Music tertiary educators can foster positive experiences that promote diversity, enhance intercultural and cross-cultural understanding through our teaching. Through findings of interview data of tertiary music educators' understandings of multicultural music practice at two South African universities and at an Australia university, I used…
Ayliff, D.; Wang, G.
This article aims to provide insight into the experiences of Chinese international students in some South African tertiary institutions. The study investigates their successes and failures in endeavouring to learn English and the culture shock and "learning shock" they endure when registering to study in an African country with an essentially…
Drower, Sandra J.; Kleijn, Amelia A.
A three part Building Capacity Program developed for social work students in a South African tertiary education institution is described. The primary purpose of the Program was to build the capacity of social work students considered to be at risk of not completing their studies. The Program is located within the socio-political context of South…
There are many challenges involved in developing and running Writing Centres in tertiary contexts in South Africa. These challenges include recognizing the role Writing Centres need to play in the redress of basic academic literacies. They also involve emphasizing writing as a mode of learning where higher cognitive functions such as analysis and…
Kazi, Tasnim Bibi; Naidoo, Sarojini
Despite international studies into religion's protective mechanism against suicidal tendencies, within South Africa there is a paucity of research investigating this relationship. This quantitative study investigates the relationship between religiosity and suicidal tendencies in a sample of Muslim students (N = 111). Two scales were used to test the hypothesis that religion mediates suicidal tendency: the Religious Orientation Test and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale. The findings confirmed this hypothesis but disconfirmed our second hypothesis that there would be gender differences between the variables. We concluded that a high degree of religiosity acts as a protective mechanism against suicidal tendencies and discuss the implications of our findings. PMID:26661826
Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary; Conduah, Aloysius N.
This paper reports on a study that examines the attitudes of university students and immigrants to the introduction of Swahili at a tertiary institution in South Africa. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and interviews with questions that covered the domains in which Swahili could be most useful, who should learn it and the reasons…
Mouton, Nelda; Louw, G. P.; Strydom, G. L.
Socio-economic and vocational needs of communities, governments and individuals change over the years and these discourses served as a compass for restructuring of higher institutions in South Africa from 1994. Before 1994, the claim to legitimacy for government policies in higher education rested on meeting primarily the interests of the white…
Stones, C R
The Munro-Adams Love Attitude Scale was administered to 133 randomly chosen final-year undergraduate White South African and British university students in this examination of their attitudes toward love, courtship, and marriage in relation to the observation that, although South African tertiary educational institutions exist within the authoritarian and restrictive culture of apartheid, they nevertheless are modeled on the British educational system, which has its roots deeply embedded within a politically democratic context. Results indicated that the South African sample's endorsement of the love attitude items was weaker, except for those pertaining to the power of love, than that of their British counterparts. In addition, the South African scores were lower than those previously reported in other similar cross-cultural research, and there was a differential ranking of the three love styles by the male and female subjects. PMID:1453693
Ncube, Caroline B.
This report draws primarily on the results of the recently concluded African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project, which investigated copyright and access to learning materials in face-to-face, distance education (DE), and dual-mode tertiary educational institutions in Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa,…
van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus
Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)
In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037
Schlebusch, Lourens; Vawda, Naseema B M; Bosch, Brenda A
In the past suicidal behavior among Black South Africans has been largely underresearched. Earlier studies among the other main ethnic groups in the country showed suicidal behavior in those groups to be a serious problem. This article briefly reviews some of the more recent research on suicidal behavior in Black South Africans. The results indicate an apparent increase in suicidal behavior in this group. Several explanations are offered for the change in suicidal behavior in the reported clinical populations. This includes past difficulties for all South Africans to access health care facilities in the Apartheid (legal racial separation) era, and present difficulties of post-Apartheid transformation the South African society is undergoing, as the people struggle to come to terms with the deleterious effects of the former South African racial policies, related socio-cultural, socio-economic, and other pressures. PMID:12809149
Smit, Hennie A. P.
Globally there is a growing environmental awareness among all segments of society, but research on the effect of environmental education in shaping the attitude of military students is lacking. Tertiary environmental education to officers of the South African Department of Defence is seated in the Department of Military Geography at the South…
Kido, A; Susukida, R; Oya, M; Fujitani, N; Kimura, H; Hara, M
The polymorphism of FXIIIA was investigated in 105 Indonesians, 141 Bangladeshis, 186 Tibetans, 101 South African Blacks and 100 South African Whites using isoelectric focusing followed by immunoblotting. These population data conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A circum-pan-Pacific cline in the FXIII*1A (or FXIII*1B) allele frequency appeared to exist among the Mongoloids. PMID:11360808
Swanepoel, E.; Thomson, K.; van Niekerk, J. F.
The South African democracy, despite being worthy of admiration, is in its infancy. As such its electoral processes still needs to be nurtured and protected. Since 1994 there has been four national elections. All of these have been declared "free and fair" by the Independent Electoral Commission. However, there has been some problems and growing pains. This paper firstly discusses the current electoral system in South Africa. It then examines E-voting systems and discusses the feasibility of such a voting system for use in the South African context.
This book for beginning readers tells the story of five South Africans who, though not very famous, all did things that no black South African had ever done before. They include: Simon Mkhize who, year after year, ran the Comrades Marathon unofficially, ignoring its racial bans; Magema M. Fuze, who was the first black South African to publish a…
Van Wijk, Charles H.
The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…
van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.
The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and…
Wyngaardt, S. M.; Newman, R. T.; Lindsay, R.; Buffler, A.; de Meijer, R.; Maleka, P.; Bezuidenhout, J.; Nchodu, R.; van Rooyen, M.; Ndlovu, Z.
Over the past two years there has been discussion among South African physicists about the possibility of establishing a deep underground physics laboratory to study, amongst others, double beta decay, geoneutrinos, reactor neutrinos and dark matter. As a step towards a full proposal for such a laboratory a number of smaller programmes are currently being performed to investigate feasibility of the Huguenot Tunnel in the Du Toitskloof Mountains near Paarl (Western Cape, South Africa) as a possible sight for the South African Underground Laboratory facility. The programme includes measurements of radon in air (using electret ion chambers and alpha spectroscopy), background gammaray measurements (inside/outside) the tunnel using scintillator (inorganic) detectors, cosmic ray measurements using organic scintillators and radiometric analyses of representative rock samples.
Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel
This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa. PMID:22432681
Ebuara, Victor Obule; Ekpoh, Uduak Imo
This study was embarked upon with a view to examining the need for peace in the management of tertiary institutions towards enhancing academic performance in south-south Nigeria. Three hypotheses and one research question guided the study. One thousand, two hundred and nineteen (1219) academic and non-academic staff were selected for the study. A…
This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness. PMID:23421936
Kasanga, Luanga A.
The main assumption in this article is that the pragmatics of the variety of South African English commonly referred to as black South African English (BSAE) have been shaped, over time, by educated bilinguals, through a transfer of features from African languages. Transfer of syntactic forms, now firmly established in the variety, is evidenced…
de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie
South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.
Gruendlingh, Marten L.; Shannon, L. V.; Lutjeharms, J. R.
The area surrounding the southern tip of Africa contains a juxtaposition of a variety of interesting and climatically relevant features. On the Indian Ocean side, the Agulhas Current with its tributaries form a conduit through which much of the southern Indian Ocean surface flow is focused. South of the continent, this flow is fragmented and partially injected into the Atlantic Ocean and across the Subtropical Convergence into the Southern Ocean. To the west of the subcontinent, the circulation of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre in the Cape Basin interacts with the vigorous Benguela upwelling regime. The creation, transformation, and transport of water masses and the intra-annual and climatic importance of all these processes have been specifically recognized by the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The South African TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter Experiment addresses many of these issues through four mutually complementary and interrelated subprojects.
Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Duvenhage, A; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J; Segal, I
From questioning 16,939 South African pupils of 16-18 years, in 56 high schools, mean prevalences of appendicectomies in representative segments of ethnic groups were found to be: rural Blacks 0.6%; urban Blacks 0.7%; Indians, 2.9%; Coloureds (Eur-African-Malay), 1.7%; Whites, 10.5%. Percentages in the sexes were similar. Only those of Indian and Coloured pupils appear to be increasing. Blacks and Whites, respectively, have high and low intakes of fibre-containing foods, which are negatively correlated with appendicectomy prevalences. However, although intakes of fibre-containing foods are slightly higher in Indians and Coloureds than in Whites, the former's appendicectomy prevalences are lower than would be dietarily expected. PMID:6292030
Colman, A M
South African courts have recently accepted social psychological phenomena as extenuating factors in murder trials. In one important case, eight railway workers were convicted of murdering four strike breakers during an industrial dispute. The court accepted conformity, obedience, group polarization, deindividuation, bystander apathy, and other well-established psychological phenomena as extenuating factors for four of the eight defendants, but sentenced the others to death. In a second trial, death sentences of five defendants for the "necklace" killing of a young woman were reduced to 20 months imprisonment in the light of similar social psychological evidence. Practical and ethical issues arising from expert psychological testimony are discussed. PMID:1746773
Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A
The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary. PMID:26046164
Laugksch, Rüdiger C.
This analysis of research conducted by graduate students at South African universities over the last 70 years is an attempt to identify the foci of South African science education research. Appropriate graduate degrees were systematically identified by interrogating electronic databases and verifying details. Title and abstract were then used to assign keywords. Overall 23% and 77% of the 469 graduate degrees identified are doctoral and master's degrees, respectively. The activity of graduate work suggests that science education as a discipline was comparatively well established in South Africa by the 1980s, although 59% of all degrees were conferred between 1991 and 2000. Following the methodology of White [2001, in V. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (4th ed., pp. 457-471)]. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association), trends in the relative frequency of keywords indicate that South African science education is broadly in line with worldwide trends in the discipline but that some differences exist. However, South African science education research appears to focus relatively more on attitudes, classrooms, curriculum issues, STS-related issues, and laboratories, and relatively less on assessment, reflection, teachers' or students' conceptions, and informal learning. Research on identified national priorities is being conducted, albeit with variable prevalence. Future opportunities in science education research lie in following a research agenda more closely matched to local contexts, and in the diversification of research focused largely on the secondary-tertiary interface.
Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith
This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined…
Rensburg, Ihron; Motala, Shireen; David, Solomon Arulraj
The evolution of South African universities continues to be shaped by both apartheid and more recent post-apartheid policies. Yet the South African university system is mainly an elite, low participation and high attrition system, offering a medium quality education. Moreover, there is uneven attention to the opportunities that…
Uys, A; Fabris-Rotelli, I; Bernitz, H
Forensic dentists are frequently required to determine the age at death of unidentified skeletons, or to age live individuals who have no record/documentation of their chronological age. In order to be of the greatest value, the method used should have the lowest possible standard deviation and be validated for the individual's specific population group. The method most frequently used in Forensic Dentistry for the estimation of age in children, was described by Demirjian et al. The maturity standards determined were based on samples of French Canadian origin and it has been recommended by several authors that correction factors be incorporated when applying this method to different population groups. The current research was carried out on a sample of 838 black South African children. A new model for age estimation in the said population was developed, to accurately determine the chronological age from dental development. A sample of 604 black South African children was used to test the validity of the method described by Demirjian. PMID:24974518
Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki
African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…
VanWyk, C W
A review of research related to oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) among South Africans of Indian descent shows a certain uniqueness compared to other countries. In South Africa the betel habit is more common among women, only 60% of chewers prefer the betel quid while the rest like the nut by itself, the majority of chewers prefer the baked (black) nut variety and a minority add tobacco to their chew. This pattern reflects in the distribution of OSF and the practice of the habit by OSF subjects. Compared to chewers without OSF, OSF subjects are younger and have shorter histories of chewing. Yet the profile of systemic diseases were similar among subjects with and without OSF. The habit as practised in South Africa also determines the pattern of oral squamous carcinomas. They are more common in women, with buccal mucosa cancers being the most frequent. The latter are commonly found in subjects not using any tobacco, indicating the carcinogenicity of the areca nut. It was also shown that oral cancer can develop in chewers without an intermediate precancerous OSF phase. A follow-up of OSF cases after cessation of the habit revealed that once present the disease is permanent. An analysis of cultured OSF fibroblasts demonstrated a permanent shift to larger cells theoretically capable of producing larger amounts of collagen. Thus the agents in the nut could be the initiators of the disease and its permanent character the result of a phenotypic alteration in cells from changes in gene expression. PMID:9495135
Odhav, B; Naicker, V
Traditionally brewed alcoholic beverages are regularly consumed by most ethnic black South Africans. Maize and barley, both of which are used for producing locally brewed alcoholic beer, are frequently contaminated by mycotoxin-producing moulds. The study was undertaken to investigate whether these toxins are present in raw grains and the traditional beers imbibed by the local black African population. It was established that the raw ingredients (sorghum, sorghum malt grains, maize grits), commercially produced traditional beers (Utshwala and Utshwala special) and home-brewed beers (Umqombotha, Isiqatha, Imfulamfula) were contaminated by bacteria and fungi (both yeasts and moulds). The contaminating moulds were isolated and identified. The contaminated samples were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone, citrinin, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A using a multi-mycotoxin thin-layer chromatography screening method and the toxins were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Grain samples were infected by. Aspergillus flavus, A. alliaceus, A. clavatus, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. Sorghum malt grain samples contained the toxin zear alenone. No mycotoxin-producing fungi were present in the fermented beers but two of six commercial beer samples contained aflatoxins (200 and 400 microg l(-1) and 45% (13 of 29) of the home-brewed beers had zear alenone (range 2.6-426 microg l(-1) and/or ochratoxin A (3-2340 microg l(-1). PMID:11811766
Norris, Shane A; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees
We assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called “Birth to Twenty” in Johannesburg, South Africa. We examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as South African, the centrality of their personal, racial and linguistic, and South African identities in their self-definition, and their perceptions of South African life and society today. These results reflect a historical opportunity for full citizenship and national enfranchisement that the end of Apartheid heralded for Black and Colored individuals. Black and Colored youth tend to be more certain about their South African-ness, have a more collective identity, and have a more positive perception around South Africa. In contrast, White and Indian youth are less certain about their South African-ness, have a more individualistic identity, and have a less positive perception about South Africa today. PMID:19461896
Reid, P J; Sluis-Cremer, G K
OBJECTIVES--This two part study aimed to determine whether there was an excess mortality generally or for some diseases among middle aged white South African gold miners on the Witwatersrand and whether the underground dust exposure of these miners contributed to the development of lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or ischaemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS--A cohort of 4925 white miners in South Africa, born between 1 January 1916 and 31 December 1930 who were alive and working in the vicinity of Johannesburg on 1 January 1970, then aged between 39 and 54, was followed up for 20 years by which time 2032 had died. Most were gold miners (about 87% had worked 85% or more of their shifts in gold mines). Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated as percentages of the number of deaths observed in the cohort for a condition as stated on the death certificate divided by the number expected on the basis of concurrent mortality in the reference population (the total age specific white male population of South Africa). A case-control analysis was performed for three diseases (lung cancer, COPD, and IHD), the results of which are presented for those miners in the cohort who had spent at least 85% of their service on gold mines and had worked at least 15% of their shifts underground. RESULTS--The SMR for all causes of death was 129.6%, raised because of excess mortality due to the following causes: lung cancer (SMR = 139.8%), IHD (124.1%), COPD (189%) and cirrhosis of the liver (155.3%). Smoking was confirmed to be the main risk factor for lung cancer and COPD although cumulative dust exposure was found to increase the risk of COPD in conjunction with smoking. No significant risk of lung cancer resulted from exposure to dust. High blood pressure and smoking were found to increase the risk of IHD, but no association between IHD and the quetelet index (weight/height2) was found. CONCLUSIONS--The most significant and unexpected finding was the
Eaton, Liberty; Flisher, Alan J; Aarø, Leif E
A growing body of evidence points to the complexity of sexual behaviour. HIV risk behaviour is influenced by factors at three levels: within the person, within the proximal context (interpersonal relationships and physical and organisational environment) and within the distal context (culture and structural factors). This paper presents the findings of a review of research on the factors promoting and perpetuating unsafe sexual behaviour in South African youth. Papers included in the review were dated between 1990 and 2000 and addressed sexual behaviour of youth between the ages of 14 and 35 years. Both published works and unpublished reports and dissertations/theses were included. The review concluded that at least 50% of young people are sexually active by the age of 16 years; the majority of school students who had ever experienced sexual intercourse reported at the most one partner in the previous year, with a persistent minority of between 1% and 5% of females and 10-25% of males having more than four partners per year; and between 50% and 60% of sexually active youth report never using condoms. In terms of explanations for unsafe sexual behaviour among South African youth, the findings illustrate the powerful impact of the proximal and distal contexts, and in particular, the pervasive effect of poverty and social norms that perpetuate women's subordination within sexual relationships. Personal factors and the proximal and distal contexts interact to encourage HIV risk behaviour in ways that are not fully captured by social-cognitive models. The findings will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in the fields of adolescent sexual behaviour and HIV prevention in developing countries. PMID:12435558
The South African State is mandated by Sections 28(2) and 29(1) of the South African Constitution to make provision for the education of a South African child in fulfilment of the child's constitutional rights. Teacher Unions (TUs) and provincial Departments of Basic Education (DBEs) have often promised South African high school student body,…
Blecher, Mark S; Meheus, Filip; Kollipara, Aparna; Hecht, Robert; Cameron, Neil A; Pillay, Yogan; Hanna, Luisa
South Africa provides a useful country case study for financing vaccinations. It has been an early adopter of new vaccinations and has financed these almost exclusively from domestic resources, largely through general taxation. National vaccination policy is determined by the Department of Health, based on advice from a national advisory group on immunisation. Standard health economic criteria of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, affordability and burden of disease are used to assess whether new vaccinations should be introduced. Global guidelines and the advice of local and international experts are also helpful in making the determination to introduce new vaccines. In terms of recent decisions to introduce new vaccines against pneumococcal disease and rotavirus diarrhoea in children, the evidence has proved unequivocal. Universal rollout has been implemented even though this has led to a fivefold increase in national spending on vaccines. The total cost to government remains below 1-1.5% of public expenditures for health, which is viewed by the South African authorities as affordable and necessary given the number of lives saved and morbidity averted. To manage the rapid increase in domestic spending, efforts have been made to scale up coverage over several years, give greater attention to negotiating price reductions and, in some cases, obtain initial donations or frontloaded deliveries to facilitate earlier universal rollout. There has been strong support from a wide range of stakeholders for the early introduction of new generation vaccines. PMID:22939027
Wang, Yongyang; Secombe, Margaret
Chinese People-Run tertiary education institutions have grown dramatically in recent years. This paper aims to discuss the government deregulation policy and its impact on private tertiary education in China since the 1980s, particularly on south and west China, Gui Zhou province. Three colleges have been selected respectively from economically…
Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.
