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  1. For Bosnia's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Pale, once a just a village when Bosnia's war ended 13 years ago, is now a bustling town, the hub of "Serbian Sarajevo," and home to several divisions of the Bosnian Serbs' University of East Sarajevo, their homegrown alternative to the multiethnic University of Sarajevo. It was in Pale that Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic, the Bosnian Serbs'…

  2. Building Civic Education in Bosnia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feichter, Pat; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents three brief articles recalling US teachers' experiences conducting civic education workshops in Bosnia. Pat Feichter writes "Would I Return? In a Heartbeat." Gail Huschle examines "Beauty in the Midst of Devastation." Mary Bristol considers "Making Connections between Cultures." (MJP)

  3. Education in Bosnia: Religion, Language and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreight, Richard Douglas

    This book investigates the forces shaping the development of education systems in Bosnia and the impact those historical forces may, or may not, have on the condition of secondary education in Bosnia today. Initial chapters offer historical background about educational development in the Balkans and in Bosnia. The volume outlines the accumulative…

  4. The "Drama" of Translation in Bosnia Herzegovina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Lynn Altman

    1998-01-01

    Describes how educators from Bosnia-Herzegovina and the United States came to terms with informal drama activities through a sharing of cultural experiences and pedagogical approaches during an inservice program in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Discusses preparation for workshop projects, methods of reaching and relaxing the audience, and adjustments made…

  5. Learning Festival in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agic, Sejfudin; Glumac, Nijaz; Gozo, Zehra; Hoso, Narcis; Jonic, Damir; Kudumovic, Mensura; Moldovan, Dragana; Muminovic, Aida; Pjevalica, Zeljana; Sadikovic, Azra; Serbic, Miso

    2002-01-01

    During International Adult Learners Week, a learning festival organized by a humanitarian organization celebrated the resilience and learning focus of the people of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Evaluations identified a need for more government support for adult education and the contributions of nongovernmental organizations. (SK)

  6. Inclusive Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dizdarevic, Alma; Vantic-Tanjic, Medina; Nikolic, Milena

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the different challenges faced by all members of the local community who are directly or indirectly responsible for the educational reform regarding the process of inclusion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Yugoslavia education system is regulated in canton legislature. Each canton has its own law on preschool, elementary school,…

  7. Education and Democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolouh-Westin, Lidija

    2004-01-01

    Content analysis of the curriculum and textbooks for the last four grades of compulsory education used in Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented. The major aim in this research has been to identify how issues related to democracy and human rights are presented.--Do the curriculum and textbooks support the ideas and behaviours recognized as…

  8. [Eosinophilia in a family from Bosnia].

    PubMed

    Lupinc, L; Markwalder, K; Nigg, C

    2003-12-17

    We describe reference to a family from Bosnia that the diagnosis of Trichinellosis can be difficult despite notice of travel-history and eosinophilia but lack of further epidemiological datas and due to the rarity of this zoonosis. Clinical pattern of trichinellosis are fever, headache, myalgia, periorbital oedema, less frequently diarrhea and abdominal pain. Dreaded complications are myocarditis and encephalitis. High eosinophilia and increased creatine phosphocinase activity are the most frequently observed laboratory features. The detection of specific circulating antibodies or the parasitological examination of a muscle biopsy will confirm the diagnosis. The medical treatment includes albendazol and steroid. PMID:14727477

  9. Occupational exposure doses in interventional procedures in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Bašić, B; Beganović, A; Skopljak-Beganović, A; Samek, D

    2011-03-01

    Monitoring of occupationally exposed workers in Bosnia and Herzegovina started in 1960s and it was interrupted in 1992. Dosimetry service resumed in 1999 when the International Atomic Energy Agency provided Radiation Protection Centre with Harshaw 4500 Thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD)-reader and the first set of TLDs. The highest doses are received by professionals working in interventional procedures (radiology, cardiology, gastroenterohepatology etc.). Number of these procedures is increasing each year (just in cardiology this increase is 24 % per year). Results from two TLDs are used to estimate effective dose. One is worn under the apron (chest level), and the other above (neck level). Calculation is performed using Niklason's methodology. Total number of occupationally exposed persons in interventional radiology is 90. The collective dose they receive is 67 person mSv, while the mean dose is 0.77 mSv (based on 12-month period). Highest doses are received by physicians (3.7 mSv), while radiographers and nurses receive 2.1 and 1.9 mSv respectively. This occurs due to the fact that physicians stand closer to the source (patient). The lead apron is proven to be the most efficient radiation protection equipment, but, also, lead thyroid shield and glasses can significantly lower doses received by professionals. The use of this equipment is highly recommended. PMID:21138927

  10. A Short History of Medical Informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    The health informatics profession in Bosnia and Herzegovina has relatively long history. Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, thirty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, twenty years from the establishment of the Scientific journal “Acta Informatica Medica (Acta Inform Med”, indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central Scopus, Embase, etc.), twenty years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, ten years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article is eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24648621

  11. [Bibliographies of medical books in Bosnia and Herzegovina].

    PubMed

    Omanić, A

    1997-01-01

    Many scientists have written about Turkish, Arabic and medical books. The most important authors among them are: Osman Sokolović: "Orijentalne medicinske knjige moje knjiznice", Hrvatska drzavna tiskara, Zagreb, Podruznica Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 1945, od 10-15; Prim. dr. Hamdija Karamehmedović; Ibn al-Nefis, "Mudzez al-Kanum", Republicki zavod za zdravstvenu zastitu Sarajevo, 1961, 1-219; Mr ph Samuel Elazar, Ajnija Omanić: "Bibliografija medicinskih djela u SR BiH do 1895." Medicinska knjiga Beograd-Zagreb 1984; Besides, the great contribution in bibliography was given by dr Lujo Taler, prof. dr. Drazen Grmek, dr. Jasa Roman, Kasim ef. Dobraca, Radmila Fabijanić, Hivzija ef. Hasandedić, prof. dr. Zdravko Devetak, prim. dr. Alija Karahasanović, Salih ef. Trako i Lejla Gazić. The first list of medical books from the territory of The Former Yugoslavia was prepared and published by Jasa Roman: Jugoslovenska bibliografija Ijekarusa i narodnih medicinskih rukopisam Naucno drustvo za istoriju zdravstvene culture Jugoslavije, Beograd, 1973. But, there are also many writings and book ("the old books") that have not been evidented yet. The reason for this is the fact that catalogues in private and public chemistries were not updated. This is why numerous documents have not been processed. These documents are the most important source of data about our health past, and that is why it is necessary to investigate, note and process them permanently in all aspects. The goal of this paper is to make a short preview of updated bibliography in Bosnia and Herzagovina, and to analyse methodology of making them. PMID:9324576

  12. Rebuilding from the Ashes: Schooling in Post-War Bosnia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasalic-Kreso, Adila; Russo, Charles J.

    2000-01-01

    In the postwar transitional phase, restoration of a comprehensive education system in Bosnia has been impeded by inadequate resources and capacity to repair and/or upgrade existing facilities, debate over curricular content, differing school management systems, and student displacement. Rebuilding must stress democratic, multicultural principles.…

  13. Exposure to Traumatic Violence: Some Lessons from Bosnia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullis, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of the circumstances and outcomes of the war in Bosnia, discusses some of the clinical issues being faced by Bosnian children, such as post traumatic stress disorders, and describes volunteer training efforts designed to train teachers as lay therapists. (CR)

  14. COST OF FEBRILE NEUTROPENIA TREATMENT IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    PubMed Central

    Catic, Tarik; Mekic-Abazovic, Alma; Sulejmanovic, Samra

    2016-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is common chemotherapy complication significantly impacting patient’s outcomes, quality of life and costs, too. Febrile neutropenia (FN) often leads to hospitalization, the need for intravenous antibiotics and use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (GCSF) in order to avoid its complications. Cost of febrile neutropenia is well described in literature, but no study has been performed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We have conducted observational cohort study with aim to describe and present costs of FN treatment from payers’ (provider’s) perspective. Only direct medical costs from one middle-sized oncology Clinic in Bosnia and Herzegovina database have been included and presented. We found that overall cost in five months period (January-May 2015) were almost 30.000 euros, or 1.0035 euro per episode/patient in average. The highest cost are allocated to hospitalization (40%), followed by GCSF (36%), while rest of costs are generated by laboratory tests performed and drug application. Proportion of costs is in line with other published studies even with huge differences in absolute values, mainly to low prices of services in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This was the first study on costs of chemotherapy induced FN in Bosnia and Herzegovina suggesting that significant costs are inquired by this conditions and that further research should be performed including larger patient population and other clinical oncology data, including pharmacoeconomic analysis. PMID:27147916

  15. Possibilities for Social Cohesion in Education: Bosnia-Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    In postwar Bosnia-Herzegovina, segregation along ethno-nationalistic lines and divergent pedagogies within the education system have presented challenges to social cohesion and the long-term stability of a society that is still struggling to rebuild, reconcile, and regain trust (Jancic, 2008). This article examines the current state of the…

  16. COST OF FEBRILE NEUTROPENIA TREATMENT IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA.

    PubMed

    Catic, Tarik; Mekic-Abazovic, Alma; Sulejmanovic, Samra

    2016-04-01

    Febrile neutropenia is common chemotherapy complication significantly impacting patient's outcomes, quality of life and costs, too. Febrile neutropenia (FN) often leads to hospitalization, the need for intravenous antibiotics and use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (GCSF) in order to avoid its complications. Cost of febrile neutropenia is well described in literature, but no study has been performed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We have conducted observational cohort study with aim to describe and present costs of FN treatment from payers' (provider's) perspective. Only direct medical costs from one middle-sized oncology Clinic in Bosnia and Herzegovina database have been included and presented. We found that overall cost in five months period (January-May 2015) were almost 30.000 euros, or 1.0035 euro per episode/patient in average. The highest cost are allocated to hospitalization (40%), followed by GCSF (36%), while rest of costs are generated by laboratory tests performed and drug application. Proportion of costs is in line with other published studies even with huge differences in absolute values, mainly to low prices of services in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This was the first study on costs of chemotherapy induced FN in Bosnia and Herzegovina suggesting that significant costs are inquired by this conditions and that further research should be performed including larger patient population and other clinical oncology data, including pharmacoeconomic analysis. PMID:27147916

  17. Virtual Museum Applications and Their Public Perception in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizvic, S.; Sadzak, A.; Ramic-Brkic, B.; Hulusic, V.

    2011-09-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina always has been a place where the East meets the West. Over 1000 years, different cultures, religions and civilizations have left their remains in this small country in Western Balkans. Despite all wars and tragic destructions, today in the heart of Sarajevo one can find mosques, Catholic and Orthodox churches and Jewish synagogues next to each other and people of different nations and religions living together in mutual respect and friendship. Multiethnic spirit of Bosnia and Herzegovina lives through its cultural heritage. Therefore our task is to ensure its presentation and preservation using Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). So far researchers have achieved significant results by creating several virtual museums. In this paper we will present the Museum of Bosnian Traditional Objects, Digital Catalogue of Stecaks and the Virtual Museum of Sarajevo Assassination, giving an overview of the process of creating virtual environments from multiple data sources based on various 3D digitization technologies: some based on traditional 3D modeling, other based on laser scanning or photogrametric techniques.

  18. Education of medical biochemists in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Winterhalter-Jadrić, Mira; Causević, Adlija; Jadrić, Radivoj; Corić, Jozo; Hasić, Sabaheta; Kiseljaković, Emina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we would like to briefly introduce readers to the situation in the field of laboratory medicine in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a focus on training in the field of medical biochemistry. As in some of neighboring countries, term Medical biochemist is the usual name for the Clinical biochemist or Clinical chemist in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Despite the difficult period through which the profession had passed in the last two decades, laboratory work, particularly clinical biochemistry, has managed to retain the necessary quality and keep pace with the developed world. In post war period, Society of Medical Biochemists of Bosnia and Herzegovina held regular meetings each year as a part of "life long learning" process, where both scientific and vocational lecturers presented their work. A single law on the state level would provide us with more defined and precise answers, such as: who can get a specialization, how long should last the training for medical biochemistry specialists (duration in years). This law should be in consent with the program described in EC4 or other documents given by the EFCC (European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine) and IFCC (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine). PMID:22141200

  19. 31 CFR 585.420 - Prohibited transfer of funds involving those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... involving those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian Serb forces... (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA... Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian Serb forces. Sections 585.201(c) and...

  20. Teaching about Conflict and Crisis in the Former Yugoslavia: The Case of Bosnia-Hercegovina. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, John K.

    This digest provides facts and explanations about: (1) the peoples and places of the former Yugoslavia, including Bosnia- Hercegovina; (2) the collapse of Yugoslavia and the crisis in Bosnia-Hercegovina or "Bosnia"; and (3) the causes, conditions, and consequences of the Bosnian war. The history of Yugoslavia from 1918 to 1990 is discussed as well…

  1. Common Curriculum, Core Curriculum or Common Curriculum Standards--Finding a Solution for Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabback, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of possible curriculum models in post-conflict countries, taking as an example the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1996 and 2004. Following the Dayton agreement, the education system in Bosnia and Herzegovina was divided between 13 ministries administering different Bosnian, Serb and Croat cantons. Despite…

  2. Make Books, Not War: Workshops at a Summer Camp in Bosnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darvin, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on a bookmaking project that was conducted with pre-adolescent Serbian and Bosnian girls at a summer camp outside Sarajevo, Bosnia in 2005. During this camp, children from Bosnia, Serbia and Croatia were brought together by the Global Children's Organisation to engage in a variety of activities, including conflict resolution,…

  3. Future peace operations: Lessons from Bosnia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Godlewski, J.S.

    1995-05-16

    The end of the Bi-polar world has increased the requirement for and scope of UN peace operations. This paper examines the current situation in Bosnia from an Operational Command and Control perspective. It points out the shortfalls of force structure, clear direction on both the strategic/operational level and the UN`s inability to coordinate their and NATO`s efforts. It will also discuss the need and framework for `robust` peace operations. It concludes with an examination of options for a command and control structure for future UN peace operations.

  4. First results of Bosnia-Herzegovina Meteor Network (BHMN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujić, N.; Muminović, M.

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by similar networks in the region, a video meteor network began since the spring of 2013 in Bosnia and Herzegovina which currently includes eight stations. Further expansion of the network is under preparation by setting up another 2 stations. The Network is managed by the Astronomical Society Orion Sarajevo together with the Federal Hydrometeorological Institute in Sarajevo whose meteorological stations were used for the installation of the cameras. By mid-June 2015 the cameras of the BH meteor network had recorded over 20000 meteors and we had calculated more than 4000 orbits. In this paper we present the results of the first two years of operation of our meteor network.

  5. Development of an essential drugs list for Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, M; Serdarevic, D; Zulic, I

    1997-01-01

    Part of the impact of the war in ex-Yugoslavia and especially Bosnia and Herzegovina was to limit the supply of therapeutic drugs they had used before the war. The difficulties encountered made the health care system temporarily dependent on humanitarian assistance agencies which applied the concept of essential drugs; and, after initial difficulties, national health staff adapted to the need to prescribe from a very limited range of drugs. Meanwhile, national drug policy and procurement and prescribing practices were reviewed by working groups and a national List of Essential Drugs was drawn up by national experts with international support. This list has now been passed into legislation. PMID:9227382

  6. Causes of Sterility in Bosnia-Herzegovina Population

    PubMed Central

    Ümit, Göktolga; Izetbegovic, Sebija; Admir, Rama; Spahovic, Hajrudin; Cihan, Göktaş

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility or sterility or barrenness is defined as a state of inability to conceive after a year of unprotected intercourse. Ovulation problems, uterine tube problems, endometriosis, uterine etiology problems, chromosomal problems which are not so rare, spermatogenesis disorders and azoospermia are stated as the most common causes of infertility. Objective: Main objective of this research is to present most common causes of marital infertility in Bosnia-Herzegovina population. Material and methods: Retrospective, descriptive- epidemiological study has been published at Bahceci IVF center in Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). The research covered a time-period of two years. During the time-period in question, 826 marital couples from Bosnia and Herzegovina diagnosed with marital sterility approached the Center. Results: Analysis of female patients as per age groups determined that the largest number of respondents belonged to the 36 – 39 age group with a total number of 293 patients, followed by 30 – 35 age group with a total number of 245 patients, and the third most frequent age group included those of ≥ 40 years of age with 179 patients in total, followed by 25–29 age group with 98 respondents. In 42% (n=350) of the couples diagnosed with marital infertility, female sterility was established as the reason, while in 36 % (n=294) of the couples, male sterility was the reason. Both marital spouses were infertile in 11% of the couples (n=92), while in remaining 11% of the couples, no diagnosis was determined and they belonged in the group of unexplainable sterility. The most common cause of sterility in women is diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), as was the case in 38.57% of respondents. This diagnosis is in direct correlation with the age of a woman. Among causes of sterility of organic and functional origin, the most common is ovarian tube problem – in 31.4% of the cases, then ovulatory problems – in 12.86% of the cases, and polycystic

  7. Analysis of Cystic Fibrosis in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Selimovic, Amina; Mujicic, Ermina; Milisic, Selma; Mesihovic-Dinarevic, Senka; Dzinovic, Amra; Cengic, Selma; Bakalovic, Ganimeta; Moro, Mahir; Djozic, Meliha; Lukic-Bilela, Lada

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to present the first total number of tested children in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the number of children with positive sweat test. During the study we determined the number of ill children, the median age of children with cystic fibrosis, date of initial diagnosis, an average amount of chloride in the sweat. Material and methods: The study was a retrospective, conducted at the Department of Pulmonology Pediatric Clinic of University Clinical Center of Sarajevo. Results: In the period from March 2003 to December 2014, we have tested 625 children. 351 child were from Sarajevo Canton and 272 children from other cantons. Female children were more affected then male children, in the ratio of 1: 1,105. An average age of female children was 4.19±4.26 years, and the male 2.15±3.11 years. The median concentration of chloride in the sweat measured by sweat test was for male children 103.05±21.29 mmol/L, and for the female children 96.05±28.85 mmol/L. Conclusion: Most of children in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have ∆F508 gene mutation. In the post-war period we started to use a sweat test. Male children tend to live longer than female children with CF. PMID:26543305

  8. Improved accuracy of the reference network of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulic, M.; Bilajbegovic, A.

    2012-04-01

    Availability of the reprocessed IGS05 precise orbits opened the door to the possibilities of the re-processing of two GPS campaigns in the Bosnia and Herzegovina, organized in the year 2000 and 2005. The data of the GPS observations processed using the Bernese software, version 5.0. Results were in the IGS05 reference frame. Corrections for the delays of GPS signals passing through the troposphere were estimated for every 2 hours, and their projection on the observed height of the stations was calculated using wet Neill mapping functions, but horizontal gradients were estimated for every 4 hours. Results of reprocessing shows improved accuracy. It could be generally said that the accuracy of the all three components of the positions were within the 10 mm and accuracy of the processed velocities for the identical stations were about 1mm/year. Common campaign in the middle epoch used to evaluate velocities of identical stations. For stations that are not observed in both of these campaigns, velocities were interpolated using a polynomial of third degree. So, re-processing of the campaigns resulted in the improved accuracy of the realization of a geodetic reference network for Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  9. Epidemiological Characteristics of Brucellosis in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Obradović, Zarema; Velić, Ramiz

    2010-01-01

    Aim To analyze the frequency and distribution of human brucellosis in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period 2001-2008, and measures and activities undertaken for prevention and control of the disease. Method In this descriptive, retrospective study, we used official reports on infectious diseases from public health institutes at the federal and cantonal level, as well as epidemiological surveys. For comparison with animal brucellosis cases, we used the distribution data from veterinary surveillance. Results Since 2001, the number of infected people has rapidly increased and brucellosis has become a very important public health problem. In the period 2001-2008, there were 1639 human brucellosis cases and the number of cases increased every year. The morbidity rate over the study period ranged from 3.8 to 33.4 per 100 000 inhabitants. According to epidemiological surveys, in villages human brucellosis was transmitted mostly by contact with infected animals and their products, and in cities by consumption of dairy products made from contaminated, unpasteurized milk. When test-and-slaughter control approach was used, the prevalence of seropositive livestock was 4.6% and approximately 70 000 animals were slaughtered after testing between 2001 and 2008. From 1 June 2009, this approach was replaced with mass vaccination of sheep and goats. Conclusion The large number of human brucellosis cases and seropositive livestock poses a very serious problem for Bosnia and Herzegovina. The solution may be the introduction of mass vaccination. PMID:20718088

  10. The Jubilee of Medical Informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina - 20 Years Anniversary

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2009-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Last two years, the health informatics profession celebrated five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: thirty years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data, twenty years from the establishment of Society for Medical Informatics BiH, fifteen years from the establishment of the Scientific and Professional Journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“, fifteen years on from the establishment of the first Cathedra for Medical Informatics on Biomedical Faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and five years on from the introduction of the method of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. The author of this article are eager to mark the importance of the above mentioned Anniversaries in the development of Health informatics in Bosnia and Herzegovina and have attempted, very briefly, to present the most significant events and persons with essential roles throughout this period. PMID:24133382

  11. Reform in a Fragmented System: Higher Education in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes issues of fragmentation and reform in Bosnia-Herzegovina's higher education system, suggesting that a better appreciation of traditional university structures, rather than just Anglo-American central management, is important in achieving effective reform. (EV)

  12. Participation of women in the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Omanic, Ajnija; Serdarevic, Mevlida; Ovcina, Amer; Omanic, Hajrunisa; Omanic, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    Many authors have written about the participation of women in WW2 in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly in health care. Participation of Bosnian and Herzegovinian women in the 1992-1995 war was also significant. According to Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina data, there were 5360 recruited women. Some were engaged in logistics and some were fighters. This review presents the characters of the brave women who have inspired current generations. PMID:21073250

  13. Reproductive health care situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Dizdarevic-Stojkanovic, J

    1999-01-01

    The law legalizing abortion and implementing family planning, passed in former Yugoslavia in 1952, is still in effect in the newly created state of Bosnia-Herzegovina. This law has helped eliminate illegal, i.e. criminal, abortions, but existing arrangements providing family planning and promoting reproductive and sexual health are not effective enough, because too few people know enough about the rights to individual choice in family planning. The primary objective for the next twenty years is to educate the people--women, men and the young--about their rights to reproductive choice and sexual health, and about how to exercise those rights as fully and effectively as possible. Legal and financial assistance from WHO will be welcome, because the post-war Bosnian society and state lack funds for such initiatives. PMID:10536386

  14. 31 CFR 585.218 - Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian... YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA AND... and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian Serb...

  15. Post-War Trauma and Reconciliation in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Observations, Experiences, and Implications for Marriage and Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Briana S.

    2003-01-01

    The 1992-1995 war in Bosnia-Herzegovina caused mush devastation in that region of the world. This article describes the themes and issues that emerged from information gained from interviews with Bosnian professionals through a project entitled "Trauma and Reconciliation in Bosnia-Herzegovina." Recommendations and implications for family and…

  16. Is Prevention of Glaucoma Possible in Bosnia and Herzegovina?

    PubMed Central

    Terzic, Svjetlana; Jusufovic, Vahid; Vodencarevic, Amra Nadarevic; Asceric, Mensura; Pilavdzic, Adisa; Halilbasic, Meliha; Terzic, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the world and represents a significant social and health problem. Early detection of glaucoma enables early initiation of treatment and may delay disease progression. The aim of this work is to determine whether it is possible to detect glaucoma in early stages. Methods: A public awareness campaign was carried out in University Clinic Center (UCC) in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) during 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 Glaucoma Week, with one-day, free of charge screening of individuals. This screening program was composed of getting brief medical history, slit-lamp examination including intraocular pressure and anterior chamber dept evaluation and non-mydriatic fundus exam with evaluation of the cup/disk ration. Results: A total of 682 individuals were screened, 277 were male and 405 were female. The youngest individual was 8 years old and the oldest individual was 84 years old. The mean age was 57.6 years. Intraocular pressure higher then 21,9 mmHg was found in 83 patients. Conclusion: Glaucoma is a disease that affects visual acuity and gradually leads to blindness. It occurs in all age groups in both sexes and in all races. Early detection of disease and proper treatment can prevent permanent loss of vision. Detection and early treatment of glaucoma must become one of the leading public health programs in B&H. PMID:27147791

  17. Patients Perception of Community Pharmacist in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Catic, Tarik; Jusufovic, Fatima Insanic; Tabakovic, Vedad

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists play a significant role in patient/disease management and perception by patients is increasingly important. A self-administered questionnaire was developed consisted of sociodemographic part and 15 questions. Patients have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists that is comparable to most studies in Europe. Community pharmacists’ beyond dispensing drugs play a significant role in patient and disease management. This role of the pharmacist is performed through pharmaceutical care. Patient’s opinion is increasingly considered to be a useful component in the determination of care outcomes and consumer satisfaction is an integral component of the quality of primary health care. For the purpose of this study we developed self-administered questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic part, and 15 questions. Survey has been conducted in 10 pharmacies. Results are presented in tables and figures and descriptive statistics has been used. We found that patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and of the services offered from community pharmacies that is comparable to most studies in Europe, but there is still room for improvement of relationships and pharmaceutical services. PMID:24167438

  18. [New electronic data carriers in Bosnia-Herzegovina].

    PubMed

    Masić, I; Pandza, H; Knezević, Z; Toromanović, S

    1999-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina has been developing new Health Care System based on Electronic Registration Card. Developing countries proceeded from the manual and semiautomatic method of medical data processing to the new method of entering, storage, transfer, searching and protection of data using electronic equipment. Currently, many European countries have developed a Medical Card Based Electronic Information System. Both technologies offer the advantages and disadvantages. Three types of electronic card are currently in use: Hybrid Card, Smart Card and Laser Card. Hybrid Card offers characteristics of both Smart Card and Laser Card. The differences among these cards, such as a capacity, total price, price per byte, security system are discussed here. The dilemma is, which card should be used as a data carrier. The Electronic Family Registration Card is a question of strategic interest for B&H, but also a big investment. We should avoid the errors of other countries that have been developing card-based system. In this article we present all mentioned cards and compare advantages and disadvantages of different technologies. PMID:10870627

  19. Patients perception of community pharmacist in bosnia and herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Catic, Tarik; Jusufovic, Fatima Insanic; Tabakovic, Vedad

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists play a significant role in patient/disease management and perception by patients is increasingly important. A self-administered questionnaire was developed consisted of sociodemographic part and 15 questions. Patients have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists that is comparable to most studies in Europe. Community pharmacists' beyond dispensing drugs play a significant role in patient and disease management. This role of the pharmacist is performed through pharmaceutical care. Patient's opinion is increasingly considered to be a useful component in the determination of care outcomes and consumer satisfaction is an integral component of the quality of primary health care. For the purpose of this study we developed self-administered questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic part, and 15 questions. Survey has been conducted in 10 pharmacies. Results are presented in tables and figures and descriptive statistics has been used. We found that patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and of the services offered from community pharmacies that is comparable to most studies in Europe, but there is still room for improvement of relationships and pharmaceutical services. PMID:24167438

  20. Stress reactions among Swedish peacekeeping soldiers serving in Bosnia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2003-12-01

    Assessments of mental health (GHQ-28) were performed on a Swedish battalion serving in Bosnia at 4 times: before deployment, immediately after deployment, 6 months after deployment, and 1 year after deployment. Complete responses were obtained from 316 participants (61% response rate). No significant change of mental health over time was noted. Individuals having experienced traumatic events in Bosnia, as well as stressful life events postdeployment, reported the poorest mental health. Logistic regression analysis showed that postdeployment stressors made the strongest contribution to registering a poor mental health score after one year. PMID:14690357

  1. Role of Poultry Meat in Sporadic Campylobacter Infections in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Laboratory-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Uzunović-Kamberović, Selma; Zorman, Tina; Heyndrickx, Marc; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2007-01-01

    Aim To investigate genetic diversity and specificity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from humans, retail poultry meat, and live farm chickens in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and identify the role of poultry meat in sporadic Campylobacter infections. Methods We determined the type of Campylobacter species using standard microbiological methods and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and performed pulsed field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of the flaA gene to investigate genetic diversity among the isolates. Results We isolated C jejuni and C coli from 75 (5.2%) of 1453 samples of consecutive outpatients with sporadic diarrhea; from 51 (34.7%) of 147 samples of poultry meat; and from 15 out of 23 farm chicken samples. The proportion of C coli found among human (30.1%), poultry meat (56.9%), and farm chicken isolates (53.3%), was greater than the proportion of C jejuni. Fourteen and 24 PFGE genotypes were identified among 20 C coli and 37 C jejuni isolates, respectively. Identical PFGE genotypes were found in two cases of human and poultry meat isolates and two cases of poultry meat and farm chicken isolates. Conclusion Only a minority of human Campylobacter isolates shared identical PFGE type with poultry meat isolates. Although poultry is the source of a certain number of human infections, there may be other more important sources. Further research is required to identify the environmental reservoir of Campylobacter spp responsible for causing human disease and the reason for the high prevalence of C coli human infections in this region. PMID:18074419

  2. Minehound TM trials in Cambodia, Bosnia, and Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the trials of the MINEHOUND TM dual sensor, land mine detector carried out in Cambodia, Bosnia and Angola. MINEHOUND TM has been developed for use in humanitarian demining as a means of improving the efficiency of clearance operations. The trials were sponsored by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). ERA Technology Ltd conducted the trials, which were monitored by staff drawn from the countries participating in the International Test and Evaluation Programme (ITEP) for humanitarian de-mining. Experienced deminers from the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA) used the pre-production units in live minefields. The objectives of the trial were: 1. To record information on the performance of MINEHOUND TM when used in a live minefield. 2. To determine the reduction in False Alarm Rate (FAR) that could be achieved using a dual sensor mine detector. The trials were conducted in three mine-affected countries for a period of eight weeks per country; the programme of trials ran from July 2005 to December 2005, with an additional smaller trial in late February 2006. The results of the trials showed that MINEHOUND TM achieved 100% detection of the mines encountered and an improvement in FAR of better than 5:1 compared with a basic metal detector. The trials enabled optimisation of the production design and clearly demonstrated that new technology can be brought to humanitarian clearance operations in a safe and controlled manner. As a result of the highly successful trials, Vallon and ERA will produce the MINEHOUND TM (Type number VMR1) starting in Q3 of 2006.

  3. Characteristics of Travellers from Bosnia and Herzegovina to Africa

    PubMed Central

    Obradovic, Zarema; Obradovic, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction Travellers from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) travel to different world countries. The awareness of people is changing every day and nowadays travellers seek advices related to their travel and destination more often than before. In the previous years, travellers came to Travel Clinics almost only to get the vaccines which were obligatory for entry into a country. In B&H travel clinics are a part of public health institutes. The largest Travel Clinic which provides service for the highest number of travellers is in the Public Health Institute of Sarajevo Canton, in the city of Sarajevo, which is the capital of B&H. In the last years we have seen an increasing interest for travel to Africa because the highest number of travellers travel to African countries. Objective To show the characteristics of persons travelling to Africa, the reasons of their travel, the destination countries and the types of vaccines applied. Materials and methods We used protocol books of the Travel Clinic in Public Health Institute of Sarajevo Canton and the data from individual forms of travellers. Results Persons travelling to Africa make 55% of all travellers that are advised and vaccinated in the Travel Clinic in Public Health Institute of Sarajevo Canton. There are significantly more men than women among people travelling to Africa. The highest number of travellers is in the category of working population which means age group of 20-50 years. The most visited countries are Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia and Ghana. Travellers received the following vaccines: yellow fever, VHA, VHB, meningitis, tetanus. All travellers were given the advice on how to dress, feed and protect against malaria. PMID:24082834

  4. Environmental flow by-law developmment for Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucijak, Branko; Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Antonelli, Francesca

    2010-05-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present the results of the application of several methodologies for environmental flow assessment, in order to find appropriate one(s) to be used in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Several methods were tested, mostly belonging to the category of hydrological environmental flow assessment methods. Additionally, instream ecological values and critical parameters for environmental flow assessment were evaluated. Pilot areas were also assessed in terms of its geography, climate conditions, historic heritage of the river, demography, geology of the river and its tributaries, river hydrology and morphology, ecological characteristics, river pollution, river use and river management. The research highlited very important criteria for environmental flow evaluation are disregarded by the some of these methodologies, i.e. river ecology andr river morphology. As a consequence additional criteria were considered with the aim of preserving the river and riparian ecosystem. In the first phase of the project hydrological EF assessment method GEP (guaranteed ecological flow) was assessed in details and exercise carried out led to the conclusion that the GEP methodology provides some advantages, but also has remarkable disadvantages During next phase 4 selected methods of EF assessment were tested. Large difference was the cause of elimination for three of these methods for EF estimation. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of tested methods, MNQ approach was selected as the most acceptable method to use in BiH, still in need for important methodological improvements that are stressed. In case of protected areas or the presence of endangered and rare species, the holistic approach of EF assessment was proposed too and both of methods are part of drafted By-law on EF.

  5. Discourses of Integration and Practices of Reunification at the Mostar Gymnasium, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hromadzic, Azra

    2008-01-01

    The global politics of reconciliation provide a blueprint for postconflict reconstruction projects around the world, including in South Africa, Rwanda, Northern Ireland, and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Of these, the B&H case is of particular interest due to the extensive involvement of some of the world's most powerful states and leading…

  6. Ethnic Identity and Reconciliation: Two Main Tasks for the Young in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjort, Hanna; Frisen, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The saliency of ethnicity and ethnic identity is influenced by contextual circumstances. In Bosnia-Herzegovina, due to the current ethno-political situation, ethnicity and ethnic identity most likely are important aspects of adolescents' lives. The main purpose of this study is to describe a group of young Mostarians in relation to ethnic identity…

  7. Bosnia-Herzegovina's Higher Education System: Issues of Governance and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Welle-Strand, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH) is seen as an intriguing case. Often described as a "miniature" of the Balkans due to its demographic pattern, the country has been exposed to a number of dramatic events during the past fifteen years. Today, international actors administer it as a sort of "semi-protectorate" concept, the definition of which is unclear…

  8. Report on the Vocational Education and Training in Bosnia and Herzegovina. National Observatory Country Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabucar, Abdulah; Gakovic, Aleksandra; Hadrovic, Armin; Prohaska, Donald; Dokic, Gordana; Vlasic, Marija; Markotic, Mario; Mandic, Milena; Merlo, Mira; Praso, Murat; Jovic, Nebojsa; Leto, Ramiz; Sarajcic, Sahrudin; Mulac, Salih; Vlasic, Silvio; Numic, Suada; Licina, Svetozar; Gakovic, Vojislav

    The state of the vocational education and training (VET) system in Bosnia and Herzegovina was reviewed to identify needed changes in policy and practice. The analysis focused on the following topics: (1) existing socioeconomic conditions; (2) existing labor market policies and employment patterns, unemployment, and employability; (3) modernization…

  9. Protective Effects of Parental Monitoring on Offending in Victimized Youth in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, James K.; Mujanovic, Eldan; Winfree, L. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Empirical and conceptual literature in the United States and Western Europe provides robust evidence of victimization as a risk factor for juvenile offending and parental monitoring as a protective factor. The current study examines relationships among victimization, monitoring, and offending using a sample of youth from Bosnia and Herzegovina…

  10. Making Bosnia-Herzegovina Safe for Democracy: (With Some Help from the Kindergartens)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne L.

    2008-01-01

    More than a dozen years ago, meetings held in Dayton, Ohio sponsored by the Clinton administration brought to an end three years of intense conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Of all the many organizational attempts at community building and democratization since then, one of the most successful has been the adoption of elementary and secondary…

  11. Inclusive Education in Bulgaria and Bosnia and Herzegovina: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsokova, Diana; Becirevic, Majda

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines developments in inclusive education in Bulgaria (BG) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the context of actual and desired accession to the European Union respectively. It seeks to provide insights into the national special education traditions in these countries and aims to establish how these have influenced current…

  12. The War and Post-War Impact on the Educational System of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreso, Adila Pasalic

    2008-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), much like other eastern-European countries, has faced a brief period of transition from the socialist system to capitalism. However, this was interrupted in BiH by a brutal war lasting four years. Social systems and infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, including education, which was harnessed during the war to…

  13. Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memisevic, Haris; Hodzic, Saudin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the attitudes of teachers in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) towards educational inclusion of students with intellectual disability into regular classes. The sample for this study consisted of 194 elementary school teachers from eight schools in BiH. The attitudes of the teachers were measured by "The Attitudes…

  14. Consolidation of Science Education in Ethnically Divided Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šorgo, Andrej; Živkovic, Mate

    2015-01-01

    Because of war and civil war on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, education in ethnically divided country has become fragmented. Because of postwar divisions thirteen different ministries of education or similar bodies are responsible for education, resulting in inefficiency and low quality. To overcome differences, a committee of experts…

  15. Mental Health Consequences in Men Exposed to Sexual Abuse during the War in Croatia and Bosnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven; Hrabac, Pero

    2010-01-01

    In the research project on sexual abuse of men during the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, detailed information from 60 victims of such crimes was gathered. The aim of the research was to define key attributes of sexual abuse of men in war as well as consequences it had on the victims. A method of structured interview was used. Also, the…

  16. The Current Status of Religious Coexistence and Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. USIPeace Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebner, Renata

    2009-01-01

    Despite 15 years of sporadic efforts, religion today in Bosnia and Herzegovina is more of a hindrance than a help to promoting peaceful coexistence among the region's various ethnic and religious groups. Polarization and extremism make religions other than one's own even more distant, strange and threatening. Physical interaction that existed…

  17. Navigating a Divided Society: Educational Research Strategies for Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses methodological issues associated with education research in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and describes strategies taken to address them. Within a case study, mixed methods allowed the author to examine school leaders' perceptions multi-dimensionally. Multi-level analysis was essential to the understanding of policy-making…

  18. Forging Habsburg Muslim Girls: Gender, Education and Empire in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878-1918)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giomi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the entanglement of gender, education and empire in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Habsburg period throughout the analysis of a unique institution: Sarajevo's Muslim Female School. Established at the very end of the nineteenth century, this pedagogical institution was the only school in Austria-Hungary specifically devoted…

  19. Children's Understanding of the War in Iraq: Views from Britain and Bosnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ron; Becirevic, Majda; Baker, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-one children (aged 9-17) from the United Kingdom (31) and Bosnia (30) were interviewed about the war in Iraq. Significant differences emerged in their views of the war. The Bosnian children were more affected by the Iraq War, more aware of who is involved in it, had different views about its causes, viewed the consequences of the war with…

  20. Ideas and Problems Contained in the Astronomical Manuscripts Kept in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzibegovic, Zalkida

    2007-04-01

    This paper is a summary of dissertation research regarding the ideas and problems contained in the astronomical manuscripts written in the Arabic alphabet and in Oriental languages, which are kept in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main aim of this paper is to show the role and development of the astronomical ideas contained in the manuscripts and the methods explaining the highlighted problems. According to the analyzed manuscripts, ideas in Bosnian science were mainly influenced by Arabic-Islamic countries, while European influence was less important. Even in the time of Copernican heliocentric ideas, the old Arabic astronomy was still current in Bosnia and Herzegovina, primarily for satisfying religious needs of Muslims, such as prayer timekeeping and sacred direction location, by scientific methods.

  1. Mapping soil magnetic properties in Bosnia and Herzegovina for landmine clearance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, J. A.; Dearing, J. A.

    2008-10-01

    Electromagnetic properties of soils have negative impacts on metal detector performance during landmine clearance operations. In particular, topsoils with high concentrations of pedogenic viscous superparamagnetic minerals (magnetite/maghemite) as shown by high values of magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility limit the detector capability of identifying buried landmines. Thus a priori knowledge of the spatial extent of soils that may be problematic for landmine detection would aid strategic planning of clearance operations and ensure appropriate equipment is deployed. Here, we compare two approaches for estimating the broad magnetic properties of soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina: 1) an analogue approach, using data for magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility available for soil types from other temperate and Mediterranean regions; 2) magnetic measurements of a stratified sample of soil samples taken from the Bosnian National Soil Archive. The national soil magnetic maps produced estimate that the area of land inferred as problematic for metal detectors is 4% and 30% according to the analogue and measurement methods respectively. Combining soil type with soil parent material and climate explains the spatial variability of soil magnetic properties in terms of mechanisms of secondary ferrimagnetic mineral production and accumulation. The resulting maps indicate that the magnetic properties of dominant soils in northern Bosnia tend to be unproblematic for detectors, while in central Bosnia there is likely to be moderate detector interference. However, there is a high likelihood of dominant soils affecting detectors in southern and western Bosnia and Herzegovina, equivalent to ~ 30% of the total land area. The mapped outputs of susceptibility and frequency dependent susceptibility provide demining end-users with an indication of the likelihood of encountering problem soils in areas selected for clearance operations.

