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1

Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations. RESULTS: We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations

W. s. Watkins; R. Thara; B. j. Mowry; Y. Zhang; D. j. Witherspoon; W. Tolpinrud; M. j. Bamshad; S. Tiripati; R. Padmavati; H. Smith; D. Nancarrow; C. Filippich; L. b. Jorde

2008-01-01

2

Genetic serum protein markers (PH, GC, PI) in two South Indian caste populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of HP, GC and PI typings on two caste populations (Relli-I: fruit vendors, Relli-II: scavengers) from Andhra Pradesh\\u000a (South India) are reported and compared with data obtained on other Indian population samples.

H. Walter; P. Veerraju; M. Ramesh; M. Harms

1992-01-01

3

Genetics of Castes and Tribes of India: Indian Population Milieu  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Indian; ethnic groups; regional groups; religious groups; occupational groups; linguistic groups ABSTRACT South Asia, constituting mainly the Indian sub-continent, is a panorama of social diversities, racial differences and rich cultural heritage. However many facets of history, race and culture of this area are still relatively unexplored. Debates and doubts centering around the autochthonous status of the early settlers continue

M. K. Bhasin

4

Social Affiliation and the Demand for Health Services: Caste and Child Health in South India *  

PubMed Central

This paper assesses the role of social affiliation, measured by caste, in shaping investments in child health. The special setting that we have chosen for the analysis – tea estates in the South Indian High Range – allows us to control nonparametrically for differences in income, access to health services, and patterns of morbidity across low caste and high caste households. In this controlled setting, low caste households spend more on their children's health than high caste households, reversing the pattern we would expect to find elsewhere in India. Moreover, health expenditures do not vary by gender within either caste group, in contrast once again with the male preference documented throughout the country. A simple explanation, based on differences in the returns to human capital across castes in the tea estates is proposed to explain these striking results.

Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan

2007-01-01

5

Indian Place Names in South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cursory examination of place names on a map of South Dakota does not reflect the important role that Indians have played in the state and their relation to the land framed by its borders. Only three towns with populations over 1,000 bear names that clearly come from Indian languages: Sioux Falls, Sisseton, and Yankton. The hostile relationship…

Gasque, Thomas J.

6

OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE AND RUN OUT WITH TRAVELING TORCH. MACHINE IS CASTING IN TWIN MOLD. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

7

Seasonal circulation in the south Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two World Ocean Circulation Experiment hydrographic cruises in March and June 1995, along with Topex-Poseidon altimeter data and National Meteorological Center wind data are used to estimate seasonal changes in the South Indian Ocean subtropical gyre. Mean annual curves derived from the altimeter and wind data reveal strengthening of the anticyclonic gyre in March and September, and weakening in June and December. The seasonal changes correspond to variations in the wind field south of 30°S at the equinoxes and solstices. In addition, the wind-driven gyre is further north in July, and further south in March. These variations in strength and location of the South Indian Ocean gyre may influence inter-ocean transports south of Africa. Despite the inferred mean annual seasonal variations in the South Indian Ocean gyre, volume transports estimated in 1995 from the hydrographic data are close to mean values. Apparently, a mesoscale eddy in March disrupts the stronger fall gyre, whereas in June the weaker winter gyre is delayed by 1 month.

Ffield, Amy; Toole, John; Wilson, Doug

1997-11-01

8

American Indian Population in South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

Hess, Donna

9

American Indians of West South Central Region by County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for counties in the West South Central region with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marit...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

10

American Indians of East South Central Region by County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for counties in the East South Central region with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marit...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

11

Castes, Migration, Immunogenetics and Infectious Diseases in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been said that the grandest genetic experiment of nature has been conducted in south India in the name of the caste system. One can expect the frequency of an infectious disease to be equal to the product of the frequencies of various indicated loci\\/alleles, whether physiological, hormonal or immunological, in an endemic area. The sympatrically isolated caste and

R. M. Pitchappan

2002-01-01

12

South Indian foods: Contaminants and their effects  

SciTech Connect

Life style including dietary habits is one of the most important factors responsible for different types of cancer. The role of diet in human cancer has prompted many to analyze the food items, particularly the heat processed foods and food components for possible mutagens and carcinogens. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during combustion, pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis of organic matter. Epidemiological studies have unequivocally established a relationship between the occurrence of PAHs and different types of cancers. Since the incidence of stomach cancer in South India in very high, the authors have screened several commonly consumed food dishes and food components for possible contaminants, such as PAHs. Since many of the Indian food items are stored for long periods, mycotoxin contamination is possible and therefore, they have screened some of the food components for the presence of zearalenone, a Fusarium mycotoxin. This paper reports the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and zearalenone in the commonly consumed food items. The mutagenic and genotoxic effects of these food items are also reported.

Sivaswamy, S.N.; Balachandran, B.; Balanehru, S. (Cancer Inst., Madras (India))

1991-08-01

13

The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N

T. Kivisild; S. Rootsi; M. Metspalu; S. Mastana; K. Kaldma; J. Parik; E. Metspalu; M. Adojaan; H.-V. Tolk; V. Stepanov; M. Gölge; E. Usanga; S. S. Papiha; C. Cinnio?lu; R. King; L. Cavalli-Sforza; P. A. Underhill; R. Villems

2003-01-01

14

The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations  

PubMed Central

Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N that cover populations of different social rank from all over the subcontinent. Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations. H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup. Haplotype frequencies of the MX1 locus of chromosome 21 distinguish Koyas and Chenchus, along with Indian caste groups, from European and eastern Asian populations. Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools.

Kivisild, T.; Rootsi, S.; Metspalu, M.; Mastana, S.; Kaldma, K.; Parik, J.; Metspalu, E.; Adojaan, M.; Tolk, H.-V.; Stepanov, V.; Golge, M.; Usanga, E.; Papiha, S. S.; Cinnioglu, C.; King, R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.; Underhill, P. A.; Villems, R.

