotypes with predominantly apomictic reproductive modes. The data suggest that processes governing cytotype diversity and mating system variation in Sorbus from Bosnia and Herzegovina are probably parallel to those in other diversity hotspots of this genus. The results represent a solid contribution to knowledge of the reproduction of Sorbus and will inform future investigations of the molecular and genetic mechanisms
Loncar, Sasa; Krneta, Milenko; Skrbic, Ranko; Lazarevic, Aleksandar; Lee, Brian T.; Lopez, Victor A.; Wong, Nathan D.
Introduction European treatment guidelines in persons with known coronary heart disease (CHD) focus on adherence to antiplatelet therapy, β-blockers, ACE/ARBs, and lipid-lowering agents, with goals for blood pressure (BP) of < 140/90 mm Hg and LDL cholesterol of < 3.0 mmol/l. Data on adherence to these measures in Eastern Europe are limited. Material and methods The Third Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Coronary Prevention Study (ROSCOPS III) was conducted in 2005–2006 at 10 primary heath care centres in 601 patients (36% female, mean age 55 years) with CHD including acute myocardial infarction or ischaemia, coronary artery bypass graft, or angioplasty who were examined and interviewed at least 6 months after the event. We examined the proportion of subjects on recommended treatments and at goal for BP, LDL-C, and non-smoking. Results The proportion of subjects on recommended treatments included 61% for β-blockers, 79% for ACE/ARBs, 63% for lipid-lowering agents and 74% for antiplatelet therapy. Only 30% of subjects were on all four of these treatments. 59% of subjects had BP at goal of < 140/90 mm Hg and 33% were controlled to < 130/80 mm Hg, 41% for LDL-C, and 88% were non-smokers. Improvements were seen in lipid-lowering and ACE/ARB drug use and non-smoking status from an earlier survey (ROSCOPS II) in 2002–2003. Conclusions Our data show, despite improvement over recent years, that many persons with CHD in the Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina are neither on recommended treatments nor at target for BP and/or LDL-C. Improved efforts targeted at both physicians and patients to address these issues are needed. PMID:22371744
Background Substance abuse among adolescents is a major public health and social problem. However, studies rarely investigate the relationships between substance abuse, educational achievement and sport factors. Substance abuse is an even more significant problem in societies that have experienced trauma, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have had recent wars. The aims of this study were to investigate substance abuse among adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to study the potential gender-specific relationships between a) sport factors (physical activity/exercise/athletic participation) and substance abuse and b) scholastic achievement and substance abuse. Methods Our sample consisted of 1,032 adolescents who were 17 to 18 years old (435 boys and 597 girls) and who were in the final grade of high school. These subjects were randomly selected from the territory of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrospective testing was performed using an extensive self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions involving topics such as sociodemographic variables, scholastic variables, sport factors, and substance abuse data (smoking habits, drugs consumption and alcohol consumption using the AUDIT questionnaire). Descriptive statistics, frequencies, analyses of the differences and correlational analyses were performed. Results Our results found that greater than one-third of the boys and one-fourth of the girls were daily smokers, and almost half of the boys and one-fifth of the girls practiced harmful drinking; other drugs (i.e. heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, etc.) were rarely consumed. Boys dominated in sport factors, whereas girls were more successful in scholastic achievement. Approximately 23% of the boys and 6% of the girls reported that they practiced harmful drinking and smoked simultaneously. Educational failure, which was defined as having one or more negative grades at the end of the last two school years, was
Mahmić-Kaknjo, Mersiha; Kadić, Damira; Hodžić, Harun; Spahić-Sarajlić, Selvedina; Hadžić, Elida; Ademović, Enisa
Aim To assess awareness, knowledge, use, and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine (EBM) and The Cochrane Library (CL) among physicians from Zenica-Doboj Canton (ZDC), Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered anonymous questionnaire was sent by post to all state owned health institutions (2 hospitals and 11 Primary Health Care Institutions) in ZDC. The main outcome measures were physicians’ awareness of the Cochrane, awareness and use of CL, access to EBM databases, and access to internet at work. 358 of 559 physicians responded (63.69%). Results 23.18% of respondents stated they had access to EBM databases, but only 3.91% named the actual EBM databases they used. The question on the highest level of evidence in EBM was correctly answered by 35.7% respondents, 34.64% heard about Cochrane and 32.68% heard about CL. They obtained information about CL mostly on the internet and from colleagues, whereas the information about EBM was obtained mainly during continuous medical education. Conclusion Although the attitudes toward EBM are positive, there is a low awareness of EBM among physicians in ZDC. Open access to the CL should be used more. Educational interventions in popularizing EBM and Cochrane are needed to raise awareness both among students and practicing physicians, and finally among lay audience. PMID:26718762
Ustaszewski, Kamil; Schmid, Stefan M.; Lugović, Boško; Schuster, Ralf; Schaltegger, Urs; Bernoulli, Daniel; Hottinger, Lukas; Kounov, Alexandre; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Schefer, Senecio
The Kozara Mountains of northern Bosnia and Hercegovina form part of the internal Dinarides and host two tectonically juxtaposed ophiolitic successions of different age. The southern part of the Kozara Mountains exposes the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit, which was obducted onto the Adriatic margin in the Late Jurassic. The northern part exposes a bimodal igneous succession that was thrust onto the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit during the latest Cretaceous to Early Paleogene. This bimodal igneous succession comprises isotropic gabbros, doleritic dikes, basaltic pillow lavas and rhyolites. Pelagic limestones, intercalated with pillow lavas, yielded a Campanian globotruncanid association, consistent with concordant U-Pb ages on zircons from dolerites and rhyolites of 81.39 ± 0.11 and 81.6 ± 0.12 Ma, respectively. Chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns of the bimodal igneous rocks show enrichment of LREE over HREE. Primitive mantle-normalised multi-element diagrams do not reveal significant depletion of HFSE. The ɛNd(T) and initial 87Sr/ 86Sr isotopic values range from + 4.4 to + 6.3 and from 0.70346 to 0.70507 respectively, suggesting an intraoceanic origin. The bimodal igneous succession is unconformably overlain by Maastrichtian to Paleocene siliciclastics that contain abundant ophiolitic detritus, suggesting reworking of the Campanian magmatics. An Eocene turbiditic sandstone succession unconformably covers both the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit and the Late Cretaceous bimodal igneous successions. These observations suggest that the Adriatic Plate and the Europe-derived Tisza and Dacia Mega-Units were still separated by a deep basin floored by oceanic lithosphere until the Campanian and that its closure did not occur before the Maastrichtian to earliest Paleogene. This Late Cretaceous oceanic domain probably represented a remnant of the Vardar Ocean, or alternatively, the Alpine Tethys; possibly the traces of both oceanic domains were connected in