  2. War Experiences and General Health Among People in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen

    2016-02-01

    War experiences may have an extensive impact on the health status of the exposed populations. This population-based study aimed to examine the relationship between war experiences and self-reported general health in representative sample surveys from Bosnia-Herzegovina (n = 3,313) and Kosovo (n = 1,000). Data were collected with face-to-face interviews fielded in the winter of 2003-2004. Logistic regression analysis was used to compute unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs). The adjusted effects of the extensiveness of war experiences on poor health were positive in both countries, but they were statistically significant only for Bosnia-Herzegovina: OR = 1.04, 95% CI [1.00, 1.08] for Bosnia-Herzegovina and OR = 1.03, 95% CI [0.98, 1.09] for Kosovo. The strongest observed effect was found for Kosovo only: The extensiveness of war experiences was relatively strongly related to longstanding health problems, OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03, 1.15]. We found that war experiences may contribute to increased poorer health in the exposed populations; however, the effects 4-9 years after the war ended were modest. Hence, war experiences seemed to be more strongly related to war-related distress and posttraumatic stress disorder than to self-reported general health. PMID:26773795

  3. Haplotype data for 23 Y-chromosome markers in a reference sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Kovačević, Lejla; Fatur-Cerić, Vera; Hadžić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir

    2013-01-01

    Aim To detect polymorphisms of 23 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, including 6 new loci, in a reference database of male population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as to assess the importance of increasing the number of Y-STR loci utilized in forensic DNA analysis. Methods The reference sample consisted of 100 healthy, unrelated men originating from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sample collection using buccal swabs was performed in all geographical regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2010 to 2011. DNA samples were typed for 23 Y STR loci, including 6 new loci: DYS576, DYS481, DYS549, DYS533, DYS570, and DYS643, which are included in the new PowerPlex® Y 23 amplification kit. Results The absolute frequency of generated haplotypes was calculated and results showed that 98 samples had unique Y 23 haplotypes, and that only two samples shared the same haplotype. The most polymorphic locus was DYS418, with 14 detected alleles and the least polymorphic loci were DYS389I, DYS391, DYS437, and DYS393. Conclusion This study showed that by increasing the number of highly polymorphic Y STR markers, to include those tested in our analysis, leads to a reduction of repeating haplotypes, which is very important in the application of forensic DNA analysis. PMID:23771760

  4. Mobbing in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the member states of the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    Mobbing as a specific form of discrimination which applies only to the labor law, is a very young branch of labor law. It began to develop during the eighties of last century. This kind of psychoterror that appears in the workplace, was first spotted, formulated and diagnosed by the Swedish psychologist of German origin prof. Dr. Heinz Lejman (Heinz Leymann July 17, 1932.; Wolfenbuttel, Germany - 1999 Stockholm, Sweden). Today, the legal regulation of mobbing in terms of prevention, rules of behavior and sanctions is indispensable to every modern democratic state. I'll make a comparison of the legislative regulation provided by BiH with several European Union member states. I will compare the results of a survey conducted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Condition, during the year 2000. In the European Union Member States, with the results of the questionnaire for employees, which I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The conclusion I came to in this paper is: Bosnia and Herzegovina is lagging behind a lot of European Union member states, both in terms of prevention of mobbing, as well as legislation, that is insufficient to regulate this complex issue. Results of the questionnaire for the employees that I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina are devastating and alarming.

  5. Long-term summer sunshine/moisture stress reconstruction from tree-ring widths from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poljanšek, S.; Ceglar, A.; Levanič, T.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first summer sunshine reconstruction from tree-ring data for the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Summer sunshine is tightly connected with moisture stress in trees, because the moisture stress and therefore the width of annual tree-rings is under the influence of the direct and interactive effects of sunshine duration (temperature, precipitation, cloud cover and evapotranspiration). The reconstruction is based on a calibrated z-scored mean chronology, calculated from tree-ring width measurements from 7 representative black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) sites in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). A combined regression and scaling approach was used for the reconstruction of the summer sunshine. We found a significant negative correlation (r = -0.54, p < 0.0001) with mean June-July sunshine hours from Osijek meteorological station (Croatia). The developed model was used for reconstruction of summer sunshine for the time period 1660-2010. We identified extreme summer events and compared them to available documentary historical sources of drought, volcanic eruptions and other reconstructions from the broader region. All extreme summers with low sunshine hours (1712, 1810, 1815, 1843, 1899 and 1966) are connected with volcanic eruptions.

  6. The first report of Trichinella pseudospiralis presence in domestic swine and T. britovi in wild boar in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Santrac, Violeta; Nedic, Drago N; Maric, Jelena; Nikolic, Sonja; Stevanovic, Oliver; Vasilev, Sasa; Cvetkovic, Jelena; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana

    2015-09-01

    The Balkans is endemic for nematodes of the genus Trichinella in both domestic and wild animals. The high prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens in animals linked with the food habits to consume raw meat and meat derived products resulted in a very high prevalence of trichinellosis in humans living in this European region. In spite of numerous epidemiological investigations carried out in this region, very few information is available on the Trichinella species circulating in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Trichinella spp. larvae were isolated from a domestic pig reared in a backyard and from a hunted wild boar whose meat had been the source of trichinellosis in one case. Both Trichinella pseudospiralis and T. spiralis have been identified in the domestic pig, whereas, T. britovi was detected in the wild boar. While, T. spiralis is the Trichinella species most frequently detected in domestic pigs, T. pseudospiralis has been previously documented in domestic pigs only three times in Russia, Slovakia and Croatia. The detection of T. britovi in the wild boar confirms that this nematode is the most frequent species circulating among wildlife of Europe. PMID:26204186

  7. Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, N.; da Sousa, C. P.; Paredes, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries. DESIGN--A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of land mines from the same communities. SETTING--206 communities, 37 in Afghanistan, 66 in Bosnia, 38 in Cambodia, and 65 in Mozambique. SUBJECTS--174,489 people living in 32,904 households in the selected communities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Effects of land mines on food security, residence, livestock, and land use; risk factors: extent of individual land mine injuries; physical, psychological, social, and economic costs of injuries during medical care and rehabilitation. RESULTS--Between 25% and 87% of households had daily activities affected by land mines. Based on expected production without the mines, agricultural production could increase by 88-200% in different regions of Afghanistan, 11% in Bosnia, 135% in Cambodia, and 3.6% in Mozambique. A total of 54,554 animals was lost because of land mines, with a minimum cash value of $6.5m, or nearly $200 per household. Overall, 6% of households (1964) reported a land mine victim; a third of victims died in the blast. One in 10 of the victims was a child. The most frequent activities associated with land mine incidents were agricultural or pastoral, except in Bosnia where more than half resulted from military activities, usually during patrols. Incidences have more than doubled between 1980-3 and 1990-3, excluding the incidents in Bosnia. Some 22% of victims (455/2100) were from households reporting attempts to remove land mines; in these households there was a greatly increased risk of injury (odds ratio 4.2 and risk difference 19% across the four countries). Lethality of the mines varied; in Bosnia each blast killed an average of 0.54 people and injured 1.4, whereas in Mozambique each blast

  8. Concentration and characteristics of depleted uranium in biological and water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guogang; Belli, Maria; Sansone, Umberto; Rosamilia, Silvia; Gaudino, Stefania

    2006-01-01

    During Balkan conflicts in 1994-1995, depleted uranium (DU) ordnance was employed and was left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of the environment with DU penetrators and dust. In order to evaluate the impact of DU on the environment and population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, radiological survey of DU in biological and water samples were carried out over the period 12-24 October 2002. The uranium isotopic concentrations in biological samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly lichens, mosses and barks, were found to be in the range of 0.27-35.7 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 0.24-16.8 Bq kg(-1) for (234)U, and 0.02-1.11 Bq kg(-1) for (235)U, showing uranium levels to be higher than in the samples collected at the control site. Moreover, the (236)U in some of the samples was detectable. The isotopic ratios of (234)U/(238)U showed DU to be detectable in many biological samples at most sites examined, but in very low levels. The presence of DU in the biological samples was as a result of DU contamination in air. The uranium concentrations in water samples collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina were found to be in the range of 0.27-16.2 m Bq l(-1) for (238)U, 0.41-15.6 m Bq l(-1) for (234)U and 0.012-0.695 m Bq l(-1) for (235)U, and two water samples were observed to be DU positive; these values are much lower than those in mineral water found in central Italy and below the WHO guideline for public drinking water. From radiotoxicological point of view, at this moment there is no significant radiological risk related to these investigated sites in terms of possible DU contamination of water and/or plants. PMID:16806612

  9. Whole Genome Sequence of the Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum Strain Bosnia A: The Genome Is Related to Yaws Treponemes but Contains Few Loci Similar to Syphilis Treponemes

    PubMed Central

    Zobaníková, Marie; Čejková, Darina; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Chen, Lei; Giacani, Lorenzo; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

    2014-01-01

    Background T. pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN) is the causative agent of bejel (also known as endemic syphilis). Clinical symptoms of syphilis and bejel are overlapping and the epidemiological context is important for correct diagnosis of both diseases. In contrast to syphilis, caused by T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), TEN infections are usually spread by direct contact or contaminated utensils rather than by sexual contact. Bejel is most often seen in western Africa and in the Middle East. The strain Bosnia A was isolated in 1950 in Bosnia, southern Europe. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete genome of the Bosnia A strain was amplified and sequenced using the pooled segment genome sequencing (PSGS) method and a combination of three next-generation sequencing techniques (SOLiD, Roche 454, and Illumina). Using this approach, a total combined average genome coverage of 513× was achieved. The size of the Bosnia A genome was found to be 1,137,653 bp, i.e. 1.6–2.8 kbp shorter than any previously published genomes of uncultivable pathogenic treponemes. Conserved gene synteny was found in the Bosnia A genome compared to other sequenced syphilis and yaws treponemes. The TEN Bosnia A genome was distinct but very similar to the genome of yaws-causing T. pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) strains. Interestingly, the TEN Bosnia A genome was found to contain several sequences, which so far, have been uniquely identified only in syphilis treponemes. Conclusions/Significance The genome of TEN Bosnia A contains several sequences thought to be unique to TPA strains; these sequences very likely represent remnants of recombination events during the evolution of TEN treponemes. This finding emphasizes a possible role of repeated horizontal gene transfer between treponemal subspecies in shaping the Bosnia A genome. PMID:25375929

  10. Long term January-March and May-August temperature reconstructions from tree-ring records from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poljanšek, S.; Ceglar, A.; Levanič, T.

    2012-09-01

    We present the first spring and summer temperature reconstruction for the north-western part of the Balkan Peninsula. The reconstruction is based on tree-ring width measurements from 7 representative black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) sites in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). We found a significant, positive influence of above-average January-March temperatures on 4 sites (Blace, Peručica, Šator, Konjuh) and a negative influence of above-average May-August temperatures and a positive relationship with an above-average sum of May-August precipitation on tree-ring width formation from 3 sites (Krivaja, Prusac, Šipovo). A 31-yr running correlation between temperature and precipitation of the May-August period and tree-ring indices gave a stable relationship between 1901 and the 1960s, after which values of correlation coefficients decrease to the level of significance. A change in summer cyclones in the central part of the Adriatic Sea is presented as a possible cause of the divergence with the climate signal. In the period of calibration and verification of the linear model for the group of 3 sites (Krivaja, Prusac, Šipovo), the best relationship was found between tree-ring indices and mean May-August temperatures of the current year. For the group of 4 sites (Blace, Peručica, Šator, Konjuh), the relationship between tree-ring indices and mean January-March temperatures of the current year is the strongest. The developed models were used for reconstruction of May-August temperatures for BiH for the period 1701-1901 and January-March temperatures for the period 1685-1901. Using the method of percentiles (85th and 15th) we identified extreme hot/cool summers and warm/cold springs and compared them to available documentary historical sources and other reconstructions from the broader region.

  11. Treatment of addicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina--constraints and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mehić-Basara, Nermana; Cerić, Ismet

    2012-10-01

    Chronology of important historical events in Bosnia and Herzegovina during past two centuries indirectly influenced the incidence and prevalence of different psychoactive substances use and thus the organization of services for the treatment of persons who develop addiction symptoms. The organization of health system in the last war, 1992-1995, suffered enormous damage and the reform process which inevitably followed, included the area of mental health care services and the establishment of network of centers for mental health in the community (CMHC). The centers are functioning within the primary health care almost in whole country, with specialized centers for the prevention and treatment of addicts and the therapeutic communities, which today represents the basic organizational units to help people who have drug related issues. In this paper we will present the possibility of treatment of drug addicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from consulting services, psycho-education and early detection of disease, detoxification and substitution programs with Methadone and Suboxone, as well as programs of rehabilitation and resocialization. Although a very complicated political and administrative structure of the country, insufficient financial support, pronounced stigmatization of addicts, insufficient staffing and number of treatment centers are objective obstacles for progress in treatment of addicts, we believe that, with existing resources, these constraints can be converted into new opportunities in terms of improvement of treatment options in the future. PMID:23114823

  12. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a potential reservoir host of cardiorespiratory parasites in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Hodžić, Adnan; Alić, Amer; Klebić, Ismar; Kadrić, Mirsad; Brianti, Emanuele; Duscher, Georg Gerhard

    2016-06-15

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered as reservoir of different cardiorespiratory parasites of veterinary and medical importance. Since data on cardiorespiratory parasites in foxes in Bosnia and Herzegovina are still lacking, the aims of the present study were to (i) investigate the prevalence and geographical distribution of these parasites, (ii) determine genetic diversity of detected parasite species, and (iii) to estimate the role of foxes in the transmission cycle to companion animals and humans. Four species, morphologically and molecularly identified as Eucoleus boehmi (64.6%; 51/79), Eucoleus aerophilus (69.7%; 154/221), Crenosoma vulpis (45.7%; 101/221) and Linguatula serrata (1.3%; 1/79) were retrieved from nasal cavity and lungs in 184 (83.3%) animals. The occurrence of heartworms, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis was not detected by necropsy or PCR. Furthermore, three distinct haplotypes of E. aerophilus (I, III, XV) and two of C. vulpis (I, II) previously reported in pet animals and wild carnivores were confirmed in this study. A new haplotype of C. vulpis (designated as haplotype V) was also identified based on 12S rRNA gene for the first time. The present study indicates a high prevalence and wide distribution of nasal and lung nematodes in fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and supports the existence of transmission patterns between wildlife and pet animals. PMID:27198779

  13. Predictors of barriers to mental health treatment for Kosovo and Bosnia peacekeepers: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Maguen, Shira; Litz, Brett T

    2006-05-01

    In this study, we assessed basic, physical, and mental health needs of peacekeepers; determined barriers to mental health treatment; and examined predictors of barriers to mental health care. Active duty peacekeepers were surveyed before and after their deployment to Kosovo (n = 203) concerning their stress symptoms and attitudes about seeking mental health care after peacekeeping. Sixty-five peacekeepers were evaluated before and after their peacekeeping deployment to Bosnia. Upon returning from their mission, between 5% and 9% of Kosovo and Bosnia peacekeepers reported needing help for anger or hostility, depression, or deployment-related stress. The most frequently endorsed barrier was concern about the personal cost of mental health care. Among Kosovo peacekeepers, pre- and postdeployment post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were the most robust predictors of mental health treatment barriers. Peacekeepers report a number of treatment needs and barriers that could prevent them from receiving care. The soldiers most in need of services are also those who report the most barriers to care. PMID:16761899

  14. Psychological symptoms among workers employed in companies undergoing privatization in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin; Hodzić, Medin; Selimbasić, Zihnet

    2011-12-01

    In Central and Eastern European countries, after abandoning communism, significant political, economic and social changes occurred, followed by the increase in income inequality and social disparity. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological symptoms and monthly income of employees in companies undergoing privatization. The study included 258 workers from seven companies undergoing privatization in the Tuzla Canton region. For the study purposes, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and a general questionnaire with questions about socio-demographic characteristics, income, and workplace, were used. Monthly income of the majority of workers (207 or 80.2%) was below the monthly income in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Workers with salaries below the average salary for Bosnia and Herzegovina have pronounced somatization, anxiety, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity and hostility. The BSI scale yielded significant negative correlation between the level of monthly salary and the expression of psychological symptoms (r = -0.184, p = 0.002) and between the level of family income and the expression of psychological symptoms (r = -0.123, p = 0.024). Based on the study results, it was determined that socio-economic factors such as the level of salary and total family income and job insecurity, educational level, marital status and gender may be predictors of psychological symptoms. PMID:22397229

  15. Participatory Imaging Mapping of Cultural Heritage Across Internal Borders Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzic, L.; Dzino-Suta, A.; Eppich, R.; Vezic, A.; Izkara Martinez, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995) cultural heritage was explicitly targeted and the state of destruction was extensive to both sacral and secular monuments. Two decades after the end of hostilities the perception of the historic environment is still defined from the angles of national, religious or ethnic belonging. Enabling recognition, reconciliation, tolerance and respect within the community of Stolac, Bosnia & Herzegovina through a better understanding and sharing of cultural heritage was the focus of this project. Stolac is representative of the problems in the region and stands out for its particularly sharp divisions. Until recently there was segregation with local schools and their curriculum was divided with cultural heritage generally not addressed. How can this small community engage with heritage and develop a dialogue that encourages tolerance, respect and as a base for development? How does one understand, then document areas significance to the community? Finally, how can technology assist? The focus of this paper is to relate the experiences and findings of a project that incorporated participatory imaging mapping and the use of technology to bridge between the internal borders of this small community. It will outline a methodology, experiences of the participants and results from their exercises in order to assist other communities facing similar issues.

  16. The politics of NGO registration in international protectorates: the cases of Bosnia and Iraq.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Matthew; Jeffrey, Alex

    2008-12-01

    Following international interventions in Bosnia-Herzegovina(1) and Iraq, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have played a central role in delivering humanitarian relief, encouraging participation in new systems of government, and advocating on behalf of marginalised groups. Although intervening agencies have framed such autonomous organisations as unquestionably virtuous, scholars have increasingly questioned the agency of NGOs, pointing to the constraining effects of funding and regulatory mechanisms. This paper contributes to this body of work by offering a detailed examination of legislation requiring NGOs to register with nascent state institutions. Drawing on case study material from Bosnia and Iraq, it argues that NGO registration should not be dismissed as a technical or legal matter, but that it should be embraced as a significant political practice embedded in relations of power. Registration legislation has increased the transparency of NGO funding origins and institutional practices, yet it has simultaneously acted as a barrier to smaller organisations and led to the transmission of international objectives through civil society entities. PMID:18479474

  17. Walking to Medjugorje: Serving Children Who Are Deaf and Hard-of- Hearing in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the experiences of an American team who worked with the Bosnia Speech and Hearing Project. The team collaborated with Bosnian teachers of children with deafness and speech-language pathologists in to share therapy ideas and model strategies that parents could utilize to promote speech and language development. (Author/CR)

  18. How to Deal with a Difficult Past? History Textbooks Supporting Enemy Images in Post-War Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torsti, Pilvi

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the national division of history teaching in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the war and post-war period. The process of division of schooling into three curricula (Bosnian Serb, Bosnian Croat, and Bosniak) is presented. Representations of other national groups are central in 8th-grade history textbooks used by the three national…

  19. English Language and Literature in the Post-War Bosnia and Herzegovina: Challenges and Experiences of a Transcultural Academic Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an account of the author's firsthand experiences between 2006 and 2010, relating to his involvement in the establishment of the English Language and Literature department at the International University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and of the difficulties and challenges of the venture in the post-war country, whose…

  20. When Corruption Gets in the Way: Befriending Diaspora and EU-nionizing Bosnia's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabic-El-Rayess, Amra

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the encounter of EU-unionization with a domesticated practice of corruption in Bosnian higher education. Relying on primary data collected in Bosnia's public higher education system, the study finds that the country's corrupt higher education is in conflict with the Bologna-themed reforms that would arguably…

  1. Scientometric Analysis of the Journals of the Academy of Medical Sciences in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Currently in Bosnia and Herzegovina there are 25 journals in the field of biomedicine, 6 of them are indexed in Medline/PubMed base (Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica, Acta Informatica Medica, Acta Medica Academica, Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Glasnik), and one (BJBMS) is indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base. Aim: The aim of this study was to show the scope of work of the journals that were published by Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica. Material and Methods: The research presents a meta-analysis of three journals, or their issues, during the calendar year 2015 (retrospective and descriptive character). Results: During 2015 calendar year a total of 286 articles were published (in Medical Archives 104 (36.3%), in Materia Socio-Medica 99 (34.6%), and in Acta Informatica Medica 83 (29%)). Original articles are present in the highest number in all three journals (in Medical Archives 80.7%, in Materia Socio Medica 77.7%, and in Acta Informatica Medica 68.6%). In Medical Archives, 90.3% of the articles were related to the field of clinical medicine. In Materia Socio-Medica, the domain of clinical medicine and public health was the most represented. Preclinical areas are most frequent in Acta Informatica Medica. The period of 50-60 days for a decision on the admission of article is most common in all three journals, with trend of shortening of that period. Articles came from 19 countries, mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, then from Iran, Kosovo, Saudi Arabia and Greece. Conclusion: In Medical Archives original articles in the field of clinical medicine (usually internal and surgical disciplines) are most often present, and that is the case in last four years. The number of articles in Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica is growing from year to year. In Materia Socio-Medica there is a

  2. E-Health in Bosnia - Starting from the Ground-Up

    PubMed Central

    Sabanovic, Zekerijah; Masic, Izet; Salihefendic, Nizama; Zildzic, Muharem; Zunic, Lejla; Dedovic, Samir

    2009-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED PAPERAIM SUMMARY. The development of the digital Information Communication Technology (ICT) has definitely changed healthcare system in all its areas. The development of standardized electronic medical record (EMR) make possible other forms of E-Health like transmural care, telemedicine etc. In this paper was described Health Information System (HIS) of Tuzla Canton and Brčko DC (whose citizens gravitate toward Tuzla Clinical Center). Tuzla Clinical Center is the only Clinic for tertiary healthcare in this region. To estimate level and types of the HIS, telecommunications and information management we have designed questionnaire. Based on this research we have presented current state of E-Health in Canton and the most important problems in this area. Also, based on this research and our experiences, we have identified the main directions of the HIS development, its standardization and integration as the base for E-Heath in Bosnia. PMID:24109160

  3. Follow-up study of concentration camp survivors from Bosnia-Herzegovina: three years later.

    PubMed

    Drozdek, B

    1997-11-01

    Concentration camp survivors from Bosnia-Herzegovina, now refugees in the Netherlands, were given early outpatient treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for 6 months. They were tested with the Watson Questionnaire before entering therapy, after 6 months and 3 years later when a structured interview designed to obtain information on psychosocial status was administered. Data were analyzed with PCA-STAT 1.1 statistical package. The treatment was effective on a short-term basis with some long-term effects. Elderly people were no more vulnerable to the onset of PTSD than younger ones but were more resistant to therapy. Psychosocial factors had neither protective nor risk value for the development of PTSD in this group. PMID:9368546

  4. The level of tetanus immunity in the population of villages in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Byčenko, B.; Grin, E.; Matveev, K. I.; Cvjetanović, B.; Vorst, E. A.; Stroganova, M.

    1971-01-01

    Determination of the level of tetanus immunity in different age groups of a population is important in relation to the results of mass immunization of the population with vaccines containing tetanus toxoid. In this study, the level of tetanus antitoxin in sera from 1053 inhabitants of 6 villages in Bosnia and Herzegovina was determined by means of the passive haemagglutination test. The results show that children from 1 to 14 years of age regularly immunized with DT and DTP vaccines possessed a high level of immunity against tetanus (geometric mean antitoxin titre ≥0.8 IU/ml) and were protected against tetanus in 80-95% of cases. The adult inhabitants (men and women over 29 years of age) were not sufficiently protected against tetanus, the concentrations of antitoxin in their sera being equal to or greater than 0.01 IU/ml in less than 50% of cases. PMID:5317081

  5. Mobbing, Stress, and Work Ability Index among Physicians in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Pranjić, Nurka; Maleš-Bilić, Ljiljana; Beganlić, Azijada; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess the frequency of reported mobbing and the association among mobbing, working environment factors, stress, health outcome, personality type, and work ability index in a sample of physicians in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Method We conducted a questionnaire survey using a validated self-reported questionnaire among 511 physicians in national health sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The questions covered five major categories of mobbing behavior. Characteristics of the work, perceived work environment and its effects, stress, health, and satisfaction with work and life were assessed by the standardized abridged form of Occupational Stress Questionnaire (OSQ). A standardized questionnaire Work Ability Index (WAI) was used to determine the relation between mobbing and work ability. Results Of 511 surveyed physicians, 387 (76%) physicians self-reported mobbing behavior in the working environment and 136 (26%) was exposed to persistent mobbing. More than a half of the physicians experienced threats to their professional status and almost a half felt isolated. Logistic regression analysis showed that lack of motivation, loss of self-esteem, loss of confidence, fatigue, and depressiveness were significantly associated with lack of support from colleagues. Intention to leave work was associated with lack of support from colleagues (OR 2.3, 95% CI, 1.065-3.535, t = 4.296, P = 0.003) and lack of support from superiors (OR 1.526, 95% CI, 0.976-2.076, t = 5.753; P = 0.001). Isolation or exclusion and threats to professional status were predictors for mental health symptoms. Persistent mobbing experience was a significant predictor for sick leave. Conclusion Exposure to persistent threat to professional status and isolation or exclusion as forms of mobbing are associated with mental health disturbances and lack of self-esteem and confidence. Setting up a system of support for physicians exposed to mobbing may have important benefits. PMID:17042067

  6. Analysis of landslides triggered in 2010 in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegowina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumic, Edin; Glade, Thomas; Hasel, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    In many countries in the world, landslide information is sparsely available. This is also the case in Tuzla in Bosnia and Herzegowina, although landslides cause regularly significant damage and occur widespread in different catchments. Therefore, this research aims to summarize all available landslide information in the Tuzla region for a sequence of rainstorms in 2010, to analyse the trigger conditions, to investigate the damages and to examine the anthropogenic cause for the landslide initiation. Numerous interviews have been carried out with responsible institutions but also affected population. In addition, the accessible local archives have been investigated. The results show that severe consequences from landslide occurrence on the population are often due to illegal construction of houses. The geological setting and the regolith are clearly predisposing factors, however, the human modifications alter the landslide process significantly. The spatial distribution of landslides and their geophysical properties are analysed and displayed within a GIS. By applying the Intensity-Duration rainfall model it was determined that in the area of the Tuzla landslides, the triggering conditions are reached by 72 hours precipitation conditions with an average intensity of 1.42 mm/h, however, ranging between 0.5 and 20 mm/h in shorter periods. Furthermore, the landslide initiation is clearly highly influenced by anthropogenic factors such as mining, deforestation and slope cutting. These results demonstrate, that a sound and through analysis of landslides in this area, but also throughout Bosnia and Herzegowina would be necessary in order to protect the society from the intense negative consequences.

  7. Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Klarin, Mira; Pororoković, Ana; Šašić, Slavica Šimić; Arnaudova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self

  8. Ten years of monitoring the occupational radiation exposure in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Basić, B; Beganović, A; Samek, D; Skopljak-Beganović, A; Gazdić-Santić, M

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of occupationally exposed persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina started in 1960s and it was interrupted in 1992. Dosimetry service resumed in 1999 when the International Atomic Energy Agency provided Harshaw 4500 TLD-reader and the first set of TLDs for the Radiation Protection Centre (RPC) of the Institute of Public Health of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In January 2009, the RPC covered 1279 professionals with personal dosimetry, which is more than 70 % of all radiation workers in the country. Most of the TLD users work in medical institutions. In period 1999-2003 RPC provided 984 workers with dosemeters. In the next 5 y period (2004-2008), the number of persons covered by dosimetry increased by an average of 51 %. The mean and collective effective dose in the period 1999-2003 were 1.55 mSv and 1.54 personSv, respectively. In the period 2004-2008, the mean doses changed by 1 % on average, but the collective effective dose increased by 53 % for all practices. Mean and collective effective dose were 1.57 mSv and 2.34 personSv, respectively. The highest personal doses are associated with industrial radiography, than exposures in nuclear medicine. Radiology plays a significant role in collective dose only, whereas other exposures are low. Results correspond to results found in the literature. New practices in industry and medicine emphasise the need for more personal dosemeters, as well as specialised dosemeters for extremities monitoring, etc. PMID:20150230

  9. Bullying Among School Children in Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Černi Obrdalj, Edita; Rumboldt, Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare the prevalence and characteristics of bullying between two towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina – Stolac, which was exposed to firearm conflict during the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Posušje, which was not. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we included 484 primary school pupils attending 4th-8th grade of elementary school, 217 (44.8%) of them from Stolac and 267 (55.2%) from Posušje. The pupils were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire on the experience of bullying. Results Every sixth student (16.4%) experienced at least one form of bullying almost every day, while 34 (7.0%) of pupils constantly bullied other children. Sixth-eighth graders were more often bullies than 4th-5th graders (P = 0.044). Girls were most often victims of bullying, while boys were most often bullies (P = 0.036). The expected difference in bullying between the two towns was not observed, except for older pupils in Posušje, who were more violent than their peers in Stolac (P = 0.044). Among the analyzed variables of sex, age, town, and school achievement, only male sex was significant predictor of bullying (P = 0.010), increasing the relative risk by 3.005 times. Conclusion Bullying among primary school pupils did not differ between areas that experienced war activities in 1992-1995. Our results could be useful in the introduction of specific prevention measures against bullying in postwar situation. PMID:18717000

  10. UTILISATION ANALYSIS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA FOR THE TIME-PERIOD 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Selmanovic, Kenan; Zec, Svjetlana Loga; Vanis, Nenad; Zecevic, Lamija; Setkic, Manja; Rasic, Azra; Zerem, Enver

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Expenditures for drugs are increasingly burdening already insufficient funds for health protection. This is especially evident in less developed European countries such as Bosnia and Herzegovina. The question is whether such analyses can help save funds for financing treatment for diseases, with an emphasis on a more rational choice of drug for appropriate indication, whereby clinical complications of hypertension would be prevented and patients would have quality of their lives improved. Aim: Focus of research has been set on analysis of use of antihypertensive drugs in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the time-period January 2013–March 2015. Use of all drugs for treatment of hypertension in that time-period in the country has been shown in an unbiased manner. Methods: The study is designed as retrospective-prospective comparative research of use of antihypertensive drugs in BiH in a certain time-period. Data are collected from relevant drug utilisation database which has been established in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2013. Results: We have calculated financial expenditure for prescribed antihypertensives in the time- period of 2013, 2014 and Q1 2015. Use of antihypertensives at the country level for this time-period is BAM 200,242,218. At the country level, physicians are most often opting for combination therapy: ACE inhibitors + diuretics (20.2%) and ACE inhibitors + Ca channel antagonists (18.0%). Conclusion: In this research, it has been shown that modern drugs are used for treatment of hypertension in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These drugs are used in the same order as they are prescribed in developed countries. PMID:27147917

  11. Genetic analysis of haplotype data for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat loci in the Turkish population recently settled in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Serkan; Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Aim To explore the distribution and polymorphisms of 23 short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the Y chromosome in the Turkish population recently settled in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and to investigate its genetic relationships with the homeland Turkish population and neighboring populations. Methods This study included 100 healthy unrelated male individuals from the Turkish population living in Sarajevo. Buccal swab samples were collected as a DNA source. Genomic DNA was extracted using the salting out method and amplification was performed using PowerPlex Y 23 amplification kit. The studied population was compared to other populations using pairwise genetic distances, which were represented with a multi-dimensional scaling plot. Results Haplotype and allele frequencies of the sample population were calculated and the results showed that all 100 samples had unique haplotypes. The most polymorphic locus was DYS458, and the least polymorphic DYS391. The observed haplotype diversity was 1.0000 ± 0.0014, with a discrimination capacity of 1.00 and the match probability of 0.01. Rst values showed that our sample population was closely related in both dimensions to the Lebanese and Iraqi populations, while it was more distant from Bosnian, Croatian, and Macedonian populations. Conclusion Turkish population residing in Sarajevo could be observed as a representative Turkish population, since our results were consistent with those previously published for the homeland Turkish population. Also, this study once again proved that geographically close populations were genetically more related to each other. PMID:25358886

  12. Urinary system birth defects in surgically treated infants in Sarajevo region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Alicelebić, Selma; Kapić, Dina; Mornjaković, Zakira

    2008-05-01

    Congenital anomalies of the urinary system are relatively common anomalies. In Bosnia and Herzegovina there is no existent unique evidence of congenital anomalies and registries. The aim of this study was to obtain the frequency of different urinary tract anomalies types and their sex distribution among cases hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the period from January 2002 to December 2006. Retrospective study was carried out on the basis of clinical records. Standard methods of descriptive statistics were performed for the data analysis. Among 289 patients that were surgically treated 62,37% of the patients were male patients, while 37,63% were female patients. Twenty nine different urinary system anomalies types were found in this study. These were: vesicoureteral reflux (99 cases or 30,75%), hypospadias (62 cases or 19,26%), pelviureteric junction obstruction (42 cases or 13,04%), megaureter (35 cases or 10,87%), duplex pelvis and ureter (16 cases or 4,97%), bladder diverticulum (8 cases or 2,48%), ureterocoele (7 cases or 2,17%), stenosis of the external urethral opening (6 cases or 1,86%), ectopic kidney, duplex kidney and pelvis (each 5 cases or 1,55%), polycystic kidneys and urethral stricture (each 4 cases or 1,24%), multicystic kidney (3 cases or 0,93%), kidney agenesis, ureter agenesis, urethral diverticulum, ectopic ureter, horseshoe kidney and fetal kidney (each 2 cases or 0,62%), renal aplasia, urethral atresia, renal cyst, urachal cyst, epispadias, bladder exstrophy, renal hypoplasia, renal malrotation and Prune-Belly syndrome (each 1 case or 0,31%). According to this study, urinary tract anomalies were more common in male than in female patients (62,37%). Generally, the most frequent anomaly type was vesicoureteral reflux in total number of 99 cases, and in females (66 cases), but hypospadias was the most common anomaly in males (62 cases). The anomalies of

  13. "If They Don't Start Listening to Us, the Future Is Going to Look the Same as the Past": Young People and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Clare; Hamber, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This article, based on empirical research from Northern Ireland and Bosnia and Herzegovina, explores how young people conceptualize reconciliation and examines the meaning this concept holds for them. Qualitative data are collected through one-to-one interviews with young people aged 16 to 18 living in Northern Ireland (N = 15) and Bosnia and…

  14. Heavy metal concentration in fish tissues inhabiting waters of "Busko Blato" reservoir (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Kralik, Gordana; Bogut, Stjepan; Horvatić, Janja; Cacić, Milan; Cacić, Ivan

    2008-09-01

    Heavy metals concentration (mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, zinc and chromium) in tissues (muscles, liver, kidney and gonads) of Dalmatian barbelgudgeon, the nase, the souffie and brown trout, inhabiting waters of Busko Blato reservoir in Bosnia and Herzegovina, has been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The meat of the tested fish sorts does not contain elevated concentration of most analyzed heavy metals with exception of lead (higher than MAC in Italy, Germany and Denmark) and mercury (in muscles of brown trout higher than MAC in most countries). The lowest level of all heavy metals is always detected in gonads, with higher values in fry compared to milt for copper, zinc, chromium and arsenic. The highest copper concentration is observed in the liver from the souffie which is suggested as a suitable biomonitor for copper intoxication. In muscles of all fish sorts, lead was always present in much higher concentration than cadmium, while in kidneys of most fish sorts, lead and cadmium concentrations were similar. We showed that bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in the fish sorts analyzed is tissue and sex dependent. Also, we concluded that the small water exchange in reversible shallow reservoir does not induce elevated concentration of heavy metals in fish tissues inhabiting Busko Blato. PMID:17342437

  15. Renalase Gene rs2576178 Polymorphism in Hemodialysis Patients: Study in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Kiseljakovic, Emina; Mackic-Djurovic, Mirela; Hasic, Sabaheta; Beciragic, Amela; Valjevac, Amina; Alic, Lejla; Resic, Halima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Renalase is a protein secreted in kidneys and considered as a blood pressure modulator. High rates of hypertension and its regulation in patients on hemodialysis demands search for potential cause and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the genotype and allele frequencies of renalase gene rs2576178 polymorphism in population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Also, the objective of present study was to find the possible association between renalase gene rs2576178 polymorphism and hypertension in patients on hemodialysis. Material and Methods: The genotype of renalase gene rs2576178 polymorphism was determined in 137 participants (100 patients on hemodialysis and 37 controls), using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent cleavage with MspI restriction endonuclease. Genotype and allele frequencies were assessed for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using a Chi-squared test. The value of P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Comparison of genotype distribution and allele frequency in participants on hemodialysis with and without hypertension, and healthy control showed no statistical difference. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that renalase gene rs2576178 polymorphism is not a factor that influences blood pressure in patients on hemodialysis. PMID:26980928

  16. Care providers' needs and perspectives on suffering and care in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Laura; Mollica, Richard F; Douglas Kelley, Susan; Tor, Svang; Halilovic, Majda

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to obtain insight into field-level care providers' views on suffering and healing as well as existing obstacles and needs related to providing care to their clients. This research provides a "snapshot" for a better understanding of existing care systems in two post-conflict settings. By identifying existing approaches to care and the needs of the care provider community, this research might be useful in guiding psychosocial assistance programming in post-conflict settings. Utilizing a semi-structured questionnaire, 45 care providers were interviewed, including local health care practitioners, traditional/ spiritual healers, and humanitarian relief workers, in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cambodia. This study found that the majority of care providers in both settings perceived poverty and violence as significant causes and consequences of human suffering and, at the same time, felt ill-equipped in addressing these issues and related problems. Other issues that hindered these healers in providing care included: limited government/institutional support; lack of training; material resources and funding. Study findings point to a new framework for developing effective interventions and the need for further emphasis on supporting care providers in their work, and most specifically, in identifying and responding to poverty and violence. PMID:23331393

  17. Acute tonsillopharyngitis in a family practice in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Budimir, Danijela; Curić, Ivo; Curić, Snjezana

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of acute tonsillopharyngitis diagnosis and treatment in the family care physicians in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina. All patients diagnosed with acute tonsillopharyngitis in the Center of Family Medicine in Mostar in 2005 and 2006 were included in this study. Data were collected from medical records, including age and sex, month in which they visited their physician, symptoms and signs that they had (McIsaac's clinical score was calculated accordingly) and treatment. Results showed that there were no gender differences regarding diagnosis. Mean age was 32.6 +/- 16.9 years. The most patients were recorded during the January-March period. Total of 65.6% patients received antibiotic treatment. Phenoxymethylpenicillin, considered as the recommended antibiotic was used in 46.3% cases only. In conclusion, this first critical assessment of the existing family practice records on treating patients with tonsillopharyngitis suggested that physicians have to be more critical when treating patients with this diagnosis and that the knowledge and treatment of patients with pharyngitis need to be continuously improved in general medical practice. PMID:19408639

  18. Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Variations in the Atmosphere of Srednja Bijambarska Cave, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanolo, Simone; Gabrovšek, Franci

    2009-06-01

    The results of one year’s monitoring in Srednja Bijambarska Cave (Bosnia and Herzegovina) are presented and discussed. Temporal variations of the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration are controlled by the switching between two ventilation regimes driven by outside temperature changes. A regression model with a simple perfectly mixed volume applied to a cave sector (“Music hall”) resulted in an estimate of ventilation rates between 0.02 h-1 and 0.54 h-1. Carbon dioxide input per plan surface unit is estimated by the model at around 50 × 10-6 mh-1 during the winter season and up to more than 1000 × 10-6 mh-1 during the first temperature falls at the end of summer (0.62 μmoles m-2 s-1 and 12.40 μmoles m-2 s-1 for normal conditions respectively). These values have been found to be related to the cave ventilation rate and dependent on the availability of CO2 in the surrounding environment. For airflow close to zero the values of CO2 input per plan surface have a range in the order of magnitude of a few units × 10-6 mh-1. Based on two experiments, the anthropogenic contribution from cave visitors has been calculated, at between 0.35 lCO2 min-1 person-1 and 0.45 lCO2min-1person-1.