A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African…
Adler, David H.
South Africa has more people living with HIV than any other nation. The HIV epidemic in South Africa is being driven by new infections among adolescents. Inclusion of adolescents in HIV vaccine trials is essential for successful vaccine development, however, recruitment and retention of at-risk South African adolescents into these trials poses a number of legal, ethical and operational challenges. This article discusses the South African ethico-legal context in which future adolescent HIV vaccine trials would be conducted followed by a review of available data regarding strategies for recruitment into these trials and retention of trial participants. PMID:24729929
Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco
The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.
Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F; Campbell, Kenneth E; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco
The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups. PMID:25652825
Le Roux, Elizabeth
South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that 'speak to the student', and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context. PMID:26495579
The easing of legal and unauthorized entry to South Africa has made the country a new destination for Black immigrants. As this population continues to grow, its children have begun to experience South African schools in an array of uniquely challenging ways. For these immigrant youth, forging a sense of identity may be their single greatest…
Sabeta, Claude; Phahladira, Baby; Marston, Denise A; Wise, Emma L; Ellis, Richard J; Fooks, Anthony R
South African rabies viruses (RABVs) from dogs and jackals (canid viruses) are highly related and most likely originated from a single progenitor. RABV is the cause of most global human rabies cases. The complete genome sequences of 3 RABVs from South Africa and Zimbabwe are reported here. PMID:26430028
Phahladira, Baby; Marston, Denise A.; Wise, Emma L.; Ellis, Richard J.; Fooks, Anthony R.
South African rabies viruses (RABVs) from dogs and jackals (canid viruses) are highly related and most likely originated from a single progenitor. RABV is the cause of most global human rabies cases. The complete genome sequences of 3 RABVs from South Africa and Zimbabwe are reported here. PMID:26430028
Singh, S. K.; Singh, R. J.
The introduction of outcomes-based education in South Africa placed many challenges on the transformation of science classrooms. The 2009 National Education Evaluation and Development Unit (NEEDU) Report concluded that South African rural and township schools are largely dysfunctional. This article examined some of the reasons for the "collapse"…
Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.
This study tested a developmental model of pathways to risky sexual behavior among South African adolescents. Participants comprised 633 adolescents, 12-17 years old, recruited from households in Durban, South Africa. Data were collected using in-person interviews. Topics included adolescents' sexual behaviors, household poverty levels, vulnerable…
Porter, Kandice; Johnson, Ping Hu; Petrillo, Jane
This study examined the priority health behaviors of South African youth by administering a questionnaire to 635 undergraduate students enrolled in a large metropolitan university in South Africa. Results indicate that 65.5% of the participants tried cigarettes at least once during their lifetime, over 15.2% had their first cigarette and 31.2% had…
South Africa's National Assembly voted 209 to 87 for passage of the "Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act" on October 30; it was passed in the Senate, 49 to 21 (20 abstentions), on November 5. The African National Congress strongly supported the Act, while the National Party opposed it. Under the law, abortions during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy may to be performed by physicians or trained midwives. From week 13 through week 20, a physician, in consultation with the mother, may terminate the pregnancy after determining that continuing the pregnancy would threaten the woman's health (physical or mental) or circumstances (social or economic), or that the fetus is at substantial risk of suffering severe physical or mental abnormalities. Abortion is permitted after 20 weeks if two doctors (or midwives) decide continuing the pregnancy would endanger the mother's life or result in injury or severe malformation of the fetus. Only the pregnant woman's consent is required. Although an abortion provider must advise a young client to consult with parents, guardian, family members, or friends before the procedure, she is not required to comply. All women are to be informed of their rights under the Act; criminal penalties (up to 10 years) are mandated for unauthorized abortion providers, for persons who prevent a lawful abortion, or for those who obstruct access to an abortion facility. The new statute repeals the more restrictive Abortion and Sterilization Act of 1975, which permitted abortion only in cases of maternal life or health endangerment, severe fetal abnormality, rape, incest, or mental incapacity. PMID:12292092
Duckitt, J H
Van der Spuy and Shamley (1978) have assembled evidence suggesting chronically elevated levels of neurotic symptomatology among both white and black South Africans. They have argued that these elevated levels could be attributed to the experience of racial discrimination and prejudice. New data obtained from a reasonably representative national sample of white South Africans (N = 782) did reveal symptom scores substantially and significantly higher than scores previously reported for a large community sample in the United States. On the other hand, partial correlational analyses did not indicate any consistent pattern of association between antiblack prejudice and symptom scores among white South Africans. Therefore, intergroup conflict in a sharply stratified society may affect symptomatic levels in individuals by influencing the general quality of social life. PMID:3989739
Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher
The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562
Mtimkulu, M. N.; Motloung, M.; Graham, I. T.; Eriksson, P. G.; Bumby, A. J.
Implicit in the African Renaissance is the synergy between government, the private sector, the educated minority and the disadvantaged majority. For this concept to work, belief and commitment must arise first from the African individual, whatever his or her potential contribution may be. The geosciences in South Africa provide a currently vibrant example of such cooperation, which has the potential to contribute significantly to the upliftment of the country and its neighbouring states. Based largely on personal interviews with various role players, from the Presidency of South Africa, through ministerial levels, the corporate sector and down to the individual, we present a spectrum of viewpoints and initiatives which are starting to result in practical implementation of the African revival. An end to conflict and xenophobia, the entrenchment of democratic government and corporate expression of the entrepreneurial spirit are essential to provide the framework within which the individual African can become a "Renaissance Man or Woman".
Warner, B.; Murdin, P.
In the late 1960s the Science Research Council (SRC) in the UK seriously considered closing the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope (see SOUTH AFRICAN ASTRONOMY), but the observatory (located in Cape Town) was saved by the establishment in January 1972 of a joint agreement between the SRC and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) of South Africa, whereby the two Councils...
Krüger, Gabriele Christa; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Stull, Kyra E; Kenyhercz, Michael W
Pattern expressions of morphoscopic cranial traits vary across populations with classification accuracies being highly dependent on the reference collection to which unknown skulls are compared. Despite recent developments in population-specific standards for South Africans, researchers have not addressed the accuracy of morphological methods. Several studies demonstrate differences in sexual dimorphism between South Africans and North Americans, warranting a need to re-evaluate sex estimation methods in South Africa. The purposes of this study were to test the reliability and accuracy of the Walker (2008) method and to examine patterns of sexual dimorphism among South Africans. A total of 245 modern Black and White South African male and female crania from the Pretoria Bone Collection, University of Pretoria, were scored using the Walker (2008) methodology. Cohen's kappa was used to evaluate reliability of the method, and percent correct assessed validity of the method. Logistic regression was utilised to create modified population-specific formulae. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was moderate to excellent (0.60-0.90), except for the mental eminence (0.40). The percent correct results for sex were 80% or higher for combinations of glabella, mastoid and menton and between 68% and 73% for menton, mastoid, orbital and nuchal margin using logistic equations of Walker (2008). White males had the highest (94-97%) and White females had the lowest (31-62%) percent correct. The low accuracies obtained when using Walker's (2008) equations emphasised the need for population-specific sex estimation models. Modified formulae for South Africans were created, yielding higher classification rates (84-93%) than when North American standards were employed. PMID:25394745
Newly arriving immigrants from Southern Africa and Mexicans do not get on well in the sunbelt state of Florida. A persistent theme emerging from discussions with South Africans on their relationship with Mexicans is that both sides perceive the other as culturally ethnocentric. The antagonistic relationship between both social groups is due to strong ethnic bonds and the clash of cultures. PMID:21905325
Job satisfaction was investigated at a South African university library undergoing change on many fronts. The study included 31 members of staff and the data were gathered via interviews/questionnaires, informed by standard HRM job satisfaction theory. The study found a "love-hate" relationship between respondents and their work. The key positive…
Sailors, Misty; Makalela, Leketi; Hoffman, James V.
Our lead article explores the impact the authors witnessed when they helped South African teachers create culturally relevant books written in their students' languages. Through participation in the Ithuba Writing Project, these teachers were able to relate transformative stories about their lives through books that they subsequently shared in the…
Hammett, Daniel; Staeheli, Lynn A.
Respect is a core concept in citizenship debates. South African high school educators often draw upon respect as a key value within citizenship education. Their teaching of this value is often conflated with promotion of the practice of responsible citizenship. The constructions of respect and responsibility in these situations are imbued with…
Bruton, John M.
The Community and Individual Development Association (CIDA) City Campus is presented by Heaton as an innovative African alternative to traditional business education. However, he considers the model in isolation from the unique educational and economic circumstances of postapartheid South Africa. As a response, this article goes beyond the CIDA…
McDowell, Jennifer L; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Kenyhercz, Michael W
The purpose of this study was to combine morphoscopic and metric analyses to assess variation in nasal aperture size and shape of black and white South Africans. Thirteen landmarks were digitized from the bony nasal region of 152 crania using an electromechanic instrument for geometric morphometric (general procrustes analysis) and craniometric analyses. Elliptical Fourier analysis was used to assess shape of the nasal aperture via outlines applied through photographs. Both principal component and discriminant function analyses were applied to these statistical methods. Black South Africans were classified 95-96% correctly and white South Africans were classified 91-94% correctly. In a four-way analysis of sex and ancestry, classification accuracy ranged from 56 to 70%. Most misclassifications were between the sexes within each group which suggests an absence of sexual dimorphism. This study found that there is quantifiable variation in shape of the nasal aperture between black and white South African groups using all three statistical methods. In forensic application, standard craniometrics can be used to accurately classify an unknown person. PMID:22727267
An anthropological study investigated school-related violence experienced by 76 South African adolescents. School-related violence was found to be structurally interwoven with the social hierarchy of the school set-up and was sanctioned as an effective strategy to gain social control and discipline children. Recommendations for intervention and…
Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith
This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined during the process of coding and is presented. Results showed that the learners held more informed views than that reported in previous international studies, except for particularly naive views regarding multiple methods of investigation. The results are discussed in terms of the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) that was taught from 2003 to 2010 in South African schools. This curriculum was founded on outcomes-based principles, valuing process skills rather than content. The study found that examples provided in the RNCS document correspond closely to the aspects of inquiry as described by the National Research Council. It is argued that the RNCS contributed to the more informed views about inquiry found among South African learners in this study.
Traces the desegregation of South African schools within the Gauteng province from 1990 to 1996 demonstrating that there was a shift in responses to ethnicity from assimilationist to multiculturalist perspectives. Argues that this shift lead to 'bad' multicultural approaches and should be replaced with critical anti-racism in order to redress…
Jansen, Jonathan D.
This curriculum analysis of black South African education considers conflict and change in historical, contemporary, and postapartheid contexts. Part 1, "The Historical Context," interprets curriculum evolution, beginning with the evangelical curriculum for slaves in 1658 and concluding with formalization of racism in the apartheid policy of 1948,…
Grant, Terri; Nodoba, Gaontebale
There are many factors that influence dress code decision making in formal and informal business arenas. In South Africa, with its colonial and apartheid history followed by an exuberant resurgence of Africanism, factors such as diversity of race, ethnicity, religion, and culture play a critical role in lifestyle and worldview. These many and…
Kromberg, Jennifer; Zwane, Esther; Manga, Prashiela; Venter, Andre; Rosen, Eric; Christianson, Arnold
Childhood disabilities, including intellectual disabilities (ID), are thought to occur in 5-17% of children in developing countries around the world. In order to identify and describe the childhood disabilities occurring in a rural South African population, as well as the context in which they occur, a study was carried out in the Bushbuckridge…
Tatsuki, Donna Hurst
In this paper, a case study describes the lexis, phonology, grammar, and syntax of a speaker of South African English (SAE) and shows how these elements differ from those of a General American English (GAE) speaker. The subject was a 32-year-old female speaker of SAE, and that although she is a bilingual speaker of English and Afrikaans, English…
Carrim, Nasima Mohamed Hoosen; Basson, Johan Schutte
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether there were differences in how one public and two private South African organizations created a learning climate. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on a survey and comparative analysis of specific departments in a chemical and gas company, an insurance company, and a…
Ramnarain, Umesh; Hobden, Paul
This report describes how teachers support ninth-grade students who are doing scientific investigations in Natural Sciences in South African schools. This is of interest as allowing students to participate in inquiry-based investigations is a significant shift from traditional practices. It presents a new challenge to teachers as it signals an…
Tjabane, Masebala; Pillay, Venitha
This paper attempts to develop a conceptualisation of social justice in higher education based on a close reading of the current literature in the field. An important assumption we make is that higher education is a valuable mechanism for social justice. We set the literature against policy documents that detail South African aspirations with…
de Villiers, Alethea
In this paper I reflect on transformation in South African education policy, post-1994. The new curriculum for schools was underpinned by the democratic values of the constitution and was a time of renewal for music education. However, over time as the original curriculum documents were revised, the focus of promoting indigenous traditions was…
According to the Third National Survey of South African women who attend prenatal clinics, 120,000 more persons are estimated to have become infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) since 1991. This paper compares the teacher-student relationship with that of the confidential doctor-patient relationship, and asks whether a teacher should…
During the past decade, there has been significant growth in the number of international students seeking access to South African higher education institutions. Concomitant with this growth has been a need for management of the internationalisation process at higher education institutions; however, this has not always been forthcoming. This…
Carstens, Pieter; Stevens, Philip
Historically, the link between sexual deviance and criminality has been described and documented, asserted by psychiatry, and manifested in law. Laws that have regulated sexual behaviour have referred to terms such as 'sexual deviation', 'sexual perversion' or even archaic moral terms such as 'unnatural acts and unspeakable crimes against nature'. A possible link between sexual perversion, psychopathy, and criminality, specifically manifesting in sexual homicide, has been the subject of remarkable research in forensic psychiatry. This contribution examines the phenomenon of paraphilia with specific reference to its definition, diagnostic classification and characteristics, as well as a few selections of incidences of paraphilia in South African criminal case law. A brief assessment is made of how South African criminal courts have dealt with paraphilia. In this regard, an analysis is made of the criminal liability of the paraphiliac. The South African response to sexual deviation as addressed in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 will also be addressed with reference to its efficacy in addressing paraphilia within South African criminal law. The interface between criminal law and medical ethics within the context of this theme will also be canvassed. In conclusion, recommendations for possible reform are canvassed. PMID:27182003
Rothmann, S.; Barkhuizen, N.
The objectives of this study are to assess the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) for academic staff in South African higher education institutions and to investigate differences between the burnout levels of different demographic groups. A survey design was used, with stratified…
van der Berg, Henda, Ed.; Maree-Snijders, Asa, Ed.; Prinsloo, Roelf, Ed.
This networking directory is a comprehensive reference source of names, locations, and fields of interest of South African human sciences researchers. The guide is intended to promote research cooperation, facilitate networking, and organize conferences. The directory is intended for use at both the international level and the local level. The…
Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn
Existing research on language in South African schooling frequently draws attention to the problematic hegemony of English and the lack of access to quality education in the home language of the majority of learners, often drawing on the metaphor of a gap or a disjuncture between post-apartheid language in education policy (LiEP) and its…
Hoadley, Ursula; Christie, Pam; Ward, Catherine L.
This article reports on an empirical study of the management of curriculum and instruction in South African secondary schools. Drawing on data collected from 200 schools in 2007, a series of regression analyses tested the relationship between various dimensions of leadership and student achievement gains over time. Whilst the research confirms…
This article identifies some of the implications of corporate forms of higher education governance for the management of South African universities. It explores corporate higher educational governance with reference to institutional autonomy incorporating academic freedom. It is the contention of this article that the primary driver of higher…
Grundling, J. P.; Steynberg, L.
This article first identifies the principal forces that impact on and shape entrepreneurially-oriented higher education institutions (HEIs) in South Africa, and then analyses the degree to which those institutions have succeeded in becoming entrepreneurial. The results reveal that South Africa's HEIs are still in the initial phases of…
The paper interrogates the issue of language and social justice in South Africa's higher education using quantitative and qualitative data collected at the University of the Free State (UFS). Data were collected using questionnaires. Through purposive sampling based on South African and UFS demographics, 120 questionnaires were administered to UFS…
Okolocha, Chimezie Comfort; Nwadiani, Comfort Onaigho
This study assessed the utilization of ICT resources in teaching among business educators in tertiary institutions in south Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population and sample for the study comprised all 240 business educators in colleges…
Kotzé, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki
African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to highlight the navigation of some cultural and gendered issues relating to mourning, against the backdrop of the everyday experiences of loss of life in South Africa due to violence and HIV/AIDS. The article draws on African womanist and feminist scholarship and focuses on the intersections between cultural and gender practices of bereavement in the lives of professional urban African women. The authors argue for the use of positioning theory and witnessing practices to honor and story the ongoing struggle of African women as these women take different agentic positions by accepting, questioning, resisting, and/or changing cultural mourning practices while they compassionately witness the self and others in the narratives they live. PMID:24563939
Collins, Kathleen; Millard, Maria
The state of tertiary education in South Africa is not adequately meeting the needs of its populace. The system in place does not effectively nor appropriately target the racial group of students which forms the democratic majority. This paper portrays the reasons why these students are not succeeding on the basis of a mismatch between their…
van Rensburg, W.C.J.