Salimović-Bešić, I; Hukić, M
The objectives of this study were to identify human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a group of Bosnian-Herzegovinian women with abnormal cytology and to assess their potential coverage by vaccines. HPVs were identified by multiplex real-time PCR test (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM; Sacace Biotechnologies, Italy) of 105 women with an abnormal cervical Pap smear and positive high-risk (HR) HPV DNA screening test. The most common genotypes in the study were HPV-16 (32·6%, 48/147), HPV-31 (14·3%, 21/147), HPV-51 (9·5%, 14/147) and HPV-18 (7·5%, 11/147). The overall frequency of HR HPV-16 and/or HPV-18, covered by currently available vaccines [Gardasil® (Merck & Co., USA) and Cervarix®; (GlaxoSmithKline, UK)] was lower than the overall frequency of other HPVs detected in the study (40·1%, 59/174, P = 0·017). Group prevalence of HR HPVs targeted by a nine-valent vaccine in development (code-named V503) was higher than total frequency of other HPVs detected (68·0%, 100/147, P < 0·001). Development of cervical cytological abnormalities was independent of the presence of multiple infections (χ 2 = 0·598, P = 0·741). Compared to other HPVs, dependence of cervical diagnosis and HPV-16, -18 (P = 0·008) and HPV-16, -18, -31 (P = 0·008) infections were observed. Vaccines targeting HR HPV-16, -18 and -31 might be an important tool in the prevention of cervical disease in Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:25578155
Fejzić, Nihad; Begagić, Muris; Šerić-Haračić, Sabina; Smajlović, Muhamed
Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis. Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow’s milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx), Rosa Charm β Lactam test (Charm Sciences) and Inhibition MRL test (A&M). Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb). In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis). Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level – MLR). Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues. PMID:25172975
Mandic, Oleg; de Leeuw, Arjan; Vuković, Boško; Krijgsman, Wout; Harzhauser, Mathias; Kuiper, Klaudia F.
In the Early to Middle Miocene, a series of lakes, collectively termed the Dinaride Lake System (DLS), spread out across the north-western part of the Dinaride–Anatolian continental block. Its deposits, preserved in numerous intra-montane basins, allow a glimpse into the palaeoenvironmental, palaeobiogeographic and geodynamic evolution of the region. Lake Gacko, situated in southern Bosnia and Herzegovina, is one of the constituent lakes of the DLS, and its deposits are excellently exposed in the Gračanica open-cast coal-mine. A detailed study of the sedimentary succession that addresses facies, sediment petrography, geophysical properties, and fossil mollusc palaeoecology reveals repetitive changes in lake level. These are interpreted to reflect changes in the regional water budget. First-order chronologic constraints arise from the integration of radio-isotopic and palaeomagnetic data. 40Ar/39Ar measurements on feldspar crystals from a tephra bed in the upper part of the sedimentary succession indicate a 15.31 ± 0.16 Ma age for this level. The reversed magnetic polarity signal that characterises the larger part of the investigated section correlates to chron C5Br of the Astronomically Tuned Neogene Timescale. Guided by these chronologic data and a detailed cyclostratigraphic analysis, the observed variations in lake-level, evident as two ~ 40-m and seven ~ 10-m scale transgression–regression cycles, are tuned to ~ 400-kyr and ~ 100-kyr eccentricity cycles. From the tuning, it can be inferred that the sediments in the Gacko Basin accumulated between ~ 15.8 and ~ 15.2 Ma. The economically valuable lignite accumulations in the lower part of the succession are interpreted to indicate the development of swamp forests in conjunction with lake-level falls corresponding to ~ 100-kyr eccentricity minima. Pedogenesis, rhizoliths and palustrine carbonate breccias in the upper part of the section reveal long-term aridity coinciding with a ~ 400-kyr
Zenic, Natasa; Ostojic, Ljerka; Sisic, Nedim; Pojskic, Haris; Peric, Mia; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir
Objective The community of residence (ie, urban vs rural) is one of the known factors of influence on substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to explore the community-specific prevalence of SUM and the associations that exist between scholastic, familial, sports and sociodemographic factors with SUM in adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods In this cross-sectional study, which was completed between November and December 2014, the participants were 957 adolescents (aged 17 to 18 years) from Bosnia and Herzegovina (485; 50.6% females). The independent variables were sociodemographic, academic, sport and familial factors. The dependent variables consisted of questions on cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. We have calculated differences between groups of participants (gender, community), while the logistic regressions were applied to define associations between the independent and dependent variables. Results In the urban community, cigarette smoking is more prevalent in girls (OR=2.05; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.35), while harmful drinking is more prevalent in boys (OR=2.07; 95% CI 1.59 to 2.73). When data are weighted by gender and community, harmful drinking is more prevalent in urban boys (OR=1.97; 95% CI 1.31 to 2.95), cigarette smoking is more frequent in rural boys (OR=1.61; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.39), and urban girls misuse substances to a greater extent than rural girls (OR=1.70; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.51,OR=2.85; 95% CI 1.88 to 4.31,OR=2.78; 95% CI 1.67 to 4.61 for cigarette smoking, harmful drinking and simultaneous smoking-drinking, respectively). Academic failure is strongly associated with a higher likelihood of SUM. The associations between parental factors and SUM are more evident in urban youth. Sports factors are specifically correlated with SUM for urban girls. Conclusions Living in an urban environment should be considered as a higher risk factor for SUM in girls. Parental variables are more strongly associated with SUM among urban
The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. Area source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon mon...