  19. Monitoring ground subsidence induced by salt mining in the city of Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, F.; Stecchi, F.; Zanni, M.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-07-01

    Salt mining induced ground subsidence is a major hazard in the city of Tuzla (Northeastern sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina) and its surroundings since 1950, when solution mining of salt deposits by boreholes began. An analysis of the large (and never before processed) amount of topographical data collected during two periods: from 1956 to the Balkan War, and from 1992 to 2003 has been made. The analysis reveals a cumulative subsidence as high as 12 m during the whole period, causing damage to buildings and infrastructures within an area that includes a large portion of the historical town. Human-induced subsidence, (with rates up to 40 cm/year in the most developed area), has been investigated to recognize the areas affected by the sinking phenomenon and to produce a subsidence hazard. The time series of topographical observations have been enlarged by conducting new surveys in the urban area by modern space-geodesy methodologies, such as static relative GPS (Global Positioning System) and high resolution satellite imageries. The GPS monitoring started in 2004 and detected a decrease in the subsidence rates to 20 cm/year related to the reduction of salt exploitation. There is close correlation between the average subsidence rate and the annual amount of salt extracted.

  20. Environmental risks of farmed and barren alkaline coal ash landfills in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Dellantonio, Alex; Fitz, Walter J; Custovic, Hamid; Repmann, Frank; Schneider, Bernd U; Grünewald, Holger; Gruber, Valeria; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Zerem, Nijaz; Carter, Claudia; Markovic, Mihajlo; Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter W

    2008-06-01

    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) has led to a significant consumption of land in the West Balkan region. In Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) we studied previously soil-covered (farmed) and barren CCR landfills including management practises, field ageing of CCR and the transfer of trace elements into crops, wild plants and wastewaters. Soil tillage resulted in mixing of cover soil with CCR. Medicago sativa showed very low Cu:Mo ratios (1.25) which may cause hypocuprosis in ruminants. Total loads of inorganic pollutants in the CCR transport water, but not pH ( approximately 12), were below regulatory limits of most EU countries. Arsenic concentrations in CCR transport water were <2microgl(-1) whereas reductive conditions in an abandoned landfill significantly enhanced concentrations in leachates (44microgl(-1)). The opposite pattern was found for Cr likely due to large initial leaching of CrVI. Public use of landfills, including farming, should be based on a prior risk assessment due to the heterogeneity of CCR. PMID:17949870

  1. Self-reported and observed seat belt use--A case study: Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Lipovac, Krsto; Tešić, Milan; Marić, Bojan; Đerić, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    The issue of seat belt use in middle- and low-income countries is strongly evident and has as a result higher rates of fatalities and seriously injured on the roads. The first systematic field research of the seat belt use while driving was carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 2011-2012. Research methodology consisted of two mutually conditioned parts (observation and self-reported behavior). Specific features of the methodology used are in the relationship between the observed and interviewed drivers which enabled the analysis of their observed and self-reported behavior while driving. The logistic regression method was used in this work to make the analysis of the influence of personal human characteristics (gender, age, education, exposure) and vehicles' characteristics (age) on the observed and self-reported driving behavior, from the point of view of seat belt use while driving. The influence of the listed factors on driving behavior, depending on road type (urban or rural), was given special attention in the analysis. The paper shows that certain factors do not have the same impact on driving behavior, in various conditions. Based on results from this study, it will be possible to define certain critical groups of road users and the way in which they must be addressed in order to increase the seat belt wearing rate. PMID:26320737

  2. The lessons learned from the canadian forces physiotherapy experience during the peacekeeping operations in Bosnia.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Luc Jean; Rowe, Peter

    2007-08-01

    The musculoskeletal injuries and soldiers' demographic profiles observed by physiotherapy (PT) officers during the Canadian Forces peacekeeping mission Op-Palladium in Bosnia between 2000 and 2004 were characterized. The number of PT visits (N = 4,167; range, 310-974) and gender distribution (N = 2,558 cases; male, 80.8%-91%; female, 9.0%-16.4%) varied between tours. On average, >30% of the entire Canadian Forces contingent required PT services. Lower limb injuries were the single leading reason for PT treatment (41.8%) followed by the spine (28.5%) and the upper limb (21.5%). The most commonly affected joints were the knee (17.2%) and ankle (16.1%), the shoulder (14.4%), and the lumbar spine (14.4%). The 26 to 35 age group and combat arms showed the highest incidence of musculoskeletal injuries (p < 0.001). The majority of cases seen were subacute and chronic (68%). Primary prevention activities and the capacity to provide the full scope of PT services were identified as two key factors contributing to the maintenance of operational readiness of the troops. PMID:17803074

  3. [Characteristics of addictions in Bosnia and Herzegovina a review of prevention programs].

    PubMed

    Mehić-Basara, Nermana

    2003-01-01

    Hazardous and harmful use of alcohol and drugs, accompany human race for centuries, and represents transcultural phenomena as well as one of the problems that still does not have solution. According to consequences that it's causing to individual, family and community it is one of the most severe social problems. Although, international community is investing more and more efforts and money to prevent illicit drug traffic, reduce consumption of alcohol and improve prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of addicts, still some significant results are not reached. War in Bosnia and Herzegovina cause severe injuries to population and left devastation and misery. War crimes are reflected in 200,000 deaths, several thousand wounded and over one million traumatized. Transition societies, as our, are characterized with big social changes such as migrations, urbanization and destruction of traditional social values. Due to this extensive drinking and drug use, as a form of escape from the reality and social difficulties are characteristic of our society and current civilization. It is estimated that currently in B&H exist 10,000 opioid addicts, and 20,000 alcoholics. Rapid incensement in number of addicts, and problems caused by that was the reason why we after the war started with preparations of Preventive Programme with focus on primary prevention. Beside programs that was made on the local levels, during 2002 Federal Programme of prevention was accepted which anticipated activities at all three preventive levels. PMID:15022565

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with intellectual disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Memišević, Haris; Sinanović, Osman

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is very frequent in children with intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of ADHD in children with intellectual disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina with regard to their sex, etiology and level of intellectual disability. The method for data collection was the examination of the children's medical records. The sample consisted of 167 children attending two special education facilities in Sarajevo. Overall occurrence of the disorder was found to be 20.4%, a finding which is in accordance with existing studies. The results in this study revealed different male to female ratio (1.5:1) of the disorder as compared to existing studies. A difference in the prevalence of ADHD was found in relation to the level of intellectual disability. There are many children with dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and ADHD. It is necessary that multidisciplinary team is involved in the creation of behavioral and educational programs for these children. PMID:26040064

  5. The War and Post-War Impact on the Educational System of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreso, Adila Pašalić

    2008-07-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), much like other eastern-European countries, has faced a brief period of transition from the socialist system to capitalism. However, this was interrupted in BiH by a brutal war lasting four years. Social systems and infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, including education, which was harnessed during the war to divide the country and then perpetuate these divisions. The author deals with some of the strongest and most enduring impacts that the war has had on education, which even now, more than 10 years after the war, pose a serious threat to this young country. The most obvious include the division of youth according to nationality, religion or language, the unequal positions of certain groups in education, and very clear segregation and discrimination. She points out some of the most frequent and overt ways in which intolerance towards other nationalities is displayed through textbooks, especially those used in parts of BiH subject to a struggle for independence during the war.

  6. Characteristics of stroke in young adults in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, Dzevdet; Salihović, Denisa; Ibrahimagić, Omer C; Sinanović, Osman

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze stroke in young adults in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. From January 2001 to December 2005, 3864 patients with first-ever stroke were admitted at the Department of Neurology Tuzla. A retrospective analysis of risk factors, stroke types, severity and one month outcome in all young adults (18-45 years of age) with first-ever stroke was carried out. Out of total, there were 154 (4%) young adults with stroke. Mean age was 38.8 +/- 5.7 years and 47% were women. The leading risk factors were smoking (56%) and hypertension (45%). Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was more frequent in young adults compared with older patients (> 45 years of age) (22% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.0001), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was similar in both groups (16.9% vs. 15.8%, p = 0.7), but ischemic stroke (IS) was predominant stroke type in the older group (61% vs. 74%, p = 0.0004). Young adults had more frequent lacunar stroke (26.6% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.01) and stroke due to other etiology (8.5% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.0004) than stroke patients over 45 years of age. Stroke severity at admission was lower in young adults than in older patients (p < 0.0001), as well as mortality at one month (11% vs. 30%, p < 0.0001). Favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale < or = 2) had 71% of young adults compared with only 53% of patients in the older group (p = 0.0003). Stroke in young adults in Tuzla Canton is rare. Risk factors profile, stroke types, severity and outcome at one month in young adults are different from those in older patients. PMID:23940998

  7. Environmental Changes in the North-eastern Part of Bosnia as Factors of Desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čengić, Izet; Čengić, Mirza

    2014-05-01

    In the north-eastern part of Bosnia were represented quartz sands formations of the upper Miocene and lower Pliocene (Luković, M., 1929., Soklić, I, 1964., Schmidt, S., and Veselinović, N. 1996.). In these sediments were formed shallow and "light" soils (Jakšić, V., 1970. Malović, P., and Jakšić, V., 1973., Veselinović, N., et al., 1984., Čengić I., 2004., 2011.) with dominantly represented two types of vegetation communities: (i) the thermopile forest communities, (ii) extensive agricultural systems. The climate changes contribute to the processes of desertification in the analyzed area which have the following trends (50 year period): (i) increasing temperature, (ii) increasing water deficits, (iii) reduction water surplus, (iv) increasing PET, (v) reduction SET. Activities on surface mining for the coal extraction also act on the environment changes. This process has strong influence on geographical changes of landscape, characteristics of vegetation and dynamics of water. To the processes of desertification contribute deforestation and agricultural activities. Soils on quartz sands as bearers of vegetation system have a small capacities for water conservation. The small water capacity of the soil are presented through the following elements: (i) the shallow soils - depth interval of the solum, 6 cm - 24 cm, (ii) low humus content; forest soils - Ah horizon, 3.52% - 10.77%; agricultural soil - Ap horizon, 1.79% - 10.68%, (iii) high % content of sand. Above factors which have influence on small conservation capacity of water in the soil, as well as climate and the environmental changes, contribute to the further desertification processes. Key words: desertification, surface mining, humus, sandy soils

  8. The ecological aspect of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology of population in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Redzić, Sulejman S

    2007-09-01

    This paper contains first systematical revision of the results on traditional use of wild medicinal and aromatic herbs on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)--west of Balkan Peninsula; Southeast of Europe. There have been detected 227 plants belonging to 71 different plant families, which are being used with ethno therapeutic purpose. Results were obtained by method of open ethno botanical interview which comprised 150 persons, whose average age was 63. Medicinal plants in ethno therapy are being used either in fresh, raw or dried condition. Different herbal parts, depending on period of vegetation season, sometimes even in winter, are basis for preparation of infusions (59%), decoct (19%), tinctures (4%). Especially original are balms known as Bosnian "mehlems", which are fresh cuted herbal parts mixed with lukewarm resin, raw cow butter or honey. In ethno therapy are mostly being used aerial plant organs. Majority of herbs is being used for treatment of illnesses of respiratory (22%), gastrointestinal (19%) and urinary and genital system (9%), for treatment of skin conditions (11%), as well as for nervous system and heart diseases (16%). The most original plants on the field of ethno pharmacology, comparing with ethno therapy practice of other regions, are as follows: Ballota nigra, Aesculus hippocastanum, Calluna vulgaris, Centaurea cyanus, Euphrasia rostkoviana, Geranium robertianum, Gentiana asclepiadea, Helichrysum italicum, Lycopodium clavatum, Marrubium vulgare, Nepeta cataria, Populus tremula, Ruta graveolens, Tamus communis, Teucrium montanum, T. chamaedrys, and endemic plants Gentiana lutea subsp. symphyandra, Teucrium arduini, Micromeria thymifolia, Satureja montana, S. subspicata, Rhamnus fallax and Viola elegantula. There haven't been noticed significant differences in the frequencies of medicinal plants use among different ethnical groups. But, it has been perceived that longer ethno therapeutic tradition possess inhabitants of sub- and

  9. Variant Alleles, Triallelic Patterns, and Point Mutations Observed in Nuclear Short Tandem Repeat Typing of Populations in Bosnia and Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Huel, René L. M.; Bašić, Lara; Madacki-Todorović, Kamelija; Smajlović, Lejla; Eminović, Izet; Berbić, Irfan; Miloš, Ana; Parsons, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present a compendium of off-ladder alleles and other genotyping irregularities relating to rare/unexpected population genetic variation, observed in a large short tandem repeat (STR) database from Bosnia and Serbia. Methods DNA was extracted from blood stain cards relating to reference samples from a population of 32 800 individuals from Bosnia and Serbia, and typed using Promega’s PowerPlex®16 STR kit. Results There were 31 distinct off-ladder alleles were observed in 10 of the 15 STR loci amplified from the PowerPlex®16 STR kit. Of these 31 alleles, 3 have not been previously reported. Furthermore, 16 instances of triallelic patterns were observed in 9 of the 15 loci. Primer binding site mismatches that affected amplification were observed in two loci, D5S818 and D8S1179. Conclusion Instances of deviations from manufacturer’s allelic ladders should be expected and caution taken to properly designate the correct alleles in large DNA databases. Particular care should be taken in kinship matching or paternity cases as incorrect designation of any of these deviations from allelic ladders could lead to false exclusions. PMID:17696304

  10. Clostridium Difficile Infection in Hospitalized Patients at University Clinical Center Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina: a 4 Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ahmetagic, Sead; Salkic, Nermin; Ahmetagic, Aldina; Custovic, Amer; Tihic, Nijaz; Smajlovic, Jasmina; Porobic-Jahic, Humera

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is currently the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea, but almost nothing is known about the extent of C. difficile infection (CDI) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Goal: We aimed to retrospectively analyze CDI in hospitalized patients at University Clinical Center (UCC) Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina from January 2009 through June 2012. Methods: We analyzed all patients (except children ages 0-2), diagnosed with CDI based on anamnestic and epidemiological, clinical picture and microbiological tests (proof of toxins in the stool by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results: From a total of 989 patients tested for C. difficile toxin (60.2 per 10,000 inpatient days) 347 (35.08%) were positives. The mean incidence rate of CDI was 2.23 per 10,000 inpatient days (range 1.32-2.87). Annual rates of hospitalization were 15.68 per 10,000 admissions (range 8.99-20.35). Most patients had a previously identified risk profile of old age, comorbidity and recent use of antibiotics. 41/276 (14.86%) patients had died, and 11/41 (26.82%) were CDI-associated deaths. Complicated CDI were registered in 53/276 (19.21%) patients, and recurrent infections in 65/276 (23.55%). Conclusion: Our data suggest that CDI is largely present in our setting which represents a serious problem and points to the importance of international surveillance, detection and control of CDI. PMID:24167425

  11. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in females from Bosnia and Herzegovina--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Valjevac, Amina; Mehić, Bakir; Kiseljaković, Emina; Ibrulj, Slavka; Garstka, Agnieszka; Adler, Grażyna

    2013-02-01

    Factor V is the liver-synthesized multidomain glycoprotein encoded by a gene localised on chromosome 1q23. The point mutation 1691G>A in this gene results in formation of an altered protein of V Factor resistant to activated protein C (APC) cleavage. This mutation alone is the most frequent cause of inborn thrombophilia and the most widely acknowledged genetic risk factor for venous thrombosis in a Caucasian population. This study was designed to provide the first estimate of the frequency of the allele 1691A FV in the Bosnian female population. The 1691G>A FV mutation was examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, in a group of 67 women, mean age of 58.6 years with no history of cardiovascular incident. Our findings revealed an absence of the mutated allele 1691A FV in the studied group. This is the first report on the 1691G>A FV mutation in a population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Further research is needed to establish prevalence of the mutated allele in the population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:23448608

  12. The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia: Considering U.S. Options. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    The conflict in Bosnia (Yugoslavia) has confronted U.S. leaders with fundamental questions about the use and capability of U.S. power abroad. This document brings the decision facing the United States into the classroom. The unit features a set of four divergent options for U.S. policy toward the Bosnian conflict, and a brief account of…

  13. Why Do Policy Leaders Adopt Global Education Reforms? A Political Analysis of SBM Reform Adoption in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a political analysis of school-based management reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). School-based management (SBM), based on the principle of school autonomy and community participation, is a school governance system introduced in many parts of the world, including post-conflict nations. Such a phenomenon seems to follow the…

  14. Biogeographic study of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia based on mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Stevanovic, J; Stanimirovic, Z; Radakovic, M; Kovacevic, S R

    2010-05-01

    In this work, Apis mellifera carnica and A. m. macedonica honey bees from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia were analysed using molecular techniques in order to improve our knowledge about biogeography of A. mellifera on the Balkan peninsula. This is the first time that the indigenous honey bees from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia have been analyzed using a molecular approach. Sampling was carried out from 560 stationary apiaries where bees were kept in traditional hives (woven skeps). The COI-COII regions of 1680 samples were PCR-amplified and sequenced. To reveal the haplotype of studied bees, the obtained sequences were aligned with published sequence data of haplotypes that belong to A. mellifera C phylogenetic lineage. The C2D mtDNA haplotype was found in all honey bees sampled from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republic of Macedonia. These results show that A. m. carnica and A. m. macedonica share the same C2D mtDNA haplotype. COI gene segments of 1680 samples were PCR-amplified and digested with restriction enzymes NcoI and StyI in order to discriminate A. m. macedonica from A. m. carnica. Amplified fragment patterns produced by both restriction enzymes matched with diagnostic pattern characteristic for A. m. macedonica in case of samples from east, south and south-west parts of Serbia, and Republic of Macedonia, fragments of samples from northern part of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina did not include NcoI and StyI restriction sites. These results indicate that honey bees from east, south and south-west parts of Serbia, and Republic of Macedonia belong to the A. m. macedonica, and honey bees from northern part of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina belong to another subspecies, probably to the A. m. carnica. Therefore A. m. macedonica has much wider area of distribution than it was previously considered. PMID:20583605

  15. Scientometric Analysis of Scientific Validity of Medical Archives Regarding Other Medical Journals in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Medical Archives is the oldest medical journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) (founded in 1947.). A total of 104 articles were published in Medical Archives during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015–80.7% (in last seven years, 561 (76%) were original out of 738). In last seven years, 651 (88.2%) articles were from the field of clinical medicine (preclinical disciplines, in the last three years are more represented than in previous years). Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,92. Articles written in collaboration of five authors (21.1 %) are found to be predominant. From year to year, most often required time for a decision on acceptance or on the revision prior acceptance is between 50 and 60 days (30% of cases in 2015). During 2015, 47.1% of articles were originally from B&H (eleven countries were represented). H index of Medical Archive for 2014 was 12, and does not vary during the last decade. Findings: In 2015 in B&H about twenty-five journals are issued in the field of biomedical and life sciences in general (six are indexed on Medline/PubMed, one is indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base). According to GoogleScholar the biggest h5 index has Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Archives, while the biggest h5 median has BJBMS i Acta Informatica Medica. The highest H-index (13) in B&H has Izet Masic MD, PhD, Enver Zerem MD, PhD and Semir Vranic MD, PhD, while highest g-index (22) has Enver Zerem MD, PhD (analyzed by software package “Publish or Perish”). Conclusion: By comparing the state of medical publishing in B&H with neighboring countries (Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro), we have concluded that B&H is behind Croatia and Serbia by following parameters: Total Documents, Total Cites and H index but in front of Montenegro. PMID:26980926

  16. Controversy and Concerns in the Relationship of Medicine and the Media in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Hajdarevic, Braco; Slaku, Jasmina; Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    Summary Medicine and the media are two areas important in the life of every man, which are in almost daily contact with each other and in dependence. Their relations in BiH are currently elemental, focused on direct, immediate needs, without defined rules, with a lot of disorientation, incompetence and irresponsibility, often without respect for at least the minimum rules of conduct and respect, often with a lot of conflict and hostility. The goal of our work is based on the analysis of newspaper articles, TV programs and Web sites in the period of one year and was to assess the current situation and suggest solutions. In order to acquire objective insight into the current situation, in the preparation of the symposium “Medicine and Media” in Mostar, we analyzed all stories related to medicine in two daily newspapers, two weekly, three TV stations in the period from September 1st 2008 to August 31st 2009, and the web sites of hospital institutions, Department of Health Insurance in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Ministries of Health which were available online on 1st and 2nd September 2009. In total we managed to process 402 contents as written content, TV shows or stories in TV shows and 28 web pages, and we believe that our sample is representative. We have found the following characteristics of the current situation in BiH that have to be changed: Topics in the press, web sites or programs on health services should have some kind of certification, i.e. licensing so that is clear that the contents of the announcement is made under control of health care professionals, i.e., licensed or of optional entertainment content; In cases of professional accusation of any specific person, usually a doctor, not to state full name of the before the existence of binding court decisions, or in case of possible litigation not to allow favoring of any party of the dispute; In addition to the interest in the work of health institutions it is necessary to direct media

  17. Consequences of Domestic Violence on Women's Mental Health in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Avdibegović, Esmina; Sinanović, Osman

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess psychological consequences of domestic violence, and determine the frequency and forms of domestic violence against women in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The study was carried out in the Tuzla Canton region in the period from 2000 to 2002, and included 283 women aged 43 ± 9.6 years. Out of 283 women, 104 received psychiatric treatment at the Department for Psychiatry of the University Clinical Center Tuzla, 50 women were refugees; and 129 were domicile inhabitants of the Tuzla Canton. Domestic Violence Inventory, Cornell Index, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, PTSD Checklist Version for Civilians, and Beck Depression Inventory were used for data collection. Basic sociodemographic data and information from the medical documentation of the Department for Psychiatry of the University Clinical Center Tuzla was also collected. Results Out of 283 women, 215 (75.9%) were physically, psychologically, and sexually abused by their husbands. Among the abused, 107 (50.7%) experienced a combination of various forms of domestic violence. The frequency of domestic violence was high among psychiatric patients (78.3%). Victims of domestic violence had a significantly higher rate of general neuroticism, depression, somatization, sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and paranoid tendency than women who were not abused. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms according to the type of trauma was higher in women with the history of childhood abuse (8/11) and domestic violence (53/67) than in women who experienced war trauma (26/57) and the loss of loved ones (24/83). The majority of 104 psychiatric patients suffered from PTSD in comorbidity with depression (n = 45), followed by depression (n = 17), dissociative disorder (n = 13), psychotic disorder (n = 7), and borderline personality disorder with depression (n = 7). The intensity of psychological symptoms, depression, and Global Severity Index for

  18. Controversy and concerns in the relationship of medicine and the media in bosnia and herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Hajdarevic, Braco; Slaku, Jasmina; Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    Medicine and the media are two areas important in the life of every man, which are in almost daily contact with each other and in dependence. Their relations in BiH are currently elemental, focused on direct, immediate needs, without defined rules, with a lot of disorientation, incompetence and irresponsibility, often without respect for at least the minimum rules of conduct and respect, often with a lot of conflict and hostility. The goal of our work is based on the analysis of newspaper articles, TV programs and Web sites in the period of one year and was to assess the current situation and suggest solutions. In order to acquire objective insight into the current situation, in the preparation of the symposium "Medicine and Media" in Mostar, we analyzed all stories related to medicine in two daily newspapers, two weekly, three TV stations in the period from September 1st 2008 to August 31st 2009, and the web sites of hospital institutions, Department of Health Insurance in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Ministries of Health which were available online on 1st and 2nd September 2009. In total we managed to process 402 contents as written content, TV shows or stories in TV shows and 28 web pages, and we believe that our sample is representative. We have found the following characteristics of the current situation in BiH that have to be changed: Topics in the press, web sites or programs on health services should have some kind of certification, i.e. licensing so that is clear that the contents of the announcement is made under control of health care professionals, i.e., licensed or of optional entertainment content; In cases of professional accusation of any specific person, usually a doctor, not to state full name of the before the existence of binding court decisions, or in case of possible litigation not to allow favoring of any party of the dispute; In addition to the interest in the work of health institutions it is necessary to direct media attention towards

  19. Development and optimization of a PCR assay for detection of Dobrava and Puumala hantaviruses in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, Lejla; Davoren, Jon; Heyman, Paul; Cochez, Christel; Haas, Cordula; Maake, Caroline; Hukić, Mirsada

    2012-06-01

    Hantavirus-specific serology tests are the main diagnostic technique for detection of hantavirus infection in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In order to enhance hantavirus infections monitoring a sensitive PCR based assay was developed to detect Dobrava (DOBV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantaviruses. Nested primer sets were designed within three different regions of the viral RNA (S and M segment of DOBV and M segment of PUUV) based on highly similar regions from a number of different European hantavirus strains. Assay conditions were optimized using cell cultures infected with DOBV Slovenia, PUUV Sotkamo and PUUV CG 18-20. This sensitive and specific assay has proven to be useful for detection of both Puumala and Dobrava hantaviruses. PMID:22433513

  20. Health care in Bosnia and Herzegovina before, during, and after 1992–1995 war: a personal testimony

    PubMed Central

    Šimunović, Vladimir J

    2007-01-01

    Market-based health care reform during democratic transition in Bosnia and Herzegovina was complicated by the 1992–1995 war, that devastated the country and greater part of its health care infrastructure. The course of the transition and consequences of war for the health system and health professionals are presented here from the perspective of the author. The description of real-life situations and their context is used to illustrate the problems physicians, as well as international community, were faced with and how they tried to cope with them during and after the war. Speaking openly about the mistakes that were made in those times is the first step in preventing them from happening again and an invitation for exchange of opinions and open academic discussion. PMID:17535419

  1. Psychological Consequences of Rape on Women in 1991-1995 War in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Lončar, Mladen; Medved, Vesna; Jovanović, Nikolina; Hotujac, Ljubomir

    2006-01-01

    Aim To explore the short- and long-term psychological consequences of rape on women victims of rape during the 1992-1995 war against Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The study included 68 women victims of rape and was conducted at the Medical Center for Human Rights, Zagreb, Croatia, from 1992 to 1995. Testimony method and a questionnaire were used to obtain the description of rapes and symptoms women suffered immediately after rape and at the time of the study, ie, 11.9 ± 2.4 months after the trauma. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to diagnose psychiatric disorders that were present at the time of study, according to the third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results The raped women were Croatian and Muslim (Bosniak) women, residents of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Forty-four of them were raped more than once, 21 were raped every day during their captivity, and 18 were forced to witness rapes. Most of the rapes (n = 65) were accompanied by physical torture. The most frequent psychological symptoms felt immediately after the rape were depressiveness (n = 58), avoidance of thoughts or conversations associated with the trauma (n = 40), and suicidal ideas (n = 25). Although none of the women had a psychiatric history before the rape, at the time of study 52 suffered from depression, 51 from social phobia, 21 from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 17 had sexual dysfunctions. These disorders were often comorbid. Out of 29 women who got pregnant after rape, 17 had artificial abortion. The decision to have an abortion was strongly predicted by suicidal thoughts and impulses (odds ratio, 25.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-263.2). Conclusion War-time rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women victims of rapes and their social and interpersonal functioning. PMID:16489699

  2. Diffusion of complex health innovations--implementation of primary health care reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat A; Kyratsis, Ioannis; Jelic, Gordan; Rados-Malicbegovic, Drazenka; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek

    2007-01-01

    Most transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia are engaged in health reform initiatives aimed at introducing primary health care (PHC) centred on family medicine to enhance performance of their health systems. But, in these countries the introduction of PHC reforms has been particularly challenging; while some have managed to introduce pilots, many have failed to these scale up. Using an innovation lens, we examine the introduction and diffusion of family-medicine-centred PHC reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), which experienced bitter ethnic conflicts that destroyed much of the health systems infrastructure. The study was conducted in 2004-05 over a 18-month period and involved both qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry. In this study we report the findings of the qualitative research, which involved in-depth interviews in three stages with key informants that were purposively sampled. In our research, we applied a proprietary analytical framework which enables simultaneous and holistic analysis of the context, the innovation, the adopters and the interactions between them over time. While many transition countries have struggled with the introduction of family-medicine-centred PHC reforms, in spite of considerable resource constraints and a challenging post-war context, within a few years, BiH has managed to scale up multifaceted reforms to cover over 25% of the country. Our analysis reveals a complex setting and bidirectional interaction between the innovation, adopters and the context, which have collectively influenced the diffusion process. Family-medicine-centred PHC reform is a complex innovation-involving organizational, financial, clinical and relational changes-within a complex adaptive system. An important factor influencing the adoption of this complex innovation in BiH was the perceived benefits of the innovation: benefits which accrue to the users, family physicians, nurses and policy makers. In the case of Bi

  3. Landscape history and land-use dependent soil erosion in central Bosnia from the Bronze Age to Medieval Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolters, Steffen; Enters, Dirk; Bittmann, Felix

    2010-05-01

    The inland areas of the northwestern Balkan peninsula and in particular of Bosnia and Herzegovina are poor in natural archives suitable for the reconstruction of past environmental changes and vegetation history. Consequently, palaeoenvironmental analyses are scarce with only three palynological studies available dating back to 1973, 1956 and 1934. Central Bosnia, however, is rich in archaeological heritage, featuring numerous prehistoric settlement sites along the river Bosna starting in the early Neolithic. This generates the need for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions to support and complement recent archaeological research in this area. Here we present results from a 450 cm gyttja-peat sequence from Seoce Jezero, a small mire located at 600 m NN on a plateau above a tributary of the river Bosna 30 km northwest of Sarajevo (central Bosnia). Fourteen AMS C-14 dates provide a robust time-depth-relationship which covers natural and anthropogenic environmental changes at Seoce Jezero from the Bronze Age to early Medieval Times. Pollen, macrofossil and geochemical analyses of 167 samples produce a high resolution record of land-use and vegetation change up to a half-decadal time scale. The palaeoenvironmental record starts ca. 1800 BC (3750 cal. BP) and reveals an initially relatively undisturbed landscape dominated by Fagus- and Quercus-Carpinus woodland. Anthropogenic influence is clearly visible from 1400 BC (3350 cal. BP) onwards and comprises woodland clearances, pasturing and crop cultivation. Pollen analyses confirm several consecutive phases of different land-use character and intensity. Phases of high land-use pressure culminated at the transition Bronze Age/Iron Age (1100 BC), the late Iron Age (400 BC), late Roman times (AD 300) and from AD 700 onwards. In between, stages of forest regeneration could be detected, most pronounced in the period between 70 BC and AD 150 (2020-1800 cal. BP), when anthropogenic influence virtually ceased. Whereas land use in

  4. Pearsonema plica (Capillaria plica) infection and associated urinary bladder pathology in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Alić, Amer; Hodžić, Adnan; Kadrić, Mirsad; Beširović, Hajrudin; Prašović, Senad

    2015-05-01

    Pearsonema plica is a widely distributed nematode parasite that occurs in the urinary tract of various domestic and wild carnivores. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and geographical distribution of P. plica and associated urinary bladder pathology in 112 red foxes (70 males, 42 females; 87 adults >1 year, 25 juveniles <1 year) from six different geographical regions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The urinary bladders of the red foxes were subjected to gross examination and histopathology. Urine content (n = 40) and mucosal smears (n = 71) of the urinary bladders were examined microscopically for the presence of P. plica. Overall, adults and eggs of P. plica were detected in 65 (58.0 %; 95% CI 48.9-67.2%) of the foxes. Out of the positive foxes, 42 were males (64.6%) and 23 females (35.3%). According to age, 49 adults (75.3%) and 16 juveniles (24.6%) were positive. There were no statistically significant differences in the infection prevalence between the geographical regions (p = 0.701), sex (p = 0.693), or age (p = 0.646) of the host. Also, no significant differences in the prevalence of parasites in urine content (48.7%; 20/41) and mucosal smears (63.3%; 45/71) were observed (p = 0.165). Eosinophilic cystitis characterized with mild to severe infiltrates of eosinophils in the propria of the bladder mucosa accompanied by hyperemia and edema was observed in 36 examined foxes, 24 of which were P. plica positive. Parasites attached and embedded into the mucosa and free in the lumen were recorded in both cystitis positive and negative foxes. Beside clear numerical differences, the influence of P. plica infection on the occurrence of cystitis was not significant (p = 0.309). The results of this study give the first insight into the distribution of P. plica infection among the red fox population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Observed microscopic changes may contribute toward a better understanding of pathology caused by this

  5. Hidden Danger of Irrational Abusing Illegal Androgenic-anabolic Steroids in Recreational Athletes Age Under 35 in Bosnia & Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Solakovic, Sid; Totic, Dragan; Vukas, Haris; Djedovic, Muhamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Androgenic-anabolic steroids are rarely used by sportsmen who want to improve physical performance in competition sport. Despite that they are well aware of the side effects of anabolic steroids, many young athletes in Bosnia and Herzegovina without competition motivation come in temptation, trying to achieve better muscle proportion and physical performance unknowing consequence of side effects and what is hiding behind. Risk factors such as increasing of lipid levels and arterial hypertension are major factors which have important role in the Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and are responsible for occurrence of cardiovascular disease even causing a sudden death in young athletes. Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of misusing of androgenic anabolic steroid drugs in young recreational sportsmen without competition motivation. This study will try to estimate vascular and lipid status, analyzing the side effects of steroids in young recreational athletes under the age of 35, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The study included 70 individuals in period of 2010 till 2015 on recreational exercising program; 35 individuals misusing androgenic anabolic steroids during the period of 5 years were compared with 35 individuals which do not use androgenic anabolic steroids. Non-invasive methods were used in all individual (clinical examination and vascular ultrasound examination of vein system). The routine of training units in both groups was approximately two hours 4-6 times per week. Results: Final analysis has reveal that in androgenic anabolic steroids group in 18 individuals or 55.7% arterial hypertension with hyperlipidemia was more represented, compared with the group without using anabolic steroids, represented by 2 individuals or 5.7% and it was statistically considered significant by using p value less than 0.05. (p<0.05). Statistically dominant population using anabolic steroids drugs are males (100%) or 35 individuals

  6. The impact of U.S. military operations in Kuwait, Bosnia, and Kosovo (1991-2000) on environmental health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    Deployments of U.S. Forces to the Persian Gulf (1991), Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995), and Kosovo (1999) were associated with diverse, potential environmental exposures. Health effects possibly associated with these exposures were cause for concern among service members, veterans, and military and civilian leaders. A need for the military to effectively respond to these exposures, and more importantly, to assess and mitigate exposures before deployments and to conduct environmental surveillance during deployments was identified. The Department of Defense encountered many obstacles in dealing with the exposures of 1991. Even though these obstacles were being identified, and in some cases, addressed, responses to historical exposure concerns continued to be reactive. In 1996, efforts were intensified to improve policy and doctrine, field sampling equipment, risk assessment processes, geographic information systems, and other tools needed to effectively identify and reduce the impact of exposures before troops deploy and to conduct environmental surveillance while deployed. Success in these efforts resulted in a comprehensive, planned approach being implemented to address environmental health concerns during the 1999 Kosovo deployment. PMID:21916329

  7. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow's milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Fejzic, Nihad; Begagic, Muris; Šerić-Haračić, Sabina; Smajlovic, Muhamed

    2014-01-01

    Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis.  Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow's milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx), Rosa Charm β Lactam test and Inhibition MRL test. Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb). In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis). Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level - MLR). Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues. PMID:25172975

  8. NON-COMMUNICABLE CHRONIC DISEASES RISK PREVALENCE OF FAMILY MEDICINE PATIENTS IN THE FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    PubMed Central

    Hrabac, Boris; Spasojevic, Nada

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to represent the prevalence of non-communicable diseases risks among patients of family medicine practices in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Risks prevalence was obtained from an organized massive screening being performed by 100 family medicine teams in four cities of the Federation of B&H during 2013. Material and Methods: Our concept of “preventive treatment of a patient” included detecting and monitoring the following chronic non-communicable diseases risk factors: (a) hypertension; (b) obesity; (c) smoking; (d) physical inactivity; and (e) dyslipidemia; (f) diabetes mellitus. Our sample of examined patients was 46.638. Results: Highest risk prevalence within entire F B&H is observed for dyslipidemia (90.3%) and physical inactivity (64.7%). Lowest prevalence was found for blood sugar and hypertension at 19.2% and 21.6%, respectively. Smoking prevalence of the examined patients was 28.4%. Prevalence of the obesity as health risk (ITM > 30) was 25.5 %. It is of interest that statistically significant differences of individual risk prevalence among cities are evident. Risk distribution among cities ranked from highest to lowest prevalence, shows clearly that Sarajevo is leading in four risks compared to the other cities, while Zenica is ranked lowest for four risk factors. The examined population of the four cities can be ranked from lowest to highest prevalence of the examined risk factors as follows: Sarajevo, Mostar, Tuzla, and Zenica. PMID:27047259

  9. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention network in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Where are we now and how to improve PCI network.

    PubMed

    Dilić, M; Terzić, I; Kulić, M

    2016-08-01

    Reperfusion is the most effective therapy for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Time from symptom onset to reperfusion is the most important factor influencing short and long-term mortality. There are several modes of reperfusion therapy. Fibrinolysis (either in pre-hospital or in-hospital setting), and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) or a combination of both are the most relevant treatment options. Primary p-PCI is the preferred option in centers with experienced teams and a high volume of reperfusion procedures. Cardiovascular mortality rate in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is among the highest in Europe, 545/100,000, and the rate of acute myocardial infarction is approximately 7000 per year. Despite recent improvement in reperfusion therapy in the last 5years, mortality of STEMI still patients remains high. The goal of this perspective article is to describe the current situation of p-PCI network in B&H. Establishing networks of reperfusion at regional and national level, implies a broad spectrum and close collaboration between all the actors involved in reperfusion therapy, namely hospitals, cardiology units emergency medical services, and primary care physicians. PMID:27381862

  10. From mixed to separate collection of solid waste: benefits for the town of Zavidovići (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Mentore; Di Bella, Veronica; Vitali, Francesco; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-02-01

    In Bosnia and Herzegovina only 50% of the municipalities have a well-organized service for (mixed) waste collection and disposal. Illegal dumping is very common, in particular in rural areas, which are not regularly served by any service of collection. This situation leads to serious risks for public health and has dangerous environmental impacts. In Zavidovići the municipality is trying to meet high standards in the delivery of services of waste collection, but is constrained by scarce financial and technical resources. Different scenarios for the implementation of a system of separate collection in Zavidovići were elaborated in order to provide a useful tool for decision making by comparing costs and environmental & economic benefits of each scenario. Six scenarios were considered, based on different recovery rates for plastic, paper & cardboard, and metals. Benefits resulting from the implementation of each of the proposed scenarios are compared in terms of savings of landfill volume and costs. The study concludes that the adoption of a system of separate collection could generate positive impacts on all the stakeholders involved in the solid waste management sector in Zavidovići and could contribute to the compliance of European standards in many Central and Eastern European countries as established by a number of national environmental protection strategies. PMID:23177566

  11. Traditional Medicine in the Pristine Village of Prokoško Lake on Vranica Mountain, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Šarić-Kundalić, Broza; Fritz, Elisabeth; Dobeš, Christoph; Saukel, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The results of an ethnobotanical study conducted in the pristine village of Prokoško Lake (Vranica Mountain, Bosnia and Herzegovina) in summer 2007 is presented. Informal interviews involving 12 informants known as “traditional healers” provided data from 43 plants used in 82 prescriptions. The applied plants were used for a broad spectrum of indications. The most frequent were gastro-intestinal tract ailments, blood system disorders, skin ailments, respiratory tract ailments and urinary-genital tract ailments. The most frequent preparation was an infusion. Other often used preparations were ointments or balms and decocts. The special Bosnian balms known as “mehlems” were prepared from freshly chopped or freshly pressed herbal parts of various plant species. Warmed resins from Abies or Picea species, raw cow or pig lard, olive oil and honey served as basis. The traditional doctors, who usually worked as a team, enjoyed such a good reputation that people from all over the country were visiting in search of alternative ways to cure their ailments and diseases. The practical techniques applied by the healers and some of their attitudes and values are reported. PMID:21179347

  12. The Development of Infectology in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with Special Emphasis on the Development and History of Infectious Clinic, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University

    PubMed Central

    Koluder-Cimic, Nada; Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared There is a relatively low amount of historical data about development of infectology in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but that does not mean that these medical disciplines didn’t have important events and actors that are important for the development of this medical discipline in B&H. In this review we intent to show your several characteristic events and important persons, which left a lasting impression in the development of infectology service in BIH and especially in Sarajevo. Development center for this discipline was in Sarajevo. Experts on infectious diseases were sent from Sarajevo to other health centers to organize new ministry there. Infectology as an organized health care dates back to the Austro-Hungarian period, when a part of the State Hospital in Sarajevo formed a separate Department of Infectious Diseases. Thanks to the competent professional and later teaching staff in this discipline and the importance of health care of patients with infectious diseases, in Sarajevo and other cities in Bosnia, infectious diseases care has experienced expansion and increasing importance and quality. Infectious disease specialists were very quick in organizing their professional association and with exchange of knowledge and experience have contributed substantially to the above assertion. The “Association of infectious diseases of Bosnia and Herzegovina” was founded during the aggression on BIH, in 1994 and in 1997 they organized the first scientific congress of the Association of the infectious disease specialist with international participation. Improving the health of the population in the area of infectious diseases was significantly helped by infectious diseases clinics at clinical centers in BIH and departments for infectious diseases within the hospitals in B&H. Association of the infectious disease is a significant coordinator for scientific and professional activities, but also the environment in which

  13. Roots of Pharmacy Practice in Bosnia and Herzegovina from the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Period: Attars’ Mission for Pharmaceutical Care

    PubMed Central

    Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

    2015-01-01

    Significant role in how they played, and Jews Sephardim who came to Bosnia from Spain and Portugal in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. It is those were the first owners of districts–Shop herbs or pharmacy. Along with them were developed and Muslim attars, who founded and attars marketplace in Sarajevo. Experience and knowledge in the domain of medicine and healing practiced by old Bosnian Sephardim been acquired for centuries, is now mainly found on the shelves. PMID:25870533

  14. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:22121302

  15. The effects of war on land-use/land-cover change: An analysis of Landsat imagery for northeast Bosnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witmer, Frank D. W.

