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1

Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Background Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations. Results We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations from the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh. Genetic differentiation among Tamil castes is low (RST = 0.96% for 45 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers), reflecting a largely common origin. Nonetheless, caste- and continent-specific patterns are evident. For 32 lineage-defining Y-chromosome SNPs, Tamil castes show higher affinity to Europeans than to eastern Asians, and genetic distance estimates to the Europeans are ordered by caste rank. For 32 lineage-defining mitochondrial SNPs and hypervariable sequence (HVS) 1, Tamil castes have higher affinity to eastern Asians than to Europeans. For 45 autosomal STRs, upper and middle rank castes show higher affinity to Europeans than do lower rank castes from either Tamil Nadu or Andhra Pradesh. Local between-caste variation (Tamil Nadu RST = 0.96%, Andhra Pradesh RST = 0.77%) exceeds the estimate of variation between these geographically separated groups (RST = 0.12%). Low, but statistically significant, correlations between caste rank distance and genetic distance are demonstrated for Tamil castes using Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal data. Conclusion Genetic data from Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal STRs are in accord with historical accounts of northwest to southeast population movements in India. The influence of ancient and historical population movements and caste social structure can be detected and replicated in South Indian caste populations from two different geographic regions. PMID:19077280

Watkins, WS; Thara, R; Mowry, BJ; Zhang, Y; Witherspoon, DJ; Tolpinrud, W; Bamshad, MJ; Tirupati, S; Padmavati, R; Smith, H; Nancarrow, D; Filippich, C; Jorde, LB

2008-01-01

2

HLA DRB1* and DQB1* allelic diversity among Nadars: a primitive south Indian Dravidian caste group.  

PubMed

South India is one of the oldest geophysical regions occupied mainly by Dravidian language-speaking people. In the present study, 84 unrelated healthy Nadar individuals from Tamil Nadu State were analyzed for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1* and DQB1* allele frequencies and their haplotype frequencies were analyzed by high resolution polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-typing of genomic DNA. Results revealed that Nadars possessed >0.1 allele frequencies of HLA DRB1*15011, 03, 04, 1404, 0701, 1001, and DQB1*0201, 03, 0501, and 0503. The highest frequencies of DRB1*0317 (0.048), DRB1*1317 (0.012), and DRB1*1404 (0.107) in the world were found among the Nadar caste. The most frequent two-locus haplotypes identified among the Nadars were DRB1*0701-DQB1*0201 and DRB1*1000-DQB1*0501, and DRB1*1404-DQB1*0503 and DRB1*15011-DQB1*0601. When compared with world populations, HLA DRB1*1322, DRB1*1434, and DQB1*0614 were identified exclusively among Nadars. The heterozygosity and Watterson's homozygosity tests indicated that balancing selection still operates among the South Indian caste groups. The hierarchical cluster analysis for DRB1 data from the Indian caste and population groups showed that the Nadars cluster with Kashmir Brahmins and North Indians. The present study shows that the Nadar caste has several unique alleles and haplotypes at high frequency that are rare or absent in other populations of India and the world. PMID:15336786

Shankarkumar, Umapathy; Sridharan, Balakrisnan

2004-08-01

3

Independent origins of Indian caste and tribal paternal lineages.  

PubMed

The origins of the nearly one billion people inhabiting the Indian subcontinent and following the customs of the Hindu caste system are controversial: are they largely derived from Indian local populations (i.e. tribal groups) or from recent immigrants to India? Archaeological and linguistic evidence support the latter hypothesis, whereas recent genetic data seem to favor the former hypothesis. Here, we analyze the most extensive dataset of Indian caste and tribal Y chromosomes to date. We find that caste and tribal groups differ significantly in their haplogroup frequency distributions; caste groups are homogeneous for Y chromosome variation and more closely related to each other and to central Asian groups than to Indian tribal or any other Eurasian groups. We conclude that paternal lineages of Indian caste groups are primarily descended from Indo-European speakers who migrated from central Asia approximately 3,500 years ago. Conversely, paternal lineages of tribal groups are predominantly derived from the original Indian gene pool. We also provide evidence for bidirectional male gene flow between caste and tribal groups. In comparison, caste and tribal groups are homogeneous with respect to mitochondrial DNA variation, which may reflect the sociocultural characteristics of the Indian caste society. PMID:14761656

Cordaux, Richard; Aunger, Robert; Bentley, Gillian; Nasidze, Ivane; Sirajuddin, S M; Stoneking, Mark

2004-02-01

4

South Dakota Indian Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed in this American Indian bibliography are 310 books and pamphlets dating from 1894 to 1971. Entries are arranged under the following headings: Art and Music, Bibliography, Culture, Fiction, Government Relations, History, Language, and Religion and Mythology. Also included is a list of publishers and addresses, containing 111 entries. (HBC)

South Dakota State Library, Pierre.

5

Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations.  

PubMed

The origins and affinities of the approximately 1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in approximately 265 males from eight castes of different rank to approximately 750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%-30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements) in all of the caste and continental populations (approximately 600 individuals). Analysis of these data demonstrated that the upper castes have a higher affinity to Europeans than to Asians, and the upper castes are significantly more similar to Europeans than are the lower castes. Collectively, all five datasets show a trend toward upper castes being more similar to Europeans, whereas lower castes are more similar to Asians. We conclude that Indian castes are most likely to be of proto-Asian origin with West Eurasian admixture resulting in rank-related and sex-specific differences in the genetic affinities of castes to Asians and Europeans. PMID:11381027

Bamshad, M; Kivisild, T; Watkins, W S; Dixon, M E; Ricker, C E; Rao, B B; Naidu, J M; Prasad, B V; Reddy, P G; Rasanayagam, A; Papiha, S S; Villems, R; Redd, A J; Hammer, M F; Nguyen, S V; Carroll, M L; Batzer, M A; Jorde, L B

2001-06-01

6

HLA-B27 allele diversity in Indians: impact of ethnic origin and the caste system.  

PubMed

HLA-B27 is a serological specificity which encompasses an increasing number of subtypes that show varied racial/ethnic prevalence in the world. Here, data from 5129 Indians (4500 population and caste; 629 tribal) is compiled from the literature. In addition, HLA-B27 subtyping of 58 positive individuals from Maharastra is presented. Analysis revealed an increased B27 antigen frequency among the north Indian groups (>5%) compared to the south Indian groups (<5%). HLA-B27 subtyping identified B*2704 (34.48%), B*2705 (36.2%), B*2707 (15.51%), B*2708 (10.34%) and B*2714 (3.44%) alleles in the population groups from Maharastra, but these differed in their distribution among the caste and tribal groups studied. The study showed that more extensive subtyping in other Indian caste groups will be necessary to resolve the evolutionary implications of HLA-B27 subtypes and their relationship to disease association in the Indian context. PMID:14725340

Shankarkumar, U

2003-01-01

7

Indian Place Names in South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cursory examination of place names on a map of South Dakota does not reflect the important role that Indians have played in the state and their relation to the land framed by its borders. Only three towns with populations over 1,000 bear names that clearly come from Indian languages: Sioux Falls, Sisseton, and Yankton. The hostile relationship…

Gasque, Thomas J.

8

OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE AND RUN OUT WITH TRAVELING TORCH. MACHINE IS CASTING IN TWIN MOLD. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

9

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

E-print Network

. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements) in all of the caste and continental populations (?600 individuals). Analysis of these data demonstrated... subcontinent (Mountain et al. 1995; Kivisild et al. 1999) and to ?350 Africans, Asians, and Europeans (Jorde et al. 1995, 2000; Seielstad et al. 1999). RESULTS Analysis of mtDNA Suggests a Proto-Asian Origin of Indians MtDNA HVR1 genetic distances between caste...

Bamshad, Michael; Kivisild, Toomas; Watkins, W. Scott; Dixon, Mary E.; Ricker, Chris E.; Rao, Baskara B.; Naidu, J. Mastan; Prasad, B. V. Ravi; Reddy, P. Govinda; Rasanayagam, Arani; Papiha, Surinder S.; Villems, Richard; Redd, Alan J.; Hammer, Michael F.; Nguyen, Son V.; Carroll, Marion L.; Batzer, Mark A.; Jorde, Lynn B.

2001-11-01

10

Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System  

PubMed Central

Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4–6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India. PMID:23209694

Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R. Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G.; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E.; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

2012-01-01

11

Population differentiation of southern Indian male lineages correlates with agricultural expansions predating the caste system.  

PubMed

Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10-30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4-6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India. PMID:23209694

Arunkumar, Ganeshprasad; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Kavitha, Valampuri John; Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S; Royyuru, Ajay K; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

2012-01-01

12

Traditional occupations and nutritional adaptation among Central Indian caste populations.  

PubMed

The socioeconomic milieu has benefits and drawbacks for determining level of nutrition. The Indian population provides an excellent example of nutrition-driven adaptation. The present paper deals with the relationship between BMI (body mass index) and traditional occupation and process of adaptation among adult males of Central India. Anthropometric data collected by the Anthropological Survey of India on stature, sitting height and weight of 6663 adult males belonging to 22 castes were used for computation of BMI and Cormic index. The caste groups earning their living as labourers are found to be shortest (157.4+/-6.5 cm), and the caste group practising priesthood are tallest (168.6+/-6.6 cm). The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency is found to be highest (72%) among castes earning their living as daily wage labourers. The ANOVA on Cormic index and BMI suggests that people within the same occupational group are more homogeneous than those from different occupational groups. The t test also supports the homogeneity of the same occupational group. PMID:18088450

Gautam, Rajesh K

2008-09-01

13

American Indian Population in South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

Hess, Donna

14

De\\/geneticizing Caste: Population Genetic Research in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed a number of population genetics studies aiming to explore the ‘genetic profile’ of the South Asian population and of the caste system. This paper examines four genetic studies and their mass media representations, and discusses interviews with leading historians and social scientists whose work has focused on issues of the caste system. Similar to earlier commentators—from

Yulia Egorova

2009-01-01

15

When is a South Indian Really Anemic?  

PubMed

To determine the normal range of Hemoglobin and cutoff values in healthy adults of Southern India, blood samples were analyzed for parameters of RBC and iron metabolism in 177 male and 203 female medical students. The data were compared with the American white population (NHANES III) and the WHO criteria for detection of anemia. The mean values for hemoglobin and hematocrit in male students differed minimally from American white males. However, values for parameters of iron metabolism were lower except total iron binding capacity (TIBC) which was higher. In female students, hemoglobin, hematocrit and parameters of iron metabolism were lower than American white females, except TIBC which was higher. Lower 5th percentile cutoff point (Mean - 1.645 SD) in males and females were 13.5 and 10 g/dl respectively. In conclusion, South Indian adult males have Hb values similar to American male adults, but South Indian females have considerably lower Hb levels than American females, raising the questions about appropriateness of WHO or US criteria for detection of anemia in Indian females. PMID:25298629

Pasupula, Deepak Kumar; Reddy, P S

2014-10-01

16

HLA diversity among Nadars, a primitive Dravidian caste of South India.  

PubMed

South India is one of the oldest geophysical regions mainly occupied by Dravidian language-speaking people. Here a random panel of 61 unrelated Nadar healthy individual from Tamil Nadu State were analyzed and compared with other populations of India and the world. HLA-A, B and C alleles frequencies and their haplotype frequencies were determined by high-resolution typing of genomic DNA. The analysis revealed that the Nadar caste of South India have several characters shared with East Asian populations consistent with the demographic history of South India, as well as specific features including several unique alleles such as A*03011, A*31011, B*15011, B*3501, B*51011, Cw*02022. In addition, haplotypes such as A*31011-Cw*02022-B*3501, A*03011-Cw*04011-B*4406 and A*2402101-Cw*04011-B*51011 are of high frequency in both these populations but are rare or absent in other populations of India and the world. The study suggests that a comparatively lesser degree of genetic admixture occurred between the South Indian and North Indian racial groups than that between South Indian and East Asian groups. PMID:14617038

Shankarkumar, U; Sridharan, B; Pitchappan, R M

2003-12-01

17

Exploring Rogue Waves from Observations in South Indian Ocean  

E-print Network

1 Exploring Rogue Waves from Observations in South Indian Ocean Paul C. Liu1, Keith R. MacHuchon2 observational study of rogue waves based on wave meas- urement made in South Indian Ocean. As there have been in height. They concluded that "it looks as if freak waves occur in the deep ocean far more frequently than

18

South Indian Countercurrent and associated fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

striking feature of the South Indian Ocean circulation is the presence of the eastward South Indian Countercurrent (SICC) that flows in a direction opposite to that predicted by the classical theories of wind-driven circulation. Several authors suggest that the SICC resembles the subtropical countercurrents (STCCs) observed in other oceans, which are defined as narrow eastward jets on the equatorward side of subtropical gyres, where the depth-integrated flow is westward. These jets are associated with subsurface thermal fronts at thermocline depths by the thermal wind relation. However, the subsurface thermal front associated with the SICC has not been described to date. Other studies conjecture an important role for salinity in controlling the SICC. In the present work, we analyze three Argo-based atlases and data from six hydrographic cruises to investigate whether the SICC is accompanied by permanent thermal and density fronts including salinity effects. The seasonal cycle of these fronts in relation to the SICC strength is also investigated. We find that the SICC is better described as composed of three distinct jets, which we name the northern, central, and southern SICC. We find that the southern SICC around 26°S has an associated thermal front at subsurface depths around 100-200 m with salinity being of secondary importance. The southern branch strength is related to mode waters poleward of the front, similar to a STCC-like current. However, the SICC multiple jet structure seems to be better described as resulting from PV staircases.

Menezes, Viviane V.; Phillips, Helen E.; Schiller, Andreas; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Domingues, Catia M.; Vianna, Marcio L.

2014-10-01

19

Castes, migration, immunogenetics and infectious diseases in south India.  

PubMed

It has been said that the grandest genetic experiment of nature has been conducted in south India in the name of the caste system. One can expect the frequency of an infectious disease to be equal to the product of the frequencies of various indicated loci/alleles, whether physiological, hormonal or immunological, in an endemic area. The sympatrically isolated caste and sub-caste populations of southern India, with differing origins, migration patterns and breeding habits, differ significantly in their HLA and other immune repertoire and are ideal models to study and test this hypothesis. The prevalence of a number of major infectious diseases, including TB and leprosy, are reviewed in different communities in the light of their genetic history. PMID:14960884

Pitchappan, R M

2002-01-01

20

South Indian foods: Contaminants and their effects  

SciTech Connect

Life style including dietary habits is one of the most important factors responsible for different types of cancer. The role of diet in human cancer has prompted many to analyze the food items, particularly the heat processed foods and food components for possible mutagens and carcinogens. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during combustion, pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis of organic matter. Epidemiological studies have unequivocally established a relationship between the occurrence of PAHs and different types of cancers. Since the incidence of stomach cancer in South India in very high, the authors have screened several commonly consumed food dishes and food components for possible contaminants, such as PAHs. Since many of the Indian food items are stored for long periods, mycotoxin contamination is possible and therefore, they have screened some of the food components for the presence of zearalenone, a Fusarium mycotoxin. This paper reports the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and zearalenone in the commonly consumed food items. The mutagenic and genotoxic effects of these food items are also reported.

Sivaswamy, S.N.; Balachandran, B.; Balanehru, S. (Cancer Inst., Madras (India))

1991-08-01

21

Evaluation of arch width variations among different skeletal patterns in South Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background: Anterior cranial base can be taken as a reference line (SN) to determine the steepness of mandibular plane. Subjects with high mandibular plane angle tend to have a long face and one with low MP-SN angle has a shorter face. Objective: This study was done to investigate if dental arch widths correlated with vertical facial types and if there are any differences in arch widths between untreated male and female adults in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalogram and dental casts were obtained from 180 untreated South Indian adults (90 males and 90 females) above 18 year old with no cross bite, minimal crowding and spacing. The angle between the anterior cranial base and the mandibular plane was measured on lateral cephalogram of each patient. Dental casts were used to obtain comprehensive dental measurements including maxillary and mandibular inter canine, inter premolar and inter molar widths, as well as amount of crowding or spacing. Results: The results showed that male arch widths were significantly larger than those of females (P < 0.05) and there was a significant decrease in inter arch width as the MP-SN angle increased in untreated adult South Indian population. The results obtained in our study when compared with studies done in other population groups showed that there is difference in inter arch widths according to ethnicity and race. Conclusion: It was concluded that the dental arch width is associated with gender, race and vertical facial morphology. Thus using individualized arch wires according to each patient's pre treatment arch form and width is suggested during orthodontic treatment. PMID:23633842

Prasad, Mandava; Kannampallil, Senny Thomas; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

2013-01-01

22

Indian River Research and Education Center 2199 South Rock Road  

E-print Network

Indian River Research and Education Center 2199 South Rock Road Fort Pierce, FL 34945-3138 Phone commitment would impact my ability to serve my existing research and teaching program. Little did I know how with specific goals to (1) enhance application of skills and knowledge learning in nine leadership competencies

Florida, University of

23

The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations  

PubMed Central

Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N that cover populations of different social rank from all over the subcontinent. Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations. H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup. Haplotype frequencies of the MX1 locus of chromosome 21 distinguish Koyas and Chenchus, along with Indian caste groups, from European and eastern Asian populations. Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools. PMID:12536373

Kivisild, T.; Rootsi, S.; Metspalu, M.; Mastana, S.; Kaldma, K.; Parik, J.; Metspalu, E.; Adojaan, M.; Tolk, H.-V.; Stepanov, V.; Gölge, M.; Usanga, E.; Papiha, S. S.; Cinnio?lu, C.; King, R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.; Underhill, P. A.; Villems, R.

2003-01-01

24

The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N

T. Kivisild; S. Rootsi; M. Metspalu; S. Mastana; K. Kaldma; J. Parik; E. Metspalu; M. Adojaan; H.-V. Tolk; V. Stepanov; M. Gölge; E. Usanga; S. S. Papiha; C. Cinnio?lu; R. King; L. Cavalli-Sforza; P. A. Underhill; R. Villems

2003-01-01

25

Multi-layer Clouds Over the South Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on April 23, 2003. These clouds occur at multiple altitudes and exhibit a noticeable cyclonic circulation over the Southern Indian Ocean, to the north of Enderbyland, East Antarctica.

The image at left was created by overlying a natural-color view from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) camera with a color-coded stereo height field. MISR retrieves heights by a pattern recognition algorithm that utilizes multiple view angles to derive cloud height and motion. The opacity of the height field was then reduced until the field appears as a translucent wash over the natural-color image. The resulting purple, cyan and green hues of this aesthetic display indicate low, medium or high altitudes, respectively, with heights ranging from less than 2 kilometers (purple) to about 8 kilometers (green). In the lower right corner, the edge of the Antarctic coastline and some sea ice can be seen through some thin, high cirrus clouds.

The right-hand panel is a natural-color image from MISR's 70-degree backward viewing camera. This camera looks backwards along the path of Terra's flight, and in the southern hemisphere the Sun is in front of this camera. This perspective causes the cloud-tops to be brightly outlined by the sun behind them, and enhances the shadows cast by clouds with significant vertical structure. An oblique observation angle also enhances the reflection of light by atmospheric particles, and accentuates the appearance of polar clouds. The dark ocean and sea ice that were apparent through the cirrus clouds at the bottom right corner of the nadir image are overwhelmed by the brightness of these clouds at the oblique view.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 17794. The panels cover an area of 335 kilometers x 605 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 142 to 145 within World Reference System-2 path 155.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

26

Structure and Mechanisms of South Indian Ocean Climate Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique open-ocean upwelling exists in the tropical South Indian Ocean (SIO), a result of the negative wind curl between the southeasterly trades and equatorial westerlies, raising the thermocline in the west. Analysis of in situ measurements and a model-assimilated dataset reveals a strong influence of subsurface thermocline variability on sea surface temperature (SST) in this upwelling zone. El Nino-Southern

Shang-Ping Xie; H. Annamalai; Friedrich A. Schott; Julian P. McCreary Jr.

2002-01-01

27

Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items.  

PubMed

Dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in South India were screened for their mutagenic activity. Kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and Kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. Certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. Cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seeds, aniseeds and ginger were not. Several perfumes, essential oils and colouring agents, which are commonly used were also screened and many of them exhibited their mutagenic potential by inducing the 'reverse mutation' in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains. PMID:1769715

Sivaswamy, S N; Balachandran, B; Balanehru, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

1991-08-01

28

The Indian Ocean Experiment: Widespread Air Pollution from South and Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution levels were observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean toward the Intertropical Convergence Zone at about 6°S. We show that

J. Lelieveld; P. J. Crutzen; V. Ramanathan; M. O. Andreae; C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer; T. Campos; G. R. Cass; R. R. Dickerson; H. Fischer; J. A. de Gouw; A. Hansel; A. Jefferson; D. Kley; A. T. J. de Laat; S. Lal; M. G. Lawrence; J. M. Lobert; O. L. Mayol-Bracero; A. P. Mitra; T. Novakov; S. J. Oltmans; K. A. Prather; T. Reiner; H. Rodhe; H. A. Scheeren; D. Sikka; J. Williams

2001-01-01

29

The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system.  

PubMed

Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia or Eurasia, which has contributed to the higher castes in India. Y-haplogroup R1a1* has a widespread distribution and high frequency across Eurasia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, with scanty reports of its ancestral (R*, R1* and R1a*) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c). To resolve these issues, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins occupying the upper-most caste position and schedule castes/tribals occupying the lower-most positions) with 55 Y-chromosomal binary markers and seven Y-microsatellite markers and compiled an extensive dataset of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins, and 2128 tribals and schedule castes) for conclusions. A peculiar observation of the highest frequency (up to 72.22%) of Y-haplogroup R1a1* in Brahmins hinted at its presence as a founder lineage for this caste group. Further, observation of R1a1* in different tribal population groups, existence of Y-haplogroup R1a* in ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530 Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1* haplogroup supported the autochthonous origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins. However, it is important to discover novel Y-chromosomal binary marker(s) for a higher resolution of R1a1* and confirm the present conclusions. PMID:19158816

Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Prithviraj; Jena, Mamata; Singh, Shweta; Darvishi, Katayoon; Bhat, Audesh K; Bhanwer, A J S; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

2009-01-01

30

Hepatitis transmission among the Sioux Indians of South Dakota.  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis A continues to occur in cyclical community-wide epidemics on the Indian reservations of South Dakota. In June 1985 a population-based serosurvey for viral hepatitis involving 120 households was conducted at the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux Indian reservations in South Dakota. The serosurvey was performed shortly after a large hepatitis A epidemic on the Pine Ridge reservation in 1983-84, and immediately before a large hepatitis A epidemic on the Rosebud reservation in 1985-86. The overall seroprevalence for antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) was 76.2 percent (Pine Ridge reservation 80.5 percent, Rosebud reservation 72.0 percent, relative risk = 1.12, 95 percent confidence interval = 1.01, 1.24). For age groups 0 to 4 years, 54.2 percent and 36.1 percent of children were seropositive at Pine Ridge and Rosebud, respectively. Seropositivity rose rapidly with age; by age 40, more than 90 percent of persons at both Pine Ridge and Rosebud were anti-HAV positive. Only 1.1 percent of persons tested were positive for hepatitis B markers. Anti-HAV seroprevalence rates in both communities are similar to rates observed in developing countries. The surprisingly high anti-HAV seroprevalence among young children at Rosebud, where clinical hepatitis A had been virtually absent in the previous seven years, indicates that high-grade silent transmission was taking place during the interepidemic period. PMID:2166446

Shaw, F E; Shapiro, C N; Welty, T K; Dill, W; Reddington, J; Hadler, S C

1990-01-01

31

Structure and Mechanisms of South Indian Ocean Climate Variability(.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique open-ocean upwelling exists in the tropical South Indian Ocean (SIO), a result of the negative wind curl between the southeasterly trades and equatorial westerlies, raising the thermocline in the west. Analysis of in situ measurements and a model-assimilated dataset reveals a strong influence of subsurface thermocline variability on sea surface temperature (SST) in this upwelling zone. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is found to be the dominant forcing for the SIO thermocline variability, with SST variability off Sumatra, Indonesia, also making a significant contribution. When either an El Niño or Sumatra cooling event takes place, anomalous easterlies appear in the equatorial Indian Ocean, forcing a westward-propagating downwelling Rossby wave in the SIO. In phase with this dynamic Rossby wave, there is a pronounced copropagation of SST. Moreover, a positive precipitation anomaly is found over, or just to the south of, the Rossby wave-induced positive SST anomaly, resulting in a cyclonic circulation in the surface wind field that appears to feedback onto the SST anomaly. Finally, this downwelling Rossby wave also increases tropical cyclone activity in the SIO through its SST effect.This coupled Rossby wave thus offers potential predictability for SST and tropical cyclones in the western SIO. These results suggest that models that allow for the existence of upwelling and Rossby wave dynamics will have better seasonal forecasts than ones that use a slab ocean mixed layer. The lagged-correlation analysis shows that SST anomalies off Java, Indonesia, tend to precede those off Sumatra by a season, a time lead that may further increase the Indian Ocean predictability.

Xie, Shang-Ping; Annamalai, H.; Schott, Friedrich A.; McCreary, Julian P., Jr.

2002-04-01

32

Ancestral modal Y-STR haplotype shared among Romani and South Indian populations.  

PubMed

One of the primary unanswered questions regarding the dispersal of Romani populations concerns the geographical region and/or the Indian caste/tribe that gave rise to the proto-Romani group. To shed light on this matter, 161 Y-chromosomes from Roma, residing in two different provinces of Serbia, were analyzed. Our results indicate that the paternal gene pool of both groups is shaped by several strata, the most prominent of which, H1-M52, comprises almost half of each collection's patrilineages. The high frequency of M52 chromosomes in the two Roma populations examined may suggest that they descend from a single founder that has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. Moreover, when the Y-STR profiles of haplogroup H derived individuals in our Roma populations were compared to those typed in the South Indian emigrants from Malaysia and groups from Madras, Karnataka (Lingayat and Vokkaliga castes) and tribal Soligas, sharing of the two most common haplotypes was observed. These similarities suggest that South India may have been one of the contributors to the proto-Romanis. European genetic signatures (i.e., haplogroups E1b1b1a1b-V13, G2a-P15, I-M258, J2-M172 and R1-M173), on the other hand, were also detected in both groups, but at varying frequencies. The divergent European genetic signals in each collection are likely the result of differential gene flow and/or admixture with the European host populations but may also be attributed to dissimilar endogamous practices following the initial founder effect. Our data also support the notion that a number of haplogroups including G2a-P15, J2a3b-M67(xM92), I-M258 and E1b1b1-M35 were incorporated into the proto-Romani paternal lineages as migrants moved from northern India through Southwestern Asia, the Middle East and/or Anatolia into the Balkans. PMID:22609956

Regueiro, Maria; Rivera, Luis; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Popovic, Branka; Andjus, Stefan; Milasin, Jelena; Herrera, Rene J

2012-08-10

33

Thermocline and Intermediate Water Communication Between the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conductivity-temperature-depth and tracer chemistry section in the southeast South Atlantic in December 1989 and January 1990 presents strong evidence that there is a significant interocean exchange of thermocline and intermediate water between the South Atlantic and Indian oceans. Eastward flowing water at 10°W composed of South Atlantic Central (thermocline) Water is too enriched with chlorofluoromethanes 11 and 12 and oxygen to be the sole source of similar ?-S water within the northward flowing Benguela Current. About two thirds of the Benguela Current thermocline transport is drawn from the Indian Ocean; the rest is South Atlantic water that has folded into the Benguela Current in association with the Agulhas eddy-shedding process. South Atlantic Central water passes in the Indian Ocean by a route to the south of the Agulhas Return Current. The South Atlantic water loops back to the Atlantic within the Indian Ocean, perhaps mostly within the Agulhas recirculation cell of the southwest Indian Ocean. Linkage of Atlantic and Indian Ocean water diminishes with increasing depth; it extends through the lower thermocline into the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) (about 50% is derived from the Indian Ocean) but not into the deep water. While much of the interocean exchange remains on an approximate horizontal "isopycnal" plane, as much as 10 × 106 m3 s-1 of Indian Ocean water within the 25 × 106 m3 s-1 Benguela Current, mostly derived from the lower thermocline and AAIW, may balance deeper Atlantic export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The addition of salt water from the evaporative Indian Ocean into the South Atlantic Ocean thermocline and AAIW levels may precondition the Atlantic for NADW formation. While AAIW seems to be the chief feed for NADW, the bulk of it enters the subtropical South Atlantic, spiked with Indian Ocean salt, within the Benguela Current rather than along the western boundary of the South Atlantic.

Gordon, Arnold L.; Weiss, Ray F.; Smethie, William M.; Warner, Mark J.

1992-05-01

34

Palatal rugae in population differentiation between South and North Indians: A discriminant function analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim: The present study is aimed at delineation of different types of rugae in two different populations and developing a discriminant function for the same. Materials and Methods: A total of 940 subjects were included in the present study. The sample consisted of 466 subjects from South Indian population and 474 from North Indian population in the age group of 18-23 years. Neo colloid Easy flow(™) alginate impressions of maxillary arch were made and casts were immediately poured with Type IV dental stone. A sharp graphite pencil was used to delineate the rugae and patterns were recorded according to the classification given by Kapali et al. The association between different population and different sexes was analyzed with chi-square test and a stepwise discriminant function analysis was also performed to develop a discriminant formula. Results: Wavy, curved and straight rugae were the most common forms in both groups. Chi-square analysis for association between rugae shape and population groups showed significant differences among all the rugae patterns at the P < 5%. Chi-square analysis for assessing sex differences in the rugae shapes showed significant difference in straight, unification and circular type. Five rugae shapes – curved, wavy, nonspecific, unification and circular – were selected for discriminant function. Conclusion: The discriminant function equation obtained from the different rugae shapes in the present study was highly accurate enough to distinguish the Southern and Northern Indian population with the classification accuracy of 87.8%. Thus to identify a specific population, separate discriminant function formulae have to be developed. Hence, the study of palatal rugae is one of the simple and reliable tools for population identification in forensic science. PMID:23741146

Shanmugam, Shankar; Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Shaikh, Hidayathulla; Murali, Kruthika; Suresan, Vinay; Nisharudeen, Khaja; Brinda Devi, Sulur Pechimuthu; Rajasundaram, Prakash

2012-01-01

35

Multiple Instrument Translation for Use with South Asian Indian Immigrants  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe translation of five measures (physical activity, acculturation, discrimination, self-efficacy, and depression) from English into Hindi using the committee translation method, focus group, and think-aloud interviews. Two South Asian Indian (SAI) immigrant bilingual translators and a moderator reached consensus on 93 of 102 items, using the committee method. Discrepancy in nine items was resolved with a focus group conducted with five bilingual SAI immigrants. Ten other bilingual SAI immigrants participated in think-aloud interviews to assess understanding and interpretation of the questions. More than 10 additional changes were made following the think-aloud interviews. Sequential use of multiple translation techniques improved translation with culturally acceptable language, thereby maintaining equivalence with original versions. PMID:21818758

Daniel, Manju; Miller, Arlene; Wilbur, JoEllen

2011-01-01

36

Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior among South Asian Indian Immigrants  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes than Whites. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for seven days. Results Just over half (51.8%) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (?150 minutes moderate-intensity or ?75 minutes vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6904.3, which is in the “low active” classification. Discussion Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed. PMID:23686529

Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

2013-01-01

37

Role of south Indian Ocean swells in modulating the north Indian Ocean wave climate through modelling and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementation and validation of a third generation wave model, Wavewatch III was used to study the characteristics of the south Indian ocean swells and their propagation in the north Indian Ocean. The NCEP reanalysis wind data (2.5° x 2.5°) has been used to generate the wind waves for the entire Indian Ocean during 2006 - 2007. The modelled wave parameters have been compared with measured buoy data and with merged altimeter data. The model results show good agreement with the buoy and altimeter data. A case study is carried out to study the propagation of the swells generated at the roaring 40°S in the Indian Ocean during May 2007. The "southern swell" occurred during May 2007 has been successfully reproduced in the wave model, which confirmed by the comparison of modelled significant wave heights with the merged altimeter significant wave heights. These swells were generated in the Atlantic ocean near the southern tip of South Africa and propagated towards the north Indian Ocean. These waves touches the Madagascar region and further hits the La Reunion islands after three days thus creating numerous damages near the islands. The magnitude of the swell is around 15m near the generation area and it reduces to around 6m near the La Reunion islands while propagating towards the north Indian Ocean. Further the swell energy is spataially distributed in the northern and southern Indian Ocean. The study reveals that the swells generated in the roaring forties and propagating in the SW/SSW direction influences more to Bay of Bengal than Arabian Sea. This occurs during pre-monsoon season primarily because large scale winds are weak in the north Indian Ocean during this period and hence swells from south Indian Ocean dominates at this time. The case of "southern swell" also happened to be at the same season. Further wave parameters were extracted at few locations in the northern Indian Ocean to study the impact of May 2007 swells on the wave climate. An average of around 1m wave height was noted at these locations during the normal period (in the absence of swells) whereas during the swell propagation, an increment of 1 to 2m was observed in the wave height. A constant wave height of 2m was observed at a point extracted in mid Bay of Bengal during the swell propagation. After the swells are completely dissipated, the wave heights are reduced back to 1m. The results presented in this paper prove that the propagation of the swells in the Indian Ocean coming from oceans other than Indian Ocean can be very well studied using the wind wave model.