2003-01-01

15

Mass, heat and freshwater fluxes in the South Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six hydrographic sections were used to examine the circulation and property fluxes in the South Indian Ocean from 10 to 32 deg S. The calculations were made by applying an inverse method to the data. In the interior of the South Indian Ocean, the geostrophic flow is generally northward. At 18 deg S, the northward interior mass flux is balanced by the southward Ekman mass flux at the surface, whereas at 32 deg S the northward interior mass flux is balanced by the southward mass flux of the Agulhas Current. There is a weak, southward mass flux of 6 x 10 to the 9th kg/s in the Mozambique Channel. The rate of water exchange between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean is dependent on the choice of the initial reference level used in the inverse calculation. The choice of 1500 m, the depth of the deep oxygen minimum, has led to a flux of water from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean at a rate of 6.6 x 10 to the 9th kg/s. Heat flux calculations indicate that the Indian Ocean is exporting heat to the rest of the world's oceans at a rate of -0.69 x 10 to the 15th W at 18 deg S and -0.25 x 10 to the 15th W at 32 deg S (negative values being southward).

Fu, Lee-Lueng

1986-01-01

16

Multi-layer Clouds Over the South Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on April 23, 2003. These clouds occur at multiple altitudes and exhibit a noticeable cyclonic circulation over the Southern Indian Ocean, to the north of Enderbyland, East Antarctica.

The image at left was created by overlying a natural-color view from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) camera with a color-coded stereo height field. MISR retrieves heights by a pattern recognition algorithm that utilizes multiple view angles to derive cloud height and motion. The opacity of the height field was then reduced until the field appears as a translucent wash over the natural-color image. The resulting purple, cyan and green hues of this aesthetic display indicate low, medium or high altitudes, respectively, with heights ranging from less than 2 kilometers (purple) to about 8 kilometers (green). In the lower right corner, the edge of the Antarctic coastline and some sea ice can be seen through some thin, high cirrus clouds.

The right-hand panel is a natural-color image from MISR's 70-degree backward viewing camera. This camera looks backwards along the path of Terra's flight, and in the southern hemisphere the Sun is in front of this camera. This perspective causes the cloud-tops to be brightly outlined by the sun behind them, and enhances the shadows cast by clouds with significant vertical structure. An oblique observation angle also enhances the reflection of light by atmospheric particles, and accentuates the appearance of polar clouds. The dark ocean and sea ice that were apparent through the cirrus clouds at the bottom right corner of the nadir image are overwhelmed by the brightness of these clouds at the oblique view.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 17794. The panels cover an area of 335 kilometers x 605 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 142 to 145 within World Reference System-2 path 155.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

17

Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items.  

PubMed

Dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in South India were screened for their mutagenic activity. Kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and Kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. Certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. Cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seeds, aniseeds and ginger were not. Several perfumes, essential oils and colouring agents, which are commonly used were also screened and many of them exhibited their mutagenic potential by inducing the 'reverse mutation' in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains. PMID:1769715

Sivaswamy, S N; Balachandran, B; Balanehru, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

1991-08-01

18

Constituents of south Indian vetiver oils.  

PubMed

The essential oils isolated from vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.] roots collected from four locations in south India were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Eighty constituents, representing 94.5-97.8% of the oils, have been identified. The oils from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kundapur, and Mettupalayam were rich in sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with cedrane, bisabolane, eudesmane, eremophilane, and zizaane skeletons. The main components of the four essential oils were: eudesma-4,6-diene (delta-selinene) + beta-vetispirene (3.9-6.1%), beta-vetivenene (0.9-9.4%), 13-nor-trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-11-one + amorph-4-en-10-ol (5.0-6.4%), trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-12-ol (vetiselinenol) + (E)-opposita-4(15),7(11)-dien-12-ol (3.7-5.9%), eremophila-1 (10),11-dien-2alpha-ol (nootkatol) + ziza-6(13)-en-12-ol (khusimol) (16.1-19.2%), and eremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-2alpha-ol (isonootkatol) + (E)-eremophila-1(10),7(11)-12-ol (isovalencenol) (5.6-6.9%). The important compounds that impart the characteristic vetiver odor are: khusimene, delta-selinene, beta-vetivenene, cyclocopacamphan-12-ol (epimers A and B), vetiselinenol, khusimol, isovalencenol, khusimone, alpha-vetivone, and beta-vetivone. The chemical profiles of the oils are comparable to Haitian vetiver oil. PMID:22474964

Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Ramesh, S; Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara

2012-02-01

19

Anticandidal activity of certain South Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The anticandidal activity of 20 household South Indian medicinal plants and/or plant products was studied using 30 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vaginal candidiasis patients of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital and compared with the anticandidal activity of garlic. Water and ethanol extracts were prepared and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined. Water extracts of three plants did not show any anticandidal activity, while Murrya koenigii did not exhibit any anticandidal activity in either extract. Other plants exhibited more activity in ethanol extracts showing that their active principle is more soluble in a non-polar solvent. PMID:10815017

Vaijayanthimala, J; Anandi, C; Udhaya, V; Pugalendi, K V

2000-05-01

20

The Indian Ocean Experiment: Widespread Air Pollution from South and Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution levels were observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean toward the Intertropical Convergence Zone at about 6°S. We show that

J. Lelieveld; P. J. Crutzen; V. Ramanathan; M. O. Andreae; C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer; T. Campos; G. R. Cass; R. R. Dickerson; H. Fischer; J. A. de Gouw; A. Hansel; A. Jefferson; D. Kley; A. T. J. de Laat; S. Lal; M. G. Lawrence; J. M. Lobert; O. L. Mayol-Bracero; A. P. Mitra; T. Novakov; S. J. Oltmans; K. A. Prather; T. Reiner; H. Rodhe; H. A. Scheeren; D. Sikka; J. Williams