    The use of satellite technology by military planners has a relatively long history as a tool of warfare, but little research has used satellite technology to study the effects of war. This research addresses this gap by applying satellite remote sensing imagery to study the effects of war on land-use/land-cover change in northeast Bosnia. The war in Bosnia, 1992-1995, resulted in over 100,000 deaths, many more wounded, and the mass displacement of nearly half the population of 4.2 million. When combined with the destruction of much of the transportation infrastructure and housing stock, widespread mine placement, and loss of agricultural machinery, the impacts to both the people and land were dramatic. Though the most severe war impacts are visible at local scales (e.g. destroyed buildings), this study focuses on impacts to agricultural land, a larger scale visible to satellite sensors. Multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data (30m pixels) from before and during the war in addition to recent imagery from 2004/05 were used to detect abandoned agricultural land. The satellite images were co-registered to enable a perpixel analysis of changes based on the statistical properties of the pixels using multiple change detection methods. Ground reference data were collected in May of 2006 at survey sites selected using a stratified random sampling approach based on the derived map of abandoned agricultural land. Fine resolution (60cm) Quickbird imagery was also used to verify the accuracy of the classification. The remote sensing analysis results were then used to test two hypotheses related to war outcomes: (a) land abandonment is due to wartime minefields and (b) land abandonment is greater in pre-war Croat areas and areas where ethnic cleansing was heaviest. The effects of minefields on land abandonment was first tested in a geographic information system (GIS), and then by using multiple regression models that account for spatial autocorrelation among observations

  16. Medical services of Croat people in Bosnia and Herzegovina during 1992-1995 war: losses, adaptation, organization, and transformation.

    PubMed

    Bagaric, I

    2000-06-01

    During the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH), Croatian people in BH had 19,600 (2.6%) killed and 135,000 (17.6%) displaced persons, and 222,500 (28.9%) refugees. They lost around two thirds of both physicians and other health personnel, and were left with 8. 5% of prewar patient beds. Fortunately, the organized defence against Serbs was initiated in time and Croats defended the territories where they formed majority. The first defense unit established was the Medical Corps Headquarters (MCH), caring for soldiers and civilians alike. The MCH was soon incorporated in the Croatian Defense Council (CDC, armed forces of Croatian people in BH). The MCH had two chains of command. One went through the district commanders of medical services and their subordinated physicians to paramedics in military units, and the other directly to the commanders of 14 war hospitals. After its formation in 1993, the Ministry of Health took the jurisdiction over the civilian medical services and after the Washington Peace Agreement (April 1994) over the war hospitals, too, whereas the medical services within military units remained under control of the Ministry of Defense. Dayton Peace Agreement divided BH into the Federation of BH and Republic Srpska, each with their own army. The Federation of BH Army is composed of the CDC and Bosniac-controlled Army of BH, with overall numerical ratio 1:2.3 for Bosniacs, and organized in accordance with NATO standards. Military medical services are provided by the Logistics Sector of both Ministry of Defense and Military Corps Headquarters (Joint Command). PMID:10853039

  17. LOW PRETERM BIRTH RATE WITH DECREASING EARLY NEONATAL MORTALITY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA DURING 2007-2014

    PubMed Central

    Hudic, Igor; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Skokic, Fahrija; Fatusic, Zlatan; Zildzic-Moralic, Aida; Skokic, Maida; Fatusic, Jasenko

    2016-01-01

    The aim: of the study was to determine the situation of preterm births and early neonatal mortality during 2007-2014 in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The study covers a 8-year period and is based on the protocols at the Tuzla Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics that covers all birth in Tuzla Canton area. We analyzed the gestational age of all newborns and recorded the number of neonatal deaths in the first week after birth. Demographics, pregnancy and birth characteristics were collected from the maternal records. Results: The total number of births in the period was 32738. Preterm birth was identified in 2401 (7.3%) cases with 12,5% occurring before 32 gestational weeks and 64% in 35-36 gestational weeks. The mothers of the 24-31 gws preterm group were significantly younger that those in the 32-36 group. In the 32-36 group there were significantly greater proportions of mothers with assisted reproductive technology and pre-eclampsia and 16.7% was medical induced preterm births versus 11.4 % in the 24-31 PTB group, p<0.05. The incidence of PTB did no vary significantly during the period, the lowest rate was found in 2010 (6.4%). A total of 221 children died giving a early mortality rate of 6.8 per 1000 live born over the 8 years. The majority 156 dying infants (70.6%) were preterm, only 5.7% died being born in the 35-36 gestational week (5.9 per 1000). Overall the preterm early mortality (7.3 per 1000) has shown a decreasing tendency during the latter years. Conclusion: During the last 8 years there have been no significant decline in preterm birth in the Tuzla region while a decline in early neonatal death has been registered. PMID:27047264

  18. Association of Parental Age and the Type of Down Syndrome on the Territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Sotonica, Mia; Mackic-Djurovic, Mirela; Hasic, Sabaheta; Kiseljakovic, Emina; Jadric, Radivoj; Ibrulj, Slavka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advanced paternal and/or maternal age is a classic risk factor for Down syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of Down syndrome types in children and its association with maternal and paternal age in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Subjects and Methods: The cross sectional, observational study included 127 children, 49 girls and 78 boys, aged 1-180 months suspected to have Down syndrome, admitted to the Centre for Genetics, Faculty of Medicine University of Sarajevo, for cytogenetic analysis and differential diagnosis of Down syndrome during the period from January 2010 to May 2015. Standard method of 72 hours cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been applied. The accepted level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Study Results: The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy (86.6%), comparing to translocation and mosaicism (7.1%; 6.3%, respectively). The highest frequency of Down syndrome cases was in mother and father’s group from 30-39 years old (57; 57 children, respectively) compared to mother and father’s groups with younger than 30 (44; 29, respectively) and 40 and older (26; 41, respectively). The significant difference was found in maternal age between translocation and mosaicism groups (p=0.036). Difference between parental years and type of Down syndrome was significant when Standard trisomy 21 and translocation (p=0.045), as well as mosaicism and translocation (p=0.036), were compared. Conclusion: The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy 21, with highest occurrence in parents from 30 to 39 years old. Parents were the youngest in translocation group. Obtained results suggest that multidisciplinary approach to identifying the trigger for trisomy appearance and the influence of maternal age is required. PMID:27147778

  19. Epidemiologic and laboratory surveillance of the measles outbreak in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, February 2014-April 2015.

    PubMed

    Salimović-Bešić, I; Šeremet, M; Hübschen, J M; Hukić, M; Tihić, N; Ahmetagić, S; Delibegović, Z; Pilav, A; Mulaomerović, M; Ravlija, J; Muller, C P; Dedeić-Ljubović, A

    2016-06-01

    A measles outbreak with two epidemic waves involving 4649 probable and laboratory-confirmed cases was recorded in six out of ten cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina between February 2014 and April 2015. The majority of the patients had never received measles vaccination (3115/4649, 67.00%), and the vaccination status of another 23% was unknown (1066/4649). A total of 281 blood samples were tested serologically. Virus detection was performed using 44 nasopharyngeal swabs. About 57% (161/281) of the laboratory-investigated sera were immunoglobulin M positive, and 95% (42/44) of the swabs were reverse transcriptase-PCR positive. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences obtained from 30 swab samples showed circulation of two variants of genotype D8, but no genotype D4 strains as detected in 2007. Similar involvement of all age groups indicates a problem with vaccine refusal resulting from antivaccination activities in addition to gaps in immunization coverage during the war and postwar period (1992-1998). Differences in ethnicity, vaccine coverage, compliance with review policies of vaccination records and potentially also travel habits may partially explain why only six of ten cantons were affected by the outbreak. The second epidemic wave may in part be due to large-scale migrations due to catastrophic floods in 2014. As a result of the epidemic, 6- to 12-month-old children may now be vaccinated against measles during outbreaks, and public health recommendations for interventions have been strengthened. Additional efforts are required to implement the measures throughout the cantons. PMID:26928202

  20. Frequency of thyroid cancer in patients operated at Cantonal Hospital Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the period 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Hrnčić, Nermin; Goga, Amna; Hrnčić, Selma; Filipovska-Mušanović, Marijana; Hatibović, Haris; Hodžić, Ðenad

    2016-08-01

    Aim To determine frequency and type of thyroid cancer (TC) as well as gender and age distribution of patients operated at the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT), Cantonal Hospital Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods A retrospective analysis of data obtained from an operating protocol and disease history of patients operated in the eightyear period (2007- 2014) was made according to the frequency and type of thyroid cancer, as well as age and gender of the patients. χ2 test was used for statistical with p<0.05. Results A total of 818 surgeries of the thyroid gland were conducted, in 714 (87.29%) female and 104 (12.71%) male patients. Malignancies were diagnosed in 74 (9.05%) patients, of whom 64 (86.49%) were females and 10 (13.51%) were males, resulting in the gender prevalence of 8.96% and 9.62%, respectively. The most often presented type was papillary carcinoma, in 48(out of 74, 64.86%) patients, followed by follicular carcinoma in 10 (13.51%), medullary carcinoma in four (5.41%), Hurthle cell carcinoma in four (5.41%) patients, while anaplastic carcinoma was found in one (1.35%) patient. The number of diagnosed malignancy varied from 0% (in 2007) to 13.91% (in 2014) (p=0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of thyroid cancer is low, but has an increasing trend. A large number of unnecessary surgeries on thyroid gland was performed. Preoperative diagnostic procedures for diseases of the thyroid gland in Cantonal Hospital Zenica should be improved in order to avoid unessential surgeries. PMID:27313111

  1. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of AmpC- and/or extended-spectrum (ESBL) ß-lactamaseproducing Proteus spp. clinical isolates in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Uzunović, Selma; Ibrahimagić, Amir; Hodžić, Dunja; Bedenić, Branka

    2016-08-01

    Aim To investigate prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characteristics, and genetic relationship of AmpC- and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)- producing Proteus spp. clinical isolates in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods according to CLSI guidelines. Double-disk synergy test was performed in order to screen for ESBLs, and combined disk test with phenylboronic acid to detect AmpC β -lactamases. PCR was used to detect blaESBL/blacarb genes. Genetic relatedness of the strains was determined by pulsed-fieldgel-electrophoresis (PFGE). Results Eleven ESBL-producing isolates were included in the study (six inpatients and five outpatients). Susceptibility rate to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, imipenem and meropenem was 100%. Resistance rate to cefuroxime was 100%, gentamicine 90.9%, piperacillin/tazobactam 81.8%, cefotaxim, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime 72.7%, cefoxitine and ciprofloxacine 63.6% and to cefepime 45.5%. In five (out of 11) isolates multi-drug resistance (MDR) to cephalosporins, cefamicines, amynocligosides and fluoroquinolones was detected. Besides TEM-1 which was detected in all isolates, CTX-M+OXA-1 β-lactamases were detected in seven (out of 11; 63.6%) isolates (five blaCTX-M-1 and two blaCTX-M-15 genes), and CMY-2 β-lactamase in two isolates. PFGE showed no genetic relatedness. Conclusion Because of high prevalence of MDR strains in epidemiologically unrelated patients with AmpC- and/or ESBL producing Proteus spp. infection, further surveillance is needed. Molecular characterization and strain typing, or at least phenotypic test for AmpC/ESBL production is important for appropriate therapy and the detection of sources and modes of spread, which is the main step in order to design targeted infection control strategies. PMID:27313108

  2. Badenian planktonic foraminifera as climate proxies at the southern margin of the Central Paratethys (Ugljevik, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobalt, D.; Mandic, O.

    2012-04-01

    Badenian transgression is well exposed in the open coal pit Bogutovo Selo near Ugljevik in NE Bosnia and Herzegovina, located at the southern margin of the Pannonian Basin. Middle Miocene marine sediments superpose Late Oligocene lignite bearing lacustrine deposits. The studied succession is about 62 m thick and includes the uppermost part of the lake deposits, comprising clays, sands and coal seams, followed by marine sediments. These consist mainly of gray marls, which show some intercalations of thin, dark clay layers, volcanic ash layers and fossiliferous beds as well as carbonate bodies of different thicknesses. The presence of Orbulina suturalis allows a biostratigraphic correlation of the marine transgression horizon with the upper part of the Lower Badenian. 28 planktonic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated using quantitative analysis to evaluate the climate development during the initial marine flooding by the Paratethys Sea. Further on the samples were statistically treated to find out if there are significant differences in assemblages from the marine sediments deposited before and after the initial Serravallian cooling event coinciding with the onset of the Middle Badenian (Wielician) Salinity Crisis. 17 planktonic foraminiferal species were grouped by their palaeoclimatic significance into cool (Globigerina bulloides, G. praebulloides, G. diplostoma, G. concinna, G. tarchanensis, G. falconensis, Turborotalita quinqueloba), temperate (Globorotalia bykovae, G. transsylvanica, G. peripheroronda, Globoturborotalita woodi), warm-temperate (Globigerinella regularis, Tenuitellinata angustiumbilicata) and warm indicators (Globigerinoides trilobus, G. quadrilobatus, Orbulina suturalis, Globoquadrina cf. altispira). The counts were performed mainly on generic level. Upper Lower Badenian (Upper Lagenidae Zone) is represented in the marly succession in the lower part of the section, where the foraminiferal assemblages indicate warmer conditions with high

  3. Application of Agree II Instrument for Appraisal of Postpartum Hemorrhage Clinical Practice Guidelines in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Novo, Ahmed; Subotic-popovic, Andreja; Strbac, Savka; Kandic, Alma; Horga, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Federal Minister of Health and Minister of Health and Social Welfare of the Republika Srpska as a Governmental health authorities in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and the Republika Srpska nominated/appointed health professionals as their representatives to a multidisciplinary Guidelines Adaptation Group (GAG). This group started with its work in September 2015. The main purpose of the guidelines development exercise is to develop guidelines with worldwide recognized methodology for clinical guidelines development and adaptation. At the end of this consultancy, GAG would have develop a clinical practice guideline on Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) through the adaptation method, starting from published international clinical guidelines and adapting it according to the country specific requirements. Methodology: During the process of identifying the best guideline for adaptation, the GAG had to pass several steps. One of the crucial steps was to identify the questions related to clinical practice and health policy for which answers are needed to be addressed by the guideline. These questions included relevant issues regarding the topic area such as diagnosis, prognosis, intervention, service delivery, and training. After that, six guidelines have been researched by the six members of the GAG to see if they answered the identified questions. Evaluating the methodological quality of the selected clinical guidelines was a second essential step before deciding which ones could best fit the needs and interests. AGREE II instrument has been chosen as methods for evaluating clinical guideline quality and appropriateness. Four appraisers conducted the assessment of each of the selected guidelines for PPH. All appraisers passed the training for the AGREE II instrument before conducting appraisals, as recommended by the AGREE collaboration. Each of the four guidelines was rated independently with the AGREE II tool by each appraiser. Results: The highest

  4. Organic and inorganic geochemistry of Ljubija siderite deposits, NW Bosnia and Herzegovina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkaš, Sabina Strmić; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Palinkaš, Ladislav A.

    2009-11-01

    The Ljubija siderite deposits, hosted by a Carboniferous sedimentary complex within the Inner Dinarides, occur as stratabound replacement-type ore bodies in limestone blocks and as siderite-sulfides veins in shale. Three principal types of ore textures have been recognized including massive dark siderite and ankerite, siderite with zebra texture, and siderite veins. The ore and host rocks have been investigated by a combination of inorganic (major, trace, and rare earth element concentrations), organic (characterization of hydrocarbons including biomarkers), and stable isotope geochemical methods (isotope ratios of carbonates, sulfides, sulfates, kerogen, and individual hydrocarbons). New results indicate a marine origin of the host carbonates and a hydrothermal-metasomatic origin of the Fe mineralization. The differences in ore textures (e.g., massive siderite, zebra siderite) are attributed to physicochemical variations (e.g., changes in acidity, temperature, and/or salinity) of the mineralizing fluids and to the succession and intensity of replacement of host limestone. Vein siderite was formed by precipitation from hydrothermal fluids in the late stage of mineralization. The equilibrium fractionation of stable isotopes reveals higher formation temperatures for zebra siderites (around 245°C) then for siderite vein (around 185°C). Sulfur isotope ratios suggest Permian seawater or Permian evaporites as the main sulfur source. Fluid inclusion composition confirms a contribution of the Permian seawater to the mineralizing fluids and accord with a Permian mineralization age. Organic geochemistry data reflect mixing of hydrocarbons at the ore site and support the hydrothermal-metasomatic origin of the Ljubija iron deposits.

  5. Occurrence of Upper Cretaceous pelagic carbonates within ophiolite-related pillow basalts in the Mt. Kozara area of the Vardar zone western belt, northern Bosnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubić, Aleksandar; Radoičić, Rajka; Knežević, Mirjana; Cvijić, Ranko

    2009-03-01

    Deformed lenses of red silty micrite interstratified with basaltic pillow lavas outcrop at the confluence of the River Crna Reka and Krvavac Creek on Mt. Kozara in northern Bosnia. Interbedded pelagic carbonates contain microfossils, notably several species of Globotruncana, of Upper Santonian-Lower Campanian age. The pillow lavas and sediments form part of ~ 50 km 2 tectonically emplaced body of mafic igneous rocks, composed of pillow lava, sheeted diabase and minor gabbro. This body is tectonically emplaced within melange of the Vardar zone western belt. The basic igneous body has been interpreted as the upper part of an ophiolite that was tectonically emplaced when Neotethys finally closed during latest Cretaceous time. Accordingly, the Late Cretaceous age of the interbedded pelagic sediments, as reported here, indicates that oceanic crust still existed in this region of the Tethyan orogen during Late Cretaceous time.

  6. [Planning and organization of the Emergency Medical Service Center in Sarajevo Canton and provision of disaster rescue and protection to Bosnia-Herzegovina].

    PubMed

    Mulaomerović, Alija; Softić-Taljanović, Sena; Kovacević, Jasminka; Elezović, Tigran

    2007-01-01

    Bosnia and Hercegovina, as well as the rest of the world we live in, has a high level of exposure to various accident and catastrophes events with a consequence of big losses in human lives. These catastrophes often over warm capacities of health institutions. In those cases emergency medical services provides organized emergency medical assistance to injured and suddenly gone sick patients in place of injuring. It also provides transport to the health institution where patient will be admitted for further treatment. In order to provide adequate conditions for high level service, Emergency medical centre has a specialized team that provides highly qualified staff, adequate equipment and other means needed in rescue and medical assistance. Emergency medical centre Sarajevo also acts on requests by Federal civil defense, upon its given relevant information on mobilizing EMC resources when emergency signal is been issued. Purchase of new medical/rescue equipment is also prioritized. PMID:18283880

  7. When sexual meets apomict: genome size, ploidy level and reproductive mode variation of Sorbus aria s.l. and S. austriaca (Rosaceae) in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Hajrudinović, Alma; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Brown, Spencer C.; Pustahija, Fatima; Bourge, Mickael; Ballian, Dalibor; Bogunić, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Allopolyploidy and intraspecific heteroploid crosses are associated, in certain groups, with changes in the mating system. The genus Sorbus represents an appropriate model to study the relationships between ploidy and reproductive mode variations. Diploid S. aria and tetraploid apomictic S. austriaca were screened for ploidy and mating system variations within pure and sympatric populations in order to gain insights into their putative causalities. Methods Flow cytometry was used to assess genome size and ploidy level among 380 S. aria s.l. and S. austriaca individuals from Bosnia and Herzegovina, with 303 single-seed flow cytometric seed screenings being performed to identify their mating system. Pollen viability and seed set were also determined. Key Results Flow cytometry confirmed the presence of di-, tri- and tetraploid cytotype mixtures in mixed-ploidy populations of S. aria and S. austriaca. No ploidy variation was detected in single-species populations. Diploid S. aria mother plants always produced sexually originated seeds, whereas tetraploid S. austriaca as well as triploid S. aria were obligate apomicts. Tetraploid S. aria preserved sexuality in a low portion of plants. A tendency towards a balanced 2m : 1p parental genome contribution to the endosperm was shared by diploids and tetraploids, regardless of their sexual or asexual origin. In contrast, most triploids apparently tolerated endosperm imbalance. Conclusions Coexistence of apomictic tetraploids and sexual diploids drives the production of novel polyploid cytotypes with predominantly apomictic reproductive modes. The data suggest that processes governing cytotype diversity and mating system variation in Sorbus from Bosnia and Herzegovina are probably parallel to those in other diversity hotspots of this genus. The results represent a solid contribution to knowledge of the reproduction of Sorbus and will inform future investigations of the molecular and genetic mechanisms

  8. Risk factor control and adherence to treatment in patients with coronary heart disease in the Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Loncar, Sasa; Krneta, Milenko; Skrbic, Ranko; Lazarevic, Aleksandar; Lee, Brian T.; Lopez, Victor A.; Wong, Nathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction European treatment guidelines in persons with known coronary heart disease (CHD) focus on adherence to antiplatelet therapy, β-blockers, ACE/ARBs, and lipid-lowering agents, with goals for blood pressure (BP) of < 140/90 mm Hg and LDL cholesterol of < 3.0 mmol/l. Data on adherence to these measures in Eastern Europe are limited. Material and methods The Third Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Coronary Prevention Study (ROSCOPS III) was conducted in 2005–2006 at 10 primary heath care centres in 601 patients (36% female, mean age 55 years) with CHD including acute myocardial infarction or ischaemia, coronary artery bypass graft, or angioplasty who were examined and interviewed at least 6 months after the event. We examined the proportion of subjects on recommended treatments and at goal for BP, LDL-C, and non-smoking. Results The proportion of subjects on recommended treatments included 61% for β-blockers, 79% for ACE/ARBs, 63% for lipid-lowering agents and 74% for antiplatelet therapy. Only 30% of subjects were on all four of these treatments. 59% of subjects had BP at goal of < 140/90 mm Hg and 33% were controlled to < 130/80 mm Hg, 41% for LDL-C, and 88% were non-smokers. Improvements were seen in lipid-lowering and ACE/ARB drug use and non-smoking status from an earlier survey (ROSCOPS II) in 2002–2003. Conclusions Our data show, despite improvement over recent years, that many persons with CHD in the Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina are neither on recommended treatments nor at target for BP and/or LDL-C. Improved efforts targeted at both physicians and patients to address these issues are needed. PMID:22371744

  9. Substance abuse prevalence and its relation to scholastic achievement and sport factors: an analysis among adolescents of the Herzegovina–Neretva Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance abuse among adolescents is a major public health and social problem. However, studies rarely investigate the relationships between substance abuse, educational achievement and sport factors. Substance abuse is an even more significant problem in societies that have experienced trauma, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have had recent wars. The aims of this study were to investigate substance abuse among adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to study the potential gender-specific relationships between a) sport factors (physical activity/exercise/athletic participation) and substance abuse and b) scholastic achievement and substance abuse. Methods Our sample consisted of 1,032 adolescents who were 17 to 18 years old (435 boys and 597 girls) and who were in the final grade of high school. These subjects were randomly selected from the territory of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrospective testing was performed using an extensive self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions involving topics such as sociodemographic variables, scholastic variables, sport factors, and substance abuse data (smoking habits, drugs consumption and alcohol consumption using the AUDIT questionnaire). Descriptive statistics, frequencies, analyses of the differences and correlational analyses were performed. Results Our results found that greater than one-third of the boys and one-fourth of the girls were daily smokers, and almost half of the boys and one-fifth of the girls practiced harmful drinking; other drugs (i.e. heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, etc.) were rarely consumed. Boys dominated in sport factors, whereas girls were more successful in scholastic achievement. Approximately 23% of the boys and 6% of the girls reported that they practiced harmful drinking and smoked simultaneously. Educational failure, which was defined as having one or more negative grades at the end of the last two school years, was

  10. Awareness, knowledge, use, and attitudes toward evidence based medicine in a developing country: survey of physicians in a canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Mahmić-Kaknjo, Mersiha; Kadić, Damira; Hodžić, Harun; Spahić-Sarajlić, Selvedina; Hadžić, Elida; Ademović, Enisa

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess awareness, knowledge, use, and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine (EBM) and The Cochrane Library (CL) among physicians from Zenica-Doboj Canton (ZDC), Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered anonymous questionnaire was sent by post to all state owned health institutions (2 hospitals and 11 Primary Health Care Institutions) in ZDC. The main outcome measures were physicians’ awareness of the Cochrane, awareness and use of CL, access to EBM databases, and access to internet at work. 358 of 559 physicians responded (63.69%). Results 23.18% of respondents stated they had access to EBM databases, but only 3.91% named the actual EBM databases they used. The question on the highest level of evidence in EBM was correctly answered by 35.7% respondents, 34.64% heard about Cochrane and 32.68% heard about CL. They obtained information about CL mostly on the internet and from colleagues, whereas the information about EBM was obtained mainly during continuous medical education. Conclusion Although the attitudes toward EBM are positive, there is a low awareness of EBM among physicians in ZDC. Open access to the CL should be used more. Educational interventions in popularizing EBM and Cochrane are needed to raise awareness both among students and practicing physicians, and finally among lay audience. PMID:26718762

  11. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow’s milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Fejzić, Nihad; Begagić, Muris; Šerić-Haračić, Sabina; Smajlović, Muhamed

    2014-01-01

    Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis. Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow’s milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx), Rosa Charm β Lactam test (Charm Sciences) and Inhibition MRL test (A&M). Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb). In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis). Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level – MLR). Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues. PMID:25172975

  12. Late Cretaceous intra-oceanic magmatism in the internal Dinarides (northern Bosnia and Herzegovina): Implications for the collision of the Adriatic and European plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaszewski, Kamil; Schmid, Stefan M.; Lugović, Boško; Schuster, Ralf; Schaltegger, Urs; Bernoulli, Daniel; Hottinger, Lukas; Kounov, Alexandre; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Schefer, Senecio

    2009-03-01

    The Kozara Mountains of northern Bosnia and Hercegovina form part of the internal Dinarides and host two tectonically juxtaposed ophiolitic successions of different age. The southern part of the Kozara Mountains exposes the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit, which was obducted onto the Adriatic margin in the Late Jurassic. The northern part exposes a bimodal igneous succession that was thrust onto the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit during the latest Cretaceous to Early Paleogene. This bimodal igneous succession comprises isotropic gabbros, doleritic dikes, basaltic pillow lavas and rhyolites. Pelagic limestones, intercalated with pillow lavas, yielded a Campanian globotruncanid association, consistent with concordant U-Pb ages on zircons from dolerites and rhyolites of 81.39 ± 0.11 and 81.6 ± 0.12 Ma, respectively. Chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns of the bimodal igneous rocks show enrichment of LREE over HREE. Primitive mantle-normalised multi-element diagrams do not reveal significant depletion of HFSE. The ɛNd(T) and initial 87Sr/ 86Sr isotopic values range from + 4.4 to + 6.3 and from 0.70346 to 0.70507 respectively, suggesting an intraoceanic origin. The bimodal igneous succession is unconformably overlain by Maastrichtian to Paleocene siliciclastics that contain abundant ophiolitic detritus, suggesting reworking of the Campanian magmatics. An Eocene turbiditic sandstone succession unconformably covers both the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit and the Late Cretaceous bimodal igneous successions. These observations suggest that the Adriatic Plate and the Europe-derived Tisza and Dacia Mega-Units were still separated by a deep basin floored by oceanic lithosphere until the Campanian and that its closure did not occur before the Maastrichtian to earliest Paleogene. This Late Cretaceous oceanic domain probably represented a remnant of the Vardar Ocean, or alternatively, the Alpine Tethys; possibly the traces of both oceanic domains were connected in

  13. Potential coverage of circulating HPV types by current and developing vaccines in a group of women in Bosnia and Herzegovina with abnormal Pap smears.

    PubMed

    Salimović-Bešić, I; Hukić, M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a group of Bosnian-Herzegovinian women with abnormal cytology and to assess their potential coverage by vaccines. HPVs were identified by multiplex real-time PCR test (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM; Sacace Biotechnologies, Italy) of 105 women with an abnormal cervical Pap smear and positive high-risk (HR) HPV DNA screening test. The most common genotypes in the study were HPV-16 (32·6%, 48/147), HPV-31 (14·3%, 21/147), HPV-51 (9·5%, 14/147) and HPV-18 (7·5%, 11/147). The overall frequency of HR HPV-16 and/or HPV-18, covered by currently available vaccines [Gardasil® (Merck & Co., USA) and Cervarix®; (GlaxoSmithKline, UK)] was lower than the overall frequency of other HPVs detected in the study (40·1%, 59/174, P = 0·017). Group prevalence of HR HPVs targeted by a nine-valent vaccine in development (code-named V503) was higher than total frequency of other HPVs detected (68·0%, 100/147, P < 0·001). Development of cervical cytological abnormalities was independent of the presence of multiple infections (χ 2 = 0·598, P = 0·741). Compared to other HPVs, dependence of cervical diagnosis and HPV-16, -18 (P = 0·008) and HPV-16, -18, -31 (P = 0·008) infections were observed. Vaccines targeting HR HPV-16, -18 and -31 might be an important tool in the prevention of cervical disease in Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:25578155

  14. Palaeoenvironmental evolution of Lake Gacko (Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina): Impact of the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum on the Dinaride Lake System

    PubMed Central

    Mandic, Oleg; de Leeuw, Arjan; Vuković, Boško; Krijgsman, Wout; Harzhauser, Mathias; Kuiper, Klaudia F.

    2011-01-01

    In the Early to Middle Miocene, a series of lakes, collectively termed the Dinaride Lake System (DLS), spread out across the north-western part of the Dinaride–Anatolian continental block. Its deposits, preserved in numerous intra-montane basins, allow a glimpse into the palaeoenvironmental, palaeobiogeographic and geodynamic evolution of the region. Lake Gacko, situated in southern Bosnia and Herzegovina, is one of the constituent lakes of the DLS, and its deposits are excellently exposed in the Gračanica open-cast coal-mine. A detailed study of the sedimentary succession that addresses facies, sediment petrography, geophysical properties, and fossil mollusc palaeoecology reveals repetitive changes in lake level. These are interpreted to reflect changes in the regional water budget. First-order chronologic constraints arise from the integration of radio-isotopic and palaeomagnetic data. 40Ar/39Ar measurements on feldspar crystals from a tephra bed in the upper part of the sedimentary succession indicate a 15.31 ± 0.16 Ma age for this level. The reversed magnetic polarity signal that characterises the larger part of the investigated section correlates to chron C5Br of the Astronomically Tuned Neogene Timescale. Guided by these chronologic data and a detailed cyclostratigraphic analysis, the observed variations in lake-level, evident as two ~ 40-m and seven ~ 10-m scale transgression–regression cycles, are tuned to ~ 400-kyr and ~ 100-kyr eccentricity cycles. From the tuning, it can be inferred that the sediments in the Gacko Basin accumulated between ~ 15.8 and ~ 15.2 Ma. The economically valuable lignite accumulations in the lower part of the succession are interpreted to indicate the development of swamp forests in conjunction with lake-level falls corresponding to ~ 100-kyr eccentricity minima. Pedogenesis, rhizoliths and palustrine carbonate breccias in the upper part of the section reveal long-term aridity coinciding with a ~ 400-kyr

  15. Examination of the community-specific prevalence of and factors associated with substance use and misuse among Rural and Urban adolescents: a cross-sectional analysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Zenic, Natasa; Ostojic, Ljerka; Sisic, Nedim; Pojskic, Haris; Peric, Mia; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Objective The community of residence (ie, urban vs rural) is one of the known factors of influence on substance use and misuse (SUM). The aim of this study was to explore the community-specific prevalence of SUM and the associations that exist between scholastic, familial, sports and sociodemographic factors with SUM in adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods In this cross-sectional study, which was completed between November and December 2014, the participants were 957 adolescents (aged 17 to 18 years) from Bosnia and Herzegovina (485; 50.6% females). The independent variables were sociodemographic, academic, sport and familial factors. The dependent variables consisted of questions on cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. We have calculated differences between groups of participants (gender, community), while the logistic regressions were applied to define associations between the independent and dependent variables. Results In the urban community, cigarette smoking is more prevalent in girls (OR=2.05; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.35), while harmful drinking is more prevalent in boys (OR=2.07; 95% CI 1.59 to 2.73). When data are weighted by gender and community, harmful drinking is more prevalent in urban boys (OR=1.97; 95% CI 1.31 to 2.95), cigarette smoking is more frequent in rural boys (OR=1.61; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.39), and urban girls misuse substances to a greater extent than rural girls (OR=1.70; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.51,OR=2.85; 95% CI 1.88 to 4.31,OR=2.78; 95% CI 1.67 to 4.61 for cigarette smoking, harmful drinking and simultaneous smoking-drinking, respectively). Academic failure is strongly associated with a higher likelihood of SUM. The associations between parental factors and SUM are more evident in urban youth. Sports factors are specifically correlated with SUM for urban girls. Conclusions Living in an urban environment should be considered as a higher risk factor for SUM in girls. Parental variables are more strongly associated with SUM among urban

  16. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. Area source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon mon...

  17. COMBUSTION AREA SOURCES: DATA SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, documents, and evaluates data sources for stationary area source emissions, including solid waste and agricultural burning. rea source emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, reactive volatile organic compounds, and carbon monox...

  18. Atmospheric trace element and major ion concentrations over the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Identification of anthropogenic source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güllü, Gülen; Doğan, Güray; Tuncel, Gürdal

    Concentrations of elements and ions measured in aerosol samples collected from March 1992 to the end of December 1993 were investigated to identify source regions affecting chemical composition of aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. Collected samples were analyzed for approximately 40 elements and ions using a combination of atomic absorption spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, ion chromatography and colorimetry. Statistical techniques, such as enrichment factors and a non-parametric bootstrapped potential source contribution function, were applied on the data set to determine main source types and source regions of anthropogenic particles in the eastern Mediterranean basin. Source regions of two previously defined anthropogenic components, namely a long-range transported component and a local pollution component, were identified. The main source areas for pollutants reaching the eastern Mediterranean basin were determined as southern and western parts of Turkey, central and eastern regions of Ukraine, east of Belarus, Greece, Georgia, Romania, coastal areas along France and Spain and coastal areas around the Black Sea, Russia. More distant source regions in the South of UK and Sweden, the central part of Algeria, the northeastern part of Turkey, Russia, Germany, Hungary, Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and coastal areas of Egypt, Israel and Italy do affect aerosol composition in the eastern Mediterranean, but transport from these regions cannot account for the highest 20% of the measured pollutant concentrations.

  19. Use of wild and semi-wild edible plants in nutrition and survival of people in 1430 days of siege of Sarajevo during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995).

    PubMed

    Redzić, Sulejman

    2010-06-01

    This study is a systematic overview of data on use of wild and semi-wild edible plants in nutrition of people in 1430 days of the siege of Sarajevo during aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995). The author of this study spent all that time in Sarajevo. In 1993, the author prepared a survival program for people that included usage of edible wild plants. In addition, he conducted a detailed survey, including special interviews, on 630 people of average age 37.4 years (55% residential inhabitants, the rest were refuges), 310 males and the rest were females. According to survey, 91 species of mostly wild plants and three species of fungus were used: Küchneromyces mutabilis, Armillariella mellea and Coprinus comatus. Wild vegetables included 49 species, spices 24, wild fruits 16, and 2 species of bread-plants. They belong to 26 plants communities, and grew on 24 different habitats (urban surfaces, river coasts, low forest and scrubs, meadows and rocky grasslands). The 156 plant parts (leaves, young branches, fruit, flower, seed, root and rhizome) from 91 plant species were used. Vegetables were dominant category of use (soups, pottages, sauces) with 80 ways of preparation (30.53%), then salads 41 (15.65%), spices 39 (14.89%), different beverages 38 (14.50%), sweets 21 (8.02%), nutritive teas 15 (5.73%), and other preparations. In order to improve conventional food (war pasta, rice, lentils, old beans) people used spices made from different wild plants. PMID:20698130

  20. Selection Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Ramona

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library collection development by school library media specialists and describes selection sources for new books and materials; retrospective selection sources for materials published in preceding years; and an acquisition source. Provides an overview of the selection process and includes 10 suggestions for selection. (LRW)

  1. Nonpoint Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, F. X.

    1978-01-01

    Presented a literature review of nonpoint source effects on water quality and pollution covering: (1) water quality effects; (2) watershed studies; (3) nonpoint source models; and nonpoint source controls. A list of 122 references published in 1976 and 1977 is also presented. (HM)

  2. Nonpoint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Selzer, L.

    1994-12-31

    Nonpoint source pollution remains the most pervasive water quality issue faced today. Unlike pollution from point sources, nonpoint source pollution is diffuse both in terms of its origin and the manner in which it enters ground and surface waters. It results from a great variety of human activities that take place over a wide geographic area perhaps many hundreds or even thousands of acres. And unlike pollutants from point sources--which enter the environment at well-defined locations and in relatively even, continuous discharges--pollutants from nonpoint sources usually find their way into surface and ground waters in sudden surges associated with rainfall, thunderstorms, or snowmelt. The author discusses some of the most significant sources of nonpoint source pollution.