Samiksha, S. V.; Vethamony, P.; Aboobacker, V. M.; Rashmi, R.

2012-04-01

38

Attitudes of South African Indians towards interreligious and arranged marriages: A preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the family institution of South African Indians is scarce. This article deals with the results of a preliminary study of one aspect of their family life, namely, attitudes towards arranged and interreligious marriages. Two working hypotheses were formulated. First, that older, less-educated and economically deprived Indian persons are more in favour of arranged and intrareligious marriages than younger,

G. F. Schoombee; E. A. Mantzaris

1985-01-01

39

Indian Gaming in South Dakota: Conflict in Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legal gaming on Indian reservations has increased dramatically since the 1987 landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court in "California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians." In this case the Supreme Court upheld by a 6-3 vote the right under federal law for Indians to run gambling operations without state regulation in states where such…

Ackerman, William V.

2009-01-01

40

CAST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

41

CAST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

2012-02-03

42

North Atlantic deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circulation of deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean has been studied from hydrographic observations and current measurements, obtained during the Dutch–South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment programme, and from similar public data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The three major water masses involved are the saline North Atlantic deep water (NADW), its derivative in the Antarctic circumpolar

Hendrik M. van Aken; Herman Ridderinkhof; Wilhelmus P. M. de Ruijter

2004-01-01

43

North Atlantic deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circulation of deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean has been studied from hydrographic observations and current measurements, obtained during the Dutch-South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment programme, and from similar public data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The three major water masses involved are the saline North Atlantic deep water (NADW), its derivative in the Antarctic circumpolar

Hendrik M. van Akena

44

Advection and diffusion of Indonesian Throughflow Water within the Indian Ocean South Equatorial Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warm, low salinity Pacific water weaves through the Indonesian Seas into the eastern boundary of the Indian Ocean. The Indonesian Throughflow Water (ITW) adds freshwater into the Indian Ocean as it spreads by the advection and diffusion within the Indian Ocean's South Equatorial Current (SEC). The low salinity throughflow trace, centered along 12°S, stretches across the Indian Ocean, separating the monsoon dominated regime of the northern Indian Ocean from the more typical subtropical stratification to the south. ITW is well represented within the SEC thermocline, extending with concentrations above 80% of initial characteristics from the sea surface to 300-m within the eastern half of the Indian Ocean, with 60% concentration reaching well into the western Indian Ocean. The ITW transport within the SEC varies from 4 to 12 × 106 m³ sec-1, partly in response to variations of the injection rate at the eastern boundary and to the likelihood of a zonally elongated recirculation cell between the Equatorial Counter Current and the SEC within the Indian Ocean. Lateral mixing disperses the ITW plume meridionally with an effective isopycnal mixing coefficient of 1.1 to 1.6 × 104 m²sec-1.

Gordon, Arnold L.; Ma, Shubin; Olson, Donald B.; Hacker, Peter; Ffield, Amy; Talley, Lynne D.; Wilson, Douglas; Baringer, Molly

45

Inverted Y chromosome polymorphism in the Gujerati Muslim Indian population of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inverted Y chromosome has been found at a very high frequency in a Muslim Indian community living in the Johannesburg-Witwatersrand area of the Transvaal Province of South Africa: 8 of 141 (5.7%) retrospectively identified Indian males had an inv(Y)(p11.2q11.23) and all were of the Muslim faith. The inversion was found in 22 of 72 (30.5%) prospectively studied normal Muslim

R. Bernstein; A. Wadee; J. Rosendorff; A. Wessels; T. Jenkins

1986-01-01

46

North Atlantic deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The circulation of deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean has been studied from hydrographic,observations and current measurements, obtained during the Dutch–South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment programme, and from similar public data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The three major water masses involved are the saline North Atlantic deep water (NADW), its derivative in the Antarctic circumpolar

Hendrik M. Van Aken; Herman Ridderinkhof; Wilhelmus P. m. De Ruijter

47

The impact of advective transport by the South Indian Ocean Countercurrent on the Madagascar plankton bloom  

E-print Network

The impact of advective transport by the South Indian Ocean Countercurrent on the Madagascar­2007) of satellite ocean color data we analyze the spatiotemporal patterns in the seasonal Madagascar plankton bloom velocities we observe a narrow zonal jet that starts at $25 S at the southern tip of Madagascar, an important

Olascoaga, Maria Josefina

48

Women's Work, Autonomy, and Birth Control: Evidence From Two South Indian Villages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we contrast two South Indian villages which offer women very different employment opportunities. Many women in Village I roll beedis, which are crude hand-rolled cigarettes. The structure of beedi work was designed to meet the needs of the beedi contractor, but inadvertently it has provided women with substantial autonomy. In Village II very few women work for

A. Dharmalingam; S. Philip Morgan

1996-01-01

49

Clinical characteristics of a South Indian cohort of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy probands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the distinctive clinical and electroencephalographic features known for five decades, even today, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is frequently unrecognised and misdiagnosed in both developed and developing countries. Utilising 183 JME probands belonging to the South Indian state of Kerala, assembled through a tertiary referral centre for molecular genetic studies, we explored the phenotypic peculiarities, clinical genetics, and problems and

J VIJAI; P. J CHERIAN; P. N SYLAJA; A ANAND; K RADHAKRISHNAN

2003-01-01

50

Hamstring graft size and anthropometry in south Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim The role of anthropometric measurements in the prediction of hamstring autograft size in Indian population remains unclear. Till now, no studies have been done on Indian population. Methods We evaluated 41 consecutive patients (34 males, 7 females) prospectively with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency scheduled for reconstruction using hamstring autograft at our institution between June 2011 and June 2013. Preoperatively we recorded age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, and activity level. Intraoperative measurements of semitendinosus tendon like absolute length, diameter before fashioning the graft and final diameter of the tripled graft using sizing tubes calibrated to 1 mm. Correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) analysis was used. Results As per study there is no correlation between graft diameter, age, sex, weight, activity, and body mass index, of patients. Height of patients correlated to graft diameter in both Indian men and women (p < 0.001). Conclusion Anthropometric measurements such as weight, gender, activity level cannot be used as definitive predictors for the hamstring graft diameter during harvest but height of the patients can be taken as good predictor in Indian population.

Challa, Supradeeptha; Satyaprasad, Jonnalagedda

2013-01-01

51

Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the annual ventilation of the Antarctic Intermediate Water and Subantarctic Mode Water Masses.

Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

1991-01-01

52

Evidence for low androgenicity among Indian (South Asian) men.  

PubMed

There are increasing data indicating profound ethnic differences in the levels of virilization of males. It is well understood that the intensity of testosterone-mediated effects is modulated by sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and the CAG repeat lengths in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. We determined the serum testosterone, estradiol and SHBG levels and average CAG repeat lengths among a group of healthy older Indian men living in Connecticut, USA and compared these parameters with those of a reference group of white Caucasian men. We also compared various parameters that represent the end-manifestations of testosterone activity - serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, lean body mass, skeletal mineralization and visceral fat. Our data suggest that men from the Indian subcontinent are smaller, manifest lower levels of circulating free testosterone, lower mean PSA levels and lean body mass, but are comparable to white Caucasian men in terms of SHBG, estradiol, levels of visceral fat and CAG repeat length. These data suggest that Indian men manifest a lower level of virilization compared to white Caucasian males and that this might be due to lower mean circulating testosterone levels rather than higher AR CAG repeat length or SHBG. PMID:24206051

Rajan, T V; Kerstetter, Jane; Feinn, Richard; Kenny, Anne

2014-03-01

53

Generalized Potentiometric Surface of the Arikaree Aquifer, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Bennett County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Bennett County are located in southwest South Dakota. The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation includes all of Shannon County and the part of Jackson County south of the White River. Extensive Indian trust lands are in Bennett County. For purposes of this map, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and all of Bennett County are included in the study area (sheet 1). Ground water from wells and springs is the predominant source of public and domestic supply within the study area. The Arikaree aquifer is the largest source of ground water throughout this area. The Oglala Sioux Tribe is developing a ground-water management plan designed to ?preserve, protect and maintain the quality of ground water for living and future members and non-members of the Oglala Sioux Indian Tribe within the internal and external boundaries of the Pine Ridge Reservation? (Michael Catches Enemy, Oglala Sioux Tribe Natural Resources Regulatory Agency, oral commun., 2007). Hydrologic information about the Arikaree aquifer is important to managing this resource. In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began working in cooperation with the Oglala Sioux Tribe to develop a potentiometric map of the Arikaree aquifer in Jackson and Shannon Counties, with a primary component of that effort being a well inventory in those counties. In 2003, the study area was expanded to include Bennett County.

Carter, Janet M.; Heakin, Allen J.

2007-01-01

54

The effects of migration on the establishment of networks: caste disintegration and reformation among the Indians of Fiji.  

PubMed

"This article focuses on how migration auspices affect the formation of migrant networks and ethnic communities. Using ethnographic data and migration histories to focus on caste ¿reformation' in the subcommunities of the Indians of Fiji, the ability to reestablish and maintain subcaste group ¿extensions' in Fiji is shown as directly related to the migration auspices that originally established the community. By determining the characteristics of migrants, the reason for migrating, and the magnitude and duration of migration streams, migration auspices define a migration type. This migration type affects the strength and density of social ties present in migration streams. It also affects the strength and density of network ties that members of a migrant community can establish in a receiving society." PMID:12293998

Grieco, E M

1998-01-01

55

Variations of chlorophyll-a in the northeastern Indian Ocean after the 2004 South Asian tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of satellite remote sensing data has revealed changes in distribution of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean during the South Asian tsunami in December 2004. Chl-a data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) images were examined for the period from 1998 to 2005. Around the epicentre of

Danling Tang; Hui Zhao; B. Satyanarayana; Guangming Zheng; Ramesh P. Singh; Jianhai Lv; Zhongzheng Yan

2009-01-01

56

Mid latitude winter climate variability in the South Indian and southwest Pacific regions since 1300 AD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mid-latitude winter atmospheric variability in the South Indian Ocean and southwest Pacific Ocean regions of the circum-Antarctic are reconstructed using sea-salt aerosol concentrations measured in the high resolution Law Dome (DSS) ice core from East Antarctica. The sea-salt aerosol concentration data, as sodium (Na), were measured at approximately monthly resolution spanning the past 700 years. Analyses of covariations between Na

I. D. Goodwin; T. D. van Ommen; M. A. J. Curran; P. A. Mayewski

2004-01-01

57

HLA antigens in South India: II. Selected caste groups of Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

HLA-A, B antigen and haplotype frequencies were studied in four different caste groups of Tamil Nadu living in Madurai. A total number of 101 Nadars, 36 Kallars, 54 Iyers and 57 Telugu-speaking Naidus were studied. HLA A3 and B15 were significantly higher in Nadars; A10 & B8 in Kallars and Aw19, B12 & B35 in Iyers. HLA A-B haplotypes A10-B7, A28-B17 & A24-B- were characteristic of Nadars; A10-B8 & A1-B-, Kallars; Aw19-B12 & A1-B15, Iyers and A2-B-, Naidus. Negative linkage disequilibria for Aw19-B7, A28-B15 & A9-B51 were significant in Nadars; A1-B5, A1-B12 & Aw19-B- in Iyers and A2-B17 in Naidus. Heterogeneity chi-square based on antigen frequency and genetic distance also suggest the heterogeneous nature of the population of South India. Will these caste groups with such diverse haplotypic combinations differ from one another in their immune response and susceptibility to a given epidemic or infection? PMID:3424332

Rajasekar, R; Kakkanaiah, V N; Pitchappan, R M

1987-09-01

58

Zeolites in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zeolites of possible commercial value occur in the Brule Formation of Oligocene age and the Sharps Formation (Harksen, 1961) of Miocene age which crop out in a wide area in the northern part of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The thickness of the zeolite-bearing Interval and the extent of areas within the Interval which contain significant amounts of zeolites are far greater than was expected prior to this investigation. The shape of the zeolite-bearing Interval is tabular and the dimensions of Its exposure are roughly 10 ml x 200 mi x 150 ft (16 km x 160 km x 45 m) thick. Within the study area, there are tracts in which the zeolite resource potential is significant (see pl. 2). This report is intended to inform the Oglala Sioux Tribe of some of the most promising zeolite occurrences. Initial steps can then be taken by the Tribe toward possible development of the resources, should they wish to do so. The data contained herein identify areas of high zeolite potential, but are not adequate to establish economic value for the deposits. If development is recommended by the tribal government, we suggest that the tribal government contact companies involved in research and production of natural zeolites and provide them with the data in this report.

Raymond, William H.; Bush, Alfred L.; Gude, Arthur J., 3rd

1982-01-01

59

HLA-DRB1*, -DQB1* in Piramalai Kallars and Yadhavas, two Dravidian-speaking castes of Tamil Nadu, South India.  

PubMed

Two Dravidian-speaking castes of Tamil Nadu, Piramalai Kallars (PKs, n = 205) and Yadhavas (YDs, n = 239) and a random panel (84) were studied for HLA-DRB1* and -DQB1* polymorphisms by DNA-SSOP typing methods. XI and XII International Histocompatibility primers and non-radioactive-labelled oligo probes were employed to identify the alleles. Results revealed that PKs possessed >0.1 allele frequencies of HLA-DRB1*15011, 0301, -DQB1*0201, 0501 and 0601; YDs, HLA-DRB1*0301, 0401, 07 and -DQB1*0601; and the random panel, DRB1*15021, 0401, 07, -DQB1 0201, 0301, 0302 and 0501. The highest frequency of DRB1*1501 in the world (GF = 0.225) was found in PKs. The most frequent two-locus haplotype (>500/10,000) in all the study samples was DRB1*10-DQB1*0501, while 1501-0601 was frequent in PKs and YDs. Comparison of the HLA-DRB1* data with Eastern European and South-East Asian populations suggested migration as the prime cause of the observed diversity in DRB1* allele frequencies. Nonetheless, the heterozygocity test and Watterson's homozygosity test indicated that balancing selection still operates on HLA-DRB1* locus, in this endemic region of various infectious diseases. This and spatial autocorrelation analysis support the view that selection may be a cause of "generating" new variants and allelic diversity in different ancient settlements. The study suggested that South Indian, inbred, endogamous, sympatrically isolated castes or similar well-defined breeding isolates around the world, living under the same milieu-epidemiology, may be ideal models to test the immunogenetic basis of disease susceptibility. PMID:12823769

Shanmugalakshmi, S; Balakrishnan, K; Manoharan, K; Pitchappan, R M

2003-06-01

60

Accuracy of Demirjian's 8 teeth method for age prediction in South Indian children: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Demirjian's method of tooth development is most commonly used to assess age in individuals with emerging teeth. However, its application on numerous populations has resulted in wide variations in age estimates and consequent suggestions for the method's adaptation to the local sample. Original Demirjian's method utilized seven mandibular teeth, to which recently third molar is added so that the method can be applied on a wider age group. Furthermore, the revised method developed regression formulas for assessing age. In Indians, as these formulas resulted in underestimation, India-specific regression formulas were developed recently. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the accuracy and applicability of original regression formulas (Chaillet and Demirjian 2004) and India-specific regression formulas (Acharya 2010) using Demirjian's 8 teeth method in South Indian children of age groups 9–20 years. Methods: The present study consisted of 660 randomly selected subjects (330 males and 330 females) were in the aged ranging from 9 to 20 years divided into 11 groups according to their age. Demirjian's 8 teeth method was used for staging of teeth. Results: Demirjian's method underestimated the dental age (DA) by 1.66 years for boys and 1.55 years for girls and 1.61 years in total. Acharya's method over estimated DA by 0.21 years for boys and 0.85 years for girls and 0.53 years in total. The absolute accuracy was better for Acharya's method compared with Demirjian method. Conclusion: This study concluded that both the Demirjian and Indian regression formulas were reliable in assessing age making Demirjian's 8 teeth method applicable for South Indians.

Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Srinivas, Baratam; Sanghvi, Praveen; Satyanarayana, Gajjarapu; Gopalakrishnan, Meera; Pavani, B. Vamsi

2015-01-01

61

Allele and Genotype Distributions of DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in South Indian Healthy Population  

PubMed Central

Various DNA repair pathways protect the structural and chemical integrity of the human genome from environmental and endogenous threats. Polymorphisms of genes encoding the proteins involved in DNA repair have been found to be associated with cancer risk and chemotherapeutic response. In this study, we aim to establish the normative frequencies of DNA repair genes in South Indian healthy population and compare with HapMap populations. Genotyping was done on 128 healthy volunteers from South India, and the allele and genotype distributions were established. The minor allele frequency of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) G23A, Excision repair cross-complementing 2 (ERCC2)/Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) Lys751Gln, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) His46His, XPG Asp1104His, and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg399Gln polymorphisms were 49.2%, 36.3%, 48.0%, 23.0%, and 34.0% respectively. Ethnic variations were observed in the frequency distribution of these polymorphisms between the South Indians and other HapMap populations. The present work forms the groundwork for cancer association studies and biomarker identification for treatment response and prognosis. PMID:25520562

Rao, Katiboina Srinivasa; Paul, Abialbon; Kumar, Annan Sudarsan Arun; Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Dubashi, Biswajit; Gunaseelan, Karunanithi; Dkhar, Steven Aibor

2014-01-01

62

Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world

Revathi Rajkumar; VK Kashyap

2004-01-01

63

Sequencing and analysis of a South Asian-Indian personal genome  

PubMed Central

Background With over 1.3 billion people, India is estimated to contain three times more genetic diversity than does Europe. Next-generation sequencing technologies have facilitated the understanding of diversity by enabling whole genome sequencing at greater speed and lower cost. While genomes from people of European and Asian descent have been sequenced, only recently has a single male genome from the Indian subcontinent been published at sufficient depth and coverage. In this study we have sequenced and analyzed the genome of a South Asian Indian female (SAIF) from the Indian state of Kerala. Results We identified over 3.4 million SNPs in this genome including over 89,873 private variations. Comparison of the SAIF genome with several published personal genomes revealed that this individual shared ~50% of the SNPs with each of these genomes. Analysis of the SAIF mitochondrial genome showed that it was closely related to the U1 haplogroup which has been previously observed in Kerala. We assessed the SAIF genome for SNPs with health and disease consequences and found that the individual was at a higher risk for multiple sclerosis and a few other diseases. In analyzing SNPs that modulate drug response, we found a variation that predicts a favorable response to metformin, a drug used to treat diabetes. SNPs predictive of adverse reaction to warfarin indicated that the SAIF individual is not at risk for bleeding if treated with typical doses of warfarin. In addition, we report the presence of several additional SNPs of medical relevance. Conclusions This is the first study to report the complete whole genome sequence of a female from the state of Kerala in India. The availability of this complete genome and variants will further aid studies aimed at understanding genetic diversity, identifying clinically relevant changes and assessing disease burden in the Indian population. PMID:22938532

2012-01-01

64

Heat flow, heat generation and crustal thermal structure of the northern block of the South Indian Craton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat flow values and heat generation data calculated from the concentration of heat producing radioactive elements, U, Th and K in surface rocks were analyzed. The South Indian Craton according to Drury et al., can be divided into various blocks, separated by late Proterozoic shear belts. The northern block comprises Eastern and Western Dharwar Cratons of Rogers (1986), Naqvi and Rogers (1987) and a part of the South Indian granulite terrain up to a shear system occupying the Palghat-Cauvery low lands. The geothermal data analysis clearly demonstrates that the present thermal characteristics of the above two Archaean terrains of the Indian and Australian Shields are quite similar. Their crustal thermal structures are likely to be similar also.

Gupta, Mohan L.; Sharma, S. R.; Sundar, A.

1988-01-01

65

U.S. Engineering Degrees for Improving South Indian Graduate Students' Marriage and Dowry Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines improved marriage opportunities as an unexplored motivator for pursuing international education via U.S. graduate engineering degrees and stresses the need to centralize gender in analyzing academic mobility and international education. This interdisciplinary qualitative study explores how South Indian men and women's…

Yakaboski, Tamara; Sheridan, Robyn Stout; Dade, Kristin

2014-01-01

66

Isolation and characterization of a novel lepidopteran-selective toxin from the venom of South Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Scorpion venom contains insect and mammal selective toxins. We investigated the venom of the South Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus for the purpose of identifying potent insecticidal peptide toxins. RESULTS: A lepidopteran-selective toxin (Buthus tamulus insect toxin; ButaIT) has been isolated from this venom. The primary structure analysis reveals that it is a single polypeptide composed of 37 amino

Rajendra Wudayagiri; Bora Inceoglu; Rafael Herrmann; Maher Derbel; Prabhakara V Choudary; Bruce D Hammock

2001-01-01

67

New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.  

PubMed

Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

Stachurski, Frédéric; Tortosa, Pablo; Rahajarison, Patrick; Jacquet, Stéphanie; Yssouf, Amina; Huber, Karine

2013-01-01

68

Eddy characteristics in the South Indian Ocean as inferred from surface drifter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a geometric eddy identification method, cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies from submesoscale to mesoscale in the South Indian Ocean (SIO) have been statistically investigated based on 2082 surface drifters from 1979 to 2013. 19252 eddies are identified with 60% anticyclonic eddies. For the submesoscale eddies (radius r < 10 km), the ratio of cyclonic eddies (3183) to anticyclonic eddies (7182) is 1 to 2. In contrast, number of anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies with radius r ? 10 km is almost equal. Mesoscale and submesoscale eddies show different spatial distribution. Eddies with radius r ? 100 km mainly appear in a band along 25° S, in Mozambique Channel, and Agulhas Current, characterized by large eddy kinetic energy. The submesoscale anticyclonic eddies are densely distributed in the subtropical basin in the central SIO. The number of mesoscale eddies shows statistically significant seasonal variability, reaching a maximum in October and then minimum in February.

Zheng, Shaojun; Du, Yan; Li, Jiaxun; Cheng, Xuhua

2014-12-01

69

Orbital and adnexal tuberculosis: a case series from a South Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background Orbital tuberculosis (OTb) is rare and may be regarded as a manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We report an interesting case series of six patients with varied presentations of orbital and adnexal tuberculosis in a South Indian patient population. Results A retrospective, interventional case series of six patients diagnosed with orbital and adnexal tuberculosis on the basis of clinical, radiological and histopathological evaluations between 2010 and 2013 was performed. Among the six patients with histopathologically proven OTb, five were women. The varied presentations included tubercular dacryoadenitis (two cases), classical periostitis (two cases), OTb with bone involvement (one case) and ocular adnexal tuberculosis (one case). Systemic involvement was seen in one case. All cases were treated with a regimen of antitubercular therapy (ATT). Conclusions OTb, though rare, should form a part of the differential diagnosis of orbital lesions in a high tuberculosis (TB) endemic country like ours. Biopsy still remains the mainstay of diagnosis. PMID:24940452

2014-01-01

70

Aquarius sea surface salinity in the South Indian Ocean: Revealing annual-period planetary waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

new milestone has been reached with the launch of two dedicated satellite missions to routinely measure the sea surface salinity (SSS) fields from space at global and regional scales. In the present work, a thorough analysis of the first 2 years of Aquarius SSS data in the South Indian Ocean is performed. This analysis is focused on three questions: How accurate is Aquarius SSS related to in situ data from the fresh Indonesian Throughflow and salty subtropical waters? Can Aquarius give a spatial context for the data measured by the RAMA mooring system? Are westward propagating annual-period signals described in recent model simulations reproduced by Aquarius-derived SSS? We find Aquarius observations to be highly correlated with those of Argo floats, with small disagreements occurring near oceanic fronts. Aquarius gives fresher SSS than in situ data in the tropical region due to rainfall effects, except in the eastern basin where the freshening seems to be related to sharp localized leakages of very fresh waters from the Indonesian seas that the Aquarius product is not able to properly resolve. Aquarius data are shown to reproduce quite well the annual cycle obtained from RAMA and Argo gridded data sets. The annual cycle in Aquarius is characterized by SSS propagating features with different characteristics west and east of the Ninety East Ridge. These features are strikingly different from sea surface height waves. Our results suggest that SSS annual propagation might be reflecting coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics and surface-subsurface processes operating over the entire South Indian Ocean.

Menezes, Viviane V.; Vianna, Marcio L.; Phillips, Helen E.

2014-06-01

71

Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the southern cone of South America: new clues from mitogenomes.  

PubMed

With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (MTDNA) variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j) whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l) and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11-13,000 years) appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups. PMID:23240014

de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A; Bodner, Martin; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Corach, Daniel; Angerhofer, Norman; Woodward, Scott R; Semino, Ornella; Salas, Antonio; Parson, Walther; Moraga, Mauricio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Olivieri, Anna

2012-01-01

72

Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the Southern Cone of South America: New Clues from Mitogenomes  

PubMed Central

With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j) whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l) and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11–13,000 years) appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups. PMID:23240014

de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A.; Bodner, Martin; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Corach, Daniel; Angerhofer, Norman; Woodward, Scott R.; Semino, Ornella; Salas, Antonio; Parson, Walther; Moraga, Mauricio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Olivieri, Anna

2012-01-01

73

Insights into the Genetic Structure and Diversity of 38 South Asian Indians from Deep Whole-Genome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

South Asia possesses a significant amount of genetic diversity due to considerable intergroup differences in culture and language. There have been numerous reports on the genetic structure of Asian Indians, although these have mostly relied on genotyping microarrays or targeted sequencing of the mitochondria and Y chromosomes. Asian Indians in Singapore are primarily descendants of immigrants from Dravidian-language–speaking states in south India, and 38 individuals from the general population underwent deep whole-genome sequencing with a target coverage of 30X as part of the Singapore Sequencing Indian Project (SSIP). The genetic structure and diversity of these samples were compared against samples from the Singapore Sequencing Malay Project and populations in Phase 1 of the 1,000 Genomes Project (1 KGP). SSIP samples exhibited greater intra-population genetic diversity and possessed higher heterozygous-to-homozygous genotype ratio than other Asian populations. When compared against a panel of well-defined Asian Indians, the genetic makeup of the SSIP samples was closely related to South Indians. However, even though the SSIP samples clustered distinctly from the Europeans in the global population structure analysis with autosomal SNPs, eight samples were assigned to mitochondrial haplogroups that were predominantly present in Europeans and possessed higher European admixture than the remaining samples. An analysis of the relative relatedness between SSIP with two archaic hominins (Denisovan, Neanderthal) identified higher ancient admixture in East Asian populations than in SSIP. The data resource for these samples is publicly available and is expected to serve as a valuable complement to the South Asian samples in Phase 3 of 1 KGP. PMID:24832686

Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Cheng, Anthony Youzhi; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Liu, Xuanyao; Xu, Wenting; Chen, Peng; Foo, Jia-Nee; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Koo, Seok-Hwee; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus Rene; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Little, Peter; Chia, Kee-Seng; Teo, Yik-Ying

2014-01-01

74

Dissolved organic matter cycling in the confluence of the Atlantic and Indian oceans south of Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundary between the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the Southern Ocean is a key spot of the thermohaline circulation, where the following water masses mix up: Indian Central water (ICW), South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), Weddell Sea Deep Water (WSDW) and Antarctic Winter Water (WW). An optimum multiparameter analysis based on the distributions of potential temperature, salinity, NO (=O2+9.3×NO3) and silicate during the GoodHope 2004 (GH04) cruise allowed us to (i) define the realms of these water masses; (ii) obtain the water mass proportion weighted-average (archetypal) apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of each water mass; and (iii) estimate the contribution of DOC to the oxygen demand of the study area. WW represented only 5.2% of the water volume sampled during GH04, followed by WSDW with 10.8%, NADW with 12.7%, SACW with 15.3%, AAIW with 23.1% and CDW with 32.8%. The distributions of DOC and AOU were mainly explained by the mixing of archetypal concentrations of these variables, 75±5% and 65±3% respectively, which retained the variability due to the basin-scale mineralization from the formation area to the barycentre of each water mass along the GH04 line. DOC accounted for 26±2% and 12±5% of the oxygen demand of the meso- and bathypelagic ocean, respectively. Conversely, local mineralization processes, retained by the residuals of the archetypal concentrations of DOC and AOU, did not contribute to improve significantly the mixing model of DOC.

Guerrero-Feijóo, E.; Nieto-Cid, M.; Álvarez, M.; Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.

2014-01-01

75

Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in South Indian Women Using AES-2006 Criteria  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 5-10% worldwide. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, whose diagnosis is based on anthropometric, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic characteristics of PCOS in Asian Indians of South India, using the Androgen Excess Society (AES-2006) diagnostic criteria. Objectives: To assess anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic features of PCOS subgroups and controls among South Indian women using the AES-2006 criteria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and four women clinically diagnosed with PCOS, and 204 healthy women controls aged 17 to 35 years were evaluated. PCOS was diagnosed by clinical hyperandrogenism (HA), irregular menstruation (IM), and polycystic ovary (PCO). PCOS was further categorized into phenotypic subgroups including the IM+HA+PCO (n = 181, 89%), HA+PCO (n = 23, 11%), IM+HA (n = 0), and also into obese PCOS (n = 142, 70%) and lean PCOS (n = 62, 30%) using body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical characteristics were compared among the PCOS subgroups. Results: The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had more luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and high insulin resistance (IR) expressed as the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) score, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. Similarly, the obese PCOS had high BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, LH, LH/FSH, fasting insulin, HOMA score (IR), and dyslipidemia, compared with lean PCOS and controls. Unilateral polycystic ovary was seen in 32 (15.7%) patients, and bilateral involvement in 172 (84.3%) patients. All the controls showed normal ovaries. Conclusions: Anthropometric, biochemical, and ultrasonographic findings showed significant differences among PCOS subgroups. The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had high insulin resistance (IR) and gonadotropic hormonal abnormalities, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. PMID:24696694

Thathapudi, Sujatha; Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Katragadda, Anuradha; Addepally, Uma; Hasan, Qurratulain

2014-01-01

76

Frequency distribution of DNA repair genes ERCC1 and ERCC2 polymorphisms in South Indian healthy population.  

