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Sample records for south indian castes

  1. Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, WS; Thara, R; Mowry, BJ; Zhang, Y; Witherspoon, DJ; Tolpinrud, W; Bamshad, MJ; Tirupati, S; Padmavati, R; Smith, H; Nancarrow, D; Filippich, C; Jorde, LB

    2008-01-01

    Background Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations. Results We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations from the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh. Genetic differentiation among Tamil castes is low (RST = 0.96% for 45 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers), reflecting a largely common origin. Nonetheless, caste- and continent-specific patterns are evident. For 32 lineage-defining Y-chromosome SNPs, Tamil castes show higher affinity to Europeans than to eastern Asians, and genetic distance estimates to the Europeans are ordered by caste rank. For 32 lineage-defining mitochondrial SNPs and hypervariable sequence (HVS) 1, Tamil castes have higher affinity to eastern Asians than to Europeans. For 45 autosomal STRs, upper and middle rank castes show higher affinity to Europeans than do lower rank castes from either Tamil Nadu or Andhra Pradesh. Local between-caste variation (Tamil Nadu RST = 0.96%, Andhra Pradesh RST = 0.77%) exceeds the estimate of variation between these geographically separated groups (RST = 0.12%). Low, but statistically significant, correlations between caste rank distance and genetic distance are demonstrated for Tamil castes using Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal data. Conclusion Genetic data from Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal STRs are in accord with historical accounts of northwest to southeast population movements in India. The influence of ancient and historical population movements and caste social structure can be detected and replicated in South Indian caste populations from two different geographic regions. PMID:19077280

  2. Polymorphic Alu Insertion/Deletion in Different Caste and Tribal Populations from South India

    PubMed Central

    Chinniah, Rathika; Vijayan, Murali; Thirunavukkarasu, Manikandan; Mani, Dhivakar; Raju, Kamaraj; Ravi, Padma Malini; Sivanadham, Ramgopal; C, Kandeepan; N, Mahalakshmi; Karuppiah, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Seven human-specific Alu markers were studied in 574 unrelated individuals from 10 endogamous groups and 2 hill tribes of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states. DNA was isolated, amplified by PCR-SSP, and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, and genotypes were assigned for various Alu loci. Average heterozygosity among caste populations was in the range of 0.292–0.468. Among tribes, the average heterozygosity was higher for Paliyan (0.3759) than for Kani (0.2915). Frequency differences were prominent in all loci studied except Alu CD4. For Alu CD4, the frequency was 0.0363 in Yadavas, a traditional pastoral and herd maintaining population, and 0.2439 in Narikuravars, a nomadic gypsy population. The overall genetic difference (Gst) of 12 populations (castes and tribes) studied was 3.6%, which corresponds to the Gst values of 3.6% recorded earlier for Western Asian populations. Thus, our study confirms the genetic similarities between West Asian populations and South Indian castes and tribes and supported the large scale coastal migrations from Africa into India through West Asia. However, the average genetic difference (Gst) of Kani and Paliyan tribes with other South Indian tribes studied earlier was 8.3%. The average Gst of combined South and North Indian Tribes (CSNIT) was 9.5%. Neighbor joining tree constructed showed close proximity of Kani and Paliyan tribal groups to the other two South Indian tribes, Toda and Irula of Nilgiri hills studied earlier. Further, the analysis revealed the affinities among populations and confirmed the presence of North and South India specific lineages. Our findings have documented the highly diverse (micro differentiated) nature of South Indian tribes, predominantly due to isolation, than the endogamous population groups of South India. Thus, our study firmly established the genetic relationship of South Indian castes and tribes and supported the proposed large scale ancestral migrations from Africa, particularly into South India

  3. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India. PMID:26611129

  4. OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE AND RUN OUT WITH TRAVELING TORCH. MACHINE IS CASTING IN TWIN MOLD. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  5. The lost-wax casting of icons, utensils, bells, and other items in South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, R. M.; Pilhii, S. G. K.; Damodaran, A. D.

    2002-10-01

    Indian artisans and craftsmen have long been masters at extracting and shaping metals and alloys, as proven by archaeological finds from the 2nd—3rd millennia B.C. For example, two well-known artifacts, castings of the dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro and the Mother Goddess of Adichanallur, Tamilnadu, depict a high degree of metallurgical knowledge. Those castings were formed by the lost wax process, which later was modified and became known as investment casting. In various parts of India, this age-old casting process is still being practiced, without any major modifications. This paper discusses details of the process used by the Indian artisans of Swamimalai, Tamilnadu, and Mannar, Kerala, South India in shaping copper-base alloys into icons and utensils, bells, and lamps.

  6. Indian Place Names in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasque, Thomas J.

    A cursory examination of place names on a map of South Dakota does not reflect the important role that Indians have played in the state and their relation to the land framed by its borders. Only three towns with populations over 1,000 bear names that clearly come from Indian languages: Sioux Falls, Sisseton, and Yankton. The hostile relationship…

  7. Detail of parapet, frieze, and castings at windows. South elevation; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of parapet, frieze, and castings at windows. South elevation; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. South Indian foods: Contaminants and their effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaswamy, S.N.; Balachandran, B.; Balanehru, S. )

    1991-08-01

    Life style including dietary habits is one of the most important factors responsible for different types of cancer. The role of diet in human cancer has prompted many to analyze the food items, particularly the heat processed foods and food components for possible mutagens and carcinogens. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during combustion, pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis of organic matter. Epidemiological studies have unequivocally established a relationship between the occurrence of PAHs and different types of cancers. Since the incidence of stomach cancer in South India in very high, the authors have screened several commonly consumed food dishes and food components for possible contaminants, such as PAHs. Since many of the Indian food items are stored for long periods, mycotoxin contamination is possible and therefore, they have screened some of the food components for the presence of zearalenone, a Fusarium mycotoxin. This paper reports the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and zearalenone in the commonly consumed food items. The mutagenic and genotoxic effects of these food items are also reported.

  9. Current structure of the south Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Michael D.; Heywood, Karen J.; Brown, Juan; Stevens, David P.

    1996-03-01

    Using recently published atlas data [Olbers et al., 1992] and the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM) [Webb et al., 1991], an investigation has been conducted into the structure of the frontal jets centered around the region of the islands of Crozet (46°27'S, 52°0'E) and Kerguelen (48°15'S, 69°10'E) in the south Indian Ocean. Geostrophic current velocities and transports were calculated from the temperature and salinity fields available from the atlas and compared with results from FRAM and previous studies. We have identified the Agulhas Return Front (ARF) and the Subtropical Front (STF), as well as the following fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC): the Subantarctic Front (SAF), the Polar Front (PF), and the Southern ACC Front (SACCF), from temperature and salinity characteristics and from geostrophic currents. This analysis of model and atlas data indicates that the jets associated with the ARF, STF, and SAF are topographically steered into a unique frontal system north of the islands, having some of the largest temperature and salinity gradients anywhere in the world ocean. The frontal jet associated with the ARF is detectable up to 75°E and has associated with it several northward branching jets. The PF bifurcates in the region of the Ob'Lena (Conrad) seamount; subsurface and surface expressions are identified, separated by as much as 8° of latitude immediately west of the Kerguelen Plateau. The surface expression, carrying the bulk of the transport (˜65 Sv), is steered through the col in the Kerguelen Plateau at 56°S, 6° south of the latitude normally associated with the PF at this meridian. On crossing the plateau it rejoins the subsurface expression. In the south, passing eastward along the margin of the Antarctic continent and through the Princess Elizabeth Trough, a frontal jet is identified transporting up to 35 Sv, believed to be the SACCF [Orsi et al., 1995], placing the southern extent of the ACC in the region at 67°S.

  10. The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kivisild, T.; Rootsi, S.; Metspalu, M.; Mastana, S.; Kaldma, K.; Parik, J.; Metspalu, E.; Adojaan, M.; Tolk, H.-V.; Stepanov, V.; Gölge, M.; Usanga, E.; Papiha, S. S.; Cinnioğlu, C.; King, R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.; Underhill, P. A.; Villems, R.

    2003-01-01

    Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N that cover populations of different social rank from all over the subcontinent. Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations. H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup. Haplotype frequencies of the MX1 locus of chromosome 21 distinguish Koyas and Chenchus, along with Indian caste groups, from European and eastern Asian populations. Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools. PMID:12536373

  11. Can Indian Ocean SST anomalies influence South American rainfall?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taschetto, Andréa S.; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2012-04-01

    In this study we examine the impact of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability on South American circulation using observations and a suite of numerical experiments forced by a combination of Indian and Pacific SST anomalies. Previous studies have shown that the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode can affect climate over remote regions across the globe, including over South America. Here we show that such a link exists not only with the IOD, but also with the Indian Ocean basin-wide warming (IOBW). The IOBW, a response to El Niño events, tends to reinforce the South American anomalous circulation in March-to-May associated with the warm events in the Pacific. This leads to increased rainfall in the La Plata basin and decreased rainfall over the northern regions of the continent. In addition, the IOBW is suggested to be an important factor for modulating the persistence of dry conditions over northeastern South America during austral autumn. The link between the IOBW and South American climate occurs via alterations of the Walker circulation pattern and through a mid-latitude wave-train teleconnection.

  12. circulation of the upper layer of the south Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruijter, Will; Lambert, Erwin; Aguiar Gonzalez, Borja

    2016-04-01

    The south IO is characterized by high variability and mesoscale eddies. After separation the East Madagascar Current forms dipoles that continue to the south-west and connect remote (eco)systems. The Mozambique Current breaks up in eddies that move southward. They connect upstream to the Indonesian Through Flow and downstream to the Agulhas system. East of Madagascar the 'South Indian Ocean Counter Current' (SICC) flows to the east into the Leeuwin Current system while submerged eddies form a return flow to the west. Hypotheses on the coherence of these flows range from local scale frontal systems to large scale connection via the subtropical super gyre. We aim to present a coherent large-scale picture of the upper south Indian Ocean circulation, the role of the eddies as connectors and drivers of vertical exchanges that may control observed large-scale phenomena like the plankton blooms east of Madagascar.

  13. Circulation of Antarctic intermediate water in the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Rana A.

    1993-10-01

    Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrographic data collected on the R.R.S. Charles Darwin Cruise 29 along 32°S during November-December 1987, are used to examine the circulation in the South Indian Ocean. The emphasis is on Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW); bottom waters and mode waters are also examined. Bottom waters entering in the western boundary of the Crozet Basin (about 60°E) and in the Mozambique Basin (about 40°E) have low concentrations of anthropogenic CFCs. The rest of the bottom and deep waters up to about 2000 m have concentrations that are below blank levels. Above the intermediate waters there are injections of mode waters, which are progressively denser in the eastward direction. They form a broad subsurface CFC maximum between 200 and 400 m. The injections of recently ventilated (with respect to CFCs and oxygen) Subantarctic Mode Waters (SAMWs) at different densities indicate that there is considerable exchange between the subtropical and subantarctic regions. The tracer data presented show that the circulation of AAIW in the South Indian Ocean is different from that in the South Atlantic and South Pacific oceans in several ways. (1) The most recently ventilated AAIW is observed in a compact anticyclonic gyre west of 72°E. The shallow topography (e.g. that extending northeastward from the Kerguelen Plateau) may deflect and limit the eastward extent of the most recently ventilated AAIW. As a consequence, there is a zonal offset in the South Indian Ocean of the location of the most recently ventilated SAMW and AAIW, which does not occur in the other two oceans. The strongest component of SAMW is in the east, while the AAIW is strongest in the western-central South Indian Ocean. The offset results in a higher vertical gradient in CFCs in the east. (2) The Agulhas Current may impede input of AAIW along the western boundary. (3) Tracers are consistent with an inter-ocean flow from the South Pacific into the Eastern Indian Ocean, similar to the

  14. Anthropometric Analysis of the South Indian Woman's Nose.

    PubMed

    Packiriswamy, Vasanthakumar; Bashour, Mounir; Nayak, Satheesha

    2016-06-01

    The normal values of nasal dimensions and position have been established for various racial and ethnic groups. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of information related to these values in South Indian females, leading to surgeons being forced to use statistical data from Caucasians in their decision making. The objective of the present study was to compare statistically the nasal anthropometric measurement of South Indian women (SIW) with published norms for North American white women (NAWW) using independent t-test. Anthropometric analysis was done on standardized frontal, lateral, and basal photographs of South Indian woman's noses (n = 375) ages 18 to 35 years. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between SIW and NAWW in 15 of 17 measurements. All 14 nasal indices revealed significant differences that were calculated. SIW had relatively shorter, wider, and more horizontally oriented noses, and the noses have ellipsoid appearance in submental view, deeper nasal root, underrotated nasal tip, flared alae, and rounded nasal tip. As cosmetic surgery becomes more popular among South Indians, the obtained normative mean values might serve as a prototype for facial surgery. PMID:27248029

  15. Hydrogeology of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, M.J.; Adolphson, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    Data on which this report is based, including logs of wells and test holes, chemical analyses of water and records of wells and springs, have been summarized by the authors in a basic-data report published jointly by the South Dakota Geological Survey and South Dakota Water Resources Commission (Water Resources Report 4, Basic hydrogeologic data - Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota).  A selected bibliography of reports pertaining to the geology of the area has been included in the basic-data report.  This atlas will be more useful if studied in conjunction with a copy of the basic-data report.

  16. The Sioux Indian Goes to College. An Analysis of Selected Problems of South Dakota Indian College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artichoker, John, Jr.; Palmer, Neil M.

    Problems of American Indian college students in South Dakota which appeared to be "distinctively Indian" in nature were identified. Two questionnaires were administered to 72 Indian students enrolled in 4-year colleges and universities during the spring of 1957. Data analysis centered on the comparison of the problems of two pair of groups: Indian…

  17. Multi-layer Clouds Over the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on April 23, 2003. These clouds occur at multiple altitudes and exhibit a noticeable cyclonic circulation over the Southern Indian Ocean, to the north of Enderbyland, East Antarctica.

    The image at left was created by overlying a natural-color view from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) camera with a color-coded stereo height field. MISR retrieves heights by a pattern recognition algorithm that utilizes multiple view angles to derive cloud height and motion. The opacity of the height field was then reduced until the field appears as a translucent wash over the natural-color image. The resulting purple, cyan and green hues of this aesthetic display indicate low, medium or high altitudes, respectively, with heights ranging from less than 2 kilometers (purple) to about 8 kilometers (green). In the lower right corner, the edge of the Antarctic coastline and some sea ice can be seen through some thin, high cirrus clouds.

    The right-hand panel is a natural-color image from MISR's 70-degree backward viewing camera. This camera looks backwards along the path of Terra's flight, and in the southern hemisphere the Sun is in front of this camera. This perspective causes the cloud-tops to be brightly outlined by the sun behind them, and enhances the shadows cast by clouds with significant vertical structure. An oblique observation angle also enhances the reflection of light by atmospheric particles, and accentuates the appearance of polar clouds. The dark ocean and sea ice that were apparent through the cirrus clouds at the bottom right corner of the nadir image are overwhelmed by the brightness of these clouds at the oblique view.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude

  18. A hydrographic section across the subtropical South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toole, John M.; Warren, Bruce A.

    1993-10-01

    Features of the water-property and circulation fields at the southern limit of the continentally bounded Indian Ocean are described on the basis of a transoceanic hydrographic section occupied along roughly Lat. 32°S by the R.R.S. Charles Darwin in November-December 1987. Primary observations consisted of 106 full-depth CTD/O 2 stations with discrete measurements of the concentrations of dissolved silica, phosphate and nitrate. The section lies in the southern part of the South Indian subtropical gyre; water-property features in the upper kilometer indicate that the northward interior flow is predominantly in the eastern half of the ocean there, consistent with the forcing pattern of wind-stress curl. The southward return flow is the Agulhas Current, whose transport at Lats 31-32°S is estimated as 85 × 10 6 m 3 s -1. Circumpolar Deep Water flows northward to fill the greater deep Indian Ocean by means of western-boundary currents in the Crozet Basin, Central Indian Basin and Perth Basin. North Atlantic Deep Water entering directly from the mid-latitude South Atlantic is almost entirely confined to the south-western Indian Ocean (Mozambique Basin, Natal Valley) by the topography of the Madagascar Ridge and Mozambique Channel. Geostrophic transport figures are presented based on a zero-velocity surface constructed along the section from the tracer-property evidence of where deep water was moving northward and where southward. Ekman transport, deduced from shipboard acoustic-Doppler profiler measurements, as well as synoptic and historical wind stress data, is found to be small (about 1 × 10 6 m 3 s -1 northward). Net transport (geostrophic and Ekman) across the section is estimated to be 7 × 10 6 m 3 s -1 southward, which implies a similarly sized Indonesia throughflow. Ambiquity in the geostrophic referencing scheme, and the magnitude of baroclinic eddy noise on the section, suggest this figure in uncertain by at least ±10 × 10 6mm 3 s -1. The calculations

  19. Increased arterial stiffness in South Dakota American Indian children.

    PubMed

    Litz, Andrew M; Van Guilder, Gary P

    2016-02-01

    Arterial stiffness has been observed in white American obese children, yet there are no data in American Indian youth, who are affected disproportionately by the cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity and its accompanying risk factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of childhood overweight-obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors with arterial stiffness in South Dakota white American and American Indian children. Thirty-six (28 white American and 8 American Indian) children (age, 13 ± 1 years; grades 6-8) from a rural South Dakota elementary and middle school were studied: 18 had a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI), 19.5 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)) and 18 were overweight-obese (BMI, 26.8 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)). Arterial stiffness was assessed using applanation tonometry via pulse wave analysis to determine carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV) and aortic augmentation index (AIx). There were no differences (P = 0.94) in crPWV between healthy weight (7.1 ± 1.4 m/s) and overweight-obese (7.3 ± 1.0 m/s) children, even after controlling for risk factors. However, crPWV was markedly elevated (P = 0.002) in overweight-obese American Indian children (7.7 ± 1.1 m/s) compared with white American children (6.8 ± 0.5 m/s), and these differences remained after controlling for blood pressure and more severe obesity in the American Indians. An obesity-matched subgroup analysis indicated that crPWV (7.7 ± 1.1 vs 6.8 ± 0.4 m/s) remained significantly greater in the American Indians (P = 0.03). There were no between-group differences in aortic AIx. These findings indicate an adverse influence of American Indian ethnicity on arterial stiffening in children with elevated adiposity. Arterial stiffness in American Indian children may accelerate early adulthood vascular disease. PMID:26761621

  20. Constituents of south Indian vetiver oils.

    PubMed

    Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Ramesh, S; Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara

    2012-02-01

    The essential oils isolated from vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.] roots collected from four locations in south India were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Eighty constituents, representing 94.5-97.8% of the oils, have been identified. The oils from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kundapur, and Mettupalayam were rich in sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with cedrane, bisabolane, eudesmane, eremophilane, and zizaane skeletons. The main components of the four essential oils were: eudesma-4,6-diene (delta-selinene) + beta-vetispirene (3.9-6.1%), beta-vetivenene (0.9-9.4%), 13-nor-trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-11-one + amorph-4-en-10-ol (5.0-6.4%), trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-12-ol (vetiselinenol) + (E)-opposita-4(15),7(11)-dien-12-ol (3.7-5.9%), eremophila-1 (10),11-dien-2alpha-ol (nootkatol) + ziza-6(13)-en-12-ol (khusimol) (16.1-19.2%), and eremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-2alpha-ol (isonootkatol) + (E)-eremophila-1(10),7(11)-12-ol (isovalencenol) (5.6-6.9%). The important compounds that impart the characteristic vetiver odor are: khusimene, delta-selinene, beta-vetivenene, cyclocopacamphan-12-ol (epimers A and B), vetiselinenol, khusimol, isovalencenol, khusimone, alpha-vetivone, and beta-vetivone. The chemical profiles of the oils are comparable to Haitian vetiver oil. PMID:22474964

  1. The Seasonal Variability of the South Indian Ocean Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matano, R. P.; Beier, E. J.; Strub, P. T.

    2006-07-01

    This article compares the seasonal variability patterns of the South Indian Ocean circulation derived from a global, eddy-permitting, numerical model and altimeter observations. The seasonal variability of the Indian Ocean circulation is driven by the inflow from the Indonesian Passages and by the local wind forcing. Our analysis indicates that the influence of the Indonesian throughflow is confined to the easternmost portion of the basin, while the influence of the wind stress forcing is important everywhere. Model and observations indicates that, between ~105°E and 75°E, the seasonal variability is characterized by the southwestward propagation of an annual wave in a lapse of ~4 months. Preliminary calculations using Pathfinder data also indicates that, in the western region, there are seasonal perturbations that originates in the tropics and propagates poleward through the Mozambique Channel.

  2. Comparative Approach to the Study of a White-Indian-Negro Caste System in Robeson County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Dennis Michael

    Attempting to find empirical evidence to support an hypothesis on the social stratification system in Robeson County, North Carolina, the study theorized that there exists a caste system in which the Lumbee Indians have a status between the dominant whites and subordinate Negro groups. The Lumbees and their relationship to these other groups were…

  3. Climatic records of the last and penultimate deglaciations in the South Atlantic and South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Elisabeth; Waelbroeck, Claire; Govin, Aline; Skinner, Luke; Vàzquez Riveiros, Natalia; Dewilde, Fabien; Isguder, Gulay; Rebaubier, Hélène

    2013-04-01

    Surface and deep-water records of Termination I and II in two twin South Atlantic deep-sea cores (44°09' S, 14°14' W, 3770 m depth) and one South Indian core (46°29' S, 88°01' E, 3420 m depth) are presented. Sea surface temperature has been reconstructed based on planktonic foraminifera census counts in all cases, as well as Mg/Ca of G. bulloides and N. pachyderma s. over the last deglaciation. The uncertainty on reconstructed SST using different statistical methods and different faunal databases is assessed. Over the last deglaciation, combined 14C dating and correlation of the SST record with the air temperature signal recorded in Antarctic ice cores allowed us to correct for variable surface reservoir ages in the South Atlantic core (Skinner et al., 2010). Preliminary dating of the South Indian core over the last termination has been done by correlation of its magnetic signal with those of a neighboring 14C dated core (Smart et al., 2010). We have refined the later age scale using the Atlantic core age scale as reference. Benthic isotopic signals in the South Atlantic and South Indian cores over the last deglaciation exhibit the same amplitude and timing. Our results thus indicate that bottom waters at the South Indian site remained isolated from better ventilated deep waters of northern origin until ~15 ka (Waelbroeck et al., 2011). Over Termination II, the two cores have been dated by correlation of their SST records with the air temperature signal recorded in EDC versus the EDC3 age scale (Govin et al., 2009; 2012). A careful examination of the various sources of uncertainty on the derived dating has been performed. Benthic and planktonic isotopic signals reveal analogies but also differences with respect to the last termination. SST was significantly warmer during the Last Interglacial than during the Holocene in both sites. South Atlantic deep waters were also significantly better ventilated during the Last Interglacial than during the Holocene, whereas

  4. Correlates of lifestyle: physical activity among South Asian Indian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis F; Miller, Arlene Michaels

    2013-01-01

    South Asian immigrants are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but little is known about their physical activity patterns. In this cross-sectional study, 110 participants were recruited to describe lifestyle physical activity behavior of this at-risk population. Education (p = .042), global health (p = .045), and self-efficacy (p = .000) had significant positive independent effects on leisure-time physical activity. Depression (p = .035) and waist circumference (p = .012) had significant negative independent effects, and frequency of experiencing discrimination a significant positive independent effect (p = .007) on daily step counts. Culture-sensitive physical activity interventions need to target South Asian Indian immigrants who are less educated, in poor health, concerned about racial discrimination, and have low self-efficacy. PMID:24219639

  5. Health inequalities among urban children in India: a comparative assessment of Empowered Action Group (EAG) and South Indian states.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, P; Jain, Kshipra; Goli, Srinivas; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2013-03-01

    As India rapidly urbanizes, within urban areas socioeconomic disparities are rising and health inequality among urban children is an emerging challenge. This paper assesses the relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the less developed Empowered Action Group (EAG) states and more developed South Indian states in urban India using data from the 2005-06 National Family Health Survey. Focusing on urban health from varying regional and developmental contexts, socioeconomic inequalities in child health are examined first using Concentration Indices (CIs) and then the contributions of socioeconomic factors to the CIs of health variables are derived. The results reveal, in order of importance, pronounced contributions of household economic status, parent's illiteracy and caste to urban child health inequalities in the South Indian states. In contrast, parent's illiteracy, poor economic status, being Muslim and child birth order 3 or more are major contributors to health inequalities among urban children in the EAG states. The results suggest the need to adopt different health policy interventions in accordance with the pattern of varying contributions of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the more developed South Indian states and less developed EAG states. PMID:22643297

  6. Prevalence of Duodenal Diverticulum in South Indians: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Kannaiyan, Kavitha; Thiagarajan, Sivakami

    2013-01-01

    Background. Duodenum is the second most common site of diverticula after the colon. Diagnosis of duodenal diverticula is incidental and found during other therapeutic procedures. In 90% of cases, they are asymptomatic, and less than 10% develop clinical symptoms. The difficulty to ascertain the true incidence of duodenal diverticula demanded for the present study to elucidate the prevalence of the duodenal diverticulum in South Indians. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty specimens of duodenum were utilized for the study. The prevalence, anatomical location, and dimension of duodenal diverticulum were studied. Results. Among the 120 specimens of duodenum, five specimens had solitary, extraluminal, and globular-shaped diverticula in the medial wall of the duodenum. In three (60%) cases, it was found in the second part of duodenum and in two (40%) cases in the third part. The mean size of the diverticula was 1.4 cm. Conclusion. In the present study in South Indian people, the prevalence (4.2%) of duodenal diverticula is low comparable to other studies in the literature. Even though most of the duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, the knowledge about its frequency and location is of great importance to prevent complications like diverticulitis, hemorrhage, obstructive jaundice, and perforation. PMID:25938103

  7. Efficacy of Cheiloscopy in Determination of Sex Among South Indians

    PubMed Central

    Kautilya D., Vijay; Bodkha, Pravir; Rajamohan, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Human identification plays a vital role in any crime investigation. Along with the various other established methods, cheiloscopy also plays a key role in linking the criminal with the crime. The ability of a technique in differentiating the sex of a person in the field can help in screening a large number of suspects. This study evaluated the efficacy of cheiloscopy in determination of sex among South Indians. It also studied the pattern of dimorphism in the lips and lip prints of south Indians. Material and Methods: Lip prints from 100 medical students (50 males and 50 females) were obtained and were analyzed, based on Tsuchihashi and Suzuki classification, to check for dimorphism. Lip dimensions were studied by using standard sliding calipers for dimorphism. Results and Discussion: The most common pattern of lip print among males was Type III as compared to Type I in females. The outer four portions of the lip showed statistically significant differences in males and females. Middle portion of the lip was statistically insignificant in sex determination, based on lip print patterns. Thickness of the lip was significantly larger in males as compared to that in females and this criterion could be used to establish a logistic regression for determination of sex of a person. Conclusion: Lips not only significantly differ among the males and females in the pattern of the lip print that they present, but they also differ in their size. These features can effectively be used to determine the sex of a person accurately. PMID:24298473

  8. Seasonal variation of the South Indian tropical gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Ridderinkhof, Herman; van Aken, Hendrik M.; de Ruijter, Will P. M.; Maas, Leo R. M.

    2016-04-01

    Based on satellite altimeter data and global atlases of temperature, salinity, wind stress and wind-driven circulation we investigate the seasonal variation of the South Indian tropical gyre and its associated open-ocean upwelling system, known as the Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR). Results show a year-round, altimeter-derived cyclonic gyre where the upwelling regime appears closely related to seasonality of the ocean gyre, a relationship that has not been previously explored in this region. An analysis of major forcing mechanisms suggests that the thermocline ridge results from the constructive interaction of basin-scale wind stress curl, local-scale wind stress forcing and remote forcing driven by Rossby waves of different periodicity: semiannual in the west, under the strong influence of monsoonal winds; and, annual in the east, where the southeasterlies prevail. One exception occurs during winter, when the well-known westward intensification of the upwelling core, the Seychelles Dome, is shown to be largely a response of the wind-driven circulation. At basin-scale, the most outstanding feature is the seasonal shrinkage of the ocean gyre and the SCTR. From late autumn to spring, the eastward South Equatorial Countercurrent (SECC) recirculates early in the east on feeding the westward South Equatorial Current, therefore closing the gyre before arrival to Sumatra. We find this recirculation longitude migrates over 20° and collocates with the westward advance of a zonal thermohaline front emerging from the encounter between (upwelled) Indian Equatorial Water and relatively warmer and fresher Indonesian Throughflow Water. We suggest this front, which we call the Indonesian Throughflow Front, plays an important role as remote forcing to the tropical gyre, generating southward geostrophic flows that contribute to the early recirculation of the SECC.

  9. Seasonal variation of the South Indian tropical gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Ridderinkhof, Herman; van Aken, Hendrik M.; de Ruijter, Will P. M.; Maas, Leo R. M.

    2016-04-01

    The South Indian tropical gyre receives and redistributes water masses from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), a source of Pacific Ocean water which represents the only low-latitude connector between the world oceans and, therefore, a key component in the global ocean circulation and climate system. We investigate the seasonal variation of the South Indian tropical gyre and its associated open-ocean upwelling system, known as the Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR), based on satellite altimeter data (AVISO) and global atlases of temperature and salinity (CARS09), wind stress (SCOW) and wind-driven circulation. Two novel large-scale features governing the upper geostrophic circulation of the South Indian tropical gyre are revealed. First, the seasonal shrinkage of the ocean gyre. This occurs when the South Equatorial Countercurrent (SECC) recirculates before arrival to Sumatra from winter to spring, in apparent synchronization with the annual cycle of the ITF. Second, the open-ocean upwelling is found to vary following seasonality of the overlying geostrophic ocean gyre, a relationship that has not been previously shown for this region. An analysis of major forcing mechanisms suggests that the thermocline ridge results from the constructive interaction of basin-scale wind stress curl, local-scale wind stress forcing and remote forcing driven by Rossby waves of different periodicity: semiannual in the west, under the strong influence of monsoonal winds; and, annual in the east, where the southeasterlies prevail. One exception occurs during winter, when the well-known westward intensification of the upwelling core, the Seychelles Dome, is shown to be largely a response of the wind-driven circulation. Broadly speaking, the seasonal shrinkage of the ocean gyre (and the SCTR) is the one feature that differs most when the geostrophic circulation is compared to the wind-driven Sverdrup circulation. From late autumn to spring, the eastward SECC recirculates early in

  10. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior among South Asian Indian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes than Whites. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for seven days. Results Just over half (51.8%) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (≥150 minutes moderate-intensity or ≥75 minutes vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6904.3, which is in the “low active” classification. Discussion Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed. PMID:23686529

  11. Multiple Instrument Translation for Use with South Asian Indian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Manju; Miller, Arlene; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe translation of five measures (physical activity, acculturation, discrimination, self-efficacy, and depression) from English into Hindi using the committee translation method, focus group, and think-aloud interviews. Two South Asian Indian (SAI) immigrant bilingual translators and a moderator reached consensus on 93 of 102 items, using the committee method. Discrepancy in nine items was resolved with a focus group conducted with five bilingual SAI immigrants. Ten other bilingual SAI immigrants participated in think-aloud interviews to assess understanding and interpretation of the questions. More than 10 additional changes were made following the think-aloud interviews. Sequential use of multiple translation techniques improved translation with culturally acceptable language, thereby maintaining equivalence with original versions. PMID:21818758

  12. Tropical Cyclogenesis Conditions in the South-Western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meetoo, Cherina; Roux, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Mature tropical cyclones around the world exist through similar atmospheric and oceanic processes: the necessary conditions for these storms to occur (warm SST, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the low to mid-troposphere, low wind shear, enough Coriolis force) are identical over all basins. However, the environments within which pre-existing disturbances evolve into warm-core cyclonic circulations are fairly different in the various basins. This is partly due to the influence of large-scale climatic cycles (e.g. ENSO, AMO, IOD, etc.) and of synoptic-scale propagating modes (e.g. tropical waves, Madden-Julian Oscillation, etc.). While many studies have examined the specific situations of the tropical basins in the northern hemisphere, storm formation is much less known in the southern hemisphere. Concerning the south-western Indian Ocean (0-30°S, 50-100°E), Bessafi and Wheeler (2006) have shown a large and statistically significant modulation by MJO and convectively coupled Equatorial Rossby waves, and a small yet significant modulation by Kelvin waves. The present study concerns the analysis of cyclogenetic evolution of named storms in the south-western Indian Ocean during 13 seasons from 1999-2000 to 2011-2012, from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses and Meteosat-7 images. First, the methods used to find tropical storms (also identified in the IBTrACS database) in the ERA-Interim reanalyses will be shown. Besides, the upper- and lower-troposphere conditions in which storms develop will be examined using integrated diagnoses (McTaggart-Cowan et al., 2008). A spectral analysis in space and time of the different dynamical and thermodynamical environmental parameters (from ERA-Interim reanalyses and Meteosat-7 images) will then be presented. This analysis shows slow (period > 10 days) and fast (period < 10 days) eastward and westward tropical waves. Finally, the relationship between these waves and developing and non-developing storm cases will be discussed.