South Africa is a prodigious source of many mineral supplies that are critical to the industrial nations. Increasing and intensifying Soviet and Soviet-surrogate thrusts into Africa reflect a longstanding ambition to target the ''weak links'' in vulnerable Western supplies. The dangers to the Western countries relate not only to direct denial of critical resources, but to a trend toward a mineral cartel. The cessation of mineral supplies from South Africa would in most cases have a more serious effect on the availability of these commodities to the West than on their prices. A review ofpossible Soviet control and international trade developments suggests that the Western nations must consider the possible elimination of South Africa as a major supplier. 15 references, 1 figure.
Nichols, D.J.; Jarzen, D.M.; Orth, C.J.; Oliver, P.Q.
The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in south-central Saskatchewan is marked by coincident anomalies in abundance of iridium and fern spores at the extinction level of a suite of Cretaceous pollen taxa. Evidence of disruption of the terrestrial flora includes the fern-spore abundance anomaly and local extinction of as much as 30 percent of angiosperm species. The reorganized earliest Tertiary flora is made up largely of surviving species that assumed new roles of dominance. Persistence of climatically sensitive taxa across the boundary indicates that if paleoclimate was altered by the terminal Cretaceous event, it returned quickly to the pre-event condition.
Brook, Judith S.; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, David W.; Rosen, Zohn
The present study assesses the interrelation among domains of ethnic factors, the individual’s sense of well-being, personality/attitudes/behaviors, sibling and peer smoking, and adolescent smoking behavior. The sample consisted of 1,468 South African adolescents selected from four ethnic groups self-identified as defined by current South African usage: Black (mainly Zulu and Xhosa), Indian, White, and Coloured (mixed ancestry). In accordance with Family Interactional Theory, there was a sequence of patterning from ethnic factors and the individual’s sense of well-being to adolescent personality/attitudes/behaviors and models of smoking. All of the four domains in the model also had a direct effect on adolescent smoking behavior. The findings suggest four possible targets of therapeutic or preventive intervention with regard to adolescent smoking: ethnic factors, the individual’s sense of well-being, personality/attitudes/behaviors, and smoking within the peer group. PMID:16262539
Wolhuter, C. C.; Higgs, P.; Higgs, L. G.; Ntshoe, I.
The aim of this article is to determine to what extent South African higher education and the South African academic profession can hold their own, within the international constellation of higher education systems and academic profession contingents. The article uses the theoretical framework of current changes taking place in higher education…
Heeren, G Anita; Icard, Larry D.; O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa
The primary mode of HIV transmission in South Africa is heterosexual sexual behavior. HIV prevention research specifically focusing on men in South Africa is limited. We assessed self-reported HIV risk behaviors in 1,181 men ages 18 to 45 years in randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Older men were less likely to report having multiple partners. Religiosity was a protective factor for condom use and unprotected sex with steady partners. Discussing using condoms was a protective factor for condom use and unprotected sex with both steady and casual partners. Having a child was associated with decreased condom use with steady partners and employment was associated with decreased condom use with casual partners. The findings suggest the need for HIV risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored for South African men with regard to age, religiosity, and types of sexual partners. Implications for behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk are discussed. PMID:24722765
Heeren, G Anita; Icard, Larry D; O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa
The primary mode of HIV transmission in South Africa is heterosexual sexual behavior. HIV prevention research specifically focusing on men in South Africa is limited. We assessed self-reported HIV risk behaviors in 1,181 men ages 18 to 45 years in randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Older men were less likely to report having multiple partners. Religiosity was a protective factor for condom use and unprotected sex with steady partners. Discussing using condoms was a protective factor for condom use and unprotected sex with both steady and casual partners. Having a child was associated with decreased condom use with steady partners and employment was associated with decreased condom use with casual partners. The findings suggest the need for HIV risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored for South African men with regard to age, religiosity, and types of sexual partners. Implications for the development of such interventions are discussed. PMID:24722765
DePalma, Renée; Francis, Dennis
Although South Africa is one of the most progressive countries in the world in terms of constitutional and legislative rights for LGBT individuals, education is one of many social arenas where these ideals are not carried out. Interviews with 25 practicing teachers revealed very little description of practice, but widely divergent understandings around sexual diversity that drew on various authoritative discourses, including religious teachings, educational policy, science, and the powerful human rights framework of the South African constitution. Implications for teacher education include directly engaging with these discourses and providing training, teaching materials, and practical guidelines based on existing policy. PMID:25090579
Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S
Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of "Black," "White," "Coloured," and "Indian" youths aged 12-17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents' demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors. PMID:20099015
Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.
Tobacco use and its concomitant, nicotine dependence, are increasing in African countries and other parts of the developing world. However, little research has assessed nicotine dependence in South Africa or other parts of the African continent. Previous research has found that adolescent problem behaviors, including tobacco use, tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between nicotine dependence and adolescent problem behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of urban South African adolescents. A community sample (N = 731) consisting of “Black,” “White,” “Coloured,” and “Indian” youths aged 12–17 years was drawn from the Johannesburg metropolitan area. Structured interviews were administered by trained interviewers. Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. Logistic regression analyses showed that higher levels of nicotine dependence significantly predicted elevated levels of violent behavior, deviant behavior, marijuana and other illegal drug use, binge drinking, early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use, despite control on the adolescents’ demographic characteristics, peer smoking, conflict with parents, peer deviance, and the availability of legal and illegal substances. These relationships were robust across ethnicity and gender. The findings indicate the need for policy makers and prevention and intervention programs in South Africa to consider adolescent nicotine dependence in conjunction with comorbid problem behaviors, including other substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and deviant behaviors. PMID:20099015
Seedat, YK; Rayner, BL; Veriava, Yosuf
Summary Outcomes Extensive data from many randomised, controlled trials have shown the benefit of treating hypertension (HTN). The target blood pressure (BP) for antihypertensive management is systolic < 140 mmHg and diastolic < 90 mmHg, with minimal or no drug side effects. Lower targets are no longer recommended. The reduction of BP in the elderly should be achieved gradually over one month. Co-existent cardiovascular (CV) risk factors should also be controlled. Benefits Reduction in risk of stroke, cardiac failure, chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. Recommendations Correct BP measurement procedure is described. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors and recommendations for antihypertensive therapy are stipulated. Lifestyle modification and patient education are cornerstones of management. The major indications, precautions and contra-indications are listed for each antihypertensive drug recommended. Drug therapy for the patient with uncomplicated HTN is either mono- or combination therapy with a low-dose diuretic, calcium channel blocker (CCB) and an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Combination therapy should be considered ab initio if the BP is ≥ 160/100 mmHg. In black patients, either a diuretic and/or a CCB is recommended initially because the response rate is better compared to an ACEI. In resistant hypertension, add an alpha-blocker, spironolactone, vasodilator or β-blocker. Validity The guideline was developed by the Southern African Hypertension Society 2014©. PMID:25629715
Ayodele, Joseph Babatola; Adewumi, Joseph Olukayode
This paper compared the incidence and management of conflicts in secular and non-secular tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The sample of this study was made of sixty staff, and two hundred and forty students randomly selected each from two secular and two non-secular tertiary institutions in south western Nigeria. A validated questionnaire was…
This article is based on a prior report for the UN High Commissioner on Refugees on repatriation of Mozambican refugees in 1994. Official statistics revealed that 45% of all immigrants in South Africa, during 1992-94, came from European countries. 31.4% were from Asian countries and 18.4% were from African countries. Prior to about 1990, migrants tended to include contract workers recruited by big South African mining companies and other firms, or highly qualified professionals who worked in urban industrial and institutional areas. Although the number of illegal migrants from neighboring countries is not known, this population group draws the most attention. A 1993 survey of 6348 households of Mozambican refugees indicated that most left their home country due to war. Only 6.7% were economic and 2.4% were ecological migrants. Over 50% of all Mozambican refugees currently in South Africa, arrived during 1985-89. 47.2% are aged under 15 years. Refugee households average 4.38 persons/household. Household size varies with sex of the household head and area of residence. Family size was the largest in Gazankulu and the smallest in Winterveld. Family size tended to be lower among female-headed households. 79% had extended families in Mozambique. 48.3% of refugee household heads had 1-3 years of formal education, while 10.2% had none. 36.3% were unemployed and 35.1% were subsistence farmers. 89.3% wanted to return to Mozambique. National policy on migration needs to consider local needs and expectations, the economic opportunities and conditions of South Africans, and South Africa's regional position. PMID:12293724
Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison
In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…
Sangomas or inyangas are shamans, healers, priests, and prophets that have been the backbone of Bantu communities, especially in the rural areas of Southern Africa for eons. However, with rapid Westernization and the increasing allure of the commodity market, the old ways are rapidly eroding. Indigenous knowledge has always been transmitted orally, and there is little written down about the secret traditions of initiation. Hence, the bibliography listed at the end of this article is scant. This information is a result of personal experience gleaned during my own initiation into the world of sangoma and my subsequent experiences with these healing realms. The knowledge has been gained experientially and not by the scientific method. Some of it is secret and cannot be revealed. The information may differ somewhat from healer to healer but the general principles are the same. Most sub-Saharan African peoples believe in the importance of the ancestors being able to guide events, and they revere them because they have this power. I mostly will be describing the traditions that I encountered during my initiation and subsequent practice. There are others. Since sangoma wisdom is an oral tradition the individual's initiation will depend on the mentor and the spirit guides involved. That particular sangoma's healing repertoire will be somewhat different to another though the principles remain the same. The ancestors find the most efficient way to impart the information so that the healer can do the work. The way in which they transmit the knowledge will be unique to that person's receptivity and talents. Objective proof is not part of the experiential training. In fact, any attempt at systematic inquiry gets in the way of the process. One has to put cognitive, left-brained intellect aside. Obsession with data obliterates the intuitive. The sangoma or inyanga has a lot to teach the West about the spirit world and our ancestral roots. Science has put us in touch with a
The author discusses the effect of anti-apartheid actions on South Africa's position as the world's leading supplier of steam coal. Anti-apartheid economic sanctions by members of the EEC will not produce an immediate drop in tonnage because Western Europe will take coal already under contract. But Denmark and the Netherlands have already said they will phase out all contracts by 1990. Indications are that a number of other European countries will follow suit. However, it would be premature to write off South Africa as a coal trader. Ironically, economic sanctions and calls for disinvestment are likely to keep the rank weak and South African coal cheap for a long time. Cheap coal usually finds its way to market, despite political obstacles.
Klinck, M E; Iuris, B; Louw, D A; Peens, B J
South Africa has made rapid progress in the field of human and especially children's rights. This is in sharp contrast with it's apartheid history where even the basic principles of human rights were negated. In this article an overview will be given of the general principles on which the realization of children's rights in South Africa are based. More specifically information on the population, economic status, political climate and recent developments in this field is presented. This is followed by a discussion on the social-economic nature of children's rights, the courts as enforcement mechanisms, and the contents of the best interest standard as described both in convention on the rights of the child and the South African Constitution. PMID:10876302
Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra
2002-01-01Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington
Micou, Ann M.
The South African Information Exchange (SAIE) has published an update of 35 existing organizations who are engaged in funding initiatives for specific areas of South African and United States educational exchange programs. One list is alphabetical by such program categories as: academic exchange, academic support, adult education, advocacy,…
Jackson, M. P. A.; Hudec, M. R.; Hegarty, K. A.
We explore exhumation in the coastal Kwanza Basin by combining analyses of Tertiary hiatuses and apatite fission tracks. Planktonic biozones show five major hiatuses in the Oligo-Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene. Between gaps, Oligo-Miocene strata accumulated under marine conditions. A marine setting refutes the idea of a massively raised coastal plateau in the mid-Tertiary. Marine conditions continued until ˜5 Ma. Fission track data suggest three thermal events: ˜150 Ma, during rifting and volcanism; ˜100-70 Ma, during shortening and volcanism; and ˜20-10 Ma, during exhumation. Tertiary uplift was spatially highly variable. For the Kwanza Basin, we infer that Tertiary uplift on the West African margin is indeed a fact but that estimates of uplift timing and size are unreliable when extrapolated to adjoining areas. Massive uplift (2000-4000 m) of the Precambrian craton had little structural effect in the outer basin. Instead, minor uplifts on the shelf drove late Tertiary deformation on the slope.
Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J
Breakfast habits by using questionnaires, were established in a total of 4717 South African pupils of 16 to 18 yr. In the groups of rural and urban Black, Indian, European-African-Malay, and white pupils studied, respective proportions who had no solid breakfast (both sexes combined) were approximately 21, 19, 13, 13, and 14%. Proportions who had only porridge or bread (or toast) plus drink were 77, 73, 61, 71, and 56%. Such breakfast provided ranges of means of 223 to 345 kcal, 9 to 14 g protein, 7 to 18 g fat, 51 to 185 mg calcium, and 3.2 to 5.1 mg iron. Proportions who had a cooked breakfast (including egg, meat, fish), eaten with or without a cereal food, were 1, 4, 17, 8, and 29%. Such meals contributed means of 495 to 704 kcal, 11 to 26 g protein, 24 to 39 g fat, 110 to 225 mg calcium, and 3.9 to 5.5 mg iron. In the South African groups studied, the issue of breakfast or no breakfast had no clear-cut bearing on weight, height, class position, or frequency of absence from school. The degree by which, in a given community, nutrition in general and breakfast in particular, regulates health and/or academic performance, needs proper research in prospective studies. PMID:7124666
Hasan, Ali; Twala, Bhekisipho; Ouahada, Khmaies; Marwala, Tshilidzi
In recent years, South Africa has encountered a critical electricity supply which necessitated the implementation of demand-side management (DSM) projects. Load shifting and energy (EE) efficiency projects were introduced in mining sector to reduce the electricity usage during day peak time. As the compressed air networks and the water pumping systems are using large amounts of the mines' electricity, possible ways were investigated and implemented to improve and optimise the energy consumption and to reduce the costs. Implementing DSM and EE in four different mines resulted in achieving the desired energy savings and load-shifting. W ostatnich latach w Południowej Afryce zanotowano pewne trudności z dostawami energii elektrycznej, co wymusiło wdrożenie działań mających na celu skuteczne zarządzanie zagadnieniami energetycznymi. Wprowadzono działania mające na celu zmianę systemu obciążeń roboczych i bardziej efektywne wykorzystanie energii tak, by obniżyć zapotrzebowanie na energię w trakcie szczytowych godzin w ciągu dnia. Sieci dostarczające sprężone powietrze oraz stacje pomp zużywają znaczne ilości energii w kopalni, przeanalizowano więc możliwe sposoby redukcji i optymalizacji zapotrzebowania na energię i tym samym obniżenia kosztów produkcji. Wdrożenie odpowiednich projektów nakierowanych na oszczędności i optymalizację w czterech kopalniach doprowadziło do oczekiwanych oszczędności energii i umożliwiło zmianę systemu obciążeń roboczych w trakcie procesu produkcji.
MacKinnon, Aran S
The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid. PMID:17939024
Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Nganda, Benjamin; Mwabu, Germano M; Chatora, Rufaro; Mwase, Takondwa
Background Studies conducted in developed countries using economic models show that individual- and household- level variables are important determinants of health insurance ownership. There is however a dearth of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health insurance ownership and the demographic, economic and educational characteristics of South African women. Methods The analysis was based on data from a cross-sectional national household sample derived from the South African Health Inequalities Survey (SANHIS). The study subjects consisted of 3,489 women, aged between 16 and 64 years. It was a non-interventional, qualitative response econometric study. The outcome measure was the probability of a respondent's ownership of a health insurance policy. Results The χ2 test for goodness of fit indicated satisfactory prediction of the estimated logit model. The coefficients of the covariates for area of residence, income, education, environment rating, age, smoking and marital status were positive, and all statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05. Women who had standard 10 education and above (secondary), high incomes and lived in affluent provinces and permanent accommodations, had a higher likelihood of being insured. Conclusion Poverty reduction programmes aimed at increasing women's incomes in poor provinces; improving living environment (e.g. potable water supplies, sanitation, electricity and housing) for women in urban informal settlements; enhancing women's access to education; reducing unemployment among women; and increasing effective coverage of family planning services, will empower South African women to reach a higher standard of living and in doing so increase their economic access to health insurance policies and the associated health services. PMID:15733326
Wei, H. H.; Bordoni, S.
The Somali cross-equatorial jet is estimated to contribute up to half of the mass flux crossing the equator during the Asian monsoon season. Previous studies have argued that the Somali jet is strengthened by the East African Highlands, which act as a wall and accelerate the flow (e.g., Krishnamurti et al. 1976, Sashegyi and Geisler 1987). Besides, observational studies have shown a positive correlation between the strength of the Somali jet and the South Asian Monsoon (SAM) precipitation (e.g., Findlater 1969, Halpern and Woiceshyn 2001). These imply that the existence of the topography would relate to a stronger SAM. However, in a more recent study, Chakraborty et al. (2002) found that if the African topography is removed in a comprehensive general circulation model (GCM), the SAM strengthens. In this study, we use the GFDL AM2.1 GCM to conduct experiments with and without topography in Africa, to further examine its influence on the cross-equatorial Somali jet and the SAM. We find that when the African topography is removed, the SAM precipitation increases, consistent with the results in Chakraborty et al. (2002). Interestingly, our results also show that the cross-equatorial Somali jet does weaken in the absence of the African topography, in agreement with previous studies. The moisture budget shows that the increase in precipitation in the no-African topography experiment is primarily due to stronger wind convergence. The dynamics of the cross-equatorial Somali jet is investigated within the framework of the Potential Vorticity (PV) budget, showing the contribution of the changes in friction and diabatic heating to the circulation as the topography is removed. A backward trajectory analysis is also conducted to further examine the influence of topography on both the material tendencies of the PV budget and trajectories of parcels reaching the Indian subcontinent.