  3. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  4. Distribution and age-related bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European catfish (Sylurus glanis) from the Buško Blato reservoir (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Vuković, Rosemary; Galović, Dalida; Bogut, Ante; Horvatić, Janja

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the bioaccumulation of Pb, Hg, Cd, and As in tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Silurus glanis) from Buško Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Arsenic concentrations were below the Maximal Admissible Concentration (MAC) for Croatia and other countries. Mercury concentrations were below 1 mg kg(-1), but in most muscle samples of both species and all catfish liver samples, the values were higher than 0.5 mg kg(-1) (higher than the MAC for many countries including Croatia). Lead concentrations were higher than 1 mg kg(-1) (the MAC for Croatia) in most muscle samples; all kidney and most catfish liver samples also exceeded 1 mg kg(-1). Cadmium concentrations in all tissues, other than the gonads, were higher than 0.1 mg kg(-1) (MAC for Croatia), with the highest concentrations found in the kidneys. The only gender difference was found in carp, where a 68.4% higher concentration of As was found in the fry compared to the milt (P<0.05). Concentrations of all of the elements were higher in catfish compared to carp for most tissues. Significant correlations were found between all of the elements in the muscles and the liver of carp. In catfish, the muscles were the only tissue in which multiple correlations were found. Linear positive correlations with age and body mass were demonstrated for the concentrations of all heavy metals for all tissues except the gonads in both fish species. We concluded that significant heavy metal accumulation in carp and a catfish tissues correlates with age and body mass; bioaccumulation is species- and tissue-specific and is different for each element. PMID:25966047

  5. Incidence of mental retardation as compared with other psychiatric disorders and necessary support to persons placed at the Public Institution for Placement of Persons with Mental Disabilities "Drin" Fojnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Bjelošević, Edin; Karahmet, Amar; Hadžikapetanović, Halima; Bjelošević, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Aim To compare the frequency of mental retardation with other psychiatric disorders at the Institute for Mentally Disabled Persons "Drin" Fojnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina, to asses psychosocial condition and necessary support to persons with mental retardation. Methods In this retrospective, descriptive and epidemiologic study neuropsychiatric findings and reports of the Institute's social services of 527 residents (beneficiaries) were analyzed in the period 2013-2014 (age, gender, mobility, years of life spent in the Institute, visits of family members and close relatives, visits to families, mental retardation - degree, required support). Results The research included 213 (40.42%) women and 314 (59.58%) men. The average age was 39.64 years. The average number of years spent in the Institute was 10.42.Fifty-four 25.47%) examinees with mental retardation had occasional visits to their families, while 69 (32.54%) had regular visits. Thirty-four (16.04%) examinees had mild mental retardation, 70 (33.02%) had moderate retardation, 52 (24.52%) were with severe, and 56(26.42%) with profound retardation. It was found that 66 (31.13%)beneficiaries with the diagnosis of mental retardation completely depended on other persons. Conclusion The degree of mental retardation has a direct impact on the process of resocialization. A very small number of people diagnosed with mental retardation had been successfully involved in the process of resocialization. It is necessary work intensively on thecreation of conditions for the realization of the Independent Living Support program, thus making a step forward to deinstitutionalization. PMID:27313109

  6. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Martina, E.F.

    1958-04-22

    An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,

  7. Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  8. NEUTRON SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Richmond, J.L.; Wells, C.E.

    1963-01-15

    A neutron source is obtained without employing any separate beryllia receptacle, as was formerly required. The new method is safer and faster, and affords a source with both improved yield and symmetry of neutron emission. A Be container is used to hold and react with Pu. This container has a thin isolating layer that does not obstruct the desired Pu--Be reaction and obviates procedures previously employed to disassemble and remove a beryllia receptacle. (AEC)

  9. Neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-10-21

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap.

  10. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Leland, W.T.

    1960-01-01

    The ion source described essentially eliminater the problem of deposits of nonconducting materials forming on parts of the ion source by certain corrosive gases. This problem is met by removing both filament and trap from the ion chamber, spacing them apart and outside the chamber end walls, placing a focusing cylinder about the filament tip to form a thin collimated electron stream, aligning the cylinder, slits in the walls, and trap so that the electron stream does not bombard any part in the source, and heating the trap, which is bombarded by electrons, to a temperature hotter than that in the ion chamber, so that the tendency to build up a deposit caused by electron bombardment is offset by the extra heating supplied only to the trap.

  11. Crowd Sourcing.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish. PMID:27039640

  12. NEUTRON SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Reardon, W.A.; Lennox, D.H.; Nobles, R.G.

    1959-01-13

    A neutron source of the antimony--beryllium type is presented. The source is comprised of a solid mass of beryllium having a cylindrical recess extending therein and a cylinder containing antimony-124 slidably disposed within the cylindrical recess. The antimony cylinder is encased in aluminum. A berylliunn plug is removably inserted in the open end of the cylindrical recess to completely enclose the antimony cylinder in bsryllium. The plug and antimony cylinder are each provided with a stud on their upper ends to facilitate handling remotely.

  13. RADIATION SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Brucer, M.H.

    1958-04-15

    A novel long-lived source of gamma radiation especially suitable for calibration purposes is described. The source of gamma radiation is denoted mock iodine131, which comprises a naixture of barium-133 and cesium-137. The barium and cesium are present in a barium-cesium ratio of approximately 5.7/1 to 14/1, uniformly dispersed in an ion exchange resin and a filter surrounding the resin comprised of a material of atomic number below approximately 51, and substantially 0.7 to 0.9 millimeter thick.

  14. Terahertz sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumyatsky, Pavel; Alfano, Robert R.

    2011-03-01

    We present an overview and history of terahertz (THz) sources for readers of the biomedical and optical community for applications in physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, imaging, and spectroscopy. THz low-frequency vibrational modes are involved in many biological, chemical, and solid state physical processes.

  15. Superluminal sources.

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, R C

    1995-01-01

    Predictions for the apparent velocity statistics under simple beaming models are presented and compared to the observations. The potential applications for tests of unification models and for cosmology (source counts, measurements of the Hubble constant H0 and the deceleration parameter q0) are discussed. First results from a large homogeneous survey are presented. The data do not show compelling evidence for the existence of intrinsically different populations of galaxies, BL Lacertae objects, or quasars. Apparent velocities betaapp in the range 1-5 h-1, where h = H0/100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 [1 megaparsec (Mpc) = 3.09 x 10(22) m], occur with roughly equal frequency; higher values, up to betaapp = 10 h-1, are rather more scarce than appeared to be the case from earlier work, which evidently concentrated on sources that are not representative of the general population. The betaapp distribution suggests that there might be a skewed distribution of Lorentz factors over the sample, with a peak at gammab approximately 2 h-1 and a tail up to at least gammab approximately 10 h-1. There appears to be a clearly rising upper envelope to the betaapp distribution when plotted as a function of observed 5-GHz luminosity; a combination of source counts and the apparent velocity statistics in a larger sample could provide much insight into the properties of radio jet sources. PMID:11607604

  16. Late Pleistocene leopards across Europe - northernmost European German population, highest elevated records in the Swiss Alps, complete skeletons in the Bosnia Herzegowina Dinarids and comparison to the Ice Age cave art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2013-09-01

    European leopard sites in Europe demonstrate Early/Middle Pleistocene out of Africa lowland, and Late Pleistocene Asian alpine migrations being driven by climatic changes. Four different European Pleistocene subspecies are known. The final European Late Pleistocene “Ice Age leopard” Panthera pardus spelaea (Bächler, 1936) is validated taxonomically. The skull shows heavy signs of sexual dimorphism with closest cranial characters to the Caucasian Panthera pardus ciscaucasica (Persian leopard). Late Pleistocene leopards were distributed northernmost, up to S-England with the youngest stratigraphic records by skeletons and cave art in the MIS 2/3 (about 32,000-26,000 BP). The oldest leopard painting left by Late Palaeolithics (Aurignacians/Gravettians) in the Chauvet Cave (S-France) allows the reconstruction of the Ice Age leopard fur spot pattern being close to the snow or Caucasian leopards. The last Ice Age glacial leopard habitat was the mountain/alpine boreal forest (not mammoth steppe lowland), where those hunted even larger prey such as alpine game (Ibex, Chamois). Into some lairs, those imported their prey by short-term cave dwelling (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Harz Mountains, Germany). Only Eurasian Ice Age leopards specialized, similar as other Late Pleistocene large felids (steppe lions), on cave bear predation/scavenging partly very deep in caves. In Vjetrenica Cave (Dinarid Mountains, Bosnia Herzegovina), four adult leopards (two males/two females) of the MIS 3 were found about two km deep from the entrance in a cave bear den, near to one cave bear skeleton, that remained articulated in its nest. Leopards died there, partly being trapped by raising water levels of an active ponor stream, but seem to have been killed possibly either, similar as for lions known, in battles with cave bears in several cave bear den sites of Europe (e.g. Baumann's Cave, Wildkirchli Cave, Vjetrenica Cave). At other large cave sites, with overlap of hyena, wolf and dhole dens at

  17. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

    1958-01-28

    An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

  18. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Blue, C.W.; Luce, J.S.

    1960-07-19

    An ion source is described and comprises an arc discharge parallel to the direction of and inside of a magnetic field. an accelerating electrode surrounding substantially all of the discharge except for ion exit apertures, and means for establishing an electric field between that electrode and the arc discharge. the electric field being oriented at an acute angle to the magnetic field. Ions are drawn through the exit apertures in the accelrating electrcde in a direction substantially divergent to the direction of the magnetic field and so will travel in a spiral orbit along the magnetic field such that the ions will not strike the source at any point in their orbit within the magnetic field.

  19. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W. M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from the source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a vacuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  20. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from thc source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a varuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  1. Two new freshwater fish species of the genus Telestes (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from karst poljes in Eastern Herzegovina and Dubrovnik littoral (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    Bogutskaya, Nina G.; Zupančič, Primož; Bogut, Ivan; Naseka, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    ); head width 43–52% HL (vs. 48–58% HL); and lower jaw length 10–12% SL or 36–41% HL (vs. 8–10% SL or 33–38% HL). Telestes miloradi, a very local endemic species,is known only by historical samples. Telestes dabar is an abundant fish in Dabarsko Polje, but its range is critically restricted during the dry season by a few permanent sources. Nothing is known about its occurrence in underground karst waters. PMID:22539906

  2. Radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Thode, Lester E.

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

  3. Medical law - challenges in bosnia and herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Hajdarevic, Braco; Ridjanovic, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF RESPONSIBILITIES THAT ARISE ON THE BASIS OF MEDICAL ERRORS: a) Disciplinary (Punishment of the competent Association for restriction or revocation of the license); b) Civil liability (compensation); c) Criminal responsibility (protection of individual interests to protect the interests of the society); d) Violation (fine for minor damage) To increase the number of criminal proceedings mostly influenced the lack of compensation system for harm because the injured party considered that after the positive completion of criminal proceedings can easily make a claim. Therefore they do not address the local Association or Ministry of Health to investigate a case, but to the criminal proceedings to try to get compensation. It turned out that this is a dispute that is usually long lasting, with an uncertain outcome, which does not bring satisfaction to the plaintiff, and had a series of negative consequences in the general approach to the treatment of patients known as "defensive medicine". As a result of the increased number of lawsuits due to medical errors are caused the following negative consequences: a) Great vigilance of physicians in communicating with patients, who must sign a 2-3 statements when entering the hospital, and that sometimes are not really familiar with the nature of illness and required treatment; b) Significant increase in the number of unnecessary tests which are required by doctors to insure themselves from the potential liability, which at a given moment are not really necessary; c) Lack of medical error reporting system allows individuals to avoid their reporting, which affects the course of treatment and prognosis; d) Often avoidance by the doctors to perform some necessary procedures that are risky, with increasingly open refusal to cure a poor prognosis case which they left to the next level of treatment. Disappears so called "heroic approach" to the treatment in the B&H health system known from the war period and gives way to extreme caution, because the doctors expect that their every procedure will be under scrutiny; e) All of these factors create a mode known worldwide as "defensive medicine", which increases the cost of treatment and lower level of health care; f) Reduced volume of education, because older physicians are reluctant to let residents decide on specific work procedures and operations; g) There is already a critical shortage of some medical specialties, and inevitably follows increase in price from these service areas and increase of the waiting list. PMID:24493982

  4. Monitoring the source monitoring.

    PubMed

    Luna, Karlos; Martín-Luengo, Beatriz

    2013-11-01

    The hypothesis that the retrieval of correct source memory cues, those leading to a correct source attribution, increases confidence, whereas the retrieval of incorrect source memory cues, those leading to a source misattribution, decreases confidence was tested. Four predictions were derived from this hypothesis: (1) confidence should be higher for correct than incorrect source attribution except; (2) when no source cues are retrieved; (3) only the source misattributions inferred from the retrieval of incorrect source cues will be rated with low confidence; and (4) the number of source cues retrieved, either correct or incorrect, will affect the confidence in the source attributions. To test these predictions, participants read two narratives from two witnesses to a bank robbery, a customer and a teller. Then, participants completed a source monitoring test with four alternatives, customer, teller, both, or neither, and rated their confidence in their source attribution. Results supported the first three predictions, but they also suggested that the number of correct source monitoring cues retrieved did not play a role in the monitoring of the accuracy of the source attributions. Attributions made from the recovery of incorrect source cues could be tagged as dubious or uncertain, thus leading to lowered confidence irrespective of the number of incorrect source cues or whether another correct source cue was also recovered. This research has potential applications for eyewitness memory because it shows that confidence can be an indicator of the accuracy of a source attribution. PMID:23553316

  5. LISA source confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, Jeff; Cornish, Neil J.

    2004-10-15

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna will detect thousands of gravitational wave sources. Many of these sources will be overlapping in the sense that their signals will have a nonzero cross correlation. Such overlaps lead to source confusion, which adversely affects how well we can extract information about the individual sources. Here we study how source confusion impacts parameter estimation for galactic compact binaries, with emphasis on the effects of the number of overlaping sources, the time of observation, the gravitational wave frequencies of the sources, and the degree of the signal correlations. Our main findings are that the parameter resolution decays exponentially with the number of overlapping sources and superexponentially with the degree of cross correlation. We also find that an extended mission lifetime is key to disentangling the source confusion as the parameter resolution for overlapping sources improves much faster than the usual square root of the observation time.

  6. Modeling Frequency Comb Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Li, Qian; Wai, P. K. A.

    2016-06-01

    Frequency comb sources have revolutionized metrology and spectroscopy and found applications in many fields. Stable, low-cost, high-quality frequency comb sources are important to these applications. Modeling of the frequency comb sources will help the understanding of the operation mechanism and optimization of the design of such sources. In this paper,we review the theoretical models used and recent progress of the modeling of frequency comb sources.

  7. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is the definitive catalog of X-ray sources detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. When compared to all previous and current X-ray missions, Chandra breaks the resolution barrier with an arcsecond scale on-axis point spread function. The combination of excellent spatial resolution, a reasonable field of view, and low instrumental background translate into a high detectable-source density, with low confusion and good astrometry. The wealth of information that can be extracted from identified serendipitous sources is a powerful and valuable resource for astronomy. The aim of the CSC is to disseminate this wealth of information by characterizing the X-ray sky as seen by Chandra. The CSC provides simple access to Chandra data for individual sources or sets of sources matching user-specified search criteria. The catalog is intended to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. For each detected X-ray source, the catalog lists the source position and a detailed set of source properties, including multi-band aperture fluxes, X-ray colors and hardness ratios, spectra, temporal variability information, and source extent estimates. In addition to these traditional elements, the catalog includes file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra for each source individually from each observation in which a source is detected. The first release of the CSC includes information for 150,000 X-ray sources detected in a subset of public imaging observations from the first eight years of the Chandra mission. Only point sources, and compact sources with extents < 30 arcsec, are included. Highly extended sources, and sources located in selected fields containing bright, highly extended sources, are excluded from this release. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS

  8. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; (Helen He, Xiangqun; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2010-07-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents lsim30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of lsim1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a

  9. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2009-09-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) was published in 2009 March, and includes information about 94,676 X-ray sources detected in a subset of public ACIS imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents <˜30''.The CSC is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime.The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports medium sophistication scientific analysis on using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools; and (4) includes real X-ray sources detected with flux significance greater than a predefined threshold, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at an acceptable level. For each detected X-ray source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a source is detected.

  10. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  11. European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshraqi, Mohammad; McGinnis, David; Lindroos, Mats

    The following sections are included: * Neutron usage and historical background * Spallation * History of spallation sources * The ESS facility * The ESS linac * Beam physics * The front-end and the normal conducting linac * Superconducting linac * RF sources * Summary * References

  12. Theory on acoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A theory is described for the radiation emission emission from acoustic multipole sources. The sources can be stationary or moving at speeds including supersonic and experience stationary or moving disturbances. The effect of finite source distributions and disturbances is investigated as well as the manner in which they interact. Distinction is made between source distributions that responsed as a function of time and those that respond as a function of space.

  13. Familiarity in Source Memory

    PubMed Central

    Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered. PMID:22789677

  14. Artificial light sources.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T F

    1986-04-01

    A wide variety of artificial light sources exists for use in the diagnosis and treatment of photosensitivity disorders. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of these light sources (including gas discharge arcs, fluorescent lamps, and other apparatus) illustrates the importance of matching the emission spectrum of the light source, the spectral response of the radiometer, and the photobiologic action spectrum. Environmental and occupational exposure to artificial light sources may contribute to photosensitivity disorders. PMID:3955892

  15. Investigating Primary Source Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Joanne; Hanlon, Ann M.; Levine, Jennie A.

    2009-01-01

    Primary source research requires students to acquire specialized research skills. This paper presents results from a user study testing the effectiveness of a Web guide designed to convey the concepts behind "primary source literacy". The study also evaluated students' strengths and weaknesses when conducting primary source research. (Contains 3…

  16. Sources of pulsed radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of various sources of pulsed radiation are examined from the viewpoint of their importance to the radiation chemist, and some examples of uses of such sources are mentioned. A summary is given of the application of methods of physical dosimetry to pulsed sources, and the calibration of convenient chemical dosimeters by physical dosimetry is outlined. 7 figures, 1 table.

  17. Extragalactic Radio Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, Kenneth I.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses new problems arising from the growing observational data through radio telescope arrays, involving the origin of radio sources, apparent superluminal velocities, conversion of radio sources to relativistic particles, and the nature of compact opaque and extended transparent sources. New physics may be needed to answer these cosmological…

  18. The Chandra Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R. M.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Mossman, A. E.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2010-03-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public ACIS imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents < 30". The catalog (1) provides access to estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources with good scientific fidelity; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of < 1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics. In addition, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra. Support for development of the CSC is provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract NAS 8-03060.

  19. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  20. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  1. Markov information sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A regular Markov source is defined as the output of a deterministic, but noisy, channel driven by the state sequence of a regular finite-state Markov chain. The rate of such a source is the per letter uncertainty of its digits. The well-known result that the rate of a unifilar regular Markov source is easily calculable is demonstrated, where unifilarity means that the present state of the Markov chain and the next output of the deterministic channel uniquely determine the next state. At present, there is no known method to calculate the rate of a nonunifilar source. Two tentative approaches to this unsolved problem are given, namely source identical twins and the master-slave source, which appear to shed some light on the question of rate calculation for a nonunifilar source.

  2. Neotectonics of the Dinarides-Pannonian Basin transition and possible earthquake sources in the Banja Luka epicentral area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaszewski, Kamil; Herak, Marijan; Tomljenović, Bruno; Herak, Davorka; Matej, Srebrenka

    2014-12-01

    This study provides evidence for post-5 Ma shortening in the transition area between the Dinarides fold-and-thrust belt and the Pannonian Basin and reviews possible earthquake sources for the Banja Luka epicentral area (northern Bosnia and Herzegovina) where the strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake (ML 6.4) occurred on 27 October 1969. Geological, geomorphological and reflection seismic data provide evidence for a contractional reactivation of Late Palaeogene to Middle Miocene normal faults at slip rates below 0.1 mm/a. This reactivation postdates deposition of the youngest sediments in the Pannonian Basin of Pontian age (c. 5 Ma). Fault plane solutions for the main 1969 Banja Luka earthquake (ML 6.4) and its largest foreshock (ML 6.0) indicate reverse faulting along ESE-WNW-striking nodal planes and generally N-S trending pressure axes. The spatial distribution of epicentres and focal depths, analyses of the macroseismic field and fault-plane solutions for several smaller events suggest on-going shortening in the internal Dinarides. Seismic deformation of the upper crust is also associated with strike-slip faults, likely related to the NE-SW trending, sinistral Banja Luka fault. Possibly, this fault transfers contraction between adjacent segments of the Dinarides thrust system. The study area represents the seismically most active region of the Dinarides apart from the Adriatic Sea coast and the bend zone around Zagreb. We propose that on-going thrusting in the internal Dinarides thrust system takes up a portion of the current Adria-Europe convergence.

  3. Unveiling Unidentified Fermi Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lizhong; South Pole Telescope

    2016-01-01

    The Fermi γ-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) has surveyed the entire sky at the highest-energy band of the electromagnetic spectrum. The majority of Fermi sources have counterpart identifications from multi-wavelength large-area surveys, particularly in the radio and x-ray bands. However, around 35% of Fermi sources remain unidentified, a problem exasperated by the low resolution of the telescope. Understanding the nature of unidentified Fermi sources is one of the most pressing problems in γ-ray astronomy. The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has completed a survey covering a 2500 square degrees of the southern extragalactic sky with arcminute resolution at millimeter wavelengths. The mm wavelength is the most efficient means to identify blazars and unidentified Fermi sources. Our analysis shows that the SPT point source catalog provides candidate associations for 40% of the unidentified Fermi sources, showing them to be flat-spectrum radio quasars which are extraordinarily bright at millimeter (mm) wavelengths.

  4. Microwave ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  5. Source and replica calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, P.P.

    1994-02-01

    The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem.

  6. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  7. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

  8. Pulsed spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

  9. ION SOURCE FOR CALUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Tolmie, J.R.

    1958-09-16

    An improvement is presented in ion sources of the type employed in calutron devices. The described ion source has for its inventive contribution the incorporation of a plate-like cathode having the general configuration of a polygon including a given number of apices. When a polyphase source of current has a phase connected to each of the apices, the cathode is heated and rendered electron emissive. This particular cathode configuration is of sturdy construction and provides unuform emission over a considerable area.

  10. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOEpatents

    Sayell, E.H.

    1973-10-23

    A radioisotopic heat source is described which includes a core of heat productive, radioisotopic material, an impact resistant layer of graphite surrounding said core, and a shell of iridium metal intermediate the core and the impact layer. The source may also include a compliant mat of iridium between the core and the iridium shell, as well as an outer covering of iridium metal about the entire heat source. (Official Gazette)

  11. Rf power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Improved ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  13. Source identification with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Lonjou, Vincent; Knoedlseder, Juergen

    2007-07-12

    With more than 50% of unidentified sources, the third EGRET catalogue reflects the complexity of source identification in the GeV domain. In that context, we developed a dedicated GLAST ScienceTool dubbed gtsrcid for the general purpose of source identification. gtsrcid has been designed in a very flexible way and allows cross correlation with any counterpart catalogue using user-definable figures-of-merit. Our source identification strategy, the results for DC2 as well as possible improvements of our identification procedures are presented.

  14. Creating Open Source Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

  15. Open Source Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges and universities are turning to open source as a way to meet their technology infrastructure and application needs. Open source has changed life for visionary CIOs and their campus communities nationwide. The author discusses what these technologists see as the benefits--and the considerations.

  16. Spherical ion source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. G.

    1969-01-01

    Radial focusing of electrons in ion source produces greater ion densities, resulting in higher resolution and focus capability for a given source volume. Electron beam is focused near exit aperture by spherical fields. High density ions allow focusing ion beam to high density at echo, allowing high current through small aperture.

  17. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  18. Energy Sources and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with energy sources and development. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy sources and development related to the historical perspective, biological development, current aspects, and future expectations…

  19. New Source Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard E.; McCutchen, Gary D.

    1972-01-01

    This feature article outlines the concept and procedures followed in establishing performance standards for new emission sources and summarizes the standards that have been established to date. Five source catagories are enumerated: fossil fuel-fired steam generators, municipal incinerators, Portland cement plants, nitric acid plants, and sulfuric…

  20. Using Primary Source Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

  1. PORTABLE SOURCE OF RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Rylander, E.W.; Safranski, L.M.

    1959-06-16

    A portable source for radiogiaphy or radiotherapy is described. It consists of a Tl/sup 170/ or Co/sup 60/ source mounted in a rotatable tungsten alloy plug. The plug rotates within a brass body to positions of safety or exposure. Provision is made for reloading and carrying the device safely. (T.R.H.)

  2. Acoustic emission source location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promboon, Yajai

    The objective of the research program was development of reliable source location techniques. The study comprised two phases. First, the research focused on development of source location methods for homogeneous plates. The specimens used in the program were steel railroad tank cars. Source location methods were developed and demonstrated for empty and water filled tanks. The second phase of the research was an exploratory study of source location method for fiber reinforced composites. Theoretical analysis and experimental measurement of wave propagation were carried out. This data provided the basis for development of a method using the intersection of the group velocity curves for the first three wave propagation modes. Simplex optimization was used to calculate the location of the source. Additional source location methods have been investigated and critically examined. Emphasis has been placed on evaluating different methods for determining the time of arrival of a wave. The behavior of wave in a water filled tank was studied and source location methods suitable for use in this situation have been examined through experiment and theory. Particular attention is paid to the problem caused by leaky Lamb waves. A preliminary study into the use of neural networks for source location in fiber reinforced composites was included in the research program. A preliminary neural network model and the results from training and testing data are reported.

  3. Leading Education Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael D.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on, but is not limited to, reference sources on education found in the library at St. Bonaventure University, New York. The ERIC database leads the list of leading education reference sources. Also mentioned are the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors" and the Academic Index (InfoTrak) computer system. Other…

  4. Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min; Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal aircraft skins scanned rapidly in vibration tests. Relatively simple combination of permanent magnets and electromagnet serves as noncontact vibration source for nondestructive testing of metal aircraft skins. In test, source excites vibrations, and vibration waveforms measured, then analyzed for changes in resonances signifying cracks and other flaws.

  5. 1972 Microfilm Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    The 1972 Microfilm Source Book has been designed to give sources of supply for important services and equipment related to microfilm. Events in the microfilm industry during 1971 are reviewed first, and a calendar is provided of major meetings and conferences held during 1972. The next section contains an index to products which lists them…

  6. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article. PMID:27620104

  7. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOEpatents

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  8. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  9. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  10. Neutron sources and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  11. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, John B.

    1997-01-01

    An improved pulsed ion beam source having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center.

  12. On source radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H.

    1980-01-01

    The power output from given sources is usually ascertained via an energy flux integral over the normal directions to a remote (far field) surface; an alternative procedure, which utilizes an integral that specifies the direct rate of working by the source on the resultant field, is described and illustrated for both point and continuous source distribution. A comparison between the respective procedures is made in the analysis of sound radiated from a periodic dipole source whose axis performs a periodic plane angular movement about a fixed direction. Thus, adopting a conventional approach, Sretenskii (1956) characterizes the rotating dipole in terms of an infinite number of stationary ones along a pari of orthogonal directions in the plane, and through the far field representation of the latter, arrives at a series development for the instantaneous radiated power, whereas the local manner of power calculation dispenses with the equivalent infinite aggregate of sources and yields a compact analytical result.

  13. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    A 30 cm electron bombardment ion source was designed and fabricated for micromachining and sputtering applications. This source has a multipole magnetic field that employs permanent magnets between permeable pole pieces. An average ion current density of 1 ma/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions was selected as a design operating condition. The ion beam at this operating condition was uniform and well collimated, with an average variation of plus or minus 5 percent over the center 20 cm of the beam at distances up to 30 cm from the ion source. A variety of sputtering applications were undertaken with a small 10 cm ion source to better understand the ion source requirements in these applications. The results of these experimental studies are also included.

  14. Advanced positron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variola, A.

    2014-03-01

    Positron sources are a critical system for the future lepton colliders projects. Due to the large beam emittance at the production and the limitation given by the target heating and mechanical stress, the main collider parameters fixing the luminosity are constrained by the e+ sources. In this context also the damping ring design boundary conditions and the final performance are given by the injected positron beam. At present different schemes are being taken into account in order to increase the production and the capture yield of the positron sources, to reduce the impact of the deposited energy in the converter target and to increase the injection efficiency in the damping ring. The final results have a strong impact not only on the collider performance but also on its cost optimization. After a short introduction illustrating their fundamental role, the basic positron source scheme and the performance of the existing sources will be illustrated. The main innovative designs for the future colliders advanced sources will be reviewed and the different developed technologies presented. Finally the positrons-plasma R&D experiments and the futuristic proposals for positron sources will reviewed.

  15. Public Geospatial Data Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nering, Konrad

    2013-12-01

    In recent years there has been tremendous progress in the field of software for managing geographic information (GIS - Geographic Information System). Data processing capabilities expand with every new version of GIS applications. Similarly, the processing power of computers to process and manage geographic data. Once we have got such a powerful tool, the question arises: where to get the relevant data from? There are many sources of data (public, paid for), but after closer examination it turns out that they are mostly processed data from other sources. In this article I will present the primary source of data that can be used to suit one's needs. All of these data are publicly available

  16. CALUTRON ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Lofgren, E.J.

    1959-02-17

    An improvement is described in ion source mechanisms whereby the source structure is better adapted to withstanid the ravages of heat, erosion, and deterioration concomitant with operation of an ion source of the calutron type. A pair of molybdenum plates define the exit opening of the arc chamber and are in thermal contact with the walls of the chamber. These plates are maintained at a reduced temperature by a pair of copper blocks in thermal conducting contact therewith to form subsequent diverging margins for the exit opening.

  17. Biographical Sources for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the different types of published sources for biographical data from the history of astronomy - well known ones like encyclopaedias, biographical dictionaries, and obituaries, as well as less known ones like membership directories of societies, annual reports, and lists of solar-system nomenclature. Also online sources such as web pages and databases are considered. Existing bio-bibliographies are discussed and a new "Biographical Index of Astronomy" (BIA) is introduced. It lists biographical and bio-bibliographical sources for more than 16,000 persons.

  18. Nuclear electric power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  19. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  20. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  1. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  2. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  3. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

  4. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  5. Sources of Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahumada, Martin M.; Hefferlin, JB Lon

    1986-01-01

    Information about materials on environmental scanning is offered. Suggestions about sources of data for scanning are provided, organized into six facets of the environment: demographic, economic, political, organizational, technological, and social-cultural. (MLW)

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-10

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  7. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

    1994-08-02

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

  8. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.; Grabner, R. Fred; Ramsey, Philip B.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

  9. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

  10. Field emission electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Zettl, A.K.; Cohen, M.L.

    2000-05-02

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm{sup 2} at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  11. Field emission electron source

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  12. Source Inspection Scheduling Calendar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brayden

    2011-01-01

    Quality is an essential component for creating flight hardware travelling through space since the hardware is extremely expensive and cannot be reworked or repaired once launched. An important step in this process is ensuring the quality of hardware procured from Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) suppliers. An important element of determining supplier quality is source inspection. Source inspections are performed at suppliers' facilities by JPL employeesto ensure that hardware characteristics are acceptable before being covered up and/or delivered to JPL.

  13. Hubble Source Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubow, S.; Budavári, T.

    2013-10-01

    We have created an initial catalog of objects observed by the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The catalog is based on observations taken on more than 6000 visits (telescope pointings) of ACS/WFC and more than 25000 visits of WFPC2. The catalog is obtained by cross matching by position in the sky all Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) Source Extractor source lists for these instruments. The source lists describe properties of source detections within a visit. The calculations are performed on a SQL Server database system. First we collect overlapping images into groups, e.g., Eta Car, and determine nearby (approximately matching) pairs of sources from different images within each group. We then apply a novel algorithm for improving the cross matching of pairs of sources by adjusting the astrometry of the images. Next, we combine pairwise matches into maximal sets of possible multi-source matches. We apply a greedy Bayesian method to split the maximal matches into more reliable matches. We test the accuracy of the matches by comparing the fluxes of the matched sources. The result is a set of information that ties together multiple observations of the same object. A byproduct of the catalog is greatly improved relative astrometry for many of the HST images. We also provide information on nondetections that can be used to determine dropouts. With the catalog, for the first time, one can carry out time domain, multi-wavelength studies across a large set of HST data. The catalog is publicly available. Much more can be done to expand the catalog capabilities.

  14. Radiation source search toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jason S.

    The newly developed Radiation Source Search Toolkit (RSST) is a toolkit for generating gamma-ray spectroscopy data for use in the testing of source search algorithms. RSST is designed in a modular fashion to allow for ease of use while still maintaining accuracy in developing the output spectra. Users are allowed to define a real-world path for mobile radiation detectors to travel as well as radiation sources for possible detection. RSST can accept measured or simulated radiation spectrum data for generation into a source search simulation. RSST handles traversing the path, computing distance related attenuation, and generating the final output spectra. RSST also has the ability to simulate anisotropic shielding as well as traffic conditions that would impede a ground-based detection platform in a real-world scenario. RSST provides a novel fusion between spectral data and geospatial source search data generation. By utilizing the RSST, researchers can easily generate multiple datasets for testing detection algorithms without the need for actual radiation sources and mobile detector platforms.

  15. HIGH VOLTAGE ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-04-19

    A device is described for providing a source of molecular ions having a large output current and with an accelerated energy of the order of 600 kv. Ions are produced in an ion source which is provided with a water-cooled source grid of metal to effect maximum recombination of atomic ions to molecular ions. A very high accelerating voltage is applied to withdraw and accelerate the molecular ions from the source, and means are provided for dumping the excess electrons at the lowest possible potentials. An accelerating grid is placed adjacent to the source grid and a slotted, grounded accelerating electrode is placed adjacent to the accelerating grid. A potential of about 35 kv is maintained between the source grid and accelerating grid, and a potential of about 600 kv is maintained between the accelerating grid and accelerating electrode. In order to keep at a minimum the large number of oscillating electrons which are created when such high voltages are employed in the vicinity of a strong magnetic field, a plurality of high voltage cascaded shields are employed with a conventional electron dumping system being employed between each shield so as to dump the electrons at the lowest possible potential rather than at 600 kv.

  16. Source circuit design considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, G. T.

    1983-11-01

    The cost of several circuit configurations for large (5MW) array fields were investigated to assess the relative costs of high and low voltage configurations. Three source circuit NOC voltages were evaluated: 400V (ungrounded), 800V (+ or 400V center grounded), and 2000V (+ or - 1000V center grounded). Four source circuit configurations were considered for each of the three NOC voltages. The configurations correspond to source circuit currents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 amperes, respectively. Conceptual layouts for 5MW building blocks for each of the above configurations were developed. The designs were optimized to minimize BOS electrical and structural costs. Only the BOS electrical costs were evaluated. The designs were broken down into the following elements for cost: (1) basic source circuit intermodule wiring, bypass diodes and associated hardware, source circuit to J-Box wiring, etc; (2) J-Box blocking diodes, varistors, heat sinks, and housing; (3) disconnects source circuit disconnects, fuses, and housing; (4) bus cabling J-Box to PCU interface wiring, and trenching; (5) interface bus bar, group disconnects, and fuses; and (6) fault detection shunts, signal wire, electronics, and alarm. It is concluded that high voltage low current circuits are not economical, at higher currents high and low voltage circuit costs approach each other, high voltage circuits are not likely to offer near term advantage, and development work/manufacturer stimulation is needed to develop low cost high voltage hardware.

  17. Source circuit design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The cost of several circuit configurations for large (5MW) array fields were investigated to assess the relative costs of high and low voltage configurations. Three source circuit NOC voltages were evaluated: 400V (ungrounded), 800V (+ or 400V center grounded), and 2000V (+ or - 1000V center grounded). Four source circuit configurations were considered for each of the three NOC voltages. The configurations correspond to source circuit currents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 amperes, respectively. Conceptual layouts for 5MW building blocks for each of the above configurations were developed. The designs were optimized to minimize BOS electrical and structural costs. Only the BOS electrical costs were evaluated. The designs were broken down into the following elements for cost: (1) basic source circuit intermodule wiring, bypass diodes and associated hardware, source circuit to J-Box wiring, etc; (2) J-Box blocking diodes, varistors, heat sinks, and housing; (3) disconnects source circuit disconnects, fuses, and housing; (4) bus cabling J-Box to PCU interface wiring, and trenching; (5) interface bus bar, group disconnects, and fuses; and (6) fault detection shunts, signal wire, electronics, and alarm. It is concluded that high voltage low current circuits are not economical, at higher currents high and low voltage circuit costs approach each other, high voltage circuits are not likely to offer near term advantage, and development work/manufacturer stimulation is needed to develop low cost high voltage hardware.

  18. Deep source gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    Three separate emplacement concepts could explain the occurrence of gas at extreme depths: abiogenesis (a primordial, nonbiologic origin source); subducted, organic-origin gas (involving the deep, tectonic subduction emplacement of hydrocarbon-generating ocean sediments); and deep sedimentary basin gas (the more conventional emplacement of sedimentary rocks by deep downwarping of the Earth's crust). Of these concepts, Deep Source Gas research focuses on the subducted, organic-origin concept. The purpose of Deep Source Gas research is to verify natural gas arising from depths in excess of 30,000 feet, to relate these occurrences to conceptual models, to define the limits of target areas, to quantify the resource, and to determine the significance of the gas to the nation's reserves. The research emphasizes an Earth science study (geology, geochemistry, and geophysics) of the Cordilleran Geologic Province of western North America. This area is considered a prospective source largely because of known and suspected plate tectonic structures and their youthful emplacement, which increase the likelihood of a timely entrapment of deep-source generated hydrocarbons. Detailed geochemical studies indicate that the deep-source-gas generating capacity of the Aleutian Trench area of southern Alaska is high. Furthermore, geophysical studies show that an apparent fossil subduction zone exists in western Washington. This zone appears to have very thick sedimentary rock units, the existence of which will be evaluated through a more detailed seismic study and possibly through drilling activities. Structural observations made in the northern Brooks Range and central Alaskan Range indicate that overthrusting and compressional features may serve as large-scale target areas for deep source gas generation and occurrence. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Terahertz Schottky Multiplier Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlecht, Erich T.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the multiplier source technologies and the status/Performance of THz multiplier sources. An example of a THz application is imaging radar. The presentation reviews areas of requirements for THz sources: (1) Figures of merit, (i.e., Frequency Terahertz for high resolution Bandwidth of at least 15 GHz for high range resolution Efficiency (i.e., minimize power supply requirements) (2) Output power: (i.e., Milliwatts below 800 GHz, 10s of microwatts above 1 THz, 1-2 microwatts near 2 THz (3) Mechanical--stability, compact, low mass (4) Environmental -- radiation, vibration, thermal. Several sources for 0.3 - 2 THz are reviewed: FIR lasers, quantum cascade lasers (QCL), backward-wave oscillator (BWO), and Multiplier sources. The current state of the art (SoA) is shown as Substrateless Technology. It also shows where the SoA is for devices beyond 1 THz. The presentation concludes by reviewing the options for future development, and 2 technology roadmaps

  20. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOEpatents

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  1. Dual source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  2. Sources of gravitational waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bernard F.

    1989-01-01

    Sources of low frequency gravitational radiation are reviewed from an astrophysical point of view. Cosmological sources include the formation of massive black holes in galactic nuclei, the capture by such holes of neutron stars, the coalescence of orbiting pairs of giant black holes, and various means of producing a stochastic background of gravitational waves in the early universe. Sources local to our Galaxy include various kinds of close binaries and coalescing binaries. Gravitational wave astronomy can provide information that no other form of observing can supply; in particular, the positive identification of a cosmological background originating in the early universe would be an event as significant as was the detection of the cosmic microwave background.

  3. Interferometry for rotating sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velle, S.; Mehrabi Pari, S.; Csernai, L. P.

    2016-06-01

    The two particle interferometry method to determine the size of the emitting source after a heavy ion collision is extended. Following the extension of the method to spherical expansion dynamics, here we extend the method to rotating systems. It is shown that rotation of a cylindrically symmetric system leads to modifications, which can be perceived as spatial asymmetry by the "azimuthal HBT" method. We study an exact rotating and expanding solution of the fluid dynamical model of heavy ion reactions. We consider a source that is azimuthally symmetric in space around the axis of rotation, and discuss the features of the resulting two particle correlation function. This shows the azimuthal asymmetry arising from the rotation. We show that this asymmetry leads to results similar to those given by spatially asymmetric sources.