  13. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt. PMID:25754516

  14. NAT2 genetic variations among South Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Lakkakula, Saikrishna; Mohan Pathapati, Ram; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan; Lakkakula, Bhaskar Vks; Maram, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    The N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs, environmental toxins and the aromatic amine carcinogens present in cigarette smoke. Genetic variations in NAT2 have long been recognized as the cause of variable enzymatic activity or stability, leading to slow or rapid acetylation. In the present study, we genotyped three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the NAT2 gene (rs1799929, rs1799930 and rs1799931), using TaqMan allelic discrimination, among 212 individuals from six major South Indian populations and compared the results with other available Indian and worldwide data. All three of the markers followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were highly polymorphic in the studied populations. The constructed haplotypes showed a high level of heterozygosity. All of the populations in the present study commonly shared only four haplotypes out of the eight possible three-site haplotypes. The haplotypes exhibited fairly high frequencies across multiple populations, where three haplotypes were shared by all six populations with a cumulative frequency ranging from 88.2% (Madiga) to 97.0% (Balija). We also observed a tribal-specific haplotype. A strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between rs1799929 and rs1799930 was consistent in all of the studied populations, with the exception of the Madiga. A comparison of the genomic regions 20-kb up- and downstream of rs1799930 in a large number of worldwide samples showed a strong LD of this SNP with another NAT2 SNP, rs1112005, among the majority of the populations. Moreover, our lifestyle test (hunter-gatherer versus agriculturist) in comparison with the NAT2 variant suggested that two of the studied populations (Balija and Madiga) have likely shifted their diet more recently. PMID:27081506

  15. Women in Cultural Transition: Suicidal Behavior in South African Indian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenaar, Douglas R.; van der Veen, Marchiene B. W.; Pillay, Anthony L.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between suicidal behavior and gender, and between gender, culture, and cultural transition for Indians in South Africa is studied. Data on suicide rates are presented. Social change, tension between Indian culture and westernization, traditional power relations, and gender are considered. Three case studies are related to…

  16. Indian Gaming in South Dakota: Conflict in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, William V.

    2009-01-01

    Legal gaming on Indian reservations has increased dramatically since the 1987 landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court in "California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians." In this case the Supreme Court upheld by a 6-3 vote the right under federal law for Indians to run gambling operations without state regulation in states where such…

  17. Cardiometabolic risk profile of rural South Indians undergoing coronary interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sriharibabu, Manne; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Kabir, Zubair

    2012-01-01

    Background According to projected estimates, India will bear 60% of the world's cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden by the year 2020. CVD mortality rates are high in South India compared with the rest of India. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of behavioural, biological and metabolic risk factors in different age groups of rural South Indians undergoing coronary interventions under a governmental health insurance scheme. Methods This study includes 1294 patients who underwent coronary interventions. Age, gender and anthropometric measurements were recorded. History of hypertension, diabetes, smoking and family history of ischaemic heart disease was obtained from every subject. Physical activity was assessed using a General Practise physical activity questionnaire. Investigations like haemogram, blood urea, serum creatinine, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, lipid profile and echocardiography were carried out for all patients. Results Hypertension was found in 65% patients, 32.38% had diabetes mellitus, 41.65% were smokers (current and former), 37.17% had dyslipidemia, 31.06% had body mass index more than 25 kg/m, 27.04% were physically active, 37% had left ventricular dysfunction, and 8.57% had renal impairment ( table 1). Statistically significant differences were seen in the prevalence rates of different risk factors in the compared age groups (p=<0.05) except for hypertension and dyslipidemia (p=0.596 and 0.306). Conclusions Risks to health, as an area of study, has recently begun to receive attention in developing countries including India. Population-based strategies aimed at bringing down risk factor levels in the community can translate into major public health benefits.

  18. Root canal morphology of South Asian Indian maxillary molar teeth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian Maxillary molars using a tooth clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Hundred teeth each comprising of first, second, and third molars collected from different dental schools and clinics in India were subjected to standard dye penetration, decalcification and clearing procedure before being studied. Results: The first molar mesiobuccal roots exhibited 69% Type I, 24% Type II, 4% Type IV, 2% Type V, and 1% exhibited a Vertuccis Type VIII canal anatomy. In the group with three separate roots the second molar mesiobuccal roots in exhibited 80.6% Type I, 15.3% Type II, 2.7% Type IV, and 1.4% Type V canal anatomy while the third molars mesiobuccal roots exhibited 57.4% Type I, 32% Type II, 2.1% Type III, 8.5% Type IV, 1% had a Type V canal anatomy in the similar group. Conclusion: A varied root canal anatomy was seen in the mesiobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars. PMID:25713497

  19. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  20. Changes in food habits of south Indian Hindu Brahmin immigrants in State College, PA.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Meena; Blair, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand the factors influencing changes in the food habits of south Indian Brahmin immigrants in State College, PA. Data was collected from participants (n = 28) using a semi-structured interview based on the PRECEDE framework, and participant observations. Analysis of the data used grounded theory generated themes highlighting their food acculturation experience. Adjusting in State College was described as a "delicate balance" that meant maintaining their south Indian traditions while at the same time adapting to the cultural milieu of a town that favored north Indian cuisine, and "blending in" with the larger American society. PMID:21883066

  1. Morphometric Study on Bicipital Groove among South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Yamini Soundara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Bicipital Groove (BG) is an indentation between the lesser and greater tubercles of the proximal part of the humerus. It conveys biceps tendon, its synovial sheath and ascending branch of anterior circumflex humeral artery. The knowledge of the morphometry is important for the understanding of the functional aspect of the shoulder region. Aim To study the morphometry of bicipital groove of humerus in south Indian population. Materials and Methods In the present study, 100 adult humeri (50 right and 50 left) were examined. The length of the medial wall, lateral wall, width and depth were measured by using vernier calliper. The humeri were examined for the presence of supratubercular ridge. All the parameters were accurately measured and the data were analysed. Results The mean length of BG on right side was 84.79±5.84 mm and 87.33±6.40mm on the left side. The mean width of BG on right side was 6.84±1.01mm and 7.74±1.96mm on the left side. The mean depth of BG on right side was 4.21±0.58 mm and 5.01±1.05mm on the left side. The mean length of the medial and lateral walls on the right side was 24.22±1.02mm and 32.05±2.21mm respectively and that on the left side was 23.31±2.21mm and 31.12±0.24mm respectively. 17% of humeri on the right side and 14% on the left side showed the presence of supratubercular ridge of Meyer in the present study. Conclusion Bicipital groove is present in the shoulder region where wide range of movements occurs. Osseous spurs and supratubercular ridge may predispose dislocation of tendon of biceps brachii. Hence morphometric knowledge is obligatory and is significant functionally and clinically for better understanding of this region.

  2. Determining dental sex dimorphism in South Indians using discriminant function analysis.

    PubMed

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Shankar, S; Ilayaraja, Vadivel; Kumar, Gopal Shiva; Rajmohan, M; Vignesh

    2011-10-10

    Dental forensics forms a vital branch of forensic science which deals with proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidences for identification of victims of crime, accidents or calamities. Therefore skull and teeth often provide the identification material. The aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy of odontometric methods in sex determination of permanent teeth and to compute new formula to differentiate male and female teeth using discriminant function analysis for South Indian population. A total of 100 subjects were selected for the study from a parent population of 4800 students by simple random sampling method. Alginate impressions of the upper dental arch were made and casts were poured immediately. A digital vernier calliper was used for the measurement of all upper anteriors. Twelve different tooth measurements were recorded and from those two indexes have been computed. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 17.0 software. All the predictor variables were subjected to stepwise discriminant function analysis which optimally separates the genders and a best discriminant function was generated. In all the observed mean dimensions, male values exceed the female values. Student's 't' test for the different predictor variables of all teeth selected between male and females were found significant (p < 0.05). Very high significance was found in mean MD of 11, 12 and 13 and |c| of 23. The variables exhibiting best discriminant powers were mesiodistal width of both upper central incisors, DB-ML of 13 and canine crown module of 13. Sexual dimorphism in the size of permanent teeth differs from one population to the other and hence the standards set for one population could not be applied for another population. Hence this technique would be a simple, quick, cost effective, reliable and accurate for sex determination. PMID:21664775

  3. Signals of the South China Sea summer rainfall variability in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhuoqi; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Weiqiang

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigates signals of the South China Sea (SCS) summer rainfall variability in the Indian Ocean. It is found that the SCS summer rainfall has a negative relationship with December-January-February (DJF) western-equatorial Indian Ocean (WIO) sea surface temperature (SST), a positive relationship with an asymmetric mode of precipitation anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean during March-April-May (MAM), and a positive relationship with June-July-August (JJA) South Indian Ocean (SIO) SST. The WIO SST anomalies induce same-sign southeast Indian Ocean SST anomalies through an anomalous zonal vertical circulation. The southeast Indian Ocean SST anomalies last from late winter to early summer and induce opposite-sign SCS summer rainfall anomalies via an anomalous meridional vertical circulation. The asymmetric mode influences the SCS summer rainfall variation via the North Indian Ocean (NIO) SST anomalies with significant cloud-radiation and wind-evaporation effect. Positive (negative) SIO SST anomalies drive an anomalous direct circulation between the SIO and the NIO, and an anomalous indirect circulation between the NIO and the SCS which facilitates the occurrence of cyclonic (anti-cyclonic) wind anomalies over the SCS-western North Pacific and results in positive (negative) SCS summer rainfall anomalies. Partial correlation analysis indicates that the influence of DJF WIO SST anomalies and JJA SIO SST anomalies on the SCS summer rainfall is partly ENSO-independent, while the MAM asymmetric mode is mostly related to the preceding DJF eastern Pacific SST anomalies.

  4. [Dengue fever in the Reunion Island and in South Western islands of the Indian Ocean].

    PubMed

    D'Ortenzio, E; Balleydier, E; Baville, M; Filleul, L; Renault, P

    2011-09-01

    South Western islands of the Indian Ocean are permanently threatened by dengue fever outbreaks. On the Reunion Island, two dengue outbreaks were biologically documented (1977-1978 and 2004). And since July 2004 there has been an inter-epidemic period for the island with sporadic cases and clusters. Between January 1, 2007 and October 5, 2009, the epidemiologic surveillance system detected five confirmed autochthonous cases, five confirmed imported cases (South-East Asia), and 71 probable cases. All the five autochthonous confirmed cases occurred in Saint-Louis during two consecutive clusters. In other South Western islands of the Indian Ocean, several dengue fever outbreaks have been reported. Importation of dengue virus from South-East Asia is a major risk for a new outbreak on the island. The introduction of a new serotype could lead to the emergence of new and severe clinical forms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:21295427

  5. Geohydrology of the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howells, Lewis W.

    1979-01-01

    The cooperation and courtesy extended by many farmers, ranchers, and residents of the area contributed greatly to the success of the study.  Special thanks are due to Mr. John Wall, U.S. Public Health Service, Eagle Butte, and to the personnel of the Land Operations and Conservation Unites of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Eagle Butte.

  6. Hamstring graft size and anthropometry in south Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Supradeeptha; Satyaprasad, Jonnalagedda

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim The role of anthropometric measurements in the prediction of hamstring autograft size in Indian population remains unclear. Till now, no studies have been done on Indian population. Methods We evaluated 41 consecutive patients (34 males, 7 females) prospectively with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency scheduled for reconstruction using hamstring autograft at our institution between June 2011 and June 2013. Preoperatively we recorded age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, and activity level. Intraoperative measurements of semitendinosus tendon like absolute length, diameter before fashioning the graft and final diameter of the tripled graft using sizing tubes calibrated to 1 mm. Correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) analysis was used. Results As per study there is no correlation between graft diameter, age, sex, weight, activity, and body mass index, of patients. Height of patients correlated to graft diameter in both Indian men and women (p < 0.001). Conclusion Anthropometric measurements such as weight, gender, activity level cannot be used as definitive predictors for the hamstring graft diameter during harvest but height of the patients can be taken as good predictor in Indian population. PMID:26403553

  7. Degrees and Diplomas Conferred upon Indians by South African Universities, 1970-1980. Report O-291.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retief, Z. H. M.; And Others

    Statistical data on trends and degrees and diplomas obtained by Indians at South African universities during the period beginning July 1, 1970 and ending June 30, 1981 are presented by means of tables, graphs, and charts prefaced by a brief narrative summary. The following degrees/diplomas are covered: first bachelor's, honors bachelor's and…

  8. Connection of sea level height between Western Pacific and South Indian Ocean in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DU, Y.; Wang, T.; Zhuang, W.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Based on merged altimetry data and in site observations from tide gauges, we analyzed the fast increasing trend of sea surface height (SSH) in the recent two decades in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean. The results of analysis indicated a dynamic connection of SSH between the tropical western Pacific and the southeastern Indian Ocean. The low-frequency variations of SSH propagate westward in the tropical Pacific, enter the Indonesian Seas through the waveguide, and influence the southeastern India Ocean with the Kelvin-Rossby wave transformation. The thermal structure of upper ocean reveals the above adjustment mainly occur in the thermocline. However, the impacts from the Pacific are limited in the southeast Indian Ocean. In the central and west of the south Indian Ocean, local wind dominates the SSH changes in the last two decades. By lead-lag statistic analyses, we identified the cause of interdecadal from the interannual SSH variations. The interannual SSH variations is dominated by ENSO, forced by the anomalous wind along the equatorial Pacific. Whereas, the interdecadal SSH variations results from the off-equatorial wind stress curl, which is closely related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The dynamic connections between the western Pacific and the south Indian Ocean were tested in the baroclinic Rossby wave solution and the numerical experiments based on the nonlinear reduced-gravity dynamics model.

  9. North Atlantic deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aken, Hendrik M.; Ridderinkhof, Herman; de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.

    2004-06-01

    The circulation of deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean has been studied from hydrographic observations and current measurements, obtained during the Dutch-South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment programme, and from similar public data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The three major water masses involved are the saline North Atlantic deep water (NADW), its derivative in the Antarctic circumpolar current, lower circumpolar deep water (LCDW), and the aged variety of deep water, North Indian deep water (NIDW). Although bound by the shallow topography near Madagascar, about 2×10 6 m 3/s from the upper half of the NADW core appears to flow across the sill in the Mozambique Channel into the Somali Basin, while the remaining NADW flows east at about 45°S and is transformed to LCDW by lateral and diapycnal mixing. East of Madagascar the deep circulation is dominated by the southward flow of NIDW. Northward inflow of LCDW into the Indian Ocean therefore can take place only in the eastern half of the Indian Ocean, along the Southeast Indian Ridge and the Ninetyeast Ridge.

  10. Can Indian Ocean SST variability impact TC activity in the South Pacific? A Spatial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Andrew D.; Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Kiem, Anthony S.

    2015-04-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) represent a significant natural hazard to the 15 island nations and 2.7 million inhabitants of the South Pacific, accounting for 76% of reported disasters in the region since 1950. This vast area, dominated by the coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions of the South Pacific fuels the highly variable nature of TCs (both spatially and temporally), leading to difficulties in planning for and responding to these extreme events. While it is well known that the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays a significant role in modulating the background state on which TCs form, there are other large-scale climate drivers operating on annual timescales or longer within the South Pacific (e.g. ENSO Modoki and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation) and outside the Pacific Basin (e.g. the Indian Ocean Dipole and the Southern Annular Mode) that may also influence TC formation. In response to this issue, the impact of these large-scale climate drivers upon the spatial characteristics of tropical cyclogenesis is assessed for the South Pacific region (5o-35oS, 145oE-130oW) over a 67-year period (1945-2011). It is shown, that in addition to the impact of 'Pacific-centric' climate drivers, eastern Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures significantly impact the spatial characteristics of tropical cyclogenesis in the South Pacific. In particular, warming (cooling) in the eastern Indian Ocean is found to result in an eastward (westward) shift in the average location of tropical cyclogenesis in the South Pacific (up to 712km between extreme phases). One mechanism that may account for this east/west modulation of TC activity in the South Pacific is the propagation of warmer water from the Timor Sea through the Coral Sea to the Pacific, resulting in a strengthening of the Pacific Warm Pool and associated meteorological characteristics connected with tropical cyclogenesis. Understanding how other large-scale climate modes interact with Indian Ocean processes is important

  11. South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the

  12. The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, J; Crutzen, P J; Ramanathan, V; Andreae, M O; Brenninkmeijer, C M; Campos, T; Cass, G R; Dickerson, R R; Fischer, H; de Gouw, J A; Hansel, A; Jefferson, A; Kley, D; de Laat, A T; Lal, S; Lawrence, M G; Lobert, J M; Mayol-Bracero, O L; Mitra, A P; Novakov, T; Oltmans, S J; Prather, K A; Reiner, T; Rodhe, H; Scheeren, H A; Sikka, D; Williams, J

    2001-02-01

    The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution levels were observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean toward the Intertropical Convergence Zone at about 6 degrees S. We show that agricultural burning and especially biofuel use enhance carbon monoxide concentrations. Fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning cause a high aerosol loading. The growing pollution in this region gives rise to extensive air quality degradation with local, regional, and global implications, including a reduction of the oxidizing power of the atmosphere. PMID:11161214

  13. Marquardt’s Facial Golden Decagon Mask and Its Fitness with South Indian Facial Traits

    PubMed Central

    Gandikota, Chandra Sekhar; Yadagiri, Poornima K; Manne, Ranjit; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao; Farah, Tamkeen; Vattipelli, Shilpa; Gumbelli, Sangeetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The mathematical ratio of 1:1.618 which is famously known as golden ratio seems to appear recurrently in beautiful things in nature as well as in other things that are seen as beautiful. Dr. Marquardt developed a facial golden mask that contains and includes all of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometric golden elements formed from the golden ratio and he claimed that beauty is universal, beautiful faces conforms to the facial golden mask regardless of sex and race. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the goodness of fit of the golden facial mask with the South Indian facial traits. Materials and Methods A total of 150 subjects (75 males & 75 females) with attractive faces were selected with cephalometric orthodontic standards of a skeletal class I relation. The facial aesthetics was confirmed by the aesthetic evaluation of the frontal photographs of the subjects by a panel of ten evaluators including five orthodontists and five maxillofacial surgeons. The well-proportioned photographs were superimposed with the Golden mask along the reference lines, to evaluate the goodness of fit. Results South Indian males and females invariably show a wider inter-zygomatic and inter-gonial width than the golden mask. Most of the South Indian females and males show decreased mid-facial height compared to the golden mask, while the total facial height is more or less equal to the golden mask. Conclusion Ethnic or individual discrepancies cannot be totally ignored as in our study the mask did not fit exactly with the South Indian facial traits but, the beauty ratios came closer to those of the mask. To overcome this difficulty, there is a need to develop variants of golden facial mask for different ethnic groups. PMID:27190951

  14. The seroprevalence of immunoglobulin A transglutaminase in type 1 diabetic patients of South Indian origin

    PubMed Central

    Pulikkal, Annie A.; Kolly, Anish; Prasanna Kumar, K. M.; Shivaprasad, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Celiac disease (CD) is a commonly encountered autoimmune condition in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). There is sparse data on the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin A (IgA) transglutaminase (tTG) in T1D patients of South Indian origin. Aims: To detect the prevalence of IgA tTG in T1D patients of South Indian origin. To evaluate the relation between the presence of autoimmunity and metabolic control and complications of diabetes. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 258 T1D patients. All the patients were subjected to biochemical tests and evaluated for microvascular complications. IgA tTG was estimated by ELISA. IgA tTG levels >40 AU/ml was considered positive. Results: Of the 258 participants, 12 (4.65%) were found to be positive for IgA tTG antibodies. Distribution of IgA positivity was equal in both sexes. There was a significant negative correlation of IgA tTG positivity with hemoglobin and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Conclusions: The seropositivity of CD in South Indian patients with T1D has been observed to be 4.68%. This is much lower compared to studies from North India. This can be explained by both the genetic and dietary factors. The seropositivity correlated negatively with hemoglobin and HbA1c. PMID:27042421

  15. Genetic variants in leptin: Determinants of obesity and leptin levels in South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Shruti; Salman, Mohammed; Siddalingaiah, Lokesh B; Lakshmi, GL; Xaviour, D; Sreenath, Jwalapuram

    2014-01-01

    The revelation of leptin action mechanisms has led to various attempts to establish the association of polymorphisms in the leptin gene with obesity-related phenotypes. But, outcomes have been contradicting, which made the information on the role of the leptin gene in regulating the mechanism of pathophysiology of obesity inexplicable. Moreover, none of the studies are known to have similar implications on the Indian population. To address such contradictions, our study aims to evaluate the association of leptin gene polymorphism with obesity and leptin levels in a South Indian Population. A total of 304 cases (BMI≥27.5) and 309 controls (BMI≤23) from local inhabitants of Mysore, Karnataka were recruited for the study. The leptin gene variants rs7799039, rs2167270 and rs4731426 independently, as well as in 4 haplotype combinations, were found to be significantly associated with the risk of obesity. An increasing trend in BMI and leptin levels was observed with every addition of A and C minor alleles of exonic variant (rs2167270) and intronic variant (rs4731426) respectively. However, only AA genotype of SNP rs7799039 was positively associated with BMI. None of the SNPs were associated with fat percentage and waist to hip ratio. On a whole, this data suggests that the common polymorphisms in the leptin gene are strong predictors of obesity and leptin levels in South Indians. PMID:26167411

  16. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Raes, Eric J.; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A.; McInnes, Allison S.; Waite, Anya M.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180–250 O2 μmol.kg-1) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  17. Determination of sex in South Indians and immigrant Tibetans from cephalometric analysis and discriminant functions.

    PubMed

    Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Shrivastava, Rahul; Mutalik, Sunil

    2010-04-15

    Skeletal components play significant role in sex determination in forensic and anthropological fields. Skull is considered second best, after pelvis, in determination of sex. Methods based on morphological characteristics and morphometry are already in use with reasonable accuracy. Standardized radiographic techniques like cephalometry have advantages of being more precise and objective when compared to morphologic methods. The present study aimed at obtaining and comparing the reliability of cranio-mandibular parameters in South Indian and Indian immigrant of Tibetan populations using lateral and postero-anterior (PA) cephalograms. A total of 11 cephalometric parameters were traced on lateral and PA cephalograms manually. Functions to aid in the sex determination were developed by subjecting the cephalometric parameters to discriminant analysis. Among the chosen parameters bizygomatic width, ramus height, depth of face contributed most for sexual dimorphism in both the populations. Upper facial height was the additional parameter for sexual dimorphism in immigrant Tibetan population. The discrimination accuracy in South Indian population was 81.5% while that of immigrant Tibetan population was 88.2%. With the current study it can be concluded that cephalometric cranio-mandibular parameters can be used to discriminate the sex using discriminant function analysis and similar cranio-mandibular parameters contribute to sex prediction across populations. PMID:20083363

  18. Reduction of the Powerful Greenhouse Gas N2O in the South-Eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Raes, Eric J; Bodrossy, Levente; Van de Kamp, Jodie; Holmes, Bronwyn; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Thompson, Peter A; McInnes, Allison S; Waite, Anya M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and a key catalyst of stratospheric ozone depletion. Yet, little data exist about the sink and source terms of the production and reduction of N2O outside the well-known oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we show the presence of functional marker genes for the reduction of N2O in the last step of the denitrification process (nitrous oxide reductase genes; nosZ) in oxygenated surface waters (180-250 O2 μmol.kg(-1)) in the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Overall copy numbers indicated that nosZ genes represented a significant proportion of the microbial community, which is unexpected in these oxygenated waters. Our data show strong temperature sensitivity for nosZ genes and reaction rates along a vast latitudinal gradient (32°S-12°S). These data suggest a large N2O sink in the warmer Tropical waters of the south-eastern Indian Ocean. Clone sequencing from PCR products revealed that most denitrification genes belonged to Rhodobacteraceae. Our work highlights the need to investigate the feedback and tight linkages between nitrification and denitrification (both sources of N2O, but the latter also a source of bioavailable N losses) in the understudied yet strategic Indian Ocean and other oligotrophic systems. PMID:26800249

  19. The satellite-determined thermal structure of heat low during Indian south-west monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash C.; Desai, Pranav S.

    One of the important climatic features of the south-west (SW) monsoon period in the Indian subcontinent is the appearance of a shallow heat low centred around Pakistan region. The details of this system are not easy to observe, as the region lies mostly over a desert area. However, satellite soundings provide a frequent and synoptic view of the system. We have undertaken a study of the properties of this system through lower level and upper level thermal structure around the region using NOAA temperature soundings. The results for the months of April, May and June in the year 1982 are presented here. The temperature changes in the region are studied in relation to the date of the onset of SW-monsoon and its activity in the Indian sub-continent.

  20. The seasonal variability of the circulation in the South Indian Ocean: Model and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matano, R. P.; Beier, E. J.; Strub, P. T.

    2008-11-01

    This article compares the seasonal variability patterns of the South Indian Ocean circulation derived from a global, eddy-permitting, numerical model and altimeter observations. The seasonal variability of the Indian Ocean circulation is driven by the inflow from the Indonesian Passages and by the local wind forcing. Our analysis indicates that the influence of the Indonesian throughflow is confined to the easternmost portion of the basin, while the influence of the wind stress forcing is important everywhere. Model and observations indicate that, between ~ 105°E and 75°E, the seasonal variability is characterized by the southwestward propagation of an annual wave over a period of ~ 4 months. Preliminary calculations using Pathfinder data also indicate that, in the western region, there are seasonal perturbations that originate in the tropics and propagate poleward through the Mozambique Channel. Our calculations, however, did not find the connections between the tropical and the Agulhas Current variability suggested by earlier modeling studies.

  1. The connection of the Indonesian Throughflow, South Indian Ocean Countercurrent and the Leeuwin Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Erwin; Le Bars, Dewi; de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.

    2016-06-01

    East of Madagascar, the shallow "South Indian Ocean Counter Current (SICC)" flows from west to east across the Indian Ocean against the direction of the wind-driven circulation. The SICC impinges on west Australia and enhances the sea level slope, strengthening the alongshore coastal jet: the Leeuwin Current (LC), which flows poleward along Australia. An observed transport maximum of the LC around 22° S can likely be attributed to this impingement of the SICC. The LC is often described as a regional coastal current that is forced by an offshore meridional density gradient or sea surface slope. However, little is known about the controls of these open-ocean gradients. The regional circulation system is embedded in the subtropical "super gyre" that connects the Indo-Pacific via the Tasman Gateway and the Indonesian passages. The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) circulates through the Indian Ocean back into the Pacific south of Australia. This return pathway appears to be partly trapped in the upper layer north of an outcrop line. It is redirected along this outcrop line and joins the eastward flow of the SICC. To study the connection of the basin-scale and the inter-ocean-scale dynamics, we apply both an ocean general circulation model and a conceptual two-layer model. Shutdown of the ITF in the models leads to a large decrease in Leeuwin Current transport. Most of the SICC was found to then reconnect to the internal gyre circulation in the Indian Ocean. ITF, SICC and LC thus appear to be dynamically connected.

  2. Impact of eddies on surface chlorophyll in the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufois, Francois; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Greenwood, Jim; Richardson, Anthony; Feng, Ming; Herbette, Steven; Matear, Richard

    2015-04-01

    A unique feature of the subtropical South Indian Ocean is the existence of anticyclonic eddies that have higher chlorophyll concentrations than cyclonic eddies. Off Western Australia, this anomalous behavior is related to the seeding of anticyclonic eddies with shelf water enriched in phytoplankton biomass and nutrients. Further off-shore, two mechanisms have been suggested to explain the eddy/chlorophyll relationship: (i) eddies originating from the Australian coast maintain their chlorophyll anomaly while propagating westward; and (ii) eddy-induced Ekman upwelling (downwelling) enhances (dampens) nutrient supply in anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies. Here we describe the relationship between eddies and surface chlorophyll within the South Indian Ocean, and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the anomalous behavior in light of new analyses performed using satellite chlorophyll data. We show that anticyclonic eddies exhibit higher surface chlorophyll concentration than cyclonic eddies across the entire South Indian Ocean basin (from 20 to 28°S), particularly in winter. Using Self Organizing Maps we analyze the chlorophyll patterns within anticyclonic eddies and cyclonic eddies and highlight their complexity. Our analysis suggests that multiple mechanisms may underlie the observed eddy/chlorophyll relationship. Based on Argo float data, we postulate the relationship may be partly related to seasonal adjustment of the mixed layer depth within eddies. Deeper mixing in anticyclonic eddies is expected to enhance nutrient supply to the mixed layer, while shallower mixing in cyclonic eddies is expected to reduce it. This could explain why the observed winter surface chlorophyll bloom is stronger in anticyclonic eddies than in cyclonic eddies.

  3. Impact of eddies on surface chlorophyll in the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufois, François; Hardman-Mountford, Nick J.; Greenwood, Jim; Richardson, Anthony J.; Feng, Ming; Herbette, Steven; Matear, Richard

    2014-11-01

    A unique feature of the subtropical South Indian Ocean is the existence of anticyclonic eddies that have higher chlorophyll concentrations than cyclonic eddies. Off Western Australia, this anomalous behavior is related to the seeding of anticyclonic eddies with shelf water enriched in phytoplankton biomass and nutrients. Further off-shore, two mechanisms have been suggested to explain the eddy/chlorophyll relationship: (i) eddies originating from the Australian coast maintain their chlorophyll anomaly while propagating westward; and (ii) eddy-induced Ekman upwelling (downwelling) enhances (dampens) nutrient supply in anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies. Here we describe the relationship between eddies and surface chlorophyll within the South Indian Ocean, and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the anomalous behavior in light of new analyses performed using satellite chlorophyll data. We show that anticyclonic eddies exhibit higher surface chlorophyll concentration than cyclonic eddies across the entire South Indian Ocean basin (from 20 to 28°S), particularly in winter. Using Self Organizing Maps we analyze the chlorophyll patterns within anticyclonic eddies and cyclonic eddies and highlight their complexity. Our analysis suggests that multiple mechanisms may underlie the observed eddy/chlorophyll relationship. Based on Argo float data, we postulate the relationship may be partly related to seasonal adjustment of the mixed layer depth within eddies. Deeper mixing in anticyclonic eddies is expected to enhance nutrient supply to the mixed layer, while shallower mixing in cyclonic eddies is expected to reduce it. This could explain why the observed winter surface chlorophyll bloom is stronger in anticyclonic eddies than in cyclonic eddies.