Turner, N.L. ); Siemann-Gartmann, S. )
The Shenhu Massif lies between the Zhu III Depression to the northwest, the Kaiping/Baiyun depressions to the northeast, and the Xisha Basin to the south. Major faulting began in the Paleocene, and initial basins formed on and around the Shenhu Massif during this time. Continental coarse clastics, derived from the massif area, filled the basins prior to the middle Oligocene though larger, deeper basins may have contained lacustrine environments. During the marine incursion from the middle Oligocene and until the early Miocene, coarse clastics were deposited adjacent to exposed basement areas, fine marine clastics were deposited on the massif, carbonate buildups formed along the massif rim, and carbonate platforms developed from the massif edge back into the shallow-water high-massif interior. In mid-lower Miocene, the carbonate areas were reduced in size and replaced by shales. Carbonate deposition as layers and mounds was reestablished over much of the Shenhu Massif in the early and middle Miocene. Prodelta shales in the east Shenhu Massif area and coarser clastics present in clinoforms in the Baiyun Depression are the distal components of a southerly prograding delta system located to the north. Carbonates continued to develop along the southeast side of the west Shenhu Massif during the latter part of the middle Miocene, but fine clastics dominated the rest of the area except in the Kaiping/Baiyun Depression where coarser clastics from the delta were deposited. Amoco and its partners, Nanhai West Oil Co. and Kerr-McGee Co., have begun evaluation of the Shenhu Massif area with the drilling of a Miocene carbonate buildup, the Amoco 23-1 Baodao prospect.
The growth of technology, especially military technology, has heightened demand for certain critical mineral resources. Strategically important to the industrialized nations, these resources are increasingly available only through overseas trade. The concentration of many of these resources in politically unstable areas of the world has rendered the industrialized nations vulnerable to supply dislocation. Nowhere is this more evident than in the dependence of the United States (US) upon African minerals. This study examines these dependencies, especially with respect to South Africa's chromium and ferrochromium, in order to address the geopolitically important variables concerning resource access and the determination of US policy toward the mineral-rich region of Southern Africa.
Davies-Coleman, Michael T; Veale, Clinton G L
Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively) and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared. PMID:26473891
Fairhead, J. D.; Binks, R. M.
Plate tectonic studies of the development of the Central and South Atlantic Oceans using Seasat and Geosat altimeter and magnetic anomaly isochron data now provide quantitative models of seafloor spreading through time. Such models enable an initial assessment of the differential opening between these two oceanic basins to be determined. The Equatorial Atlantic is an integral part of this oceanic rifting process, allowing stresses arising from the differential opening to be dissipated into both the Caribbean and Africa along its northern and southern boundaries respectively. The tectonic model for the West African rift system, based on geological and geophysical studies, shows a series of strike-slip fault zones diverging into Africa from the Gulf of Guinea and dissipating their shear movement into the development of extensional basins orientated perpendicular to these faults zones. The development of the West African rift system was contemporaneous with the early opening of the South Atlantic, continued to develop well after the final breakup of South America from Africa and did not cease until the late Cretaceous when there was a major phase of basin inversion and deformation. Santonian ( ~ 80 Ma) deformation across the Benue Trough (Nigeria) is broadly contemporaneous with dextral shear reactivation of the central African fracture system which, in turn resulted in renewed extension in the Sudan basins during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary. This paper illustrates the close linkage in both time and space between the history of the African rift basins and the opening of the Atlantic. Both exhibit distinct phases of evolution with the rift basins developing in direct response to the differential opening between the Central and South Atlantic in order to dissipate stresses generated by this opening. The Mesozoic tectonic model proposed is therefore one of an intimate interaction between oceanic and continental tectonics.
Coleman, K. M.; Nolan, J. R.; Davis, K. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Litthauer, D.; Pfiffner, S. M.
Deep South African mines (2 to 3.5 km below land surface) have provided unique opportunities for research investigating geochemical and microbial processes in deep subsurface environments. The environments encountered in these mines range from prolific biofilms to hot saline water emanating from gas-rich boreholes. This venture is an outgrowth of ongoing research funded by the NSF Life in Extreme Environments Program as the Witswatersrand Deep Microbiology Project. A workshop for U.S. and South African underrepresented undergraduates was held in December 2001 and is being repeated in December 2002. The main purpose of the workshops were to provide a field and laboratory research experience for underrepresented undergraduate students from the United States (U.S.) and South Africa (S.A.) in the fields of earth, biological, and environmental sciences and engineering. Additional purposes included continuing the exchange of scientific, educational, and biotechnological efforts, and to discuss and explore opportunities for expanding the educational, research and biotechnological efforts. The workshop goals were to recruit and engage undergraduate students in unique and exciting research not normally available to them. The workshops offered state-of-the-art experimental opportunities on specific scientific topics, including subsurface biogeochemstry and microbial ecology. The workshops strengthened scientific and technological collaborations between the South African and U.S. academic communities and South African mining companies. The mines welcome opportunities to host under represented student education initiatives and are forthcoming with refreshments, mining gear, underground transport and geologists. We successfully demonstrated that a workshop with underground activities involving students from both nations was safe, feasible, and career enhancing. Student activities included chemical analyses of groundwater, enrichment for iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria and
Micou, Ann McKinstry; McLean, Sheila Arvin
This working paper provides information on 29 U.S. support organizations raising money for South African causes. Usually provided for each organization are a mission statement; a description of program areas and specific activities; and names of directors, trustees, and contacts. The organizations listed are: the Africa Fund; the African Arts…
Heppner, P. Paul; Pretorius, T. B.; Wei, Meifen; Lee, Dong-gwi; Wang, Yu-Wei
Examines the generalizability of the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) through research with Black South African samples. The estimates of the factor structure as well as other reliability and validity estimates provided strong support for the generalizability of the PSI to South African Black college students. The results also provided partial…
Joubert, J. P. R.; Martins, N.
South African organisations and particularly institutions of higher learning have been confronted with workforces that increasingly reflect the diversity of the South African population. This changing workforce composition implies that the multitude of individual and cultural differences and similarities become increasingly apparent among…
du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul
This qualitative interpretive exploratory case study investigated a sample of South African teachers' perceptions of the requirements for successful implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Professional Teacher Development (PTD) within disadvantaged South African township schools in the Port Elizabeth district in South…
This paper provides an analysis of language shift from African languages to English (and Afrikaans) in South Africa, using home language data from the South African population census (1996 and 2001). Although census data have been criticised for its "essentialist" construction of language, they nevertheless provide sociolinguists with a unique…
Higgs, P.; Higgs, L. G.; Venter, E.
The importance of innovation in higher education is recognised in South African educational discourse. The South African White Paper on Science and Technology, issued in September 1996 and entitled, "Preparing for the 21st Century", states that, "the White Paper is built upon the twin concepts of "innovation" and a "national system of innovation"…
Increasingly the social, educational, cultural, linguistic, religious and racial diversity of South African society is finding expression within South African institutions of higher education. Consequently, "diversity'', "diversity issues'' and "diversification'', have become part of the education debate and policy,and pose new challenges to South…
Abrie, A. L.
This article investigates the attitudes of South African student teachers towards the theory of evolution and their willingness to teach it. The teaching of evolution has been excluded from the South African school curriculum for most of the 20th century. In 2008, Grade 12 learners were for the first time exposed to the concept of evolution in the…
Yonge, George D.
In his response to Kruger, Le Grange claims that: (1) the South African discourse of fundamental pedagogics was closely allied with Christian National Education and functioned as a powerful educational doctrine in the service of the South African policy of apartheid education; (2) fundamental pedagogics bracketed political discourse; (3) the…
The main focus of this paper is on the triangulated work of the 1996 South African Constitution, the Pan South African Language Board (PanSALB), and one of the latter's eleven language subsidiaries: the English National Language Body (ENLB), with special reference to the ENLB's likewise triadic projects on literature; on variation and…
Walker, Melanie; Unterhalter, Elaine
This paper considers the educational work that narrative does. Against the context of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission that examined the crimes of apartheid, it discusses the narrative implications of South African poet Antjie Krog's multi-layered text of Truth Commission testimony, and autobiographical and philosophical…
Dovey, Ken; Muller, Lizzie
In this paper, we outline a pilot project aimed at exploring the role of contextual factors in the facilitation of creativity and innovation within a range of South African art forms. Interviews with 11 people who have rich experience of the South African art domain delivered an insightful perspective on the contextual factors driving lifelong…
Swartz, Sharlene; Arogundade, Emma; Davis, Danya
Multiculturalism currently aims for the political accommodation of difference instead of the subversion of the resulting privileges of difference. In the South African context such a distinction is especially important since the economic and symbolic subjugation of the majority of Black South Africans continues despite political transformation,…
South African Academic Development (AD) emerged as a liberatory educational and social movement in the 1980s. AD (often called educational development) has burgeoned as an international phenomenon, but with a focus on quality rather than on liberation. South African AD now seems to be struggling to construct its post-apartheid identity, if one…
Uys, Daniël Wilhelm; Alant, Edward John Thomas
A new procedure for estimating promotion, repetition and dropout rates for learners in South African schools is proposed. The procedure uses three different data sources: data from the South African General Household survey, data from the Education Management Information Systems, and data from yearly reports published by the Department of Basic…
A study examined academic literacy in high-risk South African students entering postsecondary education, and the relationship of academic literacy to instructional development. Data were gathered in discussions with academic staff at South African universities and technikons and at the University of Saskatchewan. The report begins with background…
Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV), which is highly prevalent in the African population, is one of the most common vaginal syndromes affecting women in their reproductive age placing them at increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases including infection by human immunodeficiency virus-1. The vaginal microbiota of a healthy woman is often dominated by the species belonging to the genus Lactobacillus namely L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii and L. iners, which have been extensively studied in European populations, albeit less so in South African women. In this study, we have therefore identified the vaginal Lactobacillus species in a group of 40 African women from Soweto, a township on the outskirts of Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Identification was done by cultivating the lactobacilli on Rogosa agar, de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) and Blood agar plates with 5% horse blood followed by sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. BV was diagnosed on the basis of Nugent scores. Since some of the previous studies have shown that the lack of vaginal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing lactobacilli is associated with bacterial vaginosis, the Lactobacillus isolates were also characterised for their production of H2O2. Results Cultivable Lactobacillus species were identified in 19 out of 21 women without BV, in three out of five women with intermediate microbiota and in eight out of 14 women with BV. We observed that L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii, L. gasseri and L. vaginalis were the predominant species. The presence of L. crispatus was associated with normal vaginal microbiota (P = 0.024). High level of H2O2 producing lactobacilli were more often isolated from women with normal microbiota than from the women with BV, although not to a statistically significant degree (P = 0.064). Conclusion The vaginal Lactobacillus species isolated from the cohort of South African women are similar to those identified in European populations. In accordance with the other
Cain, Demetria; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Eaton, Lisa; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Harel, Ofer; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C.
South African townships have high HIV prevalence and a strong need for collective action to change normative sexual risk behaviors. This study investigated the relationship between perceptions of individuals about collective efficacy in the community’s ability to prevent HIV and their personal HIV risk behaviors. Men (n=1581) and women (n=718) completed anonymous surveys within four Black African Townships in Cape Town, South Africa from June 2008 to December 2010. Measures included demographics, alcohol use, attitudinal and behavioral norms, sexual health communications, and sexual risk behaviors. In multivariate logistic regressions, men were more likely to endorse collective efficacy if they were married, drank less often in alcohol serving establishments, believed that fewer men approve of HIV risk behaviors, talk more with others about HIV/AIDS, and had more sex partners in the past month. Women were more likely to endorse collective efficacy if they drank alcohol less often, talked more with others about HIV/AIDS, had more sex partners in the past month, but reported fewer unprotected sex acts in the past month. Community level interventions that strengthen collective efficacy beliefs will have to consider both protective and risk behaviors associated with believing that the community is ready and capable of preventing HIV. PMID:23660646
Takai, Ken; Moser, Duane P.; DeFlaun, Mary; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fredrickson, James K.
A culture-independent molecular analysis of archaeal communities in waters collected from deep South African gold mines was performed by performing a PCR-mediated terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of rRNA genes (rDNA) in conjunction with a sequencing analysis of archaeal rDNA clone libraries. The water samples used represented various environments, including deep fissure water, mine service water, and water from an overlying dolomite aquifer. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the ribotype distribution of archaea varied with the source of water. The archaeal communities in the deep gold mine environments exhibited great phylogenetic diversity; the majority of the members were most closely related to uncultivated species. Some archaeal rDNA clones obtained from mine service water and dolomite aquifer water samples were most closely related to environmental rDNA clones from surface soil (soil clones) and marine environments (marine group I [MGI]). Other clones exhibited intermediate phylogenetic affiliation between soil clones and MGI in the Crenarchaeota. Fissure water samples, derived from active or dormant geothermal environments, yielded archaeal sequences that exhibited novel phylogeny, including a novel lineage of Euryarchaeota. These results suggest that deep South African gold mines harbor novel archaeal communities distinct from those observed in other environments. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of archaeal strains and rDNA clones, including the newly discovered archaeal rDNA clones, the evolutionary relationship and the phylogenetic organization of the domain Archaea are reevaluated. PMID:11722932
Takai, Ken; Moser, Duane P.; Deflaun, Mary; Onstott, Tullis C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.
Culture-independent molecular analysis of archaeal communities in waters collected from deep South African gold (Au) mines was performed by PCR-mediated terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of rRNA genes (rDNA) in conjunction with sequencing analysis of archaeal rDNA clone libraries. Water samples represented various environments including: deep fissure water; mine service water; and water from an overlying dolomite aquifer. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the ribotype distribution of archaea varied directly with the source of the water. The archaeal communities in the deep Au mine environments revealed a large phylogenetic diversity; the majority of members were most closely related to uncultivated species. Some archaeal rDNA clones obtained from mine service water and dolomite aquifer water samples were most closely related to the environmental rDNA clones from surface soil (Soil clones) and marine environments (Marine Group I; MGI). Other clones possessed an intermediate phylogenetic affiliation between soil clones and MGI within the Crenarchaea. Fissure water samples, derived from active or dormant geothermal environments, yielded archaeal sequences of novel phylogeny including a novel lineage of Euryarchaeota. These results suggest that deep South African Au mines harbor novel archaeal communities distinct from those observed in other environments. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of archaeal strains and rDNA clones, including these newly discovered archaeal rDNA clones, the evolutionary relationship and the phylogenetic organization of the domain Archaea is reevaluated.
Sulcal patterns of six previously available South African australopithecine natural endocasts are reexamined and compared to sulcal patterns of 17 human, 12 gorilla and six chimpanzee brains. In addition, a seventh natural endocast, from STS 58, is described for the first time and compared to an artificial endocast from the same specimen. Using the Taung endocast as a focal point, it is shown that sulcal patterns reproduced on natural endocasts of australopithecines appear to be pongid-like rather than human-like. Contrary to earlier descriptions, the lunate sulcus occupies a rostral position similar to that found in pongids. Since South African australopithecine brains do not appear to be reorganized along human lines at a gross external neuroanatomical level, the concept of neurological reorganization is best applied at finer neurological levels, perhaps at the level of the neuron or at a neurochemical level. Thus, future studies by comparative neuroscientists are more likely to elucidate the fine details of neurological reorganization that occurred during early human evolution than are studies by paleontologists who directly observe the australopithecine fossil record of natural endocasts. PMID:7468789
Legodi, M A; de Waal, D
The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)5), illite (KAl4(Si7AlO20)(OH)4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi3O8), quartz (alpha-SiO2), hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), montmorillonite (Mg3(Si,Al)4(OH)2 x 4.5 5H(2)O[Mg]0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO3). Gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO(2)) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 degrees C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively. PMID:16839805
Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea Maria
The eutherian placenta is considered to possess great plasticity, but it is not clear how this variation reflects adaptation to different ecological niches. Because South America was isolated for most of the Tertiary, it represents a natural laboratory to examine this question. We here describe placentation in three South American groups: Xenarthra have been part of the fauna from at least the mid-Paleocene whereas caviomorph rodents and Neotropical primates are each derived from a single founder that reached South America in the Eocene and Oligocene, respectively. The common ancestor of Xenarthra had a villous, haemochorial placenta, from which the labyrinthine, endotheliochorial placenta of sloths later evolved. Placentation in Caviomorpha follows an extraordinary stable pattern, characterized by a haemomonochorial, labyrinthine and highly lobed structure with specialized growing areas. This pattern was present before arrival of these rodents in South America and enabled a successful radiation especially during the spread of grasslands. Neotropical primates have haemochorial, trabecular placentas with a specialized maternal blood supply; a pattern that contrasts with that of Old World monkeys and may have been present in the founder generation on arrival in South America. In conclusion, there is a dichotomy within Xenarthra but otherwise the ancient South American mammals do not show much variation in principal placental characters. Thus, the successful radiation of these three groups, and their adaptation to diverse ecological niches, did not require substantial alterations in placentation. PMID:23355381
Norris, Shane A.; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M.; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A.; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees
The authors assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called "Birth to Twenty" in Johannesburg, South Africa. They examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as South…
Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison
In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses barriers to help-seeking behaviors. Risk factors as well as relevant sociocultural, economic, structural, and psychological perceptions regarding childhood sexual assault among South African girls are also discussed. Finally, clinical implications, culturally relevant psychotherapeutic techniques, and suggestions for future research are provided in an effort to reduce the negative mental health consequences for the victims. PMID:20509076
Schwella, E.; van Nieuwenhuyzen, Bernard J.