2001-01-01

21

Efficacy of Cheiloscopy in Determination of Sex Among South Indians  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Human identification plays a vital role in any crime investigation. Along with the various other established methods, cheiloscopy also plays a key role in linking the criminal with the crime. The ability of a technique in differentiating the sex of a person in the field can help in screening a large number of suspects. This study evaluated the efficacy of cheiloscopy in determination of sex among South Indians. It also studied the pattern of dimorphism in the lips and lip prints of south Indians. Material and Methods: Lip prints from 100 medical students (50 males and 50 females) were obtained and were analyzed, based on Tsuchihashi and Suzuki classification, to check for dimorphism. Lip dimensions were studied by using standard sliding calipers for dimorphism. Results and Discussion: The most common pattern of lip print among males was Type III as compared to Type I in females. The outer four portions of the lip showed statistically significant differences in males and females. Middle portion of the lip was statistically insignificant in sex determination, based on lip print patterns. Thickness of the lip was significantly larger in males as compared to that in females and this criterion could be used to establish a logistic regression for determination of sex of a person. Conclusion: Lips not only significantly differ among the males and females in the pattern of the lip print that they present, but they also differ in their size. These features can effectively be used to determine the sex of a person accurately.

Kautilya D., Vijay; Bodkha, Pravir; Rajamohan, Naveen

2013-01-01

22

Lightning activity in the South West Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning activity within tropical convective events of the Southwest Indian ocean (0°N-40°S;30°E-110°E) is investigated. The World Wide Lightning Location Network is used as it provides global lightning data since 2005. First, a 7-year lightning climatology over the Southwest Indian Ocean has been performed using the WWLLN data from 2005 to 2011. Fig. 1 shows the same main features as presented in other studies: the «hot spots» are found in the maritime continent and Sri Lanka (> 50 fl. km-2 yr-1) but also over South India and Madagascar (> 10-20 fl. km-2 yr-1). Lightning flashes within tropical cyclones represent 50% to 100% of the total lightning activity in some oceanic areas (between 10°S and 20°S). Moreover, lightning activity is more intense during the November-to-April period which corresponds to the wet/cyclonic season. Then, lightning activity in tropical storms was studied. Lightning strokes were found to occur mainly in the region 50-100 km from the storm center (inner core region). Moreover, Fig. 2 shows that, before an intensity increase, lightning activity starts decreasing from -18h to 0h in the eyewall region (0-50 km) and increases from -24h to +6h in the rainband region (200-300 km).; Distribution of the annual mean flash density (fl. km-2 yr-1) over the SWIO. The black box corresponds to the area of responsibility of RSMC La Réunion. ; Lightning density in the eyewall (top), inner core (middle) and rainband (bottom) regions for weakening and intensifying tropical storms in the Southwest Indian Ocean. A threshold for the intensity change have been used (± 10 kts (6h)-1).

Bovalo, C.; Barthe, C.

2012-12-01

23

Lifestyle physical activity behavior among South Asian Indian immigrants.  

PubMed

Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes than Whites. This was a cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for 7 days. Just over half (51.8 %) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (?150 min moderate-intensity or ?75 min vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6,904.3, which is in the "low active" classification. Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed. PMID:23686529

Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

2013-12-01

24

A lightning climatology of the South-West Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data have been used to perform a lightning climatology in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO) region from 2005 to 2011. Maxima of lightning activity were found in the Maritime Continent and southwest of Sri Lanka (>50 fl km-2 yr-1) but also over Madagascar and above the Great Lakes of East Africa (>10-20 fl km-2 yr-1). Lightning flashes within tropical storms and tropical cyclones represent 50 % to 100 % of the total lightning activity in some oceanic areas of the SWIO (between 10° S and 20° S). The SWIO is characterized by a wet season (November to April) and a dry season (May to October). As one could expect, lightning activity is more intense during the wet season as the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is present over all the basin. Flash density is higher over land in November-December-January with values reaching 3-4 fl km-2 yr-1 over Madagascar. During the dry season, lightning activity is quite rare between 10° S and 25° S. The Mascarene anticyclone has more influence on the SWIO resulting in shallower convection. Lightning activity is concentrated over ocean, east of South Africa and Madagascar. A statistical analysis has shown that El Niño-Southern Oscillation mainly modulates the lightning activity up to 56.8% in the SWIO. The Indian Ocean Dipole has a significant contribution since ~49% of the variability is explained by this forcing in some regions. The Madden-Julian Oscillation did not show significative impact on the lightning activity in our study.

Bovalo, C.; Barthe, C.; Bègue, N.

2012-08-01

25

Indian Gaming in South Dakota: Conflict in Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legal gaming on Indian reservations has increased dramatically since the 1987 landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court in "California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians." In this case the Supreme Court upheld by a 6-3 vote the right under federal law for Indians to run gambling operations without state regulation in states where such…

Ackerman, William V.

2009-01-01

26

CAST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

2012-02-03

27

CAST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

2012-02-06

28

[Dengue fever in the Reunion Island and in South Western islands of the Indian Ocean].  