  4. Vitamin B12 intake and status in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Duggan, Christopher; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the vitamin B12 status of South Indian women in early pregnancy and its relationship with sociodemographic, anthropometry and dietary intake. Methods Cross-sectional study among 366 pregnant urban South Indian women ≤14 weeks of gestation with outcome variables defined as low vitamin B12 blood concentration (<150 pmol/L) and impaired vitamin B12 status [low vitamin B12 plus elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) >0.26 μmol/L)]. Results Low plasma vitamin B12 concentration was observed in 51.1% of the women, while 42.4% had impaired B12 status. Elevated MMA, elevated homocysteine ( >10 μmol/L) and low erythrocyte folate (<283 nmol/L) was observed among 75.8%, 43.3% and 22.2% of women, respectively. The median (25th, 75th percentile) dietary intake of vitamin B12 was 1.25 (0.86, 1.96) μg/day. Lower maternal body weight was associated with higher vitamin B12 concentration [prevalence ratios (PR) (95% CI) 0.57 (0.39, 0.84)). The predictors of impaired vitamin B12 status were non-use of yoghurt [PR (95%CI) 1.63 (1.03, 2.58)], non-use of fish [PR (95% CI) 1.32 (1.01, 1.71)] and primiparity [PR (95% CI) 1.41 (1.05, 1.90)]. Conclusion A high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women was related to primiparity and to a low consumption of yoghurt and fish. PMID:23344013

  5. Radiographic assessment of facial soft tissue thickness in South Indian population--An anthropologic study.

    PubMed

    Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Mallapur, M D

    2016-04-01

    Facial reconstruction is a technique used in forensic anthropology to identify an unknown person. Various methods used for facial reconstruction are drawings, sculpture and computer aided image building which is mainly based on facial soft tissue thickness measurement. Several methods have been established for measuring facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) with each one having certain limitations. There is limited data available on FSTT among South Indian population. Hence the present study was ventured to determine the FSTT among South Indian adults and also to find FSTT difference between male and female. 308 subjects of South Indian origin (18-27 years) having full set of permanent dentition who require orthodontic treatment were included in the study. Subjects were assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI) and diagnostic digital x-ray of lateral cephalogram (LC), Lateral oblique (LO) view and posterior-anterior (PA) view was obtained. The digital image was transferred to Adobe Photoshop CS4 software and 23 different soft tissue points were measured. Mean FSTT was more in males compared to females except for three landmarks. Statistically significant difference was observed in 20 landmarks when height and weight was compared in males, whereas in females only 12 landmarks showed significant difference. BMI showed good correlation with FSTT in both males and females, which was confirmed by linear regression. The best regressor in terms of estimating FSTT in association with age/sex/BMI were nasion, sub nasale, labial superioris, labrale inferius, gnathion, inferior border of zygomatic, right and left gonion. Stepwise discriminant analysis using all variables showed 94.8% of overall accuracy in sex determination. The observation of present study suggests that LO and PA view along with LC gives information regarding mean FSTT among South Indian population. Even though BMI plays a dominant role in determining FSTT, but age, sex, height and weight should also be considered

  6. Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present. Proceedings of the Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference (5th, Pensacola, Florida, February 7-9, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, John K., Ed.

    A product of the 1974 Fifth Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, this compilation of 13 essays on American Indians of the South includes the following sections and titles: (1) Teaching the Indian Past in History Courses ("The Southeastern Indian Oral History Program at the University of Florida"; "Notes on the Literature of the Gulf…

  7. Global warming and South Indian monsoon rainfall—lessons from the Mid-Miocene

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Markus; Kern, Andrea K.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Kroh, Andreas; Piller, Werner E.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation over India is driven by the Indian monsoon. Although changes in this atmospheric circulation are caused by the differential seasonal diabatic heating of Asia and the Indo-Pacific Ocean, it is so far unknown how global warming influences the monsoon rainfalls regionally. Herein, we present a Miocene pollen flora as the first direct proxy for monsoon over southern India during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. To identify climatic key parameters, such as mean annual temperature, warmest month temperature, coldest month temperature, mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation during the driest month, mean precipitation during the wettest month and mean precipitation during the warmest month the Coexistence Approach is applied. Irrespective of a ~ 3–4 °C higher global temperature during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum, the results indicate a modern-like monsoonal precipitation pattern contrasting marine proxies which point to a strong decline of Indian monsoon in the Himalaya at this time. Therefore, the strength of monsoon rainfall in tropical India appears neither to be related to global warming nor to be linked with the atmospheric conditions over the Tibetan Plateau. For the future it implies that increased global warming does not necessarily entail changes in the South Indian monsoon rainfall. PMID:27087778

  8. Knowledge and Screening of Head and Neck Cancer Among American Indians in South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. Methods. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Results. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b = 0.90; P = .01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P = .06). Conclusions. There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers. PMID:25320895

  9. The South Indian Ocean Countercurrent: a return pathway of the Indonesian Throughflow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Erwin; leBars, Dewi; de Ruijter, Will

    2014-05-01

    The South Indian Ocean Counter Current (SICC) is associated with a thermal front embedded in a broad eastward flow across the subtropical Indian Ocean and feeds into the poleward Leeuwin Current (LC). Previous studies have shown that the LC and SICC are sensitive to variations of the inflow of Pacific water through the Indonesian Passages (ITF). These subtropical countercurrents, of which the SICC is an example, are characterized by high eddy activity and theoretical work has shown the non-linear nature of their dynamics. That has motivated us to investigate the inertial response to the ITF of the IO circulaion. Analysis of two global eddy resolving model runs with the Indonesian Passages open and closed showed that the full 15 Sv of the ITF flows through the Mozambique Channel but only 10 Sv ends up in the Agulhas Current. This suggests that the SICC-LC system forms part of the return pathway of the ITF to the Pacific. Using the Hallberg Isopycnal Model we have investigated the combined effect of ITF, wind- and buoyancy forcing on the Indian Ocean circulation in the inertial boundary layer regime.

  10. Polymorphic acetylation of the antibacterials, sulfamethazine and dapsone, in South Indian subjects.

    PubMed

    Peters, J H; Gordon, G R; Karat, A B

    1975-07-01

    A group of South Indian subjects was studied for their capacities to acetylate sulfamethazine (SMZ) and dapsone (DDS) and to clear DDS from the circulation. An apparent trimodal distribution of acetylator phenotypes was found in 49 subjects (51% slow, 12% intermediate, and 37% rapid acetylators) from measurements of the percentage acetylation of SMZ in 6-hour plasma samples after administration of 10 mg SMZ/kg. The intermediate phenotype was not discernible from either the percentage acetylation of SMZ in urine (collected concurrently with the plasma after SMZ) or that of DDS in plasma after the ingestion of 50 mg DDS by the same subjects. The latter two measurements yielded a bimodal distribution of 59% slow and 41% rapid acetylators, nearly identical to earlier reported distributions of isoniazid inactivator phenotypes in larger numbers of South Indian tuberculosis patients. In the current group, acetylation of DDS and SMZ was positively correlated. The half-time of disappearance (T 1/2) of DDS, an expression of the rate of clearance from the plasma, ranged from 13 to 40 hours. No correlation was found between the subject's capacity to acetylate DDS and the T 1/2 value for DDS. These results were generally consistent with earlier observations made during similar studies of American and Filipino subjects. PMID:1155699

  11. Index and ring finger ratio--a morphologic sex determinant in South-Indian children.

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Pradeep Kumar, G

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the sexual dimorphism of index and ring finger ratio in South Indian children. The index finger length (IFL) and the ring finger length (RFL) were measured in 350 subjects aged between 2 and 12 years using a steel measuring tape. The index and ring finger ratio was computed by dividing index finger length by ring finger length. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using SPSS, version 11.0. Mean RFL was greater than mean IFL in both males and females. The mean ring finger length was longer in males than females and mean index finger length longer in females than males. However, these sex differences observed for index and ring finger length were not significant in both hands. Statistically significant sex differences were observed from the derived index and ring finger ratio. The mean index and ring finger ratio was found to be higher in females than males. Significant correlation was found between age and index and ring finger lengths. Index and ring finger ratio however, did not show any significant correlation with age. This study suggests that among South-Indian children, the index and ring finger ratio of 0.97 and less is indicative of male, and a ratio of more than 0.97 is indicative of female sex. The ratio can be a useful sex indicator irrespective of the age of the individual. PMID:20369311

  12. Sequencing and analysis of a South Asian-Indian personal genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With over 1.3 billion people, India is estimated to contain three times more genetic diversity than does Europe. Next-generation sequencing technologies have facilitated the understanding of diversity by enabling whole genome sequencing at greater speed and lower cost. While genomes from people of European and Asian descent have been sequenced, only recently has a single male genome from the Indian subcontinent been published at sufficient depth and coverage. In this study we have sequenced and analyzed the genome of a South Asian Indian female (SAIF) from the Indian state of Kerala. Results We identified over 3.4 million SNPs in this genome including over 89,873 private variations. Comparison of the SAIF genome with several published personal genomes revealed that this individual shared ~50% of the SNPs with each of these genomes. Analysis of the SAIF mitochondrial genome showed that it was closely related to the U1 haplogroup which has been previously observed in Kerala. We assessed the SAIF genome for SNPs with health and disease consequences and found that the individual was at a higher risk for multiple sclerosis and a few other diseases. In analyzing SNPs that modulate drug response, we found a variation that predicts a favorable response to metformin, a drug used to treat diabetes. SNPs predictive of adverse reaction to warfarin indicated that the SAIF individual is not at risk for bleeding if treated with typical doses of warfarin. In addition, we report the presence of several additional SNPs of medical relevance. Conclusions This is the first study to report the complete whole genome sequence of a female from the state of Kerala in India. The availability of this complete genome and variants will further aid studies aimed at understanding genetic diversity, identifying clinically relevant changes and assessing disease burden in the Indian population. PMID:22938532

  13. Heat flow, heat generation and crustal thermal structure of the northern block of the South Indian Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Mohan L.; Sharma, S. R.; Sundar, A.

    Heat flow values and heat generation data calculated from the concentration of heat producing radioactive elements, U, Th and K in surface rocks were analyzed. The South Indian Craton according to Drury et al., can be divided into various blocks, separated by late Proterozoic shear belts. The northern block comprises Eastern and Western Dharwar Cratons of Rogers (1986), Naqvi and Rogers (1987) and a part of the South Indian granulite terrain up to a shear system occupying the Palghat-Cauvery low lands. The geothermal data analysis clearly demonstrates that the present thermal characteristics of the above two Archaean terrains of the Indian and Australian Shields are quite similar. Their crustal thermal structures are likely to be similar also.

  14. Heat flow, heat generation and crustal thermal structure of the northern block of the South Indian Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Mohan L.; Sharma, S. R.; Sundar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Heat flow values and heat generation data calculated from the concentration of heat producing radioactive elements, U, Th and K in surface rocks were analyzed. The South Indian Craton according to Drury et al., can be divided into various blocks, separated by late Proterozoic shear belts. The northern block comprises Eastern and Western Dharwar Cratons of Rogers (1986), Naqvi and Rogers (1987) and a part of the South Indian granulite terrain up to a shear system occupying the Palghat-Cauvery low lands. The geothermal data analysis clearly demonstrates that the present thermal characteristics of the above two Archaean terrains of the Indian and Australian Shields are quite similar. Their crustal thermal structures are likely to be similar also.

  15. U.S. Engineering Degrees for Improving South Indian Graduate Students' Marriage and Dowry Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakaboski, Tamara; Sheridan, Robyn Stout; Dade, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The article examines improved marriage opportunities as an unexplored motivator for pursuing international education via U.S. graduate engineering degrees and stresses the need to centralize gender in analyzing academic mobility and international education. This interdisciplinary qualitative study explores how South Indian men and women's…

  16. The Planning Process on the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux Indian Reservations in South Dakota: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Richard Ellsworth

    A comparative analysis of the planning processes on the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux Indian reservations in South Dakota is presented in this master's thesis. The planning process is basically the same as is utilized in planning for a city, county, or region, but the problems facing reservation planning bodies are greater due to the greater…

  17. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  18. Eddy characteristics in the South Indian Ocean as inferred from surface drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S.; Du, Y.; Li, J.; Cheng, X.

    2015-05-01

    Using a geometric eddy identification method, cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies from submesoscale to mesoscale in the South Indian Ocean (SIO) have been statistically investigated based on 2082 surface drifters from 1979 to 2013. A total of 19 252 eddies are identified, 60% of them anticyclonic eddies. For the submesoscale eddies (radius r<10 km), the ratio of cyclonic eddies (3183) to anticyclonic eddies (7182) is 1 to 2. In contrast, the number of anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies with radius r≥10 km is almost equal. Mesoscale and submesoscale eddies show different spatial distributions. Eddies with radius r≥100 km mainly appear in the Leeuwin Current, a band along 25° S, Mozambique Channel, and Agulhas Current, areas characterized by large eddy kinetic energy. The submesoscale anticyclonic eddies are densely distributed in the subtropical basin in the central SIO. The number of mesoscale eddies shows statistically significant seasonal variability, reaching a maximum in October and minimum in February.

  19. Eddy characteristics in the South Indian Ocean as inferred from surface drifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shaojun; Du, Yan; Li, Jiaxun; Cheng, Xuhua

    2014-12-01

    Using a geometric eddy identification method, cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies from submesoscale to mesoscale in the South Indian Ocean (SIO) have been statistically investigated based on 2082 surface drifters from 1979 to 2013. 19252 eddies are identified with 60% anticyclonic eddies. For the submesoscale eddies (radius r < 10 km), the ratio of cyclonic eddies (3183) to anticyclonic eddies (7182) is 1 to 2. In contrast, number of anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies with radius r ≥ 10 km is almost equal. Mesoscale and submesoscale eddies show different spatial distribution. Eddies with radius r ≥ 100 km mainly appear in a band along 25° S, in Mozambique Channel, and Agulhas Current, characterized by large eddy kinetic energy. The submesoscale anticyclonic eddies are densely distributed in the subtropical basin in the central SIO. The number of mesoscale eddies shows statistically significant seasonal variability, reaching a maximum in October and then minimum in February.

  20. Aquarius sea surface salinity in the South Indian Ocean: Revealing annual-period planetary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Viviane V.; Vianna, Marcio L.; Phillips, Helen E.

    2014-06-01

    A new milestone has been reached with the launch of two dedicated satellite missions to routinely measure the sea surface salinity (SSS) fields from space at global and regional scales. In the present work, a thorough analysis of the first 2 years of Aquarius SSS data in the South Indian Ocean is performed. This analysis is focused on three questions: How accurate is Aquarius SSS related to in situ data from the fresh Indonesian Throughflow and salty subtropical waters? Can Aquarius give a spatial context for the data measured by the RAMA mooring system? Are westward propagating annual-period signals described in recent model simulations reproduced by Aquarius-derived SSS? We find Aquarius observations to be highly correlated with those of Argo floats, with small disagreements occurring near oceanic fronts. Aquarius gives fresher SSS than in situ data in the tropical region due to rainfall effects, except in the eastern basin where the freshening seems to be related to sharp localized leakages of very fresh waters from the Indonesian seas that the Aquarius product is not able to properly resolve. Aquarius data are shown to reproduce quite well the annual cycle obtained from RAMA and Argo gridded data sets. The annual cycle in Aquarius is characterized by SSS propagating features with different characteristics west and east of the Ninety East Ridge. These features are strikingly different from sea surface height waves. Our results suggest that SSS annual propagation might be reflecting coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics and surface-subsurface processes operating over the entire South Indian Ocean.

  1. Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the Southern Cone of South America: New Clues from Mitogenomes

    PubMed Central

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A.; Bodner, Martin; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Corach, Daniel; Angerhofer, Norman; Woodward, Scott R.; Semino, Ornella; Salas, Antonio; Parson, Walther; Moraga, Mauricio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Olivieri, Anna

    2012-01-01

    With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j) whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l) and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11–13,000 years) appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups. PMID:23240014

  2. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease in young South African Indians.

    PubMed

    Ramkaran, Prithiksha; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Khan, Sajidah; Moodley, Devapregasan; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2015-10-15

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) reduces 5',10'-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5'-methyltetrahydrofolate, and is involved in remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, two important reactions involved in folate metabolism and methylation pathways. The common MTHFR C677T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1801133) has been associated with raised levels of homocysteine, a well known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD is a major cause of mortality worldwide. The age of onset of this chronic disorder is on the decline, particularly in the Indian population. Indians in South Africa (SA) have a higher prevalence of premature CAD compared to Black South Africans. The MTHFR C677T SNP has not been investigated in the SA Indian population. The present study therefore investigated the MTHFR C677T SNP in young SA Indian males with CAD compared to young Indian and Black male controls. A total of 290 subjects were recruited into this study which included 106 CAD patients (diagnosed on angiography, mean age 37.5, range 24-45 years), 100 Indian male controls (mean age 37.5, range 28-45 years), and 84 Black male controls (mean age 36.4, range 25-45). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to genotype CAD patients and healthy controls. Data for clinical markers were obtained from pathology reports. There was a significant association between the 677 MTHFR variant (T) allele and CAD patients compared to the healthy Indian controls (p=0.0353, OR=2.105 95% CI 1.077-4.114). Indian controls presented with a higher frequency of the variant allele compared to Black controls (7% vs. 2% respectively, p=0.0515 OR=3.086 95% CI 0.9958-9.564). The MTHFR C677T SNP did not influence levels of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c or hsCRP. The higher frequency of the MTHFR 677 variant allele in South African Indians may be a contributing factor to the higher

  3. Freshening of the South Indian Ocean during the Argo period: observations, causes, and impact on regional sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, William; Lee, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Steric sea level change has been identified as one of the major contributors to the regional sea level changes. This contribution varies in space and time. Temperature (thermosteric) contribution to sea level has been found to be generally more important than salinity (halosteric) effect. Based on temperature and salinity data from Argo floats during 2005-2013 and coincident sea level measurements from satellite altimetry, we found that the central-eastern part of the South Indian Ocean stood out in the entire world ocean as a region that had a more dominant halosteric contribution to sea level change. The conspicuously large halosteric contribution was associated with a freshening in the upper few hundred meters. Neither local atmospheric forcing nor halosteric signal transmitted from the Pacific can explain this freshening. An observed strengthening of the Indonesian throughflow since early 2007 and the enhanced precipitation in the Indonesian Seas inferred from various precipitation estimates compounded by strong tidal mixing are the likely causes of the freshening of the South Indian Ocean. The findings also have implications to the potential influence of regional water cycle and ocean currents in the maritime Continent region to sea level changes in the South Indian Ocean prior to the Argo era and sea level projection in the future in response to climate change. Sustained measurements of sea surface salinity from satellites will significantly enhance our capability to study the impact of regional water cycle in the Maritime Continent region to related changes in the marginal seas and the Indian Ocean.

  4. Cast the Net a Little Wider: Australian Aid in the South Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassity, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the development of Australia's bilateral aid program to higher education in the South Pacific, specifically at the University of the South Pacific (USP). The premise is primarily historical, focusing on the important decades of USP's expansion and Australian aid policy development in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. This article…

  5. Insights into the Genetic Structure and Diversity of 38 South Asian Indians from Deep Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Cheng, Anthony Youzhi; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Liu, Xuanyao; Xu, Wenting; Chen, Peng; Foo, Jia-Nee; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Koo, Seok-Hwee; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus Rene; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Little, Peter; Chia, Kee-Seng; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2014-01-01

    South Asia possesses a significant amount of genetic diversity due to considerable intergroup differences in culture and language. There have been numerous reports on the genetic structure of Asian Indians, although these have mostly relied on genotyping microarrays or targeted sequencing of the mitochondria and Y chromosomes. Asian Indians in Singapore are primarily descendants of immigrants from Dravidian-language–speaking states in south India, and 38 individuals from the general population underwent deep whole-genome sequencing with a target coverage of 30X as part of the Singapore Sequencing Indian Project (SSIP). The genetic structure and diversity of these samples were compared against samples from the Singapore Sequencing Malay Project and populations in Phase 1 of the 1,000 Genomes Project (1 KGP). SSIP samples exhibited greater intra-population genetic diversity and possessed higher heterozygous-to-homozygous genotype ratio than other Asian populations. When compared against a panel of well-defined Asian Indians, the genetic makeup of the SSIP samples was closely related to South Indians. However, even though the SSIP samples clustered distinctly from the Europeans in the global population structure analysis with autosomal SNPs, eight samples were assigned to mitochondrial haplogroups that were predominantly present in Europeans and possessed higher European admixture than the remaining samples. An analysis of the relative relatedness between SSIP with two archaic hominins (Denisovan, Neanderthal) identified higher ancient admixture in East Asian populations than in SSIP. The data resource for these samples is publicly available and is expected to serve as a valuable complement to the South Asian samples in Phase 3 of 1 KGP. PMID:24832686

  6. Urinary casts

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with advanced kidney disease and chronic kidney failure . White blood cell (WBC) casts are more common ... Hyaline casts; Granular casts; Renal tubular epithelial casts; Waxy casts; Casts in the ...

  7. Urinary casts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Casts in the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood cell casts ... The absence of cellular casts or presence of a few hyaline casts is normal. The examples above are common measurements for results of ...

  8. Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Kalasuramath, Suneeta; Kurpad, Anura V.; Thankachan, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe) status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR). The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of 57Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption. PMID:23563376

  9. Report of the Select Committee on Indian Affairs to the National Congress of American Indians (at) Rapid City, South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A brief summary of activities of the Senate's Select Committee on Indian Affairs from April 1977 to September 1978 is presented in this report along with a status report on more than 30 of the bills which have been referred to the committee (James Abourezk, chairman). The status report on bills is organized under these headings: jurisdiction and…

  10. Frequency distribution of DNA repair genes ERCC1 and ERCC2 polymorphisms in South Indian healthy population.

    PubMed

    Rao, Katiboina Srinivasa; SureshKumar, Srinivasamurthy; Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Paul, Abialbon; Dubashi, Biswajit; Gunaseelan, Karunanithi; Dkhar, Steven Aibor

    2014-09-01

    DNA repair genes are crucial in maintaining the integrity of the whole genome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes have been attributed to the development of various cancers. SNPs of DNA repair genes (ERCC1 and ERCC2) have been implicated in the causation of various cancers as well as inter-individual variability in the therapeutic outcomes of platinum based therapy. Thus establishing the frequency of these functional SNPs in the healthy population is of significance. The present study was aimed to establish the allele and genotype frequencies of ERCC1 (19007C>T, rs11615; 8092C>A, rs3212986) and ERCC2 (Asp312Asn, rs1799793) genes in South Indian healthy population and to compare the data from HapMap populations. The study population consisted of 128 healthy South Indian unrelated individuals of either sex aged between 18 and 60 years. Standard phenol-chloroform method was used to extract DNA from peripheral leukocytes. The genotype of DNA repair gene polymorphisms was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan genotyping assay. The observed frequency of the studied polymorphisms followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p>0.05). The frequencies of the minor alleles of the SNPs rs11615 (T), rs3212986 (A) and rs1799793 (A) were 43.8%, 29.3% and 35.6%, respectively. Gender-based analysis showed no significant difference in the frequency pattern. The observed allele and genotype frequencies showed significant ethnic difference between South Indians and other HapMap populations. This is the first study to provide the normative frequency data of allele and genotype distribution of three SNPs of ERCC1 and ERCC2 in South Indian healthy population. It might be useful in future genotype-phenotype association studies, especially for predicting the efficacy and adverse events of platinum based drugs. PMID:25155628

  11. High incidence of persistence of sacral and coccygeal intervertebral discs in South Indians - a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Satheesha Nayak, B; Ashwini Aithal, P; Kumar, Naveen; George, Bincy M; Deepthinath, R; Shetty, Surekha D

    2016-06-01

    The sacrum, by virtue of its anatomic location plays a key role in providing stability and strength to the pelvis. Presence of intervertebral discs in sacrum and coccyx is rare. Knowledge of its variations is of utmost importance to surgeons and radiologists. The current study focused on the presence of intervertebral discs between the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae in south Indian cadaveric pelvises. We observed 56 adult pelvises of which, 34 (61%) pelvises showed the presence of intervertebral discs between the sacral vertebrae and between the coccygeal vertebrae, while 22 (39%) pelvises did not have the intervertebral discs either in the sacrum or the coccyx. We also found that most of the specimens had discs between S1 and S2 vertebrae (39%), followed by, between S4 and S5 (18%), between S2-S3 (14%) and least being between S3-S4 (13%). In the coccyx it was found that 7% of pelvises had disc between Co1-Co2, 4% of them had between Co2-Co3 and 4% had between Co3-Co4. Knowledge regarding such anatomic variations in the sacro-coccygeal region is important to note because they require alterations in various instrumentation procedures involving the sacrum. PMID:27385838

  12. Prevalence of hyperdontia in nonsyndromic South Indian population: An institutional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker; Kini, Raghavendra; Naik, Vathsala

    2015-01-01

    Context: Supernumerary teeth or hyperdontia is an additional tooth, teeth or tooth like structures that either have erupted or remain unerupted in addition to the 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. Supernumerary teeth may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome or developmental abnormality. Aims: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the prevalence of supernumerary teeth in a group of South Indian nonsyndromic population. Settings and Design: A total of 2400 radiographs were examined for the presence of supernumerary teeth. Subjects and Methods: All the radiographs were examined for the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, morphology, and number. Statistical Analysis Used: Cross-tabulation using statistical analysis software (SPSS version 16). Results: The study results showed the prevalence to be 1.2% with 44.83% of them having single supernumerary teeth. Their prevalence was more in males and the maxillary posterior region was the most common location. Conclusions: Knowledge about the supernumerary teeth is important for dental clinicians as they are relatively common but are detected as an incidental finding in a radiograph. A routine screening panoramic radiograph is mandatory for every patient to prevent the possible complications associated with it. PMID:26392730

  13. The Morphology, Structure and Origin of Seamounts on the South-West Indian Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, L. A.; Watts, A. B.; JC066 shipboard scientific party

    2012-04-01

    The South-West Indian Ridge (SWIR) between longitude 46 and 57° East is an ultra-slow spreading (~16 mm/a) mid-ocean ridge system with a highly oblique (>50°) spreading direction and a large number of closely spaced transform faults. Previous swath bathymetry surveys onboard R/V Dr. Fridtjof Nansen in 2009 show that the ridge crest is characterised by a number of irregularly shaped seamounts which rise about 2500 m above the mean depth of the surrounding seafloor. However, the origin of these seamounts and whether they reflect passive cracking of the lithosphere or deep mantle processes is not clear. In November/December, 2011 we re-surveyed 5 of these seamounts onboard RRS James Cook using an EM120 swath bathymetry system, a Lacoste-Romberg air-sea gravimeter and a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Preliminary results show that the seamounts are highly fractured, with fault trends parallel and orthogonal to the spreading direction. There is evidence of both growth and collapse structures, including head scars, chutes and debris flows. We present here a preliminary analysis of the morphology, gravity field and rock sample data and its implications for tectonics, mass wasting and eruptive processes at young seamounts that have formed in an active extensional setting.

  14. Summertime phytoplankton blooms and surface cooling in the western south equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Du, Yan; Zhan, Haigang; Shi, Ping; Wang, Jia

    2014-11-01

    Chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration derived from the Sea viewing Wide field of View sensor (SeaWiFS) data (January 1998 to December 2010) shows phytoplankton blooms in the western south equatorial Indian Ocean (WSEIO) during the summer monsoon. The mechanism that sustains the blooms is investigated with the high-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) products. The summer blooms in the WSEIO are separated from the coast; they occur in June, reach their maximum in August, and decay in October. With summer monsoon onset, cross-equatorial wind induces open-ocean upwelling in the WSEIO, uplifting the nutricline. The mixed layer heat budget analysis reveals that both thermal forcing and ocean processes are important for the seasonal variations of SST, especially wind-driven entrainment plays a significant role in cooling the WSEIO. These processes cause nutrient enrichment in the surface layer and trigger the phytoplankton blooms. As the summer monsoon develops, the strong wind deepens the mixed layer; the entrainment thus increases the nutrient supply and enhances the bloom. Horizontal advection associated with the Southern Gyre might also be an important process that sustains the bloom. This large clockwise gyre could advect nutrient-rich water along its route, allowing Chla to bloom in a larger area.