Are South Africans financially literate, and how can this be measured? Until 2009 there was no South African financial literacy measure and, therefore, the aim was to develop a South African measurement instrument that is scientific, socially acceptable, valid and reliable. To achieve this aim a contextual and conceptual analysis of financial…
Rauf, Abdul; Rauf, Waqar-Un Nisa; Navsa, Nadia; Ashraf, Khizar Tauseef Ahmad
Knowledge of the prevalence, morphology, and location of the azygos lobe is essential for diagnostic and surgical procedures of the lungs related to mediastinal pathologies, especially to minimize intraoperative vascular injuries, shock, possible thoracotomy, and even the possibility of pulmonary torsion. Reports on the prevalence of the azygos lobe vary between 0.11% and 1.06%. The aim of this study was to record the prevalence and morphological description of the azygos lobe in the South African cadaveric population. A total of 704 adult cadavers dissected over a 10-year period by students in the Department of Human Anatomy at the Medunsa Campus, University of Limpopo, were studied. The prevalence and dimensions of the azygos lobe were determined with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results indicate that an azygos lobe was present in the right lung in only four cases (prevalence 0.57%, 95% CI: 0.2%-1.6%). The mean height and width were 6.7 cm (95% CI: 4.4-9.2) and 4.5 cm (95% CI: 3.7-5.2), respectively. Observations on the morphology of the azygos lobe showed that it was rectangular (n = 3) and triangular (n = 1) in shape with smooth margins. In conclusion, the azygos lobe is a rare anomaly in the South African cadaveric population. The present results are comparable with those reported in the literature for other populations. Future radiological studies on the azygos lobe on living subjects in South Africa will be useful for further understanding of this rare but significant anomaly. PMID:21800377
It is widely agreed empowering women to take control of their lives and sexual health is a key strategy for tackling gender inequalities and HIV/AIDS, but to date this has been exceedingly difficult to achieve. This paper explores how a sample of South African media represent the relationship between gender and HIV/AIDS in the interests of understanding the symbolic context in which HIV/AIDS programmers conduct their work. The starting assumption is that representations of gender and HIV in the symbolic sphere provide the context within which people charged with designing and implementing women's empowerment interventions--government officials and NGO programme managers--construct understandings of this relationship and how best to tackle it. Content analysis was conducted on four South African newspapers between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2008. Newspapers selected are widely read by "opinion leaders"; government officials and NGO programme managers. It is accepted that women's empowerment needs to involve top-down and bottom-up approaches. Dominant media representations portray women's empowerment as almost entirely a top-down process in which powerful actors are responsible for identifying and implementing women-focused interventions. Newspapers pay little attention to the need for the mobilisation of women via bottom-up programmes. Furthermore, while the media focuses on structural- and individual-level interventions, there is limited discussion of the importance of community-development interventions. Community-development interventions emphasise the need to build and support community-led responses to HIV. For women's empowerment to be successful interventions need to be at all levels. Currently, much emphasis is placed on the need for "socially responsible" media reporting in South Africa that supports positive social development and social justice. Against this background, we conclude media representations of appropriate ways to tackle gender and HIV
Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon
Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose
Lim, Megan S. C.; Murray, Jill; Dowdeswell, Robert J.; Glynn, Judith R.; Sonnenberg, Pam
Background The mortality rate from unnatural deaths for South Africa is nearly double the world average. Reliable data are limited by inaccurate and incomplete ascertainment of specific causes of unnatural death. This study describes trends in causes of unnatural death between 1992 and 2008 in a cohort of South African miners. Methodology/Principal Findings The study used routinely-collected retrospective data with cause of death determined from multiple sources including the mine's human resources database, medical records, death registration, and autopsy. Cause-specific mortality rates and Poisson regression coefficients were calculated by calendar year and age group. The cohort included 40,043 men. One quarter of all 2937 deaths were from unnatural causes (n = 805). Causes of unnatural deaths were road traffic accidents 38% (109/100,000 py), homicides 30% (88/100,000 py), occupational injuries 17% (50/100,000 py), suicides 8% (24/100,000 py), and other accidents 6% (19/100,000 py). Rates of unnatural deaths declined by 2% (95%CI -4%,-1%) per year over the study period, driven by declining rates of road traffic and other accidents. The rate of occupational injury mortality did not change significantly over time (-2% per year, 95%CI -5%,+2%). Unnatural deaths were less frequent in this cohort of workers than in the South African population (IRR 0.89, 95%CI 0.82–0.95), particularly homicides (IRR 0.48, 95%CI 0.42–0.55). Conclusions/Significance Unnatural deaths were a common cause of preventable and premature death in this cohort of miners. While unnatural death rates declined between 1992 and 2008, occupational fatalities remained at a high level. Evidence-based prevention strategies to address these avoidable deaths are urgently needed. PMID:21931592
De Villiers, S. E.; Cadman, A.
A diverse assemblage of terrestrial plant palynomorphs is reported from Koingnaas, a site in the Namaqualand region of the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. In excess of one hundred palynomorph types are recognised from three peaty clay horizons contained within a fluviatile sediment suite filling a palæochannel of Tertiary age. No stratigraphically significant differences occur between the three horizons. Angiosperm pollen dominates the assemblage, with a lesser contribution of gymnosperm pollen, and spores make up a significant although small component. The presence of podocarp pollen, angiosperm pollen with modern arboreal counterparts and fossilised wood suggests that the palæoflora consisted of a forested temperate to subtropical environment. The Koingnaas assemblage contains little evidence of the modern regional flora, but links with the Cape Floristic Region are indicated by pollen related to the Proteaceae and possibly the 'palæoendemic' Bruniaceae. Previously, the palæochannel sediments were thought to be Pliocene, but an early Tertiary age is preferred for the Koingnaas site, supported by similarities with the Palæocene Arnot Pipe assemblage and the position of the palæochannel relative to early Tertiary palæodrainage patterns.
In South Africa, a fatalistic attitude prevails among young black youth toward prevention of HIV transmission. Many of the 3 million black migrant laborers in single-sex hostels have many partners who are prostitutes. Due to culture, race, and class, black women are so oppressed that they cannot even require sex partners to wear condoms. Blacks perceive condoms as a governmental means to control population growth. The Centre for Health and Social Studies has learned that 14-17 year old blacks have been sexually active for a long time, so it has decided to also market its AIDS prevention program to 11-13 year olds. AIDS has not yet reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, however, and a full scale intervention program implemented between the end of 1992 and mid-1993 could stem the epidemic. The Health and Refugee Trust has developed a data base about the attitudes of South African refugees toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. It plans to distribute educational materials to hostels, squatter settlements, and rural communities. The Transport and General Workers Union has also set up an AIDS prevention program since truckers are at high risk of HIV infection. At the end of 1991, 445,000 people in South Africa have been infected with HIV. Heterosexuality is the predominate mode of HIV transmission among blacks, but among whites, it is homosexuality. Educated, affluent whites tend to be knowledge about AIDS and practice safer sex. Among the working class whites, however, knowledge levels are high, but they do not necessarily practice safer sex. Awareness tends to be quite high among blacks, but they do not generally practice safer sex. South Africa and the US are the only 2 developed countries that do not provide health care for all. This weak system limits AIDS prevention efforts. 80% of whites have health insurance compared with only 7% of blacks. PMID:12317691
Malan, D. Johann
If entrance to tertiary education in South Africa is restricted to successful school final-examination scores, blacks may be underrepresented for many years. Difficulties in ridding South African education of racism and alternative strategies for conditional enrollment in higher education are discussed. (SLD)
van Niekerk, Ashley; Tonsing, Susanne; Seedat, Mohamed; Jacobs, Roxanne; Ratele, Kopano; McClure, Roderick
Background South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented. Objective This study examines selected South African national legislative instruments in terms of their framing and definition of violence and its typology, vulnerable populations, and prevention. Design This study comprises a directed content analysis of selected legislative documents from South African ministries mandated to prevent violence and its consequences or tasked with the prevention of key contributors to violence. Documents were selected using an electronic keyword search method and analyzed independently by two researchers. Results The legislative documents recognized the high levels of violence, confirmed the prioritization of selected vulnerable groups, especially women, children, disabled persons, and rural populations, and above all drew on criminological perspectives to emphasize tertiary prevention interventions. There is a policy focus on the protection and support of victims and the prosecution of perpetrators, but near absent recognition of men as victims. Conclusions There is a need to broaden the policy framework from primarily criminological and prosecutorial perspectives to include public health contributions. It is likewise important to enlarge the conceptions of vulnerability to include men alongside other vulnerable groups. These measures are important for shaping and resourcing prevention decisions and strengthening primary prevention approaches to violence. PMID:26228996
Lawrenz, Frances; Gray, Brian
This article reports on an exploratory investigation carried out to identify conceptions of some components of worldview, based on logicostructural worldview theory, held by science student teachers in a South African context. It explores relationships among worldviews, student characteristics, and scientific concepts. The sample included 48 final-year science student teachers. Data were gathered by a questionnaire with follow-up interviews. Questions were based on Kearney's model of worldview with stimulus items related to each of seven worldview categories. Responses were categorized and examined for possible relationships. Results of the investigation indicated that students' conceptions of time and distance were nonmechanistic and psychologically bound and that authoritarian scientific explanation was considered as sufficient for proof. Some significant relationships were found between items as well as between field of study and scientific conceptions.Received: 30 March 1994; Revised: 1 December 1994;
Zhao, Qing; Liu, Cheng-jun; Shi, Pei-yang; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Mao-fa; Zhang, Qing-song; Zevenhoven, Ron; Saxén, Henrik
The sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite was investigated. The negative influence of a solid product layer constituted of a silicon-rich phase and chromium-rich sulfate was eliminated by crushing the chromite and by selecting proper leaching conditions. The dimensionless change in specific surface area and the conversion rate of the chromite were observed to exhibit a proportional relationship. A modified shrinking particle model was developed to account for the change in reactive surface area, and the model was fitted to experimental data. The resulting model was observed to describe experimental findings very well. Kinetics analysis revealed that the leaching process is controlled by a chemical reaction under the employed experimental conditions and the activation energy of the reaction is 48 kJ·mol-1.
Pervin, M; Izawa, T; Ito, S; Kuwamura, M; Yamate, J
A 14-year-old female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) was presented with a large skin mass on the right shoulder. At necropsy examination, multiple white nodules were found in the lungs, liver, spleen and right axillary lymph nodes. Histologically, the skin mass was composed of round to polygonal neoplastic cells with round to oval nuclei and variably sized cytoplasmic vacuoles. Cellular and nuclear atypia were prominent. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed vimentin, but not cytokeratins, S100 protein, adipophilin or desmin. The cytoplasmic lipid droplets stained positively with oil red O. Metastasis was seen in the lungs, liver, spleen and right axillary lymph nodes, with similar morphological features to the skin mass. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of a pleomorphic liposarcoma with systemic metastasis was made. No previous reports of metastatic liposarcomas have been published in marine mammals. PMID:27290645
A telephone survey was conducted to compare the extent of smokeless tobacco use and perception of related health risks by white and black urban South Africans. Using systematic random sampling, one out of every 20 phone numbers was selected from the Seshego (blacks) and Pietersburg (whites) telephone directory until 300 tobacco users in each site were identified. Among the white group, cigarette smoking was clearly predominant (290) and only 10 used snuff, whereas among the black sample almost half (46.7%) of the tobacco users used snuff, especially women (40%). Although a majority acknowledged negative effects of snuff use on their health and its addictive character, 42% either do not believe or do not know that snuff contains nicotine and causes cancer. PMID:10672753
Hammond, Charles K; Shapson-Coe, Alexander; Govender, Rajeshree; van Toorn, Ronald; Ndondo, Alvin; Wieselthaler, Nicky; Eley, Brian; Mubaiwa, Lawrence; Wilmshurst, Jo M
A national multicenter study identified 17 South African children with vertically acquired HIV-1 infection and HIV-associated vasculopathy. Five of the children (all indigenous African ancestry) had progressive vascular disease, consistent with moyamoya syndrome. Median presentation age 5.8 years (range 2.2-11). The children with moyamoya syndrome presented with abnormal CD4 counts and raised viral loads. Clinical features included motor deficits, neuroregression, and intellectual disability. Neuroimaging supported progressive vascular disease with preceding clinically silent disease course. Neurologic recovery occurred in 1 patient with improved CD4 counts. Four of the 5 children presented during the era when access to antiretroviral therapy was limited, suggesting that with improved management of HIV-1, progressive vasculopathy is less prevalent. However the insidious disease course illustrated indicates that the syndrome can progress "silently," and manifest with misleading phenotypes such as cognitive delay or regression. Sub-Saharan Africa has limited access to neuroimaging and affected children may be underdiagnosed. PMID:26961262
Walker, A R; Walker, B F
In 1984-1985, prevalences of appendectomy in inter-ethnic series of South African school pupils of 16-18 yr were: rural blacks, 0.5%; urban blacks, 1.0%; Indians, 2.6%; coloreds (Eur-African-Malay), 2.2%; Afrikaans whites, 13.4%; and English whites, 9.9%. Corresponding respective annual incidences per 1000 pupils of 10-19 yr were: 0.3, 0.6, 1.9, 1.7, 9.8, and 7.8. Thus, appendectomy is rare or infrequent in all except the white populations. Peak occurrence was postpubertal. There was no consistent sex bias. Dietarily, mean daily fiber intake was relatively low in all groups, 17.9-26.1 g. While the percentage of energy from fat intake was low in blacks, 16.3-22.3%, it was much higher in the other populations, 32.7-39.5%. Clearly, factors other than diet are involved in regulating frequency of appendectomy. While mortality is negligible and morbidity slight, elucidation of causation and prevention of the disease is desirable since subsequently appendectomy patients are at greater than average risk to certain cancers. PMID:3030094
Mametja, D; Jinabhai, C C; Ngwane, N; Dolan, C; Twala, J; Mackenzie, A; Gear, J; Russo, R; Tollman, S; Pugh, A
To develop an appropriate health policy agenda, the National Progressive Primary Health Care Network (NPPHC) and the South African Health and Social Services Organization (SAHSSO) conducted situational analyses in 4 areas: an informal peri-urban area within the Durban functional region in Natal, a rural area in the Mhala-Mapulaneng district in the North Eastern Transvaal, the informal settlement of Botshabelo in the Orange Free State, and a dense township dwelling in Soweto. The analyses were based on interviews with health workers and community leaders, a national survey, and a questionnaire for health service administrators. All 4 areas were characterized by poverty, unemployment, low educational levels, lack of a clean water supply or refuse removal system, housing shortages or overcrowding, and political violence. Preventable diseases, such as water-borne diarrhea and malnutrition, cause substantial morbidity, yet health services tend to be inaccessible, distributed inequitably, of poor quality, and with unclear administrative structures. Community members interviewed indicated that clinic fees were too high, especially given the low quality of care, and there was a general mistrust of the competency of doctors and nurses. There was a lack of consensus on the meaning of community participation; some viewed it as a vehicle for empowerment, while others felt the strategy would be exploited as a means to deny government assistance. Overall, respondents were supportive of a greater role for community health workers and more involvement on the part of nongovernmental organizations. A priority, at present, is attention to the many socioeconomic factors that are compromising the health of black South Africans and overshadowing the rationalization of health services. PMID:12345439
Becklake, M R; Irwig, L; Kielkowski, D; Webster, I; de Beer, M; Landau, S
Environmental and host factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of emphysema. To assess the role of gold mining exposure (an environmental factor) and of various clinical features recorded early in a miner's career (host factors), a case control study was carried out as follows. From whole lung sections made routinely at all full autopsy examinations on South African gold miners, we selected 44 cases of emphysema and 42 controls without emphysema from among men 51 to 71 yr of age who died during 1980 and 1981. Exposure information was gathered and clinical records were reviewed for smoking history, symptoms, and the presence of rhonchi by decade before death. The presence and grade of silicosis (abstracted from the routine autopsy reports) was similar in both groups; so was bronchitis in the 49 cases and controls with histologic material adequate for review. However, cases were on average older, had worked more shifts in high dust, and had smoked more than controls; they had also exhibited symptoms and rhonchi more frequently before 1950, i.e., 30 yr before death. When these factors were examined in a multiple logistic regression analysis, shifts worked in high dust, smoking, and age were all shown to be strong and independent predictors of emphysema at autopsy; prediction, however, was not improved by addition of any of the clinical features examined. These findings agree with previous cross-sectional studies in South African gold miners showing an exposure response relationship between mining service and air-flow limitation measured by lung function tests in life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3592399
Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Murray, J.
Studies of dose-response relationships between respiratory outcomes at autopsy and coal dust exposure are limited. The Pathology Automation System (PATHAUT) database of South African miners, is one of the largest autopsy databases of occupational lung disease. This study described the prevalence of respiratory outcomes among South African coal miners at autopsy, and determined whether dose response relationships existed between emphysema and exposure. Autopsies conducted from 1975 to 1997 on coal miners with exclusive coal mining exposure and having exposure duration information (n = 3,167) were analyzed from PATHAUT Logistic regression was used to determine relationships between exposure and outcomes, controlling for race, smoking and age on a subset for whom smoking history was available (n = 725). The prevalence of silicosis, tuberculosis (TB), coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), and moderate and marked emphysema were 10.7%, 5.2%, 7.3%, and 64%, respectively. All diseases, except TB, were associated with exposure duration. Black miners had 8.3 and 1.2 fold greater risks for TB and CWP, respectively, than white miners. White miners had an increased risk of 1.4 and 5.4 for silicosis and moderate to marked emphysema, respectively. In models unadjusted for age, and including smoking, moderate to marked emphysema was strongly associated with exposure duration (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.9-5.9 for highest tercile of exposure duration). Exposure-related risk estimates were reduced when age was introduced into the model. However age and duration of exposure were highly correlated, = 0. 68) suggesting a dilution of the exposure effect by age. There were significant dose related associations of disease, including emphysema, with coal dust exposure.