PubMed

DNA repair genes are crucial in maintaining the integrity of the whole genome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes have been attributed to the development of various cancers. SNPs of DNA repair genes (ERCC1 and ERCC2) have been implicated in the causation of various cancers as well as inter-individual variability in the therapeutic outcomes of platinum based therapy. Thus establishing the frequency of these functional SNPs in the healthy population is of significance. The present study was aimed to establish the allele and genotype frequencies of ERCC1 (19007C>T, rs11615; 8092C>A, rs3212986) and ERCC2 (Asp312Asn, rs1799793) genes in South Indian healthy population and to compare the data from HapMap populations. The study population consisted of 128 healthy South Indian unrelated individuals of either sex aged between 18 and 60 years. Standard phenol-chloroform method was used to extract DNA from peripheral leukocytes. The genotype of DNA repair gene polymorphisms was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan genotyping assay. The observed frequency of the studied polymorphisms followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p>0.05). The frequencies of the minor alleles of the SNPs rs11615 (T), rs3212986 (A) and rs1799793 (A) were 43.8%, 29.3% and 35.6%, respectively. Gender-based analysis showed no significant difference in the frequency pattern. The observed allele and genotype frequencies showed significant ethnic difference between South Indians and other HapMap populations. This is the first study to provide the normative frequency data of allele and genotype distribution of three SNPs of ERCC1 and ERCC2 in South Indian healthy population. It might be useful in future genotype-phenotype association studies, especially for predicting the efficacy and adverse events of platinum based drugs. PMID:25155628

Rao, Katiboina Srinivasa; SureshKumar, Srinivasamurthy; Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Paul, Abialbon; Dubashi, Biswajit; Gunaseelan, Karunanithi; Dkhar, Steven Aibor

2014-09-01

77

Zone Based Hybrid Feature Extraction Algorithm for Handwritten Numeral Recognition of South Indian Scripts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is a multi-lingual multi script country, where eighteen official scripts are accepted and have over hundred regional languages. In this paper we propose a zone based hybrid feature extraction algorithm scheme towards the recognition of off-line handwritten numerals of south Indian scripts. The character centroid is computed and the image (character/numeral) is further divided in to n equal zones. Average distance and Average angle from the character centroid to the pixels present in the zone are computed (two features). Similarly zone centroid is computed (two features). This procedure is repeated sequentially for all the zones/grids/boxes present in the numeral image. There could be some zones that are empty, and then the value of that particular zone image value in the feature vector is zero. Finally 4*n such features are extracted. Nearest neighbor classifier is used for subsequent classification and recognition purpose. We obtained 97.55 %, 94 %, 92.5% and 95.2 % recognition rate for Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam numerals respectively.

Rajashekararadhya, S. V.; Ranjan, P. Vanaja

78

A Comparative Rugoscopic Study of the Dentate and Edentulous Individuals in the South Indian Population  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes the rugae pattern in dentulous and edentulous patients and also evaluates the association of rugae pattern between males and females. Aims and Objectives. This study aims to investigate rugae patterns in dentulous and edentulous patients of both sexes in South Indian population and to find whether palatoscopy is a useful tool in human identification. Materials and Methods. Four hundred outpatients from Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, were included in the study. The study group was equally divided between the sexes, which was further categorized into 100 dentulous and edentulous patients, respectively. Results. The edentulous male showed the highest mean of wavy pattern and total absence of circular pattern while the edentulous female group showed the highest mean of curved pattern and total absence of nonspecific pattern, while dentate population showed similar value as that of the overall population such as straight, wavy, and curved patterns. Conclusion. The present study concludes that there is similar rugae pattern of distribution between male and female dentate population while there is varied pattern between the sexes of edentulous population. However, the most predominant patterns were straight, wavy, and circular patterns. PMID:24605051

Rajguru, Jagdish Prasad; Somayaji, Nagaveni S.; Masthan, K. M. K.; Babu, Aravindha N.; Mohanty, Neeta

2014-01-01

79

Analysis of Microsatellite Polymorphisms in South Indian Patients with Non Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate  

PubMed Central

Non syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) is a complex congenital anomaly with varying incidence among patients of different geographical origins. Multiple contributing factors are known to trigger the cleft formation. There are several genes involved in the aetiology of NSCLP and they are different in different populations. The genetic components of clefts that underlie the susceptibility to respond to the environment still remain unclear. In this study, five microsatellite polymorphisms from five candidate genes were employed to analyze the association between these genes and NSCLP in 83 patients and 90 controls. Genotyping was performed by separating and visualizing the fluorescently-labeled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. The association of the five microsatellite polymorphisms with NSCLP was tested by using the CLUMP v1.9 program that uses the Monte Carlo method. The genotypic distribution is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control group for only the MSX1 and DLX3 genes. The RARA microsatellite was significantly associated with NSCLP. Our results suggest that the RARA gene is involved in pathogenesis of cleft lip and palate in South Indians. PMID:24265584

Xavier, DL; Arif, YA; Murali, RV; Kishore Kumar, S; Vipin Kumar, S; Tamang, R; Thangaraj, K; Bhaskar, LVKS

80

Summertime phytoplankton blooms and surface cooling in the western south equatorial Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Chla) concentration derived from the Sea viewing Wide field of View sensor (SeaWiFS) data (January 1998 to December 2010) shows phytoplankton blooms in the western south equatorial Indian Ocean (WSEIO) during the summer monsoon. The mechanism that sustains the blooms is investigated with the high-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) products. The summer blooms in the WSEIO are separated from the coast; they occur in June, reach their maximum in August, and decay in October. With summer monsoon onset, cross-equatorial wind induces open-ocean upwelling in the WSEIO, uplifting the nutricline. The mixed layer heat budget analysis reveals that both thermal forcing and ocean processes are important for the seasonal variations of SST, especially wind-driven entrainment plays a significant role in cooling the WSEIO. These processes cause nutrient enrichment in the surface layer and trigger the phytoplankton blooms. As the summer monsoon develops, the strong wind deepens the mixed layer; the entrainment thus increases the nutrient supply and enhances the bloom. Horizontal advection associated with the Southern Gyre might also be an important process that sustains the bloom. This large clockwise gyre could advect nutrient-rich water along its route, allowing Chla to bloom in a larger area.

Liao, Xiaomei; Du, Yan; Zhan, Haigang; Shi, Ping; Wang, Jia

2014-11-01

81

Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic structure, affinities, and diversity of the 1 billion Indians hold important keys to numerous unanswered questions regarding the evolution of human populations and the forces shaping contemporary patterns of genetic variation. Although there have been several recent studies of South Indian caste groups, North Indian caste groups, and South Indian Muslims using Y-chromosomal markers, overall, the Indian population has still not been well studied compared to other geographical populations. In particular, no genetic study has been conducted on Shias and Sunnis from North India. Aim This study aims to investigate genetic variation and the gene pool in North Indians. Subjects and methods A total of 32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins, Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped. Results Three distinct lineages were revealed based upon 13 haplogroups. The first was a Central Asian lineage harbouring haplogroups R1 and R2. The second lineage was of Middle-Eastern origin represented by haplogroups J2*, Shia-specific E1b1b1, and to some extent G* and L*. The third was the indigenous Indian Y-lineage represented by haplogroups H1*, F*, C* and O*. Haplogroup E1b1b1 was observed in Shias only. Conclusion The results revealed that a substantial part of today’s North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers, suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. The presence of haplogroup E in Shias, first reported in this study, suggests a genetic distinction between the two Indo Muslim sects. The findings of the present study provide insights into prehistoric and early historic patterns of migration into India and the evolution of Indian populations in recent history. PMID:19058044

Zhao, Zhongming; Khan, Faisal; Borkar, Minal; Herrera, Rene; Agrawal, Suraksha

2009-01-01

82

Are the current Indian growth charts really representative? Analysis of anthropometric assessment of school children in a South Indian district  

PubMed Central

Background: India currently is posed by the double threat of thinness and overweight/obesity among children. Different growth charts have taken different population and give different cut-off points to assess these conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometry of school children, 5-18 years of age and thereby estimate the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight and obesity. To analyze how the study population compares with that of Agarwal's growth chart. Materials and Methods: The anthropometric measurements of all the students who were studying from 1st to 12th standards were taken from 27 randomly selected Government and private schools. Prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity were assessed using two standards – Indian standard given by Agarwal and International Standards given by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Results: The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among 18,001 students enrolled as per Indian standard were 12.2%, 9.5% and 3% and as per International standard were 15.3%, 8.1% and 2.6% respectively. The mean and the 95th percentile values of body mass index for both boys and girls at all ages in this study are falling short of Agarwal's and IOTF values. Using international cut-offs as well as Indian cut-offs given by Agarwal, underestimate the prevalence of obesity among boys and girls of all age groups. Conclusion: This study shows that under and over-nutrition among school children is in almost equal proportions. There is an underestimation of obesity among children whenever an Indian or an International growth chart is used. Thus, this study brings out the need for a really representative growth chart. PMID:24701431

Kumaravel, V.; Shriraam, Vanishree; Anitharani, M.; Mahadevan, S.; Balamurugan, A. N.; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

2014-01-01

83

Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in south eastern Africa depend on sea surface temperature variations in the west Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the vegetation of South Africa might elucidate the climate system at the edge of the tropics between Indian and Atlantic Ocean. However, vegetation records covering a full glacial cycle have only been published from the eastern South Atlantic. We present a pollen record of the marine core MD96-2048 retrieved by the Marion Dufresne from the Indian Ocean ~120 km south of the Limpopo River mouth. The sedimentation at the site is slow and continuous. The upper 6 m (down till 342 ka) have been analysed for pollen and spores at millennial resolution. The terrestrial pollen assemblages indicate that during interglacials the vegetation of eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique largely consisted of evergreen and deciduous forests. During glacials open mountainous scrubland dominated. Montane forest with Podocarpus extended during humid periods favoured by strong local insolation. Correlation with the sea surface temperature record of the same core indicates that the extension of mountainous scrubland primarily depends on sea surface temperatures of the Agulhas Current. Our record corroborates terrestrial evidence of the extension of open mountainous scrubland (including elements with affinity to the Cape Flora) for the last glacial as well as for other glacial periods of the past 300 ka.

Dupont, L. M.; Caley, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Castaneda, I.; Malaizé, B.; Giraudeau, J.

2011-07-01

84

Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in South Eastern Africa coupled to sea surface temperature variations in the Western Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the vegetation of South Africa might elucidate the climate system at the edge of the tropics between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. However, vegetation records covering a full glacial cycle have only been published from the eastern South Atlantic. We present a pollen record of the marine core MD96-2048 retrieved by the Marion Dufresne from the Indian Ocean ∼120 km south of the Limpopo River mouth. The sedimentation at the site is slow and continuous. The upper 6 m (spanning the past 342 Ka) have been analysed for pollen and spores at millennial resolution. The terrestrial pollen assemblages indicate that during interglacials, the vegetation of eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique largely consisted of evergreen and deciduous forests. During glacials open mountainous scrubland dominated. Montane forest with Podocarpus extended during humid periods was favoured by strong local insolation. Correlation with the sea surface temperature record of the same core indicates that the extension of mountainous scrubland primarily depends on sea surface temperatures of the Agulhas Current. Our record corroborates terrestrial evidence of the extension of open mountainous scrubland (including fynbos-like species of the high-altitude Grassland biome) for the last glacial as well as for other glacial periods of the past 300 Ka.

Dupont, L. M.; Caley, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Castañeda, I.; Malaizé, B.; Giraudeau, J.

2011-11-01

85

Lightning activity within tropical cyclones in the South West Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning activity within 70 tropical cyclones in the South West Indian Ocean is studied using a large data set (2005-2013) provided by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). The radial and azimuthal distributions of lightning flashes are analyzed in three different regions of the basin: the open ocean, the Mozambique Channel, and the oceanic region up to 400 km off the eastern coast of Madagascar (ECM). Over the open ocean, lightning activity detected by the WWLLN is mainly found in the eyewall and decreases outward, regardless of storm intensity. Lightning activity in the eyewall of tropical cyclones is higher than in the eyewall of tropical storms. The front and the right quadrants (225° to 45°) relative to the storm motion are the regions where lightning flashes are preferentially detected. Near the ECM, lightning density in the eyewall, the inner rainbands, and the outer rainbands is quite similar, presumably owing to the proximity of land. When the system reaches tropical cyclone strength, lightning activity is mainly found in the left and rear quadrants relative to storm motion. In the Mozambique Channel, the radial and azimuthal distributions of lightning flashes are complex due to the geographical configuration of this subdomain. The relationships between lightning activity and intensity change have also been investigated for systems over the open ocean. The proportion of periods with lightning activity is higher during rapid intensity changes of tropical cyclones. During tropical storm stage, lightning activity in the outer rainbands starts increasing 18 h before a rapid intensification period. 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Bovalo, C.; Barthe, C.; Yu, N.; Bègue, N.

2014-07-01

86

GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone. With continued transgression, the Greybull fluvial sand graded upward into marginal marine (probably estuarine) sand (upper Greybull) and finally was capped by marine shale and the Fall River Sandstone. Subsurface mapping, incorporated with surface data, has revealed five major Greybull channels crossing the Crow Reservation. The Greybull Sandstone is a proven petroleum reservoir in the Crow Reservation region. Greybull combination traps require the presence of channel sandstone as well as structural closure. With sparse reservation well control, subsurface structural and isopach maps are highly interpretive. Three potential Greybull exploration leads were identified where possible structural closures are coincident with mapped Greybull channels: the Little Woody, Woody Dome, and Crow Agency prospects. Of these, the Crow Agency prospect was confirmed by a significant soil-gas anomaly and appears to have the greatest probability of having trapped a hydrocarbon accumulation.

David A. Lopez

2000-12-14

87

Urinary casts  

MedlinePLUS

... casts; Casts in the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood cell casts ... dehydration, exercise, or (water pills) diuretic medicines. Red blood cell casts are a sign of bleeding into ...

88

Population Structure of Humpback Whales from Their Breeding Grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and

Howard C. Rosenbaum; Cristina Pomilla; Martin Mendez; Matthew S. Leslie; Peter B. Best; Ken P. Findlay; Gianna Minton; Peter J. Ersts; Timothy Collins; Marcia H. Engel; Sandro L. Bonatto; Deon P. G. H. Kotze; Mike Meÿer; Jaco Barendse; Meredith Thornton; Yvette Razafindrakoto; Solange Ngouessono; Michel Vely; Jeremy Kiszka; Robert Desalle

2009-01-01

89

Suicide Among the American Indians: Two Workshops (Aberdeen, South Dakota, September 1967; Lewistown, Montana, November 1967).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health problems among the American Indians have been of major concern to the U.S. Public Health Service for some time. As major inroads are now being made into infectious diseases, maternal and child health, and many chronic illnesses, the problems of the mental health of Indians come into a more central focus. Within the framework of mental…

Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

90

Cross-amplification and characterization of microsatellite loci in Acropora austera from the south-western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Here, we report the successful cross-species amplification of previously published acroporid microsatellite markers in the coral Acropora austera from the south-western Indian Ocean. This fast-growing species is a major reef-building coral on South African reefs; however, it is the most damaged coral by scuba diving activity, and is known to be very susceptible to coral bleaching. Neither genetic information nor symbiont-free host tissue was available to develop novel microsatellite markers for this species. Cross-species amplification of previously published microsatellite markers was considered as an alternative to overcome these problems. Of the 21 microsatellite markers tested, 6 were reliably amplified, scored, and found to contain polymorphic loci (3-15 alleles). Although microsatellite sequences are believed to be scarce in the Acropora genome because of its small size, the results of this study and previous research indicate that the microsatellite sequences are well conserved across Acropora species. A detailed screening process identified and quantified the sources of error and bias in the application of these markers (e.g., allele scoring error, failure rates, frequency of null alleles), and may be accounted for in the study of the contemporary gene flow of A. austera in the south-western Indian Ocean. PMID:24634181

Montoya-Maya, P H; Macdonald, A H H; Schleyer, M H

2014-01-01

91

Peopling of South Asia: investigating the caste–tribe continuum in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In recent years, mtDNA and Y chromosome studies in- volving human populations from South Asia and the rest of the world have revealed new insights about the peopling of the world by anatomically modern humans during the late Pleistocene, some 40,000-60,000 years ago, over the southern coastal route from Africa. Mole- cular studies and archaeological record are both largely

Gyaneshwer Chaubey; Mait Metspalu; Toomas Kivisild; Richard Villems

2007-01-01

92

Latitudinal trends in morphological characteristics of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg) along a north-south transect in the south-western Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 25 surficial sediment samples (Peterson grab, gravity and piston cores), collected during the Pilot Expedition to Southern Ocean (PESO) 2004 cruises 199C and 200 onboard the ORV Sagar Kanya along a N-S transect between 9.69 °N and 55.01 °S, and 80 and 40 °E in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean (SW Indian Ocean), have been investigated for various morphological features—test size, mean proloculus size and coiling direction (dextral/sinistral forms)—of the planktic indicator species Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg). The results show that the coiling directions co-vary with temperature and salinity, the abundances of sinistrally coiled forms increasing towards higher latitudes (south of 40 °S), whereas dextrally coiled forms show a reverse trend. Similarly, overall test and proloculus sizes depend largely on the physicochemical properties (salinity, temperature, nutrients, calcium saturation) of the ambient water masses. These observations suggest that, particularly at the boundaries between different water masses, variations in morphological features of N. pachyderma can meaningfully be used to reconstruct paleoceanographic conditions from Indian Ocean sediments.

Khare, Neloy; Govil, Pawan; Mazumder, Abhijit

2009-02-01

93

The register of "complaint": psychiatric diagnosis and the discourse of grievance in the south Indian mental health encounter.  

PubMed

In the language of the medical file, "complaint" refers to the symptoms and ailments reported by the patient. In this article, I draw on ethnographic fieldwork conducted between 2004 and 2007 in the mental healthcare setting in South India to argue that the typology of "complaint" and the dialogic exchanges involved in its production mark a far wider catchment area for the allegations and grievances that circulate between patient, kin, clinician, and observing anthropologist. I propose the notion of the register of complaint as a hermeneutic for grappling with the emotionally charged, interactional processes of accusation, arbitration, and reportage that drive clinical modes of inquiry and evaluation in the South Indian mental health encounter. Ethnographic case studies suggest that grievance and accusation command both a vital directive force and evidentiary role in the social, moral, and emotional work of psychiatric diagnosis. [complaint, diagnosis, kinship and family, emotion, PMID:22905438

Chua, Jocelyn Lim

2012-06-01

94

Estimation of total Length of Femur From Its Fragments in South Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Establishment of identity of deceased person also assumes a great medicolegal importance. To establish the identity of a person, stature is one of the criteria. To know stature of individual, length of long bones is needed. Aims and Objectives: To determine the lengths of the femoral fragments and to compare with the total length of femur in south Indian population, which will help to estimate the stature of the individual using standard regression formulae. Material and Methods: A number of 150, 72 left and 78 right adult fully ossified dry processed femora were taken. The femur bone was divided into five segments by taking predetermined points. Length of five segments and maximum length of femur were measured to the nearest millimeter. The values were obtained in cm [mean±S.D.] and the mean total length of femora on left and right side was measured. The proportion of segments to the total length was also calculated which will help for the stature estimation using standard regression formulae. Results: The mean total length of femora on left side was 43.54 ± 2.7 and on right side it was 43.42 ± 2.4. The measurements of the segments-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 8.06± 0.71, 8.25± 1.24, 10.35 ± 2.21, 13.94 ± 1.93 and 2.77 ± 0.53 on left side and 8.09 ± 0.70, 8.30 ± 1.34, 10.44 ± 1.91, 13.50 ± 1.54 and 3.09 ± 0.41 on right side of femur. Conclusion: The sample size was 150, 72 left and 78 right and ‘p’ value of all the segments was significant (‹0.001). When comparison was made between segments of right and left femora, the ‘p’ value of segment-5 was found to be ‹0.001. Comparison between different segments of femur showed significance in all the segments. PMID:24298451

Solan, Shweta; Kulkarni, Roopa

2013-01-01

95

Aerosol size distributions in the north and south Indian ocean during the northeast monsoon season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of aerosol size distributions (3- to 1000-nm diameter) were made over the Indian Ocean (15°N, 75°E to 70°S, 11°E) during the onward (December 12, 1996 to January 6, 1997) and return (March 9 to April 5, 1997) cruises of the XVI Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctic. Observations show that during the January to April period, the environment over

C. G. Deshpande; A. K. Kamra

2002-01-01

96

Population Structure of Humpback Whales from Their Breeding Grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans  

PubMed Central

Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively). Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region. PMID:19812698

Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Pomilla, Cristina; Mendez, Martin; Leslie, Matthew S.; Best, Peter B.; Findlay, Ken P.; Minton, Gianna; Ersts, Peter J.; Collins, Timothy; Engel, Marcia H.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Kotze, Deon P. G. H.; Meÿer, Mike; Barendse, Jaco; Thornton, Meredith; Razafindrakoto, Yvette; Ngouessono, Solange; Vely, Michel; Kiszka, Jeremy

2009-01-01

97

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in a South Indian population.  

PubMed

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a complex multi-factorial, polygenic disorder which results from an interaction between a person's genetic makeup and various environmental factors. Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator produced by endothelial cells, plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, regional blood flow and also inhibits platelet aggregation, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. Our aim was to analyze the association of NOS3 (endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3) 894G>T and -786T>C gene polymorphisms and MI risk in the South Indian population. A total of 287 MI patients, 279 risk control patients and 321 healthy controls were recruited for the retrospective study. Genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). There was no significant association observed between NOS3 894G>T, -786T>C polymorphisms and MI. A significant difference was observed in the distribution of GT genotype of the NOS3 894G>T polymorphism between the cases and the risk controls (p = 0.05) but the odds ratio (0.6) did not show risk for MI. The present study showed lack of association between NOS3 gene polymorphisms and MI in South Indian population. PMID:23108994

Arun Kumar, Annan Sudarsan; Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Padmapriya, Ramamoorthy; Balachandar, Jayaraman; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

2013-02-01

98

Spectacle Coverage and Spectacles Use among Elderly Population in Residential Care in the South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Background. There is limited research conducted on uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia, and spectacles use among the elderly population in residential care in developing countries such as India. We conducted a cross-sectional study among elderly in residential care to assess the spectacle coverage and spectacles usage in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods. All 524 residents in the 26 “homes for aged” institutions in the district were enumerated. Eye examination was performed that included visual acuity (VA) assessment for distant and near vision. A questionnaire was used to collect information on spectacles use. Results. 494/524 individuals were examined, 78% were women, and 72% had no education. The mean age of participants was 70 years. The spectacle coverage for refractive errors was 35.1% and 23.9% for presbyopia. The prevalence of current use and past use of spectacles was 38.5% (95% CI: 34.2–42.8; n = 190) and 17.2% (95% CI: 13.9–42.8), respectively. Conclusions. There is low spectacle coverage for both refractive errors and presbyopia among elderly individuals in residential care in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Appropriate service delivery systems should be developed to reach out this vulnerable group of seniors on a priority basis. PMID:23865041

Marmamula, Srinivas; Ravuri, L. V. Chandra Sekhar; Boon, Mei Ying; Khanna, Rohit C.

2013-01-01

99

Genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in the South Indian descent  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Decline in circulating estrogen levels causes lessening of bone mass accompanied with musculoskeletal pain, which is the primary cause of treatment discontinuation in patients taking aromatase inhibitors. Evidence from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggests that the genetic variability underlying TCL1A gene increases the risk of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) - induced musculoskeletal toxicity. Currently, no data is available on the frequency distribution of TCL1A gene polymorphisms in Indians. Methods: In this pilot study, we used TaqMan fluorescent probes to assess the genotypes of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in 247 healthy homogenous South Indian subjects on real time thermocycler. Haplotype estimation and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis were executed by Haploview. Results: The incidence of polymorphic variant allele (G) frequencies of rs7158782, rs7159713, rs2369049 and rs11849538 were 22.1%, 23.5%, 18.2% and 22.9% in the study population, respectively. The polymorphisms were found to be in complete LD with each other. Four different haplotypes, each of which having a frequency of above 1% were inferred in South Indians using an expectation-maximization algorithm. Notably, three haplotypes were found to be population specific viz H4 A-A-A-G (1.2%) for South India, H5 G-G-A-C (1.3%) for JPT and H6 G-G-G-C (40.4%) for YRI. Further, H3 G-G-A-G (2.3-16.3%) haplotype occurs primarily in Asians and is virtually absent in Africans. Overall, the genetic variability and haplotype profile of South Indian population revealed significant inter-racial variability compared with HapMap data. Conclusion: This documentation contributes for further investigations on the pharmacogenetics of AIs in South Indians. PMID:25035853

Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kumar, Annan Sudarsan Arun; Srinivasa, Rao Katiboina; Kadambari, Dharanipragada; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

2014-01-01

100

Acute myocardial infarction in an 18 year old South Indian girl with familial hypercholesterolemia: a case report.  

PubMed

Familial hypercholesterolemia is a single gene disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Here we report an 18 year old South Indian girl who presented with myocardial infarction. She had xanthomas and an elevated serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Her mother and maternal uncle had died at a young age due to myocardial infarction. Her only sibling, 15 year old younger sister also had xanthomas and an elevated LDL-C. This report is to emphasise the need to clinically recognize xanthomas and its association with elevated LDL-C, premature atherosclerosis and familial inheritance. Early diagnosis and early initiation of treatment will save the affected individual and the other family members. PMID:18687118

Kumar, Anita A; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Srinivasan, Yadav; Senthil, N; Rajkumar, K; Paunikar, Neeta; Sudhakar, Mk

2008-01-01

101

Impact of Indian summer monsoon on the South Asian High and its influence on summer rainfall over China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the monthly ERA-40 reanalysis data and observed rainfall data, we investigated the effect of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) on the South Asian High (SAH) at 200 hPa, and the role played by the SAH in summer rainfall variation over China. It is found that in the interannual timescale the east-west shift is a prominent feature of the SAH, with its center either over the Iranian Plateau or over the Tibetan Plateau. When the ISM is stronger (weaker) than normal, the SAH shifts westward (eastward) to the Iranian Plateau (Tibetan Plateau). The east-west position of SAH has close relation to the summer rainfall over China. A westward (eastward) location of SAH corresponds to less (more) rainfall in the Yangtze-Huai River Valley and more (less) rainfall in North China and South China. A possible physical process that the ISM affects the summer rainfall over China via the SAH is proposed. A stronger (weaker) ISM associated with more (less) rainfall over India corresponds to more (less) condensation heat release and anomalous heating (cooling) in the upper troposphere over the northern Indian peninsula. The anomalous heating (cooling) stimulates positive (negative) height anomalies to its northwest and negative (positive) height anomalies to its northeast in the upper troposphere, causing a westward (eastward) shift of the SAH with its center over the Iranian Plateau (Tibetan Plateau). As a result, an anomalous cyclone (anticyclone) is formed over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and eastern China in the upper troposphere. The anomalous vertical motions in association with the circulation anomalies are responsible for the rainfall anomalies over China. Our present study reveals that the SAH may play an important role in the effect of ISM on the East Asian summer monsoon.

Wei, Wei; Zhang, Renhe; Wen, Min; Rong, Xinyao; Li, Tim

2014-09-01

102

Adaptive developmental plasticity in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism limits its frequency in South Indians.  

PubMed

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism shows considerable heterogeneity in its distribution in humans worldwide. The current study was conducted to investigate whether this polymorphism exhibited adaptive developmental plasticity in the control of the TT-genotype frequency. We screened 1,818 South Indian subjects (895 males and 923 females) for MTHFR C677T polymorphism using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency in males and females was 9.1 and 11.0%, respectively. Compared to females, males had lower frequency of TT-genotype [odds ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-1.01]. The frequency of MTHFR 677T-allele was highest in the age group of 20-40 years and it gradually decreased from 40-60 to 60-80 years (P trend<0.0001). MTHFR 677TT-genotype was associated with 7.02-folds (95% CI: 2.12-25.63, P<0.0001) cumulative risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), neural tube defects (NTDs) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Linear regression model suggested that male gender exhibited increased homocysteine levels by 9.35 ?mol/L while each MTHFR 677T-allele contributed to 4.63 ?mol/L increase in homocysteine. Plasma homocysteine showed inverse correlation with dietary folate (r=-0.17, P<0.0001), B2 (r=-0.14, P<0.0001) and B6 (r=-0.07, P=0.03). Examination of the spontaneously aborted fetuses (n=35) showed no significant association of fetal genotype on its in utero viability. From the current study, it was concluded that C677T seemed to have acquired adaptive developmental plasticity among South Indians due to environmental influences thus contributing to hyperhomocysteinemia and its associated complications such as RPL, NTDs, DVT, etc. PMID:24449370

Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Krishnaprasad, Chintakindi; Devi, Akella Radha Rama

2014-05-01

103

Association of HLA and TNF polymorphisms with the outcome of HBV infection in the South Indian population.  

PubMed

The role of host genetic factors in the pathogenesis and outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not well known. We assessed the association of HLA and TNF (rs361525, rs1800629, rs1799724, rs1800630 and rs1799964) polymorphisms with HBV outcome in the South Indian population. Association of HLA polymorphism was analyzed in 90 individuals from each group, that is, spontaneous recovery (SR) and chronic-HBV (C-HBV) infection. The role of TNF polymorphisms was evaluated in 150 subjects with SR and 137 patients with C-HBV infection. After adjusting for age and sex, HLA-DRB1*07:01 was strongly associated with chronicity (corrected P-value (pc) <0.005, odds ratio (OR) 3.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-7.68). The rs1800630 genotype was associated with HBV outcome in codominant (pc<0.01, OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.30-3.05) and dominant (pc<0.01, OR=2.28, 95% CI 1.35-3.84) analyzing models after adjusting for age and sex. Similarly, the rs1799964 genotype was associated with HBV outcome in codominant (pc=0.01, OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.09-2.27) and dominant (pc<0.01, OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.27-3.83) analyzing models. Haplotype analysis (rs1799964/rs1800630/rs1799724/rs1800629/rs361525) revealed that the CACGG haplotype was strongly associated with C-HBV infection (P=0.0004). Our study suggests that inheritance of HLA and TNF polymorphisms might explain the outcome of HBV infection in the South Indian population. PMID:21593777

Fletcher, G J; Samuel, P; Christdas, J; Gnanamony, M; Ismail, A M; Anantharam, R; Eapen, C E; Chacko, M P; Daniel, D; Kannangai, R; Abraham, P

2011-10-01

104

Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Paradoxical South Atlantic Ozone Maxima  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a broad resolution of the "Atlantic Paradox" concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone. We describe periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.-April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO)O3 maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.- March highest column-O3 periods in the Atlantic, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 30 or 60 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-Atlantic pollution make important contributions.

Chatfield, Robert B.; Guan, Hong; Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

2003-01-01

105

Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South Atlantic ozone maxima  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a broad resolution of the Atlantic Parado concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution, of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.- April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, possible stratospheric input, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.-March highest column-O3 periods in the Atlantic, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 20-50 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-Atlantic pollution make important contributions.

Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.

2005-01-01

106

Gender norms in South Africa: Implications for HIV and pregnancy prevention among African and Indian women students at a South African tertiary institution  

PubMed Central

In post-Apartheid South Africa, women are constitutionally guaranteed protections and freedoms that were previously unknown to them. These freedoms may have positive implications for women’s ability to negotiate sexual protection with partners and hence prevent unintended pregnancy and decrease their risk of HIV. Among tertiary institution students who are a relatively ‘privileged’ group, there is little information on gender norms that might shape responses to HIV prevention programmes. To elicit gender norms regarding women’s and men’s roles, condom and contraceptive use, sexual communication, and sexual pleasure, we conducted 10 semi-structured focus group discussions with African and Indian female tertiary institution students so as to understand how norms might be used to buttress HIV and pregnancy prevention. Participants reported dramatic changes in the structure of gender norms and relations with the formal recognition of women’s rights in the post-Apartheid context. These generational shifts in norms are supported by other research in South Africa. At the same time, women recognized the co-existence of traditional constructions of gender that operate to constrain women’s freedom. The perceived changes that have taken place provide an entry point for intervention, particularly for reinforcing emerging gender norms that promote women’s protection against unintended pregnancy and HIV/STIs. PMID:19247859

Mantell, Joanne E.; Needham, Sarah L.; Smit, Jennifer Ann; Hoffman, Susie; Cebekhulu, Queen; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Mabude, Zonke; Beksinska, Mags; Stein, Zena A.; Milford, Cecilia

2009-01-01

107

Gender norms in South Africa: implications for HIV and pregnancy prevention among African and Indian women students at a South African tertiary institution.  