  4. MEMS Incandescent Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret; King, Kevin; Kim, Lynn; Hansler, Richard; Jones, Eric; George, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A MEMS-based, low-power, incandescent light source is being developed. This light source is fabricated using three bonded chips. The bottom chip consists of a reflector on Silicon, the middle chip contains a Tungsten filament bonded to silicon and the top layer is a transparent window. A 25-micrometer-thick spiral filament is fabricated in Tungsten using lithography and wet-etching. A proof-of-concept device has been fabricated and tested in a vacuum chamber. Results indicate that the filament is electrically heated to approximately 2650 K. The power required to drive the proof-of-concept spiral filament to incandescence is 1.25 W. The emitted optical power is expected to be approximately 1.0 W with the spectral peak at 1.1 microns. The micromachining techniques used to fabricate this light source can be applied to other MEMS devices.

  5. COASTING ARC ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Foster, J.S. Jr.

    1957-09-10

    An improved ion source is described and in particular a source in which the ions are efficiently removed. The plasma is generated in a tubular amode structure by the oscillation of electrons in an axial magnetic field, as in the Phillips Ion Gage. The novel aspect of the source is the expansion of the plasma as it leaves the anode structure, so as to reduce the ion density at the axis of the anode and present a uniform area of plasma to an extraction grid. The structure utilized in the present patent to expand the plasma comprises flange members of high permeability at the exitgrid end of the amode to diverge the magnetic field adjacent the exit.

  6. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  7. Nutrition information sources.

    PubMed

    Farrell, L

    1972-10-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  8. Nutrition Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Lois

    1972-01-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  9. The Sources of Radio News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, D. Charles

    To examine the production of programing material in a radio newsroom, a study was undertaken of the sources presented to the newsroom, of sources within the sources, of sources actively sought by the news staff, of degrees of processing of news items, and of the sources comprising the news output. Information in each of these areas was collected…

  10. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  11. Femtosecond tunable light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesak, Edward Jozef

    1999-09-01

    A practical source of continuously tunable coherent visible and infrared light would have an enormous impact on science, medicine and technology. While microwave and radio transmitters offer wide tunability at the ``turn of a knob,'' the best known source of coherent optical radiation, the laser, does not possess the same versatility. Dye lasers provide some degree of tunability, but many dyes are needed to cover even the visible region. Ti:sapphire lasers are tunable only over the red to near infra-red portion of the spectrum (about 65 0 nm to about 1.1μm). This presentation documents the development of a unique pulsed light source tunable across the visible and near infrared portion of the spectrum, a femtosecond optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Much work was expended in developing the system itself. But a great deal of work was also done in developing the support equipment (hardware and software) necessary to build as well as maintain and operate an OPA. Once completed, the system characteristics were measured and documented. Initially it possessed ``personality'' which had to be understood and removed as much as possible. In addition, the pump source for this OPA, a regenerative amplifier, is unique in that it uses Cr3+:LiSGaF as the gain medium. This regen was also characterized and compared to other more standard regenerative amplifiers. System verification was done by performing a standard experiment (Z-scan) on well known samples, several of which are well characterized at specific wavelengths (1.06 μm, 0.523 μm) in the nanosecond and picosecond regimes. The results were compared against previously published results. The OPA was also compared against another very similar system which became commercially available during the time of this research. The results were helpful in analyzing the light source(s) and data acquisition systems for areas that could be improved.

  12. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  13. Ultrashort pulsed neutron source.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, I; McCary, E; Meadows, A R; Arefiev, A; Bernstein, A C; Chester, C; Cortez, J; Donovan, M E; Dyer, G; Gaul, E W; Hamilton, D; Kuk, D; Lestrade, A C; Wang, C; Ditmire, T; Hegelich, B M

    2014-10-31

    We report on a novel compact laser-driven neutron source with an unprecedented short pulse duration (<50  ps) and high peak flux (>10(18)  n/cm(2)/s), an order of magnitude higher than any existing source. In our experiments, high-energy electron jets are generated from thin (<3  μm) plastic targets irradiated by a petawatt laser. These intense electron beams are employed to generate neutrons from a metal converter. Our method opens venues for enhancing neutron radiography contrast and for creating astrophysical conditions of heavy element synthesis in the laboratory. PMID:25396373

  14. Ultrashort Pulsed Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomerantz, I.; McCary, E.; Meadows, A. R.; Arefiev, A.; Bernstein, A. C.; Chester, C.; Cortez, J.; Donovan, M. E.; Dyer, G.; Gaul, E. W.; Hamilton, D.; Kuk, D.; Lestrade, A. C.; Wang, C.; Ditmire, T.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2014-10-01

    We report on a novel compact laser-driven neutron source with an unprecedented short pulse duration (<50 ps ) and high peak flux (>1018 n /cm2/s ), an order of magnitude higher than any existing source. In our experiments, high-energy electron jets are generated from thin (<3 μ m ) plastic targets irradiated by a petawatt laser. These intense electron beams are employed to generate neutrons from a metal converter. Our method opens venues for enhancing neutron radiography contrast and for creating astrophysical conditions of heavy element synthesis in the laboratory.

  15. Radially uniform electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D.; Bame, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    A thermionic electron source capable of producing uniform count rates in a number of channel electron multipliers simultaneously was required for conditioning multipliers for an extended space mission. It was found that a straight tungsten filament in the center of a cylindrically symmetric geometry surrounded by an array of multipliers emits a radially asymmetric distribution of electrons that changes with time. A source was developed which successfully produces a time-independent radially uniform distribution of electrons by moving the filament out of the direct line of sight and replacing it with a centrally located electron 'cloud.'

  16. An independent hydrogen source

    SciTech Connect

    Kobzenko, G.F.; Chubenko, M.V.; Kobzenko, N.S.; Senkevich, A.I.; Shkola, A.A.

    1985-10-01

    Descriptions are given of the design and operation of an independent hydrogen source used in purifying and storing hydrogen. If LaNi/sub 5/ or TiFe is used as the sorbent, one can store about 500 liter of chemically bound hydrogen in a vessel of 0.9 liter. Molecular purification of the desorbed hydrogen is used. The IHS is a safe hydrogen source, since the hydrogen is trapped in the sorbent in the chemically bound state and in equilibrium with LaNi/sub 5/Hx at room temperature. If necessary, the IHS can serve as a compressor and provide higher hydrogen pressures. The device is compact and transportable.

  17. OLED area illumination source

    DOEpatents

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  18. FABRICATION OF NEUTRON SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.

    1959-04-21

    A method is presented for preparing a neutron source from polonium-210 and substances, such as beryllium and boron, characterized by emission of neutrons upon exposure to alpha particles from the polonium. According to the invention, a source is prepared by placing powdered beryllium and a platinum foil electroplated with polonium-2;.0 in a beryllium container. The container is sealed and then heated by induction to a temperature of 450 to 1100 deg C to volatilize the polonium off the foil into the powder. The heating step is terminated upon detection of a maximum in the neutron flux level.

  19. CALUTRON ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, F.

    1958-08-19

    The construction of an ion source is descrtbed wherein a uniform and elongated arc is established for employment in a calutron. The novel features of the . source include the positioning of a cathode at one end of an elongated extt slit of an arc chamber. and anode electrodes defintng the longitudinal margins of the exit opening. When the exit slit is orientated in a parallel relation to a magnetic field, the arc extends in the direction of the magnetic field along and between the anode electrodes, which are held at a positsve potential with respect to the cathode.

  20. SOLE SOURCE AQUIFER BOUNDARY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 7 polygons representing 6 individual sole source aquifer boundaries and one streamflow source area in California, Arizona, and Nevada. Various efforts were combined to create the final product, which represents the Federal Register boundary description. Sole source aqu...

  1. ATLAS OF SOURCE EMISSION PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An atlas of various source emission particles characterized by electron optical techniques has been compiled for use by air pollution investigators. The particles studied were emitted by mobile, stationary, and natural sources. Sources included automobiles, manufacturing operatio...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION AND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results from this core's studies will be essential to interpret the results of the other cores. These measurements will permit development of a delivery system to provide exposures of specific radical species on model particles for toxicological studies. Source apportion...

  3. Custom uniform source system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcom, John L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this final report is to provide information on the Custom Uniform Source System (CSTM-USS-4000). The report includes documentation and summaries of the results for the work performed under the contract. The Annex contain laboratory test findings, photographs, and drawings of the sphere system.

  4. Sources of Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Douglas

    This module is one of a set of seven prepared in conjunction with the Title I "Project to Train Volunteer Leaders to Conduct Consumer Education Courses." It is designed to be a basic text for use in making a one-hour presentation on sources of consumer assistance. Topics include consumers' alternatives for self-help, functions of the Virginia…

  5. Open Source in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Jhunjhunwala, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    Educational institutions have rushed to put their academic resources and services online, beginning the global community onto a common platform and awakening the interest of investors. Despite continuing technical challenges, online education shows great promise. Open source software offers one approach to addressing the technical problems in…

  6. Does Source Reduction Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaway, David

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that quantification is essential to establish the cost-effectiveness of source reduction (SR). Presents case studies of monitoring methods for seven different kinds of SR efforts: (1) packaging changes, (2) SR businesses, (3) waste exchanges, (4) individual nonresidential efforts, (5) variable garbage rates, (6) yard waste reduction, and…

  7. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  8. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  9. Selective ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  10. Oceanography Information Sources 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Richard C.

    This booklet lists oceanography information sources in the first section under industries, laboratories and departments of oceanography, and other organizations which can provide free information and materials describing programs and activities. Publications listed in the second section include these educational materials: bibliographies, career…

  11. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

  12. Candlestick rubidium beam source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkiewicz, M. R.; Fox, P. J.; Scholten, R. E.

    2000-09-01

    We describe a long-lived, bright and intense rubidium atomic beam source based on a previously published recirculating candlestick design for sodium, with several modifications and enhancements. The device operates for thousands of hours without maintenance, with brightness of 1.9×1022 m-2 s-1 sr-1.

  13. Evaluating Open Source Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for…

  14. Controllable photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszetzky, Dániel; Nagy, Attila; Czitrovszky, Aladár

    2006-10-01

    We have developed our pervious experimental setup using correlated photon pairs (to the calibration of photo detectors) to realize a controllable photon source. For the generation of such photon pairs we use the non-linear process of parametric down conversion. When a photon of the pump beam is incident to a nonlinear crystal with phase matching condition, a pair of photons (signal and idler) is created at the same time with certain probability. We detect the photons in the signal beam with a single photon counting module (SPCM), while delaying those in the idler beam. Recently we have developed a fast electronic unit to control an optical shutter (a Pockels cell) placed to the optical output of the idler beam. When we detect a signal photon with the controlling electronic unit we are also able to open or close the fast optical shutter. Thus we can control which idler photons can propagate through the Pockels cell. So with this photon source we are able to program the number of photons in a certain time window. This controllable photon source that is able to generate a known number of photons with specified wavelength, direction, and polarization could be useful for applications in high-accuracy optical characterisation of photometric devices at the ultra-low intensities. This light source can also serve as a standard in testing of optical image intensifiers, night vision devices, and in the accurate measurement of spectral distribution of transmission and absorption in optical materials.

  15. BNL Sources Development Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Graves, W.; Heese, R.; Johnson, E.D.; Krinsky, S.; Yu, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    The NSLS has a long-standing interest in providing the best possible synchrotron radiation sources for its user community, and hence, has recently established the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) to pursue research into fourth generation synchrotron radiation sources. A major element of the program includes development of a high peak power FEL meant to operate in the vacuum ultraviolet. The objective of the program is to develop the source, and experimental technology together to provide the greatest impact on UV science. The accelerator under construction for the SDL consists of a high brightness RF photocathode electron gun followed by a 230 MeV short pulse linac incorporating a magnetic chicane for pulse compression. The gun drive laser is a wide bandwidth Ti: Sapphire regenerative amplifier capable of pulse shaping which will be used to study non- linear emittance compensation. Using the compressor, 1 nC bunches with a length as small as 50 {mu}m sigma (2 kA peak current) are available for experiments. In this paper we briefly describe the facility and detail our plans for utilizing the 10 m long NISUS wiggler to carry out single pass FEL experiments. These include a 1 {mu}m SASE demonstration, a seeded beam demonstration at 300 nm, and a High Gain Harmonic Generation experiment at 200 mn. The application of chirped pulse amplification to this type of FEL will also be discussed.

  16. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    In reactive ion etching of Si, varying amounts of O2 were added to the CF4 background. The experimental results indicated an etch rate less than that for Ar up to an O2 partial pressure of about .00006 Torr. Above this O2 pressure, the etch rate with CF4 exceeded that with Ar alone. For comparison the random arrival rate of O2 was approximately equal to the ion arrival rate at a partial pressure of about .00002 Torr. There were also ion source and ion pressure gauge maintenance problems as a result of the use of CF4. Large scale (4 sq cm) texturing of Si was accomplished using both Cu and stainless steel seed. The most effective seeding method for this texturing was to surround the sample with large inclined planes. Designing, fabricating, and testing a 200 sq cm rectangular beam ion source was emphasized. The design current density was 6 mA/sq cm with 500 eV argon ions, although power supply limitations permitted operation to only 2 mA/sq cm. The use of multiple rectangular beam ion sources for continuous processing of wider areas than would be possible with a single source was also studied. In all cases investigated, the most uniform coverage was obtained with 0 to 2 cm beam overlay. The maximum departure from uniform processing at optimum beam overlap was found to be +15%.

  17. Incoherent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Dietrich; Born, Matthias; Jüstel, Thomas

    Since the invention and industrialization of incandescent lamps at the end radiation of the 19th century electrical lighting has become a commodity in our daily life. Today, incoherent light sources are used for numerous application areas. Major improvements have been achieved over the past decades with respect to lamp efficiency (Fig. 10.1), lifetime and color properties.

  18. Incoherent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Dietrich; Born, Matthias; Jüstel, Thomas

    Since the invention and industrialization of incandescent lamps at the end of the 19th century electrical lighting has become a commodity in our daily life. Today, incoherent light sources are used for numerous application areas. Major improvements have been achieved over the past decades with respect to lamp efficiency Fig. 10.1, lifetime and color properties.

  19. Open-Source Colorimeter

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

  20. Poetry: Sources for Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte for the criticism of poetry. The guide enables the reader to find sources of criticism on poetry, including critical articles and essays about single poems, or writings on the work of a single author. The guide's sections…

  1. Extragalactic continuum sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtaoja, E.

    1989-09-01

    As with most other high-frequency radio telescopes, continuum work occupies only a small fraction - currently about 5% - of SEST's total time. The importance of these observations in increasing our understanding of quasars and other extragalactic sources is, however, large.

  2. Cobalt source calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Rizvi, H.M.

    1999-12-03

    The data obtained from these tests determine the dose rate of the two cobalt sources in SRTC. Building 774-A houses one of these sources while the other resides in room C-067 of Building 773-A. The data from this experiment shows the following: (1) The dose rate of the No.2 cobalt source in Building 774-A measured 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 17, 1999). The dose rate of the Shepherd Model 109 Gamma cobalt source in Building 773-A measured 9.27 x 10{sup 5} rad/h (June 25, 1999). These rates come from placing the graduated cylinder containing the dosimeter solution in the center of the irradiation chamber. (2) Two calibration tests in the 774-A source placed the graduated cylinder with the dosimeter solution approximately 1.5 inches off center in the axial direction. This movement of the sample reduced the measured dose rate 0.92% from 1.083 x 10{sup 5} rad/h to 1.073 x 10{sup 5} rad/h. and (3) A similar test in the cobalt source in 773-A placed the graduated cylinder approximately 2.0 inches off center in the axial direction. This change in position reduced the measured dose rate by 10.34% from 1.036 x 10{sup 6} to 9.27 x 10{sup 5}. This testing used chemical dosimetry to measure the dose rate of a radioactive source. In this method, one determines the dose by the chemical change that takes place in the dosimeter. For this calibration experiment, the author used a Fricke (ferrous ammonium sulfate) dosimeter. This solution works well for dose rates to 10{sup 7} rad/h. During irradiation of the Fricke dosimeter solution the Fe{sup 2+} ions ionize to Fe{sup 3+}. When this occurs, the solution acquires a slightly darker tint (not visible to the human eye). To determine the magnitude of the change in Fe ions, one places the solution in an UV-VIS Spectrophotometer. The UV-VIS Spectrophotometer measures the absorbency of the solution. Dividing the absorbency by the total time (in minutes) of exposure yields the dose rate.

  3. Fourth generation light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.

    1997-05-01

    Concepts and designs are now being developed at laboratories around the world for light sources with performance levels that exceed present sources, including the very powerful and successful third generation synchrotron radiation sources that have come on line in the past few years. Workshops, have been held to review directions for future sources. A main thrust is to increase the brightness and coherence of the radiation using storage rings with lower electron-beam emittance or free-electron lasers (FELs). In the infra-red part of the spectrum very high brightness and coherence is already provided by FEL user facilities driven by linacs and storage rings. It now appears possible to extend FEL operation to the VUV, soft X-ray and even hard X-ray spectral range, to wavelengths down to the angstrom range, using high energy linacs equipped with high-brightness rf photoinjectors and bunch-length compressors. R&D to develop such sources is in progress at BNL, DESY, KEK, SLAC and other laboratories. In the absence of mirrors to form optical cavities, short wavelengths are reached in FEL systems in which a high peak current, low-emittance electron beam becomes bunch-density modulated at the optical wavelength in a single pass through a long undulator by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE); i.e.; startup from noise. A proposal to use the last kilometer of the 3 kilometer SLAC linac (the first 2 kilometers will be used for injection to the PEP II B-Factory) to provide 15 GeV electron beams to reach 1.5 {angstrom} by SASE in a 100 m long undulator is in preparation.

  4. THz Local Oscillator Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Siegel, Peter H.

    Most operational Submillimeter-wave radio telescopes, both space borne and ground based, employ local oscillator sources based on Gunn diodes followed by whisker contacted Schottky multipliers. Enough progress, however, has been made on a number of fronts to conclude that next generation of radio telescopes that become operational in the new Millennium will have a different local oscillator (LO) generation architecture. MMIC power amplifiers with impressive gain in the Ka- to-W band have enabled the use of microwave synthesizers which can then be actively multiplied to provide a frequency agile power source beyond 100 GHz. This medium power millimeter source can then be amplified to enable efficient pumping of follow-on balanced multiplier stages. Input power to the multipliers can be further enhanced by power combining to achieve close to half a Watt at W-band. An 800 GHz three-stage multiplier chain, implemented this way has demonstrated a peak output power of 1 mW. A second advance in LO generation lies in the Schottky diode varactor technology. Planar Schottky diode multipliers have now been demonstrated up to 1500 GHz and it can be assumed that most of the future multiplier chains will be based on these robust devices rather than the whisker contacted diode of the past. The ability to produce planar GaAs diode chips deep into the THz range, with submicron dimensions, has opened up a wide range of circuit design space which can be taken advantage of to improve efficiency, bandwidth, and power handling capability of the multipliers. A third breakthrough has been the demonstration of photonic based LO sources utilizing GaAs photomixers. These sources, though not yet implemented in robust space borne missions, offer a number of advantages over their electronic counterparts, including extremely broad tuning, fiber coupled components, and solid-state implementation. Another development, which holds some promise, is the use of micro-machining technology to implement

  5. Square Source Type Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

  6. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven; Sanders, David M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  7. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  8. Understanding Slat Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Medhi R.

    2003-01-01

    Model-scale aeroacoustic tests of large civil transports point to the leading-edge slat as a dominant high-lift noise source in the low- to mid-frequencies during aircraft approach and landing. Using generic multi-element high-lift models, complementary experimental and numerical tests were carefully planned and executed at NASA in order to isolate slat noise sources and the underlying noise generation mechanisms. In this paper, a brief overview of the supporting computational effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center, is provided. Both tonal and broadband aspects of slat noise are discussed. Recent gains in predicting a slat s far-field acoustic noise, current shortcomings of numerical simulations, and other remaining open issues, are presented. Finally, an example of the ever-expanding role of computational simulations in noise reduction studies also is given.

  9. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  10. Evaluated teletherapy source library

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Lawrence J.; Schach Von Wittenau, Alexis E.

    2000-01-01

    The Evaluated Teletherapy Source Library (ETSL) is a system of hardware and software that provides for maintenance of a library of useful phase space descriptions (PSDs) of teletherapy sources used in radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The PSDs are designed to be used by PEREGRINE, the all-particle Monte Carlo dose calculation system. ETSL also stores other relevant information such as monitor unit factors (MUFs) for use with the PSDs, results of PEREGRINE calculations using the PSDs, clinical calibration measurements, and geometry descriptions sufficient for calculational purposes. Not all of this information is directly needed by PEREGRINE. It also is capable of acting as a repository for the Monte Carlo simulation history files from which the generic PSDs are derived.

  11. The Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, John N.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV third-generation synchrotron radiation storage ring and full-energy positron injector. Construction project funding began in 1989, and ground breaking took place on 5 May 1990. Construction of all accelerator facilities was completed in January 1995 and storage ring commissioning is underway. First observation of x-rays from a bending magnet source took place on 26 March 1995. Nearly all performance specifications of the injector have been reached, and first observations indicate that the reliability, dynamic aperture, emittance, and orbit stability in the storage ring are satisfactory. Observation of radiation from the first of 20 insertion device beamlines is scheduled for October 1995. Start of regular operations is expected to take place well before the APS Project target date of December 1996.

  12. Filtered cathodic arc source

    SciTech Connect

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    Disclosed is a continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45{degrees} to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  13. Terahertz sources and detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David W.; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Bishop, William L.; Kurtz, David S.; Hui, Kai

    2005-05-01

    Through the support of the US Army Research Office we are developing terahertz sources and detectors suitable for use in the spectroscopy of chemical and biological materials as well as for use in imaging systems to detect concealed weapons. Our technology relies on nonlinear diodes to translate the functionality achieved at microwave frequencies to the terahertz band. Basic building blocks that have been developed for this application include low-noise mixers, frequency multipliers, sideband generators and direct detectors. These components rely on planar Schottky diodes and integrated diode circuits and are therefore easy to assemble and robust. They require no mechanical tuners to achieve high efficiency and broad bandwidth. This paper will review the range of performance that has been achieved with these terahertz components and briefly discuss preliminary results achieved with a spectroscopy system and the development of sources for imaging systems.

  14. Mars Spark Source Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Lindamood, Glenn R.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanderWal, Randall L.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Spark Source Prototype (MSSP) hardware has been developed as part of a proof of concept system for the detection of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic in Martian dusts and soils. A spark discharge produces plasma from a soil sample and detectors measure the optical emission from metals in the plasma that will allow their identification and quantification. Trace metal measurements are vital for the assessment of the potential toxicity of the Martian environment for human exploration. The current method of X-ray fluorescence can yield concentrations only of major species. Other instruments are incompatible with the volume, weight, and power constraints for a Mars mission. The instrument will be developed primarily for use in the Martian environment, but would be adaptable for terrestrial use in environmental monitoring. This paper describes the Mars Spark Source Prototype hardware, the results of the characterization tests, and future plans for hardware development.

  15. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  16. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  17. Ion source apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, T.; Ito, Y.

    1985-03-19

    A gas is introduced into a discharge chamber of an ion source apparatus, and a gas discharge is performed between a thermionic cathode and an anode. Ions are extracted from the plasma formed in this gas discharge by a grid electrode. The thermionic cathode has a hollow cylindrical shape. A cathode chamber is defined by the thermionic cathode and a cylindrical partition wall supporting it. A columnar auxiliary electrode is coaxially inserted in the thermionic cathode. An A.C. voltage from a power source unit is supplied between the thermionic cathode and the auxiliary electrode such that effective power for keeping the thermionic cathode at a positive potential with respect to the auxiliary electrode is higher than that for keeping the auxiliary electrode at a positive potential with respect to the thermionic cathode.

  18. Extended HXR Sources - Albedo Patches or Coronal Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    Extended HXR sources in the presence of compact footpoints have been reported based on visibility amplitudes from different detectors. Attempts have been made to determine the location and extent of these sources through direct imaging. Results of this work will be described for simulated sources and for specific flares at different solar longitudes, with a discussion of the possible nature of the extended sources as either albedo patches or coronal sources or a combination of the two.

  19. Thulium-170 heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; Van Sant, J.H.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes an isotopic heat source. It comprises; at least one isotopic fuel stack, comprising alternating layers of: thulium oxide; and a low atomic weight diluent for thulium oxide; a heat block defining holes into which the fuel stacks can be placed; at least one heat pipe for heat removal, with the heat pipe being positioned in the heat block in thermal connection with the fuel stack; and a structural container surrounding the heat block.

  20. FABRICATION OF NEUTRON SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.

    1959-01-20

    A method is presented for preparing a more efficient neutron source comprising inserting in a container a quantity of Po-210, inserting B powder coated with either Ag, Pt, or Ni. The container is sealed and then slowly heated to about 450 C to volatilize the Po and effect combination of the coated powder with the Po. The neutron flux emitted by the unit is moritored and the heating step is terminated when the flux reaches a maximum or selected level.

  1. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. The Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th} {approx} 9{center dot}10{sup 19} m{sup -2}{center dot}s{sup -1}) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  3. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.; Satogata, T

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  4. VCSEL Swept Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Jiang, James; Potsaid, Benjamin; Robertson, Martin; Heim, Peter J. S.; Burgner, Christopher; John, Demis; Cole, Garrett D.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Fujimoto, James G.; Davis, Anjul M.; Cable, Alex E.

    Wavelength-swept light sources are widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). In recent years, amplified micro-electromechanical systems tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (MEMS-VCSELs) have emerged as a high performance swept source, providing a unique combination of of wide tuning range, high maximum sweep rate, variable sweep rate, long dynamic coherence length enabled by dynamic mode-hop-free single mode operation, high optical power, and excellent imaging quality. Other important parameters provided by these devices include operation in a stable polarization state, low output power ripple, and linearized wavelength sweeping. This work describes MEMS-VCSEL device design, fabrication, and performance for devices in the 1050nm band relevant to ophthalmic imaging, and the 1310nm band relevant to vascular, skin, and anatomic imaging. Tuning ranges achieved include 100 nm at 1050nm and 150nm at 1310, with the latter result representing the widest tuning range of any MEMS-VCSEL at any wavelength. Both 1050 and 1310nm devices have enabled record imaging speed, record imaging range, and enhanced SS-OCT imaging.

  5. Seismic source parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.

    1994-06-01

    The use of information contained on seismograms to infer the properties of an explosion source presents an interesting challenge because the seismic waves recorded on the seismograms represent only small indirect, effects of the explosion. The essential physics of the problem includes the process by which these elastic waves are generated by the explosion and also the process involved in propagating the seismic waves from the source region to the sites where the seismic data are collected. Interpretation of the seismic data in terms of source properties requires that the effects of these generation and propagation processes be taken into account. The propagation process involves linear mechanics and a variety of standard seismological methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem. The generation process presents a more difficult problem, as it involves non-linear mechanics, but semi-empirical methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem which appear to yield reasonable results. These basic properties of the seismic method are illustrated with some of the results from the NPE.

  6. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  7. Acoustic source localization.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Tribikram

    2014-01-01

    In this article different techniques for localizing acoustic sources are described and the advantages/disadvantages of these techniques are discussed. Some source localization techniques are restricted to isotropic structures while other methods can be applied to anisotropic structures as well. Some techniques require precise knowledge of the direction dependent velocity profiles in the anisotropic body while other techniques do not require that knowledge. Some methods require accurate values of the time of arrival of the acoustic waves at the receivers while other techniques can function without that information. Published papers introducing various techniques emphasize the advantages of the introduced techniques while ignoring and often not mentioning the limitations and weaknesses of the new techniques. What is lacking in the literature is a comprehensive review and comparison of the available techniques; this article attempts to do that. After reviewing various techniques the paper concludes which source localization technique should be most effective for what type of structure and what the current research needs are. PMID:23870388

  8. Coded source neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  9. Chemical plume source localization.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shuo; Farrell, Jay A

    2006-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume using an autonomous vehicle as a sensor probe in a fluid flow. The fluid flow is assumed to have a high Reynolds number. Therefore, the dispersion of the chemical is dominated by turbulence, resulting in an intermittent chemical signal. The vehicle is capable of detecting above-threshold chemical concentration and sensing the fluid flow velocity at the vehicle location. This paper reviews instances of biological plume tracing and reviews previous strategies for a vehicle-based plume tracing. The main contribution is a new source-likelihood mapping approach based on Bayesian inference methods. Using this Bayesian methodology, the source-likelihood map is propagated through time and updated in response to both detection and nondetection events. Examples are included that use data from in-water testing to compare the mapping approach derived herein with the map derived using a previously existing technique. PMID:17036813

  10. Nanophotonic Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolee, Jessica A.; Walker, Bennett N.; Chen, Yong; Vertes, Akos

    2010-10-01

    Interactions between laser radiation and photonic structures at elevated laser intensities give rise to the production of positive and negative ions from adsorbates. These new types of ion sources exhibit properties that are significantly different from conventional laser desorption ionization sources. In this contribution comparisons are made between matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) of biomolecules with ion production from laser-induced silicon microcolumn arrays (LISMA) and nanopost arrays (NAPA). The sharp increase of ion yields from the nanophotonic ion sources follow a power law behavior with an exponent of up to n≈7, whereas in the case of MALDI n≈5. The strong field enhancement in the vicinity of the columns and posts scales with their aspect ratio. Slender high aspect ratio posts show reduced laser fluence threshold for ionization. Posts with diameters at or below the thermal diffusion length demonstrate high surface temperatures due to the radial confinement of the deposited energy. As a consequence enhanced fragmentation, i.e., lower survival yield of the molecular ions is observed. The origin of protons in the ionization of adsorbates was identified as the entrapped residues of the solvent.

  11. Overdistribution in source memory.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E; Nakamura, K

    2012-03-01

    Semantic false memories are confounded with a second type of error, overdistribution, in which items are attributed to contradictory episodic states. Overdistribution errors have proved to be more common than false memories when the 2 are disentangled. We investigated whether overdistribution is prevalent in another classic false memory paradigm: source monitoring. It is. Conventional false memory responses (source misattributions) were predominantly overdistribution errors, but unlike semantic false memory, overdistribution also accounted for more than half of true memory responses (correct source attributions). Experimental control of overdistribution was achieved via a series of manipulations that affected either recollection of contextual details or item memory (concreteness, frequency, list order, number of presentation contexts, and individual differences in verbatim memory). A theoretical model was used to analyze the data (conjoint process dissociation) that predicts that (a) overdistribution is directly proportional to item memory but inversely proportional to recollection and (b) item memory is not a necessary precondition for recollection of contextual details. The results were consistent with both predictions. PMID:21942494

  12. Open-Source GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Burk, Thomas E; Lime, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

  13. NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-point source pollution is a diffuse source that is difficult to measure and is highly variable due to different rain patterns and other climatic conditions. In many areas, however, non-point source pollution is the greatest source of water quality degradation. Presently, stat...

  14. Source Monitoring in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Source monitoring is the process of making judgments about the origin of memories. There are three categories of source monitoring: reality monitoring (discrimination between self- versus other-generated sources), external monitoring (discrimination between several external sources), and internal monitoring (discrimination between two types of…

  15. Online Sources of Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagers, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Presents an approach to using online sources of information for competitor intelligence (i.e., monitoring industry and tracking activities of competitors); identifies principal sources; and suggests some ways of making use of online databases. Types and sources of information and sources and database charts are appended. Eight references are…

  16. API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Shannon

    2010-09-01

    The API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010 Conference, held in Berlin, included topics covering new developments in the field of global sourcing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This conference report highlights selected presentations on development in Eastern API markets, specifically India and China, factors influencing changes in global API sourcing, and risk mitigation in API sourcing. PMID:20799139

  17. BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

  18. Finding Hope in Bosnia: Fostering Resilience through Group Process Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakoor, Muhyiddin; Fister, Deborah L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a group process approach for intervening with adults coping with the impact of extraordinary and ongoing cumulative traumatic stress. Expands on historical frameworks for presenting a process-oriented and affective perspective. Article shows how group process intervention can be used to foster resilience in adults who experience…

  19. Language Names and Norms in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swagman, Kirstin J.

    2011-01-01

    The institutionalization of separate standard varieties for Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian in the 1990s was hailed by many Bosnians as the long-denied recognition of the Bosnian idiom as distinct from the Serbian and Croatian varieties it had so often been subordinated under. Yet the accompanying codification of Bosnian standard language forms has…

  20. Modern war surgery: the experience of Bosnia. 1: Deployment.

    PubMed

    Mehran, R; Connelly, P; Boucher, P; Berthiaume, E; Côté, M

    1995-06-01

    In the first of two papers on the experience of a Canadian military surgical team in the former Yugoslavia, the authors describe the deployment of the field surgical hospital, the medical structure that supported the Canadian battle group. The hospital was made up of tent sections erected within an unfinished concrete factory building. The hospital comprised a treatment area for sick parades and reception, a pharmacy, a resuscitation area for nonambulatory casualties, a laboratory, an x-ray section, an operating room and sterilization section and a ward. The hospital could be mobilized if necessary. The setup proved to be functional for the treatment of injured soldiers. Although long delays were expected because of difficulties in transporting the injured, the patients reached the hospital in a reasonable time after injury and could be treated satisfactorily. During the period of its deployment, this hospital was used more than any other Canadian hospital in the United Nations mission. This experience allowed the authors to identify deficiencies and to correct them quickly. PMID:7788606

  1. [Lead poisoning in children in Bosnia and Herzegovina].

    PubMed

    Pranjić, N; Begić, H

    1999-01-01

    Our children live in lead-polluted environments. Lead can affect almost every organ and system in the body. Exposure to lead is more dangerous for young and unborn children because children absorb lead more readily than adults and because their developing nervous system are more vulnerable to lead effects. The amount of lead in polluted air in Tuzla has been fifteen times higher in the 1996, in relationship to 1985. PMID:10758765

  2. Chernobyl source term estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Integrated Power Source Grant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional spacecraft power systems incorporate a solar array energy source, an energy storage element (battery), and battery charge control and bus voltage regulation electronics to provide continuous electrical power for spacecraft systems and instruments. Dedicated power conditioning components provide limited fault isolation between systems and instruments, while a centralized power-switching unit provides spacecraft load control. Battery undervoltage conditions are detected by the spacecraft processor, which removes fault conditions and non-critical loads before permanent battery damage can occur. Cost effective operation of a micro-sat constellation requires a fault tolerant spacecraft architecture that minimizes on-orbit operational costs by permitting autonomous reconfiguration in response to unexpected fault conditions. A new micro-sat power system architecture that enhances spacecraft fault tolerance and improves power system survivability by continuously managing the battery charge and discharge processes on a cell-by-cell basis has been developed. This architecture is based on the Integrated Power Source (US patent 5644207), which integrates dual junction solar cells, Lithium Ion battery cells, and processor based charge control electronics into a structural panel that can be deployed or used to form a portion of the outer shell of a micro-spacecraft. The first generation Integrated Power Source is configured as a one inch thick panel in which prismatic Lithium Ion battery cells are arranged in a 3x7 matrix (26VDC) and a 3x1 matrix (3.7VDC) to provide the required output voltages and load currents. A multi-layer structure holds the battery cells, as well as the thermal insulators that are necessary to protect the Lithium Ion battery cells from the extreme temperatures of the solar cell layer. Independent thermal radiators, located on the back of the panel, are dedicated to the solar cell array, the electronics, and the battery cell array. In deployed

  4. Leptospirosis from water sources

    PubMed Central

    Wynwood, Sarah Jane; Graham, Glenn Charles; Weier, Steven Lance; Collet, Trudi Anne; McKay, David Brian; Craig, Scott Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis outbreaks have been associated with many common water events including water consumption, water sports, environmental disasters, and occupational exposure. The ability of leptospires to survive in moist environments makes them a high-risk agent for infection following contact with any contaminated water source. Water treatment processes reduce the likelihood of leptospirosis or other microbial agents causing infection provided that they do not malfunction and the distribution networks are maintained. Notably, there are many differences in water treatment systems around the world, particularly between developing and developed countries. Detection of leptospirosis in water samples is uncommonly performed by molecular methods. PMID:25348115

  5. Sources of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water.

  6. Underwater power source study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhouse, H. L.; Payne, P. R.

    1981-11-01

    This report is concerned with the development of an ultra low cost underwater propulsion that can horizontally deploy 500 - 1000 feet of sonobuoy cable at depths between 500 and 1000 feet. A trade-off analysis shows that the best system is based on a gas driven water pulsejet (hydropulse) and that the best source of gas is a reaction between Lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) and seawater. The fuel cost for -15 minutes of operation is about $2.00. A design for the pulsejet engine was then prepared (the drawings are in Appendix C) together with reaction rate measuring equipment. This culminates Phase I of the contract.

  7. Compact ion accelerator source

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  8. Variable leak gas source

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A variable leak gas source and a method for obtaining the same which includes filling a quantity of hollow glass micro-spheres with a gas, storing said quantity in a confined chamber having a controllable outlet, heating said chamber above room temperature, and controlling the temperature of said chamber to control the quantity of gas passing out of said controllable outlet. Individual gas filled spheres may be utilized for calibration purposes by breaking a sphere having a known quantity of a known gas to calibrate a gas detection apparatus.

  9. The European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, M.; Bousson, S.; Calaga, R.; Danared, H.; Devanz, G.; Duperrier, R.; Eguia, J.; Eshraqi, M.; Gammino, S.; Hahn, H.; Jansson, A.; Oyon, C.; Pape-Møller, S.; Peggs, S.; Ponton, A.; Rathsman, K.; Ruber, R.; Satogata, T.; Trahern, G.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  10. Evaluation of Electroencephalography Source Localization Algorithms with Multiple Cortical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Allison; Yao, Jun; Dewald, Jules; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Source localization algorithms often show multiple active cortical areas as the source of electroencephalography (EEG). Yet, there is little data quantifying the accuracy of these results. In this paper, the performance of current source density source localization algorithms for the detection of multiple cortical sources of EEG data has been characterized. Methods EEG data were generated by simulating multiple cortical sources (2–4) with the same strength or two sources with relative strength ratios of 1:1 to 4:1, and adding noise. These data were used to reconstruct the cortical sources using current source density (CSD) algorithms: sLORETA, MNLS, and LORETA using a p-norm with p equal to 1, 1.5 and 2. Precision (percentage of the reconstructed activity corresponding to simulated activity) and Recall (percentage of the simulated sources reconstructed) of each of the CSD algorithms were calculated. Results While sLORETA has the best performance when only one source is present, when two or more sources are present LORETA with p equal to 1.5 performs better. When the relative strength of one of the sources is decreased, all algorithms have more difficulty reconstructing that source. However, LORETA 1.5 continues to outperform other algorithms. If only the strongest source is of interest sLORETA is recommended, while LORETA with p equal to 1.5 is recommended if two or more of the cortical sources are of interest. These results provide guidance for choosing a CSD algorithm to locate multiple cortical sources of EEG and for interpreting the results of these algorithms. PMID:26809000

  11. Modeling Magnetospheric Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Raymond J.; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Ogino, Tatsuki; Peroomian, Vahe; Richard, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    We have used global magnetohydrodynamic, simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and magnetosphere together with single particle trajectory calculations to investigate the sources of plasma entering the magnetosphere. In all of our calculations solar wind plasma primarily enters the magnetosphere when the field line on which it is convecting reconnects. When the interplanetary magnetic field has a northward component the reconnection is in the polar cusp region. In the simulations plasma in the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) can be on either open or closed field lines. Open field lines occur when the high latitude reconnection occurs in only one cusp. In the MHD calculations the ionosphere does not contribute significantly to the LLBL for northward IMF. The particle trajectory calculations show that ions preferentially enter in the cusp region where they can be accelerated by non-adiabatic motion across the high latitude electric field. For southward IMF in the MHD simulations the plasma in the middle and inner magnetosphere comes from the inner (ionospheric) boundary of the simulation. Solar wind plasma on open field lines is confined to high latitudes and exits the tailward boundary of the simulation without reaching the plasma sheet. The LLBL is populated by both ionospheric and solar wind plasma. When the particle trajectories are included solar wind ions can enter the middle magnetosphere. We have used both the MHD simulations and the particle calculations to estimate source rates for the magnetosphere which are consistent with those inferred from observations.