The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. rea source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon monox...
Güllü, Gülen; Doğan, Güray; Tuncel, Gürdal
Concentrations of elements and ions measured in aerosol samples collected from March 1992 to the end of December 1993 were investigated to identify source regions affecting chemical composition of aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. Collected samples were analyzed for approximately 40 elements and ions using a combination of atomic absorption spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography and colorimetry. Statistical techniques, such as enrichment factors and a non-parametric bootstrapped potential source contribution function, were applied on the data set to determine main source types and source regions of anthropogenic particles in the eastern Mediterranean basin. Source regions of two previously defined anthropogenic components, namely a long-range transported component and a local pollution component, were identified. The main source areas for pollutants reaching the eastern Mediterranean basin were determined as southern and western parts of Turkey, central and eastern regions of Ukraine, east of Belarus, Greece, Georgia, Romania, coastal areas along France and Spain and coastal areas around the Black Sea, Russia. More distant source regions in the South of UK and Sweden, the central part of Algeria, the northeastern part of Turkey, Russia, Germany, Hungary, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and coastal areas of Egypt, Israel and Italy do affect aerosol composition in the eastern Mediterranean, but transport from these regions cannot account for the highest 20% of the measured pollutant concentrations.
This study is a systematic overview of data on use of wild and semi-wild edible plants in nutrition of people in 1430 days of the siege of Sarajevo during aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995). The author of this study spent all that time in Sarajevo. In 1993, the author prepared a survival program for people that included usage of edible wild plants. In addition, he conducted a detailed survey, including special interviews, on 630 people of average age 37.4 years (55% residential inhabitants, the rest were refuges), 310 males and the rest were females. According to survey, 91 species of mostly wild plants and three species of fungus were used: Küchneromyces mutabilis, Armillariella mellea and Coprinus comatus. Wild vegetables included 49 species, spices 24, wild fruits 16, and 2 species of bread-plants. They belong to 26 plants communities, and grew on 24 different habitats (urban surfaces, river coasts, low forest and scrubs, meadows and rocky grasslands). The 156 plant parts (leaves, young branches, fruit, flower, seed, root and rhizome) from 91 plant species were used. Vegetables were dominant category of use (soups, pottages, sauces) with 80 ways of preparation (30.53%), then salads 41 (15.65%), spices 39 (14.89%), different beverages 38 (14.50%), sweets 21 (8.02%), nutritive teas 15 (5.73%), and other preparations. In order to improve conventional food (war pasta, rice, lentils, old beans) people used spices made from different wild plants. PMID:20698130
Discusses library collection development by school library media specialists and describes selection sources for new books and materials; retrospective selection sources for materials published in preceding years; and an acquisition source. Provides an overview of the selection process and includes 10 suggestions for selection. (LRW)
Browne, F. X.
Presented a literature review of nonpoint source effects on water quality and pollution covering: (1) water quality effects; (2) watershed studies; (3) nonpoint source models; and nonpoint source controls. A list of 122 references published in 1976 and 1977 is also presented. (HM)
Nonpoint source pollution remains the most pervasive water quality issue faced today. Unlike pollution from point sources, nonpoint source pollution is diffuse both in terms of its origin and the manner in which it enters ground and surface waters. It results from a great variety of human activities that take place over a wide geographic area perhaps many hundreds or even thousands of acres. And unlike pollutants from point sources--which enter the environment at well-defined locations and in relatively even, continuous discharges--pollutants from nonpoint sources usually find their way into surface and ground waters in sudden surges associated with rainfall, thunderstorms, or snowmelt. The author discusses some of the most significant sources of nonpoint source pollution.
Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.
A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.
Distribution and age-related bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European catfish (Sylurus glanis) from the Buško Blato reservoir (Bosnia and Herzegovina).
Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Vuković, Rosemary; Galović, Dalida; Bogut, Ante; Horvatić, Janja
The purpose of this study was to quantify the bioaccumulation of Pb, Hg, Cd, and As in tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Silurus glanis) from Buško Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Arsenic concentrations were below the Maximal Admissible Concentration (MAC) for Croatia and other countries. Mercury concentrations were below 1 mg kg(-1), but in most muscle samples of both species and all catfish liver samples, the values were higher than 0.5 mg kg(-1) (higher than the MAC for many countries including Croatia). Lead concentrations were higher than 1 mg kg(-1) (the MAC for Croatia) in most muscle samples; all kidney and most catfish liver samples also exceeded 1 mg kg(-1). Cadmium concentrations in all tissues, other than the gonads, were higher than 0.1 mg kg(-1) (MAC for Croatia), with the highest concentrations found in the kidneys. The only gender difference was found in carp, where a 68.4% higher concentration of As was found in the fry compared to the milt (P<0.05). Concentrations of all of the elements were higher in catfish compared to carp for most tissues. Significant correlations were found between all of the elements in the muscles and the liver of carp. In catfish, the muscles were the only tissue in which multiple correlations were found. Linear positive correlations with age and body mass were demonstrated for the concentrations of all heavy metals for all tissues except the gonads in both fish species. We concluded that significant heavy metal accumulation in carp and a catfish tissues correlates with age and body mass; bioaccumulation is species- and tissue-specific and is different for each element. PMID:25966047
Incidence of mental retardation as compared with other psychiatric disorders and necessary support to persons placed at the Public Institution for Placement of Persons with Mental Disabilities "Drin" Fojnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bjelošević, Edin; Karahmet, Amar; Hadžikapetanović, Halima; Bjelošević, Sonja
Aim To compare the frequency of mental retardation with other psychiatric disorders at the Institute for Mentally Disabled Persons "Drin" Fojnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, to asses psychosocial condition and necessary support to persons with mental retardation. Methods In this retrospective, descriptive and epidemiologic study neuropsychiatric findings and reports of the Institute's social services of 527 residents (beneficiaries) were analyzed in the period 2013-2014 (age, gender, mobility, years of life spent in the Institute, visits of family members and close relatives, visits to families, mental retardation - degree, required support). Results The research included 213 (40.42%) women and 314 (59.58%) men. The average age was 39.64 years. The average number of years spent in the Institute was 10.42.Fifty-four 25.47%) examinees with mental retardation had occasional visits to their families, while 69 (32.54%) had regular visits. Thirty-four (16.04%) examinees had mild mental retardation, 70 (33.02%) had moderate retardation, 52 (24.52%) were with severe, and 56(26.42%) with profound retardation. It was found that 66 (31.13%)beneficiaries with the diagnosis of mental retardation completely depended on other persons. Conclusion The degree of mental retardation has a direct impact on the process of resocialization. A very small number of people diagnosed with mental retardation had been successfully involved in the process of resocialization. It is necessary work intensively on thecreation of conditions for the realization of the Independent Living Support program, thus making a step forward to deinstitutionalization. PMID:27313109
An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,
Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.
Richmond, J.L.; Wells, C.E.
A neutron source is obtained without employing any separate beryllia receptacle, as was formerly required. The new method is safer and faster, and affords a source with both improved yield and symmetry of neutron emission. A Be container is used to hold and react with Pu. This container has a thin isolating layer that does not obstruct the desired Pu--Be reaction and obviates procedures previously employed to disassemble and remove a beryllia receptacle. (AEC)
The ion source described essentially eliminater the problem of deposits of nonconducting materials forming on parts of the ion source by certain corrosive gases. This problem is met by removing both filament and trap from the ion chamber, spacing them apart and outside the chamber end walls, placing a focusing cylinder about the filament tip to form a thin collimated electron stream, aligning the cylinder, slits in the walls, and trap so that the electron stream does not bombard any part in the source, and heating the trap, which is bombarded by electrons, to a temperature hotter than that in the ion chamber, so that the tendency to build up a deposit caused by electron bombardment is offset by the extra heating supplied only to the trap.
Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.
A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap.
The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish. PMID:27039640
Reardon, W.A.; Lennox, D.H.; Nobles, R.G.
A neutron source of the antimony--beryllium type is presented. The source is comprised of a solid mass of beryllium having a cylindrical recess extending therein and a cylinder containing antimony-124 slidably disposed within the cylindrical recess. The antimony cylinder is encased in aluminum. A berylliunn plug is removably inserted in the open end of the cylindrical recess to completely enclose the antimony cylinder in bsryllium. The plug and antimony cylinder are each provided with a stud on their upper ends to facilitate handling remotely.
A novel long-lived source of gamma radiation especially suitable for calibration purposes is described. The source of gamma radiation is denoted mock iodine131, which comprises a naixture of barium-133 and cesium-137. The barium and cesium are present in a barium-cesium ratio of approximately 5.7/1 to 14/1, uniformly dispersed in an ion exchange resin and a filter surrounding the resin comprised of a material of atomic number below approximately 51, and substantially 0.7 to 0.9 millimeter thick.
Late Pleistocene leopards across Europe - northernmost European German population, highest elevated records in the Swiss Alps, complete skeletons in the Bosnia Herzegowina Dinarids and comparison to the Ice Age cave art
Diedrich, Cajus G.
European leopard sites in Europe demonstrate Early/Middle Pleistocene out of Africa lowland, and Late Pleistocene Asian alpine migrations being driven by climatic changes. Four different European Pleistocene subspecies are known. The final European Late Pleistocene “Ice Age leopard” Panthera pardus spelaea (Bächler, 1936) is validated taxonomically. The skull shows heavy signs of sexual dimorphism with closest cranial characters to the Caucasian Panthera pardus ciscaucasica (Persian leopard). Late Pleistocene leopards were distributed northernmost, up to S-England with the youngest stratigraphic records by skeletons and cave art in the MIS 2/3 (about 32,000-26,000 BP). The oldest leopard painting left by Late Palaeolithics (Aurignacians/Gravettians) in the Chauvet Cave (S-France) allows the reconstruction of the Ice Age leopard fur spot pattern being close to the snow or Caucasian leopards. The last Ice Age glacial leopard habitat was the mountain/alpine boreal forest (not mammoth steppe lowland), where those hunted even larger prey such as alpine game (Ibex, Chamois). Into some lairs, those imported their prey by short-term cave dwelling (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Harz Mountains, Germany). Only Eurasian Ice Age leopards specialized, similar as other Late Pleistocene large felids (steppe lions), on cave bear predation/scavenging partly very deep in caves. In Vjetrenica Cave (Dinarid Mountains, Bosnia Herzegovina), four adult leopards (two males/two females) of the MIS 3 were found about two km deep from the entrance in a cave bear den, near to one cave bear skeleton, that remained articulated in its nest. Leopards died there, partly being trapped by raising water levels of an active ponor stream, but seem to have been killed possibly either, similar as for lions known, in battles with cave bears in several cave bear den sites of Europe (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Wildkirchli Cave, Vjetrenica Cave). At other large cave sites, with overlap of hyena, wolf and dhole dens at
Vermeulen, R C
Predictions for the apparent velocity statistics under simple beaming models are presented and compared to the observations. The potential applications for tests of unification models and for cosmology (source counts, measurements of the Hubble constant H0 and the deceleration parameter q0) are discussed. First results from a large homogeneous survey are presented. The data do not show compelling evidence for the existence of intrinsically different populations of galaxies, BL Lacertae objects, or quasars. Apparent velocities betaapp in the range 1-5 h-1, where h = H0/100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 megaparsec (Mpc) = 3.09 x 10(22) m], occur with roughly equal frequency; higher values, up to betaapp = 10 h-1, are rather more scarce than appeared to be the case from earlier work, which evidently concentrated on sources that are not representative of the general population. The betaapp distribution suggests that there might be a skewed distribution of Lorentz factors over the sample, with a peak at gammab approximately 2 h-1 and a tail up to at least gammab approximately 10 h-1. There appears to be a clearly rising upper envelope to the betaapp distribution when plotted as a function of observed 5-GHz luminosity; a combination of source counts and the apparent velocity statistics in a larger sample could provide much insight into the properties of radio jet sources. PMID:11607604
Shumyatsky, Pavel; Alfano, Robert R.