PubMed

South Western islands of the Indian Ocean are permanently threatened by dengue fever outbreaks. On the Reunion Island, two dengue outbreaks were biologically documented (1977-1978 and 2004). And since July 2004 there has been an inter-epidemic period for the island with sporadic cases and clusters. Between January 1, 2007 and October 5, 2009, the epidemiologic surveillance system detected five confirmed autochthonous cases, five confirmed imported cases (South-East Asia), and 71 probable cases. All the five autochthonous confirmed cases occurred in Saint-Louis during two consecutive clusters. In other South Western islands of the Indian Ocean, several dengue fever outbreaks have been reported. Importation of dengue virus from South-East Asia is a major risk for a new outbreak on the island. The introduction of a new serotype could lead to the emergence of new and severe clinical forms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:21295427

D'Ortenzio, E; Balleydier, E; Baville, M; Filleul, L; Renault, P

2011-09-01

29

Intraplate stress distribution induced by topography and crustal density heterogeneities beneath the south Indian shield, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrences of intraplate earthquakes in the south Indian shield is attributed to movement along old pre-existing Precambrian shear\\/weak zones in response to the perturbation in the local stress regime due to topography, crustal density inhomogeneities and the dominant plate tectonic force in south India (i.e. an assumed ridge compression of 30 MPa). To obtain a causal relationship between these

Prantik Mandal

1999-01-01

30

Hamstring graft size and anthropometry in south Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim The role of anthropometric measurements in the prediction of hamstring autograft size in Indian population remains unclear. Till now, no studies have been done on Indian population. Methods We evaluated 41 consecutive patients (34 males, 7 females) prospectively with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency scheduled for reconstruction using hamstring autograft at our institution between June 2011 and June 2013. Preoperatively we recorded age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, and activity level. Intraoperative measurements of semitendinosus tendon like absolute length, diameter before fashioning the graft and final diameter of the tripled graft using sizing tubes calibrated to 1 mm. Correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) analysis was used. Results As per study there is no correlation between graft diameter, age, sex, weight, activity, and body mass index, of patients. Height of patients correlated to graft diameter in both Indian men and women (p < 0.001). Conclusion Anthropometric measurements such as weight, gender, activity level cannot be used as definitive predictors for the hamstring graft diameter during harvest but height of the patients can be taken as good predictor in Indian population.

Challa, Supradeeptha; Satyaprasad, Jonnalagedda

2013-01-01

31

Crustal Thickness on the South East Indian Ridge from OBH data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic reflection and refraction data were collected on the intermediate-rate spreading South East Indian Ridge during December 2001 and January 2002 aboard the RV Ewing. A total of six lines of Ocean Bottom Hydrophone (OBH) refraction data were collected along four segments with contrasting ridge axis morphology. All lines were shot ridge parallel, with four lines on-axis, and two lines

M. Tolstoy; J. R. Cochran; S. M. Carbotte; J. S. Floyd

2002-01-01

32

Shoaling of the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean thermocline: Is it driven by anthropogenic forcing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface warming since 1950 in the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean (IO) occurs without a consistent surface heat flux trend, and is accompanied by a shoaling thermocline. The associated dynamics have not been fully explored. Using 20th century climate model experiments, we test if the shoaling thermocline is attributable to a transmission from the Pacific, where a similar shoaling occurs, and

Wenju Cai; Arnold Sullivan; Tim Cowan

2008-01-01

33

Restoration of Amsterdam Island, South Indian Ocean, following control of feral cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the French islands of the South Indian Ocean, Amsterdam Island is the richest in endemic species but its indigenous terrestrial ecosystem has been drastically modified. Sealers and transoceanic voyagers caused irreversible damage to the native fauna and flora, either directly by fires and culling, or indirectly by introduced mammals. An endemic flightless duck and several petrels have recently become

Thierry Micol; Pierre Jouventin

1995-01-01

34

Index and ring finger ratio—A new sex determinant in south Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of human remains is an imperative element of any medicolegal investigation, and a challenging task for forensic experts and physical anthropologists worldwide. Three hundred adult hands (150 males and 150 females) belonging to south Indian population were studied to investigate sexual dimorphism of the index and ring finger ratio. The index and ring finger ratio is derived by dividing

Tanuj Kanchan; G. Pradeep Kumar; Ritesh G. Menezes

2008-01-01

35

Dietary profile of urban south Indians and its relation with glycaemic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was done to analyse the dietary profile of urban south Indian adults. It was also aimed to study, if the dietary profile influenced the glycaemic and anthropometric data.Dietary details were collected in a representative urban sample of 900 study subjects in the epidemiological survey for diabetes conducted in 1995 in the city of Madras. The details were collected

R Shobana; C Snehalatha; E Latha; V Vijay; A Ramachandran

1998-01-01

36

Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the annual ventilation of the Antarctic Intermediate Water and Subantarctic Mode Water Masses.

Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

1991-01-01

37

Determinants of Fertility in Three North Indian States: Caste, Female Autonomy and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some of the determinants of fertility in three fairly homogenous states in northern India. The results show that scheduled tribe status—though not the scheduled caste status—has a substantial negative effect on fertility. The results also provide strong support for the view that improving the position of women through more equitable social and economic development will have a

Prabir C. Bhattacharya

1998-01-01

38

The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution levels were observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean toward the Intertropical Convergence Zone at about 6 degrees S. We show that agricultural burning and especially biofuel use enhance carbon monoxide concentrations. Fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning cause a high aerosol loading. The growing pollution in this region gives rise to extensive air quality degradation with local, regional, and global implications, including a reduction of the oxidizing power of the atmosphere. PMID:11161214

Lelieveld, J; Crutzen, P J; Ramanathan, V; Andreae, M O; Brenninkmeijer, C M; Campos, T; Cass, G R; Dickerson, R R; Fischer, H; de Gouw, J A; Hansel, A; Jefferson, A; Kley, D; de Laat, A T; Lal, S; Lawrence, M G; Lobert, J M; Mayol-Bracero, O L; Mitra, A P; Novakov, T; Oltmans, S J; Prather, K A; Reiner, T; Rodhe, H; Scheeren, H A; Sikka, D; Williams, J