  12. Optimization of neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E.B.

    1993-11-09

    I consider here the optimization of the two component neutron source, allowing beam species and energy to vary. A simple model is developed, based on the earlier publications, that permits the optimum to be obtained simply. The two component plasma, with one species of hot ion (D{sup +} or T{sup +}) and the complementary species of cold ion, is easy to analyze in the case of a spatially uniform cold plasma, as to good approximation the total number of hot ions is important but not their spatial distribution. Consequently, the optimization can ignore spatial effects. The problem of a plasma with both types of hot ions and cold ions is rather more difficult, as the neutron production by hot-hot interactions is sensitive to their spatial distributions. Consequently, consideration of this problem will be delayed to a future memorandum. The basic model is that used in the published articles on the two-component, beam-plasma mirror source. I integrate the Fokker-Planck equation analytically, obtaining good agreement with previous numerical results. This simplifies the optimization, by providing a functional form for the neutron production. The primary result is expressed in terms of the power efficiency: watts of neutrons/watts of primary power. The latter includes the positive ion neutralization efficiency. At 150 keV, the present model obtains an efficiency of 0.66%, compared with 0.53% of the earlier calculation.

  13. NUBEAM Sources in FACETS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletzer, A.; McCune, D.; Indireshkumar, K.; Morris, A.; Pankin, A.; Cary, J. R.

    2009-05-01

    The SciDAC project for the development of a Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS) aims at producing tokamak core-to-wall transport simulations on massively parallel architectures. Here, we report on the progress of integrating the new parallel, PlasmaState based, Monte-Carlo NUBEAM module into the FACETS framework to provide neutral beam and fusion source terms in the plasma core diffusion equations. NUBEAM has recently been improved to facilitate invocation from third party software (e.g. SWIM). This was achieved by consolidating 100s of input variables into separate structures according to machine specificity, shot specificity, or time-slice specificity. Thanks to a combination of auto-generated code and a newly developed methodology for exposing Fortran90 derived types to C, all derived type members of NUBEAM structures have become in-memory accessible to FACETS's C++ infrastructure. NUBEAM, which is the first volumetric-coupling component in FACETS, has been wrapped with methods complying to the FACETS standard interface definition for easy interchangeability of modules at run time. Examples of neutral beam computations instrumented with TAU/Paratools on leadership class machines will be presented, as well as first coupled core-source FACETS simulations.

  14. Nuclear sources in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.

    In the local Universe most massive black holes at the centers of galaxies are not luminous quasars. Is this because (1) they are starved of gas, (2) they accrete without emitting radiation, (3) they refuse to eat, ejecting the incoming material, or (4) they are storing up matter in an accretion disk to feast later?With Chandra ACIS we have imaged a pilot sample of 6 nearby (D 30 Mpc) elliptical galaxies chosen to be especially quiescent based on the careful optical spectroscopy of Ho, measured black hole masses (Mbh > 10(7)Msol), and with existing X-ray upper limits (Lx 10(40)erg/s) implying far sub-Eddington accretion. In these galaxies we can measure, or limit, the diffuse hot interstellar medium, and so constrain the Bondi accretion rate.Faint X-ray emission is detected at or around the nucleus in each galaxy. The morphology of these weak X-ray sources is complex. The X-ray colors of the sources can be determined, and a moderate quality spectrum for one was obtained. We discuss these results against the possible explanations of black hole quiescence.On the other hand, a few percent of all galaxies shows evidence for nuclear activity and a brief review of the high energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei is given.

  15. Multiple source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  16. Large area plasma source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John (Inventor); Patterson, Michael (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An all permanent magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance, large diameter (e.g., 40 cm) plasma source suitable for ion/plasma processing or electric propulsion, is capable of producing uniform ion current densities at its exit plane at very low power (e.g., below 200 W), and is electrodeless to avoid sputtering or contamination issues. Microwave input power is efficiently coupled with an ionizing gas without using a dielectric microwave window and without developing a throat plasma by providing a ferromagnetic cylindrical chamber wall with a conical end narrowing to an axial entrance hole for microwaves supplied on-axis from an open-ended waveguide. Permanent magnet rings are attached inside the wall with alternating polarities against the wall. An entrance magnet ring surrounding the entrance hole has a ferromagnetic pole piece that extends into the chamber from the entrance hole to a continuing second face that extends radially across an inner pole of the entrance magnet ring.

  17. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  18. PULSED ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.E.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1958-06-17

    An ion source is described for producing very short high density pulses of ions without bcam scattering. The ions are created by an oscillating electron discharge within a magnetic field. After the ions are drawn from the ionization chamber by an accelerating electrode the ion beam is under the influence of the magnetic field for separation of the ions according to mass and, at the same time, passes between two neutralizing plntes maintained nt equal negative potentials. As the plates are formed of a material having a high ratio of secondary electrons to impinging ions, the ion bombardment of the plntes emits electrons which neutralize the frirge space-charge of the beam and tend to prevent widening of the beam cross section due to the mutual repulsion of the ions.

  19. Perovskite photonic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-05-01

    The field of solution-processed semiconductors has made great strides; however, it has yet to enable electrically driven lasers. To achieve this goal, improved materials are required that combine efficient (>50% quantum yield) radiative recombination under high injection, large and balanced charge-carrier mobilities in excess of 10 cm2 V-1 s-1, free-carrier densities greater than 1017 cm-3 and gain coefficients exceeding 104 cm-1. Solid-state perovskites are -- in addition to galvanizing the field of solar electricity -- showing great promise in photonic sources, and may be the answer to realizing solution-cast laser diodes. Here, we discuss the properties of perovskites that benefit light emission, review recent progress in perovskite electroluminescent diodes and optically pumped lasers, and examine the remaining challenges in achieving continuous-wave and electrically driven lasing.

  20. Fortran 90 Source Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-01-13

    A major advance contained in the new Fortran 90 language standard is the ability to define new data types and the operators associated with them. Writing computer code to implement computations with real and complex three domensional vectors and dyadics is greatly simplified if the equations can be implemented directly, without the need to code the vector arithmetic explicitly. The Fortran 90 module VECTORS contains source code which defines new data types for real andmore » complex 3-dimensional vectors and dyadics, along with the common operations needed to work with these objects. Routines to allow convenient initalization and output of the new types are also included. in keeping with the philosophy of data abstraction, the details of the implementation of the data types are maintained private, and the functions and operators are made generic to simplify the combining of real, complex, single and double precision vectors and dyadics.« less

  1. High brightness electron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    High energy physics accelerators and free electron lasers put increased demands on the electron beam sources. This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams using photoinjectors. Recent results from the experimental programs will be given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers will be discussed, and the following topics will be covered. Progress has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency. Cesium telluride has demonstrated significantly longer lifetimes than cesium antimonide at 10{sup {minus}8} torr. However, the laser system is more difficult because cesium telluride requires quadrupled YLF instead of the doubled YLF required for cesium antimonide. The difficulty in using photoinjectors is primarily the drive laser, in particular the amplitude stability. Finally, emittance measurements of photoinjector systems can be complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam. An example of the difficulty in measuring beam emittance is given.

  2. Thulium-170 heat source

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1990-09-06

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  3. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOEpatents

    Walter, Carl E.; Van Konynenburg, Richard; VanSant, James H.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  4. Infrared source test

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  5. Nitride quantum light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Oliver, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    Prototype nitride quantum light sources, particularly single-photon emitters, have been successfully demonstrated, despite the challenges inherent in this complex materials system. The large band offsets available between different nitride alloys have allowed device operation at easily accessible temperatures. A wide range of approaches has been explored: not only self-assembled quantum dot growth but also lithographic methods for site-controlled nanostructure formation. All these approaches face common challenges, particularly strong background signals which contaminate the single-photon stream and excessive spectral diffusion of the quantum dot emission wavelength. If these challenges can be successfully overcome, then ongoing rapid progress in the conventional III-V semiconductors provides a roadmap for future progress in the nitrides.

  6. Fortran 90 Source Module

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, Billy C.

    1998-01-13

    A major advance contained in the new Fortran 90 language standard is the ability to define new data types and the operators associated with them. Writing computer code to implement computations with real and complex three domensional vectors and dyadics is greatly simplified if the equations can be implemented directly, without the need to code the vector arithmetic explicitly. The Fortran 90 module VECTORS contains source code which defines new data types for real and complex 3-dimensional vectors and dyadics, along with the common operations needed to work with these objects. Routines to allow convenient initalization and output of the new types are also included. in keeping with the philosophy of data abstraction, the details of the implementation of the data types are maintained private, and the functions and operators are made generic to simplify the combining of real, complex, single and double precision vectors and dyadics.

  7. Extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The standard model for extragalactic variable radio sources comprises an isotropically expanding plasmoid with frozen magnetic flux and an electron distribution which evolves adiabatically. This model leads to the following relaton between the peak luminosity L (sub nu, m) and the relevant frequency nu(sub m) which are functions of time: L(sub nu,m) is proportional to nu(sub m)(n) where N = (7n + 5)/(4n + 5). In this expression, n is the spectral index in the optically thin part of the spectrum, where L (sub nu) is proportional to nu (-n). For n in the range 0.5 to 1.5, the standard model yields N in the range 1.2 to 1.4. By contrast, analysis of observational data yields estimates of N in a small range about the mean value 0.4, in clear contradiction with the standard model.

  8. Optimized variable source-profile approach for source apportionment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmur, Amit; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.

    An expanded chemical mass balance (CMB) approach for PM 2.5 source apportionment is presented in which both the local source compositions and corresponding contributions are determined from ambient measurements and initial estimates of source compositions using a global-optimization mechanism. Such an approach can serve as an alternative to using predetermined (measured) source profiles, as traditionally used in CMB applications, which are not always representative of the region and/or time period of interest. Constraints based on ranges of typical source profiles are used to ensure that the compositions identified are representative of sources and are less ambiguous than the factors/sources identified by typical factor analysis (FA) techniques. Gas-phase data (SO 2, CO and NO y) are also used, as these data can assist in identifying sources. Impacts of identified sources are then quantified by minimizing the weighted-error between apportioned and measured levels of the fitting species. This technique was applied to a dataset of PM 2.5 measurements at the former Atlanta Supersite (Jefferson Street site), to apportion PM 2.5 mass into nine source categories. Good agreement is found when these source impacts are compared with those derived based on measured source profiles as well as those derived using a current FA technique, Positive Matrix Factorization. The proposed method can be used to assess the representativeness of measured source-profiles and to help identify those profiles that may be in significant error, as well as to quantify uncertainties in source-impact estimates, due in part to uncertainties in source compositions.

  9. HYDROCARBON POLLUTANTS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of hydrocarbon pollutants from stationary sources. Early in the study, readily available information was assembled on stationary sources of hydrocarbon emissions and effluents. Information was also obtained on process descriptions, operating pa...

  10. AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION (AGNPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model addresses concerns related to the potential impacts of point and nonpoint source pollution on surface and groundwater quality (Young et al., 1989). It was designed to quantit...

  11. Off line ion source terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamanna, K.

    2014-01-01

    The off-line ion source (OLIS) terminal provides beams from stable isotopes to ISAC (see Fig. 1) experiments as well as for accelerator commissioning and for pilot beams for radioactive beam experiments. The OLIS terminal (see Fig. 2) is equipped with a microwave driven cusp source for single and double charge ions, a surface ion source for low energy spread alkali beams, and a multi-charge ion source.

  12. How Is Open Source Special?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapor, Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Open source software projects involve the production of goods, but in software projects, the "goods" consist of information. The open source model is an alternative to the conventional centralized, command-and-control way in which things are usually made. In contrast, open source projects are genuinely decentralized and transparent. Transparent…

  13. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  14. Source-space ICA for MEG source imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonmohamadi, Yaqub; Jones, Richard D.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. One of the most widely used approaches in electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography (MEG) source imaging is application of an inverse technique (such as dipole modelling or sLORETA) on the component extracted by independent component analysis (ICA) (sensor-space ICA + inverse technique). The advantage of this approach over an inverse technique alone is that it can identify and localize multiple concurrent sources. Among inverse techniques, the minimum-variance beamformers offer a high spatial resolution. However, in order to have both high spatial resolution of beamformer and be able to take on multiple concurrent sources, sensor-space ICA + beamformer is not an ideal combination. Approach. We propose source-space ICA for MEG as a powerful alternative approach which can provide the high spatial resolution of the beamformer and handle multiple concurrent sources. The concept of source-space ICA for MEG is to apply the beamformer first and then singular value decomposition + ICA. In this paper we have compared source-space ICA with sensor-space ICA both in simulation and real MEG. The simulations included two challenging scenarios of correlated/concurrent cluster sources. Main Results. Source-space ICA provided superior performance in spatial reconstruction of source maps, even though both techniques performed equally from a temporal perspective. Real MEG from two healthy subjects with visual stimuli were also used to compare performance of sensor-space ICA and source-space ICA. We have also proposed a new variant of minimum-variance beamformer called weight-normalized linearly-constrained minimum-variance with orthonormal lead-field. Significance. As sensor-space ICA-based source reconstruction is popular in EEG and MEG imaging, and given that source-space ICA has superior spatial performance, it is expected that source-space ICA will supersede its predecessor in many applications.

  15. Industrial ion source technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction with the texturing models to provide an important input to that model. The establishment of a general procedure that will allow the treatment of manay different sputtering configurations is outlined. Calculation of cross sections for energetic binary collisions was extened to Ar, Kr.. and Xe with total cross sections for viscosity and diffusion calculated for the interaction energy range from leV to 1000eV. Physical sputtering and reactive ion etching experiments provided experimental data on the operating limits of a broad beam ion source using CF4 as a working gas to produce reactive species in a sputtering beam. Magnetic clustering effects are observed when Al is seeded with Fe and sputtered with Ar(?) ions. Silicon was textured at a micron scale by using a substrate temperature of 600 C.

  16. [The source of antioxidants].

    PubMed

    Guggenbühl, N

    2006-01-01

    Free radicals are thought to play an important part in the phenomenon of aging, especially as regards the eye. Antioxydants represent an interesting means of limiting the damage due to oxydation, as is shown by a number of studies. Food is an unexpected source of antioxydants, which exist in the form of thousands of different compounds. Colored fruits and vegetables are known to be rich in carotenoids, some of which such as lutein and zeaxanthin tend to accumulate at the level of the macula. But there are plenty of other foodstuffs that supply the antiradical armoury, as has been shown by analytical findings over a number of years. Legumes and whole cereals have a very high antioxydant potential. Other items, from tea to...chocolate, contribute to providing antioxydants through food. Although some specific antioxydants appear so far to be particularly interesting, the results gathered over a number of years in various fields show the advantages of combining several interacting antioxydants. A diet with a strong vegetal component, without being vegetarian, provides a very broad range of antioxydants and thus appears to be an important defense against oxidative stress. PMID:17552431

  17. ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Billquist, P.J.; Harkewicz, R.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-08-01

    The feasibility of using a 30-watt pulsed NdYAG laser to ablate or evaporate material directly into the ECR had some initial exploratory runs and produced two distinctly interesting results. This technique holds the possibility of using small quantities of material, with a high efficiency, and being applicable to all solids. The laser illuminates a sample through one of the radial ports in the ECR main plasma chamber. The off-line tests indicated that our surplus (free) laser is capable of ablating significant quantities of interesting materials. The first tests of the laser ablation idea were carried out using a bismuth sample. The inherent pulsed nature of the technique allowed us to immediately study the time evolution of charge states in the ECR plasma. The results are directly comparable to model calculations and are completely consistent with the sequential stepwise stripping process which was assumed to dominate the high charge state production process. A paper describing our results will be presented at the 1995 International Ion Source Conference.

  18. Broadly tunable terahertz source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Peter E.; Kramb, Kevan; Haus, Joseph W.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a terahertz (THz) source based on difference frequency generation (DFG) that tunes seamlessly from 1.4 to 13.3 THz. The outputs from two seeded periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric generators (OPGs) are mixed in a DAST crystal to generate the THz frequencies. The OPG's have ~1 nsec pulse duration and an output energy of approximately 200 μJ. The corresponding high peak intensities in the DAST crystal leads to appreciable conversion efficiency such that a room temperature pyro-electric detector is used to measure the THz signal. In one of the OPGs a continuously varying periodicity PPLN crystal is used to tune the output wavelength by translating the crystal. The crystal position and seed laser are computer-controlled and synchronized such that any wavelength within the seed laser's tuning range is randomly accessible, and hence any THz difference frequency between the two seed lasers is also randomly accessible. Phase matching in DAST requires the DFG inputs to have the same polarization. We demonstrate a scheme where the output of one of the OPGs is sent through the second OPG such that the two beams are collinear with the same polarization without using a beam splitter.

  19. Source of electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Marhanka, F.D.

    1983-06-28

    A source of electricity has a first electrode, a second electrode which is spaced from the first electrode and which is made from a metal that is displaced in the electromotive series from the metal of the first electrode, a first mass which is electrically conductive and which contains particulates and liquid and which is in electrically-conducting engagement with the inner surface of the first electrode, a second mass which is electrically conductive and which contains particulates and liquid and which is in electrically-conducting engagement with the inner surface of the second electrode and which has at least one particulate that is different from all of the particulates in the first mass, an interface between the confronting surfaces of the first and second masses, a polarity-imparting material in one of the masses, and that polarity-imparting material and the liquids enabling the masses to cause the electrodes to supply a unidirectional flow of current to any load which is connected across them.

  20. 4X source

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.V. Jr.; Allison, P.; Sherman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Our Penning surface-plasma source (SPS) discharge chamber was enlarged 4X in two dimensions. To date, three pulsed discharge modes have been studied: two with noisy arc (greater than or equal to 20% H/sup -/ current fluctuations) and one with quiescent arc (less than or equal to 1% H/sup -/ current fluctuations). Lower arc magnetic field and higher H/sub 2/ gas flow allow switching from the noisy to the quiescent mode. The noisy modes yield up to 120 mA of 29-keV H/sup -/ beam; for 110 mA at 29 keV, the two-dimensional normalized rms emittance is 0.017 x 0.018 ..pi...cm.mrad. The quiescent mode yields 75 mA of 29-keV H/sup -/beam; for 67 mA at 24 keV, the emittance is 0.011 x 0.012 ..pi...cm.mrad.

  1. Review of Polarized Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenski, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent progress in polarized ion sources development is reviewed. New techniques for production of polarized H‑ ion (proton), D‑ (D+) and 3He++ ion beams will be discussed. A novel polarization technique was successfully implemented for the upgrade of the RHIC polarized H‑ ion source to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from an external source) in the He-gas ionizer cell. Polarized electron capture from the optically-pumped Rb vapor further produces proton polarization (Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source technique). The upgraded source reliably delivered beam for the 2013 polarized run in RHIC at S = 510 GeV. This was a major factor contributing to RHIC polarization increase to over 60 % for colliding beams. Feasibility studies of a new polarization technique for polarized 3He++ source based on BNL Electron Beam Ion Source is also discussed.

  2. Radiation sources working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fazio, M.V.

    1998-12-31

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, components technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigation, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations.

  3. Reull Vallis Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

  4. Portable Source Identification Device

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2005-08-01

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation’s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. As the deployment of radiation detection systems proceeds, there is a need to adapt the baseline radiation portal monitor (RPM) system technology to operations at these diverse ports of entry. When screening produces an alarm in the primary inspection RPM, the alarming vehicle is removed from the flow of commerce and the alarm is typically confirmed in a secondary inspection RPM. The portable source identification device (PSID) is a radiation sensor panel (RSP), based on thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detector and gamma spectroscopic analysis hardware and software, mounted on a scissor lift on a small truck. The lift supports a box containing a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sodium iodide detector that provides real-time isotopic identification, including neutron detectors to interdict Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and radiation dispersion devices (RDD). The scissor lift will lower the detectors to within a foot off the ground and raise them to approximately 24 feet in the air, allowing a wide vertical scanning range.

  5. Portable source identification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2005-05-01

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation"s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. As the deployment of radiation detection systems proceeds, there is a need to adapt the baseline radiation portal monitor (RPM) system technology to operations at these diverse ports of entry. When screening produces an alarm in the primary inspection RPM, the alarming vehicle is removed from the flow of commerce and the alarm is typically confirmed in a secondary inspection RPM. The portable source identification device (PSID) is a radiation sensor panel (RSP), based on thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detector and gamma spectroscopic analysis hardware and software, mounted on a scissor lift on a small truck. The lift supports a box containing a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sodium iodide detector that provides real-time isotopic identification, including neutron detectors to interdict Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and radiation dispersion devices (RDD). The scissor lift will lower the detectors to within a foot off the ground and raise them to approximately 24 feet (7.3 m) in the air, allowing a wide vertical scanning range.

  6. Retrospective source attribution for source-oriented sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bein, K. J.; Zhao, Y.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    Previous work successfully implemented a novel system that uses a single particle mass spectrometer to conditionally sample size-segregated, source-oriented particles from the ambient atmosphere in real-time. The underlying hypothesis is that the composition of individual particles is a metric of particle source and thus sampling particles based on composition should be synonymous with sampling based on source. System operation relies on real-time pattern recognition to control the actuation of different ChemVol samplers, where each ChemVol is associated with a unique composition signature. In the current work, a synthesis of data collected during these studies is used in retrospect to reconcile the actual source combinations contributing to the particles collected by each ChemVol. Source attribution is based on correlations between ChemVol sampling periods and coincident wind direction and temporal emissions patterns, coupled to knowledge of single particle composition and surrounding sources. Residential and commercial cooking, vehicular emissions, residential heating and highly processed regional background PM were identified as the major sources. Results show that real-time patterns in single particle mixing state correctly identified specific sources and that these sources were successfully separated into different ChemVols for both summer and winter seasons.

  7. Cherenkov Source for PMT Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptanoglu, Tanner; SNO+ at UC Berkeley Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    My research is focused on building a deployable source for PMT calibrations in the SNO+ detector. I work for the SNO+ group at UC Berkeley headed by Gabriel Orebi Gann. SNO+ is an addition to the SNO project, and its main goal is to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The detector will be monitored by over 9500 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to characterize the PMTs, several calibration sources are being constructed. One of which, the Cherenkov Source, will provide a well-understood source of non-isotropic light for calibrating the detector response. My goal is to design and construct multiple aspects of the Cherenkov Source. However, there are multiple questions that arose with its design. How do we keep the scintillation light inside the Cherenkov source so it does not contaminate calibration? How do we properly build the Cherenkov source: a hollow acrylic sphere with a neck? Can we maintain a clean source throughout these processes? These are some of the problems I have been working on, and will continue to work on, until the deployment of the source. Additionally, I have worked to accurately simulate the physics inside the source, mainly the energy deposition of alphas.

  8. The SIAM Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Pairsuwan, Weerapong

    2007-01-19

    A short history of the SIAM Photon Source in Thailand is described. The facility is based on the 1 GeV storage ring obtained from the SORTEC consortium in Japan. After a redesign to include insertion straight sections it produced the first light in December 2001 and the first beam line became operational in early 2002. Special difficulties appear when a synchrotron light facility is obtained by donation, which have mostly to do with the absence of human resource development that elsewhere is commonly accomplished during design and construction. Additional problems arise by the distance of a developing country like Thailand from the origin of technical parts of the donation. A donation does not provide time to generate local capabilities or include in the technical design locally obtainable parts. This makes future developments, repairs and maintenance more time consuming, difficult and expensive than it should be. In other cases, parts of components are proprietary or obsolete or both which requires redesign and engineering at a time when the replacement part should be available to prevent stoppage of operation.The build-up of a user community is very difficult, especially when the radiation spectrum is confined to the VUV regime. Most of scientific interest these days is focused on the x-ray regime. Due to its low beam energy, the SIAM storage ring did not produce useful x-ray intensities and we are therefore in the midst of an upgrade to produce harder radiation. The first step has been achieved with a 20% increase of energy to 1.2 GeV. This step shifts the critical photon energy of bending magnet radiation from 800 eV to 1.4 keV providing useful radiation up to 7 keV. A XAS-beam line has been completed in 2005 and experimentation is very active by now. The next step is to install a 6.4 T wavelength shifter by the end of 2006 resulting in a critical photon energy of 6.15 keV. Further upgrades are planed for the comming years.

  9. Disintegrins from Hematophagous Sources

    PubMed Central

    Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. Here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. Disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. In hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland of ticks and leeches. A limited number have also been found in hookworms and horseflies, and none identified in mosquitoes or sand flies. The vast majority of salivary disintegrins reported display a RGD motif and were described as platelet aggregation inhibitors, and few others as negative modulator of neutrophil or endothelial cell functions. This notably low number of reported disintegrins is certainly an underestimation of the actual complexity of this family of proteins in hematophagous secretions. Therefore an algorithm was created in order to identify the tripeptide motifs RGD, KGD, VGD, MLD, KTS, RTS, WGD, or RED (flanked by cysteines) in sialogenins deposited in GenBank database. The search included sequences from various blood-sucking animals such as ticks (e.g., Ixodes sp., Argas sp., Rhipicephalus sp., Amblyommasp.), tabanids (e.g., Tabanus sp.), bugs (e.g., Triatoma sp., Rhodnius prolixus), mosquitoes (e.g., Anopheles sp., Aedes sp., Culex sp.), sand flies (e.g., Lutzomyia sp., Phlebotomus sp.), leeches (e.g., Macrobdella sp., Placobdella sp.) and worms (e.g., Ancylostoma sp.). This approach allowed the identification of a remarkably high number of novel putative sialogenins with tripeptide motifs typical of disintegrins (>450 sequences) whose biological activity remains to be verified. This database is accessible online as a hyperlinked worksheet and displays biochemical, taxonomic, and gene ontology aspects for each putative disintegrin. It is also freely

  10. A source of innovation.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, D G

    1992-12-01

    In 1992, the USAID Population Assistance Program turned 25 years old. The program is noteworthy for being the largest of all national government programs with a current annual budget of $300 million, having wide support from the US congress and public, developing a wide variety of experts in many areas of family planning (FP), and developing and relying upon a strong infrastructure of private sector agencies. The agency has been instrumental in injecting competition into government service, using market methods, providing for choice among service providers, and investing and not just spending money. The important lessons learned over the years are identified. 1) Products, services, and information can be generated through the private sector, which was supported by USAID. The International Planned Parenthood Federation was one of the 1st to receive grants. 2) The commitment of the private sector to FP is shown in its achievement of goals, not on rules and budgets. The willingness of staff to work for low pay levels exemplifies the depth of commitment. 3) The private sector sometimes can be and often has been a source of innovation and experiment. Examples of this creativity are evident in the development of Norplant by the Population Council and RAPID computerized illustration of the impact of future population growth by the Futures Group. 4) Healthy competition and expansion of government resources can be generated through the contribution of expertise and specialization in the private sector. Grants have been distributed to private groups for delivery of FP services, management skills, training, survey research, operations research, contraceptive development an clinical testing, communication, and evaluation. 5) Use of the private sector, particularly the commercial sector, in providing services has meant a shared cost for services and less cost for taxpayers. 6) USAID has funded projects for FP services through place of employment or union, which has proven to be

  11. What are cirrus point sources?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiles, Carl; Mccarthy, Patrick J.; Reach, William; Strauss, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Most cirrus point sources are associated with interstellar gas. A subset of these was isolated, together with other sources showing large band 4 to 3 flux density ratios, that are not associated with interstellar gas. Most of the point sources are associated with diffuse cirrus emissions. The sources appear to be distributed randomly on the sky, with the exception of six clusters, one of which is not associated with any known object. Six sources out of seventeen that were observed for redshifted H I at Arecibo were found to be associated with relatively nondescript external galaxies. Most of the sources do not appear on the Palomar Sky Survey. Deep optical observations of eight fields revealed some fairly distant galaxies, one object with a very peculiar optical spectrum, and several blank fields.

  12. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; Anders, Simone; Dickinson, Michael; Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  13. Source-circuit design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

  14. A Cold Strontium Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Christopher J.; Lyon, Mary; Blaser, Kelvin; Harper, Stuart; Durfee, Dallin

    2010-03-01

    We present a cold ion source for strontium 87. The source is based off of a standard Low-Velocity-Intense-Source (LVIS) for strontium using permanent magnets in place of anti-Helmholtz coils. Atoms from the LVIS are then ionized in a two photon process as they pass a 20kV anode plate. The result is a mono-energetic beam of ions whose velocity is tunable. Applications for the ions include spectroscopy and ion interferometry.

  15. Lithography light source fault detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Pantel, Erica; Nelissen, Patrick; Moen, Jeffrey; Tincu, Eduard; Dunstan, Wayne; Brown, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    High productivity is a key requirement for today's advanced lithography exposure tools. Achieving targets for wafers per day output requires consistently high throughput and availability. One of the keys to high availability is minimizing unscheduled downtime of the litho cell, including the scanner, track and light source. From the earliest eximer laser light sources, Cymer has collected extensive performance data during operation of the source, and this data has been used to identify the root causes of downtime and failures on the system. Recently, new techniques have been developed for more extensive analysis of this data to characterize the onset of typical end-of-life behavior of components within the light source and allow greater predictive capability for identifying both the type of upcoming service that will be required and when it will be required. The new techniques described in this paper are based on two core elements of Cymer's light source data management architecture. The first is enhanced performance logging features added to newer-generation light source software that captures detailed performance data; and the second is Cymer OnLine (COL) which facilitates collection and transmission of light source data. Extensive analysis of the performance data collected using this architecture has demonstrated that many light source issues exhibit recognizable patterns in their symptoms. These patterns are amenable to automated identification using a Cymer-developed model-based fault detection system, thereby alleviating the need for detailed manual review of all light source performance information. Automated recognition of these patterns also augments our ability to predict the performance trending of light sources. Such automated analysis provides several efficiency improvements for light source troubleshooting by providing more content-rich standardized summaries of light source performance, along with reduced time-to-identification for previously

  16. ACCELERATOR BASED CONTINUOUS NEUTRON SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPIRO,S.M.; RUGGIERO,A.G.; LUDEWIG,H.

    2003-03-25

    Until the last decade, most neutron experiments have been performed at steady-state, reactor-based sources. Recently, however, pulsed spallation sources have been shown to be very useful in a wide range of neutron studies. A major review of neutron sources in the US was conducted by a committee chaired by Nobel laureate Prof. W. Kohn: ''Neutron Sources for America's Future-BESAC Panel on Neutron Sources 1/93''. This distinguished panel concluded that steady state and pulsed sources are complementary and that the nation has need for both to maintain a balanced neutron research program. The report recommended that both a new reactor and a spallation source be built. This complementarity is recognized worldwide. The conclusion of this report is that a new continuous neutron source is needed for the second decade of the 20 year plan to replace aging US research reactors and close the US neutron gap. it is based on spallation production of neutrons using a high power continuous superconducting linac to generate protons impinging on a heavy metal target. There do not appear to be any major technical challenges to the building of such a facility since a continuous spallation source has been operating in Switzerland for several years.

  17. ION SOURCE UNIT FOR CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, D.H.; Yockey, H.P.; Schmidt, F.H.

    1959-04-14

    An improvement in the mounting arrangement for an ion source within the vacuum tank of a calutron device is reported. The cathode and arc block of the source are independently supported from a stem passing through the tank wall. The arc block may be pivoted and moved longitudinally with respect to the stem to thereby align the arc chamber in the biock with the cathode and magnetic field in the tank. With this arrangement the elements of the ion source are capable of precise adjustment with respect to one another, promoting increased source efficiency.

  18. Animal models of source memory.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is the aspect of episodic memory that encodes the origin (i.e., source) of information acquired in the past. Episodic memory (i.e., our memories for unique personal past events) typically involves source memory because those memories focus on the origin of previous events. Source memory is at work when, for example, someone tells a favorite joke to a person while avoiding retelling the joke to the friend who originally shared the joke. Importantly, source memory permits differentiation of one episodic memory from another because source memory includes features that were present when the different memories were formed. This article reviews recent efforts to develop an animal model of source memory using rats. Experiments are reviewed which suggest that source memory is dissociated from other forms of memory. The review highlights strengths and weaknesses of a number of animal models of episodic memory. Animal models of source memory may be used to probe the biological bases of memory. Moreover, these models can be combined with genetic models of Alzheimer's disease to evaluate pharmacotherapies that ultimately have the potential to improve memory. PMID:26609644

  19. SOURCE PARTITIONING USING STABLE ISOTOPES: COPING WITH TOO MANY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used as tracers in environmental studies. One application is to use isotopic ratios to quantitatively determine the proportional contribution of several sources to a mixture, such as the proportion of various pollution sources in a waste st...

  20. Combustion sources of particles. 1. Health relevance and source signatures.

    PubMed

    Morawska, Lidia; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2002-12-01

    Combustion processes result in generation of a large number of particle and gaseous products that create health and environmental risks. Of particular importance are the very small particles that are emitted in large quantities from all the combustion sources, and that have been shown to be potentially more significant in terms of their impact on health than larger particles. To control and mitigate the particles with a view of health and environmental risk reduction, a good understanding is necessary of the relative and absolute contribution from the emission sources to the airborne concentrations. This understanding could only be achieved by developing source signature libraries through direct emission measurements from the sources on one hand, and by measuring particle concentrations in the air, and apportioning them to the specific local and distant sources using the signatures, on the other hand. This paper is a review of particle characteristics that are used as source signatures as well as their general advantages and limitations. The second part of the paper reviews source signatures of the most common combustion pollution sources. PMID:12492164

  1. On non-radiating sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musafir, Ricardo E.

    2013-08-01

    Following the analysis by P.E. Doak on the radiating (active) and non-radiating (reactive) parts of a source distribution and their effect on the identification of sources, this paper discusses the possible structure of non-radiating sources, i.e., of sources which produce a null field outside the source region. It is shown that these sources can be of three types, two of them only with arbitrary time dependence. In this case, the non-radiating sources are forcibly formed by the difference of two source distributions which generate, outside the region limited by the sources in question, the same field. In the type discussed by Doak, one source distribution encircles the other and cancelation is attained as a global effect. In the other, emphasized by Ffowcs Williams, the two source distributions are superimposed and cancelation is produced locally. The latter type of non-radiating source is discussed in detail, it being shown that, while they do not represent physical sources, they provide valuable information on non-radiating effects. The third type refers to single frequency sources and involves a particular match of wavelength, geometry and source strength distribution so that the acoustic energy gets trapped inside the source region. Of these three types of non-radiating sources, only the first one—that focused by Doak—can influence the identification of the active part of a source distribution from measurements made outside the source region. Evanescent waves, associated with a purely reactive field, are also discussed. It is pointed out that evanescent waves obtained in the decomposition of the field of a vibrating body of finite extent, although useful for representing certain aspects of the field, do not exist physically. Aspects affecting the identification of sources are also briefly tackled. Can the sources be taken as essentially omnidirectional or directional features of the individual sources are important? (should the sources be represented by e

  2. Thermal Management of Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J.; Völker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The primary task of light sources is illumination, i.e., the emission of visible radiation—light. However, depending on the generation principle, besides light, also heat will be dissipated to the surroundings. Traditional thermal light sources generate light by the electrical heating of a tungsten wire to temperatures of about 3000 K. Even at this high temperature, the majority of the emitted thermal radiation is within the long wavelength range of the spectrum, i.e., not in the visible range of the optical spectrum. Generation of light with discharge lamps is completely different and non-thermal; however, even in this case the electrodes are heated to temperatures well above 2000 K. Thus, discharge lamps also suffer from thermal problems. In the case of solid-state light sources, also non-thermal light sources, the driving electrical current causes heating of the device, for which the temperature is, or should usually be, below 420 K for proper operation. Contrary to thermal or discharge light sources, such relatively low temperatures of solid-state light sources prevent efficient cooling by thermal radiation, requiring convective or conductive cooling. However, for all mentioned light sources, the thermal management, i.e., the adjusting and maintaining of an optimum operation temperature are vital for the efficiency and lifetime of the light sources. This paper deals with the methods of generation and measurement of the thermal load in the respective light sources and discusses ways to optimize the efficiency and lifetime of such light sources. Also, some practical examples are given to emphasize the relevance of such thermal management for industry, pointing out the potential for future more energy-efficient light source concepts.

  3. Ion source choices - an h- source for the high intensity neutrino source

    SciTech Connect

    Moehs, Douglas P.; Welton, Robert F.; Stockli, Martin P.; Peters, Jens; Alessi, James; /Brookhaven

    2006-08-01

    The High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) program at Fermilab (formerly the Proton Driver) aims to develop a multi-mission linear accelerator (LINAC) capable of accelerate H{sup -} ions to 8 GeV. This paper touches on the ion source requirements for the HINS and discusses long pulse length testing of three ion sources which appear to have the capability of meeting these requirements.

  4. Outstanding Reference Sources of 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlman, James R.

    1987-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 37 reference sources for small and medium sized public and academic libraries, categorized by subject area. These titles were selected by the Reference Sources Committee of the Reference and Adult Services Division of the American Library Association. (CLB)

  5. MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING GUIDE DOCUMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant percentage of surface waters I the U.S. do not meet the designated use criteria as determined by high densities of fecal indicator bacteria as set forth by the Clean Water Act. Both point and non-point sources contribute to water pollution. In contrast to point sources such as sewage...

  6. Online Sources for Competitor Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Arthur

    Competitor information gathering is a key aspect of business planning. Information can be collected from either published or unpublished sources. Unpublished information will often be verified based on material from published sources. Published information is more likely to be factual and includes financial, stockmarket, press, market and…

  7. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-04-21

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed.

  8. School Principals' Sources of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Arland Early

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what sources of professional knowledge are available to principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district. Qualitative research methods were applied to gain an understanding of what sources of knowledge are used by school principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district and the barriers they face…

  9. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed. PMID:25931055

  10. Electrical Neuroimaging with Irrotational Sources

    PubMed Central

    Grave de Peralta Menendez, Rolando; Gonzalez Andino, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses theoretical aspects of the modeling of the sources of the EEG (i.e., the bioelectromagnetic inverse problem or source localization problem). Using the Helmholtz decomposition (HD) of the current density vector (CDV) of the primary current into an irrotational (I) and a solenoidal (S) part we show that only the irrotational part can contribute to the EEG measurements. In particular we present for the first time the HD of a dipole and of a pure irrotational source. We show that, for both kinds of sources, I extends all over the space independently of whether the source is spatially concentrated (as the dipole) or not. However, the divergence remains confined to a region coinciding with the expected location of the sources, confirming that it is the divergence rather than the CDV that really defines the spatial extension of the generators, from where it follows that an irrotational source model (ELECTRA) is always physiologically meaningful as long as the divergence remains confined to the brain. Finally we show that the irrotational source model remains valid for the most general electrodynamics model of the EEG in inhomogeneous anisotropic dispersive media and thus far beyond the (quasi) static approximation. PMID:26113873

  11. Cretaceous source rocks in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Kari, I.B. )

    1993-02-01

    Pakistan is located at the converging boundaries of the Indian, Arabian, and Eurasian plates. Evolution of this tectonic setting has provided an array of environmental habitats for deposition of petroleum source rocks and development of structural forms. The potential Cretaceous source rocks in Central and South Indus Basin are spread over an area of about 300,000 km[sup 2]. With 2% cutoff on Total Organic Carbon, the average source rock thickness is 30-50 m, which is estimated to have generated more than 200 billion bbl of oil equivalent. To date, production of more than 30,000 bbl of oil and about 1200 million ft[sup 3] of gas per day can be directly attributed to Cretaceous source. This basin was an area of extensional tectonics during the Lower to Middle Cretaceous associated with slightly restricted circulation of the sea waters at the north-western margin of Indian Plate. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Sembar Formation) were deposited while the basin was opening up and anoxia was prevailing. Similarly Middle to Upper Cretaceous clastics were deposited in setting favorable for preservation of organic matter. The time and depth of burial of the Cretaceous source material and optimum thermal regime have provided the requisite maturation level for generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Central Indus basin is characterized by Cretaceous source rocks mature for gas generation. However, in South Indus Basin Cretaceous source rocks lie within the oil window in some parts and have gone past it in others.

  12. FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P.

    1982-01-01

    FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program (SAP) automatically gathers and reports statistics on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program. Provisions are made for weighting each statistic, providing user with overall figure of complexity. Statistics, as well as figures of complexity, are gathered on module-by-module basis. Overall summed statistics are accumulated for complete input source file.