We present an overview and history of terahertz (THz) sources for readers of the biomedical and optical community for applications in physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, imaging, and spectroscopy. THz low-frequency vibrational modes are involved in many biological, chemical, and solid state physical processes.
Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.
An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.
Blue, C.W.; Luce, J.S.
An ion source is described and comprises an arc discharge parallel to the direction of and inside of a magnetic field. an accelerating electrode surrounding substantially all of the discharge except for ion exit apertures, and means for establishing an electric field between that electrode and the arc discharge. the electric field being oriented at an acute angle to the magnetic field. Ions are drawn through the exit apertures in the accelrating electrcde in a direction substantially divergent to the direction of the magnetic field and so will travel in a spiral orbit along the magnetic field such that the ions will not strike the source at any point in their orbit within the magnetic field.
Brobeck, W. M.
This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from the source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a vacuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.
This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from thc source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a varuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.
Bogutskaya, Nina G.; Zupančič, Primož; Bogut, Ivan; Naseka, Alexander M.
); head width 43–52% HL (vs. 48–58% HL); and lower jaw length 10–12% SL or 36–41% HL (vs. 8–10% SL or 33–38% HL). Telestes miloradi, a very local endemic species,is known only by historical samples. Telestes dabar is an abundant fish in Dabarsko Polje, but its range is critically restricted during the dry season by a few permanent sources. Nothing is known about its occurrence in underground karst waters. PMID:22539906
Thode, Lester E.
A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.
Masic, Izet; Hajdarevic, Braco; Ridjanovic, Zoran
THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF RESPONSIBILITIES THAT ARISE ON THE BASIS OF MEDICAL ERRORS: a) Disciplinary (Punishment of the competent Association for restriction or revocation of the license); b) Civil liability (compensation); c) Criminal responsibility (protection of individual interests to protect the interests of the society); d) Violation (fine for minor damage) To increase the number of criminal proceedings mostly influenced the lack of compensation system for harm because the injured party considered that after the positive completion of criminal proceedings can easily make a claim. Therefore they do not address the local Association or Ministry of Health to investigate a case, but to the criminal proceedings to try to get compensation. It turned out that this is a dispute that is usually long lasting, with an uncertain outcome, which does not bring satisfaction to the plaintiff, and had a series of negative consequences in the general approach to the treatment of patients known as "defensive medicine". As a result of the increased number of lawsuits due to medical errors are caused the following negative consequences: a) Great vigilance of physicians in communicating with patients, who must sign a 2-3 statements when entering the hospital, and that sometimes are not really familiar with the nature of illness and required treatment; b) Significant increase in the number of unnecessary tests which are required by doctors to insure themselves from the potential liability, which at a given moment are not really necessary; c) Lack of medical error reporting system allows individuals to avoid their reporting, which affects the course of treatment and prognosis; d) Often avoidance by the doctors to perform some necessary procedures that are risky, with increasingly open refusal to cure a poor prognosis case which they left to the next level of treatment. Disappears so called "heroic approach" to the treatment in the B&H health system known from the war period and gives way to extreme caution, because the doctors expect that their every procedure will be under scrutiny; e) All of these factors create a mode known worldwide as "defensive medicine", which increases the cost of treatment and lower level of health care; f) Reduced volume of education, because older physicians are reluctant to let residents decide on specific work procedures and operations; g) There is already a critical shortage of some medical specialties, and inevitably follows increase in price from these service areas and increase of the waiting list. PMID:24493982
Luna, Karlos; Martín-Luengo, Beatriz
The hypothesis that the retrieval of correct source memory cues, those leading to a correct source attribution, increases confidence, whereas the retrieval of incorrect source memory cues, those leading to a source misattribution, decreases confidence was tested. Four predictions were derived from this hypothesis: (1) confidence should be higher for correct than incorrect source attribution except; (2) when no source cues are retrieved; (3) only the source misattributions inferred from the retrieval of incorrect source cues will be rated with low confidence; and (4) the number of source cues retrieved, either correct or incorrect, will affect the confidence in the source attributions. To test these predictions, participants read two narratives from two witnesses to a bank robbery, a customer and a teller. Then, participants completed a source monitoring test with four alternatives, customer, teller, both, or neither, and rated their confidence in their source attribution. Results supported the first three predictions, but they also suggested that the number of correct source monitoring cues retrieved did not play a role in the monitoring of the accuracy of the source attributions. Attributions made from the recovery of incorrect source cues could be tagged as dubious or uncertain, thus leading to lowered confidence irrespective of the number of incorrect source cues or whether another correct source cue was also recovered. This research has potential applications for eyewitness memory because it shows that confidence can be an indicator of the accuracy of a source attribution. PMID:23553316
Crowder, Jeff; Cornish, Neil J.