  15. Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy and Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis in a Family of South Indian Descent

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Muthiah; Senthil, N.; Sujatha, S.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from dysfunction of ion channels in cellular membranes. They may manifest as diseases affecting skeletal muscle contraction, the conduction system of the heart, nervous system function, and vision syndromes. We describe a family of South Indian descent with hypokalemic periodic paralysis in which four members also have idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a genetically heterogeneous channelopathy that has been linked to mutations in genes encoding three ion channels CACNIAS, SCN4A, and KCNJ2 predominantly. Although data on specific gene in idiopathic generalized epilepsy is relatively scarce, mutations of voltage gated sodium channel subunit genes (CACNB4) and nonsense mutations in voltage gated calcium channels (CACNA1A) have been linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in two families. We speculate that gene mutations altering the ability of the beta subunit to interact with the alpha subunit of the CaV1.1 channel and mutations in the pore-forming potassium channel subunit may be possible explanations for the combined manifestation of both diseases. Functional analysis of voltage gated calcium channel and other ion channels mutations may provide additional support and insight for the causal role of these mutations. The understanding of mutations in ion-channel genes will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of such inherited channelopathies. PMID:25893123

  16. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy and hypokalemic periodic paralysis in a family of South Indian descent.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Muthiah; Senthil, N; Sujatha, S

    2015-01-01

    Inherited channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from dysfunction of ion channels in cellular membranes. They may manifest as diseases affecting skeletal muscle contraction, the conduction system of the heart, nervous system function, and vision syndromes. We describe a family of South Indian descent with hypokalemic periodic paralysis in which four members also have idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a genetically heterogeneous channelopathy that has been linked to mutations in genes encoding three ion channels CACNIAS, SCN4A, and KCNJ2 predominantly. Although data on specific gene in idiopathic generalized epilepsy is relatively scarce, mutations of voltage gated sodium channel subunit genes (CACNB4) and nonsense mutations in voltage gated calcium channels (CACNA1A) have been linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in two families. We speculate that gene mutations altering the ability of the beta subunit to interact with the alpha subunit of the CaV1.1 channel and mutations in the pore-forming potassium channel subunit may be possible explanations for the combined manifestation of both diseases. Functional analysis of voltage gated calcium channel and other ion channels mutations may provide additional support and insight for the causal role of these mutations. The understanding of mutations in ion-channel genes will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of such inherited channelopathies. PMID:25893123

  17. Casting Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  18. GROWTH OF THE GREAT ESCARPMENT ACROSS THE INDIAN MARGIN OF SOUTH AFRICA: a couple stratigraphic-geomorphologic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baby, Guillaume; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Dall'Asta, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The South African Plateau is formed by marginal bulges clustered around an intracontinental basin (the Kalahari Basin) with a mean elevation between 1000 and 1400 m. On seaward side, marginal bulges form major escarpments that can reach an elevation up to 3500 m in the Drakensberg area, boundering the high elevation continent from a dissected coastal region. The factors controlling escarpment evolution of those high-elevation passive margins are highly debated. On the one hand, geomorphic studies interpret escarpments in term of pulses of uplift and scarp retreat (King, The Natal Monocline, 1982; Partridge & Maud, S.Afr.J.Geol., 1987). On the other hand, thermochronological data and numerical models of escarpment erosion (Gallagher & Brown, Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lon., 1999; Van der Beek et al., J.Geophys.Res., 2002) suggest that escarpments predate the breakup with a minimal escarpment retreat during post-rift margin evolution. To answer this question, we studied the Indian margin of South Africa (from Bushveld area to Port-Elizabeth) using sequence stratigraphy analysis of industrial seismic lines and wells. This study is coupled with an analysis of the adjacent landforms, constrained by dated sediments and weathering deposits. The first outcomes of our study are: 1. A first uplift during Late Cenomanian (95-90 Ma) created an initial escarpment along the Indian coast. 2. A second uplift occurred during the latest Cretaceous to earliest Cenozoïc with a sequential tilting and truncations of the inner part of the margin followed by the incision of pediments on the seaward side of the initial escarpment, 3. A third uplift that occurred during Late Eocene - Early Oligocene and Miocene with the incision of two new generations of pediments. These preliminary results suggest that the "Great Escarpment" along the Indian coast of South Africa results from the stepping of at least four generations of pediments which record the polyphasic uplift history of the South African

  19. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  20. Structural analysis of the Tabaco anticline, Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Néstor; Montes, Camilo; Marín, Dora; Gutierrez, Iván; Palencia, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    The Tabaco anticline is a 15 km long, south plunging, east-vergent anticline in northern Colombia, close to the transpressional collisional margin between the Caribbean and South American plates. In the Cerrejón open-cast coal mine, systematic mapping of coal seams in the middle to upper Paleocene Cerrejón Formation has yielded an exceptional dataset consisting of 10 horizontal slices (sea level to 90 m elevation, regularly spaced at 10 m intervals) through the anticline. Coal seams and fault traces in these slices are used to construct a 3D model of the anticline. This 3D model shows tighter folds within lower coal seams, NW-vergent thrusts and related folds on the gentler western limb, and strike-slip faults on the steeper eastern limb. Fault slip-tendency analysis is used to infer that these two faulting styles resulted from two different stress fields: an earlier one consistent with thrusting and uplift of the Perijá range, and a later one consistent with strike-slip faulting (Oca, Ranchería and Samán faults). Our preferred interpretation is that the anticline developed its eastern vergence during the early stages (late Paleocene-early Eocene) of tilting of the Santa Marta massif. Later NW-vergent thrusting on the western limb (early to middle Eocene) was related to western propagation of the Perijá thrust system. These results contribute to the understanding of the structural evolution of the area. They are also a good example of the complex interplay between detachment folding, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting during the growth of a km-size fold in a transpressive setting.

  1. Hypovitaminosis D and Other Risk Factors of Femoral Neck Fracture in South Indian Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Selvan, Sivan Arul; Asha, Hesarghatta Shyamasunder; Thomas, Nihal; Venkatesh,, Krishnan; Oommen, Anil Thomas; Mathai, Thomas; Seshadri, MandalamSubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases like hip fractures are a significant problem in a developing country like India. The risk factors for hip fractures vary according to local practices and the availability of preventive health care delivery systems. There is paucity of data on risk factors for hip fracture in the south Indian population. Aim This study was undertaken to assess risk factors associated with femoral neck (FN) fracture in South Indian postmenopausal women along with subsequent one year mortality. Materials and Methods One hundred four postmenopausal women with FN fracture and 104 age and BMI matched controls were included. Sedative use, visual impairment and other relevant risk factors were assessed. Bone biochemistry and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) were evaluated. A telephonic interview was done at the end of one year to ascertain the well-being. Results Sedative use, visual impairment, low FN BMD and vitamin-D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) were seen more in fracture subjects compared to controls (p≤0.05). At the end of one year, 20% of the fracture subjects and 5% of the controls had died (p=0.001). Conclusion Risk factors identified in our study are potentially correctable, and needs special attention in an Indian context to prevent hip fractures. PMID:26266149

  2. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  3. Late Quaternary Variability in the Deep Water Exchange Between South Atlantic, Southern and Indian Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuschner, D. C.; Krueger, S.; Ehrmann, W.; Schmiedl, G.; Kuhn, G.; Mackensen, A.; Diekmann, B.

    2005-12-01

    The Southern Ocean, south of Africa, is an important mixing region for northern and southern derived deep-water masses. In this region, the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) extends southward into the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) dividing it into an upper (UCDW) and a lower (LCDW) layer. Thus, marine sediments from this area are a sensitive recorder for changes of the paleocirculation and relative variations in the deep-water formation in both, the northern Atlantic and Antarctic regions. Here we present results from the EXCHANGE Project which is located in this transition zone of the South Atlantic, the Southern Ocean and the Indian Ocean. In this project we investigate six sediment cores taken along a transect from continental slope at the southern tip of Africa towards the Conrad Rise. Pronounced glacial/interglacial variations in the dominance of NADW and LCDW across the transect are reflected in the clay mineral assemblage and carbon isotope composition of benthic foraminifera. High kaolinite/chlorite-ratios associated with high stable carbon isotope ratios indicate stronger influence of NADW during interglacials. In contrast, glacials are dominated by southern-derived LCDW. Our results suggest a fast southward advance of NADW-dominance during the last two terminations while the northward retreat of NADW, with the onset of glacial conditions, is more gradual. In general, interglacial sediments are also characterized by higher mean grain size diameters in the terrigenous silt fraction (10 to 63 microns), thus indicating stronger bottom currents. However, maximum grain size and sortable silt values are reached at the early stages of the last two glacial periods. Due to the generally weakened bottom current strength, as a result of reduced deep water formation, we would expect smaller values when compared with interglacial conditions. We therefore assume that eolian dust input from the Patagonian region plays a significant role especially in the early glacial

  4. Epidemiology of Oral Lichen Planus in a Cohort of South Indian Population: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Soma Susan; George, Giju Baby; Sarojini, Sreenivasan Bargavan; Vinod, Sankar; Mathew, Philips; Mathew, Deepu George; Sebastian, Joseph; George, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. Dysplastic OLP has an altered cytogenic profile and can progress into oral squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology of OLP is well-described in several relatively large series from various geographic locations, whereas such series from southern India is rare. The aim of the present study was to determine the epidemiology of OLP in a cohort of South Indian population. Methods: All the case data records of 29,606 patients who visited Mar Baselios Dental College and Hospital, Kerala, India from 2014 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. For data review, 122 patients of OLP were selected Estimated were type, number, and location of lesions, clinical manifestation, age of the patient, gender, onset and duration of lesion, stressful life style, habits, skin involvement and associated systemic illness, and presence/absence of dysplasia. Results: When the distribution of OLP among the gender was considered, we found more prevalence in females than males. Fifty-seven percent of patients were associated with stressful lifestyle. Reticular lichen planus was the most common clinical subtype found. Bilateral buccal mucosal was the common site, when the distribution of sites of OLP were compared (P < 0.05). Hypersensitivity reaction was frequently associated with systemic illness with OLP (P < 0.05). Anaplasia was found among 5% of lichen planus lesions. Conclusions: OLP patients had high incidence of hypersensitivity reactions and 5% of OLP lesions showed anaplasia. Long term follow-up is necessary to monitor the recurrence, prognosis, and malignant transformation of OLP. PMID:27051650

  5. Chemical composition of selected seaweeds from the Indian Ocean, KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Magura, Judie; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-08-01

    The chemical composition of three edible seaweeds (Codium capitatum, Hypnea spicifera and Sargassum elegans) and two inedible seaweeds (Halimeda cuneata and Spyridia hypnoides) from the Indian Ocean along the KwaZulu-Natal East Coast, South Africa were investigated as a function of seasonal variation. The proximate compositions of the edible seaweeds were determined. In edible seaweeds, the moisture level ranged from 85.4 to 89.5%, protein from 6.1 to 11.8%, lipids from 7.5 to 13.1% and carbohydrates from 37.8 to 71.9%. Elemental concentrations in the five studied seaweeds varied significantly with season (P < 0.05) with mean elemental concentrations (in µg g(-1), dry weight) being: Ca (29 260), Mg (6 279), Fe (1 086), Cu (145.9), Mn (48.32), As (24.29), Zn (15.65), Ni (9.83), Cr (5.78), Pb (4.84), Co (0.87) and Se (0.86). The concentrations of As were particularly high in S. elegans, ranging from 94.70 ± 6.6 µg g(-1) in winter to 65.10 ± 2.3 µg g(-1) in summer. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed similar distribution of elements in edible seaweeds which was dissimilar to that in inedible seaweeds. This study suggests that edible macro alga, C. capitatum and H. spicifera, could be potential sources of most essential nutrients and may contribute positively to the diet without posing the risk of adverse health effects due to low concentrations of toxic elements. However, due to high levels of As in S. elegans, its consumption should be moderated to reduce dietary exposure to this toxic element. PMID:27153179

  6. Habitat selection of two island-associated dolphin species from the south-west Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condet, Manon; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine

    2016-08-01

    Identifying suitable habitats of protected species is an essential question in ecology and conservation planning. Modelling approaches have been widely used to identify environmental features that contribute to a species' ecological requirements and distribution. On Reunion Island, a fast-growing French territory located in the south-western Indian Ocean, anthropogenic impacts are mainly concentrated along the coast, representing a potential threat for Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins, two resident coastal species. Beside coastal development, commercial and recreational dolphin-watching are growing, particularly along the west coast. To promote effective local management, habitat modelling was applied using presence-only data collected from 2008 to 2012 on the west coast of the island. Ecological Niche Factor Analyses were used to investigate the effect of physiographic variables on the distribution of these two dolphin species and delineate suitable habitats. It was found that the core habitat of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was mainly restricted by depth and confined to coastal waters ranging from 4.7 to 75.8 m deep. The species preferentially used soft substrates (sand and mud) and tended to be ubiquitous in terms of substrate type/color used. Foraging activities were significantly related to soft substrates. The diurnal core habitat of spinner dolphins was confined to one discrete area, on the flat portion of the insular shelf, between 45.1 m and 70.7 m of depth. Suitable habitat was mainly related to soft and light-colored substrates, with a clear avoidance of dark-colored substrates. The core habitats of both species were very restrained spatially and therefore vulnerable to human activities. The fine scale habitat mapping achieved in this study represents baseline data to conduct ad hoc impact assessment and support conservation actions.

  7. Homozygosity Mapping in Leber Congenital Amaurosis and Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa in South Indian Families

    PubMed Central

    Srilekha, Sundaramurthy; Arokiasamy, Tharigopala; Srikrupa, Natarajan N.; Umashankar, Vetrivel; Meenakshi, Swaminathan; Sen, Parveen; Kapur, Suman; Soumittra, Nagasamy

    2015-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are retinal degenerative diseases which cause severe retinal dystrophy affecting the photoreceptors. LCA is predominantly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and contributes to 5% of all retinal dystrophies; whereas RP is inherited by all the Mendelian pattern of inheritance and both are leading causes of visual impairment in children and young adults. Homozygosity mapping is an efficient strategy for mapping both known and novel disease loci in recessive conditions, especially in a consanguineous mating, exploiting the fact that the regions adjacent to the disease locus will also be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. Here we have studied eleven consanguineous LCA and one autosomal recessive RP (arRP) south Indian families to know the prevalence of mutations in known genes and also to know the involvement of novel loci, if any. Complete ophthalmic examination was done for all the affected individuals including electroretinogram, fundus photograph, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography. Homozygosity mapping using Affymetrix 250K HMA GeneChip on eleven LCA families followed by screening of candidate gene(s) in the homozygous block identified mutations in ten families; AIPL1 – 3 families, RPE65- 2 families, GUCY2D, CRB1, RDH12, IQCB1 and SPATA7 in one family each, respectively. Six of the ten (60%) mutations identified are novel. Homozygosity mapping using Affymetrix 10K HMA GeneChip on the arRP family identified a novel nonsense mutation in MERTK. The mutations segregated within the family and was absent in 200 control chromosomes screened. In one of the eleven LCA families, the causative gene/mutation was not identified but many homozygous blocks were noted indicating that a possible novel locus/gene might be involved. The genotype and phenotype features, especially the fundus changes for AIPL1, RPE65, CRB1, RDH12 genes were as reported earlier. PMID:26147992

  8. Morphological variants of lateral meniscus of the knee: a cadaveric study in South Indian human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Murlimanju, B V; Nair, Narga; Ray, Biswabina; Pai, Mangala M; Amin, Soumya; Pai, Shakuntala R

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, the objectives were to study the morphology of the lateral menisci (LMs) in human fetuses from a South Indian population and to verify the developmental etiology of the discoid lateral meniscus (DLM). The study included 106 fetal knee joints which were fixed in 10% formalin. After dissecting the joints, the morphological variants of the shapes of the LMs were macroscopically noted and classified as discoid and nondiscoid. The nondiscoids were subdivided into C-shaped and crescentic. The discoid lateral menisci (DLMs) were divided into complete and incomplete discoid. From our observations, 82.1% of the LMs were found to be nondiscoid. Among them, 62.3% were C-shaped and 19.8% were crescentic. The remaining 17.9% of the LMs had a discoid shape, and among these, 14.1% were incomplete discoid and 3.8% were completely discoid. Bilaterality of the discoid shape was observed in 26.6% of the cases. There was a female preponderance (11:8) among LMs with discoid morphology. In conclusion, the prevalence of DLM according to the present study was estimated as 17.9%. Our findings favor Kaplan's theory, as the majority of the fetuses of various gestational ages had nondiscoid LMs. Even the youngest fetus (CRL 88 mm, 14 weeks of gestation) exhibited a lateral tibial plateau that was incompletely covered by the meniscus, which did not exhibit a discoid shape. We believe that the DLM is anomalous and arises through variant morphogenesis. PMID:20549581

  9. Political contexts and maternal health policy: insights from a comparison of south Indian states.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 300,000 women die from pregnancy-related complications each year. One-fifth of these deaths occur in India. Maternal survival rose on India's national policy agenda in the mid-2000s, but responsibility for health policy and implementation in the federal system is largely devolved to the state level where priority for the issue and maternal health outcomes vary. This study investigates sources of variation in maternal health policy and implementation sub-nationally in India. The study is guided by four analytical categories drawn from policy process literature: constitutional, governing and social structures; political contexts; actors and ideas. The experiences of two south Indian states-Tamil Nadu a leader and Karnataka a relatively slow mover-are examined. Process-tracing, a case study methodology that helps to identify roles of complex historical events in causal processes, was employed to investigate the research question in each state. The study is informed by interviews with public health policy experts and service delivery professionals, observation of implementation sites and archival document analysis. Historical legacies-Tamil Nadu's non-Brahmin social movement and Karnataka's developmental disparities combined with decentralization-shape the states' political contexts, affecting variation in maternal health policy and implementation. Competition to advance consistent political priorities across regimes in Tamil Nadu offers fertile ground for policy entrepreneurship and strong public health system administration facilitates progress. Inconsistent political priorities and relatively weak public health system administration frustrate progress in Karnataka. These variations offer insights to the ways in which sub-national political and administrative contexts shape health policy and implementation. PMID:24444838

  10. The meaning of widowhood and health to older middle-class Hindu widows living in a South Indian community.

    PubMed

    Czerenda, A Judith

    2010-10-01

    Indian widowhood has long been associated with victimization and vulnerability, but traditional attitudes toward widowhood are changing and reflect the rapid changes occurring in India. Using Caring Inquiry, a phenomenological-hermeneutic methodology that places caring at its center, this article presents a study that explores the meaning of health and widowhood to 14 older middle-class Hindu widows living in urban South India. From the data emerge six metathemes that are pertinent to nursing praxis and the delivery of health care to widows in South India: (a) Drawing From Within, (b) Seeking Help and Guidance, (c) Accepting the Role, (d) Challenging Tradition, (e) Serving Others, and (f) Finding Companionship. The findings reveal that all the widows share a common desire to move on with life, articulated by one widow as "The Show Must Go On," which serves as a foundation for a theory and model of the meaning of widowhood and health to older middle-class South Indian Hindu widows. This study advances the limited body of knowledge on the lives and health of these widows. PMID:20592065

  11. Cross-amplification and characterization of microsatellite loci in Acropora austera from the south-western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Maya, P H; Macdonald, A H H; Schleyer, M H

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the successful cross-species amplification of previously published acroporid microsatellite markers in the coral Acropora austera from the south-western Indian Ocean. This fast-growing species is a major reef-building coral on South African reefs; however, it is the most damaged coral by scuba diving activity, and is known to be very susceptible to coral bleaching. Neither genetic information nor symbiont-free host tissue was available to develop novel microsatellite markers for this species. Cross-species amplification of previously published microsatellite markers was considered as an alternative to overcome these problems. Of the 21 microsatellite markers tested, 6 were reliably amplified, scored, and found to contain polymorphic loci (3-15 alleles). Although microsatellite sequences are believed to be scarce in the Acropora genome because of its small size, the results of this study and previous research indicate that the microsatellite sequences are well conserved across Acropora species. A detailed screening process identified and quantified the sources of error and bias in the application of these markers (e.g., allele scoring error, failure rates, frequency of null alleles), and may be accounted for in the study of the contemporary gene flow of A. austera in the south-western Indian Ocean. PMID:24634181

  12. Associations of variants in FTO and near MC4R with obesity traits in South Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Senthil K; Fall, Tove; Neville, Matthew J; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Fall, Caroline H; Geethanjali, Finney S; Gu, Harvest F; Raghupathy, Palany; Samuel, Prasanna; Thomas, Nihal; Brismar, Kerstin; Ingelsson, Erik; Karpe, Fredrik

    2012-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies show that loci in FTO and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) associate with obesity-related traits. Outside Western populations the associations between these variants have not always been consistent and in Indians it has been suggested that FTO relates to diabetes without an obvious intermediary obesity phenotype. We investigated the association between genetic variants in FTO (rs9939609) and near MC4R (rs17782313) with obesity- and type 2 diabetes (T2DM)-related traits in a longitudinal birth cohort of 2,151 healthy individuals from the Vellore birth cohort in South India. The FTO locus displayed significant associations with several conventional obesity-related anthropometric traits. The per allele increase is about 1% for BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-hip ratio. Consistent associations were observed for adipose tissue-specific measurements such as skinfold thickness reinforcing the association with obesity-related traits. Obesity associations for the MC4R locus were weak or nonsignificant but a signal for height (P < 0.001) was observed. The effect on obesity-related traits for FTO was seen in adulthood, but not at younger ages. The loci also showed nominal associations with increased blood glucose but these associations were lost on BMI adjustment. The effect of FTO on obesity-related traits was driven by an urban environmental influence. We conclude that rs9939609 variant in the FTO locus is associated with measures of adiposity and metabolic consequences in South Indians with an enhanced effect associated with urban living. The detection of these associations in Indians is challenging because conventional anthropometric obesity measures work poorly in the Indian "thin-fat" phenotype. PMID:22421923

  13. The HLA-C*06 allele as a possible genetic predisposing factor to psoriasis in South Indian Tamils.

    PubMed

    Indhumathi, S; Rajappa, Medha; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Thappa, D M; Negi, V S

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a multi-factorial heritable prototypical immune-mediated inflammatory disease, characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in the affected skin. There are no studies till date, to the best of our knowledge, about the association of HLA-C*06, the risk variant in the PSORS 1 susceptibility locus that confers the greatest risk for early onset of psoriasis, with the disease in South Indian Tamil patients with psoriasis. The present study was performed to determine the association of HLA-C*06 with psoriasis in the South Indian Tamil ethnic population. Three hundred and fifty-five cases of psoriasis and 360 healthy controls were included in this case-control study. Severity grading according to psoriasis area severity index (PASI) scoring was done in patients with psoriasis. PCR assays with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) were used for specific detection of HLA-C*06. PCR with analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to distinguish between patients homozygous and heterozygous for HLA-C*06. We observed that those with the HLA-C*06-positive allele had a 3.5 times higher odds of having psoriasis compared to those without, [p < 0.0001, OR 3.5, 95 % CI (2.59-4.79)]. Among cases of psoriasis, it was noted that there was a significant association of HLA-C*06 positivity with female psoriatics [p = 0.006; OR 2.49 (1.28-4.87)] and early age of onset of psoriasis [p = 0.002; OR 2.04 (1.29-3.20)]. Our results suggest that the HLA-C*06 allele is positively associated with susceptibility to psoriasis, female gender and early onset of psoriasis in South Indian Tamils. PMID:26796545

  14. Nutritional factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in the early stage of pregnancy among urban South Indian women.

    PubMed

    Lukose, Ammu; Ramthal, Asha; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Many women of reproductive age from developing countries have poor nutritional status, and the prevalence of depression during pregnancy is high. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy, and to identify the demographic and nutritional factors associated with these symptoms in a sample of urban South Indian pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was the baseline assessment of a prospective randomized controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation in urban pregnant south Indian women between the ages of 18 and 40 years ( www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00641862). 365 women in their first trimester of pregnancy were screened for depressive symptoms at an urban clinic in Karnataka, South India, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10). Nutritional, clinical and biochemical factors were also assessed. Mean (SD) age of the cohort was 22.6 (3.7) years and mean (SD) BMI was 20.4 (3.3) kg/m(2). 121 (33 %) of the women in the 1st trimester had symptoms consistent with depression (K-10 score >6). In multivariate log binomial regression analysis, presence of antenatal depressive symptoms in the first trimester were positively associated with vomiting, prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.54 (95 % CI 1.10, 2.16) and negatively with anemia, PR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.96). Nutrient intakes, serum vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and red cell folate levels were not associated with measures of depression. Antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy are highly prevalent in urban Indian women and are more common in women with vomiting and without anemia. In this cross-sectional data, blood concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate were not associated with depressive symptoms. The relationship between nutritional status and depressive symptoms may require larger and longitudinal studies. PMID:23440491

  15. Clinical profile and treatment outcome of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome in South Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sandeep B.; Roy, Arun Grace; Vinayan, Kollencheri Puthenveettil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the clinical features and outcome of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES), a catastrophic epileptic encephalopathy, in a cohort of South Indian children. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of a cohort of children with previously normal development who presented with status epilepticus or encephalopathy with recurrent seizures following a nonspecific febrile illness during the period between January 2007 and January 2012. They were divided into two groups super refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE) depending on the duration and severity of the seizures. Key Findings: Fifteen children who met the inclusion criteria were included for the final analysis. The age of the children at presentation ranged 3-15 years (median 6.3 years). All the children presented with prolonged or recurrent seizures occurring 1-12 days (median 4 days) after the onset of fever. Eight children had SRSE while seven children had refractory seizures with encephalopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was done in all the children in the acute phase, and the cell count ranged 0-12 cells/μL (median 2 cells/μL) with normal sugar and protein levels. Initial neuroimaging done in all children (MRI in 10 and CT in 5), and it was normal in 13 children. Treatment modalities included multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (4-9 drugs) (median 5 drugs). Midazolam (MDZ) infusion was administered in seven patients. Eight patients required barbiturate coma to suppress the seizure activity. The duration of the barbiturate coma ranged 2-90 days (median 3 days). Steroids were used in 14 children and intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) in 7 children. Three children died in the acute phase. All children were maintained on multiple AEDs till the last follow-up, the number of AEDs ranged 1-6 (median 5 AEDs). The patients with super refractory status in the acute phase were found to be more severely disabled at

  16. Outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural and urban south Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; A, Rashima; Raju, Prema; Arvind, Hemamalini; Baskaran, Mani; Ve, Ramesh S

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the visual outcome after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study of subjects aged 40 years or more. Three thousand nine hundred and twenty-four rural subjects from 27 contiguous villages and 3850 urban subjects from five randomly selected divisions were studied. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and dilated retinal examination. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test, t test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Five hundred and twenty-eight (216 males, 312 females, 781 eyes) rural subjects (13.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.4% to 14.6%) and 406 (197 males, 209 females, 604 eyes) urban subjects (10.5%, 95% CI 9.6-11.5%) had undergone cataract surgery. Outcome of cataract surgery was defined based on visual acuity. Using best-corrected visual acuity for classification, the single most important cause for visual impairment was cystoid macular edema in the aphakic group and posterior capsule opacification in the pseudophakic group. Aphakia (visual acuity of <20/60 to ≤20/400 - odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.6%, visual acuity of <20/400 - OR 6.2; 95% 4.0 to 9.8%), rural residence (visual acuity of <20/60 to ≤20/400 - OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.5% and visual acuity of <20/400 - OR OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.5%) were associated with visual impairment. The urban cataract-operated population had significantly more pseudophakics (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.02) and literates (P < 0.001). In the rural group the prevalence of cataract surgery (13.5% vs. 10.5%, P < 0.001) and number of people that had undergone cataract surgery within three years prior to examination (P < 0.001) were significantly greater. In 30% of rural and 16% of urban subjects uncorrected refraction was the cause of visual impairment. Conclusions: Surgery-related complications were

  17. Studying and Dating Indian Ocean Tsunamis by Using Benthic Foraminifera in the Sediment Stratigraphy of South Andaman Islands, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the foraminifera and dated them to identify the sea level fluctuations in the coastal sediment stratigraphy of Andaman Islands. Our recent paleotsunami investigations are specially focused on unusual large magnitude earthquake and tsunamis in the south coast of Andaman. Our detailed study on the foraminifers preserved in the near sub surface stratigraphy and AMS ages show a strong signature of the tsunami event very much similar to the modern tsunami of December 2004. We found that foraminifer is an ideal geological key to bracket paleotsunami events. The AMS ages of these foraminifers supports the ages given by corals of Sumatra with a small error bar. The recent research approach to identify the ruptures and tsunami based on the corals of south Sumatra suggests a large time span of 1000 years for such mega events. Our foraminiferal archives obtained from 10g soil samples from the 2.5m deep Holocene stratigraphy suggests four seismic predecessors similar to the 2004 event with ~Mw9 with huge rupture. Huge foraminiferal population in the sedimentary stratigraphy is an indicative of sea level changes and the signatures of abrasion in the foraminifer's test (180µm) indicate strong wave surges and bead load transport during tsunami events. Spontaneous death of organisms due to tsunami waves gives an exact time frame with a narrow age limit than the charcoal. Sediment stratigraphy of south Andaman had such changes in each millennium. Sediment stratigraphy sections shows the huge population and assemblages and the AMS dates of this foraminifera in south Andaman shows four mega events. This kind of fossil assemblages are commonly associated with the sea regression and transgressions in the geological time scale. Tamil 'Sangam literatures' one of the oldest literature available in Indian main land and the corals ages from Sumatra are also emphasizes the predecessors of such unusual large magnitude earthquakes and tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. All these

  18. Population Structure of Humpback Whales from Their Breeding Grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Pomilla, Cristina; Mendez, Martin; Leslie, Matthew S.; Best, Peter B.; Findlay, Ken P.; Minton, Gianna; Ersts, Peter J.; Collins, Timothy; Engel, Marcia H.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Kotze, Deon P. G. H.; Meÿer, Mike; Barendse, Jaco; Thornton, Meredith; Razafindrakoto, Yvette; Ngouessono, Solange; Vely, Michel; Kiszka, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively). Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region. PMID:19812698

  19. Population structure of humpback whales from their breeding grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Howard C; Pomilla, Cristina; Mendez, Martin; Leslie, Matthew S; Best, Peter B; Findlay, Ken P; Minton, Gianna; Ersts, Peter J; Collins, Timothy; Engel, Marcia H; Bonatto, Sandro L; Kotze, Deon P G H; Meÿer, Mike; Barendse, Jaco; Thornton, Meredith; Razafindrakoto, Yvette; Ngouessono, Solange; Vely, Michel; Kiszka, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively). Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region. PMID:19812698

  20. Indians of the Dakotas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief history of Indian tribes in the States of North and South Dakota is presented. Discussion centers around individual Indian tribes, such as Chippewas and Sioux, which are representative of early and modern Indian life in these States. A section devoted to Indians in these states today offers an indication of the present condition of the…

  1. Measurements of Atmospheric Gaseous Mercury, Aerosol Trace Metals and Stable Lead Isotopes Over the South-Western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, T. A.; Witt, M. L.; Baker, A. R.; de Hoog, C.; Pyle, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    During November 2007, continuous measurements were made of total gaseous mercury (TGM) over the Indian Ocean during a two week cruise aboard the R/V Revelle from the Seychelles to Mauritius. Hg concentrations were consistently low during the cruise (1.0-1.4 ng m -3) similar to concentrations observed between 1994 and 2006 at an observatory in South Africa (Slemr et al., 2008). There was no significant diurnal signal observed during the cruise and the low variability in Hg is consistent with well mixed air masses and a long lifetime of Hg in the atmosphere. During this cruise size segregated and bulk aerosol samples were also collected using a high volume aerosol sampler. The aerosols were analysed for major ions, trace metals (Al, Fe, Ba, Mn, Co, V, Cr, Mo, Sr, Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Cu and Ni) and stable lead isotope ratios. The concentrations of most of the metals were similar to those observed in previous aerosol studies over similar regions of the Indian Ocean in 1986 (Chester et al., 1991) and 2002 (Witt et al., 2006). Aerosols were enriched above crustal and oceanic sources in many trace metals such as Pb, Cd, Ni and Zn although air mass back trajectories suggest air encountered had been over the ocean for at least 5 days prior to collection. Metal concentrations over the remote Indian Ocean appear to be intermediate between values reported for the remote Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Lead isotope ratios (206Pb, 207Pb and 208 Pb) in the aerosols fell into a group with a relatively radiogenic signature different to the Pb characteristic of Australian ores, where trajectories suggest air originated. The isotope ratios also differ to those observed in South African cities and are closer to the lead composition more typical of coals. Chester et al., (1991) Mar. Chem., 34; 261-290 Slemr et al., (2008) GRL, 35 (11) doi:10.1029/2008GL033741 Witt et al., (2006) Atmos. Env., 40; 5435-5451

  2. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kerguelen Island, south Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, Kerguelen Island in the southern Indian Ocean. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    Discovered in 1772 by French navigator Chevalier Yves deKerguelen-Tremarac, Kerguelen is the largest of a group of 300 islands, islets and reefs that make up the Kerguelen Archipelago. The islands lie atop the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge and are built up of a thick series of lava flows with deposits of fragmented volcanic rock and some granite. Ice covers about one-third of the island, with the large Cook Glacier visible as the tan-colored region at the center-left. The highest point at 1,850 meters (6,068 feet) is glacier-covered Mount Ross, located near the bottom center. The coastline of the main island is highly irregular with a large number of peninsulas linked to the island by narrow isthmuses. Remarkably, although the island is 120 by 140 kilometers (75 by 87 miles) in size no point is more than 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the sea.

    For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  3. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF.... § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis provided for in §§...

  4. Community Background Reports: The Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation, South Dakota. National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 6, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Wolfgang

    As a part of the Final Report of the National Study of American Indian Education, this document describes the town of Eagle Butte, South Dakota, on the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation approximately 100 years after the signing of the 1868 Treaty with the Sioux. A 3-member research team collected data via interviews with students, parents,…

  5. Geohydrology of Crow Creek and Lower Brule Indian Reservations, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howells, Lewis W.