2001-02-01

39

Last stop “little Gujarat”: Tracking South African Indian writers on the grey street writers’ trail in Durban  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grey Street in Durban is tied to the history of the Indian population in South Africa and their construction of a ‘home away from home’. Recently renamed Dr Yusuf Dadoo Street after the prominent anti?apartheid activist, “Grey Street” as it is still known by the locals, is where Indian immigrants to Natal inevitably made their way from the late nineteenth

Lindy Stiebel

2010-01-01

40

Magnetic resonance biomarkers of hypothermic rescue neuroprotection following neonatal encephalopathy in a south indian neonatal unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in encephalopathic infants with co-existent sepsis is unknown; we assessed the brain tissue injury using magnetic resonance (MR) biomarkers in a south Indian public sector neonatal unit.MethodsWe randomly allocated 33 infants (?36 weeks, ?1800 g) with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) to TH (reduction of rectal temperature to 33.5°C for 72 h) or standard care within 6

S Thayyil; F Cowan; D Price; E Cady; M Ayer; N Marlow; S Shankaran; N Robertson; B Guhan

2011-01-01

41

Monitoring of pesticide residues in South Indian tea.  

PubMed

Tea is the most commonly consumed beverage in the world. Tea infusion is prepared by pouring boiling hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. Such a beverage should be free from toxic chemicals. Studies on the monitoring of pesticide residues in tea of South India had been carried. Tea samples collected from different districts of South India were analysed for the residues of certain pesticide such as dicofol, ethion, quinalphos, hexaconazole, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and propargite. These pesticides are commonly used for the control of pests and diseases in tea. The results of study indicated that among 468 samples examined, only one sample contained hexaconazole residue that exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL). Though the residues of ethion, quinalphos, hexaconazole, dicofol, propargite and fenpropathrin were most commonly found, only one sample exceeded the MRL. PMID:23341056

Kottiappan, Madasamy; Dhanakodi, Kirubakaran; Annamalai, Satheshkumar; Anandhan, Shanmugaselvan Veilumuthu

2013-08-01

42

Zeolites in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zeolites of possible commercial value occur in the Brule Formation of Oligocene age and the Sharps Formation (Harksen, 1961) of Miocene age which crop out in a wide area in the northern part of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The thickness of the zeolite-bearing Interval and the extent of areas within the Interval which contain significant amounts of zeolites are far greater than was expected prior to this investigation. The shape of the zeolite-bearing Interval is tabular and the dimensions of Its exposure are roughly 10 ml x 200 mi x 150 ft (16 km x 160 km x 45 m) thick. Within the study area, there are tracts in which the zeolite resource potential is significant (see pl. 2). This report is intended to inform the Oglala Sioux Tribe of some of the most promising zeolite occurrences. Initial steps can then be taken by the Tribe toward possible development of the resources, should they wish to do so. The data contained herein identify areas of high zeolite potential, but are not adequate to establish economic value for the deposits. If development is recommended by the tribal government, we suggest that the tribal government contact companies involved in research and production of natural zeolites and provide them with the data in this report.

Raymond, William H.; Bush, Alfred L.; Gude, Arthur J., 3rd

1982-01-01

43

HLA antigens in South India: II. Selected caste groups of Tamil Nadu.  

PubMed

HLA-A, B antigen and haplotype frequencies were studied in four different caste groups of Tamil Nadu living in Madurai. A total number of 101 Nadars, 36 Kallars, 54 Iyers and 57 Telugu-speaking Naidus were studied. HLA A3 and B15 were significantly higher in Nadars; A10 & B8 in Kallars and Aw19, B12 & B35 in Iyers. HLA A-B haplotypes A10-B7, A28-B17 & A24-B- were characteristic of Nadars; A10-B8 & A1-B-, Kallars; Aw19-B12 & A1-B15, Iyers and A2-B-, Naidus. Negative linkage disequilibria for Aw19-B7, A28-B15 & A9-B51 were significant in Nadars; A1-B5, A1-B12 & Aw19-B- in Iyers and A2-B17 in Naidus. Heterogeneity chi-square based on antigen frequency and genetic distance also suggest the heterogeneous nature of the population of South India. Will these caste groups with such diverse haplotypic combinations differ from one another in their immune response and susceptibility to a given epidemic or infection? PMID:3424332

Rajasekar, R; Kakkanaiah, V N; Pitchappan, R M

1987-09-01

44

Genetic affinity of two south Indian ethnic groups with other populations.  

PubMed

Humans appear to have spread to several parts of the Indian subcontinent by the middle Paleolithic period. It also provided a major passage for the distribution of modern humans. For the first time generic human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II (DRB1) genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) (low-resolution) technique in two endogamous groups (Hindu-Brahmins and Sunni-Muslims) from the southern state of Andhra Pradesh in order to decipher the genetic affinity between them and with other populations. Calculation of genetic distances, construction of neighbour-joining dendograms and principal-component (P-C) maps were executed using HLA allelic frequencies. The present study reveals the genetic affinity of the Brahmin and Muslim populations from the state of Andhra Pradesh. The dendograms demonstrated that Indian populations form a separate cluster with oriental populations on one side and the eastern and the western Mediterranean populations on the other side. The principal component maps showed the clustering of Indian populations in the lower-right quadrant, where in the Sunni-Muslims occupied a position more closely to the north Indian Brahmins and the Bhargavas than to the geographically related south Hindu-Brahmin group. The study hypothesizes that unlike Brahmins who can be considered as an immediate stock of the Caucasians, the ancestors of Muslims might have been the result of an admixture between the Indo-Europeans and proto-Dravidians. PMID:18479292