PubMed

In post-Apartheid South Africa, women are constitutionally guaranteed protections and freedoms that were previously unknown to them. These freedoms may have positive implications for women's ability to negotiate sexual protection with partners and hence prevent unintended pregnancy and decrease their risk of HIV. Among tertiary institution students, who are a relatively 'privileged' group, there is little information on gender norms that might shape responses to HIV-prevention programmes. To elicit gender norms regarding women's and men's roles, condom and contraceptive use, sexual communication and sexual pleasure, we conducted 10 semi-structured focus group discussions with African and Indian female tertiary institution students in order to understand how norms might be used to buttress HIV- and pregnancy-prevention. Participants reported dramatic changes in the structure of gender norms and relations with the formal recognition of women's rights in the post-Apartheid context. These generational shifts in norms are supported by other research in South Africa. At the same time, women recognized the co-existence of traditional constructions of gender that operate to constrain women's freedom. The perceived changes that have taken place provide an entry point for intervention, particularly for reinforcing emerging gender norms that promote women's protection against unintended pregnancy and HIV/STIs. PMID:19247859

Mantell, Joanne E; Needham, Sarah L; Smit, Jennifer Ann; Hoffman, Susie; Cebekhulu, Queen; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M; Mabude, Zonke; Beksinska, Mags; Stein, Zena A; Milford, Cecilia

2009-02-01

108

Directional migration in the Hindu castes: inferences from mitochondrial, autosomal and Y-chromosomal data.  

PubMed

Genetic, ethnographic, and historical evidence suggests that the Hindu castes have been highly endogamous for several thousand years and that, when movement between castes does occur, it typically consists of females joining castes of higher social status. However, little is known about migration rates in these populations or the extent to which migration occurs between caste groups of low, middle, and high social status. To investigate these aspects of migration, we analyzed the largest collection of genetic markers collected to date in Hindu caste populations. These data included 45 newly typed autosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs), 411 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence, and 43 Y-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were assayed in more than 200 individuals of known caste status sampled in Andrah Pradesh, in South India. Application of recently developed likelihood-based analyses to this dataset enabled us to obtain genetically derived estimates of intercaste migration rates. STRPs indicated migration rates of 1-2% per generation between high-, middle-, and low-status caste groups. We also found support for the hypothesis that rates of gene flow differ between maternally and paternally inherited genes. Migration rates were substantially higher in maternally than in paternally inherited markers. In addition, while prevailing patterns of migration involved movement between castes of similar rank, paternally inherited markers in the low-status castes were most likely to move into high-status castes. Our findings support earlier evidence that the caste system has been a significant, long-term source of population structuring in South Indian Hindu populations, and that patterns of migration differ between males and females. PMID:15232732

Wooding, Stephen; Ostler, Christopher; Prasad, B V Ravi; Watkins, W Scott; Sung, Sandy; Bamshad, Mike; Jorde, Lynn B

2004-08-01

109

Seabirds indicate changes in the composition of plastic litter in the Atlantic and south-western Indian Oceans.  

PubMed

I compare plastic ingested by five species of seabirds sampled in the 1980s and again in 1999-2006. The numbers of ingested plastic particles have not changed significantly, but the proportion of virgin pellets has decreased 44-79% in all five species: great shearwater Puffinus gravis, white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, broad-billed prion Pachyptila vittata, white-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina and white-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria. The populations sampled range widely in the South Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. The most marked reduction occurred in great shearwaters, where the average number of pellets per bird decreased from 10.5 to 1.6. This species migrates between the South and North Atlantic each year. Similar decreases in virgin pellets have been recorded in short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris in the Pacific Ocean and northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea. More data are needed on the relationship between plastic loads in seabirds and the density of plastic at sea in their foraging areas, but the consistent decrease in pellets in birds suggests there has been a global change in the composition of small plastic debris at sea over the last two decades. PMID:18572198

Ryan, Peter G

2008-08-01

110

Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing phase I enzymes CYP2E1, CYP2A6 and CYP3A5 in South Indian population.  

PubMed

CYP2E1, CYP2A6 and CYP3A5 enzymes belong to phase I group of drug-metabolizing enzymes, which are involved in the metabolism of various compounds and xenobiotics. Presence of polymorphisms in the genes coding for these enzymes results in interindividual variations in drug metabolism, therapeutic response and susceptibility towards various diseases. The frequencies of these variants in genes differ considerably between ethnic groups. This study was carried out to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of common variants in CYP2E1, CYP2A6 and CYP3A5 in South Indian population. Six hundred and fifty-two unrelated healthy volunteers of South Indian origin (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu) were included in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, allele-specific PCR, real-time PCR, SNaPshot and gene sequencing methods were used for the identification of gene polymorphisms. The frequencies of CYP2E1*1B, CYP2E1*5B and CYP2E1*6 alleles in South Indian population were 14.3, 1.3 and 22.4%, respectively. The frequencies of CYP2A6*2, CYP2A6*4A and CYP2A6*5 alleles were found to be 1, 8.9 and 0.7%, respectively. The distribution of CYP3A5*3 allele was 63.5%. There were no variant alleles of CYP3A5*2, CYP3A5*4 and CYP3A5*6 in South Indian population. The frequencies of CYP2E1, CYP2A6 and CYP3A5 in the South Indian population are distinct from Caucasians, Chinese, Japanese, African Americans and other compared populations. This is the first study conducted in the South Indian population with a larger sample size. The findings of our study provide the basic genetic information for further pharmacogenomic investigations in the population. PMID:21265876

Krishnakumar, D; Gurusamy, Umamaheswaran; Dhandapani, Kayathri; Surendiran, A; Baghel, Ruchi; Kukreti, Ritushree; Gangadhar, Reneega; Prayaga, Ushakiran; Manjunath, S; Adithan, C

2012-04-01

111

South Indian "Solkattu" and Western Music Pedagogy: Creating New Rhythmic Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the classical music tradition of South India, "solkattu" reinforces the statement "If you can say it, you can play it." This system of percussive syllables can help young musicians approach rhythm training in a way not usually available to students in Western countries. This article offers applications for a music curriculum. The approach…

Wood, Brandon Keith

2013-01-01

112

Where is the western limit of the tropical Indian Ocean seaweed flora? An analysis of intertidal seaweed biogeography on the east coast of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

New, large-scale collections have been made of marine benthic macroalgae (seaweeds) on the east coast of South Africa, and the distributions of shallow-water species were analyzed in detail by multivariate, clustering and ß-diversity methods. The two northernmost sites are distinct, with a predominance of tropical species, and it is concluded that the changeover from a tropical Indian Ocean flora to

J. J. Bolton; F. Leliaert; O. De Clerck; R. J. Anderson; H. Stegenga; H. E. Engledow; E. Coppejans

2004-01-01

113

Dietary patterns in Asian Indians in the United States: an analysis of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study.  

PubMed

Dietary patterns contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Asian Indians have earlier onset, more severe, and more prevalent CVD than many other racial/ethnic groups. We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in Asian Indians living in the United States and examine associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred fifty Asian Indians, aged 45 to 84 years, without known CVD, living in the San Francisco Bay, CA, area between August 2006 and October 2007 were enrolled into the Metabolic syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. A food frequency questionnaire validated in Asian Indians, fasting blood samples, and computed tomography scans were obtained for all participants. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to determine prevalent dietary patterns. Linear regression analyses were performed for associations between dietary patterns and metabolic factors, adjusting initially for age and sex, then additionally for BMI, income, education, metabolic equivalent of task-minutes of exercise, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified that we termed "Western," and "Vegetarian." Compared with the Western diet, the Vegetarian diet was associated with lower homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (-1.12 mmol/L × mU/L; P=0.05) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-4.77 mg/dL; P=0.09). Given that the Western and Vegetarian dietary patterns were each associated with adverse metabolic changes, healthful diet choices may help Asian Indians improve risk factors for CVD. PMID:24295929

Gadgil, Meghana D; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M

2014-02-01

114

The Morphometric Analysis of the Mental Foramen in Adult Dry Human Mandibles: A Study on the South Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Aim: The mental foramen is a small foramen which is located in the antero-lateral aspect of the body of the mandible. It is situated midway between the upper and the lower border of the mandible and it transmits the mental nerve and the vessels. The knowledge on the anatomy of the mental foramen is very important in clinical dentistry and in surgical procedures which involve that area. Material and Methods: Our study was conducted on 90 adult dry human mandibles from the south Indian population, irrespective of age and sex. The location, shape, orientation and the presence of the accessory foramen were studied by visual examination. The size and position of the mental foramen were measured by using a digital vernier caliper. The SPSS, version 15 software was used for the statistical analysis, to calculate the minimum, maximum, incidence, mean and standard deviation. Results: In a majority of the mandibles, the mental foramen was located at the level of the root of the 2nd premolar, midway between the inferior margin and the alveolar margin of the mandible. Most of the mental foramina were oval in shape. The orientation of the foramen was postero-superior in 83% of the mandibles. The accessory foramens were noted in five mandibles. Conclusion: The knowledge on the variations in the position and size of the mental foramen and the presence of the accessory foramen may be of much use to dental surgeons. PMID:24086835

Udhaya, K.; Saraladevi, K.V.; Sridhar, J.

2013-01-01

115

Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria. PMID:24723820

Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M. S.; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

2014-01-01

116

Isolation and characterization of a novel lepidopteran-selective toxin from the venom of South Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus  

PubMed Central

Background Scorpion venom contains insect and mammal selective toxins. We investigated the venom of the South Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus for the purpose of identifying potent insecticidal peptide toxins. Results A lepidopteran-selective toxin (Buthus tamulus insect toxin; ButaIT) has been isolated from this venom. The primary structure analysis reveals that it is a single polypeptide composed of 37 amino acids cross-linked by four disulfide bridges with high sequence homology to other short toxins such as Peptide I, neurotoxin P2, Lqh-8/6, chlorotoxin, insectotoxin I5A, insect toxin 15 and insectotoxin I1. Three dimensional modeling using Swiss automated protein modeling server reveals that this toxin contains a short ?-helix and three antiparallel ?-strands, similar to other short scorpion toxins. This toxin is selectively active on Heliothis virescens causing flaccid paralysis but was non-toxic to blowfly larvae and mice. Conclusion This is the first report of a Heliothine selective peptide toxin. Identification of diverse insect selective toxins offer advantages in employing these peptides selectively for pest control. PMID:11782289

Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Inceoglu, Bora; Herrmann, Rafael; Derbel, Maher; Choudary, Prabhakara V; Hammock, Bruce D

2001-01-01

117

Fulvimarina manganoxydans sp. nov., isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal plume in the south-west Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

An aerobic, Mn(II)-oxidizing, Gram-negative bacterium, strain 8047(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent plume in the south-west Indian Ocean. The strain was rod-shaped and motile with a terminal flagellum, and formed yellowish colonies. It produced catalase and oxidase, hydrolysed gelatin and reduced nitrate. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 8047(T) belonged to the order Rhizobiales of the class Alphaproteobacteria, and was phylogenetically most closely related to the genus Fulvimarina, sharing 94.4% sequence identity with the type strain of the type species. The taxonomic affiliation of strain 8047(T) was supported by phylogenetic analysis of four additional housekeeping genes, gyrB, recA, rpoC and rpoB. The predominant respiratory lipoquinone of strain 8047(T) was Q-10, the major fatty acid was C(18?:?1)?7c and the DNA G+C content was 61.7 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics determined in this study, strain 8047(T) represents a novel species within the genus Fulvimarina, for which the name Fulvimarina manganoxydans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 8047(T) (?=?CGMCC1.10972(T)?=?JCM 18890(T)). PMID:24854008

Ren, Fei; Zhang, Limin; Song, Lei; Xu, Shiyao; Xi, Lijun; Huang, Li; Huang, Ying; Dai, Xin

2014-08-01

118

Assessment of water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1989-94  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to assess ground-water and surface-water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District in northern Palm Beach County from 1989 to 1994. Contamination of the surficial aquifer system and availability of a potable water supply have become of increasing concern. The study consisted of sampling 11 ground-water wells and 14 surface- water sites for determination of major inorganic constituents and physical characteristics, trace metals, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and synthetic organic compounds. Sodium and chloride concentrations exceeded Florida drinking-water standards in ground water at two wells, dissolved- solids concentrations at five ground-water wells and one surface-water site, and color values at all 11 ground-water wells and all 14 surface-water sites. Other constituents also exhibited concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards. Cadmium and zinc concentrations exceeded the standards in ground water at one well, and lead concentrations exceeded the standard in ground water at five wells. Nitrogen and phosphorus specie concentrations did not exceed respective drinking-water standards in any ground-water or surface-water samples. Several synthetic organic compounds were detected at or above 50 micrograms per liter in water samples collected from six ground-water wells and three surface-water sites.

Lietz, A.C.

1996-01-01

119

Temperature control of microbial respiration and growth efficiency in the mesopelagic zone of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured both prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) and respiration (R), then providing direct estimates of prokaryotic growth efficiencies (PGE), in the upper mesopelagic zone (300-600 m) of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Our results show that in situ R ranged 3-fold, from 87 to 238 ?mol C m-3 d-1. In situ PHP rates were much lower but also more variable than R (ranging from 0.3 to 9.1 ?mol C m-3 d-1). The derived in situ PGE values were on average ~1.4% (from 0.3% to 3.7%), indicating that most of the organic substrates incorporated by prokaryotes were respired instead of being used for growth. Together with the few previous studies on PGE published before for the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, our findings support the hypothesis that the global mesopelagic zone represents a key remineralization site for export production in the open ocean. We also found a strong correlation between R and PGE with temperature across a gradient ranging from 8.7 to 14.9 °C. The derived Q10 value of 3.7 suggests that temperature variability in the mesopelagic zone plays a significant role in the remineralization of organic matter.

Mazuecos, Ignacio P.; Arístegui, Javier; Vázquez-Domínguez, Evaristo; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Gasol, Josep M.; Reche, Isabel

2015-01-01

120

Evaluation of body composition and its association with cardio respiratory fitness in south Indian adolescents.  

PubMed

Anthropometry is generally considered as the single most easily obtainable, inexpensive, and noninvasive method that reflects body composition and VO2(max) is an indication of the physical fitness of the subject. There is a paucity of data on t3he age related changes in the body composition parameters and VO2(max), and the association between them in the Indian adolescent population. Hence, the present study was conceived to assess and find the association between these parameters in the students in the age group of 12-17 years. Body composition was assessed using anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and skin fold thickness) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using estimated VO2(max) from Rockport Walk Fitness Test. We observed that the anthropometric measures were normal for the respective age groups and VO2(max) (mL/kg/min) in all the age groups in both the genders were in superior category according to Heywood classification. We observed higher body fat percentage (BF%) in girls of all the age groups compared to the boys and higher fat free mass (FFM) and VO2(max) in the boys of all age groups when compared to girls. VO2(max) showed a strong correlation with FFM (r = 0.891, P < 0.001) and a weak correlation with BF% (r = -0.322, P < 0.0001). Optimal body composition and CRF can be attributed to the regular structured physical activity of one hour duration daily and the provision of adequate nutrition. FFM can be put forth as a stronger determinant of CRF than BF% in the adolescents. PMID:24968579

Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan

2013-01-01

121

Genetic characterization of Spinocerebellar ataxia 1 in a South Indian cohort.  

PubMed

BackgroundSpinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a late onset autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, caused by CAG triplet repeat expansion in the ATXN1 gene. The frequency of SCA1 occurrence is more in Southern India than in other regions as observed from hospital-based studies. However there are no reports on variability of CAG repeat expansion, phenotype-genotype association and founder mutations in a homogenous population from India.MethodsGenomic DNA isolated from buccal mouthwash of the individuals in the cohort was used for PCR-based diagnosis of SCA1. Subsequently SNP¿s found within the ATXN1 loci were identified by Taqman allelic discrimination assays. Significance testing of the genotype-phenotype associations was calculated by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test with post-hoc Dunnett¿s test and Pearson¿s correlation coefficient.ResultsBy genetic analysis of an affected population in Southern India we identified 21 pre-symptomatic individuals including four that were well past the average age of disease onset of 44 years, 16 symptomatic and 63 normal individuals. All pre-symptomatic cases harbor ¿pure¿ expansions of greater than 40 CAGs. Genotyping to test for the presence of two previously identified SNPs showed a founder effect of the same repeat carrying allele as in the general Indian population. We show that SCA1 disease onset is significantly delayed when transmission of the disease is maternal.ConclusionsOur finding of early disease onset in individuals with a paternally inherited allele could serve as valuable information for clinicians towards early detection of SCA1 in patients with affected fathers. Identification of older pre-symptomatic individuals (n¿=¿4) in our cohort among individuals with a shared genetic and environmental background, suggests that second site genetic or epigenetic modifiers might significantly affect SCA1 disease progression. Moreover, such undetected SCA1 cases could underscore the true prevalence of SCA1 in India. PMID:25344417

Kumaran, Dhanya; Balagopal, Krishnan; Tharmaraj, Reginald; Aaron, Sanjith; George, Kuryan; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sivadasan, Ajith; Danda, Sumita; Alexander, Mathew; Hasan, Gaiti

2014-10-25

122

Low level deltamethrin resistance in ticks from cattle of Kerala, a south Indian state.  

PubMed

The deltamethrin resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus ticks collected from cattle of five organized farms of Kerala, south India was evaluated. Resistance was characterized using biological (larval packet test), biochemical (esterase enzyme activity assay) and molecular tools (PCR amplification and sequencing of deltamethrin resistance-associated genes). Characterization of field isolates revealed level I resistance in ticks collected from four out of five farms. Elevated level of ?/? esterase activity was not recorded in isolates showing level I resistance. Previously reported point mutations in the carboxyl esterase (G1120A) and sodium channel (T2134A and C190A) genes were not observed in any of the field isolates. The present study showed a low level (level I) resistance is developed in the most economically important ticks infesting cattle of this state and it cautions the development of large scale resistance in future. PMID:24877788

Jyothimol, G; Ravindran, R; Juliet, S; Ajithkumar, K G; Suresh, N N; Vimalkumar, M B; Lenka, D R; Varghese, S; Ghosh, Srikanta

2014-08-29

123

Differences in prenatal exposure to mercury in South African communities residing along the Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Mercury is a persistent environmental pollutant that has the potential to adversely affect human health, particularly, foetal neurodevelopment. The purpose of the study was to investigate prenatal mercury (Hg) exposure in the population in three sites along the South Africa coast. Study subjects included women (n=350) who were admitted for delivery at the local hospitals. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected to measure total mercury and each participant was required to answer a questionnaire. The 90th percentile of mercury levels in maternal and cord blood of the total population was 1.15 ?g/l and 1.67 ?g/l, respectively. Site 1 (Manguzi) participants had the highest maternal geometric mean (GM) values of 0.93 ?g/l, which was significantly different from Site 2 (Port Shepstone) (0.49 ?g/l) and Site 3 (Empangeni) (0.56 ?g/l) (ANOVA test, p<0.001). Umbilical cord blood GM Hg level for Site 1 (1.45 ?g/l) was more than double the GM Hg level in Site 2 (0.70 ?g/l) and Site 3 (0.73 ?g/l). Univariate analysis indicated that the following maternal characteristics were positive predictors for elevated umbilical cord Hg levels: maternal blood Hg levels, living with a partner, residing in Site 1, living in informal housing, using wood and gas for cooking, borehole water as a drinking source, and a member of the household being involved in fishing. Maternal dietary predictors of elevated Hg levels in umbilical cord blood included consuming fresh fish, tinned fish, fruit or dairy products, daily. This study provides baseline data and reveals that 2% of the study population were above the EPA's reference value (5.8 ?g/l) suggesting low level exposure to mercury in pregnant women and the developing foetus in South Africa. Further research is required to explore the sources of elevated Hg levels in Site 1. PMID:23787104

Channa, Kalavati; Odland, Jon Ø; Kootbodien, Tahira; Theodorou, Penny; Naik, Inakshi; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Röllin, Halina B

2013-10-01

124

Caste in India, Past and Present  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traced is the sociocultural framework for the system in Indian culture which emphasized duty and obligations rather than individual freedom and rights. Also discussed are contemporary changes in the caste system. (DB)

Bishop, Donald H.

1971-01-01

125

Malaria epidemics and the influence of the tropical South Atlantic on the Indian monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of predictability in the climate system beyond the relatively short timescales of synoptic weather has provided significant impetus to investigate climate variability and its consequences for society. In particular, relationships between the relatively slow changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and climate variability at widely removed points across the globe provide a basis for statistical and dynamical efforts to predict numerous phenomena, from rainfall to disease incidence, at seasonal to decadal timescales. We describe here a remote influence, identified through observational analysis and supported through numerical experiments with a coupled atmosphere-ocean model, of the tropical South Atlantic (TSA) on both monsoon rainfall and malaria epidemics in arid northwest India. Moreover, SST in the TSA is shown to provide the basis for an early warning of anomalous hydrological conditions conducive to malaria epidemics four months later, therefore at longer lead times than those afforded by rainfall. We find that the TSA is not only significant as a modulator of the relationship between the monsoon and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, as has been suggested by previous work, but for certain regions and temporal lags is in fact a dominant driver of rainfall variability and hence malaria outbreaks.

Cash, B. A.; Rodó, X.; Ballester, J.; Bouma, M. J.; Baeza, A.; Dhiman, R.; Pascual, M.

2013-05-01

126

Studies on isozymic variation among the South Indian species of Sphaerostephanos  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the identity and phylogenetic relationships among the three medicinally important species of Sphaerostephanos from South India using isozymic profile. Methods The young fronds were homogenized with 3.5 mL of ice-cold homogenizing buffer in a pre-chilled pestle and mortar. The supernatant was subjected to electrophoresis as described by Anbalagan poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining solutions for isoperoxidase was prepared as per Smila method for the detection of isoenzymes. Results A total of six different bands in five different positions with different molecular weight/Rf values and four active zones have been observed in the isoperoxidase enzyme system of Sphaerostephanos. Only one band with MW/Rf 0.399 is common to two different species i.e. Sphaerostephanos arbuscula (S. arbuscula) and Sphaerostephanos unitus (S. unitus). Among the remaining four bands, two bands (Rf. 0.23, 0.47) are present in Sphaerostephanos subtruncatus (S. subtruncatus) and one distinct band has been observed individually in S. arbuscula (Rf. 0.507) and S. unitus (Rf. 0.56). Conclusions The present preliminary molecular study through isozymic analysis shows the identity of all the three species and the present results confirm distinctness of these three species based on macro-micromorphology, phytochemistry and cytology. PMID:23569778

Varaprasadham, Irudayaraj; Marimuthu, Johnson

2011-01-01

127

Three bodies of practice in a traditional South Indian martial art.  

PubMed

This paper describes three interconnected conceptions of the body in kalarippayattu, the martial tradition of Kerala, South India. It traces continuities and discontinuities among concepts and practices recorded in classic source texts and contemporary martial practice for each of the three 'bodies of practice'. The first is the fluid body of humors and saps. The second is the body as superstructure composed of bones, muscles, and vital spots (marma-s), which supports the fluid body. The concepts and practices of the first two bodies are based on the regional tradition of Ayurveda. They constitute the external physical body (sthula-?arira). The third, subtle or interior body (suksma-?arira) is thought to be encased within the physical body. It provides an experiential map of practice and is the basis for higher stages of meditation. The long-term practice of the martial art (1) makes the body fluid so that healthful congruence of the humors occurs, (2) establishes an intuitive and practical knowledge of vital points (marma) useful in fighting (prayogam) and in treating injuries, and (3) purifies the subtle body and awakens the internal vital energy (prana-vayu) that is manifest as the power (?akti) of the master in combat or medical practice. The paper concludes with a discussion of the interrelationship between these three concepts of the body in the accomplished practice of the martial practitioner. PMID:2660283

Zarrilli, P B

1989-01-01

128

Hospital waste management system - a case study of a south Indian city.  

PubMed

It is more than 5 years since the prescribed deadline, 30 December 2002, for all categories of towns covered by the Biomedical Waste Management (BMW) Rules 1998 elapsed. Various reports indicate that the implementation of the BMW Rules is not satisfactory even in the large towns and cities in India. Few studies have looked at the ;macro system' of the biomedical waste management in India. In this context the present study describes the role of the important stakeholders who comprise the 'macrosystem' namely the pollution control board, common waste management facilities, municipal corporation, state government (Directorate of Medical Education and Health Systems Development Project), professional agencies such as the India Medical Association and non-governmental organizations, in the implementation of BMW rules in a capital city of a state in south India. Brief descriptions of the ;micro-system' (i.e. biomedical waste management practices within a hospital) of six hospitals of different types in the study city are also presented. PMID:19470535

Hanumantha Rao, P

2009-06-01

129

A community-wide tuberculosis survey in a South Indian rural population, 1950-55  

PubMed Central

An investigation carried out under WHO auspices in a small area of South India in 1950-55, and which covered a population of approximately 60 000, has not only shed light on various aspects of tuberculosis epidemiology, but has also served as an exercise in the practical conduct of a control campaign in a less developed area. The programme was based essentially on systematic case-finding by mass miniature X-ray and tuberculin testing and the hospitalization of infectious cases. Its most dramatic effect on the community consisted in the great reduction of mortality—from 200 to 21 per 100 000 in less than four years—due no doubt to the advent of the newer antituberculosis drugs. This and other findings are discussed at length in the present report, which covers such topics as tuberculin sensitivity, infection rate, prevalence, incidence, and the results of a BCG control trial. One of the conclusions reached as a result of the campaign was that domiciliary drug therapy had much to recommend it in an area such as this, given the reluctance of patients to enter hospital and thus be deprived of their earning capacity. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 5 PMID:13825251

Frimodt-Møller, J.

1960-01-01

130

NOTCH1 and FBXW7 Mutations Favor Better Outcome in Pediatric South Indian T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.  

PubMed

The NOTCH1 signaling pathway is essential for hematopoiesis and a critical regulatory step for T-cell proliferation and maturation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXW7 controls NOTCH1 protein stability. Mutations in NOTCH1/FBXW7 activate NOTCH signaling and are of prognostic significance in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In this study we analyzed NOTCH1 and FBXW7 mutations in 50 South Indian T-ALL patients treated by a modified ALL BFM 95 regimen. The hot spot exons (HD-N, HD-C, TAD, and PEST) of NOTCH1 and exons 9 of the 10 of FBXW7 were polymerase chain reaction amplified and sequenced. In total, 20 of the 50 (40%) T-ALL patients revealed heterozygous mutations in the NOTCH1 domains, and a predominance of missense mutations in HD-N (70%) and PEST (15%) domains. FBXW7 mutations were detected in 5 of the 50 (10%) T-ALL patients. T-ALL patients with NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations expressed higher protein level of NOTCH1 compared with patients without NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations. Six of the mutations detected in NOTCH1 were not reported previously. When tested in a Dual Luciferase Renilla reporter assay some of these conferred increased NOTCH activity, suggesting that these are activating mutations. Importantly, 13 of the 20 (65%) NOTCH1/FBXW7-mutated T-ALL patients showed a good prednisone response (P=0.01) and a better clinical outcome compared with NOTCH1/FBXW7 nonmutated patients (P=0.03). These data suggest that NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations are present in T-ALL patients from Southern India and may be useful biomarkers to predict prognosis in T-ALL. PMID:25493453

Natarajan, Valliyammai; Bandapalli, Obul R; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Sagar, Tenali Gnana; Karunakaran, Nirmala

2015-01-01

131

Noble gases in South Indian carbonatites: Trapped and in situ components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied noble gases in carbonates and apatites from three carbonatites of South India, namely Hogenakal (2400 Ma), Sevattur (770 Ma) and Khambamettuu (523 Ma) by vacuum crushing. Apatite has also been analysed by pyrolysis. Vacuum crushing mostly releases the trapped gas components. The ratios 21Ne/ 20Ne, 22Ne/ 20Ne and 40Ar/ 36Ar increase with progressive crushing due to preservation of different composition gases in smaller inclusions released in later steps. This heterogeneity of isotopic composition of fluid inclusions is a consequence of the involvement of magmas carrying different noble gas signatures. The inclusions with lower ratios suggest the presence of a subducted atmospheric component, while the higher 21Ne/ 20Ne, 22Ne/ 20Ne and 40Ar/ 36Ar can be attributed to the presence of an enriched lithospheric mantle component. In addition, very minor trapped gases from less degassed, deeper mantle may also be present but overprinted by lithospheric and/or nucleogenic components. We propose that these carbonatites were generated only in an advanced stage of magmatism when this lithospheric component overwhelmed any contribution from the deeper mantle source. The lithospheric mantle underwent enrichment during an ancient subduction process through mantle metasomatism manifested in nucleogenic/radiogenic isotopic ratios of 21Ne/ 20Ne, 22Ne/ 20Ne and 40Ar/ 36Ar. The apatites analysed by pyrolysis clearly show nucleogenic 21Ne from 18O(?,n) reaction. We have demonstrated the potential of using U,Th- 21Ne systematics as a thermo-chronometer in conjunction with the established U,Th- 4He and U- 136Xe clocks. While for Hogenakal, the U,Th- 21Ne age of 845 ± 127 Ma is in agreement with the age of emplacement of other adjacent younger carbonatites, syenites and alkali granites, for the Sevattur apatite (738 ± 111 Ma) it indicates the crystallisation age.

Murty, S. V. S.; Basu, S.; Kumar, Anil

2007-04-01

132

Ingestion and defecation of marine debris by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from by-catches in the South-West Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Marine debris, caused by anthropogenic pollution, is a major problem impacting marine wildlife worldwide. This study documents and quantifies the ingestion and defecation of debris by 74 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in the South-West Indian Ocean. Debris was found in 51.4% of gut or fecal samples of loggerheads by-catch from Reunion Island long liners. Anthropogenic debris was ubiquitous in our samples with plastics accounting for 96.2% of the total debris collected. No significant relationship was detected between the characteristics of ingested debris and the biometric characteristics of loggerheads. The number, weight, volume and mean length of debris were higher in gut content of deceased loggerheads than in fecal samples of live turtles, but not significantly, except for the mean length. This is the first record of debris ingestion by sea turtles in the Indian Ocean and our results highlight the magnitude of this pollution of the marine environment. PMID:24916119

Hoarau, Ludovic; Ainley, Lara; Jean, Claire; Ciccione, Stéphane

2014-07-15

133

Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

Schaap, Bryan D.

2004-01-01

134

Tropical cyclone Dera, the unusual 2000/01 tropical cyclone season in the South West Indian Ocean and associated rainfall anomalies over Southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austral summer 2000/01 in the southern African region was unusual in several respects. Tropical cyclone activity in the southwest Indian Ocean was substantially less than average despite large areas of this region showing anomalously warm sea surface temperatures (SST) for much of the season. Many areas of southern Africa experienced above average rainfall with local flooding in parts of Mozambique. In the tropical southeast Atlantic, a large warm SST anomaly evolved off the coast of Angola and northern Namibia in late summer suggesting a Benguela Niño event. During the late summer (February April 2001), three particularly widespread and intense wet spells occurred over tropical southern Africa, one of which coincided with tropical cyclone Dera. This study considers the generation and evolution of the middle wet spell of late summer 2001 and its relationship with tropical cyclone Dera. This storm was generated in the northwestern part of the Mozambique Channel and then tracked more or less due south through the Channel and into the subtropical southwest Indian Ocean. Rainfall associated with Dera contributed to the ongoing floods over central Mozambique that arose from rains earlier in the season. Dera occurred in early March following a relatively long period of no tropical cyclone activity in the southwest Indian Ocean. A build up of favorable conditions during the preceding weeks contributed towards the storm whereas an anticyclonic anomaly east of Madagascar led to the northerly steering current and the southward track of tropical cyclone Dera out of the Mozambique Channel.