    1974-01-01

    Effective improvement of economic and social conditions of Indians living on Crow Creek and Lower Brule Reservations has been hampered by lack of adequate and reliable information about the quantity and quality of water supplies available for development.  Compounding the problem, and making especially pressing the need for discovery and development of new water supplies, is the recent filling of Fort Randall and Big Bend Reservoirs on the Missouri River, and the consequent relocation of may residents.  Much of the best land and known water supplies are inundated beneath the reservoirs.  This report summarized the results of a water-resources study made at the request of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  6. Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Paradoxical South Atlantic Ozone Maxima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Guan, Hong; Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a broad resolution of the "Atlantic Paradox" concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone. We describe periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.-April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO)O3 maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.- March highest column-O3 periods in the Atlantic, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 30 or 60 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-Atlantic pollution make important contributions.

  7. Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South Atlantic ozone maxima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a broad resolution of the Atlantic Parado concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution, of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.- April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, possible stratospheric input, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.-March highest column-O3 periods in the Atlantic, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 20-50 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-Atlantic pollution make important contributions.

  8. Impact of Indian summer monsoon on the South Asian High and its influence on summer rainfall over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Renhe; Wen, Min; Rong, Xinyao; Li, Tim

    2014-09-01

    By using the monthly ERA-40 reanalysis data and observed rainfall data, we investigated the effect of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) on the South Asian High (SAH) at 200 hPa, and the role played by the SAH in summer rainfall variation over China. It is found that in the interannual timescale the east-west shift is a prominent feature of the SAH, with its center either over the Iranian Plateau or over the Tibetan Plateau. When the ISM is stronger (weaker) than normal, the SAH shifts westward (eastward) to the Iranian Plateau (Tibetan Plateau). The east-west position of SAH has close relation to the summer rainfall over China. A westward (eastward) location of SAH corresponds to less (more) rainfall in the Yangtze-Huai River Valley and more (less) rainfall in North China and South China. A possible physical process that the ISM affects the summer rainfall over China via the SAH is proposed. A stronger (weaker) ISM associated with more (less) rainfall over India corresponds to more (less) condensation heat release and anomalous heating (cooling) in the upper troposphere over the northern Indian peninsula. The anomalous heating (cooling) stimulates positive (negative) height anomalies to its northwest and negative (positive) height anomalies to its northeast in the upper troposphere, causing a westward (eastward) shift of the SAH with its center over the Iranian Plateau (Tibetan Plateau). As a result, an anomalous cyclone (anticyclone) is formed over the eastern Tibetan Plateau and eastern China in the upper troposphere. The anomalous vertical motions in association with the circulation anomalies are responsible for the rainfall anomalies over China. Our present study reveals that the SAH may play an important role in the effect of ISM on the East Asian summer monsoon.

  9. Study of Morphometry of Carotid Canal in Skulls of South Indian origin

    PubMed Central

    N M, Shamasundar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The internal carotid artery supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages and sends branches to the forehead and nose.Carotid canal is a curved channel in the petrous temporal bone through which internal carotid artery enters the skull. Aim: In the present study 20 skulls of unknown sex were considered. The morphometric study of carotid canal was studied by direct bone method and by silicone cast method. The present study aimed to show the differences of measurements by two methods and the silicon cast method is of its kind to measure the length of the carotid canal. Materials and Methods: Carotid canal were measured at three different levels by both methods. Length of carotid canal to bend, diameter at the bend, length from the bend to foramen lacerum. The data was analysed for all the measurements of two methods and comparison of mean and SD at three different levels was done.Significant difference between two methods at three different levels was observed. Independent sample t-test was applied for total length of carotid canal. Results: By observation there is a mean significant difference between two methods in the measurements of carotid canal from lower opening till the angulation on left side of the skull.The study showed that there is a bilateral significant difference in measurements of diameter between two methods. There was no significant difference observed in total length of the canal in both left and right sides. Conclusion: Morphometrical details of the canal are of great significance to neurosurgeons and otologists. Silicon cast method was cost effective and much easier method to study the length and measurements of carotid canal as it exactly depicts the curvature of carotid canal. PMID:25859440

  10. Gestational diabetes and the incidence of diabetes in the 5 years following the index pregnancy in South Indian women.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Hill, Jacqueline C; Veena, Sargoor R; Geetha, Suguna; Jayakumar, Magudilu N; Karat, Chitra L S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2007-12-01

    This study was carried out to examine the incidence of diabetes and the factors associated with this in a cohort of South Indian women 5 years after they were examined for gestational diabetes (GDM). Women (N=630) whose GDM status was determined (Carpenter-Coustan criteria; GDM: N=41) delivered live babies without major anomalies at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore. Of these, 526 women (GDM: N=35) available for follow-up after 5 years underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and detailed anthropometry. Diabetes was determined using WHO criteria, and Metabolic Syndrome using IDF criteria recommended for south Asian women. The incidence of diabetes (37% versus 2%) and Metabolic Syndrome (60% versus 26%) was considerably higher in women with previous GDM compared to non-GDM women. GDM women who developed diabetes had lower gestational insulin area-under-the-curve (P=0.05). They had larger waist-to-hip ratio, skinfolds, body mass index, and lower 30-min insulin increment at follow-up than other GDM women. In all, history of diabetes in first-degree relatives was independently associated with higher incidence of diabetes (P<0.001). Our findings suggest high diabetes and cardiovascular risks in women with previous GDM. Follow-up of these women after delivery would provide opportunities to modify adverse lifestyle factors. PMID:17640759

  11. Extraordinary capture of a Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus in the temperate south-eastern Indian Ocean and its molecular phylogenetic relationship within the Etelinae.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, C B; Moore, G I; Bertram, A E; Snow, M; Newman, S J

    2016-02-01

    The capture of a rarely encountered Randall's snapper Randallichthys filamentosus (female, 587 mm fork length) from the upper continental slope (c. 350 m) off the south coast of Western Australia (c. 34·5° S; 122·5° E) in January 2014 represents its first record from the temperate Indian Ocean and a southern range extension. This record suggests that spawning of this predominantly tropical species may probably be occurring in the eastern Indian Ocean, considering the extensive, and unlikely, distance the progeny would have otherwise travelled from its typical distribution in the western and central Pacific Ocean. PMID:26511767

  12. South Indian "Solkattu" and Western Music Pedagogy: Creating New Rhythmic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Brandon Keith

    2013-01-01

    Part of the classical music tradition of South India, "solkattu" reinforces the statement "If you can say it, you can play it." This system of percussive syllables can help young musicians approach rhythm training in a way not usually available to students in Western countries. This article offers applications for a music curriculum. The approach…

  13. Consanguinity Mapping of Congenital Heart Disease in a South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Tracy L.; Misri, Amit; Bartlett, Jackie; Orabona, Guilherme; Friedman, Richard D.; Sexton, David; Maheshwari, Sunita; Morgan, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Parental consanguinity is a risk factor for congenital heart disease (CHD) worldwide, suggesting that a recessive inheritance model may contribute substantially to CHD. In Bangalore, India, uncle-niece and first cousin marriages are common, presenting the opportunity for an international study involving consanguinity mapping of structural CHD. We sought to explore the recessive model of CHD by conducting a genome-wide linkage analysis utilizing high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and enrolling 83 CHD probands born to unaffected consanguineous parents. Methodology/Principal Findings In this linkage scan involving single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, the threshold for genome-wide statistical significance was set at the standard log-of-odds (LOD) score threshold of 3.3, corresponding to 1995∶1 odds in favor of linkage. We identified a maximal single-point LOD score of 3.76 (5754∶1 odds) implicating linkage of CHD with the major allele (G) of rs1055061 on chromosome 14 in the HOMEZ gene, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor containing leucine zipper as well as zinc finger motifs. Re-sequencing of HOMEZ exons did not reveal causative mutations in Indian probands. In addition, genotyping of the linked allele (G) in 325 U.S. CHD cases revealed neither genotypic nor allele frequency differences in varied CHD cases compared to 605 non-CHD controls. Conclusions/Significance Despite the statistical power of the consanguinity mapping approach, no single gene of major effect could be convincingly identified in a clinically heterogeneous sample of Indian CHD cases born to consanguineous parents. However, we are unable to exclude the possibility that noncoding regions of HOMEZ may harbor recessive mutations leading to CHD in the Indian population. Further research involving large multinational cohorts of patients with specific subtypes of CHD is needed to attempt replication of the observed linkage peak on chromosome 14. In addition, we

  14. Dietary fat intake and its association with risk of selected components of the metabolic syndrome among rural South Indians

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Sowmya; Nagarajan, Lakshmipriya; Vaidya, Ruchi; Gunasekaran, Geetha; Rajagopal, Gayathri; Parthasarathy, Vijayalakshmi; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Sudha, Vasudevan

    2016-01-01

    Context: There is limited literature on the dietary fat intake of rural Indian populations, particularly in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS). Aim: This study aims to assess the dietary fat intake and analyze its association with the risk of selected components of the MS among rural population in the state of Tamil Nadu. Settings and Design: Adults (n = 27012) ≥20 years of age were recruited from the rural component of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 42 villages in Kanchipuram District of Tamil Nadu. Subjects and Methods: Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, data were obtained on the fat intake among 6907 adults. Anthropometric and clinical measures were collected using standard methods. The components of the MS assessed were abdominal obesity, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose. All analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 20). Results: Prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose were significantly higher in the highest quintile of fat intake (33%, P < 0.001; 39%, P = 0.04, and 23.3%, P = 0.003, respectively). Highest intake of fat was also significantly associated with risk of abdominal obesity (P < 0.001), hypertension (P = 0.04), and impaired fasting glucose (P = 0.01). Sunflower oil as the main cooking oil was significantly associated with a higher risk of these components of the MS (P for trend <0.001) compared to traditional oils and palmolein. Conclusions: Higher dietary fat was significantly associated with risk of components of the MS and use of sunflower oil as main cooking oil increased metabolic risk in rural South Indians. PMID:26904468

  15. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline H D; Robinson, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition. PMID:23819872

  16. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline HD; Robinson, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition ‘track’ from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The ‘snack and fruit’ pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The ‘lacto-vegetarian’ pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the ‘snack and fruit’ pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The ‘snack and fruit’ pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition. PMID:23819872

  17. Celiac Axis, Common Hepatic and Hepatic Artery Variants as Evidenced on MDCT Angiography in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With the increase in the hepatobiliary, pancreatic surgeries and liver transplantation, being aware of the anatomic variations of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries is of paramount importance. Aim To illustrate the normal anatomy and variants of the celiac axis and the hepatic arteries with multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in South Indian population and determine the potential variations in the celiac axis anatomy and the hepatic arteries, thus assisting the hepatobiliary surgeon and the interventional radiologist in avoiding iatrogenic injury to the arteries. Materials and Methods Two hundred patients undergoing abdominal CT angiography from July 2014 till July 2015 were retrospectively studied for hepatic arterial and celiac axis anatomical variation. The anatomic variations in our study were correlated with other studies. Results The celiac axis (CA) and the hepatic artery (HA) variations were analysed as per criteria laid by Song et al., and Michel. Out of 15 possible CA variations, 5 types of celiac artery variations were seen in 14 patients. A normal CA was seen in 179(89.5%) patients of the 200 patients. In the remaining 7 patients, the CA anatomy was classified as ambiguous since there was separate origin of the right and left hepatic arteries from the CA with absent common hepatic artery (CHA). The CHA originated normally from the celiac axis in 94% of the cases. Variation of CHA origin was seen in 5 patients. Normal HA anatomy was seen in 114 (57%) patients. Variation in HA anatomy was seen in 86 (43%) patients. Origin of the right hepatic artery (RHA) from the hepatic artery proper was seen in 182 (91%) patients and replaced origin of RHA from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was seen in 18 (9%) of the cases. Accessory RHA was seen in 7(3.5%) patients. The left hepatic artery (LHA) originated from the hepatic artery proper in 186 (93%) patients and replaced origin of LHA from the left gastric artery (LGA) was

  18. Successful Treatment of Chromobacterium violaceum Sepsis in a South Indian Adult.

    PubMed

    Madi, Deepak R; Vidyalakshmi, K; Ramapuram, John; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-11-01

    Infection due to Chromobacterium violaceum is rare. Diagnosis may be delayed since Chromobacterium sepsis may mimic melioidosis, especially in melioidosis-endemic areas. Management of Chromobacterium infection is challenging given the propensity of this pathogen to cause visceral abscesses, drug resistance, and relapse. Mortality rates are high despite treatment. We report a case of C. violaceum septicemia in an immunocompetent adult from south India, who was successfully treated with combination antibiotic therapy. Physicians in tropical and subtropical regions must be aware of C. violaceum infection as it can mimic melioidosis. PMID:26304923

  19. The Natural History and Conservation of Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphins (Sousa plumbea) in South African Waters.

    PubMed

    Plön, Stephanie; Cockcroft, Victor G; Froneman, William P

    2015-01-01

    Although most knowledge on the biology of Sousa plumbea has primarily come from South African waters, a number of research gaps remain on the natural history and status of the species in the region. Research on two populations in South African waters for which some historical data exist may aid in highlighting long-term changes in the biology and natural history of this little known coastal delphinid. Recent studies on the age, growth and reproduction of animals incidentally caught in shark nets in Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, yielded a lower maximum age estimate of 24 (previously 46) growth-layer-groups (GLGs), sexual maturity of 7.5 and 8 GLGs in males and females (previously 12-13 and 10 GLGs, respectively), an ovulation rate of 0.2 and a 5-year calving interval (previously 0.3 and 3-year calving interval) than previously reported. These differences may be due to a difference in the interpretation of GLGs between observers or a predominance of young males being caught in the shark nets. Stomach content analysis revealed a change in the relative proportions of the main prey items over the past 25 years, but no difference in species richness or diversity was found between the sexes. No change in trophic level was recorded between 1972 and 2009. Field studies in Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, conducted 16 years apart indicated a decline in the mean group size (from 7 to 3 animals), a decline in the maximum group size (from 24 to 13 animals), an increase in solitary individuals (15.4-36%), and a change in behaviour from predominantly foraging (64-18%) to mainly travelling (24-49%). The observed changes are suggestive of a change in food availability, resulting in a range shift or a potential decline in numbers. These studies indicate the importance of long-term studies to monitor population changes and their possible causes. A number of threats, such as shark nets, pollution (noise and chemical), and coastal development and disturbance, to the humpback dolphin populations

  20. Two gene polymorphisms (rs4977756 and rs11515) in CDKN2A/B and glioma risk in South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sibin, M K; Dhananjaya, I Bhat; Narasingarao, K V L; Harshitha, S M; Jeru-Manoj, M; Chetan, G K

    2016-09-01

    Gliomas are most common neoplasms in the CNS with unknown aetiology. Gene polymorphisms have been studied in glioma to check its risk in different population. CDKN2A, commonly altered tumor suppressor gene polymorphisms were recently shown to be associated with glioma in Caucasians. Present study evaluated potential association between two SNPs in CDKN2A/B gene with glioma risk in South Indian population with a total of 128 cases and 140 control subjects. Allelic discrimination assay was used for the genotyping and the association of each SNP with glioma risk were calculated using odds ratio and 95% CI. There was no association between rs4977756 polymorphism and glioma risk in south Indian population. GG genotype had a non-significant low risk in glioma (OR = 0.69). rs11515 polymorphism was not in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium in our sample, so it was not considered for association studies. There was difference in genotype in tissue samples paired with blood samples for rs4977756 polymorphism, suggesting the importance of tissue SNP status in association studies. These results show that these two polymorphisms may not contribute to risk for glioma in South Indian population. PMID:27617221

  1. Evidence for genetic linkage between a polymorphism in the GNAS gene and malaria in South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Himanshu; Sakharwade, Sanica C; Angural, Arshia; Kotambail, Ananthapadmanabha; Bhat, Gopal K; Hande, Manjunath H; D'Souza, Sydney C; Rao, Purnima; Kumari, Veena; Saadi, Abdul V; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2013-12-01

    The complex imprinted GNAS locus which encodes G-alpha subunit (Gαs) is involved in a number of G-protein coupled signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum parasites is significantly regulated by protein of GNAS gene. This study was designed to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in GNAS locus and susceptibility to malaria. In this case control study, individuals affected by P. falciparum malaria (n=230), Plasmodium vivax malaria (n=230) and normal controls (n=230) were tested for the association of eighteen (18) known SNPs to evaluate their role in the onset of the disease. There was no significant difference in genotype frequencies of all the SNPs tested between P. falciparum and P. vivax affected individuals. However, when Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons were performed as a control, our results demonstrated alleles and genotypes of rs7121: C>T (NC_000020.10:g.57478807C>T), a silent polymorphism situated in the exon 5, were significantly (p<0.05) associated with susceptibility to malaria in the South Indians participants. Our results demonstrate that population specific polymorphisms that exist in GNAS gene may alter the risk of occurrence of malaria. PMID:23962387

  2. Fulvimarina manganoxydans sp. nov., isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal plume in the south-west Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fei; Zhang, Limin; Song, Lei; Xu, Shiyao; Xi, Lijun; Huang, Li; Huang, Ying; Dai, Xin

    2014-08-01

    An aerobic, Mn(II)-oxidizing, Gram-negative bacterium, strain 8047(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent plume in the south-west Indian Ocean. The strain was rod-shaped and motile with a terminal flagellum, and formed yellowish colonies. It produced catalase and oxidase, hydrolysed gelatin and reduced nitrate. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 8047(T) belonged to the order Rhizobiales of the class Alphaproteobacteria, and was phylogenetically most closely related to the genus Fulvimarina, sharing 94.4% sequence identity with the type strain of the type species. The taxonomic affiliation of strain 8047(T) was supported by phylogenetic analysis of four additional housekeeping genes, gyrB, recA, rpoC and rpoB. The predominant respiratory lipoquinone of strain 8047(T) was Q-10, the major fatty acid was C(18 : 1)ω7c and the DNA G+C content was 61.7 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics determined in this study, strain 8047(T) represents a novel species within the genus Fulvimarina, for which the name Fulvimarina manganoxydans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 8047(T) ( = CGMCC1.10972(T) = JCM 18890(T)). PMID:24854008

  3. A South Indian cadaveric study on obturator neurovascular bundle with a special emphasis on high prevalence of 'venous corona mortis'.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Deepthinath, R; Prasad, A M; Shetty, Surekha D; Aithal, Ashwini P

    2016-07-01

    Surgical procedures in the pelvic region are very challenging because of the complex anatomy of this region. "Corona mortis" is a term used to describe retro-pubic anastomosis between the obturator and external iliac vessels. It is considered as a key structure as significant haemorrhage may occur if the vessels are cut accidentally during pelvic surgeries. Earlier studies have documented a high frequency of venous anastomosis compared to its arterial counterpart. The objective of our study was to document the prevalence of venous corona mortis in South Indian human adult cadaveric pelvises. We conducted this study on 73 cadaveric pelvic halves. Out of the 73 hemi pelvises, 36 were normal without any variations of the obturator vessels while 37 hemi pelvises (51%) showed the presence of abnormal obturator vessels which proves to be a very high incidence in terms of variations. Out of the 37 hemi pelvises, 25 (68%) showed the presence of 2 obturator veins, out of which 1 was normal and the other was an abnormal obturator vein. 8 hemi pelvises (22%) had only abnormal obturator vein. Most of the abnormal obturator veins drained into the external iliac vein, while two veins drained into inferior epigastric veins. Venous corona mortis is said to be frequently encountered during surgery and is considered to be as important as arterial corona mortis in its clinical implications. Individual evaluation of this risky anatomical structure should be done prior to any surgical interventions. PMID:27156835

  4. High incidence of persistence of sacral and coccygeal intervertebral discs in South Indians – a cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Satheesha Nayak, B; Ashwini Aithal, P; Kumar, Naveen; George, Bincy M; Deepthinath, R; Shetty, Surekha D

    2016-01-01

    The sacrum, by virtue of its anatomic location plays a key role in providing stability and strength to the pelvis. Presence of intervertebral discs in sacrum and coccyx is rare. Knowledge of its variations is of utmost importance to surgeons and radiologists. The current study focused on the presence of intervertebral discs between the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae in south Indian cadaveric pelvises. We observed 56 adult pelvises of which, 34 (61%) pelvises showed the presence of intervertebral discs between the sacral vertebrae and between the coccygeal vertebrae, while 22 (39%) pelvises did not have the intervertebral discs either in the sacrum or the coccyx. We also found that most of the specimens had discs between S1 and S2 vertebrae (39%), followed by, between S4 and S5 (18%), between S2–S3 (14%) and least being between S3–S4 (13%). In the coccyx it was found that 7% of pelvises had disc between Co1-Co2, 4% of them had between Co2-Co3 and 4% had between Co3-Co4. Knowledge regarding such anatomic variations in the sacro-coccygeal region is important to note because they require alterations in various instrumentation procedures involving the sacrum. PMID:27385838

  5. Translation and Adaptation of Five English Language Self-Report Health Measures to South Indian Kannada Language.

    PubMed

    Thammaiah, Spoorthi; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi

    2016-04-20

    The objective of this study was to translate and adapt five English self-report health measures to a South Indian language Kannada. Currently, no systematically developed questionnaires assessing hearing rehabilitation outcomes are available for clinical or research use in Kannada. The questionnaires included for translation and adaptation were the hearing handicap questionnaire, the international outcome inventory - hearing aids, the self-assessment of communication, the participation scale, and the assessment of quality of life - 4 dimensions. The questionnaires were translated and adapted using the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) guidelines. The five stages followed in the study included: i) forward translation; ii) common translation synthesis; iii) backward translation; iv) expert committee review; v) pre-final testing. In this paper, in addition to a description of the process, we also highlight practical issues faced while adopting the procedure with an aim to help readers better understand the intricacies involved in such processes. This can be helpful to researchers and clinicians who are keen to adapt standard self-report questionnaires from other languages to their native language. PMID:27588165

  6. Temperature control of microbial respiration and growth efficiency in the mesopelagic zone of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazuecos, Ignacio P.; Arístegui, Javier; Vázquez-Domínguez, Evaristo; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Gasol, Josep M.; Reche, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    We have measured both prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) and respiration (R), then providing direct estimates of prokaryotic growth efficiencies (PGE), in the upper mesopelagic zone (300-600 m) of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Our results show that in situ R ranged 3-fold, from 87 to 238 μmol C m-3 d-1. In situ PHP rates were much lower but also more variable than R (ranging from 0.3 to 9.1 μmol C m-3 d-1). The derived in situ PGE values were on average ~1.4% (from 0.3% to 3.7%), indicating that most of the organic substrates incorporated by prokaryotes were respired instead of being used for growth. Together with the few previous studies on PGE published before for the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, our findings support the hypothesis that the global mesopelagic zone represents a key remineralization site for export production in the open ocean. We also found a strong correlation between R and PGE with temperature across a gradient ranging from 8.7 to 14.9 °C. The derived Q10 value of 3.7 suggests that temperature variability in the mesopelagic zone plays a significant role in the remineralization of organic matter.

  7. The effect of a visual aid on the comprehension of cataract surgery in a rural, indigent South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Karan, Abraar M.; Campbell, Daniel J.; Mayer, Hylton R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether a visual aid improves the understanding and retention of information presented during informed consent for rural, indigent patients presenting for cataract surgery. Materials and Methods This was a randomized, unmasked, interventional study. We recruited patients who presented to the Hande Surgical Hospital in Chennai, India, for cataract surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups: verbal consent alone (group A) and verbal consent plus a poster (group B). Both groups completed an 11-question true/false quiz immediately before and after informed consent and one day after surgery. Results A total of 60 patients were recruited for the study, with 30 randomly assigned to each group; 23 patients from group A and 17 from group B completed the study. Informed consent improved patient scores in both groups; however, group B had significantly higher mean scores on postoperative day 1 (7.4 vs 8.7, P = 0.005) and significantly greater improvement in mean scores from pre–informed consent to postoperative day 1 (1.3 vs 3.6, P = 0.002). Conclusions Informed consent improves patient understanding of cataract surgery. Using a visual aid during informed consent for cataract surgery improves understanding and retention of information more than verbal consent alone in a rural South Indian population. PMID:23362389

  8. Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M. S.; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria. PMID:24723820

  9. Assessment of water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1989-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess ground-water and surface-water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District in northern Palm Beach County from 1989 to 1994. Contamination of the surficial aquifer system and availability of a potable water supply have become of increasing concern. The study consisted of sampling 11 ground-water wells and 14 surface- water sites for determination of major inorganic constituents and physical characteristics, trace metals, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and synthetic organic compounds. Sodium and chloride concentrations exceeded Florida drinking-water standards in ground water at two wells, dissolved- solids concentrations at five ground-water wells and one surface-water site, and color values at all 11 ground-water wells and all 14 surface-water sites. Other constituents also exhibited concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards. Cadmium and zinc concentrations exceeded the standards in ground water at one well, and lead concentrations exceeded the standard in ground water at five wells. Nitrogen and phosphorus specie concentrations did not exceed respective drinking-water standards in any ground-water or surface-water samples. Several synthetic organic compounds were detected at or above 50 micrograms per liter in water samples collected from six ground-water wells and three surface-water sites.

  10. Hexokinase Domain Containing 1 (HKDC1) Gene Variants and their Association with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a South Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Kanthimathi, Sekar; Liju, Samuel; Laasya, Dhandapani; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Radha, Venkatesan

    2016-07-01

    Hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1), a novel human hexokinase gene, is known to affect glucose metabolism and was shown to have a strong association with 2-h plasma glucose in pregnant women in a recent genome wide association study. This study aimed to evaluate the association of these regulatory variants of HKDC1 (rs1076224, rs4746822, rs2394529 and rs9645501) with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a South Indian population. The regulatory variants of HKDC1 were genotyped in unrelated 500 women with GDM and 510 non-GDM individuals by using the MassARRAY system and by direct DNA sequencing. The minor alleles of the HKDC1 gene regulatory variants, namely rs10762264 and rs4746822, showed a significant association with GDM and these alleles conferred as much as 1.24 and 1.34 times higher risk for GDM, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate the association of HKDC1 genetic variants with susceptibility to GDM. PMID:27346736

  11. Translation and Adaptation of Five English Language Self-Report Health Measures to South Indian Kannada Language

    PubMed Central

    Thammaiah, Spoorthi; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to translate and adapt five English self-report health measures to a South Indian language Kannada. Currently, no systematically developed questionnaires assessing hearing rehabilitation outcomes are available for clinical or research use in Kannada. The questionnaires included for translation and adaptation were the hearing handicap questionnaire, the international outcome inventory - hearing aids, the self-assessment of communication, the participation scale, and the assessment of quality of life – 4 dimensions. The questionnaires were translated and adapted using the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) guidelines. The five stages followed in the study included: i) forward translation; ii) common translation synthesis; iii) backward translation; iv) expert committee review; v) pre-final testing. In this paper, in addition to a description of the process, we also highlight practical issues faced while adopting the procedure with an aim to help readers better understand the intricacies involved in such processes. This can be helpful to researchers and clinicians who are keen to adapt standard self-report questionnaires from other languages to their native language. PMID:27588165

  12. Two new marine Gastrotricha from the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Todaro, M Antonio; Perissinotto, Renzo; Bownes, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    The study is part of a larger research programme aimed at shedding light on the gastrotrich communities of the subtropical east coast province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In previous papers, faunistic and preliminary taxonomic data on marine and freshwater gastrotrichs found in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, were reported. Here two new interesting marine macrodasyidan species in the families Dactylopodolidae and Thaumastodermatidae are described based on observations carried out on living specimens and using differential interference contrast microscopy. The two novel species are named in honor of two great South African icons recently deceased: Nadine Gordimer and Nelson Mandela. Dactylopodola nadine sp. n. is the third species in the genus to bear red eye-spots; it can easily be distinguished from the closely-related red-eyed D. baltica and D. roscovita by its smaller size (Total length = 230 μm vs 275 μm vs 450 μm, respectively) and the lower number of adhesive tubes of the anterior, lateral and posterior series (on each side: 3, 4 and 4 vs 5, 6 and 8 vs 2, 9 and 12-15). Pseudostomella mandela sp. n. is a fairly large species (up to 481 μm in length), with a cuticular covering made up of tetrancres and relatively long caudal pedicles (up to 44 μm in length ). The most evident autoapomorphic trait of the new species is the presence of 7 pairs of 'cirrata' tubes, two emerging in a lateral position along the pharyngeal region and five from the dorsolateral sides of the trunk. Additional relevant taxonomic characters include: 4 tubes of the anterior series, 11 tubes of the ventrolateral series and 3 tubes of the posterior series per side, 5 papillae on the dorsal margin and 6 papillae on the ventral margin of the oral palps. The high number of putative new species discovered among the South African gastrotrich fauna during our relatively short survey, highlights the relevance of this region with regard to the diversity of this group and stresses once again

  13. Chimerical categories: caste, race, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Sharjeel

    2003-12-01

    Is discrimination based on caste equivalent to racism? This paper explores the complex relationship between genetic, race and caste. It also discusses the debate over the exclusion of a discussion of caste-based discrimination at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance held in Durban, South Africa. PMID:14768649

  14. Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    1997-09-01

    Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

  15. Studies on isozymic variation among the South Indian species of Sphaerostephanos

    PubMed Central

    Varaprasadham, Irudayaraj; Marimuthu, Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the identity and phylogenetic relationships among the three medicinally important species of Sphaerostephanos from South India using isozymic profile. Methods The young fronds were homogenized with 3.5 mL of ice-cold homogenizing buffer in a pre-chilled pestle and mortar. The supernatant was subjected to electrophoresis as described by Anbalagan poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining solutions for isoperoxidase was prepared as per Smila method for the detection of isoenzymes. Results A total of six different bands in five different positions with different molecular weight/Rf values and four active zones have been observed in the isoperoxidase enzyme system of Sphaerostephanos. Only one band with MW/Rf 0.399 is common to two different species i.e. Sphaerostephanos arbuscula (S. arbuscula) and Sphaerostephanos unitus (S. unitus). Among the remaining four bands, two bands (Rf. 0.23, 0.47) are present in Sphaerostephanos subtruncatus (S. subtruncatus) and one distinct band has been observed individually in S. arbuscula (Rf. 0.507) and S. unitus (Rf. 0.56). Conclusions The present preliminary molecular study through isozymic analysis shows the identity of all the three species and the present results confirm distinctness of these three species based on macro-micromorphology, phytochemistry and cytology. PMID:23569778

  16. Autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy (ADCME) in a unique south Indian community.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Radha; Viswanathan, Natarajan; Shanmugam, Ganesan; Sankaralingam, Saravanan; Essaki, Bobby; Chelladurai, Rachel P

    2016-03-01

    Autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy (ADCME)/familial adult onset myoclonic epilepsy (FAME) is a nonprogressive disorder characterized by (1) distal tremors that are usually precipitated by posture and action; (2) stimulus-sensitive myoclonus that is predominantly seen in the upper limb and is precipitated by photic stimuli, fatigue, emotional stress, and sleep deprivation; (3) seizures that were predominantly of the generalized tonic-clonic type that showed significant response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). ADCME has been reported worldwide with different genetic loci in Japanese families (8q23.3-q24.1), Italian families (2p11.1-q12.2), a French family (5p15.3.1-p15.1), and a Thai family (3q26.32-q28). ADCME has not been reported in South India and is still not recognized as an independent entity under the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). We report 241 patients with ADCME identified belonging to 48 families. The 48 families are domiciled in two southern districts of Tamilnadu in India, belonging to a community called "Nadar" whose nativity is confined to these southern districts, with reported unique genetic characteristics. This study is reported for the presentation of this rare disease in a unique ethnic group, and is the largest single report on ADCME worldwide. PMID:26749494

  17. Genetic, geographic, and linguistic variation among South American Indians: possible sex influence.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Nelson J R; Bonatto, S L; Callegari-Jacques, S M; Salzano, F M

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between genetic variability, geographical distance, and linguistic affiliation in South Amerinds, and to elucidate whether the migration rate is the same for both sexes, spatial autocorrelation, Mantel's test, and F(ST) analyses were performed in four sets of populations and alleles (group 1: 48 populations, 12 alleles; group 2: 16 (all belonging to the Tupi linguistic group) and 12; group 3: 21 and 17; and group 4: 28 and 4 haplotypes). Groups 1-3 included blood group and protein (i.e., serum protein, red cell enzymes, and immunoglobulin systems), while group 4 was concerned with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) only. The latter set was also subjected to a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA) evaluation. The frequencies of statistically significant correlograms were lower than those obtained in other populations when the blood groups and protein systems were considered, but 3 of the 4 mtDNA haplogroups gave suggestions of population structure. The variability in this organelle is also significantly correlated with language when geography is held constant. Migration per generation is generally low, but higher estimates were obtained for females. The AMOVA results suggest that populations whose members speak the same language are genetically homogeneous and may be viewed as the ultimate evolutionary unit at this level of analysis. PMID:11748563

  18. Skills, division of labour and economies of scale among Amazonian hunters and South Indian honey collectors.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Paul L; Demps, Kathryn; Gurven, Michael; Gerkey, Drew; Kaplan, Hillard S

    2015-12-01

    In foraging and other productive activities, individuals make choices regarding whether and with whom to cooperate, and in what capacities. The size and composition of cooperative groups can be understood as a self-organized outcome of these choices, which are made under local ecological and social constraints. This article describes a theoretical framework for explaining the size and composition of foraging groups based on three principles: (i) the sexual division of labour; (ii) the intergenerational division of labour; and (iii) economies of scale in production. We test predictions from the theory with data from two field contexts: Tsimane' game hunters of lowland Bolivia, and Jenu Kuruba honey collectors of South India. In each case, we estimate the impacts of group size and individual group members' effort on group success. We characterize differences in the skill requirements of different foraging activities and show that individuals participate more frequently in activities in which they are more efficient. We evaluate returns to scale across different resource types and observe higher returns at larger group sizes in foraging activities (such as hunting large game) that benefit from coordinated and complementary roles. These results inform us that the foraging group size and composition are guided by the motivated choice of individuals on the basis of relative efficiency, benefits of cooperation, opportunity costs and other social considerations. PMID:26503681

  19. A community-wide tuberculosis survey in a South Indian rural population, 1950-55

    PubMed Central

    Frimodt-Møller, J.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation carried out under WHO auspices in a small area of South India in 1950-55, and which covered a population of approximately 60 000, has not only shed light on various aspects of tuberculosis epidemiology, but has also served as an exercise in the practical conduct of a control campaign in a less developed area. The programme was based essentially on systematic case-finding by mass miniature X-ray and tuberculin testing and the hospitalization of infectious cases. Its most dramatic effect on the community consisted in the great reduction of mortality—from 200 to 21 per 100 000 in less than four years—due no doubt to the advent of the newer antituberculosis drugs. This and other findings are discussed at length in the present report, which covers such topics as tuberculin sensitivity, infection rate, prevalence, incidence, and the results of a BCG control trial. One of the conclusions reached as a result of the campaign was that domiciliary drug therapy had much to recommend it in an area such as this, given the reluctance of patients to enter hospital and thus be deprived of their earning capacity. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 5 PMID:13825251

  20. Malaria epidemics and the influence of the tropical South Atlantic on the Indian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, B. A.; Rodó, X.; Ballester, J.; Bouma, M. J.; Baeza, A.; Dhiman, R.; Pascual, M.