Jasti, S; Rakh, S; Pantula, V; Murthy, K J R; Valluri, V L

2008-06-01

45

Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world

Revathi Rajkumar; VK Kashyap

2004-01-01

46

Establishment of Cephalometric Norms for the South Indian (Karnataka) Population Based on Burstone’s Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary aim  Variability is characteristic of different faces and facial types, and normative data based on one population group does not\\u000a represent all. Hence, this study was undertaken to establish skeletal cephalometric norms for the South Indian (Karnataka)\\u000a population utilizing the norms laid by Burstones’s analysis for Caucasians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The sample comprised of lateral cephalograms taken in natural head position of 100

K. V. ArunkumarViveka; Viveka Vardhan Reddy; David P. Tauro

2010-01-01

47

Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present. Proceedings of the Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference (5th, Pensacola, Florida, February 7-9, 1974).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A product of the 1974 Fifth Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, this compilation of 13 essays on American Indians of the South includes the following sections and titles: (1) Teaching the Indian Past in History Courses ("The Southeastern Indian Oral History Program at the University of Florida"; "Notes on the Literature of the Gulf…

Mahon, John K., Ed.

48

The South Indian Ocean Countercurrent: a return pathway of the Indonesian Throughflow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Indian Ocean Counter Current (SICC) is associated with a thermal front embedded in a broad eastward flow across the subtropical Indian Ocean and feeds into the poleward Leeuwin Current (LC). Previous studies have shown that the LC and SICC are sensitive to variations of the inflow of Pacific water through the Indonesian Passages (ITF). These subtropical countercurrents, of which the SICC is an example, are characterized by high eddy activity and theoretical work has shown the non-linear nature of their dynamics. That has motivated us to investigate the inertial response to the ITF of the IO circulaion. Analysis of two global eddy resolving model runs with the Indonesian Passages open and closed showed that the full 15 Sv of the ITF flows through the Mozambique Channel but only 10 Sv ends up in the Agulhas Current. This suggests that the SICC-LC system forms part of the return pathway of the ITF to the Pacific. Using the Hallberg Isopycnal Model we have investigated the combined effect of ITF, wind- and buoyancy forcing on the Indian Ocean circulation in the inertial boundary layer regime.

Lambert, Erwin; leBars, Dewi; de Ruijter, Will

2014-05-01

49

Prevalence of Catalase (-21 A/T) Gene Variant in South Indian (Tamil) Population  

PubMed Central

Catalase, an endogenous antioxidant enzyme, is responsible for regulating reactive species levels. Several epidemiologic studies have suggested that single nucleotide polymorphism in catalase gene may be associated with many diseases. The genotype of CAT (-21 A/T) point mutation in promoter region of catalase gene was determined by polymerase chain based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in the DNA of 100 healthy volunteers. The frequency of CAT (-21 A/T) gene polymorphism AA, AT, and TT genotypes was found to be 7, 23, and 70 percent, respectively. The mutant “T” allele frequency was found to be 0.82 among the south Indian (Tamil) population. Chi square analysis showed that the study population lies within the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The wild type genotype (AA) was found to be very low (7%) and the mutant genotype (AT/TT) was found to be more prevalent (93%) among the south Indian population. This suggests that the high prevalence of mutant genotype may increase the susceptibility to oxidative stress associated diseases.

Lourdhu Mary, A.; Nithya, K.; Isabel, W.

2014-01-01

50

Vitamin B12 deficiency & levels of metabolites in an apparently normal urban south Indian elderly population  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: There is no published literature on the extent of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly Indians as determined by plasma vitamin B12 levels and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. Vitamin B12 deficiency is expected to be higher in elderly Indians due to vegetarianism, varied socio-economic strata and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. We therefore, studied the dietary habits of south Indian urban elderly population and measured vitamin B12, MMA red cell folate and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: Healthy elderly urban subjects (175, >60 yr) were recruited. Detailed history, physical examination and neurological assessment were carried out. Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary analysis for daily intake of calories, vitamin B12, folate and detailed psychological assessment for cognitive functions was carried out. Blood samples were analyzed for routine haematology and biochemistry, vitamin B12, red cell folate, MMA and Hcy. Results: The mean age of the study population was 66.3 yr. Median values for daily dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate were 2.4 and 349.2 ?g/day respectively. Sixty two (35%) participants consumed multivitamin supplements. Plasma vitamin B12 level and the dietary intake of vitamin B12 was significantly correlated (P=0.157). Plasma vitamin B12 and Hcy were inversely correlated (P= -0.509). Red cell folate was inversely correlated with Hcy (P= -0.550). Significant negative correlation was observed between plasma vitamin B12 and MMA in the entire study population (P= -0.220). Subjects consuming vitamin supplements (n=62) had significantly higher plasma vitamin B12 levels, lower MMA levels and lower Hcy levels. There was no significant correlation between plasma vitamin B12, MMA, Hcy and red cell folate and any of the 10 cognitive tests including Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study is indicative of higher vitamin B12 (2.4 ?g/day) intakes in urban south Indian population. Thirty five per cent of the study population consumed multivitamin supplements and therefore, low plasma vitamin B12 levels were seen only in 16 per cent of the study subjects. However, MMA was elevated in 55 per cent and Hcy in 13 per cent of the subjects.

Shobha, Vineeta; Tarey, Subhash D.; Singh, Ramya G.; Shetty, Priya; Unni, Uma S.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V.

2011-01-01

51

U.S. Engineering Degrees for Improving South Indian Graduate Students' Marriage and Dowry Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines improved marriage opportunities as an unexplored motivator for pursuing international education via U.S. graduate engineering degrees and stresses the need to centralize gender in analyzing academic mobility and international education. This interdisciplinary qualitative study explores how South Indian men and women's…

Yakaboski, Tamara; Sheridan, Robyn Stout; Dade, Kristin

2014-01-01

52

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Y Chromosome Microdeletions in Infertile Men With Varicocele and Idiopathic Infertility of South Indian Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various factors cause spermatogenesis arrest in men and, in a large number of cases, the underlying reason still remains unknown. Little attention is paid to determining the genetic defects of varicocele-related infertility. The objective of our present study was to investigate the chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromo- some microdeletions in infertile men of South Indian origin with var- icocele and

LAKSHMI RAO; ARVIND BABU; MURTHY KANAKAVALLI; VENKATA PADMALATHA; AMARPAL SINGH; PRASHANT KUMAR SINGH; MAMATA DEENADAYAL; LALJI SINGH

53

New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area.