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna will detect thousands of gravitational wave sources. Many of these sources will be overlapping in the sense that their signals will have a nonzero cross correlation. Such overlaps lead to source confusion, which adversely affects how well we can extract information about the individual sources. Here we study how source confusion impacts parameter estimation for galactic compact binaries, with emphasis on the effects of the number of overlaping sources, the time of observation, the gravitational wave frequencies of the sources, and the degree of the signal correlations. Our main findings are that the parameter resolution decays exponentially with the number of overlapping sources and superexponentially with the degree of cross correlation. We also find that an extended mission lifetime is key to disentangling the source confusion as the parameter resolution for overlapping sources improves much faster than the usual square root of the observation time.
Li, Feng; Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Li, Qian; Wai, P. K. A.
Frequency comb sources have revolutionized metrology and spectroscopy and found applications in many fields. Stable, low-cost, high-quality frequency comb sources are important to these applications. Modeling of the frequency comb sources will help the understanding of the operation mechanism and optimization of the design of such sources. In this paper,we review the theoretical models used and recent progress of the modeling of frequency comb sources.
Evans, Ian N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.
The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is the definitive catalog of X-ray sources detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. When compared to all previous and current X-ray missions, Chandra breaks the resolution barrier with an arcsecond scale on-axis point spread function. The combination of excellent spatial resolution, a reasonable field of view, and low instrumental background translate into a high detectable-source density, with low confusion and good astrometry. The wealth of information that can be extracted from identified serendipitous sources is a powerful and valuable resource for astronomy. The aim of the CSC is to disseminate this wealth of information by characterizing the X-ray sky as seen by Chandra. The CSC provides simple access to Chandra data for individual sources or sets of sources matching user-specified search criteria. The catalog is intended to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. For each detected X-ray source, the catalog lists the source position and a detailed set of source properties, including multi-band aperture fluxes, X-ray colors and hardness ratios, spectra, temporal variability information, and source extent estimates. In addition to these traditional elements, the catalog includes file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra for each source individually from each observation in which a source is detected. The first release of the CSC includes information for 150,000 X-ray sources detected in a subset of public imaging observations from the first eight years of the Chandra mission. Only point sources, and compact sources with extents < 30 arcsec, are included. Highly extended sources, and sources located in selected fields containing bright, highly extended sources, are excluded from this release. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS
Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; (Helen He, Xiangqun; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula
The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents lsim30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of lsim1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a
Evans, Ian; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula
The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) was published in 2009 March, and includes information about 94,676 X-ray sources detected in a subset of public ACIS imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents <˜30''.The CSC is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime.The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports medium sophistication scientific analysis on using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools; and (4) includes real X-ray sources detected with flux significance greater than a predefined threshold, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at an acceptable level. For each detected X-ray source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a source is detected.
Eshraqi, Mohammad; McGinnis, David; Lindroos, Mats
The following sections are included: * Neutron usage and historical background * Spallation * History of spallation sources * The ESS facility * The ESS linac * Beam physics * The front-end and the normal conducting linac * Superconducting linac * RF sources * Summary * References
Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.
Anderson, T F
A wide variety of artificial light sources exists for use in the diagnosis and treatment of photosensitivity disorders. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of these light sources (including gas discharge arcs, fluorescent lamps, and other apparatus) illustrates the importance of matching the emission spectrum of the light source, the spectral response of the radiometer, and the photobiologic action spectrum. Environmental and occupational exposure to artificial light sources may contribute to photosensitivity disorders. PMID:3955892
Wright, S. E.
A theory is described for the radiation emission emission from acoustic multipole sources. The sources can be stationary or moving at speeds including supersonic and experience stationary or moving disturbances. The effect of finite source distributions and disturbances is investigated as well as the manner in which they interact. Distinction is made between source distributions that responsed as a function of time and those that respond as a function of space.
Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim
Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered. PMID:22789677
Kellerman, Kenneth I.
Discusses new problems arising from the growing observational data through radio telescope arrays, involving the origin of radio sources, apparent superluminal velocities, conversion of radio sources to relativistic particles, and the nature of compact opaque and extended transparent sources. New physics may be needed to answer these cosmological…
Sauer, M.C. Jr.
Characteristics of various sources of pulsed radiation are examined from the viewpoint of their importance to the radiation chemist, and some examples of uses of such sources are mentioned. A summary is given of the application of methods of physical dosimetry to pulsed sources, and the calibration of convenient chemical dosimeters by physical dosimetry is outlined. 7 figures, 1 table.
Archer, Joanne; Hanlon, Ann M.; Levine, Jennie A.
Primary source research requires students to acquire specialized research skills. This paper presents results from a user study testing the effectiveness of a Web guide designed to convey the concepts behind "primary source literacy". The study also evaluated students' strengths and weaknesses when conducting primary source research. (Contains 3…
Evans, Ian N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R. M.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Mossman, A. E.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.
The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public ACIS imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents < 30". The catalog (1) provides access to estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources with good scientific fidelity; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of < 1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics. In addition, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra. Support for development of the CSC is provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract NAS 8-03060.
Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve
Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.
Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.
In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.
Massey, J. L.
A regular Markov source is defined as the output of a deterministic, but noisy, channel driven by the state sequence of a regular finite-state Markov chain. The rate of such a source is the per letter uncertainty of its digits. The well-known result that the rate of a unifilar regular Markov source is easily calculable is demonstrated, where unifilarity means that the present state of the Markov chain and the next output of the deterministic channel uniquely determine the next state. At present, there is no known method to calculate the rate of a nonunifilar source. Two tentative approaches to this unsolved problem are given, namely source identical twins and the master-slave source, which appear to shed some light on the question of rate calculation for a nonunifilar source.