  13. Huygens's secondary-sources dimensions.

    PubMed

    Romero, J A; Hernández, L

    2007-04-01

    Using a vectorial formulation, we show that Huygens's secondary-sources density is constant in plane waves, and it depends only on the wavelength. We also illustrate that Huygens's secondary sources, which act as emitters of secondary wavelets, have a finite dimension equal to 3 pi/2k(2). PMID:17361294

  14. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGESBeta

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-05-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed.

  15. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter identifies and describes major industrial sources of methane (CH4) emissions. or each source type examined, it identifies CH4 release points and discusses in detail the factors affecting emissions. t also summarizes and discusses available global and country-specific ...

  16. SULFUR DIOXIDE SOURCES IN AK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map shows industrial plants which emit 100 tons/year or more of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Alaska. The SO2 sources are plotted on a background map of cities and county boundaries. Data Sources: SO2 Sites: U.S. EPA AIRS System, County Outlines: 1990 Census Tiger Line Files 1:1...

  17. ORNL ECR multicharged ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    A multicharged ion source based on Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating has been designed and built at ORNL. The ECR ion source, which is completely dedicated for atomic physics collision studies, produces higher charge states and higher beam intensities than the present ORNL PIG multicharged ion source, and will thus permit study of collision processes involving ions of higher charge states in experiments requiring higher beam intensities than could be previously obtained in our laboratory. The source has already produced up to fully stripped C and O beams, as well as up to He-like Ar beams. Measurements of the energy spread of ions extracted from the ion source operating in both single-stage and two-stage mode are described. In addition, initial results of total cross section measurements for fully stripped light ions incident on atomic hydrogen in the energy range 0.2 to 10 keV are presented. 13 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  18. Slotted antenna waveguide plasma source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A high density plasma generated by microwave injection using a windowless electrodeless rectangular slotted antenna waveguide plasma source has been demonstrated. Plasma probe measurements indicate that the source could be applicable for low power ion thruster applications, ion implantation, and related applications. This slotted antenna plasma source invention operates on the principle of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). It employs no window and it is completely electrodeless and therefore its operation lifetime is long, being limited only by either the microwave generator itself or charged particle extraction grids if used. The high density plasma source can also be used to extract an electron beam that can be used as a plasma cathode neutralizer for ion source beam neutralization applications.

  19. Sealed source peer review plan

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, Alexander; Leonard, Lee; Burns, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR {section} 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  20. Bayesian Blind Source Separation of Positive Non Stationary Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichir, Mahieddine M.; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

    2004-11-01

    In this contribution, we address the problem of blind non negative source separation. This problem finds its application in many fields of data analysis. We propose herein a novel approach based on Gamma mixture probability priors: Gamma densities to constraint the unobserved sources to lie on the positive half plane; a mixture density with a first order Markov model on the associated hidden variables to account for eventual non stationarity on the sources. Posterior mean estimates are obtained via appropriate Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampling.

  1. Radio sources in the vicinity of source m 31.

    PubMed

    Varsavsky, C M

    1967-11-24

    The region alpha (right ascension) equal to 23(h) 50(m) to 01(h) 30(m), delta (declination) 39 degrees 20' to 40 degrees 40' has been observed at 195 and 430 megahertz with the 1000-foot (300 m) telescope of the Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory. Eighteen sources from the Ohio Catalogue and source 3C 13 are contained in this region. We conclude that the sources have straight-line spectra with indices between -0.4 and -0.9 and that they are probably not associated with M 31, except those within the optical limit of the nebula. PMID:17811618

  2. Source and Propagation Characteristics of Explosive and Other Seismic Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, X; Chan, W; Wagner, R; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M

    2005-07-14

    Understanding of the source and propagation characteristics of seismic events of different types including earthquakes, explosions and mining-induced events is essential for successful discrimination of nuclear explosions. We are compiling a data set of mining related seismic events in east Eurasia. Natural earthquake data in the same region are also collected for comparison study between mining related events and earthquakes. The ground-truth data set will provide a unique and valuable resource for monitoring research. We will utilize the data set to investigate the source and propagation characteristics of seismic sources of different types including mine blasts, tremors, collapses and earthquakes. We will use various seismological techniques including spectral analysis, and waveform modeling to conduct the investigation. The research will improve our understanding of the S-wave excitation and propagation characteristics of chemical explosions and other source types.

  3. Double Radio Sources: Two Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, M. J.; Heinämäki, P.

    2000-02-01

    The theory of double radio sources is considered from two different points of view: the so called unified models and the slingshot model. First, observations and theory are discussed in 11 areas: (1) the dependence or independence of small-scale and large-scale jets from each other; (2) stability and existence of large-scale jets; (3) radio hot spots inside the lobes of double radio sources; (4) the relation of double-lobed quasars to radio galaxies; (5) polarization and other asymmetries between the two lobes and correlations among them; (6) the speeds of advance of radio lobes; (7) giant radio sources; (8) one-sided double radio sources; (9) multiple-sided double radio sources; (10) the origin of the Fanaroff-Riley classes of radio morphology; and (11) the origin of distance asymmetries of the radio lobes. Then five steps in building up a double radio source theory are discussed: (1) theory of galaxy mergers; (2) theory of black hole mergers; (3) theory of black hole interactions and ejections; (4) theory of radio lobe formation and evolution; and (5) radio jet theory. Finally, recent X-ray observations by ROSAT are discussed from the point of view of double radio source theory.

  4. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  5. Major sources of benzene exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis.

  6. International Data on Radiological Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Martha Finck; Margaret Goldberg

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The mission of radiological dispersal device (RDD) nuclear forensics is to identify the provenance of nuclear and radiological materials used in RDDs and to aid law enforcement in tracking nuclear materials and routes. The application of databases to radiological forensics is to match RDD source material to a source model in the database, provide guidance regarding a possible second device, and aid the FBI by providing a short list of manufacturers and distributors, and ultimately to the last legal owner of the source. The Argonne/Idaho National Laboratory RDD attribution database is a powerful technical tool in radiological forensics. The database (1267 unique vendors) includes all sealed sources and a device registered in the U.S., is complemented by data from the IAEA Catalogue, and is supported by rigorous in-lab characterization of selected sealed sources regarding physical form, radiochemical composition, and age-dating profiles. Close working relationships with global partners in the commercial sealed sources industry provide invaluable technical information and expertise in the development of signature profiles. These profiles are critical to the down-selection of potential candidates in either pre- or post- event RDD attribution. The down-selection process includes a match between an interdicted (or detonated) source and a model in the database linked to one or more manufacturers and distributors.

  7. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  8. Major sources of benzene exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L A

    1989-01-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis. PMID:2477239

  9. Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2003-02-06

    This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R&D program is included in an appendix.

  10. The EUVE bright source list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroozas, B.; Mcdonald, K.; Antia, B.; Mcdonald, J.; Wiercigroch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Initial results for bright extreme ultraviolet sources discovered during the EUVE all-sky and deep ecliptic surveys have been published as a Bright Source List (BSL) and released to the astronomical community with a recent NASA research announcement (NRA 93-OSS-02, Appendix F). This paper describes the data processing software, the EUVE survey data set, and the production of the BSL at the Center for EUV Astrophysics. The contents, format, and selection criteria for sources, the data processing strategy, some problems encountered, and a summary of the BSL results are presented.

  11. Intense source of slow positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, P.; Rosowsky, A.

    2004-10-01

    We describe a novel design for an intense source of slow positrons based on pair production with a beam of electrons from a 10 MeV accelerator hitting a thin target at a low incidence angle. The positrons are collected with a set of coils adapted to the large production angle. The collection system is designed to inject the positrons into a Greaves-Surko trap (Phys. Rev. A 46 (1992) 5696). Such a source could be the basis for a series of experiments in fundamental and applied research and would also be a prototype source for industrial applications, which concern the field of defect characterization in the nanometer scale.

  12. An MCNPX accelerator beam source

    SciTech Connect

    Durkee, Joe W.; Elson, Jay S.; Jason, Andrew; Johns, Russell C.; Waters, Laurie S.

    2009-06-04

    MCNPX is a powerful Monte Carlo code that can be used to conduct sophisticated radiation-transport simulations involving complex physics and geometry. Although MCNPX possesses a wide assortment of standardized modeling tools, there are instances in which a user's needs can eclipse existing code capabilities. Fortunately, although it may not be widely known, MCNPX can accommodate many customization needs. In this article, we demonstrate source-customization capability for a new SOURCE subroutine as part of our development to enable simulations involving accelerator beams for active-interrogation studies. Simulation results for a muon beam are presented to illustrate the new accelerator-source capability.

  13. Synchrotron radiation sources and research

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1995-12-31

    This is an introduction and a review of Synchrotron Radiation sources and the research performed using synchrotron radiation. I will begin with a brief discussion of the two principal uses of particle storage rings: for colliding beams (Collider) and for synchrotron radiation (Radiator). Then I will concentrate on discussions of synchrotron radiation topics, starting with a historical account, followed by descriptions of the features of the storage ring and the features of the radiation from the simplest source -- the bending magnet. I will then discuss the special insertion device sources -- wigglers and undulators -- and their radiations, and end with a brief general account of the research and other applications of synchrotron radiation.

  14. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  15. Carotenoids, chemistry, sources and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter for the Enclyclopedia of Human Nutrition (3rd edition) summarizes the structure, chemical and physiological mechanisms, dietary sources, and metabolism of carotenoids. Carotenoids are a family of phytonutrients which have antioxidant properties under most physiological conditions. Num...

  16. Environmental sources of fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the research on environmental occurrences of faecal indicator bacteria in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic habitats under different geographic and climatic conditions, and discusses how these external sources may affect surface water quality.

  17. An Open Source Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    An investigation into the current state of the art of open source real time programming practices. This document includes what technologies are available, how easy is it to obtain, configure, and use them, and some performance measures done on the different systems. A matrix of vendors and their products is included as part of this investigation, but this is not an exhaustive list, and represents only a snapshot of time in a field that is changing rapidly. Specifically, there are three approaches investigated: 1. Completely open source on generic hardware, downloaded from the net. 2. Open source packaged by a vender and provided as free evaluation copy. 3. Proprietary hardware with pre-loaded proprietary source available software provided by the vender as for our evaluation.

  18. Radiation source with shaped emission

    DOEpatents

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2003-05-13

    Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

  19. "OZONE SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN CMAQ'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone source attribution has been used to support various policy purposes including interstate transport (Cross State Air Pollution Rule) by U.S. EPA and ozone nonattainment area designations by State agencies. Common scientific applications include tracking intercontinental tran...

  20. Neutron spallation sources in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, P. J.

    1996-11-01

    After a brief general and historical discussion, the main design features of spallation sources are described. At the present time, Europe not only has the world-leading pulsed neutron spallation source, the SNS-ISIS at RAL, UK, but it is on the point of commissioning a world-leading continuous cyclotron-driven source, the SINQ at PSI, Switzerland. Looking to the future, yet more powerful pulsed sources are actively under study and the difficult problem of high-power target design (>250 kW) is leading to a new technology for liquid targets. The accelerator designs, although basically classical, require custom-built solutions that are often at the limit of present day accelerator technology.

  1. Neutron spallation sources in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, P. J.

    1996-11-01

    After a brief general and historical discussion, the main design features of spallation sources are described. At the present time, Europe not only has the world-leading pulsed neutron spallation source, the SNS-ISIS at RAL, UK, but it is on the point of commissioning a world-leading continuous cyclotron-driven source, the SINQ at PSI, Switzerland. Looking to the future, yet more powerful pulsed sources are actively under study and the difficult problem of high-power target design (>250 kW) is leading to a new technology for liquid targets. The accelerator designs, although basically classical, require custom-built solutions that are often at the limit of presentday accelerator technology.

  2. Source Identification and Location Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Donald; Bridges, James; Agboola, Femi; Dougherty, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Mr. Weir presented source location results obtained from an engine test as part of the Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts program. Two types of microphone arrays were used in this program to determine the jet noise source distribution for the exhaust from a 4.3 bypass ratio turbofan engine. One was a linear array of 16 microphones located on a 25 ft. sideline and the other was a 103 microphone 3-D "cage" array in the near field of the jet. Data were obtained from a baseline nozzle and from numerous nozzle configuration using chevrons and/or tabs to reduce the jet noise. Mr. Weir presented data from two configurations: the baseline nozzle and a nozzle configuration with chevrons on both the core and bypass nozzles. This chevron configuration had achieved a jet noise reduction of 4 EPNdB in small scale tests conducted at the Glenn Research Center. IR imaging showed that the chevrons produced significant improvements in mixing and greatly reduced the length of the jet potential core. Comparison of source location data from the 1-D phased array showed a shift of the noise sources towards the nozzle and clear reductions of the sources due to the noise reduction devices. Data from the 3-D array showed a single source at a frequency of 125 Hz. located several diameters downstream from the nozzle exit. At 250 and 400 Hz., multiple sources, periodically spaced, appeared to exist downstream of the nozzle. The trend of source location moving toward the nozzle exit with increasing frequency was also observed. The 3-D array data also showed a reduction in source strength with the addition of chevrons. The overall trend of source location with frequency was compared for the two arrays and with classical experience. Similar trends were observed. Although overall trends with frequency and addition of suppression devices were consistent between the data from the 1-D and the 3-D arrays, a comparison of the details of the inferred source locations did show differences. A

  3. Compressing Data by Source Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Tréguier, E.; Schmidt, F.; Moussaoui, S.

    2012-04-01

    We interpret source separation of hyperspectral data as a way of applying lossy compressing. In settings where datacubes can be interpreted as a linear combination of source spectra and their abundances and the number of sources is small, we try to quantify the trade-offs and the benefits of source separation and its implementation with non-negative source factorisation. While various methods to implement non-negative matrix factorisation have been used successfully for factoring hyperspectral images into physically meaningful sources which linearly combine to an approximation of the original image. This is useful for modelling the processes which make up the image. At the same time, the approximation opens up the potential for a significant reduction of the data by keeping only the sources and their corresponding abundances, instead of the original complete data cube. This presentation will try to explore the potential of the idea and also to establish limits of its use. Formally, the setting is as follows: we consider P pixels of a hyperspectral image which are acquired at L frequency bands and which are represented as a PxL data matrix X. Each row of this matrix represents a spectrum at a pixel with spatial index p=1..P; this implies that the original topology may be disregarded. Since we work under the assumption of linear mixing, the p-th spectrum, 1<=p<=P, can be expressed as a linear combination of r, 1<=r<=R, source spectra. Thus, X=AxS+E, E being an error matrix to be minimised, and X, A, and S only have non-negative entries. The rows of matrix S are the estimations of the R source spectra, and each entry of A expresses the contribution of the r-th component to the pixel with spatial index p. There are applications where we may interpret the rows of S as physical sources which can be combined using the columns of A to approximate the original data. If the source signals are few and strong (but not even necessarily meaningful), the data volume that has to

  4. Automated Classification of ROSAT Sources Using Heterogeneous Multiwavelength Source Catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, Thomas; Suchkov, A. A.; Winter, E. L.; Hanisch, R. J.; White, R. L.; Ochsenbein, F.; Derriere, S.; Voges, W.; Corcoran, M. F.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an on-line system for automated classification of X-ray sources, ClassX, and present preliminary results of classification of the three major catalogs of ROSAT sources, RASS BSC, RASS FSC, and WGACAT, into six class categories: stars, white dwarfs, X-ray binaries, galaxies, AGNs, and clusters of galaxies. ClassX is based on a machine learning technology. It represents a system of classifiers, each classifier consisting of a considerable number of oblique decision trees. These trees are built as the classifier is 'trained' to recognize various classes of objects using a training sample of sources of known object types. Each source is characterized by a preselected set of parameters, or attributes; the same set is then used as the classifier conducts classification of sources of unknown identity. The ClassX pipeline features an automatic search for X-ray source counterparts among heterogeneous data sets in on-line data archives using Virtual Observatory protocols; it retrieves from those archives all the attributes required by the selected classifier and inputs them to the classifier. The user input to ClassX is typically a file with target coordinates, optionally complemented with target IDs. The output contains the class name, attributes, and class probabilities for all classified targets. We discuss ways to characterize and assess the classifier quality and performance and present the respective validation procedures. Based on both internal and external validation, we conclude that the ClassX classifiers yield reasonable and reliable classifications for ROSAT sources and have the potential to broaden class representation significantly for rare object types.

  5. H- radio frequency source development at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Welton, Robert F; Pennisi, Terry R; Roseberry, Ron T; Stockli, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates nearly 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly persistent {approx}38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of {approx}90%. H{sup -} beam pulses ({approx}1 ms, 60 Hz) are produced by a Cs-enhanced, multicusp ion source closely coupled with an electrostatic low energy beam transport (LEBT), which focuses the 65 kV beam into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The source plasma is generated by RF excitation (2 MHz, {approx}60 kW) of a copper antenna that has been encased with a thickness of {approx}0.7 mm of porcelain enamel and immersed into the plasma chamber. The ion source and LEBT normally have a combined availability of {approx}99%. Recent increases in duty-factor and RF power have made antenna failures a leading cause of downtime. This report first identifies the physical mechanism of antenna failure from a statistical inspection of {approx}75 antennas which ran at the SNS, scanning electron microscopy studies of antenna surface, and cross sectional cuts and analysis of calorimetric heating measurements. Failure mitigation efforts are then described which include modifying the antenna geometry and our acceptance/installation criteria. Progress and status of the development of the SNS external antenna source, a long-term solution to the internal antenna problem, are then discussed. Currently, this source is capable of delivering comparable beam currents to the baseline source to the SNS and, an earlier version, has briefly demonstrated unanalyzed currents up to {approx}100 mA (1 ms, 60 Hz) on the test stand. In particular, this paper discusses plasma ignition (dc and RF plasma guns), antenna reliability, magnet overheating, and insufficient beam persistence.

  6. Source-Code-Analyzing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manteufel, Thomas; Jun, Linda

    1991-01-01

    FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program, SAP, developed to gather statistics automatically on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program and provide for reporting of those statistics. Provisions made to weight each statistic and provide overall figure of complexity. Statistics, as well as figures of complexity, gathered on module-by-module basis. Overall summed statistics also accumulated for complete input source file. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  7. Radiation source for helium magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation source (12) for optical magnetometers (10) which use helium isotopes as the resonance element (30) includes an electronically pumped semiconductor laser (12) which produces a single narrow line of radiation which is frequency stabilized to the center frequency of the helium resonance line to be optically pumped. The frequency stabilization is accomplished using electronic feedback (34, 40, 42, 44) to control a current sources (20) thus eliminating the need for mechanical frequency tuning.

  8. Unimodular gravity with external sources

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez, Enrique; Herrero-Valea, Mario E-mail: mario.herrero@estudiante.uam.es

    2013-01-01

    The only allowed source of the gravitational field in the unimodular theory, invariant under area-preserving (transverse) diffeomorphisms as well as Weyl transformations, is just the traceless piece of the energy-momentum tensor. This fact notwithstanding, the free energy produced by arbitrary sources (not only static ones) is identical to the one predicted by general relativity. This encompasses all weak field tests of gravitation.

  9. Astrometry of southern radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Graeme L.; Jauncey, David L.; Harvey, Bruce R.; Savage, Ann; Gulkis, Samuel; Preston, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogs. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarcsecond radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way.

  10. Diffusion from a line source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The problem with predicting pollutant diffusion from a line source of arbitrary geometry is treated. The concentration at the line source may be arbitrarily varied with time. Special attention is given to the meteorological inputs which act as boundary conditions for the problem, and a mixing layer of arbitrary depth is assumed. Numerical application of the derived theory indicates the combinations of meteorological parameters that may be expected to result in high pollution concentrations.

  11. Approximate factorization with source terms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Chyu, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    A comparative evaluation is made of three methodologies with a view to that which offers the best approximate factorization error. While two of these methods are found to lead to more efficient algorithms in cases where factors which do not contain source terms can be diagonalized, the third method used generates the lowest approximate factorization error. This method may be preferred when the norms of source terms are large, and transient solutions are of interest.

  12. rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H-ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yoon W; Fuja, Raymond E; Goulding, Richard Howell; Hardek, Thomas W; Lee, Sung-Woo; McCarthy, Mike; Piller, Chip; Shin, Ki; Stockli, Martin P; Welton, Robert F

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering 38 mA H beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride AlN plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  13. rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H- ion source.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y W; Fuja, R; Goulding, R H; Hardek, T; Lee, S-W; McCarthy, M P; Piller, M C; Shin, K; Stockli, M P; Welton, R F

    2010-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering approximately 38 mA H(-) beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. PMID:20192394

  14. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  15. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  16. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  17. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  18. Passive acoustic source localization using sources of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Christopher M A; Sarkar, J; Hodgkiss, W S; Kuperman, W A; Sabra, K G

    2015-07-01

    The feasibility of using data derived replicas from ships of opportunity for implementing matched field processing is demonstrated. The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is used to provide the library coordinates for the replica library and a correlation based processing procedure is used to overcome the impediment that the replica library is constructed from sources with different spectra and will further be used to locate another source with its own unique spectral structure. The method is illustrated with simulation and then verified using acoustic data from a 2009 experiment for which AIS information was retrieved from the United States Coast Guard Navigation Center Nationwide AIS database. PMID:26233061

  19. Miniature field deployable terahertz source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, Mark G.

    2006-05-01

    Developments in terahertz sources include compacted electron beam systems, optical mixing techniques, and multiplication of microwave frequencies. Although significant advances in THz science have been achieved, efforts continue to obtain source technologies that are more mobile and suitable for field deployment. Strategies in source development have approached generation from either end of the THz spectrum, from up-conversion of high-frequency microwave to down-conversion of optical frequencies. In this paper, we present the design of a THz source which employs an up-conversion method in an assembly that integrates power supply, electronics, and radiative component into a man-portable unit for situations in which a lab system is not feasible. This unit will ultimately evolve into a ruggedized package suitable for use in extreme conditions, e.g. temporary security check points or emergency response teams, in conditions where THz diagnostics are needed with minimal planning or logistical support. In order to meet design goals of reduced size and complexity, the inner workings of the unit ideally would be condensed into a monolithic active element, with ancillary systems, e.g. user interface and power, coupled to the element. To attain these goals, the fundamental component of our design is a THz source and lens array that may be fabricated with either printed circuit board or wafer substrate. To reduce the volume occupied by the source array, the design employs a metamaterial composed of a periodic lattice of resonant elements. Each resonant element is an LC oscillator, or tank circuit, with inductance, capacitance, and center frequency determined by dimensioning and material parameters. The source array and supporting electronics are designed so that the radiative elements are driven in-phase to yield THz radiation with a high degree of partial coherence. Simulation indicates that the spectral width of operation may be controlled by detuning of critical dimensions

  20. Quantitative estimation of source complexity in tsunami-source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmer, Jan; Cummins, Phil R.; Hawkins, Rhys; Jakir Hossen, M.

    2016-04-01

    This work analyses tsunami waveforms to infer the spatiotemporal evolution of sea-surface displacement (the tsunami source) caused by earthquakes or other sources. Since the method considers sea-surface displacement directly, no assumptions about the fault or seafloor deformation are required. While this approach has no ability to study seismic aspects of rupture, it greatly simplifies the tsunami source estimation, making it much less dependent on subjective fault and deformation assumptions. This results in a more accurate sea-surface displacement evolution in the source region. The spatial discretization is by wavelet decomposition represented by a trans-D Bayesian tree structure. Wavelet coefficients are sampled by a reversible jump algorithm and additional coefficients are only included when required by the data. Therefore, source complexity is consistent with data information (parsimonious) and the method can adapt locally in both time and space. Since the source complexity is unknown and locally adapts, no regularization is required, resulting in more meaningful displacement magnitudes. By estimating displacement uncertainties in a Bayesian framework we can study the effect of parametrization choice on the source estimate. Uncertainty arises from observation errors and limitations in the parametrization to fully explain the observations. As a result, parametrization choice is closely related to uncertainty estimation and profoundly affects inversion results. Therefore, parametrization selection should be included in the inference process. Our inversion method is based on Bayesian model selection, a process which includes the choice of parametrization in the inference process and makes it data driven. A trans-dimensional (trans-D) model for the spatio-temporal discretization is applied here to include model selection naturally and efficiently in the inference by sampling probabilistically over parameterizations. The trans-D process results in better

  1. Research on fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2012-06-01

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  2. Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

    2011-01-01

    When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

  3. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  4. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  5. Graphite moderated (252)Cf source.

    PubMed

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Barros, Haydn; Greaves, Eduardo D; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2015-06-01

    The Thorium molten-salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid-fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a (252)Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the (252)Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. PMID:25770393

  6. Examining Tennessee's collateral source rule.

    PubMed

    Regan, Judith; Hadley, Edward; Regan, William M

    2008-11-01

    The common law collateral source rule was established to prevent the defendant from benefiting from their wrongful actions. Despite a trend in the United States to limit the effects of the collateral source rule, the rule remains in force in courts of the State of Tennessee. However, to assist with the malpractice crisis, the legislature prohibited this rule by statute in regards to the Medical Malpractice Act. Although this statutory prohibition of the collateral source rule worked to lessen verdicts in malpractice cases after passage, the availability of consortium damages resulting from Jordan v. Baptist Three Rivers Hospital in 1999 has worked to drive verdicts substantially higher. Regardless the Medical Malpractice Act has been held as constitutional and has been clarified through several recent Tennessee court decisions. PMID:19024250

  7. Compact portable electric power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Source Detection with Interferometric Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Wayth, Randall B.; Macquart, Jean-Pierre R.; Tingay, Steven J.

    2012-04-01

    The detection of sources in interferometric radio data typically relies on extracting information from images, formed by Fourier transform of the underlying visibility dataset, and CLEANed of contaminating sidelobes through iterative deconvolution. Variable and transient radio sources span a large range of variability timescales, and their study has the potential to enhance our knowledge of the dynamic universe. Their detection and classification involve large data rates and non-stationary PSFs, commensal observing programs and ambitious science goals, and will demand a paradigm shift in the deployment of next-generation instruments. Optimal source detection and classification in real time requires efficient and automated algorithms. On short time-scales variability can be probed with an optimal matched filter detector applied directly to the visibility dataset. This paper shows the design of such a detector, and some preliminary detection performance results.

  9. Materials for spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, W.F.; Daemen, L.L.

    1996-03-01

    The Workshop on Materials for Spallation Neutron Sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, February 6 to 10, 1995, gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss areas in which work is needed, successful designs and use of materials, and opportunities for further studies. During the first day of the workshop, speakers presented overviews of current spallation neutron sources. During the next 3 days, seven panels allowed speakers to present information on a variety of topics ranging from experimental and theoretical considerations on radiation damage to materials safety issues. An attempt was made to identify specific problems that require attention within the context of spallation neutron sources. This proceedings is a collection of summaries from the overview sessions and the panel presentations.

  10. A review of terahertz sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, R. A.

    2014-09-01

    Bibliometric data set the scene by illustrating the growth of terahertz work and the present interest in terahertz science and technology. After locating terahertz sources within the broader context of terahertz systems, an overview is given of the range of available sources, emphasizing recent developments. The focus then narrows to terahertz sources that rely on surface phenomena. Three are highlighted. Optical rectification, usually thought of as a bulk process, may in addition exhibit a surface contribution, which, in some cases, predominates. Transient surface currents, for convenience often separated into drift and diffusion currents, are well understood according to Monte Carlo modelling. Finally, terahertz surface emission by mechanical means—in the absence of photoexcitation—is described.

  11. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The conceptual of Hefei Advanced Light Source, which is an advanced VUV and Soft X-ray source, was developed at NSRL of USTC. According to the synchrotron radiation user requirements and the trends of SR source development, some accelerator-based schemes were considered and compared; furthermore storage ring with ultra low emittance was adopted as the baseline scheme of HALS. To achieve ultra low emittance, some focusing structures were studied and optimized in the lattice design. Compromising of emittance, on-momentum and off-momentum dynamic aperture and ring scale, five bend acromat (FBA) was employed. In the preliminary design of HALS, the emittance was reduced to sub nm · rad, thus the radiation up to water window has full lateral coherence. The brilliance of undulator radiation covering several eVs to keVs range is higher than that of HLS by several orders. The HALS should be one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation light sources in the world.

  12. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    SciTech Connect

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  13. The Herschel Point Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Gabor; Schulz, Bernhard; Altieri, Bruno; Calzoletti, Luca; Kiss, Csaba; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Paladini, Roberta; Papageorgiou, Andreas; Pearson, Chris; Rector, John; Shupe, David; Valtchanov, Ivan; Verebélyi, Erika; Xu, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was the fourth cornerstone mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme with excellent broad band imaging capabilities in the submillimetre and far-infrared part of the spectrum. Although the spacecraft finished its observations in 2013, it left a large legacy dataset that is far from having been fully scrutinized and still has potential for new scientific discoveries. This is specifically true for the photometric observations of the PACS and SPIRE instruments that scanned >10% of the sky at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 microns. Some source catalogs have already been produced by individual observing programs, but there are many observations that would never be analyzed for their full source content. To maximize the science return of the SPIRE and PACS data sets, our international team of instrument experts is in the process of building the Herschel Point Source Catalog (HPSC) from all scan map observations. Our homogeneous source extraction enables a systematic and unbiased comparison of sensitivity across the different Herschel fields that single programs will generally not be able to provide. The extracted point sources will contain individual YSOs of our Galaxy, unresolved YSO clusters in resolved nearby galaxies and unresolved galaxies of the local and distant Universe that are related to star formation. Such a huge dataset will help scientists better understand the evolution from interstellar clouds to individual stars. Furthermore the analysis of stellar clusters and the star formation on galactic scales will add more details to the understanding of star formation laws through time.We present our findings on comparison of different source detection and photometric tools. First results of the extractions are shown along with the description of our pipelines and catalogue entries. We also provide an additional science product, the structure noise map, that is used for the quality assessment of the catalogue in

  14. Online bibliographic sources in hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Havener, W. Michael

    2001-01-01

    Traditional commercial bibliographic databases and indexes provide some access to hydrology materials produced by the government; however, these sources do not provide comprehensive coverage of relevant hydrologic publications. This paper discusses bibliographic information available from the federal government and state geological surveys, water resources agencies, and depositories. In addition to information in these databases, the paper describes the scope, styles of citing, subject terminology, and the ways these information sources are currently being searched, formally and informally, by hydrologists. Information available from the federal and state agencies and from the state depositories might be missed by limiting searches to commercially distributed databases.

  15. Characterization of multiple light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Jessica Marie

    The integrating cavity absorption meter (ICAM) is an instrument that utilizes the absorption of water to detect alien substances in the water. The ICAM was first proposed by Elterman in 1970 and has since been enhanced by other scientists such as Kirk, Leathers, Fry, Musser, and Gray. While others have investigated the structure of the ICAM, little research has been published regarding the most efficient light source. This thesis compares the power consumption, spectral stability, and output intensity of three different light sources to determine which should be used in the ICAM to further develop its capabilities.

  16. Bacterial sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, L.; Winans, R.E.; Langworthy, T.

    1996-10-01

    The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in geochemical samples has been the source of much controversy. Although an anthropogenic input from detergent sources always appears likely, the distribution of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in some cases far exceeding that attributed to detergent input has led to a reappraisal of this view. Indeed, recent work involving analysis of the lipid hydrocarbon extracts from extant Thermoplasma bacteria has revealed the presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons. The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in sedimentary organic matter may therefore represent potential biological markers for thermophilic bacteria.

  17. Tikal obsidian: sources and typology

    SciTech Connect

    Moholy-Nagy, H.; Asaro, F.; Stross, F.H.

    1984-01-01

    The obsidian industry of Classic period Tikal, Guatemala, is discussed with regard to geological source determinations and behavioral typology. The potential of these two approaches for cultural reconstruction is greatly extended when they can supplement each other. Recent source determinations of obsidian artifacts from Tikal indicate (1) a behavioral link between locally-produced prismatic blades of Highland Guatemalan stone and ceremonial incised obsidians and eccentrics, and (2) a Central Mexican origin for a seemingly large portion of Tikal's obsidian projectile points and knives. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Neutron diffraction on pulsed sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, V. L.; Balagurov, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    The current capabilities of and major scientific problems solved by time-of-flight neutron diffraction are reviewed. The reasons for the rapid development of the method over the last two decades have been mainly the emergence of third-generation pulsed sources with a megawatt time-averaged power and advances in neutron optical devices and detector systems. The paper discusses some historical aspects of time-of-flight neutron diffraction and examines the contribution to this method from F L Shapiro, the centennial of whose birth was celebrated in 2015. The state of the art with respect to neutron sources for studies on extracted beams is reviewed in a special section.

  19. Accelerator based epithermal neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskaev, S. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    We review the current status of the development of accelerator sources of epithermal neutrons for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a promising method of malignant tumor treatment. Particular attention is given to the source of epithermal neutrons on the basis of a new type of charged particle accelerator: tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation and lithium neutron-producing target. It is also shown that the accelerator with specialized targets makes it possible to generate fast and monoenergetic neutrons, resonance and monoenergetic gamma-rays, alpha-particles, and positrons.

  20. Ferromagnetic enhanced inductive plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery

    2013-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the review of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources enhanced with ferromagnetic cores, FMICP, found in various applications, including plasma fusion, space propulsion, light sources, plasma chemistry and plasma processing of materials. The history of FMICP, early attempts for their realization, some recent developments and examples of successful FMICP devices are given here. A comparative study of FMICPs with conventional ICPs demonstrates their certain advantages in power transfer efficiency, power factor and their ability to operate without rf plasma potentials at low plasma densities and with small gaps, while effectively controlling plasma density profile.

  1. The SLAC polarized electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, H.; Alley, R.; Frisch, J.

    1995-06-01

    The SLAC polarized electron source employs a photocathode DC high voltage gun with a loadlock and a YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system for colliding beam experiments or a flash lamp pumped Ti:sapphire laser for fixed target experiments. It uses a thin, strained GaAs(100) photocathode, and is capable of producing a pulsed beam with a polarization of {ge}80% and a peak current exceeding 10 A. Its operating efficiency has reached 99%. The physics and technology of producing high polarization electron beams from a GaAs photocathode will be reviewed. The prospects of realizing a polarized electron source for future linear colliders will also be discussed.

  2. Community Languages. Sources and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geach, June, Comp.

    This European-focused guide covers basic sources of English language information for teachers of community languages, other language teachers, and language teaching support personnel regarding the background and teaching of European Community languages in Great Britain. The guide complements Centre for Information on Language Teaching Information…

  3. Sources of Consumer Education Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Teacher of Home Economics, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Lists publications issued by the federal government, universities, and commercial sources on consumer education with ordering information and prices. Subjects include foods, water conservation, money management, and auto defects, as well as general consumerism. Some of the materials contain lesson ideas and teaching activities. (MF)

  4. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  5. Non-conventional energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Furlan, G.; Rodriguez, H.; Violini, G.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on renewable energy sources. Topics considered at the conference included the estimate of global and diffuse radiation, thin films in photothermal solar energy conversion, solar collectors, prospects for photovoltaic products in the developing countries, passive energy systems in buildings, hydrogen fuels, geothermal energy, wind energy, tidal energy, and wave energy in developing countries.

  6. SOURCES OF COPPER AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to update estimates of atmospheric emissions of copper and copper compounds in the U.S. Source categories evaluated included: metallic minerals, primary copper smelters, iron and steel making, combustion, municipal incineration, secondary coppe...

  7. Anthropology: Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary G., Ed.

    More than 80 anthropology source materials concentrating on cultural and social anthropology are cited in this annotated bibliography. Materials, located in the McLennan Library at McGill University (Montreal), are listed according to type of material. Library of Congress call numbers are presented; dates of publication range from 1950 to 1985.…

  8. Information Sources on Rural Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

    1992-01-01

    Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

  9. The Planck Compact Source Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Caniego, Marcos

    2015-12-01

    The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a catalogue of sources observed over the entire sky at nine different frequencies between 30 and 857 GHz. It consists of Galactic and extragalactic objects detected in the Planck single-frequency full mission total intensity maps. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two sub·catalogues, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The PCCS2 covers most of the sky and can be used to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalogue. The PCCS2E contains sources located in certain regions where the complex background makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven polarization-sensitive Planck channels.

  10. The Source for Asperger's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Timothy P.

    This book is intended as a comprehensive source of information on the diagnosis and treatment of Asperger syndrome. Chapter 1 discusses major classification of characteristics and chapter 2 describes prevalence, comorbidity, and causal factors of Asperger syndrome. Chapter 3 examines clinical diagnosis and misdiagnosis and the influence of…

  11. Sources of Information about Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magazine Publishers Association, Inc., New York, NY.

    This booklet was prepared by the Magazine Publishers Association as a guide to some of the available sources of information about consumer magazines. Some of the data provided by the services listed in this booklet are based on circulation audits, actual measurements of advertising space, or factual statements of procedure and mechanical details.…

  12. SOURCES OF EARTH SCIENCE INFORMATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATTHEWS, WILLIAM H., III

    U.S. AND CANADIAN SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT EARTH SCIENCE FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ARE CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL. MAJOR SECTIONS ARE DEVOTED TO ASTRONOMY, GEOLOGY, METEOROLOGY, OCEANOGRAPHY, AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. EACH SECTION CONTAINS LISTS OF (1) DEGREE-GRANTING DEPARTMENTS IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES, (2) GOVERNMENT…

  13. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: ASPHALT HOT MIX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the asphalt hot mix industry. A representative asphalt hot mix plant was defined, based on the results of an industrial survey, to assess the severity of emissions from this industry. Source severity was defined as the ratio of th...

  14. History Sources on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Kenneth D.

    This paper provides descriptions of key online history resources useful to teachers, librarians, and other education professionals. Highlights include: primary sources on the Internet; archives; Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs); the American Historical Association (AHA) Web site; state and federal government resources; business history…

  15. [Pollution and alternative energy sources].

    PubMed

    Melino, C

    1989-01-01

    In order to reach higher standards of living, man has always been interested in searching new energy sources. Natural energy from sun, wind and water has been overcame by more sophisticated resources such as coal, vapour, hydroelectricity, natural gas, petroleum, and, at least, nuclear energy. However all these resources present unwanted effects, namely various hazards to man and environment. On this matter society is quering the risk-benefit balance of some energy choices and optimum performance with new safety means to limit dangerousness are being pursued and developed. It is necessary to evaluate carefully every aspect of safety without under-estimating or over-evaluating problems. For each energy source a "real price" has to be paired, even more in the future, since more energy will be required to guarantee the necessary technological progress linked to a better quality of life. In the present review all risks related to different energy sources are described and discussed aiming at defining: 1) specific risks for different sources 2) benefit from their utilization 3) means of defence guaranteeing security for man and environment. Italy is strictly dependent for energy production, which comes for 80% from abroad. An appropriate balance is required considering economical and social factors and real availability of energy. This balance needs therefore to be clearly evaluated hoping in a better future for an alternative energy, less dangerous and more clear, such as that from nuclear fusion. PMID:2483087

  16. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  17. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the assessment of air emissions from the manufacture of carbon black, currently manufactured in the U.S. by two major processes: thermal and oil furnace. Sources of atmospheric emissions within oil furnace plants (about 90% of the 30 U.S. carbon black plants...

  18. FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P.

    1984-01-01

    FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program, SAP (DEC VAX version), automatically gathers statistics on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program and provides reports of those statistics. Provisions made for weighting each statistic and provide an overall figure of complexity.

  19. THE OPEN SOURCING OF EPANET

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal was made at the 2009 EWRI Congress in Kansas City, MO to establish an Open Source Project (OSP) for the widely used EPANET pipe network analysis program. This would be an ongoing collaborative effort among a group of geographically dispersed advisors and developers, wo...

  20. Linac4 H⁻ ion sources.

    PubMed

    Lettry, J; Aguglia, D; Alessi, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Briefi, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; David, N; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Fantz, U; Fink, D A; Garlasche, M; Grudiev, A; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Haase, M; Hatayama, A; Jones, A; Koszar, I; Lallement, J-B; Lombardi, A M; Machado, C; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; Nishida, K; O'Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Scrivens, R; Shibata, T; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Voulgarakis, G

    2016-02-01

    CERN's 160 MeV H(-) linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H(-) source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H(-) source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described. PMID:26932021