Williams, Jill; Ibisomi, Latifat; Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen; Garenne, Michel
Background Although there are significant numbers of people displaced by war in Africa, very little is known about long-term changes in the fertility of refugees. Refugees of the Mozambican civil war (1977–1992) settled in many neighbouring countries, including South Africa. A large number of Mozambican refugees settled within the Agincourt sub-district, underpinned by a Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (AHDSS), established in 1992, and have remained there. The AHDSS data provide a unique opportunity to study changes in fertility over time and the role that the fertility of self-settled refugee populations plays in the overall fertility level of the host community, a highly relevant factor in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives To examine the change in fertility of former Mozambican self-settled refugees over a period of 16 years and to compare the overall fertility and fertility patterns of Mozambicans to host South Africans. Methods Prospective data from the AHDSS on births from 1993 to 2009 were used to compare fertility trends and patterns and to examine socio-economic factors that may be associated with fertility change. Results There has been a sharp decline in fertility in the Mozambican population and convergence in fertility patterns of Mozambican and local South African women. The convergence of fertility patterns coincides with a convergence in other socio-economic factors. Conclusion The fertility of Mozambicans has decreased significantly and Mozambicans are adopting the childbearing patterns of South African women. The decline in Mozambican fertility has occurred alongside socio-economic gains. There remains, however, high unemployment and endemic poverty in the area and fertility is not likely to decrease further without increased delivery of family planning to adolescents and increased education and job opportunities for women. PMID:23364078
Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.
Tanzania and southern Kenya hold a key position for reconstructing Gondwana consolidation because here different orogen belts with different tectonic styles interfere. The older, ca. 650-620 Ma East African Orogeny resulted from the amalgamation of arc terranes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental collision between East African pieces and parts of the Azania terrane in the south (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). The change form arc suturing to continental collision settings is found in southern Kenya where southernmost arcs of the ANS conjoin with thickened continental margin suites of the Eastern Granulite Belt. The younger ca. 570-530 Ma Kuunga orogeny heads from the Damara - Zambesi - Irumide Belts (De Waele et al., 2006) over Tanzania - Mozambique to southern India and clashes with the East African orogen in southern-central Tanzania. Two transitional orogen settings may be defined, (1) that between island arcs and inverted passive continental margin within the East African Orogen and, (2) that between N-S trending East African and W-E trending Kuungan orogenies. The Neoproterozoic island arc suites of SE-Kenya are exposed as a narrow stripe between western Azania and the Eastern Granulite belt. This suture is a steep, NNW stretched belt that aligns roughly with the prominent southern ANS shear zones that converge at the southern tip of the ANS (Athi and Aswa shear zones). Oblique convergence resulted in low-vorticity sinstral shear during early phases of deformation. Syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic textures are compatible with deformation at granulite metamorphic conditions and rocks exhumed quickly during ongoing transcurrent motion. The belt is typified as wrench tectonic belt with horizontal northwards flow of rocks within deeper portions of an island arc. The adjacent Eastern Granulite Nappe experienced westward directed, subhorizontal, low-vorticity, high temperature flow at partly extreme metamorphic conditions (900°C, 1.2 to 1.4 GPa
The inauguration of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is an auspicious moment for reflection on South African astronomical history, the manner in which this heritage has been represented in the past, and how it might best be represented in the future. It is now appropriate to reassess the history of Euro pean astronomy in South Africa, confronting rather than ignoring issues of national identity, scientific politics, and racism. There are also wide opportunities for scholarship on South African archaeoastronomy and indigenous knowledge systems, with potential applications to culturally relevant basic science education. In the case of astronomy, reconciliation to a rich if troubled history will only come to pass when the science is not only pursued in South Africa, but when its heritage pertains to all South Africans.
Mentoor, E. R.; Friedrich, C.
After more than ten years of democracy in South Africa, many of the previously disadvantaged segments of the community, especially Blacks, would have hoped that a new economic order would have been created. Instead, South Africa still has very high unemployment and even young Black South Africans with a degree are not guaranteed a job. The purpose…
De Villiers, Rian
The United Kingdom (particularly England) is the main developed country that recruits teachers from South Africa. This article provides an overview of teacher migration from South Africa to the United Kingdom over the past decade. The research focuses on the following aspects of migration: the recruitment of South African teachers; motivation for…
The advent of a democracy in South Africa ushered in refreshing changes within the South African context. Given South Africa's dark apartheid history, every policy intervention had to ensure a human rights ethos prevails. Inclusive Education, through the publication of the policy document Education White Paper 6 on Special Needs Education:…
Kizito, Rita; Munyakazi, Justin; Basuayi, Clement
In spite of sustained efforts tertiary institutions implement to try and improve student academic performance, the number of students succeeding in first-year mathematics courses remains disturbingly low. For most students, the gap between their mathematical capability and the competencies they are expected and need to develop to function effectively in these courses persists even after course instruction. In this study, an instrument for identifying and examining factors affecting student performance and success in a first-year Mathematics university course was developed and administered to 86 students. The overall Cronbach's Alpha coefficient for the questionnaire was found to be 0.916. Having identified variables from prior research known to affect student performance, factor analysis was used to identify variables exhibiting the greatest impact on student performance. The variables included prior academic knowledge, workload, student approaches to learning, assessment, student support teaching quality, methods and resources. From the analysis, students' perceptions of their workload emerged as the factor having the greatest impact on student's performance, followed by the matriculation examination score. The findings are discussed and strategies that can be used to improve teaching and contribute to student success in a first-year mathematics course in a South African context are presented.
In this concatenated overview, the development of psychology in South Africa is traced from its origins in the late 19th century to the present. The seminal influences on the science and practice of psychology of the racialized polity and the responses to the prevailing regimen are also explored. The significant events in the patinated layers of psychological discourse and consequent policies in these constrained circumstances are traversed. Despite the nonracial era occasioned by the formation of the Psychological Society of South Africa three months before the advent of democracy under Nelson Mandela in 1994, the profession of psychology remains demographically skewed. Nevertheless, psychology in the current democratic dispensation enjoys a high profile and is actively engaged in ongoing and reflexive self-examination to ensure that it is more accessible and truly serves humanity. If Africa is psychology's last frontier, the critical denouement of the various issues confronting psychology in the southern tip of the African continent will provide a positive growth path that is likely to merit attention beyond its borders. PMID:25486173
Mosam, A; Vawda, N B; Gordhan, A H; Nkwanyana, N; Aboobaker, J
The adverse effects of acne on the psyche have been established in patients from 'first world' countries. There has been no in depth study in predominantly black patients from Africa addressing this issue. This was a prospective cross-sectional study of acne patients attending a dermatology unit in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A questionnaire was completed and acne graded by the Global Acne Grading scale. Psychological morbidity and quality of life (QOL) were assessed by the General Health Questionnaire and Dermatology Specific Quality of Life Questionnaires, respectively. We found that clinical severity was not associated with patient perception or psychological distress. The QOL measures such as feelings, social activities, performance at work or school, activities of daily living and overall mental health were found to be associated with distress with associated P-values of 0.0002, 0.0168, 0.0032, 0.033 and < 0.0001, respectively. The severity of acne was not associated with psychological distress. Painful and bleeding lesions were associated with distress levels; P = 0.042 and P = 0.019, respectively. In conclusion, South African patients with acne vulgaris suffer significant psychological distress, which affects the quality of their lives. PMID:15663491
Clarke, D L; Thomson, S R; Madiba, T E; Muckart, D J J
Trauma in South Africa has been termed the malignant epidemic. This heritage was the result of a violent colonial legacy which spawned the apartheid system of injustice and the struggle against it The Apartheid regime created overcrowding, unemployment, social stagnation, and the disruption of normal family life. These were the catalysts for the incredible amount of criminal and interpersonal conflict in South Africa over the last 50 years. African townships such as Soweto in Johannesburg and Umlazi in Durban were crime-ridden ghettoes where the apartheid police were more interested in fueling the "black on black" violence rather than trying to curb it. Baragwanath (Chris Hani-Baragwanath) and King Edward the VIII Hospital in Durban were the "trauma care epicenters" on the fringes of these huge urban conurbations. Both were designated black hospitals and both were underfunded and dilapidated. Even the architecture was similar, with prefabricated, poorly ventilated structures serving as wards and clinics in both institutions. Trauma volumes consisted of between 10 and 20 laparotomies on weekend nights at the height of political unrest. This led to vast individual experience in several areas of trauma typified by Demetriades' experience with 70 penetrating cardiac injuries. In this setting of limited resources and an overwhelming volume of trauma, selective conservatism as a surgical philosophy took root and has profoundly influenced the way the world manages trauma. We detail and illustrate the evolution of this approach and its continued application. PMID:15983718
Shawa, Nyambura; Roden, Laura Catherine
Our daily lives are influenced by three different daily timers: the solar clock, our endogenous circadian clock and the societal clock. The way an individual's endogenous clock synchronises to the solar clock, through either advances or delays relative to sunrise and sunset, results in a phenomenon known as diurnal preference or chronotype. South Africa uses just one time zone, but in the most easterly regions of the country, the sun rises and sets up to an hour earlier than in the most westerly regions throughout the year. It was hypothesised first that South Africans living in the east of the country may have a greater preference for mornings (more morning chronotypes) than those living in the west; and second, that this difference would not be due to genetic differences in the populations, particularly a genetic polymorphism previously shown to influence chronotype. Here, we describe and compare the distribution of chorotype and PERIOD3 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism frequency in eastern (n = 129) and western (n = 175) sample populations. Using the Horne-Östberg Morningness, Eveningness Questionnaire we found that there was a significantly higher proportion of morning-types in the eastern population (56.6%) than in the western population (39.4%), and there were higher proportions of neither-types and evening-types in the western population (51.4% and 9.1%, respectively) than in the eastern population (37.2% and 6.2%, respectively) (p = 0.009). There were no significant differences in distribution of the PER3 genotype (p = 0.895) and allele (p = 0.636) frequencies. Although previous studies have shown associations between chronotype and PER3 VNTR genotypes, no significant associations were observed in either the eastern (p = 0.695) or the western (p = 0.630) populations. These findings indicate that, in South African populations, longitude influences chronotype independently of PER3 genotype. The impacts of the differences in chronotype whilst
von Schirnding, Y; Bradshaw, D; Fuggle, R; Stokol, M
Little is known about childhood lead absorption in South Africa. In this study a cross-sectional analytic survey was carried out to determine the blood lead levels and associated risk factors for inner-city, first-grade schoolchildren. Blood lead analyses, hematological and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and a pretested questionnaire was administered to parents to identify risk factors for lead exposure. In a detailed environmental study, daily air and dust samples were collected over a period of 1 year from several sites in the study area, contemporaneously with the blood and questionnaire surveys. Spatial and temporal variations in atmospheric lead were determined. It was found that 13% of mixed race children, but no white children, had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 25 micrograms/dL, the U.S. action level. Air lead levels averaged around 1 microgram/m3, and dust lead levels ranged from 410 to 3620 ppm. Environmental lead levels were significantly elevated near heavy traffic, where Environmental Protection Agency standards were exceeded mainly during winter months. Baseline exposure was of significance in influencing blood lead levels of children attending schools in direct proximity to heavy traffic, where blood lead levels were elevated irrespective of other influencing factors. Primary and secondary preventive measures are urgently needed in South Africa to reduce environmental lead exposure. At the time of the study, South Africa had one of the highest levels of lead in gasoline in the Western World, namely, 0.836 g/L. Although levels have subsequently been reduced, this is typical of the situation in many African countries today. PMID:1720096
Roberts, Candice; Moodley, J; Esterhuizen, Tonya
The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, use and attitude to the use of emergency contraception among tertiary students in Durban, South Africa through the use of a self-administered confidential questionnaire. A scoring system was developed to analyse the response of each student. A total of 436 students (56.5%) had heard of emergency contraception. Few knew the specific methods of emergency contraception and only 11.8% knew the correct time limit in which it must be used. Only 60 students (7.8%) knew how effective emergency contraception was in preventing pregnancy. Ninety-one students (11.8%) had used emergency contraception and 50% responded that if they had to, they would use it or recommend it to a friend. A logistic regression model showed that the predictors for a high knowledge score were: University of Natal students, having heard of emergency contraception, having used it before and having received formal sex education. Overall, knowledge and use of emergency contraception by tertiary students is limited. There is a need for carefully designed education programmes and promotion of emergency contraception on campuses. PMID:15203588
Vorster, H H; Kruger, A
This article explores possible mechanisms to explain the known relationships between poverty, undernutrition, underdevelopment and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in developing countries. Poverty is a multidimensional concept. It is both a cause and consequence of undernutrition. The article shows how malnutrition during pregnancy could lead to low birth-weight babies, who are not only at increased risk of mental and physical underdevelopment, but also 'programmed' to be at increased risk of CVD and other non-communicable diseases in adult life. The underdevelopment leads to decreased 'human capital and competence' with an inability to create food security and an enabling environment for self and family to escape poverty and undernutrition in the next generation. It is accepted that a lack of education and knowledge in the poor for primary prevention of CVD through healthy eating patterns and lifestyles, as well as limited access to healthcare services for secondary prevention and treatment contribute to CVD. This article postulates that the link between poverty and CVD in South Africa can be explained by the high prevalence of undernutrition in one- to nine year- old children (9% underweight, 23% stunted and 3% wasted), the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults (54.5% in white men and 58.5% in African women) as well as the negative trends in nutrient intakes when Africans (the population group with the largest numbers of poor people) urbanise, acculturate and adopt westernised eating patterns that will increase CVD risk. In conclusion, we plead for a holistic, integrated but transdisciplinary and multisectorial approach to break the vicious circle of poverty and undernutrition for the longterm prevention of CVD. PMID:17985032
McGruder, Charles H.; Dunsby, Peter; Whitelock, Patricia; Norris, Lawrence; Assamagan, Ketevi; Holbrook, Jarita; Imara, Nia; Oluseyi, Hakeem; Medupe, Thebe
South Africa (SA) has had great success in creating major astronomical facilities - SALT, KAT and MeerKAT. However, the existing SA astronomical community is almost entirely white. The lack of black scientists (80% of SA population is black) is obviously one of the many legacies of apartheid and a major initiative was required to rectify the situation. The National Astrophysics and Space Science Program (NASSP) is aimed at ensuring the development of high level physics skills within SA, and specifically takes graduates with bachelor's degrees in math or the physical sciences and prepares them to do PhDs in astrophysics and related disciplines. However, in 2003 when NASSP was established, there were no black SA astronomers, who could act as role models and mentors. This jeopardized the chances of success of NASSP and with it astronomy in SA. An American organization, the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) received a $355,000 grant from the WK Kellogg Foundation to increase the number of black SA astronomers. It enabled African American scientists - both professionals and students - to participate in NASSP. The African American professionals taught NASSP courses and acted as role models and mentors. The project was an overwhelming success. From its beginning in 2003, the NASSP honors program graduates have gone on to a Master's or PhD program at a rate of 60% (USA rate: 35%). American participation started in 2008. In the very next year the number of black students jumped dramatically, reaching 80% in 2013 and this level continued in 2010-2014. We believe this increase and its maintenance is in large part due to bringing black SA students from SA historically black colleges for two weeks to expose them to astronomy, to a one year program to allow them to catch up academically and to the mentoring activities of the members of NSBP.
Edwards, Viv; Ngwaru, Jacob Marriote
The commitment to multilingualism embedded in the 1996 South African Constitution has wide ranging implications for many aspects of education. This paper focuses on the dearth of teaching and learning materials in African languages required to deliver effective bilingual education, and on the potential role of translation in offering solutions for…
Sennett, Justin; Finchilescu, Gillian; Gibson, Kerry; Strauss, Rosanna
Examined the adjustment of African black and white freshman students(n=335) at a white South African university. Finds that the black students reported lower levels of social adjustment and personality adjustment, but not differences in academic adjustment or institutional commitment. Includes references. (CMK)
African universities have been called to respond to the social issues of trauma, adversity, injustice and inequality that trouble their embedding communities, their staff and their students. The need for South African universities to respond to HIV/Aids (in particular) includes the opening up of new knowledge about and ways of managing the impacts…
Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha
Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…
Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Thompson, Jana H.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Leung, Man-Chi
This study examined the relationship between end-of-year grades and the academic, behavioral, and social characteristics of rural African American youth. Participants included 392 7th and 8th grade students from 2 rural middle schools in the south. Participants were African American and were from 2 communities that have child poverty rates…
Kaya, Hassan O.; Seleti, Yonah N.
The higher education system in Africa and South Africa in particular, is still too academic and distant from the developmental challenges of African local communities. The integration of African indigenous knowledge systems (AIKS) into the higher educational system could improve its relevance. This is due to the holistic, community-based nature…
Lumadi, Mutendwahothe Walter
African teachers in general and South Africans in particular face tremendous challenges, several of which are curriculum related. These challenges manifest themselves at various levels and in various areas, that is, from national level to within the classroom. There are various role players who may make a contribution towards overcoming these…
Black, Dan A.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Evan J.