Ustaszewski, Kamil; Herak, Marijan; Tomljenović, Bruno; Herak, Davorka; Matej, Srebrenka
This study provides evidence for post-5 Ma shortening in the transition area between the Dinarides fold-and-thrust belt and the Pannonian Basin and reviews possible earthquake sources for the Banja Luka epicentral area (northern Bosnia and Herzegovina) where the strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake (ML 6.4) occurred on 27 October 1969. Geological, geomorphological and reflection seismic data provide evidence for a contractional reactivation of Late Palaeogene to Middle Miocene normal faults at slip rates below 0.1 mm/a. This reactivation postdates deposition of the youngest sediments in the Pannonian Basin of Pontian age (c. 5 Ma). Fault plane solutions for the main 1969 Banja Luka earthquake (ML 6.4) and its largest foreshock (ML 6.0) indicate reverse faulting along ESE-WNW-striking nodal planes and generally N-S trending pressure axes. The spatial distribution of epicentres and focal depths, analyses of the macroseismic field and fault-plane solutions for several smaller events suggest on-going shortening in the internal Dinarides. Seismic deformation of the upper crust is also associated with strike-slip faults, likely related to the NE-SW trending, sinistral Banja Luka fault. Possibly, this fault transfers contraction between adjacent segments of the Dinarides thrust system. The study area represents the seismically most active region of the Dinarides apart from the Adriatic Sea coast and the bend zone around Zagreb. We propose that on-going thrusting in the internal Dinarides thrust system takes up a portion of the current Adria-Europe convergence.
Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.
A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.
Zhang, Lizhong; South Pole Telescope
The Fermi γ-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) has surveyed the entire sky at the highest-energy band of the electromagnetic spectrum. The majority of Fermi sources have counterpart identifications from multi-wavelength large-area surveys, particularly in the radio and x-ray bands. However, around 35% of Fermi sources remain unidentified, a problem exasperated by the low resolution of the telescope. Understanding the nature of unidentified Fermi sources is one of the most pressing problems in γ-ray astronomy. The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has completed a survey covering a 2500 square degrees of the southern extragalactic sky with arcminute resolution at millimeter wavelengths. The mm wavelength is the most efficient means to identify blazars and unidentified Fermi sources. Our analysis shows that the SPT point source catalog provides candidate associations for 40% of the unidentified Fermi sources, showing them to be flat-spectrum radio quasars which are extraordinarily bright at millimeter (mm) wavelengths.
This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.
This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.
An improvement is presented in ion sources of the type employed in calutron devices. The described ion source has for its inventive contribution the incorporation of a plate-like cathode having the general configuration of a polygon including a given number of apices. When a polyphase source of current has a phase connected to each of the apices, the cathode is heated and rendered electron emissive. This particular cathode configuration is of sturdy construction and provides unuform emission over a considerable area.
A radioisotopic heat source is described which includes a core of heat productive, radioisotopic material, an impact resistant layer of graphite surrounding said core, and a shell of iridium metal intermediate the core and the impact layer. The source may also include a compliant mat of iridium between the core and the iridium shell, as well as an outer covering of iridium metal about the entire heat source. (Official Gazette)
The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem.
Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence
A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.
This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.
Lonjou, Vincent; Knoedlseder, Juergen
With more than 50% of unidentified sources, the third EGRET catalogue reflects the complexity of source identification in the GeV domain. In that context, we developed a dedicated GLAST ScienceTool dubbed gtsrcid for the general purpose of source identification. gtsrcid has been designed in a very flexible way and allows cross correlation with any counterpart catalogue using user-definable figures-of-merit. Our source identification strategy, the results for DC2 as well as possible improvements of our identification procedures are presented.
Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.
A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,
Namkung, Min; Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz A.
Metal aircraft skins scanned rapidly in vibration tests. Relatively simple combination of permanent magnets and electromagnet serves as noncontact vibration source for nondestructive testing of metal aircraft skins. In test, source excites vibrations, and vibration waveforms measured, then analyzed for changes in resonances signifying cracks and other flaws.
The objective of the research program was development of reliable source location techniques. The study comprised two phases. First, the research focused on development of source location methods for homogeneous plates. The specimens used in the program were steel railroad tank cars. Source location methods were developed and demonstrated for empty and water filled tanks. The second phase of the research was an exploratory study of source location method for fiber reinforced composites. Theoretical analysis and experimental measurement of wave propagation were carried out. This data provided the basis for development of a method using the intersection of the group velocity curves for the first three wave propagation modes. Simplex optimization was used to calculate the location of the source. Additional source location methods have been investigated and critically examined. Emphasis has been placed on evaluating different methods for determining the time of arrival of a wave. The behavior of wave in a water filled tank was studied and source location methods suitable for use in this situation have been examined through experiment and theory. Particular attention is paid to the problem caused by leaky Lamb waves. A preliminary study into the use of neural networks for source location in fiber reinforced composites was included in the research program. A preliminary neural network model and the results from training and testing data are reported.
Spencer, Michael D.
This annotated bibliography focuses on, but is not limited to, reference sources on education found in the library at St. Bonaventure University, New York. The ERIC database leads the list of leading education reference sources. Also mentioned are the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors" and the Academic Index (InfoTrak) computer system. Other…
This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with energy sources and development. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy sources and development related to the historical perspective, biological development, current aspects, and future expectations…
Jenkins, Richard E.; McCutchen, Gary D.