    2013-05-01

    The existence of predictability in the climate system beyond the relatively short timescales of synoptic weather has provided significant impetus to investigate climate variability and its consequences for society. In particular, relationships between the relatively slow changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and climate variability at widely removed points across the globe provide a basis for statistical and dynamical efforts to predict numerous phenomena, from rainfall to disease incidence, at seasonal to decadal timescales. We describe here a remote influence, identified through observational analysis and supported through numerical experiments with a coupled atmosphere-ocean model, of the tropical South Atlantic (TSA) on both monsoon rainfall and malaria epidemics in arid northwest India. Moreover, SST in the TSA is shown to provide the basis for an early warning of anomalous hydrological conditions conducive to malaria epidemics four months later, therefore at longer lead times than those afforded by rainfall. We find that the TSA is not only significant as a modulator of the relationship between the monsoon and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, as has been suggested by previous work, but for certain regions and temporal lags is in fact a dominant driver of rainfall variability and hence malaria outbreaks.

  1. Age estimation using development of third molars in South Indian population: A radiological study

    PubMed Central

    Priyadharshini, K. Indra; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Sivapathasundaram, B.; Mohanbabu, V.; Augustine, Dominic; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the estimation of chronological age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A–H) method of Demirjian et al. in Chennai population of South India. Materials and Methods: A sample consisting of 848 individuals (471 males and 377 females) aged between 14 and 30 years was randomly selected for the clinical evaluation and 323 orthopantomograms with clinically missing third molars were taken for radiological evaluation using Demirjian's method from a Chennai population of known chronological age and sex. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's Chi-square test and mean values were compared between the study groups using t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's highly significant difference (HSD). In the present study, P < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: The results showed that the mean age of having clinically completely erupted maxillary third molars was 22.41 years in male subjects and 23.81 years in female subjects and that of mandibular third molars was 21.49 years in male subjects and 23.34 years in female subjects. Mandibular third molars were clinically missing more often in females than in males. Eruption of mandibular third molars was generally ahead of the emergence of maxillary third molars into the oral cavity. Third molar development between male and female subjects showed statistically significant differences at calcification stage F and stage G in maxillary third molars and stage F in mandibular third molars (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There are differences indicating that maxillary and mandibular third molar eruption reached Demirjian's formation stages earlier in males than in females. It is suggested that in future studies, to increase the accuracy of age determination, indications of sexual maturity and ossification should also be evaluated in addition to third molar mineralization. PMID:25984465

  2. Community perceptions of health and chronic disease in South Indian rural transitional communities: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hayter, Arabella K. M.; Jeffery, Roger; Sharma, Chitra; Prost, Audrey; Kinra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are now the leading cause of death and disability worldwide; this epidemic has been linked to rapid economic growth and urbanisation in developing countries. Understanding how characteristics of the physical, social, and economic environment affect behaviour in the light of these changes is key to identifying successful interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk. Design We undertook a qualitative study consisting of nine focus group discussions (FGDs) (n=57) in five villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India, to understand people's perceptions of community development and urbanisation in relation to chronic disease in rural transitional communities. Specifically, we sought to understand perceptions of change linked to diet, physical activity, and pollution (because these exposures are most relevant to chronic diseases), with the aim of defining future interventions. The transcripts were analysed thematically. Results Participants believed their communities were currently less healthy, more polluted, less physically active, and had poorer access to nutritious food and shorter life expectancies than previously. There were contradictory perceptions of the effects of urbanisation on health within and between individuals; several of the participants felt their quality of life had been reduced. Conclusions In the present study, residents viewed change and development within their villages as an inevitable and largely positive process but with some negative health consequences. Understanding how these changes are affecting populations in transitional rural areas and how people relate to their environment may be useful to guide community planning for health. Measures to educate and empower people to make healthy choices within their community may help reduce the spread of chronic disease risk factors in future years. PMID:25669238

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of people toward epilepsy in a South Indian village

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaiah, Balaji; Alwar, Seenivasan P.; Ranganathan, Lakshmi N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: People living with epilepsy continue to suffer from enacted or perceived stigma that is based on myths, misconceptions, and misunderstandings that have persisted for many years. In the last decade, there has been an increase in individual literacy rate and increased access to technology in rural population. However, it is unclear if this has any effect on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) attitude toward epilepsy. Objective: Our primary aim is to evaluate KAP toward epilepsy. In addition, we also estimated the prevalence of stroke and epilepsy in rural South India. Materials and Methods: Using a 14-item questionnaire, we assessed KAP toward epilepsy and identified determinants of inappropriate attitudes toward people with epilepsy and 10-item questionnaires to assess the prevalence of epilepsy and stroke among 500 randomly selected populations in a Pattaravakkam village (Tamil Nadu, India). Results: About 87.7% of the people had heard or read about epilepsy. Negative attitudes appeared to be reinforced by beliefs that epilepsy is hereditary (23.1%), kind of insanity (22.6%), or as contagious (12.0%). The knowledge about the clinical characteristics and first aid to a person during a seizure was 25.8%. About 36.5% of people think that society discriminates people with epilepsy. Moreover, our prevalence study showed that 8.7% people are suffering from epilepsy and 3.7% had stroke previously and at the day of survey, the stroke prevalence is 3.3%. Conclusion: Even with increased literacy, technology, and communication devices, the KAP of people toward epilepsy is relatively low. General public education campaigns and specific school education campaigns children should be encouraged to increase the KAP toward epilepsy. The prevalence and pattern of epilepsy and stroke is on the higher side in the village of Pattaravakkam. Future research regarding the value of targeted education in improving KAP will be worthwhile. PMID:27365954

  4. Standardized Mortality Ratio in Patients with Schizophrenia — Findings from Thirthahalli: A Rural South Indian Community

    PubMed Central

    Bagewadi, Virupakshappa Irappa; Kumar, C. Naveen; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Rao, Girish N.; Suresha, K. K.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is associated with excess mortality experience than the general population. Though this is one of the important outcome measures, it has not been adequately explored especially in rural community dwelling patients in India. We describe the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of a cohort of schizophrenia patients of Thirthahalli, one such rural taluk of South India. Materials and Methods: SMRs for the years 2009-2011 were calculated. A number of patients in the cohort were 301, 317, and 325 for those consecutive years, respectively. Observed deaths among the patients were noted for these years separately. Crude death rates (CDRs) of the general population of Shimoga district were obtained from the Statistics Department of the Government of Karnataka. CDR (per 1000) was multiplied by the number of patients in each year to get the expected deaths. Then, observed deaths were divided by the expected deaths to get the SMR. Results: There were totally 12 deaths among the patients in these 3 years. SMRs for the years 2009, 2010, and 2011 were respectively 1.4, 1.8, and 2.2. Six had died out of natural (medical) causes. Four had committed suicide, and one died from an accident. Cause from one death remained unknown. There was no statistically significant difference between the alive and deceased patients in any of the demographic or clinical variables. Conclusions: Mortality among schizophrenia patients in this rural cohort is considerably lower than patients from developed countries. Nevertheless, nearly two-fold excess mortality in schizophrenia calls for attention to their medical and psychosocial needs. PMID:27335514

  5. Indian Education. Hearing on S.1645 To Reauthorize Certain Indian Educational Programs before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Pine Ridge, South Dakota, August 17, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    This hearing before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs (United States Senate) concerns a bill (S.1645) to: (1) reauthorize funding for Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools and dormitory facilities; (2) prevent termination or alteration of BIA-funded schools except by specific provision of law or as requested by tribal governing bodies; and…

  6. Inter-decadal changes in the East Asian summer monsoon and associations with sea surface temperature anomaly in the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Zesheng; Guo, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed inter-decadal changes in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) that occurred around the late 1970s and early 1990s, respectively. The present study compares characteristics of these two changes and analyzes plausible influences of the South Indian Ocean (SIO) sea surface temperature (SST) change. The two changes share pronounced common features, characterized by an equivalent barotropic circulation anomaly over northern East Asia and a meridional vertical overturning circulation over the tropical region. Meanwhile, they display some distinct characteristics, especially over the tropics. The circumfluent anomalies are more robust for the first change than for the second one. Related amplitude asymmetry is partly attributed to a weakening trend in the EASM. Moreover, SST change in the SIO, featuring a decadal warming since the 1980s and a cooling after 1993, may contribute to both of these inter-decadal changes. Cold SST anomaly induces anomalous mid-tropospheric descent over the western SIO and ascent extending from the eastern SIO to western Australia and over the equatorial Indian Ocean. The accompanying upper-tropospheric divergent flows from western Australia and equatorial Indian Ocean to the Philippines lead to anomalous descent and an anomalous lower-tropospheric anticyclone over the South China Sea-Philippines. Warm SST anomaly induces opposite changes in above regions. The possible influence of SST anomaly in the SIO is further confirmed by numerical experiments.

  7. Spatiotemporal variability of rainfall extremes in monsoonal climates - examples from the South American Monsoon and the Indian Monsoon Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookhagen, B.; Boers, N.; Marwan, N.; Malik, N.; Kurths, J.

    2013-12-01

    Monsoonal rainfall is the crucial component for more than half of the world's population. Runoff associated with monsoon systems provide water resources for agriculture, hydropower, drinking-water generation, recreation, and social well-being and are thus a fundamental part of human society. However, monsoon systems are highly stochastic and show large variability on various timescales. Here, we use various rainfall datasets to characterize spatiotemporal rainfall patterns using traditional as well as new approaches emphasizing nonlinear spatial correlations from a complex networks perspective. Our analyses focus on the South American (SAMS) and Indian (ISM) Monsoon Systems on the basis of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) using precipitation radar and passive-microwave products with horizontal spatial resolutions of ~5x5 km^2 (products 2A25, 2B31) and 25x25 km^2 (3B42) and interpolated rainfall-gauge data for the ISM (APHRODITE, 25x25 km^2). The eastern slopes of the Andes of South America and the southern front of the Himalaya are characterized by significant orographic barriers that intersect with the moisture-bearing, monsoonal wind systems. We demonstrate that topography exerts a first-order control on peak rainfall amounts on annual timescales in both mountain belts. Flooding in the downstream regions is dominantly caused by heavy rainfall storms that propagate deep into the mountain range and reach regions that are arid and without vegetation cover promoting rapid runoff. These storms exert a significantly different spatial distribution than average-rainfall conditions and assessing their recurrence intervals and prediction is key in understanding flooding for these regions. An analysis of extreme-value distributions of our high-spatial resolution data reveal that semi-arid areas are characterized by low-frequency/high-magnitude events (i.e., are characterized by a ';heavy tail' distribution), whereas regions with high mean annual rainfall have a

  8. Contrasted accumulation patterns of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in sympatric tropical dolphins from the south-western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Das, Krishna; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine; Kiszka, Jeremy J; Lepoint, Gilles; Mongin, Philippe; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Due to their high trophic position and long life span, small cetaceans are considered as suitable bioindicators to monitor the presence of contaminants in marine ecosystems. Here, we document the contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and total mercury (T-Hg) of spinner (Stenella longirostris, n =21) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus, n=32) sampled from the coastal waters of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean). In addition, seven co-occurring teleost fish species were sampled and analyzed as well. Blubber samples from living dolphins and muscle from teleosts were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and metabolites (DDTs), chlordanes (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), reported as having a natural origin, were also analyzed. T-Hg levels were measured in blubber and skin biopsies of the two dolphin species. Stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were determined in skin of the dolphins and in the muscle of teleosts. For PCBs, HCHs and T-Hg, concentrations were significantly higher in T. aduncus than in S. longirostris. For other POP levels, intra-species variability was high. MeO-PBDEs were the dominant compounds (55% of the total POPs) in S. longirostris, while PCBs dominated (50% contribution) in T. aduncus. Other contaminants showed similar profiles between the two species. Given the different patterns of POPs and T-Hg contamination and the δ(15)N values observed among analyzed teleosts, dietary and foraging habitat preferences most likely explain the contrasted contaminant profiles observed in the two dolphin species. Levels of each class of contaminants were significantly higher in males than females. Despite their spatial and temporal overlap in the waters of La Réunion, S. longirostris and T. aduncus are differently exposed to contaminant accumulation. PMID:26775007

  9. Analysis of ADRB2 (Arg16Gly) Gene Variant with Susceptibility, Pharmacogenetic Response and Disease Severity in South Indian Asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, Srinivas; Akka, Jyothy; Marri, Vijaya Kumar; Alvala, Mallika; Ponnala, Deepika; Mundluru, Hema Prasad

    2015-12-01

    β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) plays a crucial role in asthma pathophysiology by regulating, processes of the lung function, and clinical response to bronchodilators. The +46G>A- Gly16Arg polymorphism in the gene encoding β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) has been associated with receptor non-responsiveness after β2-agonist exposure. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the possible association of Gly16Arg polymorphism with asthma susceptibility, pharmacogenetic response to Salbutamol, and varying degrees of disease severity. Three hundred ninety-eight clinically diagnosed patients and 456 healthy controls were enrolled for the study. Patients were classified into severity classes according to Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. To assess bronchodilator response, spirometry was performed before and 15 min after Salbutamol (200 μg) delivery. Responders to Salbutamol were categorized if percentage reversibility was greater than or equal to 12% in them, while those showing reversibility less than 12% were classified as non-responders. Genotyping was carried out by ARMS-PCR technique. Statistical methods were applied to test for the significance of the results. In the present study, there was lack of significant association of polymorphism with disease susceptibility as well as with bronchodilator response. The polymorphism was not associated with mild and moderate asthma subtypes; however, there was a notable association with severe asthma subtype. In addition, the polymorphism was associated with severe asthma compared to subtypes of mild and moderate asthma combined. In a South Indian population, the ADRB2 Arg/Gly may not form a susceptible variant to develop asthma nor can be a standard predictive marker to bronchodilator response; nevertheless, the patterns in asthma severity can be predicted by analyzing this variant. PMID:26071206

  10. Genetic Epidemiology of Mitochondrial Pathogenic Variants Causing Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss in a Large Cohort of South Indian Hearing Impaired Individuals.

    PubMed

    Subathra, Mahalingam; Ramesh, Arabandi; Selvakumari, Mathiyalagan; Karthikeyen, N P; Srisailapathy, C R Srikumari

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria play a critical role in the generation of metabolic energy in the form of ATP. Tissues and organs that are highly dependent on aerobic metabolism are involved in mitochondrial disorders including nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL). Seven pathogenic variants leading to NSHL have so far been reported on two mitochondrial genes: MT-RNR1 encoding 12SrRNA and MT-TS1 encoding tRNA for Ser((UCN)) . We screened 729 prelingual NSHL subjects to determine the prevalence of MT-RNR1 variants at position m.961, m.1555A>G and m.1494C>T, and MT-TS1 m.7445A>G, m.7472insC m.7510T>C and m.7511T>C variants. Mitochondrial pathogenic variants were found in eight probands (1.1%). Five of them were found to have the m.1555A>G variant, two others had m.7472insC and one proband had m.7444G>A. The extended relatives of these probands showed variable degrees of hearing loss and age at onset. This study shows that mitochondrial pathogenic alleles contribute to about 1% prelingual hearing loss. This study will henceforth provide the reference for the prevalence of mitochondrial pathogenic alleles in the South Indian population, which to date has not been estimated. The m.1555A>G variant is a primary predisposing genetic factor for the development of hearing loss. Our study strongly suggests that mitochondrial genotyping should be considered for all hearing impaired individuals and particularly in families where transmission is compatible with maternal inheritance, after ruling out the most common variants. PMID:27530448

  11. Heat Flow on the South West Indian Ridge at 14°E and the Consequences for Microbiological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, N. E.; Molari, M.; Boetius, A.

    2014-12-01

    During RV POLARSTERN cruise PS81 to the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR) at 52°S, 14°E an integrated study was carried out in more than 4000 m water depth employing seismology, geology, microbiology, deep-sea ecology, heat flow and others. Heat flow is supposed to be an indicator for the varying depth of the magma chamber beneath the ridge axis. Bottom observations from previous work on the SWIR are scarce and visual information about geostructures, habitat landscapes, benthic faunal communities and their distribution in this area have so far been missing. Vigorous fluid flow in the form of black smokers or shimmering water could not be detected but enhanced heat flow due to upward pore water migration occurred. This leads to values of very high heat flow (up to 850 mW/m2) and advection rates up to 25 cm/a Darcy velocity. Enhanced biomass and a greater variation of megafauna along those sites of high heat flow could be inferred from reconnaissance observations with a camera sledge. A closer investigation of microbial activity in the material of gravity corers revealed favorable living conditions for microorganisms. We find the inorganic carbon fixation rates, here applied like a proxy of microbial metabolic activity, were significantly higher (up to 7 times higher) in surficial sediments in proximity of the station PS 81/640 compared to other stations along the ridge. Conversely the extracellular enzymatic activities did not show any significant difference in the potential organic matter degradation between the stations investigated. These results suggest an increase of chemosynthetic activities at St PS 81/649, possibly related to increase of availability of reduced compounds (i.e. sulphide, reduced metals) in presence of pore water flow.

  12. Is Greulich and Pyle standards of skeletal maturation applicable for age estimation in South Indian Andhra children?

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Rao, Dola Srinivasa; Goud, Alampur Srinivas; Sailaja, S.; Thetay, Anshuj Ajay Rao; Gopalakrishnan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Now-a-day age determination has gained importance for various forensic and legal reasons. Skeletal age (SA) of a test population can be estimated by comparing with established standards of Greulich and Pyle (G-P). As this atlas has been prepared using data from upper-class children born between 1917 and 1942 in the USA and the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on Andhra children living in India. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the reliability of bone age calculated by G-P atlas in estimation of age in selected population. Materials and Methods: A total of 660 children (330 girls, 330 boys) between ages 9 and 20 years were randomly selected from outpatient Department of Oral Medicine in GITAM Dental College, Andhra Pradesh. Digital hand-wrist radiographs were obtained and assessed for SA using G-P atlas and the difference between estimated SA and chronological age (CA) were compared with paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: G-P method underestimated the SA by 0.23 ± 1.53 years for boys and overestimated SA by 0.02 ± 2 years in girls and mild underestimation was noted in the total sample of about 0.1 ± 1.78 years. Spearman rank test showed significant correlation between SA and CA (r = 0.86; P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study concluded that G-P standards were reliable in assessing age in South Indian Andhra children of age 9–20 years with unknown CA. PMID:26229357

  13. PTEN and p16 genes as epigenetic biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC): a study on south Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sushma, P S; Jamil, Kaiser; Kumar, P Uday; Satyanarayana, U; Ramakrishna, M; Triveni, B

    2016-06-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and p16INK4a (p16) genes are tumor suppressor genes, associated with epigenetic alterations. PTEN and p16 promoter hypermethylation is a major epigenetic silencing mechanism leading to cancer. The cooperation between PTEN and p16 in pathogenesis of cancers suggest that their combination might be considered as potential molecular marker for specific subgroups of patients. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate whether PTEN and p16 promoter methylations were involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in south Indian subjects. DNA methylation quantitative analyses of the two candidate tumor suppressor genes PTEN and p16 were performed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). Fifty OSCC biopsy samples and their corresponding non-malignant portions as controls were studied comparatively. The methylation status was correlated with the clinical manifestations. Twelve out of 50 patients (24 %) were found to be methylated for PTEN gene, whereas methylation of the p16 gene occurred in 19 out of 50 cases (38 %). A statistically significant result was obtained (P = <0.0001 and 0.017) for both PTEN and p16 genes. PTEN and p16 promoter methylation may be the main mechanism leading to the low expression of PTEN and p16 genes indicating the progress of tumor development. Our data suggest that a low PTEN and p16 expression due to methylation may contribute to the cancer progression and could be useful for prognosis of OSCC. Therefore, analysis of promoter methylation in such genes may provide a biomarker valuable for early detection of oral cancer. PMID:26687648

  14. A description of eddy-mean flow feedbacks in equatorial and boundary current systems of the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Maas, Leo R. M.; Ridderinkhof, Herman; van Aken, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    While many observational and modeling efforts have addressed eddy-mean flow interactions acting over nearly idealized zonal jets, little is know about whether findings in those studies can be extended to current systems with different configurations in the real ocean. This topic is of special interest for ocean-climate models where eddy interactions with the mean flow may be unresolved, demanding further insight on the mechanism by which the eddy field and the mean circulation should feed back in a realistic representation of future climate change scenarios. Following this motivation, we investigate local exchange of momentum and kinetic energy operating in a variety of eddy-mean flow systems of the South Indian Ocean (SIO). To this aim we use 21 years (1993-2013) of newly processed satellite altimetry observations, and adopt a definition of the mean flow as a seasonally-dependent temporal mean where the eddy field encompasses the daily instantaneous deviation from the altimeter-derived velocities. This approach allows time-varying feedbacks to evolve throughout the year. We find that the eddy field feeds back on the mean circulation, contributing importantly to the overall seasonal strengthening and weakening of all current systems involved in the tropical and subtropical gyre of the SIO. Although significant contributions to the momentum and energy balances were also obtained along the Agulhas (Return) Current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), they exhibit a weak/absent seasonal cycle, suggesting that the strength of these dynamical processes is mostly persistent throughout the year. Spatial distribution of the eddy kinetic energy conversion rates and the convergence of horizontal eddy momentum fluxes indicate that over regions where the eddy field draws energy from the mean flow through barotropic instabilities, the current is importantly decelerated by alongstream eddy forces on its upstream side, while further downstream the situation reverses with

  15. Termites in the hominin diet: a meta-analysis of termite genera, species and castes as a dietary supplement for South African robust australopithecines.

    PubMed

    Lesnik, Julie J

    2014-06-01

    Termite foraging by chimpanzees and present-day modern humans is a well-documented phenomenon, making it a plausible hypothesis that early hominins were also utilizing this resource. Hominin termite foraging has been credited by some to be the explanation for the unexpected carbon isotope signatures present in South African hominin teeth, which suggest the diet was different from that of extant non-human great apes, consisting of a significant amount of resources that are not from woody-plants. Grass-eating termites are one potential resource that could contribute to the carbon signature. However, not all termites eat grasses, and in fact, the termites that are most widely consumed by chimpanzees and by many present-day human populations at best have a mixed diet that includes small amounts of grasses. Here I review the ecology of termites and how it affects their desirability as a food resource for hominins, and conduct a meta-analysis of nutritional values for various genera, species and castes from the literature. Termites are very diverse, even within species, and this variability affects both their carbon signatures and nutritional value, hindering generalizations regarding the contribution of termites to the hominin diet. It is concluded here that a combination of soldiers and alates of the genus Macrotermes be used to model the insectivory component of the Plio-Pleistocene hominin diet due to their significant amounts of energy-yielding nutrients and potential role as a critical resource for supporting larger-brained hominins. PMID:24613098

  16. Surface ozone and NOx trends observed over Kannur, a South Indian coastal location of weak industrial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Satheesh Mk; T, Nishanth; M, Praseeed K.

    South India is a peninsular region surrounded by the three belts of Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean. Usually, coastal regions experience relatively high air quality compared to that of the interior land masses owing to the abundance of OH over ocean surface which acts as detergent in the atmosphere. Kannur (11.9 N, 75.4E, 5 m AMSL) is a coastal location along the Arabian Sea which is located in the northern district of Kerala State with fairly low industrial activities. A continuous observation of surface ozone (O3), NOx and OX (NO2+ O3) which has been initiated at this coastal site since 2009 reveals the enhancement in the concentrations of these trace species quite significantly. It is observed that surface O3 mixing ratio is increased at a rate of 1.51 ± 0.5 ppbv/year during the four year period from 2009 at Kannur. The enhancement rate in the mixing ratios of NOx is 1.01 ± 0.4 ppbv/year and OX is 1.49±0.42 ppbv/year respectively. The increase of O3 may be attributed due to the increase in methane and non-methane organic emissions from the wet lands and vehicles may enhance O3 production and fairly low rate of change of NO concentration at this site. This paper describes the rate of changes of O3, NOx and OX during the period of observation in detail. Likewise, the increase in nighttime concentrations of O3 and PM10 observed during the festival occasions in the summer month of April in all years is explained. Being a weak industrialized location, the main source of pollution is by vehicular emissions and the increase in these trace gases in the context of rapid enhancement in the number of vehicles is well correlated. These results may be helpful for improving government policies to control the photochemical formation of secondary air pollutants in the rural coastal sites that has a significant influence on the onset of monsoon and the outcome of this study have significant relevance for gradual transformation of pristine locations into polluted

  17. South Equatorial Current (SEC) driven changes at DSDP Site 237, Central Indian Ocean, during the Plio-Pleistocene: Evidence from Benthic Foraminifera and Stable Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anil K.; Das, Moumita; Bhaskar, K.

    2006-12-01

    This study attempts to analyse paleoceanographic changes in the Central Indian Ocean (Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 237), linked to monsoon variability as well as deep-sea circulation during the Plio-Pleistocene. We used factor and cluster analyses of census data of the 34 most dominant species of benthic foraminifera that enabled us to identify five biofacies: Astrononion umbilicatulum- Uvigerina proboscidea (Au-Up), Pullenia bulloides- Bulimina striata (Pb-Bs), Globocassidulina tumida- Nuttallides umbonifera (Gt-Nu), Gyroidinoides nitidula- Cibicides wuellerstorfi (Gn-Cw) and Cassidulina carinata- Cassidulina laevigata (Cc-Cl) biofacies. Knowledge of the environmental preferences of modern deep-sea benthic foraminifera helped to interpret the results of factor and cluster analyses in combination with oxygen and carbon isotope values. The biofacies indicative of high surface productivity, resulting from a stronger South Equatorial Current (Au-Up and Pb-Bs biofacies), dominate the early Pliocene interval (5.6-4.5 Ma) of global warmth. An intense Indo-Pacific 'biogenic bloom' and strong Oxygen Minimum Zone extended to intermediate depths (˜1000-2000 m) over large parts of the Indian Ocean in the early Pliocene. Since 4.5 Ma, the food supply in the Central Indian Ocean dropped and fluctuated while deep waters were corrosive (biofacies Gt-Nu, Gn-Cw). The Pleistocene interval is characterized by an intermediate flux of organic matter (Cc-Cl biofacies).

  18. Tropical cyclone Dera, the unusual 2000/01 tropical cyclone season in the South West Indian Ocean and associated rainfall anomalies over Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struchtrup, Henning; Thatcher, Toby

    2007-08-01

    Austral summer 2000/01 in the southern African region was unusual in several respects. Tropical cyclone activity in the southwest Indian Ocean was substantially less than average despite large areas of this region showing anomalously warm sea surface temperatures (SST) for much of the season. Many areas of southern Africa experienced above average rainfall with local flooding in parts of Mozambique. In the tropical southeast Atlantic, a large warm SST anomaly evolved off the coast of Angola and northern Namibia in late summer suggesting a Benguela Niño event. During the late summer (February April 2001), three particularly widespread and intense wet spells occurred over tropical southern Africa, one of which coincided with tropical cyclone Dera. This study considers the generation and evolution of the middle wet spell of late summer 2001 and its relationship with tropical cyclone Dera. This storm was generated in the northwestern part of the Mozambique Channel and then tracked more or less due south through the Channel and into the subtropical southwest Indian Ocean. Rainfall associated with Dera contributed to the ongoing floods over central Mozambique that arose from rains earlier in the season. Dera occurred in early March following a relatively long period of no tropical cyclone activity in the southwest Indian Ocean. A build up of favorable conditions during the preceding weeks contributed towards the storm whereas an anticyclonic anomaly east of Madagascar led to the northerly steering current and the southward track of tropical cyclone Dera out of the Mozambique Channel.