The Great Migration—the massive migration of African Americans out of the rural South to largely urban locations in the North, Midwest, and West—was a landmark event in U.S. history. Our paper shows that this migration increased mortality of African Americans born in the early twentieth century South. This inference comes from an analysis that uses proximity of birthplace to railroad lines as an instrument for migration. PMID:26345146
Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Couvreur, Thomas LP; Chatrou, Lars W; Sosef, Marc SM; Richardson, James E
Background Tropical rain forests are the most diverse terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. How this diversity evolved remains largely unexplained. In Africa, rain forests are situated in two geographically isolated regions: the West-Central Guineo-Congolian region and the coastal and montane regions of East Africa. These regions have strong floristic affinities with each other, suggesting a former connection via an Eocene pan-African rain forest. High levels of endemism observed in both regions have been hypothesized to be the result of either 1) a single break-up followed by a long isolation or 2) multiple fragmentation and reconnection since the Oligocene. To test these hypotheses the evolutionary history of endemic taxa within a rain forest restricted African lineage of the plant family Annonaceae was studied. Molecular phylogenies and divergence dates were estimated using a Bayesian relaxed uncorrelated molecular clock assumption accounting for both calibration and phylogenetic uncertainties. Results Our results provide strong evidence that East African endemic lineages of Annonaceae have multiple origins dated to significantly different times spanning the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Moreover, these successive origins (c. 33, 16 and 8 million years – Myr) coincide with known periods of aridification and geological activity in Africa that would have recurrently isolated the Guineo-Congolian rain forest from the East African one. All East African taxa were found to have diversified prior to Pleistocene times. Conclusion Molecular phylogenetic dating analyses of this large pan-African clade of Annonaceae unravels an interesting pattern of diversification for rain forest restricted trees co-occurring in West/Central and East African rain forests. Our results suggest that repeated reconnections between the West/Central and East African rain forest blocks allowed for biotic exchange while the break-ups induced speciation via vicariance, enhancing the levels of
Barnard, Antoni; Simbhoo, Nirvana
South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work-life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work. PMID:24434054
In Africa the stars have always been a part of people's everyday lives, be it in the form of folklore, superstition or even agricultural indicators. Modern astronomy, however, has not been very widespread, with only a few African countries having sufficient facilities or academics to support a modern astronomical community. The International Year of Astronomy serves not only as an opportunity to boost these astronomical communities, but also to celebrate the rich history and culture that has existed for thousands of years. On this, the poorest continent, with so many millions living in rural areas, there is one glaring advantage over other continents - people's abundant access to a dark night sky. We would like to see 2009 as the year that everyone in Africa, no matter what their background or lifestyle, turn their heads to the skies in appreciation of the beauty of the Universe, in celebration of their cultural heritage, and in the hope that they are inspired to overcome harsh challenges that this small planet and its occupants may have placed on them. It is an opportunity not just to promote astronomy, but also to spark curiosity and spur on a culture of learning. The perspective will be given from South Africa, home to a number of major astronomical facilities, and a major player in the development of astronomy across Africa. IYA2009 progress to date and plans for the future will be discussed.
Botha, D; Pretorius, S; Myburgh, J; Steyn, M
Anthropologists are constantly seeking to improve methods for age estimation in the human skeleton. A new method was introduced about a decade ago that assesses the morphological changes that take place in the acetabulum as an individual ages. The pelvis is usually well preserved in forensic cases, which makes this method potentially valuable as an adult age indicator. This method employs seven variables, each with its own set of phases. To test the accuracy and reliability of this method, 100 black South African male acetabula from the Pretoria Bone Collection were assessed based on the criteria described in the original study. Box plots and transition curves were constructed to establish whether progression with age was visible and how it could possibly be modelled. Inter-observer reliability was also assessed by making use of Fleiss's Kappa statistic. Five specimens were used as out-of-sample examples for which maximum likelihood (point) estimates were calculated. The results demonstrated that middle and older individuals' age estimates were vastly underestimated. Inter-observer repeatability was poor, which suggested that the classification system most likely needs to be modified. A discussion and recommendation is given for improvement of reliability and repeatability of this method. PMID:26662190
South African managers in public service consistently face challenges related to managing a well-adjusted and productive diverse workforce. Following the notion that leadership authenticity fosters positive psychological employee capacity, the aim of this study was to explore the meaning essence of authenticity as lived in the work–life experiences of senior managers in public service. Five senior managers in public service were purposefully selected based on their articulated challenges with being authentic at work, whilst attending a diversity sensitivity workshop. From a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, in-depth interviews were used, and an interpretative phenomenological analysis yielded two predominant themes offering a description of what it means to be authentic. Authenticity is experienced as an affective state that results from a continuous self-appraisal of the extent to which expression of self is congruent with a subjective and socially constructed expectation of self in relation to others. Authenticity seems to develop through a continuous process of internal and external adaptation, and it leads to ultimately building a differentiated yet integrated identity of self. A reciprocal dynamic between feeling authentic and self-confidence alludes to the potential importance of authenticity dynamics in identity work. PMID:24434054
Bhana, Deevia; Pillay, Nalini
In the context of the calamitous effects of gender violence on the experience of schooling for South African girls, single-sex schools have been advanced as a strategy to protect girls from violence. In this paper, the experiences of a selected group of girls in a single-sex school in Durban, South Africa are illustrated to provide a counter…
Butler, A. H.; Alpaslan, A. H.; Strumpher, J.; Astbury, G.
In post-apartheid South Africa, the tenets of inclusivity, nondiscrimination, and tolerance are actively encouraged and legislated across all sectors of society, including education. However, in examining the coming out experiences of 18 South African gay and lesbian youth (1997-2000), it became apparent that they had all experienced…
Sailors, Misty; Hoffman, James V.; Pearson, P. David; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Matthee, Bertus
In this article, we report on the results of a project devoted to improving literacy in South Africa's rural schools; specifically we report the results of an intervention study that centered on improving mother-tongue literacy instruction offered to learners in Grades 1 and 2 in South African schools. Our findings demonstrate that there are…
Rantao, Masego; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.
Objectives: To determine factors associated with dual use of tobacco products in a population of black South African adolescents. Methods: Data were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed by a representative sample of grade 8 students from 21 randomly selected secondary state schools in the Limpopo Province, South Africa (n =…
Maree, J. G.
The current state of career counselling in South African institutions of higher education in the 21st century is explored in this article in an attempt to locate current work in the field of career counselling in South Africa in the light of global trends (academic and economic) and in terms of local history and current economic climate. The…
Boughey, Chrissie; Niven, Penny
This paper uses an analytical framework developed from the work of philosopher Roy Bhaskar and sociologist Margaret Archer to explore the emergence of a body of research on teaching and learning in South African higher education. This research, generated in a field known as "Academic Development" in South Africa and as "Educational Development" in…
This article examines the role of theatrical performance as a means of addressing the embodied and spatio-temporal manifestations of race and racism within South African higher education. As part of Jansen's proposal for a post-conflict pedagogy in South Africa, the article argues for the development and inclusion of embodied knowledges as an…
Dean, Elizabeth; And Others
Designed to examine the way that different ethnic groups are presented in South African secondary school history textbooks, this study gives special attention to the extent and nature of ethnic stereotyping in texts and the endorsement of particular social and political attitudes relevant to contemporary South Africa. By using a sociological…
Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.
The dismantling of apartheid in 1994 brought an array of democratic changes in South Africa, including changes in curriculum and educational policies. One of the most momentous changes was the desegregation of public schools. While this was significant in South African education politics, it presented some educational challenges, especially to…
Hydrilla was discovered during February 2006 at the Pongolapoort Dam on the Pongola River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Its presence there threatens a multimillion rand fishing and tourism industry. The South African Plant Protection Research Institute initiated control measures, a survey of the sur...
Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.
In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…
Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Mawila, Kaluke Felicity Ntwanano
South Africa's government initiatives, such as the Commission on Gender Equality, the National Gender Forum, and the Office on the Status of Women, support efforts by its institutions of higher education to become more inclusive and equitable. Nevertheless, there remain fundamental obstacles to the lull participation of South African women in the…
What sort of expectations of transformation of higher education have been aroused by liberation movements? Has the new South Africa fulfilled such expectations? This paper explores the promises and processes that have enveloped South African universities in recent decades. It focuses on the underlying assumptions shaping academic disciplines in…
Maithufi, I. P.
Education in South Africa underwent major changes with the passage of the South African Schools Act of 1996. The details of this act and some of its consequences are outlined in this report. The paper opens with the particulars of the act and delves into the act's wording, asking "What is basic education?" and "What is meant by 'equal access to…
AIDS continues to be a death sentence for many individuals living in South Africa where it remains the leading cause of death. Little is currently known about what it is like to experience the loss of a loved one to AIDS from the South African perspective and how to assist individuals who are living in a context vastly different from similarly…
This article explores the ability of the training and work experience offered under public works programmes to promote employment in South Africa. Public works are a key component of South African labour market policy and are ascribed considerable potential in terms of addressing the core challenge of unemployment. However, despite this policy…
South African higher education institutions, in line with international practice and as a result of the "social turn", are progressing towards mainstream academic literacy support for students. This shift has a political dimension in South Africa where, historically, disadvantage has had racial dimensions, in its departure from…
In many western countries, corporal punishment has been abolished as a form of punishment in criminal trials and in schools. Under South African common law, persons entitled to enforce discipline may inflict corporal punishment within certain guidelines established by the Supreme Court. For the first time in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the…
DePalma, R.; Francis, D. A.
In South Africa, high pregnancy and infection rates show that many teenagers are having sex, and that they are not adequately protecting themselves against undesired pregnancies and disease. Sex education is usually taught as part of the subject area Life Orientation. In a qualitative study of 25 Life Orientation teachers in the South African Free…
Taole, Matshidiso Joyce
Different sectors of society register complaints about schooling in South Africa. Given that curriculum reform has such a poor record of implementation in the country, there is clearly a need for research that identifies factors that hinder or facilitate curriculum implementation in South African schools and identifies strategies to address the…
This paper provides a background to recent developments in language planning in South Africa. Following a historical review, it focuses on a Bill of Rights in the new constitution which has, since 1993, demanded a shift towards rights-based language policy within a liberal framework. Debates within the Pan South African Language Board (PANSALB)…
The fungus Fusarium globosum was first isolated from maize in South Africa and subsequently from wheat in Japan. Here, multiple analyses revealed that, despite morphological similarities, South African maize and Japanese wheat isolates of the fungus exhibit multiple differences. An AFLP-based simi...
Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.
Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…
This paper analyses the take-up of proposals for a national quality assurance system in South Africa using different approaches to quality assurance to classify stakeholder responses to survey and interview questions. The context of the study was the introduction of an external quality assurance system for South African higher education by an…
Bagarukayo, Emily; Kalema, Billy
Although eLearning is the use of technology for teaching, learning and assessment, there is no common approach to it across South African Higher Education Institutions. There is therefore a concern that the full potential of eLearning approach is not utilised. This paper examines the nature and the extent of eLearning activities in South African…
This paper briefly examines the epistemic orientation of the Politics discipline in South Africa, and specifically in "formerly white universities". The focus is to expose the disparity between this epistemic orientation and the South African locale that it finds itself in; that is, a locale whose history is different from its…
Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea; Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline
Analyzing data from a survey of African American and White residents in South Carolina, this study attempts to understand how to better promote clinical trial participation specifically within the African American population. To explore why participation is lower in the African American population, the authors examined two sets of potential barriers: structural/procedural (limited accessibility, lack of awareness, doctors not discussing clinical trial options, lack of health insurance) and cognitive/psychological (lack of subjective and factual knowledge, misperceptions, distrust, fear, perceived risk). Findings revealed that African Americans were significantly less willing than Whites to participate in a clinical trial. African Americans also had lower subjective and factual knowledge about clinical trials and perceived greater risk involved in participating in a clinical trial. The authors found that lack of subjective knowledge and perceived risk were significant predictors of African Americans' willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail. PMID:26042496
du Preez, I C; de Wet, F A; van der Merwe, C A; Wolmarans, L
The advertising of dental services in South Africa is controlled by rules and regulations of the South African Medical and Dental Council. According to these, advertising is not permissible with the exception of specified professional information which may be made known only by means of a nameplate and an entry in a telephone directory. Questionnaires were sent to a randomised sample of 2,100 persons in order to determine the attitude of South Africans towards advertising by private practitioners. According to information obtained from this study there is a strong indication that consumers of dental services prefer a freer form of advertising by dentists in the private practice. PMID:1820668
Scott, Leanne; Barr, Graham
This study was designed to explore the nature of informal or illegal gambling in South African townships, to investigate what motivates people to participate in this form of gambling and what they perceive are the associated benefits and dis-benefits. A series of focus group workshops was conducted with two groups of gamblers, all of whom had experience of some form of township gambling: one group currently lived in townships and the other had previously resided in townships. Gambling for the township residents was a far more frequent activity than for non-township residents and consumed substantially more of their time. The majority of the township residents classified themselves as unemployed, while of those who were unemployed, most people indicated that gambling was a major source of their income; some even described it as their only source of income. The most significant difference between what township and non-township residents expressed as wanting and getting from gambling was that the former indicated quite clearly and unanimously that what they sought and gained from gambling was money. Township residents were far more likely to indicate that they used gambling to balance their budgets than ex-township residents who gambled primarily at casinos. A lottery type game called "Fahfee" is the most widely spread and pervasive form of gambling and was unanimously portrayed as a necessary and beneficial form of support for the poor and unemployed. Lottery and Casino gambling were, in contrast, widely perceived by the township participants as being 'rigged' and unfair. Township Dice and cards were perceived as being 'fairer' and as allowing punters to be more in control than casino gambling. The downside of township gambling was reported to be high levels of violence, crime and insecurity surrounding, in particular, the game of Dice. There was widespread inability to calculate expected payoffs or odds, and an apparent belief that these were not particularly
Malan, Antoinette P.; Terblanche, John S.
Thermal physiology of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) is a critical aspect of field performance and fitness. Thermal limits for survival and activity, and the ability of these limits to adjust (i.e., show phenotypic flexibility) depending on recent thermal history, are generally poorly established, especially for non-model nematode species. Here we report the acute thermal limits for survival, and the thermal acclimation-related plasticity thereof for two key endemic South African EPN species, Steinernema yirgalemense and Heterorhabditis zealandica. Results including LT50 indicate S. yirgalemense (LT50 = 40.8 ± 0.3 °C) has greater high temperature tolerance than H. zealandica (LT50 = 36.7 ± 0.2 °C), but S. yirgalemense (LT50 = −2.4 ± 0 °C) has poorer low temperature tolerance in comparison to H. zealandica (LT50 = −9.7 ± 0.3 °C), suggesting these two EPN species occupy divergent thermal niches to one another. Acclimation had both negative and positive effects on temperature stress survival of both species, although the overall variation meant that many of these effects were non-significant. There was no indication of a consistent loss of plasticity with improved basal thermal tolerance for either species at upper lethal temperatures. At lower temperatures measured for H. zealandica, the 5 °C acclimation lowered survival until below −12.5 °C, where after it increased survival. Such results indicate that the thermal niche breadth of EPN species can differ significantly depending on recent thermal conditions, and should be characterized across a broad range of species to understand the evolution of thermal limits to performance and survival in this group. PMID:26157609
Visser, YT; Uys, R; van Zyl, A; Stefan, DC
Abstract Rationale: To determine the outcome of patients with nephroblastoma in a South African hospital. Objective: To determine if there is a difference in the outcome of patients with nephroblastoma comparing two treatment protocols SIOP (Société International D’Oncologie Pédiatrique Protocol) versus NWTS (National Wilms’ Tumour Study Protocol). Methods and results: A retrospective audit of 25 years (1983-2007), of children diagnosed with nephroblastoma in Tygerberg Hospital. One hundred and seven patients were included in the study and 98 were analyzed. The average age at diagnosis was 3.8 years. Most patients (37%) presented with stage 1 of the disease, followed by patients with stage 3 (27%). Most patients were treated according to the SIOP protocol (61%). Gender and race did not influence the outcome. Patients with stage 1 and 2 of the disease had the best outcome (76% versus 43% for stages 3 and 4). The SIOP group had a better outcome than the NWTS group (p value 0.001). The two groups had an equal distribution of the stage of presentation. The tumor volumes were bigger in the NWTS group (1004cm3 compared to 613cm3). Nutritional status did not influence the outcome although more patients were underweight for age in the SIOP group. The statistical methods used were: Kaplan Meier, Gehan’s Wilcoxon Test, Chi –square test and the Fisher exact test. Discussion:Contrary to the other studies, patients treated according to the SIOP protocol had a statistically significant better outcome. Larger collaborative studies are needed to investigate this result in Africa. Abbreviations: SIOP = Société International D’Oncologie Pédiatrique Protocol, NWTS = National Wilms’ Tumor Study Protocol PMID:25408773
The goal of this paper is to report on the SERVQUAL gap which causes unsuccessful service delivery at a University of Technology in South Africa. Using a quantitative research design, the study adopts a SERVQUAL model adapted to a tertiary environment containing five dimensions of service quality (tangibles, responsiveness, empathy, assurance, and…
Kröner, A.; Cordani, U. G.; D'Agrella-Filho, M. S.; Brito-Neves, B. B.