2013-01-01

54

Cost of adverse drug reactions in a South Indian tertiary care teaching hospital.  

PubMed

In India, very few reports on the cost of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are available. There is a need to study this aspect of health care in order to understand the economic burden imposed by ADRs. The aim of the current work was to study the costs associated with documented ADRs in a tertiary care teaching hospital. This study was conducted in medical wards of a south Indian tertiary care teaching hospital over a 6-month period. The study protocol was assessed and approved by the institutional ethics committee. A total of 317 ADRs from 246 patients were identified during the study period. The present study used an intensive monitoring method to detect ADRs and assessed an incidence of 32.7% adverse reactions in the monitored group. The causality, severity, predictability, and preventability of the documented ADRs were assessed. The total cost to the hospital due to ADRs was found to be Rs. 1,567,397 (US$36 451). The average cost per patient hospitalized with an ADR was Rs. 4,945 (US$115). The cost per reaction was found to be higher in the Indian context, as the per capita annual expenditure on health in this country is around US$109. PMID:21505086

Rajakannan, Thiyagu; Mallayasamy, Surulivelrajan; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Kamath, Asha; Vilakkthala, Rajesh; Rao, Padma G M; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

2012-04-01

55

Orbital and adnexal tuberculosis: a case series from a South Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background Orbital tuberculosis (OTb) is rare and may be regarded as a manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We report an interesting case series of six patients with varied presentations of orbital and adnexal tuberculosis in a South Indian patient population. Results A retrospective, interventional case series of six patients diagnosed with orbital and adnexal tuberculosis on the basis of clinical, radiological and histopathological evaluations between 2010 and 2013 was performed. Among the six patients with histopathologically proven OTb, five were women. The varied presentations included tubercular dacryoadenitis (two cases), classical periostitis (two cases), OTb with bone involvement (one case) and ocular adnexal tuberculosis (one case). Systemic involvement was seen in one case. All cases were treated with a regimen of antitubercular therapy (ATT). Conclusions OTb, though rare, should form a part of the differential diagnosis of orbital lesions in a high tuberculosis (TB) endemic country like ours. Biopsy still remains the mainstay of diagnosis.

2014-01-01

56

Interleukin-10-1082 promoter polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk in a South Indian population.  

PubMed

Within the past few years there has been increasing evidence that the genetic variation in the genes coding pro- and anti-inflammatory markers may play an important role in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including stroke. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-1082 G/A, promoter polymorphism (rs1800896) with ischemic stroke in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. In this study 480 ischemic stroke patients and 470 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. The ischemic stroke patients were classified according to TOAST classification. The region of interest in the IL-10 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction with the use of allele specific oligonucleotide primers flanking the polymorphic region. Association between genotypes and stroke was examined by Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and Chi-square analysis. Significant difference was observed between the patients and healthy controls, in genotypic distribution as well as allelic frequency (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis with forward stepwise selection using the potential confounders (sex, age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking and alcoholism) and IL-10 gene variant revealed that -1082 G/A polymorphism in the promoter region of IL-10 gene is significantly [adjusted OR=2.26; 95% C.I. (1.24-4.15), p<0.001] associated with ischemic stroke in the South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. We found significant association of this polymorphism with stroke of undetermined etiology (p<0.001). Moreover, hypertensive and diabetic individuals bearing A allele of IL-10 gene in high frequency were found to be more predisposed to stroke. PMID:21030268

Munshi, Anjana; Rajeshwar, K; Kaul, Subhash; Al-Hazzani, Amal; Alshatwi, Ali A; Sai Babu, M; Usha, A; Jyothy, A

2010-12-01

57

Association of dopamine receptor polymorphisms with schizophrenia and antipsychotic response in a South Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background Alterations in the dopamine transmission and receptor density are hypothesized in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia but ethnic disparities are reported to exist in disease association and therapeutic response to psychotropic medication. Antipsychotics have higher binding affinity to D2 subtype of dopamine receptor. DRD2 Cys311, TaqIB1 and TaqIA1 variants are considered to have either reduced affinity for dopamine and hypo-dopaminergic activity. Methods We examined the role of Taq1B, Taq1D, S311C, H313H and Taq1A polymorphisms of DRD2 gene in schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment response in 213 patients and 196 controls from a homogenous South Indian population. A more detailed genotype phenotype association analysis was carried out to understand the disease in terms of its socio-cultural factors. Results H313HTT genotype was found to be associated with schizophrenia (P = 0.004) while TaqIB1B1 genotype was significantly associated with higher psychopathology score. When treatment response was considered H313HCC, TaqIA2A2 and Taq1D1D1 had higher mean improvement scores. TaqID1D1 and H313HTT genotype were found to be significantly higher in responders than in nonresponder group. Distinct shift in the LD patterns of responder and non-responder group was observed. Certain symptoms were characteristic of our patient population. Following medication the scores and presentation of these symptoms tend to vary in the responder and non-responder groups. Conclusion Based on genotype phenotype correlations it can be suggested that certain polymorphisms can be defined for their critical functions in disease and their role in treatment response in South Indian population. The present study suggests that in addition to ethnic bias, socio-cultural factors should also be considered while evaluating genotype phenotype correlations, in association and treatment response to complex disorders like schizophrenia.