  19. Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

  20. SOD1 Gene +35A/C (exon3/intron3) Polymorphism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Nithya, K.; Angeline, T.; Isabel, W.; Asirvatham, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase is an antioxidant enzyme that is involved in defence mechanisms against oxidative stress. Cu/Zn SOD is a variant that is located in exon3/intron3 boundary. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Cu/Zn SOD (+35A/C) gene polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus among south Indian population. The study included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 100) and healthy controls (n = 75). DNA was isolated from the blood and genotyping of Cu/Zn SOD gene polymorphism was done by polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Occurrence of different genotypes and normal (A) and mutant (C) allele frequencies were determined. The frequency of the three genotypes of the total subjects was as follows: homozygous wild-type A/A (95%), heterozygous genotype A/C (3%), and homozygous mutant C/C (2%). The mutant (C) allele and the mutant genotypes (AC/CC) were found to be completely absent among the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Absence of mutant genotype (CC) shows that the Cu/Zn SOD gene polymorphism may not be associated with the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus among south Indian population. PMID:27190652

  1. A Three-Dimensional Study of Variations in Root Canal Morphology Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography of Mandibular Premolars in a South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Mithra N; Tahiliani, Divya; Shetty, Heeresh; Bhat, Ganesh T; Shetty, Shishir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conventional radiographic techniques being two dimensional, has its restrictions and is confined to limited diagnostic value. However, the incorporation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) gives a three dimensional insight to the tooth morphology and leads to better evaluation and treatment management. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and assess the root canal morphology of mandibular pre-molars in South Indian Population using CBCT radiographic technique. Materials and Methods: One thousand and eighty six and 814 fully erupted mandibular first and second premolars respectively were scanned using CBCT to evaluate the canal morphology according to Vertucci and Gulabiwala’s classification. Results: The most common configuration in mandibular first and second premolars was Vertucci’s Type I(83.81% and 93.48% respectively) followed by Type V (11.97% and 3.5% respectively). Conclusion: South Indian population presented Type IV ertucci’s canal morphology as the most common in mandibular first and second pre-molars followed by Type V. CBCT scanning poses a greater advantage in assessing the complexity of root canal morphology and planning an appropriate endodontic treatment for the same. PMID:25302261

  2. 78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES:...

  3. 76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES: Effective...

  4. 78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES:...

  5. 78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice of extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES:...

  6. Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

    1996-01-01

    The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI. PMID:11607687

  7. Pigmented casts.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented casts have been reported with variable frequency in scalp biopsies from alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia and postoperative (pressure induced) alopecia. Their presence and morphology in other scalp disorders has not been described. The authors assessed for the presence and morphology of pigmented casts in 308 transversely bisected scalp biopsies from nonscarring and scarring alopecia, referred to the Department of Dermatology, University of Miami within a year. The pigmented casts were present in 21 of 29 cases of alopecia areata (72%), 7 of 7 cases of trichotillomania (100%), 1 case of friction alopecia, 4 of 28 cases of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (14%), and 4 of 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis (100%). They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morphology in trichotillomania, which included twisted, linear (zip), and "button"-like pigment aggregation. The linear arrangement was found also in friction alopecia and dissecting cellulitis. Pigmented casts in the hair canals of miniaturized/vellus hairs was a clue to alopecia areata. Pigmented casts can be observed in biopsies of different hair disorders, but they are not specific for the diagnosis. Horizontal sections allow to better assess their morphology and the follicular level of presence of pigmented casts, which in the context of the other follicular findings may be a clue to the diagnosis. PMID:23823025

  8. Geodetic Tying of Antarctica and India With 10 Years of Continuous GPS Measurements for Geodynamical and Strain Accumulation Studies in the South of Indian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ec, M.; N, R.

    2008-12-01

    To holistically understand the geodynamical and crustal deformation processes between India and Antarctica, two global networks (IND and ANT) have been chosen. The objective is to geodetically connect the two continents. The IGS Station at Diego Garcia (DGAR) is the common station between the two networks. 10 years of data from 1997 to 2007 were used. By these global networks' analyses, the stations HYDE in India and MAIT at Antarctica are geodetically tied through the station DGAR. Very long baselines have been estimated from HYDE and also from Kerguelen (KERG) to other chosen IGS stations in and around India and Antarctica. Our analysis and results using ANT network show an increase in the baseline lengths between Kerguelen in Antarctic plate and other stations such as SEY1, DGAR and COCO and shortening of baseline lengths between HYDE in Indian plate and all these above stations using IND network. The analysis using ANT network also shows lengthening of baselines from Kerguelen to the sites Yaragadee (YAR1) and Tidbinbilla (TID2) in Australian plate; and Seychelles (SEY1) in Male plate, COCO in the diffuse plate boundary between India and Australia and DGAR in Capricorn plate at the rates of 5.3cm/yr, 3.8cm/yr, 5.6mm/yr, 3.03 cm/yr and 5.5 cm/yr respectively. The high rate of movement of COCO Island in comparison to Seychelles could be the result of excessive strain accumulation due to the Indo-Australia diffuse plate boundary forces acting upon this region. The estimated elastic strain accumulation shows an increasing trend of 1.27x 10-8 yr-1 in the south of Indian peninsula. Our results show the precision of approximately 3-4mm (North), 5-6 mm (East), and 10-12mm (vertical) for the estimation of site coordinates. These results provide new information on the direction and rate of Indian plate motion, the driving mechanisms of Indian plate and intraplate seismicity of the Indian Ocean on the whole.

  9. Review of the fish-parasitic genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 (Isopoda, Cymothoidae, Crustacea) from the southwestern Indian Ocean, including a new species from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Kerry A; Bruce, Niel L; Smit, Nico J

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cymothoa Fabricius, 1793 is revised for southwestern Indian Ocean waters. Cymothoa borbonica Schioedte & Meinert, 1884 and C. eremita Brünnich, 1783 are redescribed. Cymothoa rotundifrons Haller, 1880, from Mauritius lacks type material and the host is unknown, therefore it is here relegated to nomen dubium. Cymothoa sodwana sp. nov., from Trachinotus botla (Carangidae), collected from the Kwazulu-Natal coast of South Africa, is described and is distinguished by the large, ovoid, hunched body with rugose dorsal surfaces; the anterolateral angles of pereonite 1 are narrow and rounded reaching half the length of the cephalon; the ischium of pereopod 7 has a large protrusion and pereonite 7 which laterally overlaps the pleon margins, extending posteriorly to the pleotelson. PMID:26000410

  10. Indian craniometric variability and affinities.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

    2013-01-01

    Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with "Caucasoid" populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

  11. Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

    2013-01-01

    Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with “Caucasoid” populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

  12. Plasticity of trophic interactions among sharks from the oceanic south-western Indian Ocean revealed by stable isotope and mercury analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Aubail, Aurore; Hussey, Nigel E.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Caurant, Florence; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-02-01

    Sharks are a major component of the top predator guild in oceanic ecosystems, but the trophic relationships of many populations remain poorly understood. We examined chemical tracers of diet and habitat (δ15N and δ13C, respectively) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in muscle tissue of seven pelagic sharks: blue shark (Prionace glauca), short-fin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus), scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus), crocodile shark (Pseudocarcharias kamoharai) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis), from the data poor south-western tropical Indian Ocean. Minimal interspecific variation in mean δ15N values and a large degree of isotopic niche overlap - driven by high intraspecific variation in δ15N values - was observed among pelagic sharks. Similarly, δ13C values of sharks overlapped considerably for all species with the exception of P. glauca, which had more 13C-depleted values indicating possibly longer residence times in purely pelagic waters. Geographic variation in δ13C, δ15N and Hg were observed for P. glauca and I. oxyrinchus. Mean Hg levels were similar among species with the exception of P. kamoharai which had significantly higher Hg concentrations likely related to mesopelagic feeding. Hg concentrations increased with body size in I. oxyrinchus, P. glauca and C. longimanus. Values of δ15N and δ13C varied with size only in P. glauca, suggesting ontogenetic shifts in diets or habitats. Together, isotopic data indicate that - with few exceptions - variance within species in trophic interactions or foraging habitats is greater than differentiation among pelagic sharks in the south-western Indian Ocean. Therefore, it is possible that this group exhibits some level of trophic redundancy, but further studies of diets and fine-scale habitat use are needed to fully test this hypothesis.

  13. Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Atyame, Célestine M; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

  14. Variation of tropical cyclone activity in the South Indian Ocean: El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Madden-Julian Oscillation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Joo-Hong; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Hyeong-Seog; Chen, Deliang

    2006-11-01

    The present study examines variation of tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the South Indian Ocean (SIO) during TC seasons (December-March) for the period 1979-2004. The impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the variation is revealed through a composite analysis. During El Niño periods TC genesis was shifted westward, enhancing the formation west of 75°E and reducing it east of 75°E. These changes in the genesis correspond to a westward shift of convection. It may be explained by a remote effect on the SIO; that is, the increase in sea surface temperature in the central eastern Pacific alters the Walker circulation and forms an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the east SIO during El Niño. The spatial difference in TC passages between El Niño and La Niña shows a significant decrease to the southeast of Madagascar but a moderate increase in the central midlatitude SIO, indicating that TCs move farther east during El Niño. This change is possibly due to the anomalous southwesterlies east of Madagascar. Variation of TC activity also depends on various MJO phases: frequent TC passages for phases 2-4 (strong convective activity straddles along the equatorial Indian Ocean) versus infrequent TC passages for other phases. TC tracks tend to be more south oriented in phase 3 compared with those in phases 2 and 4. This is possibly caused by the increased steering northerlies which are a part of the anticyclonic Rossby wave of Gill type in response to the suppressed MJO-related convection in the maritime continent.

  15. Reduced folate carrier-1 80G > A gene polymorphism is not associated with methotrexate treatment response in South Indian Tamils with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Niveditha; Mariaselvam, Christina Mary; Mithun, C B; Negi, Vir Singh

    2016-04-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is the most commonly used disease-modifying drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although there are no reliable molecular markers to predict the treatment response and adverse effects to MTX therapy, the polymorphisms in genes coding for MTX metabolizing enzymes and transporters may play a crucial role. The reduced folate carrier-1 (RFC-1) is a bidirectional anion exchanger which transports MTX and folinic acid. It is reported to influence MTX treatment response and adverse effects in some ethnic populations but not in others. It is also associated with susceptibility to various diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study was aimed at investigating the role of RFC-1 80G > A gene polymorphism in association with disease susceptibility, MTX treatment response and the MTX-induced adverse events in the South Indian Tamil patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The RFC-1 80G > A gene polymorphism was investigated in 327 patients with RA and in 322 healthy controls by PCR-RFLP method. It was found that the heterozygous RFC-1 80 GA genotype was associated with protection against RA [p = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.95]. However, it was not found to be associated with MTX treatment response. The RFC-1 G allele frequency was higher in patients with adverse effects, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08, OR 1.44, 95 % CI 0.97-2.13). RFC-1 80G > A gene polymorphism confers protection for RA. However, it is not associated with MTX treatment response and MTX-induced adverse effects in South Indian Tamil patients with RA. PMID:25771854

  16. Influence of SLC22A1 rs622342 genetic polymorphism on metformin response in South Indian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Praveen, Ramakrishnan Geethakumari; Damodaran, Solai Elango; Das, Ashok Kumar; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-11-01

    Metformin is an oral antidiabetic drug, commonly used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. It is transported into the hepatocytes by polyspecific organic cation transporter 1, which is encoded by the gene SLC22A1. It has been hypothesized that genetic variations of SLC22A1 gene will influence inter-individual variation in glucose lowering efficacy of metformin. Previous studies have demonstrated this in other populations with conflicting results, but it remains to be elucidated in Indian population. Henceforth, the objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of SLC22A1 rs622342 gene polymorphism on the clinical efficacy of metformin in South Indian T2DM patients. A total of 122 newly detected, treatment naive T2DM patients of either sex were included in this study. The patients were started on metformin monotherapy and followed up for 12 weeks. Genotype was determined using qRT-PCR. Before and after treatment with metformin, body mass index (BMI), serum lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and postprandial glucose level, and blood pressure (BP) were measured. The study cohort mean age was 49.57 ± 9.88 years. Of the 122 T2DM patients, 93 were classified as responders and 29 as non-responders based on fall in HbA1c levels. Interestingly, carriers of one variant allele 'C' (AC) of rs622342 polymorphism were less among the responders than those who did not (44.8 vs. 22.6 %). The response was even lesser (13.8 vs. 4.3 %) in carriers of two copies of "C" allele (CC). On the contrary, patients with two copies of allele 'A' (AA) had 5.6 times greater chance of responding to metformin treatment. A similar trend was observed when the proportion was analyzed under different genetic models (OR 3.85, 95 % CI 1.61-9.19 for dominant; OR 3.56, 95 % CI 0.83-15.26 for recessive; OR 0.35, 95 % CI 0.14-0.86 for over-dominant; and OR 4.10, 95 % CI 1.78-9.43 for additive). Further, metformin showed significant beneficial effects on BMI, HbA1c, FPG

  17. Prediction of daily modes of South Asian monsoon variability and its association with Indian and Pacific Ocean SST in the NCEP CFS V2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Namendra Kumar; Rai, Shailendra; Pandey, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    The prediction capability of daily modes of variability for South Asian monsoon from climate forecast system version 2 of national centers for environmental prediction with respect to observed precipitation has been assessed. The space-time structure of the daily modes for summer monsoon rainfall has been identified by using multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA). The MSSA is applied on daily anomalies of rainfall data over the South Asian monsoon region (40°E-160°E, 30°S-35°N) for the period of 2001-2013 with a lag window of 61 days for June-July-August-September season. The broad spectrum around 45 and 50 days was obtained from the observed and model data during the time domain of our study. The space-time structure of the modes obtained from the model shows good resemblance with respect to the observation. The observed northeastward propagation of oscillatory mode is well simulated by the model. The significant improvement in the space-time structure, period of oscillation, and propagation of oscillatory modes was found in the model. The observed connectivity of oscillatory and persisting modes with the sea surface temperature of Indian and Pacific Ocean has also been investigated and it was found that the model is able to predict it reasonably well.

  18. Expanding the proxy toolkit to help identify past events — Lessons from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2009 South Pacific Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Goff, James R.; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Strotz, Luke

    2011-07-01

    Some of the proxies used to identify palaeotsunamis are reviewed in light of new findings following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2009 South Pacific Tsunami, and a revised toolkit provided. The new application of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to the study of tsunami deposits and its usefulness to determine the hydrodynamic conditions during the emplacement of tsunami sequences, together with data from grain size analysis, are presented. The value of chemical proxies as indicators of saltwater inundation, associated marine shell and/or coral, high-energy depositional environment, and possible contamination, is demonstrated and issues of preservation addressed. We also provide new findings from detailed studies of heavy minerals. New information gathered during the UNESCO — International Oceanographic Commission (IOC) International Tsunami Survey of fine onshore sediments following the 2009 South Pacific Tsunami is presented, and includes grain size, chemical, diatom and foraminifera data. The tsunami deposit varied, ranging from fining-upward sand layers to thin sand layers overlain by a thick layer of organic debris and/or a mud cap. Grain size characteristics, chemical data and microfossil assemblages provide evidence for marine inundation from near shore, and changes in flow dynamics during the tsunami.

  19. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  20. Towards a better understanding of Rift Valley fever epidemiology in the south-west of the Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus causing intermittent epizootics and sporadic epidemics primarily in East Africa. Infection causes severe and often fatal illness in young sheep, goats and cattle. Domestic animals and humans can be contaminated by close contact with infectious tissues or through mosquito infectious bites. Rift Valley fever virus was historically restricted to sub-Saharan countries. The probability of Rift Valley fever emerging in virgin areas is likely to be increasing. Its geographical range has extended over the past years. As a recent example, autochthonous cases of Rift Valley fever were recorded in 2007–2008 in Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. It has been proposed that a single infected animal that enters a naive country is sufficient to initiate a major outbreak before Rift Valley fever virus would ever be detected. Unless vaccines are available and widely used to limit its expansion, Rift Valley fever will continue to be a critical issue for human and animal health in the region of the Indian Ocean. PMID:24016237

  1. Music Education and Minority Groups Cultural and Musical Identities in the "Newer" South Africa: White Afrikaners and Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn; van Niekerk, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Music Education, as well as cultural and musical identities are all being renegotiated, post-Apartheid, within the so-called "newer" rather than the commonly known "new" South Africa. The developing situation with certain minority groups is particularly interesting. Education in general has undergone much change since the first democratic…

  2. Casting methods

    DOEpatents

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  3. Milankovitch forcing and role of Indonesian Gateway on middle Miocene climate and carbon cycle: New perspective from the South China Sea, equatorial West Pacific and East Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbourn, A.; Kuhnt, W.; Schulz, M.

    2003-04-01

    The enigmatic long-term positive carbon isotope excursion ("Monterey excursion") in the middle Miocene exhibits an apparent 400 ky cyclicity (long eccentricity cycle of the Milankovitch frequency band). Similar isotope excursion are known from the mid-Cretaceous and may be a characteristic feature of a greenhouse world with extreme warm climate, high sealevel, and a dominantly zonal circulation pattern in the world ocean. This period of extreme warmth (the mid-Miocene climate optimum) ended between 14.2 and 13.8 Ma, when a significant increase in deep-water oxygen isotopic values occurred that was related to the growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet. Plate tectonic movements between Australia and SE Asia, ultimately leading to the closure of the deep water gateway connecting the Indian and Pacific Oceans, started prior to this paleoceanographic change. We used benthic deep water oxygen and carbon isotope curves in combination with new age models at critical locations along the northern margin of the Indonesian Gateway (South China Sea, ODP Site 1146), at the western end of the gateway (NW Australian margin, ODP Site 761) and at the eastern end of the gateway (Ontong Java Plateau, ODP Site 806) to investigate the frequency and amplitude of deep water isotope fluctuations during the middle Miocene. High resolution sediment color reflectance data, benthic carbon isotopes and foraminiferal assemblages are used as proxies of deep-water ventilation and carbon flux. Our results indicate Milankovitch forcing on virtually all proxies and a change from eccentricity to precession driven cyclicity at approximately 15 Ma. Our data reveal increased carbon flux and a restricted deep water exchange between the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean through the Indonesian Gateway during the middle Miocene climate optimum. After 13.6 Ma, the decrease in d13C was strongest at Site 806, indicating a marked change in the deep-water circulation of the equatorial West Pacific and a switch to a

  4. Contribution of Food Sources to the Vitamin B12 Status of South Indian Children from a Birth Cohort Recruited in the City of Mysore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence that sub-clinical vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is common in India. Vegetarianism is prevalent and therefore meat consumption is low. Our objective was to explore the contribution of B12 source-foods and maternal B12 status during pregnancy to plasma B12 concentrations. Design Maternal plasma B12 concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Children’s dietary intakes and plasma B12 concentrations were measured at age 9.5 years; B12 and total energy intakes were calculated using food composition databases. We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal B12 status and children’s intakes of B12 and B12 source-foods, and children’s plasma B12 concentrations. Setting South Indian city of Mysore and surrounding rural areas. Subjects Children from the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort (n=512, 47.1% male). Results Three percent of children were B12 deficient (<150 pmol/l). A further 14% had ‘marginal’ B12 concentrations (150-221 pmol/l). Children’s total daily B12 intake and consumption frequency of meat and fish, and micronutrient-enriched beverages were positively associated with plasma B12 concentrations (p=0.006, p=0.01 and p=0.04, adjusted for socio-economic indicators and maternal B12 status). Maternal pregnancy plasma B12 was associated with children’s plasma B12 concentrations, independent of current B12 intakes (p<0.001). Milk and curd (yoghurt) intakes were unrelated to B12 status. Conclusions Meat and fish are important B12 sources in this population. Micronutrient-enriched beverages appear to be important sources in our cohort, but their high sugar content necessitates care in their recommendation. Improving maternal B12 status in pregnancy may improve Indian children’s status. PMID:24866058

  5. Revision of the West Indian Wattius Kaszab (Tenebrionidae, Toxicini, Eudysantina) with lectotype designations for Pascoe’s South American species

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Sanchez, Lucio A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Wattius species occurring in the West Indies are revised for the first time. Wattius cucullatus (Pascoe), previously reported from Cuba, is diagnosed and restricted to Brazil. Wattius asperulus (Pascoe), currently a synonym of Wattius cucullatus, from Colombia is diagnosed and resurrected. All species found in the West Indies are endemic to the islands and form a single informal species-group. Three species are described: Wattius andersoni sp. n. from Cuba, Wattius emmabaconae sp. n. from Hispaniola (Dominican Republic), and Wattius viatorus sp. n. from Cuba and the Bahamas, and lectotypes are designated for Calymmus cucullatus Pascoe and Calymmus asperulus Pascoe. A key to the West Indian species is provided. PMID:26798241

  6. An interdisciplinary approach to controlling chikungunya outbreaks on French islands in the south-west Indian ocean.

    PubMed

    Flahault, A; Aumont, G; Boisson, V; de Lamballerie, X; Favier, F; Fontenille, D; Journeaux, S; Lotteau, V; Paupy, C; Sanquer, M A; Setbon, M; Gaüzere, B A

    2012-03-01

    The outbreak of chikungunya that occurred on French Island territories in the southwest Indian Ocean in 2005 and 2006 caused severe morbidity and mortality. In the aftermath, French authorities set up a scientific task force including experts in epidemiology, public health, entomology, virology, immunology, sociology, animal health, community and hospital medicine. The mission of the task force was to conceive and propose research programs needed to increase understanding of the disease and epidemic and to help public health officials in improving epidemic response measures. The purpose of this article is to describe the findings of the task force at the end of its two-year existence and initial outcomes in the the areas studied. Discussion emphasizes topics requiring further study. PMID:22693932

  7. CASTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  8. R/V Sonne Cruise SO199 CHRISP: New Insights Into the Geodynamic History of northern Wharton Basin (South-East Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, R.; Hoernle, K.; Hauff, F.; Heydolph, K.; Barckhausen, U.; Scientific Party, S.

    2008-12-01

    The morphology of the northern Wharton Basin (South-East Indian Ocean) is dominated by the Investigator Ridge, a ~1800 km long, N-S striking fracture zone and a huge (~1800 x 600 km) submarine volcanic province of unknown origin which includes Cocos/Keeling Islands, Muirfield Seamount, Vening Meinesz Seamounts, Christmas Island, and many unnamed seamounts further south and east. From August 3 through September 22, 2008, RV Sonne cruise SO199 CHRISP (short for Christmas Island Seamount Province) conducted extensive multi-beam mapping and the first systematic hard rock sampling of these features. Age and geochemical data from samples obtained on cruise SO199 aim to contribute to the ongoing debates (1) on the origin of the enriched composition of the Indian Mantle Domain and (2) on the origin of intraplate volcanism in the northern Wharton Basin. Mapping of ~1300 km of the Investigator Ridge revealed a steep west-facing scarp along most of the fracture zone, suggesting recent reactivation related to the presently diffuse but developing new plate boundary between the eastern (Australian) and the western (Indian) parts of the Indo-Australian Plate. Faulted sediments and north-south oriented ravines and asymmetric tops of seamounts adjacent to the ridge imply left-lateral reactivation of older seafloor fractures, consistent with the regional tectonic picture in which Australia is continuing to move northwards whereas India has been stuck since colliding with Asia. The multi- beam data also suggest that the largest intraplate earthquake ever recorded (on June 18, 2000 near the Cocos/Keeling Islands; mag. 7.8) may be related to a reactivated fracture zone just west of the Investigator Ridge. Sampling along the ridge at ~100km intervals yielded a spectacular array of rock types (e.g., lavas, sheeted dikes, mafic and felsic intrusives, layered cumulates, serpentinites), representing a full cross section through the ocean crust into the upper mantle. Particularly surprising

  9. GPS derived spatial ionospheric total electron content variation over South-Indian latitudes during intense geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Sampad K.; Gedam, Shirishkumar S.

    2012-10-01

    The geomagnetic storms are turbulence in geomagnetic field when interplanetary magnetic field driven by solar wind move southward and continue for extended period of time. Although these occur less frequently, but may energize ionospheric electrons and particles adversely affecting ground- and space-based electronic systems. Ionosphere at higher latitude is more prone to geomagnetic storms. Over lower latitude region like Indian sub-continent, the effect is less prominent but still can exhibit many distinctive effects like scintillations, equatorial ionization anomaly, fountain effect and equatorial electrojets. The increased numbers of free electrons in ionosphere introduce delays in global positioning system (GPS) satellite signals resulting in errors during GPS positioning. In a dual frequency GPS receiver, the line integral of free electron density along the pathway of signal through the ionosphere (i.e., Total Electron Content, TEC) can be measured. In this present paper, GPS observation data of three low latitude GPS stations in India located at Bangalore, Hyderabad and Mumbai during four severe geomagnetic storms from 2003-2005, are processed to measure ionospheric TEC during the events. The measured TEC at each of the station is compared with quietest days of the months to investigate its abnormal changes in responses to severe geomagnetic storms. The consequences of TEC variation is analyzed and correlated with interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz), geomagnetic Kp and Dst-indices to study its behavioral changes during the storms. Eventually the aim of the study is to estimate the influence of ionospheric condition on GPS positioning to devise suitable method for accurate position measurements in the low latitude Indian region.

  10. Newly Discovered Hydrothermal Plumes Along the Furious Fifties, South East Indian Ridge (SEIR; 128°E-140°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulart, C.; Chavagnac, V.; Briais, A.; Revillon, S.; Donval, J. P.; Guyader, V.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the first evidence for hydrothermal activity along the intermediate-spreading South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR) between Australia and Antarctica (128°E-140°E), discovered during the STORM cruise of R/V L'Atalante. This section of the SEIR is located east of the low-magma Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD), where the ridge has the morphology of a slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge despite its intermediate spreading rate of 75 mm/yr. The axial depth decreases eastward, reflecting an eastward increase in magma budget.Using in-situ geochemical tracers based on optical backscatter, temperature, redox potential sensor and in situ mass spectrometer (ISMS) anomalies, we establish the existence of several distinct hydrothermal plumes within the water column along the 500 nautical miles ridge section. At one site, the combination of near-bottom temperature anomalies of 0.1°C together with strong dissolved methane and dissolved carbon dioxide anomalies revealed by the ISMS provides the precise location of an active vent in the Deep Southern Indian Ocean off Tasmania. Hydrothermal venting along the 128°E-140°E section of the SEIR appears to be significant, an observation consistent with the global link between spreading rate and plume occurrence (Baker and German, 2004). Moreover, the plume incidence increases westward and, in the eastern part, hydrothermal venting seems to be less significant, suggesting a possible influence of the high magma budget, as observed in mid-ocean ridge sections affected by hotspots. Future investigation will focus on the direct identification of venting sources and the study of hydrothermal circulation within the specific settings of the AAD. The observation of new venting sites at the frontier between Pacific and Indian Oceans may also provide new insights on the biogeography (diversity and distribution) of hydrothermal fauna. Baker, E. T., and C. R. German (2004), On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields, in Mid

  11. Significant Association of Interleukin4 Intron 3 VNTR Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Gastric Cancer in a South Indian Population from Telangana

    PubMed Central

    Bhayal, Amar Chand; Krishnaveni, Devulapalli; Rao, Kondadasula Pandu Ranga; Kumar, Adi Rakesh; Jyothy, Akka; Nallari, Pratibha; Venkateshwari, Ananthapur

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth most common malignancy and remains a considerable public health burden worldwide. Genetic variations in genes encoding cytokines and their receptors influence the intensity of the Helicobacter pylori associated inflammatory response, which may contribute to individual differences in the outcome and severity of the disease. Interleukin4 is a typical pleiotropic T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine and is a critical mediator of Th1/Th2 balance. It is involved in the regulation of inflammation-mediated carcinogenesis in human organs, including gastric cancer. Objective The present retrospective case control study was undertaken to evaluate the association of IL4 intron 3 VNTR polymorphism with the susceptibility to GC in a south Indian population from Telangana state. Materials and Methods A total of 182 patients with diagnosed GC and 326 randomly selected healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes and genotyping was determined by PCR-based assay. Association between genotypes and gastric cancer was examined by unconditional logistic regression analysis. Result The variant 3R/2R and 2R/2R genotypes of IL4 exon3 VNTR polymorphism had about 1.9 fold and 3fold increased GC risk, respectively, when compared with 3R/3R genotype [3R/2R vs. 3R/3R: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23–2.95 P = 0.004 and 2R/2R vs. 3R/3R: AOR (95%CI) = 2.96 (1.29–6.82), P = 0.011]. Furthermore, a significant increased risk of GC was found for the 2R allele carriers (3R/2R + 2R/2R) compared with the 3R/3R genotype (AOR (95%CI) = 2.04 (1.35–3.10), P = <0.000). The IL4 2R allele frequency was 0.28 among the GC group and 0.18 among the controls, and the difference was statistically significant (P = <0.000). Conclusion The present study revealed an association of 2R allele and 2R carrier genotypes in the etiopathogenesis of GC in south Indian population. PMID

  12. Late Holocene South American and Indian summer monsoon variability: Assessing the regional significance of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, B. W.; Rudloff, O. M.; Escobar, J.; Polissar, P. J.; Steinman, B. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Yao, T.