The current geochronological and palaeomagnetic database casts doubt on the proposal that the cratons and late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic rocks of Africa and South America have played any role in the formation and dispersal of the supercontinent Rodinia, believed to have existed between ˜1000 and 750 Ma ago. First, there is little evidence for the production of large volumes of ˜1.4-1.0 Ga (Kibaran- or Grenvillian-age) continental crust in the Mozambique belt (MB) of East Africa and Madagascar, except, perhaps, in parts of northern Mozambique. This is also valid for most terrains related to West Gondwana, which are made up of basement rocks older than Mesoproterozoic, reworked in the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic cycle. This crust cannot be conclusively related to either magmatic accretion processes on the active margin of Rodinia or continental collision leading to amalgamation of the supercontinent. Second, there is no conclusive evidence for a ˜1.0 Ga high-grade metamorphic event in the MB, and the same goes for the Neoproterozoic tectonic belts of South America and West Africa. Third, there is also no evidence for post-1000 Ma sedimentary sequences that were deposited on the passive margin(s) of Rodinia. In contrast, the MB is characterized by extensive structural reworking and metamorphic overprinting of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic rocks, and these either constitute marginal parts of cratonic domains or represent crustal blocks (terranes or microcontinents?) of unknown derivation. This is also the case for most terrains included in the Borborema/Trans-Saharan belt of northeastern Brazil and West-Central Africa, as well as those of the Central Goiás Massif in central Brazil and the Mantiqueira Province of eastern and southeastern Brazil. There is evidence for extensive granitoid magmatism in the time period ˜950 to <600 Ma whose predominant calc-alkaline chemistry suggests subduction-related active margin processes during the assembly of
Courant, Julien; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Rödder, Dennis; Measey, G. John; Backeljau, Thierry
Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population. PMID:26855879
De Busschere, Charlotte; Courant, Julien; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Rödder, Dennis; Measey, G John; Backeljau, Thierry
Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population. PMID:26855879
Schutte, A E; Olckers, A
Rapid urbanisation has led African women to have an obesity prevalence double than that of Caucasian women, and this also holds true for the stroke prevalence in Africans. The study aimed to compare various metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) of body mass index and age-matched African (n=102) and Caucasian women (n=115). More Caucasian (30.4%) than African women (24.8%) had MS. Only 48% of African women had waist circumferences (WC) higher than the IDF cutoff, compared to 62.6% of Caucasians. Caucasian women were significantly taller and heavier and had higher triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, and cortisol. African women had significantly higher blood pressure, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, and higher odds ratios for having the MS for HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose than Caucasians. It is concluded that the IDF WC criterion needs a downward adjustment for African women due to a smaller body size. Lean African women seem to be at higher risk for MS than Caucasians. South Africa needs to stem the increasing rates of type 2 diabetes by decreasing obesity and by education (unschooled African women showed a 4.8 times higher likelihood of having MS than schooled women). PMID:17846972
Since becoming a democracy, South African legislation has changed. The South African Constitution and legislation governing the structures and mandate of the different spheres of government aim towards municipalities needing to become more developmental in the way it serves the community with a specific focus on the poor and vulnerable. It sets ideals to overcome the inheritance of the past. However, how to do this is sometimes still unclear. This paper is a case study illustrating how Stellenbosch Municipality overcame obstacles of perceived legislative restrictions, silo operations and antiquated thinking, working towards social inclusion for all its citizens. In moving away from disability accessibility and embracing universal access as a way in which to deliver basic services, Stellenbosch discovered the beginning of the process of overcoming the negative legacy of the past. Understanding the Universal Design principles and approach illustrated how South African municipalities can promote the concept of our rainbow nation as envisioned in the Constitution. PMID:27534286
Kiser, Jennifer J.; Zhu, Rui; D’Argenio, David Z.; Cotton, Mark F.; Bobat, Raziya; McSherry, George D.; Madhi, Shabir A; Carey, Vincent J.; Seifart, Heiner I.; Werely, Cedric J.; Fletcher, Courtney V.
Aims There are limited data on isoniazid (INH) pharmacokinetics in infants and young children and, therefore, uncertainty on appropriate dosing. Methods Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from perinatally HIV-exposed South African infants ages 3–24 months receiving INH 10–20 mg/kg/day orally for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) prophylaxis. INH pharmacokinetic parameters were characterized with a population pharmacokinetic approach. Dosing simulations were performed to evaluate weight-based INH doses in children based on N-acetyltransferase 2 enzyme (NAT2) genotype, age, maximum concentrations (Cmax) ≥ 3mg/L, and area under the curve (AUC0-24) ≥ 10.52 mg*hr/L. Results In 151 infants (53% female, 48% HIV positive) receiving a mean INH dose of 14.5 mg/kg/day, mean (±SD) Cmax at 3, 6, and 23 months of age were 10.0 (3.5), 8.6 (2.6), and 9.3 (3.8) mg/L, respectively, mean (±SD) AUC0-24 were 53.6 (26.8), 42 (19.9), and 44 (30.7) mg*hr/L, respectively, and mean (±SD) half-life were 2.1 (0.7), 1.9 (0.6), and 1.8 (0.9) hours, respectively. A trimodal apparent oral clearance of INH as a function of NAT2 genotype was apparent as early as 3 months. INH was well tolerated. At an average INH dose of 14.5 mg/kg/day, 99% of infants ages 3–24 months have an INH Cmax ≥ 3 mg/L and 98% have an INH AUC0-24 ≥ 10.52 mg*hr/L. Conclusions INH at an average dose of 14.5 mg/kg once daily was well tolerated in infants and achieved INH Cmax values ≥ 3 mg/L and AUC0-24 values ≥ 10.52 mg*hr/L. PMID:22695364
Sehoole, Chika Trevor
This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under scrutiny. These…
Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.
This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural…
Moletsane, Relebohile; Juan, Andrea; Prinsloo, Cas; Reddy, Vijay
Research increasingly points to the negative impacts of teacher absence from school on access to schooling and success in learning in schools, in particular in schools in areas of multiple-deprivation (including rural schools). South African schools are no exception. In this regard, like any other employer, the South African Department of Basic…
du Plessis, Andre; Webb, Paul
This case study, involving 30 participating teachers from six previously disadvantaged South African schools, provides data on teacher perceptions of the challenges related to implementing Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The schools had minimal resources as a residual result of the South African apartheid policy prior to 1994 and…
This paper reports on an initiative to introduce, not the Philosophy for Children (P4C) programme itself, but its principles and some of its practices, into South African schools. The paper points out the conceptual links between P4C and the understanding of human development that underpins the new South African curriculum, and provides a brief…
Donohue, Dana K.; Bornman, Juan
This research sought to examine South African teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion of learners with different abilities in their hypothetical mainstream classrooms. Participants were 93 South African teachers who responded to the Teachers' Attitudes and Expectations Scale, a measure developed for this study, regarding four vignettes…
Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna
This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…
In the 1990s a team of scientists and engineers at Stellenbosch University built the first South African satellite to fly in space, the 64-kg Sunsat. This university-based satellite programme took advantage of the skills and facilities developed in the previous South African space programme of the 1980s and early 1990s, which had developed a much larger satellite (Greensat), but was cancelled in the mid-1990s prior to launch. Sunsat incorporated a number of novel capabilities for a microsatellite platform, and interest was shown in these technologies by other groups developing similar satellites. As the University was not the ideal environment to develop the commercial potential of these microsatellite technologies, a company called Sunspace was later established, thus creating industrial capacity in South Africa in a niche area of space technology. This new industrial capability, together with the infrastructure from the previous space programme, have created a foundation upon which to build the new South African space programme. This paper discusses the historical, current and possible future roles of small satellites in the development of the South African space programme.
Lutya, Thozama Mandisa
The United Nations estimates that 79% of teenage girls trafficked globally every year are forced into involuntary prostitution. About 247 000 South African children work in exploitative conditions; about 40 000 South African female teenagers work as prostitutes. This paper investigates lifestyles and routine activities of teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution. The key concepts involuntary prostitution, intergenerational sex and exploitative conditions are defined in relation to the lifestyles and routine activities of South African female teenagers. Human trafficking for involuntary prostitution is described, based on a literature review. Lifestyle exposure and routine activities theories help to explain the potential victimisation of these teenagers in human trafficking for involuntary prostitution. Actual lifestyle and routine activities of South African teenagers and risky behaviours (substance abuse, intergenerational sex and child prostitution) are discussed as factors that make teens vulnerable to such trafficking. This paper recommends that human trafficking prevention efforts (awareness programmes and information campaigns) be directed at places frequented by human traffickers and teenagers in the absence of a capable guardian to reduce victimisation, as traffickers analyse the lifestyles and routine activities of their targets. South Africa should also interrogate entrenched practices such as intergenerational sex. PMID:25859767
McDowell, Jennifer L; Kenyhercz, Michael W; L'Abbé, Ericka N
Reliable and valid population specific standards are necessary to accurately develop a biological profile, which includes an estimation of peer-reported social identification (Hefner, 2009). During the last 300 years, colonialism, slavery and apartheid created geographic, physical and social divisions of population groups in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate variation in nasal bone and aperture shape in a modern population of black, white, and coloured South Africans using standard craniometric variables and geometric morphometrics, namely general Procrustes and elliptical Fourier analyses. Fourteen standard landmarks were digitally recorded or computationally derived from 310 crania using a 3D coordinate digitizer for discriminant function, principal components and generalized Procrustes analyses. For elliptical Fourier analysis, outlines of the nasal aperture were generated from standardized photographs. All classification accuracies were better than chance; the lowest accuracies were for coloured and the highest accuracies were for white South Africans. Most difficulties arose in distinguishing coloured and black South African groups from each other. Generally, misclassifications were noted between the sexes within each group rather than among groups, which suggests that sex has less influence on nasal bone and aperture shape than ancestry. Quantifiable variation in shape of the nasal aperture region between white and non-white South African groups was observed. PMID:25963274
Chikowore, Tinashe; Conradie, Karin R; Towers, Gordon W; van Zyl, Tertia
The increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a serious global health concern. Although T2D has a strong genetic etiology, limited knowledge exists about the common variants associated with it in the black South African population. This study set out to evaluate the association of previously reported common variants in other world populations with T2D susceptibility in a black South African population of Setswana descent. A case-control study design of 178 cases and 178 controls nested in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study was conducted wherein we genotyped for 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). PLINK software was used to evaluate the standard genetic models of disease penetrance for the association of the common variants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) while adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Only rs1436955 significantly associated with an increase in T2D risk; three other variants, rs831571, rs8050136, and rs7542900, significantly associated with decreased risk of T2D. However, none of the four SNPs had significant associations after correcting for multiple testing (p<0.05). Although further studies are required to confirm these observations, the common variants associated with T2D risk among the Black South Africans of Setswana descent might likely be different than those in the Asian and European populations. This study supports the broader thesis that the genetic background of Africans is diverse and cannot be directly extrapolated using genetic variants from other ethnicities. Therefore there is a need to identify the population-specific variants linked with T2D in Africa. PMID:26382014
Satheeshkumar, PS; Mohan, Minu P; Saji, Sweta; Sadanandan, Sudheesh; George, Giju
Background: Dental pulp calcifications are unique and represent the dental pulp regenerative process. Dental pulp calcifications are sometimes routine findings in oral radiographs and may later serve as an important diagnostic criterion for a hidden aspect of systemic illness. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns and prevalence of idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India. Materials and Methods: A total of 227 patients were included in the study fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Age range of the study population was from 15 to 70 years. Teeth were examined under digital panoramic radiograph. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. The presence of pulp stone were categorized according to the types classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II, Type IIA, Type II B, and Type III. The frequency of occurrence of pulp stones with sex, tooth type, dental arches, and types were compared with the types of calcification. Results: Total no. of patients with pulpal calcification were 227 [females 133 (58.59%) and males 94 (41.40%)]. The most common type between both sexes was Type I (48%). Total no. of teeth with calcification was 697; maxilla (48%), mandible (52%). The prevalence of pulp stone was found to be higher in the molars in both the arches. Most no. of pulp stones are reported at the third and fourth decade of life. Conclusion: Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications are incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue and also may be an indicator of underlying disease. PMID:23349577
Mohamudha Parveen, R; Harish, B N; Parija, S C
AmpC β-lactamases are cephalosporinases that hydrolyze cephamycins as well as other extended-spectrum cephalosporins and are poorly inhibited by clavulanic acid. Although reported with increasing frequency, the true rate of occurrence of AmpC β-lactamases in different organisms, including members of Enterobacteriaceae, remains unknown. The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of AmpC enzyme-harbouring Gram-negative clinical isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Pondicherry state, South India. A total of 235 Gram negative clinical isolates were tested for resistance to cefoxitin, third generation cephalosporin (3GC) antibiotics, ampicillin, amikacin, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem and tetracycline by disc diffusion method. Isolates found resistant to 3GC and cefoxitin were tested for the production of AmpC β -lactamases by three dimensional extraction method and AmpC disc method. Isolates found to sensitive to 3GC were subjected to disc antagonism test for inducible AmpC production. One hundred and thirty four (57%) strains were resistant to 3GC, among which 63(47%) were positive for plasmid-mediated AmpC beta lactamases production. Among the 101 strains sensitive to 3GC, 23 (22.7%) revealed the presence of inducible AmpC beta lactamases by disc approximation test. A total of 80.9% (51/63) of screen positive isolates were detected by Amp C disc test and 93.6% (59/63) by three dimensional extraction method. Out of the 86 AmpC producers, 67 (77.9%) were cefoxitin resistant .Inducible AmpC was not found in Esch.coli and Klebsiella spp. The AmpC producers also concurrently showed multidrug resistance pattern. AmpC producers were found to be prevalent in our hospital and though three dimensional extraction test detects AmpC better, the disk test is easier to perform routinely and is user- friendly. PMID:24031534
Hillhouse, John W.; Grommé, C. Sherman; Csejtey, Bela, Jr.
We have determined the paleolatitude of lower Tertiary volcanic rocks in southern Alaska to measure possible poleward translation of the Wrangellia and the Peninsular terranes after 50 m.y. ago. Previous paleomagnetic studies have shown that in Triassic and Jurassic time these terranes were located near the equator and have moved at least 3000 km poleward relative to the North American craton. Our sample localities are in the northern Talkeetna Mountains in mildly deformed andesite and dacite flows (50.4, 51.3, 53.9, and 56.3 m.y. by K-Ar) that overlap Lower Cretaceous flysch, Lower Permian volcanic rocks of Wrangellia, and Upper Triassic pillow basalt of the Susitna terrane. Results from 26 cooling units (23 of reversed polarity and 3 of normal polarity) give a mean paleomagnetic pole at 69.5°N, 179.6°E, α95 = 12.2°. Stratigraphic sections from opposite limbs of a syncline yield directional paths that pass the fold test, satisfying a necessary condition for primary origin of the magnetization. The corresponding mean paleolatitude (76°N) of the northern Talkeetna Mountains is 8°±10° higher than the latitude predicted from the Eocene reference pole for North America. Therefore, northward drift of the Talkeetna superterrane, which is the amalgamation of the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes during and after Middle Jurassic time, was probably complete by 50 m.y. ago. Our results are consistent with paleomagnetic poles from uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene volcanic sequences in Denali National Park, the Lake Clark region, northern Bristol Bay region, and near McGrath. These poles generally lie south of the cratonic poles, suggesting that the region between the Kaltag, Bruin Bay, and Castle Mountain faults has rotated counterclockwise relative to North America since the early Eocene.
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Walstrom, Paige; Harrison, Abigail; Kalichman, Seth C.; Carey, Michael P.
Objectives To examine the efficacy of sexual risk reduction interventions among South African youth. Methods Electronic databases were searched to identify studies published between 2007 and early 2013. Studies were eligible if they (1) targeted youth age 9–26, (2) evaluated sexual risk reduction interventions and (3) reported at least one behavioral outcome. Independent raters coded study characteristics, and intervention content. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated; positive effect sizes indicated less sexual risk behavior and incident STIs. Results Ten studies (k = 11, N = 22,788; 54% female; 79% Black-African) were included. Compared to controls, interventions were successful at delaying sexual intercourse and, among sexually active youth, at increasing condom use. A single study found reductions in the incidence of herpes simplex virus-2, but not HIV. Conclusions Implementing behavioral interventions to delay sexual debut and improve condom use can help to reduce the transmission of HIV among South African youth. PMID:24476351
Visagie, Lisa; Loxton, Helene; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Steel, Henry
Introduction: The aim of the study presented here was to determine whether significant differences exist between the fear profiles of South African children in middle childhood (aged 8-13) with different levels of visual impairments and those of their sighted counterparts. Methods: A differential research design was used, and a total of 129…
Seale, Oliver; Cross, Michael
In recent years, deanship in universities has become more complex and challenging. Deans in South African universities take up their positions without appropriate training and prior executive experience, and with no clear understanding of the ambiguity and complexity of their roles. This paper calls for appropriate leadership development…
In 2007 the Department of Education introduced the standards-based Advanced Certificate in Education: School Management and Leadership. The standardisation of leadership and management development in South African schools has been uncritically accepted by most academics and professionals. The purpose of this article is to problematise the…
The Competency Framework, introduced by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) details technical competencies, but also places emphasis on the pervasive skills that need to be attained by candidates for them to qualify as chartered accountants (CAs). Thus, an additional onus has been placed on academics to ensure that they…
Golightly, Aubrey; Muniz, Osvaldo A.
Problem-based learning (PBL) is one of the possible training strategies that could be more fully implemented in the South African formal education system. The intention to migrate from teacher-centred to learner-centred instructions in higher education institutions and schools makes PBL a plausible option. Geography education students might be…
The focus of this paper is on selected recent South African research studies that have explored efforts to promote the discussion, writing, and arguing aspects of scientific literacy in primary and middle schools, particularly amongst second-language learners. These studies reveal improvements in the participants' abilities to both use the…
Kagee, A.; Harper, M.; Spies, G.
Lay understandings of human cognition, affect, and behaviour often diverge from the findings of scientific investigations. The present study examined South African fourth year psychology students' judgments about the factual correctness of statements of psychological phenomena that have been demonstrated to be incorrect by empirical research.…