Struchtrup, Henning; Thatcher, Toby

2007-08-01

135

Evaluation of the Variant Anatomical Disposition of the Renal Hilar Structures in South Indian Adult Human Cadavers and Its Cinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the anatomical disposition of the renal hilar structures in human cadavers of south Indian origin, considering their antero–posterior distribution. Material and Methods: Ninty–six renal hila of the isolated kidneys from adult south Indian cadavers were observed for the branching patterns and the distributions of the renal hilar structures. The number of branches of the renal artery and the divisions of the renal vein in the pre hilar region were noted, along with their pattern of arrangement with respect to the renal pelvis. Results: In the present study on the pre hilar region, we observed that the highest division of the renal artery was 8 and that the highest incidence was of 4 divisions of the renal artery in 30.2% cases. The highest number of venous divisions which was observed was 7. The highest incidence of 40.6 % cases showed 2 divisions of the veins. Regarding the patterns of arrangement of these structures, we observed 12 patterns of arrangement, with a higher incidence (45.8%) of the classical arrangement (V-A-P), as has been described in the standard text books of anatomy, which was followed by the A-V-P pattern (28.1%). Conclusion: An anatomical knowledge on the possible variant topography of the renal hilar structures is of great importance when urological surgical procedures are performed. PMID:24086834

Kumar, Naveen; Guru, Anitha; Aithal P., Ashwini; Shetty, Surekha D.; Nayak B., Satheesha; Pamidi, Narendra

2013-01-01

136

Inter and intra ethnic variation of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex and cytochrome P450 4F2 genetic polymorphisms and their prevalence in South Indian population  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex (VKORC1) and cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2) genes were found to be strongly associated with the oral anticoagulant (OA) dose requirement. The distribution of genetic variation in these two genes was found to show large inter- and intra-ethnic difference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 470 unrelated, healthy volunteers of South Indians of either sex (age: 18-60 years) were enrolled for the study. A 5 ml of venous blood was collected and the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted by using phenol-chloroform extraction method. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used for genotyping. RESULTS: The variant allele frequencies of VKORC1 rs2359612 (T), rs8050894 (C), rs9934438 (T) and rs9923231 (A) were found to be 11.0%, 11.8%, 11.7% and 12.0%, respectively. The variant allele VKORC1 rs7294 was (80.1%) more frequent and the variant allele CYP4F2 * 3 was found to be 41.8% in South Indians. The allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of VKORC1 and CYP4F2 gene were distinct from other compared HapMap populations (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The findings of our study provide the basic genetic information for further pharmacogenetic based investigation of OA therapy in the population. PMID:24339542

Kumar, Dhakchinamoorthi Krishna; Shewade, Deepak Gopal; Manjunath, Sajjanavar; Ushakiran, Prayaga; Reneega, Gangadharan; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

2013-01-01

137

Ethnic-specific WRN mutations in South Asian Werner syndrome patients: potential founder effect in patients with Indian or Pakistani ancestry  

PubMed Central

Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple features consistent with accelerated aging. It is caused by mutations in the WRN gene, which encodes a RecQ type helicase. To date, more than 70 disease-causing mutations have been reported. While founder mutations and a corresponding relatively high incidence of WS have been reported in Japan and Sardinia, such mutations have not been previously described among patients of South Asian descent. Here, we report two novel WRN mutations in three pedigrees. A homozygous c.561A>G mutation in exon 6 was identified both in a pedigree from Kerala, India and in a British patient of Pakistani ancestry. Although c.561A>G does not alter the corresponding amino acid (p.Lys187), it creates a cryptic splice site resulting in a 98 bp deletion at the mRNA level (r.557_654del98) followed by a frameshift (p.Lys187Trpfs*13). These two cases shared the same haplotype across the WRN gene, and were distinct from another Indian Werner patient with a homozygous stop codon mutation, c.2855 C > A (p.Ser952*), in exon 24. As the Indian population increases and the awareness of WS grows, we anticipate that more cases will be identified with these founder mutations among South Asian WS patients. PMID:23936869

Saha, Bidisha; Lessel, Davor; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Rao, Anuradha S; Hisama, Fuki M; Peter, Dincy; Bennett, Chris; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Martin, George M; Kubisch, Christian; Oshima, Junko

2013-01-01

138

Analysis of association between TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile gene polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis in a sample of south Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background: To analyze the association between TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile gene polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis in a sample of south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was obtained from peripheral blood of 60 patients with chronic periodontitis and 60 periodontally healthy subjects. TLR-4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile gene polymorphisms were genotyped by a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The data were analyzed by a ?2-test and by relative risk estimation. Results: Thr399Ile alleles were found in 4% of chronic periodontitis patients and in 1% of periodontally healthy subjects. The prevalence of a Thr399Ile heterozygote was found to be 5% in the chronic periodontitis group and 1.67% in the periodontally healthy group, respectively. Homozygosity for TLR-4 Thr399Ile was seen in chronic periodontitis patients only, which was 1.67%. The TLR-4 Asp299Gly gene polymorphism was not detected in either chronic periodontitis or periodontally healthy groups. Conclusion: There is no significant association between TLR-4 Thr399Ile polymorphism and chronic periodontitis in a sample of south Indian population. PMID:22368361

Reddy, Bavigadda Harish; Jayakumar, N. D.; Akula, Sreenivasa Rao; Sharma, Rupali; Kaarthikeyan, G.; Sankari

2011-01-01

139

Osteoporosis in Healthy South Indian Males and the Influence of Life Style Factors and Vitamin D Status on Bone Mineral Density  

PubMed Central

Objective. To study the prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency in healthy men and to explore the influence of various life style factors on bone mineral density (BMD) and also to look at number of subjects warranting treatment. Methods. Ambulatory south Indian men aged above 50 were recruited by cluster random sampling. The physical activity, risk factors in the FRAX tool, BMD, vitamin D, and PTH were assessed. The number of people needing treatment was calculated, which included subjects with osteoporosis and osteopenia with 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture >20 percent and hip fracture >3 percent in FRAX India. Results. A total of 252 men with a mean age of 58 years were studied. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia at any one site was 20% (50/252) and 58%, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency (<20?ng/dL) was seen in 53%. On multiple logistic regression, BMI (OR 0.3; P value = 0.04) and physical activity (OR 0.4; P value < 0.001) had protective effect on BMD. Twenty-five percent warranted treatment. Conclusions. A significantly large proportion of south Indian men had osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency. Further interventional studies are needed to look at reduction in end points like fractures in these subjects. PMID:25478284

Shetty, Sahana; Kapoor, Nitin; Naik, Dukhabandhu; Asha, Hesarghatta Shyamasunder; Prabu, Suresh; Thomas, Nihal; Seshadri, Mandalam Subramaniam; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

2014-01-01

140

Termites in the hominin diet: a meta-analysis of termite genera, species and castes as a dietary supplement for South African robust australopithecines.  

PubMed

Termite foraging by chimpanzees and present-day modern humans is a well-documented phenomenon, making it a plausible hypothesis that early hominins were also utilizing this resource. Hominin termite foraging has been credited by some to be the explanation for the unexpected carbon isotope signatures present in South African hominin teeth, which suggest the diet was different from that of extant non-human great apes, consisting of a significant amount of resources that are not from woody-plants. Grass-eating termites are one potential resource that could contribute to the carbon signature. However, not all termites eat grasses, and in fact, the termites that are most widely consumed by chimpanzees and by many present-day human populations at best have a mixed diet that includes small amounts of grasses. Here I review the ecology of termites and how it affects their desirability as a food resource for hominins, and conduct a meta-analysis of nutritional values for various genera, species and castes from the literature. Termites are very diverse, even within species, and this variability affects both their carbon signatures and nutritional value, hindering generalizations regarding the contribution of termites to the hominin diet. It is concluded here that a combination of soldiers and alates of the genus Macrotermes be used to model the insectivory component of the Plio-Pleistocene hominin diet due to their significant amounts of energy-yielding nutrients and potential role as a critical resource for supporting larger-brained hominins. PMID:24613098

Lesnik, Julie J

2014-06-01

141

mtDNA variation in caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Various anthropological analyses have documented extensive regional variation among populations on the subcontinent of India using morphological, protein, blood group, and nuclear DNA polymorphisms. These patterns are the product of complex population structure (genetic drift, gene flow) and a population history noted for numerous branching events. As a result, the interpretation of relationships among caste populations of South India and between Indians and continental populations remains controversial. The Hindu caste system is a general model of genetic differentiation among endogamous populations stratified by social forces (e.g., religion and occupation). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has unique properties that facilitate the exploration of population structure. We analyzed 36 Hindu men born in Andhra Pradesh who were unrelated matrilineally through at least 3 generations and who represent 4 caste populations: Brahmin (9), Yadava (10), Kapu (7), and Relli (10). Individuals from Africa (36), Asia (36), and Europe (36) were sampled for comparison. A 200-base-pair segment of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS2) of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in all individuals. In the Indian castes 25 distinct haplotypes are identified. Aside from the Cambridge reference sequence, only two haplotypes are shared between caste populations. Middle castes form a highly supported cluster in a neighbor-joining network. Mean nucleotide diversity within each caste is 0.015, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.012 for the Brahmin, Yadava, Kapu, and Relli, respectively. mtDNA variation is highly structured between castes (GST = 0.17; p < 0.002). The effects of social structure on mtDNA variation are much greater than those on variation measured by traditional markers. Explanations for this discordance include (1) the higher resolving power of mtDNA, (2) sex-dependent gene flow, (3) differences in male and female effective population sizes, and (4) elements of the kinship structure. Thirty distinct haplotypes are found in Africans, 17 in Asians, and 13 in Europeans. Mean nucleotide diversity is 0.019, 0.014, 0.009, and 0.007 for Africans, Indians, Asians, and Europeans, respectively. These populations are highly structured geographically (GST = 0.15; p < 0.001). The caste populations of Andhra Pradesh cluster more often with Africans than with Asians or Europeans. This is suggestive of admixture with African populations. PMID:8907753

Bamshad, M; Fraley, A E; Crawford, M H; Cann, R L; Busi, B R; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B

1996-02-01

142

Factors that influence first-career choice of undergraduate engineers in software services companies : A south Indian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify how undergraduate engineering students differ in their perception about software services companies in India based on variables like gender, locations of the college and branches of engineering. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data obtained from 560 undergraduate engineering students who had the opportunity to have multiple job offers from four major Indian software

V. K. Gokuladas

2010-01-01

143

A 780-year annually resolved record of Indian Ocean monsoon precipitation from a speleothem from south Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological records of monsoon rainfall in the Indian Ocean are generally less than 100 years long. The relative brevity of these records makes it difficult to investigate monsoon variation on decadal and centennial timescales, to determine what factors influence the intensity of rainfall on these timescales, or to place possible changes in the twentieth century into a broader historical context.

Stephen J. Burns; Dominik Fleitmann; Manfred Mudelsee; Ulrich Neff; Albert Matter; Augusto Mangini

2002-01-01

144

Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.  

PubMed Central

The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI. PMID:11607687

Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

1996-01-01

145

Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.  

PubMed

The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI. PMID:11607687

Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

1996-06-25

146

Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss resulting from p.R75Q Mutation in the GJB2 Gene: Nonsyndromic presentation in a South Indian Family.  

PubMed

Mutations in the GJB2 gene encoding the gap junction protein Connexin 26 have been associated with autosomal recessive as well as dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss. Owing to the involvement of connexins in skin homeostasis, GJB2 mutations have also been associated with syndromic forms of hearing loss showing various skin manifestations. We report an assortatively mating hearing impaired family of south Indian origin with three affected members spread over two generations, having p.R75Q mutation in the GJB2 gene in the heterozygous condition. The inheritance pattern was autosomal dominant with mother and son being affected. Dermatological and histopathologic examinations showed absence of palmoplantar keratoderma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report from India on p.R75Q mutation in the GJB2 gene with nonsyndromic hearing loss. PMID:25393658

Pavithra, Amritkumar; Selvakumari, Mathiyalagan; Nityaa, Venkatesan; Sharanya, Narasimhan; Ramakrishnan, Rajagopalan; Narasimhan, Murali; Srisailapathy, C R Srikumari

2015-01-01

147

Plasticity of trophic interactions among sharks from the oceanic south-western Indian Ocean revealed by stable isotope and mercury analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sharks are a major component of the top predator guild in oceanic ecosystems, but the trophic relationships of many populations remain poorly understood. We examined chemical tracers of diet and habitat (?15N and ?13C, respectively) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in muscle tissue of seven pelagic sharks: blue shark (Prionace glauca), short-fin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus), scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus), crocodile shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis), from the data poor south-western tropical Indian Ocean. Minimal interspecific variation in mean ?15N values and a large degree of isotopic niche overlap - driven by high intraspecific variation in ?15N values - was observed among pelagic sharks. Similarly, ?13C values of sharks overlapped considerably for all species with the exception of P. glauca, which had more 13C-depleted values indicating possibly longer residence times in purely pelagic waters. Geographic variation in ?13C, ?15N and Hg were observed for P. glauca and I. oxyrinchus. Mean Hg levels were similar among species with the exception of P. kamoharai which had significantly higher Hg concentrations likely related to mesopelagic feeding. Hg concentrations increased with body size in I. oxyrinchus, P. glauca and C. longimanus. Values of ?15N and ?13C varied with size only in P. glauca, suggesting ontogenetic shifts in diets or habitats. Together, isotopic data indicate that - with few exceptions - variance within species in trophic interactions or foraging habitats is greater than differentiation among pelagic sharks in the south-western Indian Ocean. Therefore, it is possible that this group exhibits some level of trophic redundancy, but further studies of diets and fine-scale habitat use are needed to fully test this hypothesis.

Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Aubail, Aurore; Hussey, Nigel E.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Caurant, Florence; Bustamante, Paco

2015-02-01

148

Increased risk of type 2 diabetes with ascending social class in urban South Indians is explained by obesity: The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-116)  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ?20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1) household income; (2) family history of diabetes; (3) physical activity; (4) smoking status; (5) alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. <2000) intermediate (Rs. 2000-5000`) and high (Rs. 5000-20000). Results: The prevalence rates of DM were 12.0%, 18.4% and 21.7% in low, intermediate and high social class, respectively (P < 0.001). A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016) when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087). Conclusion: An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity. PMID:24381889

Skar, Mette; Villumsen, Anne Berg; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Petersen, Joergen Holm; Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mohan, Viswanathan

2013-01-01

149

Breast milk zinc transfer and early post-natal growth among urban South Indian term infants using measures of breast milk volume and breast milk zinc concentrations.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) deficiency in infancy and early childhood is of public health concern in developing countries. This study aimed to longitudinally assess Zn intake of urban South Indian term infants in the first 6 months of life using measures of breast milk (BM) volume and BM Zn concentrations and, additionally, to study the effect of BM Zn intake on infant length and weight gain. BM intake by the deuterium dilution technique, BM Zn concentration at months 1, 3 and 6, as well as serum Zn level at months 3 and 6 were assessed in 50 mother-infant pairs. BM intake significantly declined from 627 mL day(-1) at month 1 to 608 mL day(-1) at month 6 (P < 0.01). BM Zn concentration and intake significantly declined from month 1 to month 6 (P < 0.001 for both). Mean infant serum Zn level at months 3 and 6 were 93.0 ± 27.1 and 99.6 ± 30.1 µg dL(-1), respectively. Infant BM Zn intake at months 1 and 3 was not associated with the weight and length gain between 1-3 and 3-6 months, respectively. Zn intake from BM, maternal BM Zn content and serum Zn levels were not significantly different between small-for-gestational age and appropriate-for-gestational age infants. Therefore, among urban south Indian term infants less than 6 months of age, BM Zn intakes were low, owing to low volumes of BM intake, despite BM Zn concentrations being in the normal range. Promotion of breastfeeding and thereby increasing the volumes of milk produced is a first important step towards improving Zn intake among infants. PMID:22734965

Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Thankachan, Prashanth; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Virtanen, Suvi M; Kurpad, Anura V

2014-07-01

150

Marry for What? Caste and Mate Selection in Modern India  

E-print Network

This paper analyzes how preferences for a noneconomic characteristic (e.g., caste) can affect equilibrium patterns of matching, and empirically evaluates this in the context of middle-class Indian arranged marriages. We ...

Banerjee, Abhijit

151

Gender norms in South Africa: implications for HIV and pregnancy prevention among African and Indian women students at a South African tertiary institution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In post?Apartheid South Africa, women are constitutionally guaranteed protections and freedoms that were previously unknown to them. These freedoms may have positive implications for women's ability to negotiate sexual protection with partners and hence prevent unintended pregnancy and decrease their risk of HIV. Among tertiary institution students, who are a relatively ‘privileged’ group, there is little information on gender norms

Joanne E. Mantell; Sarah L. Needham; Jennifer Ann Smit; Susie Hoffman; Queen Cebekhulu; Theresa M. Exner; Zonke Mabude; Mags Beksinska; Zena A. Stein; Cecilia Milford

2009-01-01

152

Solubility of iron and other trace elements in rainwater collected on the Kerguelen Islands (South Indian Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soluble fraction of aerosols that is deposited on the open ocean is vital for phytoplankton growth. It is believed that a large proportion of this dissolved fraction is bioavailable for marine biota and thus plays an important role in primary production, especially in HNLC oceanic areas where this production is limited by micronutrient supply. There is still much uncertainty surrounding the solubility of atmospheric particles in global biogeochemical cycles and it is not well understood. In this study, we present the solubilities of seven elements (Al, Ce, Fe, La, Mn, Nd, Ti) in rainwater on the Kerguelen Islands, in the middle of the Southern Indian Ocean. The solubilities of elements exhibit high values, generally greater than 70%, and Ti remains the least soluble element. Because the Southern Indian Ocean is remote from its dust sources, only a fraction of smaller aerosols reaches the Kerguelen Islands after undergoing several cloud and chemical processes during their transport, resulting in a drastic increase in solubility. Finally, we deduced an average soluble iron deposition flux of 27 ± 6 ?g m-2 d-1 (~0.5 ?mol m-2 d-1) for the studied oceanic area, taking into account a median iron solubility of 82% ± 18%.

Heimburger, A.; Losno, R.; Triquet, S.

2013-10-01

153

Clinical applications and implications of common and founder mutations in Indian subpopulations.  

PubMed

South Asian Indians represent a sixth of the world's population and are a racially, geographically, and genetically diverse people. Their unique anthropological structure, prevailing caste system, and ancient religious practices have all impacted the genetic composition of most of the current-day Indian population. With the evolving socio-religious and economic activities of the subsects and castes, endogamous and consanguineous marriages became a commonplace. Consequently, the frequency of founder mutations and the burden of heritable genetic disorders rose significantly. Specifically, the incidence of certain autosomal-recessive disorders is relatively high in select Indian subpopulations and communities that share common recent ancestry. Although today clinical genetics and molecular diagnostic services are making inroads in India, the high costs associated with the technology and the tests often keep patients from an exact molecular diagnosis, making more customized and tailored tests, such as those interrogating the most common and founder mutations or those that cater to select sects within the population, highly attractive. These tests offer a quick first-hand affordable diagnostic and carrier screening tool. Here, we provide a comprehensive catalog of known common mutations and founder mutations in the Indian population and discuss them from a molecular, clinical, and historical perspective. PMID:25323826

Ankala, Arunkanth; Tamhankar, Parag M; Valencia, C Alexander; Rayam, Krishna K; Kumar, Manisha M; Hegde, Madhuri R

2015-01-01

154

Music Education and minority groups cultural and musical identities in the ‘newer’ South Africa: white Afrikaners and Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Music Education, as well as cultural and musical identities are all being renegotiated, post?Apartheid, within the so?called ‘newer’ rather than the commonly known ‘new’ South Africa. The developing situation with certain minority groups is particularly interesting. Education in general has undergone much change since the first democratic elections in 1994: music education specifically has been affected by such change in

Dawn Joseph; Caroline van Niekerk

2007-01-01

155

Association of depression with common carotid artery intima media thickness and augmentation index in a large Urban South Indian population- The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES - 138)  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of depression with carotid intima media thickness and augmentation index in Asian Indians. Research Design and Methods: For this study, 1505 subjects were randomly selected from a population based study conducted in Chennai, South India. Right common carotid artery intima medial thickness [IMT] was determined using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Augmentation index [AI] was measured using the Sphygmocor apparatus. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a previously validated instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire -12 (PHQ -12). Results: Of the 1505 subjects included in this study, depressive symptoms were present in 16.6% (n = 250) of the subjects. The mean IMT and AI values among subjects with depression were significantly higher than those without depression [0.83 ± 0.43 mm vs 0.73 ± 0.12 mm, P < 0.001] and IMT was higher in females with depression while AI was higher in males with depression. However, both IMT and AI were higher among those with depression in both genders. In multiple logistic regression model, depressive symptoms were associated with IMT even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, serum cholesterol and hypertension (Odds ratio [OR] =2.17, 95% Confidence intervals [CI]:1.01- 4.63, P = 0.047) but in the case of AI, the significance was lost in the adjusted model (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.991-1.02, P = 0.445). Conclusion: Among Asian Indians, presence of depressive symptoms was associated with carotid intima media thickness and Augmentation index, even after adjusting for potential confounders.

Poongothai, Subramani; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Indulekha, Karunakaran; Surendar, Jayagopi; Mohan, Viswanathan

2015-01-01

156

The Indian Heritage of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book nominated for the National Book Award, the author presents the past, present, and future of the Indians of North, Central, and South America with current archaeological findings which add to the knowledge about Indians. As noted, the volume contains information from the works of a large number of people who, since the time of…

Josephy, Alvin M., Jr.

157

An interdisciplinary approach to controlling chikungunya outbreaks on French islands in the south-west Indian ocean.  

PubMed

The outbreak of chikungunya that occurred on French Island territories in the southwest Indian Ocean in 2005 and 2006 caused severe morbidity and mortality. In the aftermath, French authorities set up a scientific task force including experts in epidemiology, public health, entomology, virology, immunology, sociology, animal health, community and hospital medicine. The mission of the task force was to conceive and propose research programs needed to increase understanding of the disease and epidemic and to help public health officials in improving epidemic response measures. The purpose of this article is to describe the findings of the task force at the end of its two-year existence and initial outcomes in the the areas studied. Discussion emphasizes topics requiring further study. PMID:22693932

Flahault, A; Aumont, G; Boisson, V; de Lamballerie, X; Favier, F; Fontenille, D; Journeaux, S; Lotteau, V; Paupy, C; Sanquer, M A; Setbon, M; Gaüzere, B A

2012-03-01

158

Tasks Ahead for Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews past accomplishments and remaining tasks in Indian education with particular emphasis on the production of technical and professional personnel to match the nation's labor needs and the spread of education to three previously disadvantaged groups: rural populations, women, and the scheduled castes and tribes. (SJL)

Yadav, R. K.

1980-01-01

159

Elevated nitrogen isotope ratios of tropical Indian aerosols from Chennai: Implication for the origins of aerosol nitrogen in South and Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand the origins of aerosol nitrogen, we measured concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and its isotope ratios (? 15N) in tropical Indian aerosols (PM 10) collected from Chennai (13.04°N; 80.17°E) on day- and night-time basis in winter and summer 2007. We found high ? 15N values (+15.7 to +31.2‰) of aerosol N (0.3-3.8 ?g m -3), in which NH 4+ is the major species (78%) with lesser contribution from NO 3- (6%). Based on the comparison of ? 15N in Chennai aerosols with those reported for atmospheric aerosols from mid-latitudes and for the particles emitted from point sources (including a laboratory study), as well as the ? 15N ratios of cow-dung samples (this study), we found that the atmospheric aerosol N in Chennai has two major sources; animal excreta and bio-fuel/biomass burning from South and Southeast Asia. We demonstrate that a gas-to-particle conversion of NH 3 to NH 4HSO 4 and (NH 4) 2SO 4 and the subsequent exchange reaction between NH 3 and NH 4+ are responsible for the isotopic enrichment of 15N in aerosol nitrogen.

Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Tachibana, Eri; Swaminathan, T.

2010-09-01

160

Hyperhomocysteinemia and the compound heterozygous state for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase are independent risk factors for deep vein thrombosis among South Indians.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (677 C-->T and 1298 A-->C), factor V (1691 G-->A), factor II (20210 G-->A) genetic polymorphisms and hyperhomocysteinemia in the aetiology of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in 163 cases and 163 controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for genotyping, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for plasma homocysteine, and Student's t-test and Fisher exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Elevated mean plasma homocysteine levels were observed in DVT cases irrespective of gender differences. Homocysteine elevation above the 95th percentile of the control group associated with 9.4-fold and 7.6-fold increased risk for DVT in men and women, respectively. Genotyping showed the MTHFR 677CT/1298AC genotype (i.e. compound heterozygosity) is associated with 3.5-fold risk for thrombosis. The factor V Leiden mutation frequency was higher in DVT cases, but not statistically significant; however, genetic predisposition to this mutation was associated with early age of DVT onset. Factor II mutation was absent in cases and controls. Co-segregation of two or more risk factors was associated with 11.7-fold increased risk for thrombosis. This study projects that hyperhomocysteinemia and compound heterozygous state for MTHFR are independent risk factors for DVT among South Indians. PMID:17287626

Naushad, Sm; Jamal, Nurul Jain; Angalena, R; Prasad, C Krishna; Devi, A Radha Rama

2007-03-01

161

Indian Language Information Retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the proliferation of the Internet in south Asia over the last decade, the availability of digital documents in Indian languages has increased considerably. The need for effective information access methods for these languages is being increasingly felt. Although Indian language information retrieval (ILIR) research is in a relatively nascent stage (especially with regard to large-scale quantitative evaluation), several research efforts in this area have been reported in the recent past. This chapter reviews the current state of the art in mono-lingual and cross-lingual information access in Indian languages and outlines a recent project that aims to create a comprehensive, end-to-end IR system for Indian languages, along with a standardized evaluation framework (in the spirit of TREC, CLEF, or NTCIR) that will provide a sound empirical basis for further work.

Majumder, Prasenjit; Mitra, Mandar

162

Cast Away  

Microsoft Academic Search

To strand actor Tom hanks on a deserted island, Cast Away begins with a visceral plane crash sequence incorporating CG water & waves, live action & miniature photography and numerous subtle digital effects. Once on the island, Hanks surveys the landscape revealing his isolation. Combining live action photography filmed in a parking lot in Malibu with a completely CG created

2001-01-01

163

Assessment of Prevalence and Mortality Incidences Due to Poisoning in a South Indian Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital  

PubMed Central

WHO reports estimate poisoning as one of the most common causes of increased morbidity and mortality rate world-wide. Various agents such as pesticides, drugs have been used for intentional and accidental poisoning in different countries. In the Indian scenario, pesticides are the most commonly used poisoning agents. To assess the prevalence and mortality incidence rate due to various poisoning agents a retrospective and prospective study conducted over a period of nine months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Retrospective data of poisoning cases was collected from the medical records section and the prospective data of poisoning cases was collected from the emergency and causality departments. A total of 1045 poisoning related admissions were identified during the period January 2005 to September 2008. Among them, 68.40% of cases were due to intentional poisoning and 31.60% were due to accidental poisoning. Of the poisoning related admissions, 84.4% of patients recovered, whereas in 7.6% of cases condition did not improve. Mortality rate was observed 4%. Intentional poisoning was observed more in male population (60.2%) in the age group of 18-29 years. Accidental poisoning was seen more in children in the age group of 1-3 years. Incidence of overall poisoning cases were high due to pesticides (39.5%) followed by medicines (26.1%), household products (22.1%), environmental poisoning (12.1%) and heavy metals (0.2%). It was observed that availability of centralised poison information centre and treatment protocols will improvise poison management practices in tertiary care hospitals by the clinicians. PMID:21694990

Jesslin, J.; Adepu, R.; Churi, S.

2010-01-01

164

Sensitivity of RegCM4.3 two convection schemes on Indian summer monsoon for the South Asia CORDEX domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional climate models can be used to examine the impact of global warming at the regional level for the possible emission scenarios. According to IPCC AR4, a number of studies noticed large inter model differences leading to large uncertainties in the projected future changes in different aspects of monsoon rainfall. The aim of this study to understand the different response of similarly forced model RegCM4.3 with different convection scheme over the Ocean. In this study, RegCM4.3 is used to generate the climate scenarios for South Asia CORDEX domain using boundary forcing of global coupled climate models GFDL-ESM2M and MPI-ESM-MR in control runs and two emission scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 obtained from CMIP5 archive. Emanuel convective parameterization scheme has been used over the land in all the experiments. Over the Ocean, experiments are designed using both Emanual and Grell convection schemes. Rest of the model configuration is based on the different sensitivity experiments conducted to reduce the model temperature and precipitation biases. The model has been integrated at 50km resolution starting from the initial condition of 1st Jan 1970 and the climate simulation continued till 1st Jan 2100. Results indicate that all India JJAS mean temperature change is consistent with clear projection of warming, whereas the projected JJAS precipitation change shows large spread and uncertainty in trends. Even the similar forcing experiments with difference only in the convective scheme over ocean show large difference in their projected precipitation. Climatology of JJAS precipitation over Indian land and low level westerlies for the historical period (1979-2005) is well represented. However, there are differences in the precipitation distribution at regional level within the experiments mainly over the Northwest and southern part of Peninsular India. In case of Emanuel over ocean, enhanced convection over Indian land is mainly associated with the weak westerlies over the Bay of Bengal. The positive anomalies of westerly jet are captured over the Arabian Sea in both the cases where Grell convection over ocean is used in RegCM4.3. Grell scheme over ocean has significantly improved the pattern of westerly flow in RegCM4.3 simulations forced with the considered GCMs.

Mamgain, Ashu; Mariotti, Laura; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo; Dash, Sushil Kumar

2013-04-01

165

Casting methods  

DOEpatents

A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

2012-12-18

166

Digital radiographic evaluation of mandibular third molar for age estimation in young adults and adolescents of South Indian population using modified Demirjian's method  

PubMed Central

In recent years, it has become increasingly important to determine the age of living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility and for many other social events such as birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army and retirement Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of mandibular third molar for estimation of dental age (DA) in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA) in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Digital orthopantomography of 330 subjects (165 males, 165 females) who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular third molar development was performed using Demirjian et al., modified method and DA was assessed using tooth specific stages. Results and Discussion: The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males and females. Third molar development commenced around 9 years and root completion takes place around 18.9 years in males and in females 9 years and 18.6 years respectively. Demirjian modified method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.8 years and females by 0.5 years and also showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. Conclusion: Digital radiographic assessment of mandibular third molar development can be used to generate mean DA using Demirjian modified method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA. Since the Demirjian method is based on French-Canadian population, to enhance the accuracy of forensic age estimates based on third molar development, the use of population-specific standards is recommended. PMID:25177143

Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Koganti, Ravichandra; Kalyan, Siva V.; Tircouveluri, Saritha; Singh, Johar Rajvinder; Srinivasulu, Enganti

2014-01-01

167

Investigating correlations in the altered metabolic profiles of obese and diabetic subjects in a South Indian Asian population using an NMR-based metabolomic approach.  