This feature article outlines the concept and procedures followed in establishing performance standards for new emission sources and summarizes the standards that have been established to date. Five source catagories are enumerated: fossil fuel-fired steam generators, municipal incinerators, Portland cement plants, nitric acid plants, and sulfuric…
The 1972 Microfilm Source Book has been designed to give sources of supply for important services and equipment related to microfilm. Events in the microfilm industry during 1971 are reviewed first, and a calendar is provided of major meetings and conferences held during 1972. The next section contains an index to products which lists them…
Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…
Increasingly, colleges and universities are turning to open source as a way to meet their technology infrastructure and application needs. Open source has changed life for visionary CIOs and their campus communities nationwide. The author discusses what these technologists see as the benefits--and the considerations.
Hall, L. G.
Radial focusing of electrons in ion source produces greater ion densities, resulting in higher resolution and focus capability for a given source volume. Electron beam is focused near exit aperture by spherical fields. High density ions allow focusing ion beam to high density at echo, allowing high current through small aperture.
Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.
This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.
Goertz, R.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Rylander, E.W.; Safranski, L.M.
A portable source for radiogiaphy or radiotherapy is described. It consists of a Tl/sup 170/ or Co/sup 60/ source mounted in a rotatable tungsten alloy plug. The plug rotates within a brass body to positions of safety or exposure. Provision is made for reloading and carrying the device safely. (T.R.H.)
Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen
Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article. PMID:27620104
Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)
Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.
Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)
Kaufman, H. R.
A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.
The power output from given sources is usually ascertained via an energy flux integral over the normal directions to a remote (far field) surface; an alternative procedure, which utilizes an integral that specifies the direct rate of working by the source on the resultant field, is described and illustrated for both point and continuous source distribution. A comparison between the respective procedures is made in the analysis of sound radiated from a periodic dipole source whose axis performs a periodic plane angular movement about a fixed direction. Thus, adopting a conventional approach, Sretenskii (1956) characterizes the rotating dipole in terms of an infinite number of stationary ones along a pari of orthogonal directions in the plane, and through the far field representation of the latter, arrives at a series development for the instantaneous radiated power, whereas the local manner of power calculation dispenses with the equivalent infinite aggregate of sources and yields a compact analytical result.
Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.
A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.
Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L
A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.
Greenly, John B.
An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.
Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.
Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.
Positron sources are a critical system for the future lepton colliders projects. Due to the large beam emittance at the production and the limitation given by the target heating and mechanical stress, the main collider parameters fixing the luminosity are constrained by the e+ sources. In this context also the damping ring design boundary conditions and the final performance are given by the injected positron beam. At present different schemes are being taken into account in order to increase the production and the capture yield of the positron sources, to reduce the impact of the deposited energy in the converter target and to increase the injection efficiency in the damping ring. The final results have a strong impact not only on the collider performance but also on its cost optimization. After a short introduction illustrating their fundamental role, the basic positron source scheme and the performance of the existing sources will be illustrated. The main innovative designs for the future colliders advanced sources will be reviewed and the different developed technologies presented. Finally the positrons-plasma R&D experiments and the futuristic proposals for positron sources will reviewed.
Dick, Wolfgang R.
This paper describes the different types of published sources for biographical data from the history of astronomy - well known ones like encyclopaedias, biographical dictionaries, and obituaries, as well as less known ones like membership directories of societies, annual reports, and lists of solar-system nomenclature. Also online sources such as web pages and databases are considered. Existing bio-bibliographies are discussed and a new "Biographical Index of Astronomy" (BIA) is introduced. It lists biographical and bio-bibliographical sources for more than 16,000 persons.
An improvement is described in ion source mechanisms whereby the source structure is better adapted to withstanid the ravages of heat, erosion, and deterioration concomitant with operation of an ion source of the calutron type. A pair of molybdenum plates define the exit opening of the arc chamber and are in thermal contact with the walls of the chamber. These plates are maintained at a reduced temperature by a pair of copper blocks in thermal conducting contact therewith to form subsequent diverging margins for the exit opening.
In recent years there has been tremendous progress in the field of software for managing geographic information (GIS - Geographic Information System). Data processing capabilities expand with every new version of GIS applications. Similarly, the processing power of computers to process and manage geographic data. Once we have got such a powerful tool, the question arises: where to get the relevant data from? There are many sources of data (public, paid for), but after closer examination it turns out that they are mostly processed data from other sources. In this article I will present the primary source of data that can be used to suit one's needs. All of these data are publicly available
Singh, J. J.
Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.
Oborny, Michael C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.
A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.
This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.
Ahumada, Martin M.; Hefferlin, JB Lon
Information about materials on environmental scanning is offered. Suggestions about sources of data for scanning are provided, organized into six facets of the environment: demographic, economic, political, organizational, technological, and social-cultural. (MLW)
A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole
Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...
A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole
Fordyce, J. S.
Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.
Fordyce, J. S.
The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.
A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.
Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.
A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.
Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.; Grabner, R. Fred; Ramsey, Philip B.
A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.
Lubow, S.; Budavári, T.
We have created an initial catalog of objects observed by the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The catalog is based on observations taken on more than 6000 visits (telescope pointings) of ACS/WFC and more than 25000 visits of WFPC2. The catalog is obtained by cross matching by position in the sky all Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) Source Extractor source lists for these instruments. The source lists describe properties of source detections within a visit. The calculations are performed on a SQL Server database system. First we collect overlapping images into groups, e.g., Eta Car, and determine nearby (approximately matching) pairs of sources from different images within each group. We then apply a novel algorithm for improving the cross matching of pairs of sources by adjusting the astrometry of the images. Next, we combine pairwise matches into maximal sets of possible multi-source matches. We apply a greedy Bayesian method to split the maximal matches into more reliable matches. We test the accuracy of the matches by comparing the fluxes of the matched sources. The result is a set of information that ties together multiple observations of the same object. A byproduct of the catalog is greatly improved relative astrometry for many of the HST images. We also provide information on nondetections that can be used to determine dropouts. With the catalog, for the first time, one can carry out time domain, multi-wavelength studies across a large set of HST data. The catalog is publicly available. Much more can be done to expand the catalog capabilities.