    2014-12-01

    The response of Earth's major climate systems to natural forcings during the last 2000 years can provide valuable insight into the affect that ongoing climate change may have on these systems. Understanding the relationship between temperature, monsoonal hydroclimate and radiative forcing is of particular interest because hydrologic responses in these systems have the ability to impact over half of the global population. Here, late Holocene variability in the South American and Indian summer monsoon regions is examined using sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic proxies from high altitude lake sediment archives from the Colombian Andes and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. New results from Laguna de Ubaque, a small moraine dammed lake at 2060 m ASL in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, suggest a reduction in Andean South American summer monsoon (SASM) rainfall during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 900 to 1200 CE) that is consistent with other records from the Andes. During the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1450 to 1900 CE), Ubaque shows wet conditions between 1450 and 1600 CE and drier conditions from1600 to 1900 CE. This pattern is similar to accumulation at the Quelccaya Ice Cap, but differs from ice core, speleothem and lake sediment oxygen isotope records of synoptic-scale monsoonal precipitation, suggesting that Andean rainfall anomalies may have differed from upstream monsoonal trends over the Amazon. In contrast, results from Badi Namco and Paru Co on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau suggest that the MCA and LIA were relatively minor hydroclimate events superimposed on a larger millennial scale variation in Indian summer monsoon precipitation (1200 to 200 cal yr B.P.) that was associated with changes in the position of the ITCZ, surface air temperature over the Tibetan Plateau and sea surface temperatures in the western tropical Pacific. The unique hydroclimate variations in the ISM and SASM regions supports the idea that while spatially

  13. Monsoon-ocean coupled modes in the South China Sea and their linkage with the eastern Indian Ocean-western Pacific warm pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fei; Yang, Yuxing; Huang, Jian

    2008-02-01

    Monsoon-ocean coupled modes in the South China Sea (SCS) were investigated by a combined singular value decomposition (CSVD) analysis based on sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface wind stress (SWS) fields from SODA (Simple Ocean Data Assimilation) data spanning the period of 1950 1999. The coupled fields achieved the maximum correlation when the SST lagged SWS by one month, indicating that the SCS coupled system mainly reflected the response of the SST to monsoon forcing. Three significant coupled modes were found in the SCS, accounting for more than 80% of the cumulative squared covariance fraction. The first three SST spatial patterns from CSVD were: (I) the monopole pattern along the isobaths in the SCS central basin; (II) the north-south dipole pattern; and (III) the west-east seesaw pattern. The expansion coefficient of the SST leading mode showed interdecadal and interannual variability and correlation with the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP), suggesting that the SCS belongs to part of the IPWP at interannual and interdecadal time scales. The second mode had a lower correlation coefficient with the warm pool index because its main period was at intra-annual time scales instead of the interannual and interdecadal scales with the warm pools. The third mode had similar periods to those of the leading mode, but lagged the eastern Indian Ocean warm pool (EIWP) and western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) by five months and one year respectively, implying that the SCS response to the warm pool variation occurred from the western Pacific to the eastern Indian Ocean, which might have been related to the variation of Indonesian throughflow. All three modes in the SCS had more significant correlations with the EIWP, which means the SCS SST varied much more coherently with the EIWP than the WPWP, suggesting that the SCS belongs mostly to part of the EIWP. The expansion coefficients of the SCS SST modes all had negative correlations with the Niño3 index, which they lag

  14. Indians and Southern Colonial Statutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawashima, Yasuhide

    1974-01-01

    Southern statutes, with their dual nature of uniformity and diversity, were doubtlessly an essential source of law for the examination of complex legal relations between American Indians and Anglo Americans in the colonial South. (FF)

  15. Cast aluminum denture base.

    PubMed

    Barco, M T; Dembert, M L

    1987-08-01

    The laboratory procedures for a cast aluminum base denture have been presented. If an induction casting machine is not available, the "two-oven technique" works well, provided the casting arm is kept spinning manually for 4 minutes after casting. If laboratory procedures are executed precisely and with care, the aluminum base denture can be cast with good results. PMID:3305884

  16. A Common SNP of IL-10 (-1082A/G) is Associated With Increased Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer in South Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, Cingeetham; Jyothy, Akka; Vijay kumar, Malladi; Raman, Ramaiyer Raghu; Nallari, Pratibha; Venkateshwari, Ananthapur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evading the immune destruction and angiogenesis has been the two hallmarks of cancer. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with immune suppressing (pro-tumorigenic) and anti-angiogenic (anti-tumorigenic) properties, thus making the role of IL-10 in tumorigenesis enigmatic. Previous studies have suggested a critical role of IL10 altered expression in complex process of tumor-microenvironment, co-evolution and tumorigenesis. Objectives: Evaluating the role of IL10 (-1082A/G) gene promoter polymorphism in breast cancer patients from South India. Patients and Methods: A case-control study was conducted with a total of 285 individuals, these include 125 histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 160 age and sex matched controls. Genotypes were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Statistical analysis was done to test the significance of results obtained. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that AA genotype of the Il-10 -1082A/G polymorphism is significantly associated with breast cancer (AA vs. AG: χ2 = 14.46, P = 0.0001432, OR = 2.854, 95% CI = 1.68 - 4.849). Up on stratifying subjects based on cancer stage, age at onset, menopausal status, AA genotype has associated with all the sub groups, except for post-menopausal women. There was no significant association which was observed with respected to hormonal status (ER, PR) and Her2/neu status. Conclusions: The present study suggests that IL-10 AA genotype as a risk factor in the etiology of breast cancer in the South Indian population. PMID:26478792

  17. Technetium uptake predicts remission and relapse in Grave's disease patients on antithyroid drugs for at least 1 year in South Indian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Neha; Praveen, V. P.; Bhavani, Nisha; Menon, Arun S.; Menon, Usha; Abraham, Nithya; Kumar, Harish; JayKumar, R. V.; Nair, Vasantha; Sundaram, Shanmugha; Sundaram, Padma

    2016-01-01

    Context: Most of the information on remission related factors in Grave's disease are derived from Western literature. It is likely that there may be additional prognostic factors and differences in the postdrug treatment course of Grave's disease in India. Aim: To study factors which predict remission/relapse in Grave's disease patients from South India. Also to establish if technetium (Tc) uptake has a role in predicting remission. Subjects and Methods: Records of 174 patients with clinical, biochemical, and scintigraphic criteria consistent with Grave's disease, seen in our Institution between January 2006 and 2014 were analyzed. Patient factors, drug-related factors, Tc-99m uptake and other clinical factors were compared between the remission and nonremission groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square tests were used when appropriate to compare the groups. Results: Fifty-seven (32.7%) patients attained remission after at least 1 year of thionamide therapy. Of these, 11 (19.2%) patients relapsed within 1 year. Age, gender, goiter, and presence of extrathyroidal manifestations were not associated with remission. Higher values of Tc uptake were positively associated with remission (P- 0.02). Time to achievement of normal thyroid function and composite dose: Time scores were significantly associated with remission (P - 0.05 and P - 0.01, respectively). Patients with lower FT4 at presentation had a higher chance of remission (P - 0.01). The relapse rates were lower than previously reported in the literature. A higher Tc uptake was found to be significantly associated with relapse also (P - 0.009). Conclusion: The prognostic factors associated with remission in Graves's disease in this South Indian study are not the same as that reported in Western literature. Tc scintigraphy may have an additional role in identifying people who are likely to undergo remission and thus predict the outcome of Grave's disease. PMID:27042408

  18. Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada, n.gen. a new Gryllinae genus from Eastern and Western Amazonia, South America (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Gryllidae).

    PubMed

    Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Jaiswara, Ranjana; Anso, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new genus of grylline cricket, Zebragryllus Desutter-Grandcolas & Cadena-Casteñada n. gen., from the Neotropical Region, using characters of morphology and male genitalia; genitalic characters clearly show that Zebragryllus n. gen. is closely related to Anurogryllus Saussure, 1878. Six species are described as new to science, originating from western (Peru, Colombia) and eastern (French Guiana) Amazonia: Zebragryllus fuscus Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nauta Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Zebragryllus nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Zebragryllus wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp., type species of the genus. They are characterized by their size, coloration (shining black, most often with white patterns of coloration, hence the genus name), and male and female genitalia. The calling songs of Z. guianensis Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. intermedius Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., Z. nouragui Desutter-Grandcolas, n. sp., and Z. wittoto Desutter-Grandcolas and Cadena-Casteñada, n. sp. are described. An identification key is proposed for both males and females. PMID:24871163

  19. Seat Belt Usage Interventions for Motor Vehicle Crash Prevention on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Amiotte, Joseph; Balanay, Jo Anne; Humphrey, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are the leading cause of death from severe injuries on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (PRIR), averaging 16 MVC deaths per year from 2002 to 2011. The Sacred Cargo Coalition was established in PRIR in 2007 to implement intervention strategies to increase seat belt usage and reduce MVC fatalities, including seat belt law enforcement, creating a traffic court system, and educational campaigns on MVC prevention. The study described in this article examined the effectiveness of the interventions on increasing the seat belt usage rates and reducing MVC deaths. Secondary data were collected from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and other federal and local agencies. Seat belt usage rates increased an average of 6.8 percentage points from 2007 (10%) to 2012 (44%). MVC fatalities decreased by 46.7% from the preintervention to the intervention period. Maintenance and improvement of the intervention strategies may be achieved by seeking additional funding and including appropriate engineering activities in PRIR. PMID:26867291

  20. Casting materials

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  1. Association of TFAP2A gene polymorphism with susceptibility to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate risk in south Indian population.

    PubMed

    Babu Gurramkonda, Venkatesh; Syed, Altaf Hussain; Murthy, Jyotsna; V K S Lakkakula, Bhaskar

    2016-09-01

    The aetiology of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is complex involving multiple interacting genes and environmental factors. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the role of TFAP2A gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pathogenesis of NSCL/P. In this study, 173 unrelated NSCL/P patients and 176 controls without clefts were genotyped with TFAP2A rs1675414 (Exon 1), rs3798691 (Intron 1), and rs303050 (Intron 4) variants by allele-specific amplification using the KASPar SNP genotyping system. The method of multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to analyze gene-gene interactions. TFAP2A polymorphisms are not found to be associated with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) at either the genotype or allele levels. No linkage disequilibrium (LD) was found between TFAP2A variants. MDR analysis did not show a significant effect of the TFAP2A gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to NSCL/P (p > 0.05). These results suggest that the analyzed variations in TFAP2A gene might not be associated with NSCL/P pathogenesis in south Indian population. PMID:27617216

  2. Determining the probiotic potential of cholesterol-reducing Lactobacillus and Weissella strains isolated from gherkins (fermented cucumber) and south Indian fermented koozh.

    PubMed

    Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Sivasankari, Balayogan; Santhanakaruppu, Rajendran; Manimaran, Muthusamy; Rani, Rizwana Parveen; Sivakumar, Subramaniyan

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditionally fermented south Indian koozh and gherkin (cucumber). A total of 51 LAB strains were isolated, among which four were identified as Lactobacillus spp. and three as Weissella spp. The strains were screened for their probiotic potential. All isolated Lactobacillus and Weissella strains were capable of surviving under low pH and bile salt conditions. GI9 and FKI21 were able to survive at pH 2.0 and 0.50% bile salt for 3 h without losing their viability. All LAB strains exhibited inhibitory activity against tested pathogens and were able to deconjugate bile salt. Higher deconjugation was observed in the presence of sodium glycocholate (P < 0.05). Strain FKI21 showed maximum auto-aggregation (79%) and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli MTCC 1089 (68%). Exopolysaccharide production of LAB strains ranged from 68.39 to 127.12 mg/L (P < 0.05). Moreover, GI9 (58.08 μg/ml) and FKI21 (56.25 μg/ml) exhibited maximum cholesterol reduction with bile salts. 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed GI9 and FKI21 as Lactobacillus crispatus and Weissella koreensis, respectively. This is the first study to report isolation of W. koreensis FKI21 from fermented koozh and demonstrates its cholesterol-reducing potential. PMID:25839996

  3. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikka, V. K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-10-01

    Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several value body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni (Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and where applicable, with data on sand castings.

  4. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-10-01

    Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several valve body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni(Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, Charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and, where applicable, with data on sand castings. 22 figures.

  5. Deciphering post-Deccan weathering and erosion history of South Indian Archean rocks from cryptomelane 40Ar-39Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Arnaud, Nicolas; Beauvais, Anicet; Chardon, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Since the extrusion of Deccan traps ~ 63 Ma ago, weathering and erosion processes have shaped the landscapes of this Peninsula India. This resulted in pervasive bauxitic weathering on traps and deep lateritic weathering of their basement on either side of the Western Ghats Escarpment, which separates a coastal lowland from an East-dipping highland plateau. Mn-rich lateritic profiles formed by supergene weathering of Late Archean manganiferous protores in the different greenstone belts are exposed on relict paleosurfaces, which are preserved at different elevations on the highland plateau and in the coastal lowland, allowing for direct comparison of paleosurfaces and geomorphological processes across one of the most prominent relief in the Indian peninsula. Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of samples collected in the different Mn-rich lateritic profiles allowed for precise characterization of cryptomelane [Kx Mn8-xIV MnxIII O16, nH2O], a Mn-oxide suitable for 40Ar-39Ar dating. The ages obtained document major weathering periods at ~ 53-50 Ma, ~ 40-32 Ma, and ~ 30-23 Ma in the highland profiles, and ~ 47-45 Ma, ~ 24-19 Ma and a younger age at ~ 9 Ma in the coastal lowland profiles. The age clusters are in good agreement with major regional and global Cenozoic paleoclimatic events, e.g., the Eocene climatic optimum and the early beginnings of Asian monsoons at ~ 40 Ma. The old ages obtained both in the coastal lowland and high plateau indicate synchronous lateritic (mostly bauxitic) weathering on both sides of the escarpment. The ages also indicate that most of the incision and dissection of plateau landsurfaces must have taken place during successive periods after 45, 32 and 23 Ma, while the coastal lowland surface was only weakly incised after 19 Ma. Our results thus document post-Eocene divergent erosion and weathering histories across the escarpment since it was formed at least 47 Ma ago, suggesting installation of a dual climatic regime on

  6. Elemental uptake by seaweed, Plocamium corallorhirza along the Kwazulu-natal coast of Indian Ocean, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Misheer, Natasha; Kindness, A; Jonnalagadda, S B

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the elemental uptake by Plocamium corallorhiza, a Rhodophyta class of coralline alga grown richly along KwaZulu-Natal coastline. The uptake of seven important elements, namely Fe, Mn, As, B, Ti, Zn and Hg, selected based on their abundance in the samples, were investigated for a one-year cycle, from June 2002 to May 2003, at four chosen sites located along the KwaZulu-Natal coastline. The sites spread over 150 km from North to South Coast are Zinkwasi, Ballito, Treasure Beach and Park Rynie. P. corallorhiza possess good manganese and arsenic-accumulating ability and has potential to be an excellent indicator for most of the metals studied. A typical P. corallorhiza sample at Park Rynie (winter) recorded Mn (14 ppm), Fe (6.02 ppm), As (8.4 ppm), B (1580 ppb), Zn (234 ppb), Ti (751 ppb) and Hg (15.8 ppb). The general trend found at all sites was a large decrease in iron concentration in spring and summer and increase in winter. Mercury uptake was lowest in winter and autumn at all sites. The highest mercury levels in the seaweeds were recorded during spring or summer. PMID:16893787

  7. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  8. African, southern Indian and South American cratons were not part of the Rodinia supercontinent: evidence from field relationships and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, Alfred; Cordani, Umberto

    2003-11-01

    We discuss the question whether the late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic rocks of eastern, central and southern Africa, Madagascar, southern India, Sri Lanka and South America have played any role in the formation and dispersal of the supercontinent Rodinia, believed to have existed between about 1000 and 750 Ma ago. First, there is little evidence for the production of significant volumes of ~1.4-1.0 Ga (Kibaran or Grenvillian age) continental crust in the Mozambique belt (MB) of East Africa, except, perhaps, in parts of northern Mozambique. This is also valid for most terranes related to West Gondwana, which are made up of basement rocks older than Mesoproterozoic, reworked in the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic cycle. This crust cannot be conclusively related to either magmatic accretion processes on the active margin of Rodinia or continental collision leading to amalgamation of the supercontinent. So far, no 1.4-1.0 Ga rocks have been identified in Madagascar. Secondly, there is no conclusive evidence for a ~1.0 Ga high-grade metamorphic event in the MB, although such metamorphism has been recorded in the presumed continuation of the MB in East Antarctica. In South America, even the Sunsas mobile belt, which is correlated with the Grenville belt of North America, does not include high-grade metamorphic rocks. All terranes with Mesoproterozoic ages seem to have evolved within extensional, aulacogen-type structures, and their compressional deformation, where observed, is normally much younger and is related to amalgamation of Gondwana. This is also valid for the Trans-Saharan and West Congo belts of West Africa. Third, there is also no evidence for post-1000 Ma sedimentary sequences that were deposited on the passive margin(s) of Rodinia. In contrast, the MB of East Africa and Madagascar is characterized by extensive structural reworking and metamorphic overprinting of Archaean rocks, particularly in Tanzania and Madagascar, and these rocks either

  9. An early South Asian dust storm during March 2012 and its impacts on Indian Himalayan foothills: a case study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Soni, V K; Singh, Sachchidanand; Kanawade, V P; Singh, N; Tiwari, S; Attri, S D

    2014-09-15

    The impacts of an early South Asian dust storm that originated over the western part of the Middle East and engulfed northwest parts of India during the third week of March 2012 have been studied at four different stations covering India and Pakistan. The impacts of this dust storm on aerosol optical properties were studied in detail at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi. The impact could also be traced up to central Himalayan foothills at Manora Peak. During dust events, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm reached a peak value of 0.96, 1.02, 2.17 and 0.49 with a corresponding drop in Ångström exponent (AE for 440-870 nm) to 0.01, -0.02, 0.00 and 0.12 at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi, respectively. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 675 nm was relatively lower at Delhi (0.87) and Jodhpur (0.86), with absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) less than 1.0, but a large value of SSA was observed at Lahore (0.98) and Karachi (0.93), with AAE value greater than 1.0 during the event. The study of radiative impact of dust aerosols revealed a significant cooling at the surface and warming in the atmosphere (with corresponding large heating rate) at all the stations during dust event. The effect of this dust storm was also seen at Manora Peak in central Himalayas which showed an enhancement of ~28% in the AOD at 500 nm. The transport of dust during such events can have severe climatic implications over the affected plains and the Himalayas. PMID:24973722

  10. Panoramic radiographic study of mental foramen in selected dravidians of south Indian population: A hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vaibhav; Pitti, Parag

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed at documenting information on appearance, size, horizontal and vertical locations of Mental Foramen (MF) in Panoramic Radiograph. We also analyzed the age and gender differences with radiographic appearance and location of MF. We evaluated these findings in our population and co-relate with results of previous studies. Material and Methods 1662 panoramic radiographs were evaluated, of which 245 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each radiograph was traced to record the horizontal and vertical locations. The size of MF was recorded using digital caliper and its appearance was determined by visual examination. Chi-square and t-test were employed. Results The most common appearance of MF was continuous type and the tests showed significant difference with age and gender. The most frequent horizontal location of MF was “location c” with no statistical significant difference with age and gender. The MF was most commonly positioned mesially in relation to the apex of second premolar with no significant differences with gender. The vertical location of the foramen varied drastically with no statistical significant difference in both sides. The difference in dimensions on the left and right sides were not statistically significant. Conclusions Determining the morphological appearance and positional variation of MF is important for isolation of mental nerves and vessels when administering local anesthesia and performing surgeries. We therefore stress the importance of accurate radiographic identification of MF and interpretation. Our research findings can be used as reference material by the dental practitioners of South India while performing clinical procedures that involve MF. Key words:Mental foramen, mental nerve, panoramic radiograph, mandible. PMID:26535088

  11. Role of the ACE ID and PPARG P12A Polymorphisms in Genetic Susceptibility of Diabetic Nephropathy in a South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Lakkakula VKS; Mahin, Sultana; Ginila, Raju Thankabai; Soundararajan, Periyasamy

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the life-threatening disorders characterized by persistent albuminuria, raised arterial blood pressure, a lowered glomerular filtration rate, and high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The vascular genes ACE (Angiotensin-converting enzyme), and PPARG (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma) are involved in alterations in vascular endothelium, and are suggested to play a role in the susceptibility of diabetic nephropathy. Objectives The aim of our study was to find out the role of ACE ID and PPARG P12A polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility of diabetic nephropathy in south Indian population. Patients and Methods A total of 54 cases with diabetic nephropathy and 67 control subjects with diabetes were enrolled for our study. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leucocytes, and genotyped using PCR-electrophoresis (ACE ID) or PCR-RFLP (PPARG P12A) methods. Results ACE ID genotypes followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both cases and controls. But P12A genotypes deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in diabetic controls. Chi2 test was applied for the analysis of genotypic distributions in genotypic and dominant models. Odds ratios were also calculated. No significant differences in genotype frequencies of ACE ID and PPARG P12A polymorphisms were found on comparing patients with diabetic nephropathy with diabetic controls. The synergistic role of ACE ID* PPARG P12A interaction, did not show any association in patients with diabetic nephropathy when compared to diabetic controls. Conclusions In conclusion, the ACE and PPARG genes do not have a key role in conferring risk for diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24282791

  12. Food Marketing towards Children: Brand Logo Recognition, Food-Related Behavior and BMI among 3–13-Year-Olds in a South Indian Town

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Peter; Tong, Leilei; Viedma, Cristobal; Chandy, Sujith J.; Marrone, Gaetano; Simon, Anna; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess exposure to marketing of unhealthy food products and its relation to food related behavior and BMI in children aged 3–13, from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a south Indian town. Methods Child-parent pairs (n = 306) were recruited at pediatric clinics. Exposure to food marketing was assessed by a digital logo recognition test. Children matched 18 logos of unhealthy food (high in fat/sugar/salt) featured in promotion material from the food industry to pictures of corresponding products. Children's nutritional knowledge, food preferences, purchase requests, eating behavior and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed by a digital game and parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results Recognition rates for the brand logos ranged from 30% to 80%. Logo recognition ability increased with age (p<0.001) and socioeconomic level (p<0.001 comparing children in the highest and lowest of three socioeconomic groups). Adjusted for gender, age and socioeconomic group, logo recognition was associated with higher BMI (p = 0.022) and nutritional knowledge (p<0.001) but not to unhealthy food preferences or purchase requests. Conclusions Children from higher socioeconomic groups in the region had higher brand logo recognition ability and are possibly exposed to more food marketing. The study did not lend support to a link between exposure to marketing and poor eating behavior, distorted nutritional knowledge or increased purchase requests. The correlation between logo recognition and BMI warrants further investigation on food marketing towards children and its potential role in the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in this part of India. PMID:23082137

  13. Evaluation of DNA damage in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without peripheral neuropathy: A study in South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mukul; Bronson, Stephen Charles; Warrier, Tushar; Badarinath, Agnihotram; Rai, Shivam; Baid, Kaushal; Sitaraman, Sneha; George, Alex; Moses, Anand; Saraswathy, Radha; Vasuki, Ranganathan; Shanmugam, Alagianambi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus globally has collaterally increased the incidence of diabetes-associated complications such as neuropathy. Oxidative stress induced DNA damage is one of the mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Here we aimed to evaluate the extent of DNA damage in diabetes patients with and without clinical neuropathy using the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome assay, in a group of South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome assay was performed in lymphocyte cultures of 42 type 2 diabetes patients (22 with neuropathy and 20 without neuropathy) and 42 age and sex matched controls. Nuclear aberrations like Nuclear Buds, Nucleoplasmic Bridges and Micronuclei were analyzed. Results: The frequency of nuclear aberrations in diabetes patients with neuropathy was higher than compared to diabetes patients without neuropathy. The mean frequencies of nuclear aberrations per cell in diabetes patients with neuropathy and without neuropathy were 0.02 ± 0.02 and 0.01 ± 0.01, respectively. This was significantly higher than in the controls (0.002 ± 0.002) (P < 0.0001). An increasing trend of nuclear aberrations in correlation with the duration of diabetes was observed. Conclusion: This study highlights the use of the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome assay as a potent tool for the identification of DNA damage, which may prove to be useful biomarker to assess the severity diabetes-associated complications such as neuropathy. Implementation of this technique at the clinical level would potentially enhance the quality of management of patients with diabetes and its complications like neuropathy. PMID:25810640

  14. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  15. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of Indian Tribes of North America. Part I: The Sioux Tribes of South Dakota. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    To facilitate the study and understanding of present-day Indian tribal organization and governmental procedures, the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of…

  16. [Rebus Reading Book Series: A Product of a Project to Create Stories and Beginning Reading Material for Pre-School Indian Children in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Loraine; Schleif, Mabel

    The "Rebus Reading Book Series" in this document consists of 10 booklets, each containing an illustrated story adopted from an Indian folk tale. The booklets, intended for use as supplementary readers, are designed to introduce readers in grades 1.7 to 2.2 to Indian cultural history as well as to improve use of English by building larger speaking…

  17. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  18. 42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  19. 41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; photo taken from furnace operator's booth. Looking south/southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  20. 7. Underside of Roadbed (Interior beams cast horizontal, imprints of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Underside of Roadbed (Interior beams cast horizontal, imprints of timbers used as formwork visible on abutment walls and beams) - South Bridge, Spanning Quarton Lake branch of River Rouge, Birmingham, Oakland County, MI

  1. Acoustic micronektonic distribution is structured by macroscale oceanographic processes across 20-50°S latitudes in the South-Western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béhagle, Nolwenn; Cotté, Cédric; Ryan, Tim E.; Gauthier, Olivier; Roudaut, Gildas; Brehmer, Patrice; Josse, Erwan; Cherel, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Micronekton constitutes the largest unexploited marine biomass worldwide. It is one of the most conspicuous and ecologically important components of the still poorly known mesopelagic ecosystem. Acoustic data were collected from both fishing and research vessels along 18 transects for a total of 47 682 linear kilometers to investigate large-scale distribution of micronekton over a long latitudinal gradient (20-50°S) and two contrasted seasons (summer and winter) in the South-Western Indian Ocean. Acoustic backscatter at 38 kHz was used as a proxy of mid-water organisms' abundance (0-800 m depth). Two consistent features were diel vertical migration of backscatters and vertical distribution of micronekton in three distinct layers, namely the surface (SL), intermediate (IL) and deep (DL) layers. Satellite remote sensing data was used to position oceanic fronts, and hence define water masses, from the tropical to low Antarctic zones. A key finding of this study was the significant correlation observed between abundance and distribution of acoustic backscatter and position relative to these front and water masses. Total backscatter peaked in the subtropical zone, with low abundances in the colder Polar Frontal Zone. The high overall abundances in subtropical waters resulted mainly from high backscatters in the IL and DL that contrasted with low SL values, especially during the day (2-11%). The warmer the waters, the higher SL backscatter was, with the highest absolute and relative (38-51% of the total abundance) values observed at night in the Tropical Zone and the lowest abundance in the Antarctic Zone. No significant seasonal pattern was found, but SL backscatters were very low in winter compared to summer in the Polar Frontal Zone. Moreover, the Northern winter shift of the fronts induced a Northern latitudinal shift of the peak in abundance from summer to winter. The present study highlights the value of building large acoustic databases collected from both

  2. The Last Termination in the South Indian Ocean: A unique terrestrial record from Kerguelen Islands (49°S) situated within the Southern Hemisphere westerly belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Putten, Nathalie; Verbruggen, Cyriel; Björck, Svante; Michel, Elisabeth; Disnar, Jean-Robert; Chapron, Emmanuel; Moine, Bertrand N.; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis

    2015-08-01

    The awareness of the significance of the Southern Ocean in the Earth's climate system has become increasingly obvious. The deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise during warming periods in Antarctica has been attributed to CO2 ventilation from the deep ocean caused by enhanced upwelling around the Antarctic Divergence. It has been hypothesized that, more intense Southern Hemisphere westerly winds aligned with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current due to a southward shift of the wind belt from its Last Glacial Maximum equator-ward position, are the main drivers. Reconstructions of past changes in atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere are still scarce and the overall picture is patchy with sometimes contradictory results. For obvious reasons, most terrestrial records originate from southern South America and New Zealand. Here we present a terrestrial record from the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, from Kerguelen Islands located at 49°S. A peat record is investigated using a multi-proxy approach (pollen and plant macrofossils, magnetic susceptibility, XRF analyses, biogenic silica content, Rock-Eval6 analysis and humification degree). Peat accumulation starts at about 16,000 cal yr BP with relatively warm and dry conditions. The most prominent change in our proxy data occurs at 13,600 cal yr BP, when peat ponds were established on the peat surface, resulting in lacustrine-type deposits, as a result of very high humidity, and with proxies implying very windy conditions. Within chronological uncertainties, this onset coincides with the onset of the so-called Oceanic Cold Reversal, based on the deuterium excess data in the EPICA Dome C ice core record. Kerguelen Islands are located in the moisture source area of Dome C and a change in atmospheric circulation at that time could explain both records. Around 12,900 cal yr BP, at the end of the Antarctic Cold Reversal, pond/lake sediments give way to more peaty deposits, with proxies suggesting slightly drier

  3. Association of APOE (E2, E3 and E4) gene variants and lipid levels in ischemic stroke, its subtypes and hemorrhagic stroke in a South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Das, Satrupa; Kaul, Subhash; Jyothy, Akka; Munshi, Anjana

    2016-08-15

    In the present study we evaluated the association of APOE (E2/E3/E4) polymorphism with ischemic stroke (n=620), its subtypes and hemorrhagic stroke (n=250) in a South Indian population from Telangana. The genotypes were determined using PCR-RFLP while lipid levels were measured using commercially available kits. We found significant difference in the genotypic distribution between hemorrhagic stroke patients and controls for certain genetic models [E2/E2 vs. E2/E4; E3/E3 vs. E2/E3; E3/E3 vs. E2/E4; E4/E4 vs. E2/E3; E4/E4 vs.E2/E4 and E3 vs. E4]. However, no significant difference was observed in genotypic distribution between ischemic stroke patients and controls. On analysing the genotypic distribution between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients, statistically significant difference was observed in specific genetic models [E2/E2 vs. E2/E4; E3/E3 vs. E2/E3; E3/E3 vs. E2/E4; E4/E4 vs. E2/E3 and E4/E4 vs. E2/E4]. In ischemic stroke subtypes analysing for alleles E3 vs. E2 and E3 vs. E4, we found significant association with intracranial large artery (p=0.01), cardioembolic stroke (p=0.001 and p=0.0004) and lacunar stroke (p=0.02). Analysing the association of various genotypes with different lipid levels significant association was observed for VLDL (P=0.000) and for triglyceride (P=0.000) levels with E2/E4 and E3/E4 genotypes in ischemic stroke but not in hemorrhagic stroke. In conclusion, our results suggest that APOE polymorphism does seem to play a role in hemorrhagic stroke and also in the development of specific subtypes of ischemic stroke. Further, in ischemic stroke VLDL and triglycerides levels were found to be significantly associated with E2/E4 and E3/E4 genotypes. PMID:27329241

  4. Cool Cast Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... outer layer is usually made of plaster or fiberglass. Fiberglass casts are made of fiberglass, which is a plastic that can be shaped. Fiberglass casts come in many different colors — if you' ...

  5. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  6. LLNL casting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  7. The peripatetic cultural psychiatrist: reflections on a forty-five year longitudinal study of a South India village.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Helen E

    2011-04-01

    This article presents one woman's odyssey, which began with a career in linguistics and later incorporated cultural psychiatry. While engaged in fieldwork as a linguist, studying the syntactic structure of Havyaka Kannada and dialectal accommodation among the castes in a South India village, I developed language skills and rapport with the village residents. Then I transferred my community-wide rapport to research on depression as a cultural psychiatrist. The articles I wrote on depression and its relationship to socialized passivity and endorsed assertiveness in progressive generations of South Indian women, illustrate the impact of change on mental health. The cultural background from my community-based longitudinal study of more than forty-five years has contributed to my understanding disorders in Indian patients living in a globalized world. PMID:21511853

  8. First description of the worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Himender

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The hitherto unknown worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Forel, 1894) is described for the first time. Sexuals are redescribed and photomontage images of all castes are provided. A key is presented to separate the six Indian species of Nylanderia. Previously described Nylanderia assimilis (Jerdon, 1851) is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:25197237

  9. Evaluation of electroslag castings

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Sikka, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of evaluations of electroslag castings of ferritic (2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo and 9 Cr-1 Mo) and austenitic (CF8M or type 316) steels are presented. The castings have been characterized for surface finish, cracking, solidification structure, chemical composition, hardness, ferrite distribution, tensile properties, Charpy impact properties, and creep properties. Pertinent data are compared with equivalent data for sand castings and wrought products of the same materials. Based on the results of these studies, the properties of electroslag castings compare favorably with those of sand castings and wrought materials.

  10. Advances in aluminum casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tiryakioglu, M.; Campbell, J.

    1998-01-01

    This symposium focuses on the improvements of aluminum casting quality and reliability through a better understanding of processes and process variables, and explores the latest innovations in casting-process design that allow increasing use of the castings to replace complex assemblies and heavy steel and cast-iron components in aerospace and automotive applications. Presented are 35 papers by international experts in the various aspects of the subject. The contents include: Semisolid casting; Computer-aided designing of molds and castings; Casting-process modeling; Aluminum-matrix composite castings; HIPing of castings; Progress in the US car project; Die casting and die design; and Solidification and properties.