PubMed

It is well known that obesity/high body mass index (BMI) plays a key role in the evolution of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the exact mechanism underlying its contribution is still not fully understood. This work focuses on an NMR-based metabolomic investigation of the serum profiles of diabetic, obese South Indian Asian subjects. (1)H 1D and 2D NMR experiments were performed to profile the altered metabolic patterns of obese diabetic subjects and multivariate statistical methods were used to identify metabolites that contributed significantly to the differences in the samples of four different subject groups: diabetic and non-diabetic with low and high BMIs. Our analysis revealed that the T2DM-high BMI group has higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids, certain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, lysine, proline, threonine, valine, glutamine, phenylalanine, histidine), lactic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, choline, 3,7-dimethyluric acid, pantothenic acid, myoinositol, sorbitol, glycerol, and glucose, as compared to the non-diabetic-low BMI (control) group. Of these 19 identified significant metabolites, the levels of saturated fatty acids, lactate, valine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine are also higher in obese non-diabetic subjects as compared to control subjects, implying that this set of metabolites could be identified as potential biomarkers for the onset of diabetes in subjects with a high BMI. Our work validates the utility of NMR-based metabolomics in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis to provide insights into the underlying metabolic pathways that are perturbed in diabetic subjects with a high BMI. PMID:25464928

Gogna, Navdeep; Krishna, Murahari; Oommen, Anup Mammen; Dorai, Kavita

2015-02-20

168

Food Marketing towards Children: Brand Logo Recognition, Food-Related Behavior and BMI among 3–13-Year-Olds in a South Indian Town  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess exposure to marketing of unhealthy food products and its relation to food related behavior and BMI in children aged 3–13, from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a south Indian town. Methods Child-parent pairs (n?=?306) were recruited at pediatric clinics. Exposure to food marketing was assessed by a digital logo recognition test. Children matched 18 logos of unhealthy food (high in fat/sugar/salt) featured in promotion material from the food industry to pictures of corresponding products. Children's nutritional knowledge, food preferences, purchase requests, eating behavior and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed by a digital game and parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results Recognition rates for the brand logos ranged from 30% to 80%. Logo recognition ability increased with age (p<0.001) and socioeconomic level (p<0.001 comparing children in the highest and lowest of three socioeconomic groups). Adjusted for gender, age and socioeconomic group, logo recognition was associated with higher BMI (p?=?0.022) and nutritional knowledge (p<0.001) but not to unhealthy food preferences or purchase requests. Conclusions Children from higher socioeconomic groups in the region had higher brand logo recognition ability and are possibly exposed to more food marketing. The study did not lend support to a link between exposure to marketing and poor eating behavior, distorted nutritional knowledge or increased purchase requests. The correlation between logo recognition and BMI warrants further investigation on food marketing towards children and its potential role in the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in this part of India. PMID:23082137

Ueda, Peter; Tong, Leilei; Viedma, Cristobal; Chandy, Sujith J.; Marrone, Gaetano; Simon, Anna; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

2012-01-01

169

A cross-sectional study of visual impairment in elderly population in residential care in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prevalence and major causes of visual impairment (VI) in elderly residents of ‘home for the aged’ institutions in the Prakasam district in India. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting ‘Home for the aged’ institutions in the Prakasam district in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Participants All 524 residents in the 26 ‘homes for aged’ institutions in the district were enumerated. Primary and secondary outcome measures Prevalence and causes of VI; visual acuity (VA) was assessed using a Snellen chart at a distance of 6?m. Pinhole VA was assessed if presenting VA was <6/18. Torchlight examination and direct ophthalmoscopy were performed. VI was defined as presenting VA <6/18 in the better eye. Results Of the 494 participants examined (response rate 94.3%), 78.1% were women, 72.1% had no formal schooling. The mean age of participants was 70?years (SD ±8.6?years). VI was present in 280/494 individuals (56.9%; 95% CI 52.3 to 61.3). Over 80% of the VI was due to avoidable causes including cataract (57.1%) and uncorrected refractive errors (26.4%). Among 134 individuals who had undergone bilateral cataract surgery, only 78 (58.2%) individuals had presenting VA ?6/18 and 13/134 (9.7%) participants were blind. Conclusions There is high prevalence of VI in the institutionalised elderly population in the Prakasam district in India. A significant proportion of this elderly population with VI can benefit from spectacles and cataract surgery. Strategies are required to provide high-quality services to this population. PMID:23503606

Marmamula, Srinivas; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar L V; Boon, Mei Ying; Khanna, Rohit C

2013-01-01

170

An early South Asian dust storm during March 2012 and its impacts on Indian Himalayan foothills: a case study.  

PubMed

The impacts of an early South Asian dust storm that originated over the western part of the Middle East and engulfed northwest parts of India during the third week of March 2012 have been studied at four different stations covering India and Pakistan. The impacts of this dust storm on aerosol optical properties were studied in detail at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi. The impact could also be traced up to central Himalayan foothills at Manora Peak. During dust events, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm reached a peak value of 0.96, 1.02, 2.17 and 0.49 with a corresponding drop in Ångström exponent (AE for 440-870 nm) to 0.01, -0.02, 0.00 and 0.12 at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi, respectively. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 675 nm was relatively lower at Delhi (0.87) and Jodhpur (0.86), with absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) less than 1.0, but a large value of SSA was observed at Lahore (0.98) and Karachi (0.93), with AAE value greater than 1.0 during the event. The study of radiative impact of dust aerosols revealed a significant cooling at the surface and warming in the atmosphere (with corresponding large heating rate) at all the stations during dust event. The effect of this dust storm was also seen at Manora Peak in central Himalayas which showed an enhancement of ~28% in the AOD at 500 nm. The transport of dust during such events can have severe climatic implications over the affected plains and the Himalayas. PMID:24973722

Srivastava, A K; Soni, V K; Singh, Sachchidanand; Kanawade, V P; Singh, N; Tiwari, S; Attri, S D

2014-09-15

171

[Rebus Reading Book Series: A Product of a Project to Create Stories and Beginning Reading Material for Pre-School Indian Children in South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Rebus Reading Book Series" in this document consists of 10 booklets, each containing an illustrated story adopted from an Indian folk tale. The booklets, intended for use as supplementary readers, are designed to introduce readers in grades 1.7 to 2.2 to Indian cultural history as well as to improve use of English by building larger speaking…

Webster, Loraine; Schleif, Mabel

172

Clamshell Casting! Stefanie Wuhrer  

E-print Network

Clamshell Casting! By Stefanie Wuhrer A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research acceptance of the thesis, Clamshell Casting! submitted by Stefanie Wuhrer Douglas Howe (Director is casting, where liquid is poured into a cast and the cast is removed once the liquid has hardened. We

Wuhrer, Stefanie

173

Casting materials  

SciTech Connect

A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

2011-06-14

174

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India.  

PubMed

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh and 86 from the rest of India. We typed 131 Y-chromosomal binary markers and 16 microsatellites. We find striking evidence for male substructure: in particular, Brahmins and Kshatriyas (but not other castes) from Jaunpur each show low diversity and the predominance of a single distinct cluster of haplotypes. These findings confirm the genetic isolation and drift within the Jaunpur upper castes, which are likely to result from founder effects and social factors. In the other castes, there may be either larger effective population sizes, or less strict isolation, or both. PMID:17075717

Zerjal, Tatiana; Pandya, Arpita; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Ling, Edmund Y S; Kearley, Jennifer; Bertoneri, Stefania; Paracchini, Silvia; Singh, Lalji; Tyler-Smith, Chris

2007-03-01

175

Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of pH1N1 2009 Influenza Virus in Reunion Island, South West Indian Ocean Region: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Molecular epidemiology is a powerful tool to decipher the dynamics of viral transmission, quasispecies temporal evolution and origins. Little is known about the pH1N1 molecular dynamics in general population. A prospective study (CoPanFlu-RUN) was carried out in Reunion Island to characterize pH1N1 genetic variability and molecular evolution occurring in population during the pH1N1 Influenza pandemic in 2009. Methodology We directly amplified pH1N1 genomes from 28 different nasal swabs (26 individuals from 21 households). Fifteen strains were fully sequenced and 13 partially. This includes pairs of sequences from different members of 5 separate households; and two pairs from individuals, collected at different times. We assessed the molecular evolution of pH1N1 by genetic variability and phylogenetic analyses. Principal Findings We found that i) Reunion pH1N1 sequences stemmed from global “clade 7” but shaped two phylogenetic sub-clades; ii) D239E mutation was identified in the hemagglutinin protein of all Reunion sequences, a mutation which has been associated elsewhere with mild-, upper-respiratory tract pH1N1 infecting strains; iii) Date estimates from molecular phylogenies predicted clade emergence some time before the first detection of pH1N1 by the epidemiological surveillance system; iv) Phylogenetic relatedness was observed between Reunion pH1N1 viruses and those from other countries in South-western Indian Ocean area; v) Quasispecies populations were observed within households and individuals of the cohort-study. Conclusions Surveillance and/or prevention systems presently based on Influenza virus sequence variation should take into account that the majority of studies of pH1N1 Influenza generate genetic data for the HA/NA viral segments obtained from hospitalized-patients, which is potentially non-representative of the overall viral diversity within whole populations. Our observations highlight the importance of collecting unbiased data at the community level and conducting whole genome analysis to accurately understand viral dynamics. PMID:22952752

Turpin, Magali; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Dellagi, Koussay

2012-01-01

176

Social class related inequalities in household health expenditure and economic burden: evidence from Kerala, south India  

PubMed Central

Background In the Indian context, a household's caste characteristics are most relevant for identifying its poverty and vulnerability status. Inadequate provision of public health care, the near-absence of health insurance and increasing dependence on the private health sector have impoverished the poor and the marginalised, especially the scheduled tribe population. This study examines caste-based inequalities in households' out-of-pocket health expenditure in the south Indian state of Kerala and provides evidence on the consequent financial burden inflicted upon households in different caste groups. Methods Using data from a 2003-2004 panel survey in Kottathara Panchayat that collected detailed information on health care consumption from 543 households, we analysed inequality in per capita out-of-pocket health expenditure across castes by considering households' health care needs and types of care utilised. We used multivariate regression to measure the caste-based inequality in health expenditure. To assess health expenditure burden, we analysed households incurring high health expenses and their sources of finance for meeting health expenses. Results The per capita health expenditures reported by four caste groups accord with their status in the caste hierarchy. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis after controlling for health care needs and influential confounders. Households with high health care needs are more disadvantaged in terms of spending on health care. Households with high health care needs are generally at higher risk of spending heavily on health care. Hospitalisation expenditure was found to have the most impoverishing impacts, especially on backward caste households. Conclusion Caste-based inequality in household health expenditure reflects unequal access to quality health care by different caste groups. Households with high health care needs and chronic health care needs are most affected by this inequality. Households in the most marginalised castes and with high health care need require protection against impoverishing health expenditures. Special emphasis must be given to funding hospitalisation, as this expenditure puts households most at risk in terms of mobilising monetary resources. However, designing protection instruments requires deeper understanding of how the uncovered financial burden of out-patient and hospitalisation expenditure creates negative consequences and of the relative magnitude of this burden on households. PMID:21214941

2011-01-01

177

Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.

178

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

179

Indian Legends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

180

77 FR 47302 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Attorney General regarding Indian country language. No further opportunity for comment...the EPA's definition of Indian country, where the state is not authorized...land'' in South Dakota is Indian country. With this Final Rule the...

2012-08-08

181

Village and Tribal Genetic Distances among American Indians, and the Possible Implications for Human Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair-wise genetic distances based on six genetic systems (Rh, MNSs, Kidd, Duffy, Diego, and haptoglobins) are presented for seven villages of Makiritare Indians, seven villages of Yanomama Indians, and 12 Indian tribes of Central and South America. It is shown that the mean genetic distance between Indian villages is 85-90 per cent of the distance between tribes. Since in the

James V. Neel; Richard H. Ward

1970-01-01

182

Political Stability and Continuity in the Indian States During the Nehru Era, 1947-1964: A Statistical Analysis. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The period of Nehru's administration of India, 1974-1964, is statistically analyzed for political continuity and stability by examining the office terms of chief ministers for the Indian states during that time. After a brief introduction, the document mainly consists of statistical tables. A summary table of percentage turnover of ministers and…

Singh, Baljit; Vajpeyi, Dhirendra K.

183

First description of the worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The hitherto unknown worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Forel, 1894) is described for the first time. Sexuals are redescribed and photomontage images of all castes are provided. A key is presented to separate the six Indian species of Nylanderia. Previously described Nylanderia assimilis (Jerdon, 1851) is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:25197237

Bharti, Himender

2014-01-01

184

A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

2014-01-01

185

Cool Cast Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Placed? First, the doctor or cast technician — tech for short (or another person who is trained ... some water on it. The doctor or cast tech wraps the plaster or fiberglass around the soft ...

186

LLNL casting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

1994-01-01

187

LLNL casting technology  

SciTech Connect

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III [eds.

1994-01-01

188

25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE INDIAN TRIBE, UINTAH AND OURAY RESERVATION, UTAH, BY THE TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and...

2012-04-01

189

25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE INDIAN TRIBE, UINTAH AND OURAY RESERVATION, UTAH, BY THE TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and...

2011-04-01

190

25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE INDIAN TRIBE, UINTAH AND OURAY RESERVATION, UTAH, BY THE TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and...

2010-04-01

191

Casting and Molding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can explore the process used to cast and mold molten metal, glass, and plastics. Using gelatin, the learner will work with a variety of molds to create castings. When the shapes are unmolded, the learner can tactually explore the casts.

Perkins School for the Blind

2012-06-26

192

Indian Ocean Tsunami on 26 December 2004: Numerical Modelling of Inundation in the City of Matara on the South Coast of Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a On December 26, 2004, the coastal belt of Sri Lanka as well as several other countries bordering the Indian Ocean suffered\\u000a massive loss of life and damage to property due to the tsunami unleashed by the third largest earthquake ever recorded. One\\u000a way of mitigating potential loss of lives from a similar event in the future is through advance warning

J. J. Wijetunge

193

Indian Ocean analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality control of data as research bodies are replaced by operational bodies in the Global Ocean Observing System.

Meyers, Gary

1992-01-01

194

South Asian diets and insulin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A role of dietary nutrients in relation to insulin resistance has been suggested but conclusive evidence in human beings is lacking. Asian Indians and South Asians are prone to develop insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. In the present paper, data pertaining to nutrient intake, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians and South Asians have been reviewed.

Anoop Misra; Lokesh Khurana; Sumit Isharwal; Swati Bhardwaj

2008-01-01

195

Alu polymorphic insertions reveal genetic structure of north Indian populations.  

PubMed

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations in North India were examined for 10 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs). The investigated PAIs exhibit high levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity. Limited interpopulation variance and genetic flow in the present study suggest admixture. The results of this study demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, the caste system has not provided an impermeable barrier to genetic exchange among Indian groups. PMID:19341319

Tripathi, Manorama; Tripathi, Piyush; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Herrera, Rene J; Agrawal, Suraksha

2008-10-01

196

Cast aluminized explosives (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current status and future trends of aluminized explosives. The major focus is on cast compositions,\\u000a which encompass both the melt-cast trinitrotoluene (TNT) based and the slurry cast polymer-based compositions. Widely reported\\u000a RDX and HMX based aluminized compositions with TNT used as a binder are discussed in detail. Various researchers have suggested\\u000a a 15–20% Al content as

P. P. Vadhe; R. B. Pawar; R. K. Sinha; S. N. Asthana; A. Subhananda Rao

2008-01-01

197

Indian Podophyllum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Indian Podophyllum is very rich in a resin of cathartic action, it has been the subject of several botanical, chemical\\u000a and pharmacological investigations, and has been admitted to the British Pharmacopoeia but not yet to that of the United States.

Ramgopal Chatterjee

1952-01-01

198

Indian Orphanages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

Holt, Marilyn Irvin

199

Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page

Hickey, Barbara

200

Wyoming Indians, Unit II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the land.…

Robinson, Terry

201

Design and baseline characteristics of the PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes & Obesity in South Asians) trial: a cluster, randomised lifestyle intervention in Indian and Pakistani adults with impaired glycaemia at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the design and baseline population characteristics of an adapted lifestyle intervention trial aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity in people of Indian and Pakistani origin at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Design Cluster, randomised controlled trial. Setting Community-based in Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland, UK. Participants 156 families, comprising 171 people with impaired glycaemia, and waist sizes ?90?cm (men) and ?80?cm (women), plus 124 family volunteers. Interventions Families were randomised into either an intensive intervention of 15 dietitian visits providing lifestyle advice, or a light (control) intervention of four visits, over a period of 3?years. Outcome measures The primary outcome is a change in mean weight between baseline and 3?years. Secondary outcomes are changes in waist, hip, body mass index, plasma blood glucose and physical activity. The cost of the intervention will be measured. Qualitative work will seek to understand factors that motivated participation and retention in the trial and families’ experience of adhering to the interventions. Results Between July 2007 and October 2009, 171 people with impaired glycaemia, along with 124 family volunteers, were randomised. In total, 95% (171/196) of eligible participants agreed to proceed to the 3-year trial. Only 13 of the 156 families contained more than one recruit with impaired glycaemia. We have recruited sufficient participants to undertake an adequately powered trial to detect a mean difference in weight of 2.5?kg between the intensive and light intervention groups at the 5% significance level. Over half the families include family volunteers. The main participants have a mean age of 52?years and 64% are women. Conclusions Prevention of Diabetes & Obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) is one of the first community-based, randomised lifestyle intervention trials in a UK South Asian population. The main trial results will be submitted for publication during 2013. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN25729565 (http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/). PMID:23435795

Douglas, Anne; Bhopal, Raj S; Bhopal, Ruby; Forbes, John F; Gill, Jason M R; McKnight, John; Murray, Gordon; Sattar, Naveed; Sharma, Anu; Wallia, Sunita; Wild, Sarah; Sheikh, Aziz

2013-01-01

202

Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands  

PubMed Central

The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component) or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B), many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-?s) or betasatellites (DNA-?s). Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs) DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world. PMID:23170182

Rey, Marie E. C.; Ndunguru, Joseph; Berrie, Leigh C.; Paximadis, Maria; Berry, Shaun; Cossa, Nurbibi; Nuaila, Valter N.; Mabasa, Ken G.; Abraham, Natasha; Rybicki, Edward P.; Martin, Darren; Pietersen, Gerhard; Esterhuizen, Lindy L.

2012-01-01

203

18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Detail sheet - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

204

15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 First Floor - plumbing - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

205

16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 first floor mechanical plan - heating - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

206

17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Elevations - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

207

14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, N&, 1934 Foundation Plan - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

208

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

209

Indian Health Disparities  

MedlinePLUS

... Indian and Alaska Native race on state death certificates; 2006-2008 rates.) Given the higher health status ... Indian and Alaska Native race on state death certificates. American Indian and Alaska Native age-adjusted death ...

210

Clean Metal Casting  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

211

Mechanisms of stabilization of earthworm casts and artificial casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh casts were collected from the earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa, and artificial casts were also made. The casts were subjected to ageing, drying-rewetting, and sterilization by hexanol vapour. Clay dispersion was determined, as a measure of the lack of stability of the casts. Two soils were used, the topsoil of a recently reclaimed polder soil in the Netherlands and the

J. C. Y. Marinissen; A. R. Dexter

1990-01-01

212

International Indian Treaty Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is "an organization of indigenous peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific working for the sovereignty and self determination of indigenous peoples." To achieve their broad goals, the IITC works to support networks of indigenous peoples around the world through their policy work in areas that include global trade, women's rights, reproductive health, and the environment. On their homepage, visitors can browse through thematic headings on the left-hand side of the page, such as "Treaty Conferences", "Cultural Rights", "Health/Toxics", and about a dozen additional listings. Visitors should also click on the "Web Content" tab to read flyers, United Nations resolutions, and draft declarations. Also, visitors can sign up to subscribe to the IITC's electronic news updates here.

213

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

Poco, J.F.

1993-09-07

214

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01

215

A Winning Cast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

2001-01-01

216

Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps  

DOEpatents

Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Schaeffer, Jon Conrad (Greenville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT)

2002-01-01

217

Rising Tide of Cardiovascular Disease in American Indians The Strong Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) used to be rare among American Indians, Indian Health Service data suggest that CVD mortality rates vary greatly among American Indian communities and appear to be increasing. The Strong Heart Study was initiated to investigate CVD and its risk factors in American Indians in 13 communities in Arizona, Oklahoma, and South\\/North Dakota. Methods and Results—A total

Barbara V. Howard; Elisa T. Lee; Linda D. Cowan; Richard B. Devereux; James M. Galloway; Oscar T. Go; William James Howard; Everett R. Rhoades; David C. Robbins; Maurice L. Sievers; Thomas K. Welty

218

Physicochemical and genetic analysis of an endemic rice variety, Njavara (Oryza sativa L.), in comparison to two popular South Indian cultivars, Jyothi (PTB 39) and IR 64.  

PubMed

Njavara is a medicinal rice strain, endemic to Kerala, South India, bestowed with medicinal qualities. Genetic variations and some of the physicochemical properties were studied using standard molecular protocols and compared with those of nonmedicinal rice varieties: Jyothi and IR 64. Njavara showed 11 unique positive and 36 unique negative markers to differentiate it from Jyothi and IR 64. Genetic similarity coefficient studies showed two well-defined clusters separating Njavara from Jyothi and IR 64. All the three varieties had waxy gene Wx(a) allele. Njavara had (CT)(n) repeats at (CT)(10), while Jyothi and IR 64 had repeats at (CT)(11) in the 5'-untranslated region of waxy gene. Njavara showed a CGTG sequence, while Jyothi and IR 64 had a CGCG sequence at the 14th exon of Sbe 1 gene. Njavara, Jyothi, and IR 64 have similar amylose equivalent (AE), which was confirmed by microsatellite markers. The SSR primers for protein content and setback viscosity primer (RM 4608) were observed to be polymorphic in case of Njavara. Njavara rice, with a distinct gene pool and medicinal properties, can be exploited as a nutraceutical rice. PMID:19924858

Deepa, G; Venkatachalam, L; Bhagyalakshmi, N; Shashidhar, H E; Singh, Vasudeva; Naidu, K Akhilender

2009-12-23

219

Indian Studies Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A product of the Indian Studies Curriculum Committee and the Indian Studies Staff, this manual on the Indians of Southeast Alaska constitutes a useable classroom tool designed for the cross-cultural program in the Juneau School District. Objectives of this Indian Studies Program are identified as: to increase knowledge, awareness, and positive…

Peck, Cy, Sr.; And Others

220

American Indians Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

Snipp, C. Matthew

221

The relation between caste ratios and division of labor in the ant genus Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten species of Pheidole, representing as many species groups from various localities in North and South America, Asia, and Africa, were analyzed to probe for possible relationships between caste ratios and division of labor.

Edward O. Wilson

1984-01-01

222

BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation analysis among Indian women from south India: identification of four novel mutations and high-frequency occurrence of 185delAG mutation.  

PubMed

Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes profoundly increase the risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer among women. To explore the contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the development of hereditary breast cancer among Indian women, we carried out mutation analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 61 breast or ovarian cancer patients from south India with a positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Mutation analysis was carried out using conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) followed by sequencing. Mutations were identified in 17 patients (28.0%); 15 (24.6%) had BRCA1 mutations and two (3.28%) had BRCA2 mutations. While no specific association between BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations with cancer type was seen, mutations were more often seen in families with ovarian cancer. While 40% (4/10) and 30.8% (4/12) of families with ovarian or breast and ovarian cancer had mutations, only 23.1% (9/39) of families with breast cancer carried mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In addition, while BRCA1 mutations were found in all age groups, BRCA2 mutations were found only in the age group of < or =40 years. Of the BRCA1 mutations, there were three novel mutations (295delCA; 4213T-->A; 5267T-->G) and three mutations that have been reported earlier. Interestingly, 185delAG, a BRCA1 mutation which occurs at a very high frequency in Ashkenazi Jews, was found at a frequency of 16.4% (10/61). There was one novel mutation (4866insT) and one reported mutation in BRCA2. Thus, our study emphasizes the importance of mutation screening in familial breast and/or ovarian cancers, and the potential implications of these findings in genetic counselling and preventive therapy. PMID:19805903

Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Lakhotia, Smita; Ravishankar, H M; Tabassum, Umaira; Mukherjee, Geetashree; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

2009-09-01

223

Source-diagnostic dual-isotope composition and optical properties of water-soluble organic carbon and elemental carbon in the South Asian outflow intercepted over the Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

dual carbon isotope signatures and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols have been investigated simultaneously for the first time in the South Asian outflow during an intensive campaign at the Maldives Climate Observatory on Hanimaadhoo (MCOH) (February and March 2012). As one component of the Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing Dynamics Experiment, this paper reports on the sources and the atmospheric processing of elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) as examined by a dual carbon isotope approach. The radiocarbon (?14C) data show that WSOC has a significantly higher biomass/biogenic contribution (86 ± 5%) compared to EC (59 ± 4%). The more 13C-enriched signature of MCOH-WSOC (-20.8 ± 0.7‰) compared to MCOH-EC (-25.8 ± 0.3‰) and megacity Delhi WSOC (-24.1 ± 0.9‰) suggests that WSOC is significantly more affected by aging during long-range transport than EC. The ?13C-?14C signal suggests that the wintertime WSOC intercepted over the Indian Ocean largely represents aged primary biomass burning aerosols. Since light-absorbing organic carbon aerosols (Brown Carbon (BrC)) have recently been identified as potential contributors to positive radiative forcing, optical properties of WSOC were also investigated. The mass absorption cross section of WSOC (MAC365) was 0.5 ± 0.2 m2 g-1 which is lower than what has been observed at near-source sites, indicating a net decrease of WSOC light-absorption character during long-range transport. Near-surface WSOC at MCOH accounted for ~1% of the total direct solar absorbance relative to EC, which is lower than the BrC absorption inferred from solar spectral observations of ambient aerosols, suggesting that a significant portion of BrC might be included in the water-insoluble portion of organic aerosols.

Bosch, Carme; Andersson, August; Kirillova, Elena N.; Budhavant, Krishnakant; Tiwari, Suresh; Praveen, P. S.; Russell, Lynn M.; Beres, Nicholas D.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Gustafsson, Örjan

2014-10-01

224

Spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that A, B and O allele frequency surfaces on the Indian subcontinent are highly fractured.  

PubMed

Spatial autocorrelation analysis performed on published data pertaining to caste and tribal populations of the Indian subcontinent has revealed that the surfaces of A, B and O allele frequencies are highly fractured. The only significant spatial autocorrelation was observed in respect of the A allele frequency among caste populations. PMID:9270330

Mukherjee, B N; Majumder, P P

1995-12-01

225

Indian Parliament  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With one of the largest parliamentary bodies in the world, it is not surprising that the Web site for the Indian Parliament contains a staggering amount of information about its operations, its members, bills, budget proposals, and other important governmental proceedings. Visitors will want to begin by browsing through the section on the president of India (currently this is Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam) to learn about his recent statements and speeches, along with information about the beautiful presidential palace and the exquisite Mughal Garden. The other sections of the site are also compelling, and include areas devoted to the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People), where guests can read recent debates (some of which are only available in Hindi), and learn about the members of each body. Additionally, there is a frequently asked questions area that answers some basic queries about the organization and history of the Parliament.

226

Visual Impairment in the South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh - Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (AP-RAVI) Project  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in urban and rural population aged ?40 years in the South India state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted in which 7800 subjects were sampled from two rural and an urban locations. Visual Acuity (VA) was assessed using a tumbling E chart and eye examinations were performed by trained vision technicians. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information and previous consultation to eye care providers. Blindness and moderate Visual Impairment (VI) was defined as presenting VA <6/60 and <6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye respectively. VI included blindness and moderate VI. Results Of the 7800 subjects enumerated, 7378 (94.6%) were examined. Among those examined, 46.4% were male and 61.8% of them had no education. The mean age of those examined (51.7 years; standard deviation 10.9 years) was similar to those not examined (52.8 years; standard deviation 9.9 years) (p?=?0.048). Age and gender adjusted prevalence of VI was 14.3% (95% CI: 13.5–15.0). Refractive errors were the leading cause of VI accounting for 47.6% of all VI followed by cataract (43.7%). Together, they contributed to over 91.3% of the total VI. With multiple logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased significantly with increasing age. Those respondents who had no education were twice (95% CI: 1.7–2.5) more likely to have VI compared to those who were educated. VI was associated with rural residence (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1–1.6). The association between VI and gender was not statistically significant. Conclusions The visual impairment remains a public health challenge in Andhra Pradesh, most of which can be addressed with relatively straight forward interventions like cataract surgery and spectacles. The eye care services need to be streamlined to address this challenge. PMID:23894601

Marmamula, Srinivas; Narsaiah, Saggam; Shekhar, Konegari; Khanna, Rohit C.; Rao, Gullapalli N.

2013-01-01

227

The phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup h1a1a-m82 reveals the likely Indian origin of the European Romani populations.  

PubMed

Linguistic and genetic studies on Roma populations inhabited in Europe have unequivocally traced these populations to the Indian subcontinent. However, the exact parental population group and time of the out-of-India dispersal have remained disputed. In the absence of archaeological records and with only scanty historical documentation of the Roma, comparative linguistic studies were the first to identify their Indian origin. Recently, molecular studies on the basis of disease-causing mutations and haploid DNA markers (i.e. mtDNA and Y-chromosome) supported the linguistic view. The presence of Indian-specific Y-chromosome haplogroup H1a1a-M82 and mtDNA haplogroups M5a1, M18 and M35b among Roma has corroborated that their South Asian origins and later admixture with Near Eastern and European populations. However, previous studies have left unanswered questions about the exact parental population groups in South Asia. Here we present a detailed phylogeographical study of Y-chromosomal haplogroup H1a1a-M82 in a data set of more than 10,000 global samples to discern a more precise ancestral source of European Romani populations. The phylogeographical patterns and diversity estimates indicate an early origin of this haplogroup in the Indian subcontinent and its further expansion to other regions. Tellingly, the short tandem repeat (STR) based network of H1a1a-M82 lineages displayed the closest connection of Romani haplotypes with the traditional scheduled caste and scheduled tribe population groups of northwestern India. PMID:23209554

Rai, Niraj; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Tamang, Rakesh; Pathak, Ajai Kumar; Singh, Vipin Kumar; Karmin, Monika; Singh, Manvendra; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Anugula, Sharath; Yadav, Brijesh Kumar; Singh, Ashish; Srinivasagan, Ramkumar; Yadav, Anita; Kashyap, Manju; Narvariya, Sapna; Reddy, Alla G; van Driem, George; Underhill, Peter A; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2012-01-01

228

The Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup H1a1a-M82 Reveals the Likely Indian Origin of the European Romani Populations  

PubMed Central

Linguistic and genetic studies on Roma populations inhabited in Europe have unequivocally traced these populations to the Indian subcontinent. However, the exact parental population group and time of the out-of-India dispersal have remained disputed. In the absence of archaeological records and with only scanty historical documentation of the Roma, comparative linguistic studies were the first to identify their Indian origin. Recently, molecular studies on the basis of disease-causing mutations and haploid DNA markers (i.e. mtDNA and Y-chromosome) supported the linguistic view. The presence of Indian-specific Y-chromosome haplogroup H1a1a-M82 and mtDNA haplogroups M5a1, M18 and M35b among Roma has corroborated that their South Asian origins and later admixture with Near Eastern and European populations. However, previous studies have left unanswered questions about the exact parental population groups in South Asia. Here we present a detailed phylogeographical study of Y-chromosomal haplogroup H1a1a-M82 in a data set of more than 10,000 global samples to discern a more precise ancestral source of European Romani populations. The phylogeographical patterns and diversity estimates indicate an early origin of this haplogroup in the Indian subcontinent and its further expansion to other regions. Tellingly, the short tandem repeat (STR) based network of H1a1a-M82 lineages displayed the closest connection of Romani haplotypes with the traditional scheduled caste and scheduled tribe population groups of northwestern India. PMID:23209554

Pathak, Ajai Kumar; Singh, Vipin Kumar; Karmin, Monika; Singh, Manvendra; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Anugula, Sharath; Yadav, Brijesh Kumar; Singh, Ashish; Srinivasagan, Ramkumar; Yadav, Anita; Kashyap, Manju; Narvariya, Sapna; Reddy, Alla G.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2012-01-01

229

The Dyslexia Foundation is Sponsoring a Web-Cast Conference  

E-print Network

The Dyslexia Foundation is Sponsoring a Web-Cast Conference The Dyslexia Foundation 4 Narragansett St./PO Box P-22 South Dartmouth, MA 02748 TheDyslexiaFoundation@gmail.com TheDyslexiaFoundation.org Reading/Literacy, Dyslexia and the Brain In Celebration of the 25th Anniversary of The Dyslexia Research

230

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the mold in the center-right of the photo are present immediately after the pour has been completed - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

231

NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, WITH BLOWER HOUSE TO THE EAST AND CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE TO THE WEST, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

232

Dopamine receptor D4 exon 3 variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism: Distribution in eastern Indian population  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: A 48bp variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR), in the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), has been extensively studied in association with a variety of traits and neuropsychiatric disorders in different ethnic groups; the VNTR has been found to affect receptor binding. AIMS: This investigation, for the first time, compared distribution of DRD4 VNTR in different Indian populations from the eastern part of the country, belonging to Indo-Caucasoid and Indo-Mongoloid ethnicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 852 individuals were recruited and divided into six population groups; Brahmin, Kayastha, Scheduled Caste, Mahishya, Muslim and Manipuri (Meitei). Allele and genotype frequencies were compared among groups as well as with data available for south-western Indian population. RESULTS: A total of six alleles (2-7-repeats) were observed, of which the 4-repeat (4R) was most frequent. Gross genetic dissimilarities were noticed between the Indo-Caucasoid and Indo-Mongoloid ethnic groups. Muslim group lacked 5R and 7R, while Manipuri group exhibited a very high frequency of 2R. Populations from eastern India revealed lower 7R frequencies as compared to the south-western populations. CONCLUSIONS: The DRD4 VNTR has been reported to play important role in cognition and alleles with higher repeats have been found to be associated with novelty seeking and personality traits. The present comparative analysis of different eastern Indian population would be helpful in extending our knowledge on this particular DRD4 variant. It will also be useful in understanding the behavioural differences between populations in the light of their genetic make up. PMID:21957346

Bhaduri, Nipa; Das, Manali; Das, Aneek Bhowmik; Mukhopadhyay, Kanchan

2007-01-01

233

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

234

Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 2 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 3 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 4 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 5 #12

Hickey, Barbara

235

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

236

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

237

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

238

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-09-28

239

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

240

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

241

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

242

Rapid casting solutions: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to review the industrial applications of state-of-the-art additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in metal casting technology. An extensive survey of concepts, techniques, approaches and suitability of various commercialised rapid casting (RC) solutions with traditional casting methods is presented. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The tooling required for producing metal casting such as fabrication of patterns, cores and moulds with

Munish Chhabra; Rupinder Singh

2011-01-01

243

Towards the Creation of Appropriate Teaching Materials for High Proficiency ESL Learners: The Case of Indian Management Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of the textbooks used to teach Indian management students are South East Asian editions of U.S. publications. Although these provide a great deal of information on the business world, particularly in a North American context, outside of India, they do not always meet the needs of either the Indian ESL Learner, or of Indian business and…

Nickerson, Catherine

2008-01-01

244

Ohno continuous casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of net-shape products directly from the liquid is an attractive manufacturing route for alloys that are difficult to process or that cannot be rolled, drawn, or extruded. Developed at the Chiba Institute of Technology in Japan, the Ohno Continuous Casting (OCC) approach not only provides significant cost savings, but also has the potential to create new products. OCC process

H. Soda; A. McLean; G. Motoyasu; A. Ohno

1995-01-01

245

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

Scribner, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

246

Casting and Angling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

Smith, Julian W.

247

Mix/Cast Contamination Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

Wallentine, M.

2005-01-01

248

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the

Michael Bamshad; Toomas Kivisild; W. Scott Watkins; Mary E. Dixon; Chris E. Ricker; Baskara B. Rao; J. Mastan Naidu; B. V. Ravi Prasad; P. Govinda Reddy; Arani Rasanayagam; Surinder S. Papiha; Richard Villems; Alan J. Redd; Michael F. Hammer; Son V. Nguyen; Marion L. Carroll; Mark A. Batzer; Lynn B. Jorde

2001-01-01

249

The Indian Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

Strong, Augusta

1969-01-01

250

Odontometric sex assessment in Indians.  

PubMed

Sex determination of unidentified skeletal remains is important and various hard-tissue parameters have been evaluated towards this end. The dentition is considered as a useful adjunct in skeletal sex determination, particularly since teeth are resistant to postmortem destruction and fragmentation. Sex dimorphism in tooth size and the accuracy of odontometric sex prediction, is found to vary in different regions and researchers have advocated the need for population-specific data. No odontometric standards exist for Indians for use in forensic sex prediction. Therefore, this study examined sexual dimorphism in Indians using univariate and multivariate statistics. Mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) measurements of all teeth, except third molars, were obtained on dental casts of [corrected] 105 Indians (52 females, 53 males). The canines were [corrected] found to be the most dimorphic tooth, followed by the [corrected] BL dimensions of [corrected]first molars and that of mandibular second premolars. In general, mandibular teeth and BL dimensions showed greater tendency to be larger in males. However, just over a quarter of the measured variables (16/56; 28.6%) were statistically larger in males (p < 0.05). Moreover, ten tooth variables exhibited reverse dimorphism, i.e. female dimensions were larger than those of males. Stepwise discriminant function analysis revealed moderate accuracy in sex prediction: the teeth from both jaws taken together were able to determine sex to higher levels (76.2%) compared to only mandibular teeth (72.4%) or only maxillary teeth (67.6%). Interestingly, teeth that contributed to the stepwise discriminant analysis were either statistically larger in males or exhibited reverse dimorphism, indicating that such tooth variables may have better ability to correctly identify sex. [corrected] PMID:19744808

Prabhu, Sudeendra; Acharya, Ashith B

2009-11-20

251

Precision cast vs. wrought superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While cast polycrystalline superalloys recommend themselves in virtue of better 'buy-to-fly' ratios and higher strengthening gamma-prime volume fractions than those of wrought superalloys, the expansion of their use into such critical superalloy applications as gas turbine hot section components has been slowed by insufficient casting process opportunities for microstructural control. Attention is presently drawn, however, to casting process developments facilitating the production of defect-tolerant superalloy castings having improved fracture reliability. Integrally bladed turbine wheel and thin-walled turbine exhaust case near-net-shape castings have been produced by these means.

Tien, J. K.; Borofka, J. C.; Casey, M. E.

1986-01-01

252

Ecological organization of Indian society.  

PubMed

Some of the factors involved in securing the well being of an Indian rural population in a sustainable and environmentally sound fashion are discussed. Population pressure on the land and declining productivity threaten the balance between man and nature. The options are to provide outside technological inputs and/or to empower the rural population who may be able to provide an intimate knowledge of the local environment and must be organized and motivated to value and protect their resource base. Attention in paid to the Indian caste system, resource use diversification, group size and range, group dynamics, elites and the ecosystem, the drain on rural resources, the iron triangle of beneficiaries of subsidies, of administrators of subsidies, and of politicians, and the growing strife. The Indian caste system is differentiated by its subgroups which maintain communication within the subgroup, and resource access is determined by an individual's affiliation with the subgroup. It is not a smooth continuum between subgroups. Inequalities in resource access can create social tensions and/or partitioning of resources. The example is given of the subgroups Gavlis and Kunbis, in the Western Ghats in Pune district of Maharashtra, where exchanges are made for livestock or surplus grain, and the multicaste system of 40 subgroups in Uttara Kannada, with occupations specific to each subgroup. In order to function effectively as a subgroup the numbers must be limited or splinter groups develop. Several estimates of possible ranges are given, i.e., an upper limit of 10,000 or the equivalent of a subcaste and 10-20 endogenous groups/larger village with an area of 1000 km. Mergers and group splits are described among the Gavlis in Western Ghat and Tirumal Nadivallas and settlers of the Andaman Islands. Historically, communities were self-sufficient and surrounded elite communities; they had their own self-government and organized local resources for sustainable use, even though this was sometimes inequitable but not overexploited. Elites formed on the surplus of resources, but there was little outflow to other regions. British colonial rule made tremendous changes which led to the lack of security within depressed subgroups. The resources were controlled by the elite in the iron triangle at the expense of the small landholder, landless agricultural workers, village artisans, tribals and nomads, and urban slum dwellers. There was no reason for efficient resource use, and development was wasteful and benefited the elites. Regionalism is growing as well as tension between the elites and the poorer members of minorities. PMID:12285490

Gadgil, M

1991-01-01

253

Indians in Minneapolis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The League of Women Voters of Minneapolis decided in May of 1967 to examine public and private agencies in the city of Minneapolis to determine agency perception of Indian problems, and to assess how well the various agencies were dealing with problems related to the Indian population of the city. In addition, 100 Indians were randomly selected…

Woods, Richard G.

254

Urban American Indian Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document begins by dispelling several misperceptions about American Indians that are especially pernicious to older American Indians living in cities, and then goes on to discuss what is known about urban American Indian elders and the implications for planning and service delivery for Area Agencies on Aging and contractor agencies. It notes…

Kramer, Josea

255

Nevada Indians Speak.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anthology presents Indian works which reflect the attitudes of the native Indian people of the State of Nevada, commencing with the possible first White-Indian contact in the 1820's when Anglo American fur trappers and Mexican traders entered the Great Basin. The writer points out in the Preface that no effort has been made to exclude native…

Forbes, Jack D., Ed.

256

Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

Wilson, James

257

Indian Calendars Akhil Doegar  

E-print Network

Indian Calendars Akhil Doegar :: Akshay Prasad Supervisor :: Associate Professor Helmer Aslaksen Section Topic 1. Introduction 2. Astronomical Background 3. Solar Calendar 4. Indian Solar Calendar 5. Regional Variations in Indian Solar Calendar 6. Luni-Solar Calendar 6.1 Amanta Calendar 6.2 Tithi 6

Aslaksen, Helmer

258

Indian Studies Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1973 the Montana Legislature enacted the Indian Studies Law which required that by July 1, 1979 all certified personnel in schools on or in the vicinity of Montana's Indian reservations must have received training in the history, traditions, customs, values, beliefs, ethics, and contemporary affairs of American Indians, particularly the Montana…

Montana State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena.

259

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E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

260

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E-print Network

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261

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E-print Network

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262

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Hickey, Barbara

263

Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy  

SciTech Connect

The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

1998-11-01

264

USGS CoreCast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just about everyone seems to be creating a podcast these days, and a number of government agencies have entered the fray as of late. The United States Geological Survey recently decided to hang out their own podcast shingle, and the results of their labors can be explored here. The site states that their "CoreCast" is "natural science from the inside out", which seems like an appropriate label. The podcasts range in length from two to fifteen minutes, and they cover topics such as polar bear research, sex-changing fish, and climate change. One podcast that shouldn't be overlooked is "This Episode of CoreCast is Highly Questionable". In a mere three minutes, host Scott Horvath responds to a number of questions in an engaging fashion. After listening to an episode or two, visitors will probably want to sign up to receive email updates about new episodes.

265

Volume MLS ray casting.  

PubMed

The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data. PMID:18988986

Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

2008-01-01

266

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-01-29

267

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-11-26

268

South Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

2002-01-01

269

Leadership Preferences of Indian and Non-Indian Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 86 Indian and non-Indian volleyball competitors, non-Indian players indicated significantly greater preferences for leadership that involved democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, or social support. Indians may adapt their behavior by participating in non-Indian games, without changing their traditional value orientations. Contains 22…

Malloy, D. C.; Nilson, R. N.

1991-01-01

270

Decadal trends in Indian Ocean ambient sound.  

PubMed

The increase of ocean noise documented in the North Pacific has sparked concern on whether the observed increases are a global or regional phenomenon. This work provides evidence of low frequency sound increases in the Indian Ocean. A decade (2002-2012) of recordings made off the island of Diego Garcia, UK in the Indian Ocean was parsed into time series according to frequency band and sound level. Quarterly sound level comparisons between the first and last years were also performed. The combination of time series and temporal comparison analyses over multiple measurement parameters produced results beyond those obtainable from a single parameter analysis. The ocean sound floor has increased over the past decade in the Indian Ocean. Increases were most prominent in recordings made south of Diego Garcia in the 85-105?Hz band. The highest sound level trends differed between the two sides of the island; the highest sound levels decreased in the north and increased in the south. Rate, direction, and magnitude of changes among the multiple parameters supported interpretation of source functions driving the trends. The observed sound floor increases are consistent with concurrent increases in shipping, wind speed, wave height, and blue whale abundance in the Indian Ocean. PMID:24180757

Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Bradley, David L; Niu, Xiaoyue Maggie

2013-11-01

271

Deep Structure of the Indian Continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian sub-continent experienced remarkable tectonic and geological events. Breakup of Indian subcontinent from the Gondwana supercontinent possibly due to a large plume, about 130 Myr ago. Paleomagnetic data demonstrates that the Indian continent moved northwards from 65Myr at exceptionally high speeds (18-20cm/year) and subsequently slowed down to 4-5cm/year after its collision with Asia approx 40Myr ago. This super mobility has been explained by an unusually thin Indian lithosphere (~100 km; Kumar et al., 2007) in contradiction with the thick lithosphere that commonly underlies old cratonic nuclei. It is pertinent to note that the thermobarometric estimates on the ultramafic xenoliths from a 65Myr kimberlites of the Central India (Babu et al. 2009) suggest an approximately 175 km thick lithosphere. Also, analysis of heat flow data and P-T estimates on mantle xenoliths from the Dharwar craton reveal low mantle heat flow, 14-20 mW m-2, that indicate a thick lithosphere beneath south India (Roy and Mareschal, 2011). Upper mantle heterogeneities and depth localization of anisotropy structures beneath India are poorly known. In order to solve these issues, we have to follow a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the lithospheric and asthenospheric structure underneath the Indian cratons and the Indian plate. Seismological studies (receiver functions, SKS splitting, anisotropic and surface waves studies of the Indian continent) in conjunction with heat flow, petrological and paleomagnetic data planning to be utilized to image and interpret the 3D-tomographic velocity and anisotropic structure of the whole continent and trace its evolution through time. In this work, we present the high resolution phase velocity maps with azimuthal anisotropy of fundamental and higher mode surface waves propagating across India.

Maurya, Satish; Montagner, Jean-paul; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Prakash; Burgos, Gael

2014-05-01

272

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts  

PubMed Central

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

273

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E-print Network

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276

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282

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283

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287

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288

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291

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Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 1 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 2 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 3 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 4 #12;CTD041

Hickey, Barbara

293

Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 1 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 2 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 3 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 4 #12;CTD037

Hickey, Barbara

294

Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 1 CTD017 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 2 CTD017 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 3 CTD018 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 4 CTD018 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

295

Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 1 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 2 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 3 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 4 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

296

Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 1 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 2 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 3 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 4 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

297

Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 1 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 2 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 3 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 4 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

298

“There is plenty of play left in South Africa's race game”: Race, cricket and nation in post-apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on charges of match-fixing in April 2001 by Indian police against Hansie Cronje, cricket captain of South Africa, and the Commission of Inquiry that followed in order to probe the construction and persistence of race stereotypes in South Africa. It examines the historic construction of boundaries between Indians and Whites, their reactions to Hansiegate and the implications

Goolam Vahed

2001-01-01

299

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

300

48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

2010-10-01

301

American Indians in the News: A Media Portrayal in Crime Articles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory research is to investigate the identification of American Indians in crime articles in two South Dakota newspapers. This article seeks to expand the current literature by addressing the dearth of research regarding whether American Indians are differentially identified by race/ethnicity in crime accounts. In…

Freng, Adrienne

2007-01-01

302

A Mechanism Relating the Indian Ocean SSTs, ENSO, and the Nile Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is associated with ElNino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Fluctuations of the Indian Ocean Sea Surface temperature (SST) are also associated with the Nile flow. Here, we investigate the intermediate role of Indian Ocean SSTs in the teleconnection between Nile flow and ENSO. Using the partial coherency analysis, we show that connection between the North and Middle of Indian Ocean SSTs and Nile flow is driven by ENSO. However, the South of Indian Ocean SSTs have an independent role from ENSO in shaping variability of Nile flow. This independence allows for indices of SSTs over the South of Indian Ocean and ENSO to explain about 60% of the variability of the Nile flow when they are used together. During ElNino events, the SSTs over the Indian Ocean increase following the warming of the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), which forces a Matsuno-Gill circulation with enhanced westerlies winds over Indian Ocean that decreases the convergence of boundary layer air over the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin. On the other hand, the increased SSTs over South of Indian Ocean generate a cyclonic motion, which has a similar effect on the convergence of boundary layer air over the UBN. The proposed mechanism has an important implication in understanding the potential climate change impacts on the Nile flow induced by warming of over Indian Ocean and provide new indices for Nile flow forecast models.

Siam, M.; Eltahir, E. A.

2012-12-01

303

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

304

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

305

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

306

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

307

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

308

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

309

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

310

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment...approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the...

2010-11-09

311

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

312

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

313

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

314

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

315

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

316

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

317

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

318

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

319

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

320

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

321

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

322

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

323

78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs...

2013-07-23

324

76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2011-03-01

325

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2012-04-01

326

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2011-04-01

327

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2013-04-01

328

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2014-04-01

329

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2010-04-01

330

Relationships between the Colonists and the Indians. Grade 5 Model Lesson for Standard 5.3. California History-Social Science Course Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California State Standard 5.3 is delineated as: Students describe the cooperation and conflict that existed among the Indians and between the Indian nations and the new settlers. North American Indians once had inhabited regions now contained in the United States that stretched from far north to south and from the east to the west coasts. The…

Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

331

"Education Makes You Have More Say in the Way Your Life Goes": Indian Women and Arranged Marriages in the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores Indian women's views on arranged marriages in the United Kingdom. It is based on research carried out with 32 Indian women studying at a university in the South East of England, UK. The article draws on Wenger's social theory of learning to explore how Indian women's participation in communities of practice in higher education…

Bhopal, Kalwant

2011-01-01

332

Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

Mihalow, Paula

1980-01-01

333

Education and Caste in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

2008-01-01

334

Clogging in Continuous Casting Nozzles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nozzle clogging is a serious productivity and qua lity problem in continuous casting. This work reviews the causes, effects, and solutions to cloggi ng in continuous casting nozzles. The results of a one-dimensional, steady state analysis of the heat loss from the molten steel stream through the nozzle wall are discussed. The analyses show that steel may freeze within the

K. G. Rackers; B. G. Thomas

335

Widespread functional anoxia in the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern South Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) as found in the Eastern Pacific and Indian Ocean are biogeochemical hot spots with a disproportionately large role in the marine nitrogen cycle, and they are important components of the highly productive ecosystems in which they occur. Although the oxygen-depleted waters have been known for a century, oxygen levels inside them are not well constrained and the regulation of their anaerobic processes by oxygen is poorly understood. We deployed highly sensitive STOX oxygen sensors with a detection limit of 10 nmol kg-1 in combination with conventional hydrographic oxygen sensors along a cruise track transecting the Eastern South Pacific OMZ from South to North along the coast of Chile and Peru. Oxygen was below the detection limit throughout the ˜200 m thick OMZ core in most casts with STOX sensors. The only exception was an offshore location off Peru where oxygen was 10-50 nmol kg-1 in the core, likely as the result of a transient intrusion. Oxygen was also not detected in the OMZ core in further casts with conventional sensors, which had a detection limit of 90 nmol kg-1 after STOX-based zero calibration. Our measurements tighten the constraints on typical oxygen concentrations in the inner part of the OMZ by at least an order of magnitude relative to previous reports. Nitrite only accumulated when oxygen was depleted below 50 nmol kg-1, which indicates that nitrogen cycling is much more sensitive to oxygen than previously estimated. We argue that extreme oxygen depletion to low nanomalar or even picomolar concentrations is a normal condition in the South Pacific OMZ, and suggest that the OMZ core is in fact functionally anoxic over wide regions for extended periods. Our results further indicate that oxygen dynamics in the low nanomolar range play an important role in OMZ biogeochemistry.

Thamdrup, Bo; Dalsgaard, Tage; Revsbech, Niels Peter

336

Indian Education in Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maine Department of Education assumed the responsibility for the education of Indian children living on Indian reservations on July 1, 1966. This report provides information on the present status of the program. Information is provided on number of schools, school enrollment for the 1969-1970 school year, characteristics of the teaching staff,…

Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

337

Indians of Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma's present-day Indian culture and civilization, it is noted, are very much pronounced, with more than 68 tribes still proudly embracing their identities. Oklahoma is shown to be the melting pot of Indian America on a map indicating the original homelands of some of the many tribes that settled in the State. The historical development and…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

338

Indian Ocean proposed drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tentative plans for the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) are for the drilling vessel SEDCO\\/BP 471 (Eos, March 13, 1984, p. 97) to work in the Indian Ocean during all or parts of 1987 and 1988. The Indian Ocean Advisory Panel of ODP solicits letters of intent or proposals for possible scientific ocean drilling during that period. All areas within the

Joseph R. Curray

1984-01-01

339

Indians in Indian Fiction: The Shadow of the Trickster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies mythic dimension of protagonists in novels by American Indian authors Scott Momaday and James Welch. Illustrates discrepancies between White readers' beliefs about Indians and Indian myths of the trickster and how mythologies affect interpretation of the novels. Contrasts use of myth by Indian authors Leslie Silko and Gerald Vizenor. (LFL)

Velie, Alan R.

1984-01-01

340

Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan  

E-print Network

Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM;Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan

Hickey, Barbara

341

Strip casting apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

1988-09-20

342

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

343

Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book draws on hundreds of letters by students, parents, and school officials to explore American Indian, specifically Ojibwa, perspectives of the boarding school experience in the period from 1900-1940. The three institutions studied are Haskell Institute (Kansas), Flandreau School (South Dakota), and Pipestone School (Minnesota). Chapter 1…

Child, Brenda J.

344

Harvesting Identities: Youth, Work, and Gender in the Indian Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of young people's lichen collection in the Indian Himalayas shows how youth in the global South can imbue their work with meaning, manage their work practices, and sometimes transgress established norms in specific work settings. Building on fifteen months' intensive field research in the high Himalayas, this article describes how young men and women have used the opportunity

Jane Dyson

2008-01-01

345

Potential Change in the Indian Monsoon Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In India and East Africa more than 350 million people face chronic undernourishment; population growth alone could bring this number to 500 million by 2030. Below normal rains have become more frequent as falling water tables, land degradation, warmer air temperatures, and rising fuel and fertilizer costs limit crop production growth. The Indian and East African boreal summer monsoons rely on large moisture transports from the southern Indian Ocean (SIO, 55-90°E, 0-15°S) and a low pressure cell over the north Indian Ocean (NIO, 55-90°E, 0-15°N). The relatively cloud free NIO warm pool receives a large excess of solar radiation, which the ocean transports south across the equator. While many factors influence this system, we present here observations and climate simulations linking preferential SIO-versus-NIO warming, evaporation and precipitation changes to weaker monsoon winds, weaker northward moisture transports, and warmer and drier weather in India and East Africa. Observations show that increasing SIO sea surface temperatures (SSTs) below rapid surface winds provide an 'evaporative window' (Fig. 1) that transfers energy and moisture to the atmosphere, increasing SIO rainfall. Climate simulations driven with i) observed SSTs and ii) mid-tropospheric SIO heating associate increased SIO rainfall with lower NIO rainfall. Given the empirical relationships between increasing SIO rainfall and reduced summer monsoon rains, continued warming in the Indian Ocean could lead to more frequent droughts in India, and perhaps, East Africa.

Funk, C. C.; Williams, A. P.; Mishra, V.; Barlow, M. A.; Hoerling, M. P.; Hoell, A.

2011-12-01

346

New Indian Tribalism. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this paper are to identify the problems Washington State Indians face and to provide considerations that might assist in promoting the welfare and well-being of American Indians. It is stated that the major barrier to the Indian's success in American society is the attitude of the Anglo towards the Indian. Thus, the programs and…

Beckmann, Kathleen

347

Some Resources in Indian Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the resources in the literature by and about the American Indian and lists numerous anthologies and bibliographies in this area. More than 40 publications are listed, including "Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian,""American Indian Almanac,""Ethnographic Bibliography of North America,""American Indian Prose…

Marken, Jack W.

348

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

349

Resources for American Indian Rehabilitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory is intended to provide a comprehensive listing of organizational and informational resources related to the rehabilitation needs of American Indians with disabilities. The guide is divided into two sections. The first section contains lists of American Indian organizations, American Indian centers, Bureau of Indian Affairs offices,…

Thomason, Timothy C., Ed.

350

Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide  

E-print Network

Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide Version B January 27, 2003 IM-1002 Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide General information and protocols for using Novex® pre-cast gels www.invitrogen.com tech.....................................................................................................................1 Novex® Pre-Cast Gels

Kirschner, Marc W.

351

Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 1 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 2 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 3 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 4 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136

Hickey, Barbara

352

Association of American Indian cultural identity with physical activity  

PubMed Central

Objective Cultural factors are associated with health behaviors among American Indians. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to investigate whether cultural identity, defined as the primary language spoken at home, is associated with (1) higher total physical activity levels and (2) levels of leisure-time physical activity recommended for health benefits in a diverse sample of American Indians. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 5,207 American Indian adults 18 to 82 years. Participants resided on the Oglala Sioux (n = 2,025) and Cheyenne River Sioux (n = 1,528) reservations in South Dakota, and the Gila River Indian Community (n = 1,654) in Arizona. Results Bicultural participants in South Dakota, but not Arizona, reported significantly higher total physical activity compared to the English-only group (p < 0.05). About 35% of English only speakers, 39% of American Indian/Alaska Native only speakers, and 39% of participants speaking both languages met the 150 minutes/week activity threshold. Odds of being sufficiently active were higher among bicultural respondents in both regions when compared to respondents endorsing only English, controlling for socio-demographic and health-related covariates (p < 0.05). Conclusion Bicultural respondents among tribal members in South Dakota had significantly higher total physical activity, and higher levels of sufficient leisure-time activity in both South Dakota and Arizona, compared to those who spoke either language exclusively. Interventions that encourage American Indians to develop their bicultural efficacy and to draw on resources for healthy living that may be available in all the cultures with which they identify are recommended. PMID:24620441

Duncan, Glen E.; McDougall, Casey L.; Dansie, Elizabeth; Garroutte, Eva; Buchwald, Dedra; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

2014-01-01

353

Innovations in cast magnesium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines questions related to aspects of the production of castings of magnesium alloys in molds made by volumetric\\u000a stamping without the use of the corresponding tooling. Information is presented on features of the gating-feeding systems\\u000a used to obtain magnesium-alloy castings in molds made by volumetric stamping. Also examined are features of the effect of\\u000a small additions of calcium

V. D. Belov; A. V. Koltygin; N. A. Belov; I. V. Plisetskaya

2010-01-01

354

Indian Policy and Westward Expansion  

E-print Network

, Indian wars, the Pacific railroad project, the extension of the frontier, schemes for the civilization of the Indians, etc., are topics in Western history which are more or less unrelated in the form in which they have usually been treated. Indian.... CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Position of the Indian Country—Time during which problem developed—Factors determining Indian policy: Settlement of the Pacific Coast, Transcontinental lines of communication and transportation, Westward expansion in the Trans...

Malin, James Claude

1921-11-01

355

Indian concepts on sexuality  

PubMed Central

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

356

The dental morphology of Pima Indians.  

PubMed

Fourteen morphologic crown traits were observed in a sample of 1528 Pima Indians of south-central Arizona. Pima dentitions are characterized by high frequencies of shoveling, incisor winging, the hypocone, the lower canine distal accessory ridge, cusp 6, and the protostylid. They exhibit low frequencies of the metaconule and lower premolar multiple lingual cusps and moderate frequencies of the canine tubercle, Carabelli's trait, cusp 7, and lower second molars with four cusps and X groove patterns. When Pima crown trait frequencies were compared to those of 13 Southwest Indian samples, their closest affinities were to other Uto-Aztecan groups, the Papago and Hopi. The Pima are most divergent from Athapaskans and are also clearly removed from Yuman speaking groups and the Zuni. In general, the pattern of dental morphologic variation in the Southwest corresponds closely to linguistic divisions. PMID:6869510

Scott, G R; Potter, R H; Noss, J F; Dahlberg, A A; Dahlberg, T

1983-05-01

357

Indian Summer for Wayfarers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

Kaltenbronn, Kyra

1977-01-01

358

76 FR 58076 - Designation of The Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian Mujahidin, Also Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM), as a Specially...Mujahedeen, also known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF- IM),...

2011-09-19

359

76 FR 58076 - Designation of the Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian Mujahidin, Also Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM), as a Foreign...Mujahedeen, also known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM)....

2011-09-19

360

Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings  

SciTech Connect

The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

2002-07-30

361

Indian Ocean experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one- and

V. Ramanathan; P. J. Crutzen; J. Lelieveld; A. P. Mitra; D. Althausen; J. Anderson; M. O. Andreae; W. Cantrell; G. R. Cass; C. E. Chung; A. D. Clarke; J. A. Coakley; W. D. Collins; W. C. Conant; F. Dulac; J. Heintzenberg; A. J. Heymsfield; B. Holben; S. Howell; J. Hudson; A. Jayaraman; J. T. Kiehl; T. N. Krishnamurti; D. Lubin; G. McFarquhar; T. Novakov; J. A. Ogren; K. Priestley; J. M. Prospero; P. K. Quinn; K. Rajeev; P. Rasch; S. Rupert; R. Sadourny; S. K. Satheesh; G. E. Shaw; P. Sheridan; F. P. J. Valero

2001-01-01

362

CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 1 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 2 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 3 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 4 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19

Hickey, Barbara

363

CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 1 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 2 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 3 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 4 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23

Hickey, Barbara

364

CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 1 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 2 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 3 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 4 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21

Hickey, Barbara

365

Decadal ventilation and mixing of Indian Ocean waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrographic data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Indian Ocean expedition are used to evaluate contributions to decadal ventilation of water masses. At a given density, CFC-derived ages increase and concentrations decrease from the south to north, with lowest concentrations and oldest ages in Bay of Bengal. Average ages for thermocline water are 0-40 years, and for intermediate water they are less than 10 years to more than 40 years. As compared with the marginal seas or throughflow, the most significant source of CFCs for the Indian Ocean south of 12°N is the Southern Hemisphere. A simple calculation is used to show this is the case even at intermediate levels due to differences in gas solubilities and mixing of Antarctic Intermediate Water and Red Sea Water. Bottom water in the Australia-Antarctic Basin is higher in CFC concentrations than that to the west in the Enderby Basin, due to the shorter distance of this water to the Adelie Land coast and Ross Sea sources. However, by 40°S, CFC concentrations in the bottom water of the Crozet Basin originating from the Weddell Sea are similar to those in the South Australia Basin. Independent observations, which show that bottom water undergoes elevated mixing between the Australia-Antarctic Basin and before entering the subtropics, are consistent with high CFC dilutions (3-14-fold) and a substantial concentration decrease (factor of 5) south to north of the Southeast Indian Ridge. CFC-bearing bottom waters with ages 30 years or more are transported into the subtropical South Indian Ocean by three western boundary currents, and highest concentrations are observed in the westernmost current. During WOCE, CFC-bearing bottom water reaches to about 30°S in the Perth Basin, and to 20°S in the Mascarene Basin. Comparing subtropical bottom water-CFC concentrations with those of the South Pacific and Atlantic oceans, at comparable latitudes, Indian Ocean bottom water-CFC concentrations are lower, consistent with its high dissipation rates from tidal mixing and current fluctuations as shown elsewhere. Thus, the generally high dilutions and low CFC concentrations in bottom water of the Indian Ocean are due to distance to the water mass source regions and the relative effectiveness of mixing. While it is not surprising that at thermocline, intermediate, and bottom levels, the significant ventilation sources on decadal time scales are all from the south, the CFCs show how local sources and mixing within the ocean affect the ventilation.

Fine, Rana A.; Smethie, William M.; Bullister, John L.; Rhein, Monika; Min, Dong-Ha; Warner, Mark J.; Poisson, Alain; Weiss, Ray F.

2008-01-01

366

Casting Castings: A Classroom Hands-on Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity will provide a useful technique for students to learn casting concepts. The class will be allowed a hands-on experience with casting. Students will make their own fishing sinkers. The lesson plan document includes step by step instructions for the lesson along with photographs.This activity would be appropriate for high school and college level students. The lesson should take about one hour of class time. This document will serve as a framework for instructors and may be downloaded in PDF format.

Johnson, Craig

2012-11-08

367

South Atlantic interbasin exchange  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exchange of mass and heat between the South Atlantic and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the Atlantic and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North Atlantic deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the Atlantic ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.

Rintoul, Stephen Rich

1991-01-01

368

The South Asian Elderly of Leicester, England: A Study of Their Service Needs and the Service Delivery Role of the South Asian Ethnic Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed the service needs of the South Asian elderly population of Leicester, England, and also dealt with the role of South Asian ethnic organizations in delivery of services to these elderly. The South Asians (Indians, Pakistanis, and Bangladeshis) constitute about 23% of the population of the city and number around 65000 persons. It is…

Mohapatra, Urmila

369

Blasting casting to raise productivity  

SciTech Connect

Normally, surface mines employ draglines or truck and shovel systems to remove overburden. Blasting merely fragments and displaces the overburden enough to allow for easy digging. But during the past two decades, the effect of inflation and increased labor costs have encouraged unconventional methods of overburden removal. All of us are aware of the tremendous inflationary effects on costs of equipment, fuel, labor, interest, insurance, environmental compliance, etc. This has allowed the authors to take a new look at the use of explosives as an effective alternate method of overburden removal. This technique is known by several names, but basically blast casting or just casting best describes it. Other terms in vogue are explosive casting, controlled trajectory blasting, trajectory control blasting, and whatever terminology comes to mind.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-07-01

370

CAST results and Axion review  

E-print Network

We present results from the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), together with a brief review on prospects on Axion searches with a variety of experimental techniques. CAST has explored masses up to 0.64 eV setting the most stringent limit on the axion-photon coupling, apart for the micro-eV region where ADMX is the most competitive experiment. CAST is aiming at surpassing the 1eV WMAP upper limit and possibly revisiting the operation in vacuum with extra sensitive X-ray detectors, while ADMX, using improved extra sensitive SQUID amplifiers will explore the micro-eV mass range.

T. Geralis; for the CAST collaboration

2009-05-26

371

Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations  

SciTech Connect

Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

2004-03-15

372

Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by establishing…

Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

2005-01-01

373

A Look at Indian Control of Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The opportunity for American Indians to learn in their own way, a way of deep cultural roots and implications, must be provided in schools rather than using the educational psychology which dominates today's classrooms. The importance of adopting an Indian philosophy is stressed in this policy statement by the National Indian Brotherhood. (See…

Weitz, Jacqueline M.

1974-01-01

374

Casting propellant in rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for casting a solid propellant in the casing of a rocket engine having a continuous wall with a single opening which is formed by leaves of a material which melt at a temperature of the propellant and with curved edges concentric to the curvature of the spherical casing. The leaves are inserted into the spherical casing through the opening forming a core having a greater width than the width of the single opening and with curved peripheral edges. The cast propellant forms a solid mass and then heated to melt the leaves and provide a central opening with radial projecting flutes.

Roach, J. E.; Froehling, S. C. (inventors)

1976-01-01

375

Cast-a-Box: Casting Conditions and Macroporosity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An illustration of three-dimensional finite difference simulation of heat conduction with phase change and complex boundary conditions, this requires students to adjust boundary conditions to make the top surface of a regular hexahedral "casting" to freeze last, eliminating macroporosity.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-08-24

376

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

377

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

378

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

379

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

380

Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link  

PubMed Central

Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route". PMID:19624810

Kumar, Satish; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Koneru, Padmaja; Urade, BP; Sarkar, BN; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, VR

2009-01-01

381

American Indian Policy Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Arizona State University, the American Indian Policy Institute collaborates with tribal governments and American Indian communities on issues that affect them and also works to nurture innovation for American Indian sustainability. The site offers a wealth of reports, news articles, publications, conference programs, and other items that will be of interest to scholars. The Reports & Publications area contains thoughtful missives such as "Tribes and Energy within Arizona" and "Land Use Challenges and Choices for the 21st Century." The Award-Winning First Innovations area offers up a host of best practices designed to introduce sustainability entrepreneurship in Native American communities. Additionally, the Projects & Initiatives area offers detailed program information about tribal planning summits and financial management seminars.

382

Indian Child Welfare in Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

383

The Revolution in Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though the educational achievement of American Indians during the last 10 years has been impressive, indications are that it will be some time before Indian people have an equal educational opportunity with the majority population. To understand the statistics and social indicators of the revolution in Indian education, it is necessary to examine…

Chavers, Dean

384

White Control of Indian "Education."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper is about White control of Indian education; how Euro-Canadian missionaries and government agents worked hand-in-hand in their relentless attempts to transform Indian people into their own image. The shrill and persistent theme of Euro-Canadians was how best to civilize and Christianize the Indians. Controlled situations in school and in…

LaRocque, Emma D.

385

The Indian in American History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The treatment of American Indians is discussed historically with reference to the 4 principal methods used to create or perpetuate false impressions: obliteration, defamation, disembodiment, and disparagement. Indian contributions to American civilization are cited in contrast with historical references to Indians in textbooks. The author suggests…

Vogel, Virgil J.

386

Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

387

[Presidential Message on Indian Affairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Nixon's message pointed out the deprivation and the injustices which the American Indians have suffered for centuries. It was noted that now is the time to break with the past and create conditions for a new era in which the Indian future is determined by Indian acts and decisions. The relationship between the Federal Government and the…

Nixon, Richard

388

Facts about American Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

American Indian College Fund, 2010

2010-01-01

389

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

390

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2012-12-28

391

ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10  

E-print Network

ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 3 #12;ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 4 #12;ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101

Hickey, Barbara

392

Preschool Educare in South Africa. Fact Sheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet presents information about the educare situation in South Africa to illustrate the glaring disparities between the races, until recently officially classified as White, Indian, Colored, and Black. These statistics delineate: (1) the under-6 population by race, geographic, and economic background; (2) costs, fees, and…

Atmore, Eric

393

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

394

48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian Organizations, Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises, and Native Hawaiian...

2010-10-01

395

Biocompatibility of Dental Casting Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most cast dental restorations are made from alloys or commercially pure titanium (cpTi). Many orthodontic appliances are also fabricated from metallic materials. It has been documented in vitro and in vivo that metallic dental devices release metal ions, mainly due to corrosion. Those metallic components may be locally and systemically distributed and could play a role in the etiology of

Werner Geurtsen

2002-01-01

396

Scheduled Castes and Land Deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is more in the form of setting broad contours for a comprehensive buildup. It is divided into four sections. The first section discusses the landlessness or nearlandlessness of majority of Scheduled Caste households and the benefits of land assigned to them as a part of redistributive land reform strategy. The second section analyses the impact of redistributive land

D. Narasimha Reddy

397

Math: Objectives Guide. Project CAST.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide lists math objectives needed for independent living by secondary special education students. One of a series of Project CAST (Community and School Together) life skills manuals, the guide outlines basic competencies in terms of goal statements, behavioral objectives, and specialized vocabulary for the following areas: money, making…

Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

398

Homogenization heat treating cast microstructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cast microstructures have variations in composition on the length scale of dendrites and homogenization heat treatments are performed to smooth out these variations. This problem is an integral analysis of the 1D diffusion mass transfer in this problem. The results using two different assumed profiles are compared.

Krane, Matthew J. M.

2008-10-25

399

Overview of ToxCast?  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2007, EPA launched ToxCast? in order to develop a cost-effective approach for prioritizing the toxicity testing of large numbers of chemicals in a short period of time. Using data from state-of-the-art high throughput screening (HTS) bioassays developed in the pharmaceutical i...

400

Spray casting project final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in

S. R. Churnetski; J. E. Thompson

1996-01-01

401

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

402

Electroslag casting of compressor crankshafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all of the methods of production of crankshaft castings a method making it possible to melt sections of it with three molds was used. The essence of production of castinss of sections using the method selected is as follows. In one mold a crank is produced by remelting of a consumable electrode with obtaining of a crank (with axes)

A. P. Alikin; A. A. Dan'kin

1993-01-01

403

Molding A Cast Metals Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cast metals program, a two-year associate degree program, at Muskegon Community College, Musegon, Michigan operates in close cooperation with the local foundry industry to provide a background for entry-level technical jobs and for continued studies toward a four-year degree. (EA)

Trumble, Dale E.

1975-01-01

404

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2014-04-01

405

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2013-04-01

406

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2011-04-01

407

A Microbiological Study of Earthworm Casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Microbiological, physical and chemical changes were followed in worm casts ageing in the field. Filamentous fungi and yeasts increased in number rapidly after the cast was produced, but not bacteria or actinomycetes which were initially numerous. Measurements of hyphal length confirmed the increased growth of fungi. Ageing casts showed a declining respiratory activity, possibly because the bacteria formed resting

J. N. Parle

1963-01-01

408

Coping with type casts in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of type casts is pervasive in C. Although casts provide great flexibility in writing programs, their use obscures the meaning of programs, and can present obstacles during maintenance. Casts involving pointers to structures (C structs) are particularly problematic, because by using them, a programmer can interpret any memory region to be of any desired type, thereby compromising C's

Michael Siffr; Satish Chandra; Thomas Ball; Krishna Kunchithapadam; Thomas W. Reps

1999-01-01

409

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2012-04-01

410

July/August 20056 Casting aluminum  

E-print Network

includes `continuous' casting of Al, whereby the solid is formed in the water- cooled casterJuly/August 20056 Bob Rapp Casting aluminum Lay people unfamiliar with metallurgical processing to cast Al commercially. Perhaps I can interest the reader with a summary of this important process. I

Colton, Jonathan S.

411

Seasonal Variation of the South Equatorial Current Bifurcation off Madagascar ZHAOHUI CHEN AND LIXIN WU  

E-print Network

Seasonal Variation of the South Equatorial Current Bifurcation off Madagascar ZHAOHUI CHEN of the South Equatorial Current (SEC) bifurcation off the Madagascar coast in the upper south Indian Ocean (SIO to reproduce the seasonal cycle and the mean position of the SEC bifurcation off the Madagascar coast

Qiu, Bo

412

Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C

Hickey, Barbara

413

INDIAN ETHOS, INDIAN CULTURE AND INDIAN MANAGEMENT: TOWARDS NEW FRONTIERS IN MANAGEMENT THINKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, Indian concepts have acquired a new prominence at the global level. Its roots go back to 1960s, when several Indian Spiritual Movements (ISMs) acquired a worldwide acceptance and presence. TM, ISKCON, Brahma Kumaries, SRF (Self-Realization Fellowship), Art of Living, etc. are a few illustrations. Many new movements are emerging and Indian cultural ideas and concepts are finding

Subhash Sharma

414

Complete genome sequencing and evolutionary analysis of Indian isolates of Dengue virus type 2  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Complete genome of Indian DENV-2 was deciphered for the first time in this study. •The recent Indian DENV-2 revealed presence of many unique amino acid residues. •Genotype shift (American to Cosmopolitan) characterizes evolution of DENV-2 in India. •Circulation of a unique clade of DENV-2 in South Asia was identified. -- Abstract: Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of global public health significance. It is now endemic in most parts of the South East Asia including India. Though Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) is predominantly associated with major outbreaks in India, complete genome information of Indian DENV-2 is not available. In this study, the full-length genome of five DENV-2 isolates (four from 2001 to 2011 and one from 1960), from different parts of India was determined. The complete genome of the Indian DENV-2 was found to be 10,670 bases long with an open reading frame coding for 3391 amino acids. The recent Indian DENV-2 (2001–2011) revealed a nucleotide sequence identity of around 90% and 97% with an older Indian DENV-2 (1960) and closely related Sri Lankan and Chinese DENV-2 respectively. Presence of unique amino acid residues and non-conservative substitutions in critical amino acid residues of major structural and non-structural proteins was observed in recent Indian DENV-2. Selection pressure analysis revealed positive selection in few amino acid sites of the genes encoding for structural and non-structural proteins. The molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of both complete coding region and envelope protein gene with globally diverse DENV-2 viruses classified the recent Indian isolates into a unique South Asian clade within Cosmopolitan genotype. A shift of genotype from American to Cosmopolitan in 1970s characterized the evolution of DENV-2 in India. Present study is the first report on complete genome characterization of emerging DENV-2 isolates from India and highlights the circulation of a unique clade in South Asia.

Dash, Paban Kumar, E-mail: pabandash@rediffmail.com; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Agarwal, Ankita; Parida, Manmohan; Rao, P.V.Lakshmana

2013-07-05

415

Indian Education in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pictorial publication briefly discusses Indian education in Canada. Discussed are: nursery schools and kindergartens; elementary and secondary schools; teaching staff--preschool instructors, teacher aides, classroom assistants, teachers, and principals; guidance staff--guidance and social counsellors, and home and school coordinators; support…

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

416

Early Indian People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

Doermann, Elisabeth

1979-01-01

417

American Indian Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

understanding of the Native American tribal nations in North America. All of the United States at one time was American Indian land; however, most of it was transferred gradually to the United States of America. Treaties and other legal agreements with the United States, at various times in our history, have given

Saldin, Dilano

418

Indians of the Northwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

419

American Indian Recipes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

420

American Indian Heritage Month  

E-print Network

into the "human condition" are obvious. You are encouraged to bring your lunch to this mid- day performance: American Indian Studies and the Anthropology Club Contact: Nick Copeland, ncopel@vt.edu Monday, October 28 Studies, the Anthropology Club and Multicultural Programs and Services Contact: Sam Cook, sacook2@vt

Virginia Tech

421

Tritium, radiocarbon, 90Sr and 129I in the Pacific and Indian Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic radionuclides have been widely used to investigate water circulation on regional and global scales. We observed that 3H, 14C, 90Sr and 129I concentrations in surface water of the Indian Ocean are similar to those measured in the North-western Pacific Ocean. This is due to the transport of water masses from the North-western Pacific via the Indonesian Seas to the Indian Ocean. The observed variations of radionuclide concentrations with latitude in the Indian Ocean are not due to deposition patterns of global fallout, but due to different water masses present in the region. Higher radionuclide concentrations observed in the South Indian Ocean in the latitudinal belt of 20-40°S are associated with the Indian Ocean Subtropical gyre, which acts as a reservoir of radionuclides.

Povinec, P. P.; Lee, S.-H.; Kwong, L. Liong Wee; Oregioni, B.; Jull, A. J. T.; Kieser, W. E.; Morgenstern, U.; Top, Z.

2010-04-01

422

Viscosity of casting fluxes used during continuous casting of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten flux viscosity of eighteen commercially available casting fluxes has been measured as a function of temperature in\\u000a the range of 1223 to 1723 K. Results show that, at a constant temperature, the flux viscosity is primarily dependent on the\\u000a mole fractions of SiO2 and A12O3. The calculated activation energy for viscous flow at 1573 K varies from 59 to

Michael D. Lanyi; Casimir J. Rosa

1981-01-01

423

Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting  

SciTech Connect

The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

R. Allen Miller

2005-03-30

424

Process development of thin strip steel casting  

SciTech Connect

An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

1990-12-01

425

Manufacture of large castings in permanent molds  

SciTech Connect

A new technological process has been introduced for manufacturing large cast-iron pulley blanks in permanent molds. The pulley casting weighs 137 kg and has a rim diameter of 650 mm. The permanent mold is split horizontally. Before pouring metal the mold is heated with a gas torch to a temperature of 200-250/sup 0/C and coated with a layer of thermal insulation material. The molten metal is poured at a temperature of 1280-1300/sup 0/C within a period of 40-50 seconds. The casting is held in the mold for 4-5 minutes. A simple pneumatic machine has been designed for ejecting the castings. The permanent mold, being made of cast iron, can be used for more than 500 castings. Introduction of the new technological process for casting pulleys in permanent molds has reduced the labor requirement by four times, eliminated rejections caused by using sand molds, and improved the working conditions.

Panin, V.I.; Baryshnikov, V.G.; Papandopoulo, A.N.

1983-01-01

426

Feeding ecology of subadult green sea turtles in south Texas waters  

E-print Network

Feeding ecology of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) at South Padre Island, Texas was characterized from April 1991- March 1993. Ninety turtle captures in entanglement and cast-nets were comprised of 24 individuals from jetty habitat at Brazos...

Coyne, Michael Scott

1994-01-01

427

Influence of Casting Parameters on the Critical Casting Size of Bulk Metallic Glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of various casting parameters and thermophysical properties of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) on critical section size, defined as the maximum casting size that generates a through-section amorphous alloy, has been analyzed using a simple heat-transfer model. It was found that the interfacial heat transfer between the mold and the casting has a strong influence on the critical section thickness of a BMG. It is argued herein that the critical cooling rate rather than the critical casting size is a more robust indicator of glass-forming ability (GFA). Further, with respect to the critical cooling rate and heat-transfer effects during casting, a distinct difference was found between the critical casting thickness in rectangular-shaped castings and the critical casting diameter in rod-shaped castings, and a relationship was derived for relating these parameters.

Laws, Kevin J.; Gun, Bulent; Ferry, Michael

2009-10-01

428

Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols on the Indian Monsoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six-member ensemble of twentieth-century simulations with changes to only time-evolving global distributions of black carbon aerosols in a global coupled climate model is analyzed to study the effects of black carbon (BC) aerosols on the Indian monsoon. The BC aerosols act to increase lower-tropospheric heating over South Asia and reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during

Gerald A. Meehl; Julie M. Arblaster; William D. Collins

2008-01-01

429

Casting Alloys: Side-Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Side-effects from dental materials are a minor problem, but should be recognized. In recent questionnaire surveys about side-effects, the incidence was estimated to be 1:300 in periodontics and 1:2600 in pedodontics. None of these reactions was related to dental casting alloys. In prosthodontics, the incidence was calculated to be about 1:400, and about 27% were related to base-metal alloys forremovable

Arne Hensten-Pettersen

1992-01-01

430

A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

1985-01-01

431

Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts

Hickey, Barbara

432

Thermohaline forcing of the Indian Ocean by the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An idealized box model of the Indian Ocean forced by steady winds and Haney-type surface heat fluxes is used to examine the importance of the warm, fresh throughflow from the equatorial Pacific on the climate of the Indian Ocean. In particular, the hypothesis proposed by GODFREY and WEAVER (1991, Progress in Oceanography, 27, 225-272), that the anomalous poleward buoyancy-forced Leeuwin current off the west coast of Australia is a manifestation of a basinwide thermohaline circulation driven by the Indonesian throughflow, is examined. The stronger Sverdrup circulation dominates the thermohaline circulation in most of the model ocean except near the eastern boundary. The effects of the throughflow, however, can be determined by comparing two runs forced by a Pacific Ocean with either the warm, fresh profile of the western equatorial Pacific or a cooler, more saline profile more typical of the eastern equatorial Pacific (where a more usual equatorward wind-driven boundary current is found). It is found that heat imported from the Pacific is transported zonally across the Indian Ocean to the western boundary by the South Equatorial Current. The enhanced meridional steric height gradient south of the SEC drives an eastward return flow back to the eastern boundary, where it turns south to form the poleward Leeuwin Current. The reverse path is traced out by the waters immediately below the thermocline. None of these features are observed when the model Pacific has the cooler profile typical of the eastern boundaries of other oceans. Indonesian throughflow significantly affects the surface heat fluxes and the meridional heat transport in the Indian Ocean. The importance of the throughflow in maintaining the very warm climate of the Indian Ocean (a net exporter of heat) is noted. In the model, the poleward western boundary current along the coast of Africa south of about 27°S appears to play only a very minor role in the basinwide thermohaline circulation described above. This differs from the "warm water route" proposed by GORDON (1986, Journal of Geophysical Research, 91, 5037-5046) where heat is returned to the South Atlantic past the Agulhas Retroflection. Large-scale, fairly long period (>100 days) barotropic eddies are found in the western portion of the basin for some solutions. The generation mechanism for these eddies appears to be barotropic instability in the model South Equatorial Current.

Hughes, Tertia M. C.; Weaver, Andrew J.; Godfrey, J. Stuart

1992-06-01

433

‘Education makes you have more say in the way your life goes’: Indian women and arranged marriages in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores Indian women’s views on arranged marriages in the United Kingdom. It is based on research carried out with 32 Indian women studying at a university in the South East of England, UK. The article draws on Wenger’s social theory of learning to explore how Indian women’s participation in communities of practice in higher education contributes to their

Kalwant Bhopal

2011-01-01

434

Indian scales and inventories  

PubMed Central

This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

Venkatesan, S.

2010-01-01

435

INDIAN PEAKS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.

Pearson, Robert C.; Speltz, Charles N.

1984-01-01

436

West Indian Orchidaceae Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York Botanical Garden has recently placed online this searchable database of West Indian Orchids. Containing approximately 5,200 specimen records for the family Orchidacese (from the New York Botanical Garden's collection), the database may be searched by Family, Collector, Country, Taxon, State/Province, and other select fields. Typical returns provide information on Specimen name (scientific name), Location, Collector, Description, and Habitat.

437

Indian Converts Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First published in 1727, the remarkable book "Indian Converts, or Some account of the lives and dying speeches of a considerable number of the Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard" is now available in full online. Written by Experience Mayhew, the book provides remarkable insights into the lives and culture of four generations of Native Americans in colonial America. This digitized version was created at Reed College, and visitors can look through all four sections of the work, which include "Indian Ministers" and "Pious Children." Throughout the work, Mayhew details the books that different age groups were reading, provides insights into early New England pedagogy and childrearing practices, and also describes each individual in terms of their own genealogy and personal history. The truly fantastic thing about the site is that it also contains an archive with over 600 images and documents that further contextualize the work. Also, the site contains study guides designed for classroom use that cover artifact analysis, genealogy, and reading gravestones.

438

Indian and Chinese cosmologies reconsidered.  

PubMed

Indian and Chinese cosmic elements are five. They originate from a common source, Bralrma in Indian and Thai-chi in Chinese. The first created element is Mu = Tree, not wood, and life-form itself, immovable but moves everything else = Akaska in Indian cosmology. Dryness = Metal in Chinese, Moisture = Earth. Fire as Heat and Water as Cold, are common to both systems. PMID:3895884

Mahdihassan, S

1985-01-01

439

Diverse genetic origin of Indian Muslims: evidence from autosomal STR loci.  

PubMed

The origin and relationships of Indian Muslims is still dubious and are not yet genetically well studied. In the light of historically attested movements into Indian subcontinent during the demic expansion of Islam, the present study aims to substantiate whether it had been accompanied by any gene flow or only a cultural transformation phenomenon. An array of 13 autosomal STR markers that are common in the worldwide data sets was used to explore the genetic diversity of Indian Muslims. The austere endogamy being practiced for several generations was confirmed by the genetic demarcation of each of the six Indian Muslim communities in the phylogenetic assessments for the markers examined. The analyses were further refined by comparison with geographically closest neighboring Hindu religious groups (including several caste and tribal populations) and the populations from Middle East, East Asia and Europe. We found that some of the Muslim populations displayed high level of regional genetic affinity rather than religious affinity. Interestingly, in Dawoodi Bohras (TN and GUJ) and Iranian Shia significant genetic contribution from West Asia, especially Iran (49, 47 and 46%, respectively) was observed. This divulges the existence of Middle Eastern genetic signatures in some of the contemporary Indian Muslim populations. Our study reveals that the spread of Islamic faith in the Indian subcontinent was predominantly cultural transformation associated with minor gene flow from West Asia. PMID:19424286

Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Dubey, Bhawna; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Ravesh, Zeinab; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Haque, Ikramul

2009-06-01

440

7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian...

2010-01-01

441

76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of no action...On November 18, 2010, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) issued a Notice of...

2011-10-12

442

77 FR 43111 - Indian Gaming; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Correction...notice that the Tribal-- State Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-23

443

Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

2004-03-30

444

South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online since September 1998, this site offers, in the form of short papers, the combined wisdom of "retired officers of the Government of India, with nearly three decades of experience in dealing with foreign policy & national security issues." Behind the no-nonsense home page of the SAAG, users can currently access 35 papers analyzing and assessing contemporary diplomatic, security, and foreign policy events from an Indian perspective. Offerings include a number of pieces on Indo-Pak relations, nuclear policy, and Osama Bin Laden. It should be noted that it seems that the majority of the papers currently available have been written by one individual, B. Raman, retired Additional Secretary in the Cabinet Secretariat and current Director of the Institute for Topical Studies. Nonetheless, South Asian specialists or anyone with an interest in reading about these issues from an Indian perspective will find these short papers useful.

445

A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress  

SciTech Connect

Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast components. This enables incorporation of the residual stresses at the design phase along with external loads for accurate predictions of fatigue and fracture performance of the cast components.

Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

2012-01-01

446

25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained or upon...

2010-04-01

447

25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained or upon...

2014-04-01

448

25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained or upon...

2011-04-01

449

Casting an Object with a Core Hee-Kap Ahn  

E-print Network

Casting an Object with a Core Hee-Kap Ahn Sang Won Bae Siu-Wing Cheng Kyung-Yong Chwa Abstract This paper addresses geometric problems that concern manufacturing an object using a cast with a core. In casting, molten material is poured into the cavity of the cast and allowed to solidify. The cast has two

Cheng, Siu-Wing

450

Thoughts on the Indian Dilemma: Backgrounding the "Indian Problem"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the core of the Indians' problem is the inability of their community to achieve a sense of control over its own destiny, and explores ways in which the Indians can organize to gain the necessary internal cohesion, resources, and capabilities in order to create a satisfactory position within American society. (JM)

Muskrat, Joseph

1973-01-01

451

Release of ToxCastDB and ExpoCastDB databases  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has released two databases - the Toxicity Forecaster database (ToxCastDB) and a database of chemical exposure studies (ExpoCastDB) - that scientists and the public can use to access chemical toxicity and exposure data. ToxCastDB users can search and download data from over 50...

452

Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 1 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 2 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 3 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 4 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1

Hickey, Barbara

453

View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

454

AN INTRODUCTION TO R-CAST Developing Simple Agents Using Decision-making Modeling and the R-CAST Architecture  

E-print Network

AN INTRODUCTION TO R-CAST Developing Simple Agents Using Decision-making Modeling and the R-CAST and Technology The Pennsylvania State University #12;ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2006. This R-CAST tutorial, the R-CAST. Prindible For more information. Visit: http://agentlab.psu.edu/ 2 #12;R-CAST 2.5 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Minimum

455

South African-ness among Adolescents: The Emergence of a Collective Identity within the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called "Birth to Twenty" in Johannesburg, South Africa. They examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as South

Norris, Shane A.; Roeser, Robert W.; Richter, Linda M.; Lewin, Nina; Ginsburg, Carren; Fleetwood, Stella A.; Taole, Elizabeth; van der Wolf, Kees

2008-01-01

456

Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

2002-02-18

457

Clean cast steel technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

1998-06-01

458

Indian psychiatry, research and Asian countries  

PubMed Central

Asia has some of the largest conglomerations of human populations and also the fastest growing economies of the world. About 23% of the world’s population lives in the South Asian region, and one-fifth of psychiatrically ill patients in the world live in this part of the world. Despite vast cultural, religious, geographical, and political diversities, the factors influencing mental health remain the same throughout this wide region, as highlighted at the recently concluded Asian summit, where the slogan, ‘One vision, one identity, one community,’ was launched. Thus, the need to strengthen regional cooperation in the field of mental health has always been felt. This article highlights facts about influence of Indian Psychiatry research as well as of some Asian countries in the world psychiatry and vice versa. PMID:21836718

Trivedi, J. K.; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Saha, Rahul

2010-01-01

459

California Indian Food and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

2001

460

Acoustics of the Indian Drum  

E-print Network

This article investigates as to how the Indian Drums are able to produce harmonics. In particular, it looks at the density distribution on an Indian Drum, the Tabla, and shows that it is the form of the density distribution that results in harmonics.

Siddharth S Malu; Advaith Siddharthan

2000-01-20

461

DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN  

E-print Network

DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN SOCIETIES: An Essay in Comparative Pragmatics THESIS SUBMITTED and complexity are presented in the first part of the thesis, as a basis of comparison with the decision-makingSl).cietal organization in the Plains and surrounding area. #12;DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN SOCIETIES: An Essay

White, Douglas R.

462

A Better Day for Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vesting Congress with implied powers over American Indians produces attitudes and assumptions which are extremely influential. There are seven such controlling assumptions: Congress is presumed to act in good faith toward Indians; the belief that past policies were based upon some intelligent criteria that incorporated an understanding of…

Deloria, Vine, Jr.

463

Indians of the Eastern Seaboard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief history is presented of Indian tribes living along the eastern seaboard of the United States from the time of contact of these tribes with the first European settlers to the present day. Early Indian-white relationships are discussed, as well as relationships established between the various tribes themselves. An historical presentation of…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

464

American Indians of the Southwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for both the specialist and nonspecialist, the book provides a synthesis of Southwestern Indian culture based on long familiarity with the people. Chapter 1 describes the physical aspects of American Indians, land and Aboriginal inhabitants, and development of socio-religious patterns. Chapter II is about Pueblo Peoples (Tanoans,…

Dutton, Bertha P.

465

Indian Calendars Leow Choon Lian  

E-print Network

1 Indian Calendars Leow Choon Lian An academic exercise presented in partial fulfillment Bases of Calendars 1 Chapter 2 Classification of Calendars 8 Chapter 3 The Indian Calendars 11 3) Overview 13 3.2 The Solar Calendars 16 3.3 The National Calendar 26 3.4 The Lunisolar Calendars 29 (a

Aslaksen, Helmer

466

78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Wiyot Tribe and...

2013-09-06

467

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork...

2013-10-22

468

Omaha Indian Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Library of Congress website houses the digitized Omaha Indian Music collection. Featuring a pithy Collection Overview and links to contextualizing elements, such as Historical Eras and Related Collections and Exhibits, the site makes accessible an important cultural tradition. Of course, the exhibit itself really shines. The multiformat ethnographic field collection contains dozens of wax cylinder recordings from the 1890s, as well as modern recordings of pow-wows and performances. Additionally, black and white photographs and contemporary films exhibit dances and celebrations, while interviews with tribal members elucidate the various cultural practices.

469

Historicizing Indian psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

Basu, Amit Ranjan

2005-01-01

470

American Indians and Crime  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, released in 1999 by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, measures and characterizes the rate of violent crimes experienced by Native Americans in the US, who as the report concludes, are victimized by violent crime at more than twice the rate of US residents in general. The data collection was garnered from a variety of government sources and presents statistics on the involvement of drugs, alcohol, and weapons in crimes; the relationship between victim and offender; the rate of crime reporting by victims; and the physical and financial damage incurred by victims. The report also summarizes data on American Indians in the criminal justice system.

1999-01-01

471

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2012-04-01

472

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2013-04-01

473

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2014-04-01

474

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2010-04-01

475

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2011-04-01

476

Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods  

SciTech Connect

The article says that because blast casting differs from conventional blasting, our ideas about explosive products, drilling, and initiating methods must change. The author discusses how to select a casting explosive and what factors are important in its selection. He also looks at how to determine the best blasthole diameter and burden blasting pattern.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-08-01

477

Level Responsive Control with Continuous Casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

REFERENCES TO THE concept of continuous casting of metals are found in literature dating as far back as 1840. Machines were actually constructed in the mid 1800s for the continuous casting of long sections, such as pipes, of nonferrous materials. Since that time, there have been many modifications of the basic ideas, and a large percentage of nonferrous materials are

Torrence E. DeViney; L. J. Penkowski

1965-01-01

478

Control of semicontinuous aluminum casting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a semicontinuous casting process, the metal level is controlled by the inflow of liquid metal. The quality of the cast product depends on the accuracy of the mold level control. There is a need for a control strategy giving better results than the fixed parameter controller and simple enough to be implemented on the existing control structure, in order

A. Besancon-Voda; C. Delclos

1998-01-01

479

The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a parental questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions. In this validation study, the CAST was distributed to 1925 children aged 5-11 in mainstream Cambridgeshire schools. A sample of participants received a full diagnostic assessment, conducted blind to screen status. The sensitivity of…

Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Allison, Carrie; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

2005-01-01

480

Bone response to machined cast titanium implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to evaluate the bone response to machined cast titanium (Ti) implants. Commercially pure (c.p.) machined Ti implants served as controls. Analyses of the surface composition and topography by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed no differences comparing the two materials. Cast screw-shaped and identical machined Ti implants were inserted in the tibial metaphysis

S. Mohammadi; M. Esposito; L. Wictorin; B.-O. Aronsson; P. Thomsen

2001-01-01