Vijayan, Neetha N; Bhaskaran, Sujatha; Koshy, Linda V; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Srinivas, Lekshmy; Nair, Chandrasekharan M; Allencherry, Priya M; Banerjee, Moinak

2007-01-01

58

Immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific antigen ESAT-6 among south Indians.  

PubMed

The 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) is a T-cell antigen recognized by individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to identify "protective epitopes" of ESAT-6 protein in the south Indian population. Proliferative and Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) responses to ESAT-6 peptides were studied by flow cytometry and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Healthy household contacts (HHC) recognized Esp1 (10/17) and Esp6 (9/17) peptides. Among pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PTB), Esp1 (3/11) and Esp6 (5/11) were recognized. Maximal response (7/10) was found for Esp1 and Esp8 in treated patients (TR). Median values for the responding subjects gave the following results: Esp1 (76pg/ml), Esp6 (64pg/ml), induced IFN-gamma production in HHC; PTB gave low IFN-gamma responses for the peptides. TR responded to the peptides Esp1 (141pg/ml), Esp8 (102pg/ml). The proliferation of CD4 cells was similar in both PTB and TR for all peptides; but HHC showed an increase for Esp1 (p<0.05) and Esp6 (p<0.01). Esp1 (amino acids aa 1-20) and Esp6 (aa 51-70) were the immunogenic peptides recognized by the alleles HLA DRB1*04 and HLA DRB1*10 among HHC. But the association of the alleles with ESAT-6 peptide presentation needs to be confirmed in a large cohort of subjects. We speculate that ESAT-6 can be used along with other immune-eliciting proteins for vaccine design strategies in south Indian population. PMID:19944647

Kumar, Madhan; Meenakshi, N; Sundaramurthi, Jagadish C; Kaur, Gurvinder; Mehra, Narinder K; Raja, Alamelu

2010-01-01

59

Structure and tectonic setting of the 77 deg E and 75 deg E grabens, Kerguelen Plateau, South Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two prominent north-south rifts, known as the 77 deg E and 75 deg E grabens, are made up of numerous north-south striking normal faults in the Central Kerguelen Plateau. The 77 deg E graben is associated with a 10-30 km wide axial rift and with a 100-150 km wide uplift over most of its length. The dimensions and internal structure of the 75 deg E graben are similar to those of the 77 deg E graben. These grabens are part of an extensional phase in the South Indian Ocean, and mark the beginning of the process which led to the transition of the Plate Boundary Rift Zone into the Southeast Indian Ridge. Rifting on an oceanic plateau is compared with continental rifting. The two processes are very similar in the segmentation of the rifts, their asymmetric cross sections, and in their associated shoulder uplifts.

Munschy, Marc; Rotstein, Yair; Schlich, Roland; Coffin, Millard F.

1993-04-01

60

Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the Southern Cone of South America: New Clues from Mitogenomes  

PubMed Central

With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j) whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l) and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11–13,000 years) appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups.

de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A.; Bodner, Martin; Gomez-Carballa, Alberto; Corach, Daniel; Angerhofer, Norman; Woodward, Scott R.; Semino, Ornella; Salas, Antonio; Parson, Walther; Moraga, Mauricio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Olivieri, Anna

2012-01-01

61

Insights into the Genetic Structure and Diversity of 38 South Asian Indians from Deep Whole-Genome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

South Asia possesses a significant amount of genetic diversity due to considerable intergroup differences in culture and language. There have been numerous reports on the genetic structure of Asian Indians, although these have mostly relied on genotyping microarrays or targeted sequencing of the mitochondria and Y chromosomes. Asian Indians in Singapore are primarily descendants of immigrants from Dravidian-language–speaking states in south India, and 38 individuals from the general population underwent deep whole-genome sequencing with a target coverage of 30X as part of the Singapore Sequencing Indian Project (SSIP). The genetic structure and diversity of these samples were compared against samples from the Singapore Sequencing Malay Project and populations in Phase 1 of the 1,000 Genomes Project (1 KGP). SSIP samples exhibited greater intra-population genetic diversity and possessed higher heterozygous-to-homozygous genotype ratio than other Asian populations. When compared against a panel of well-defined Asian Indians, the genetic makeup of the SSIP samples was closely related to South Indians. However, even though the SSIP samples clustered distinctly from the Europeans in the global population structure analysis with autosomal SNPs, eight samples were assigned to mitochondrial haplogroups that were predominantly present in Europeans and possessed higher European admixture than the remaining samples. An analysis of the relative relatedness between SSIP with two archaic hominins (Denisovan, Neanderthal) identified higher ancient admixture in East Asian populations than in SSIP. The data resource for these samples is publicly available and is expected to serve as a valuable complement to the South Asian samples in Phase 3 of 1 KGP.

Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Cheng, Anthony Youzhi; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Liu, Xuanyao; Xu, Wenting; Chen, Peng; Foo, Jia-Nee; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Koo, Seok-Hwee; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus Rene; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Little, Peter; Chia, Kee-Seng; Teo, Yik-Ying

2014-01-01

62

Insights into the genetic structure and diversity of 38 South Asian Indians from deep whole-genome sequencing.  

PubMed

South Asia possesses a significant amount of genetic diversity due to considerable intergroup differences in culture and language. There have been numerous reports on the genetic structure of Asian Indians, although these have mostly relied on genotyping microarrays or targeted sequencing of the mitochondria and Y chromosomes. Asian Indians in Singapore are primarily descendants of immigrants from Dravidian-language-speaking states in south India, and 38 individuals from the general population underwent deep whole-genome sequencing with a target coverage of 30X as part of the Singapore Sequencing Indian Project (SSIP). The genetic structure and diversity of these samples were compared against samples from the Singapore Sequencing Malay Project and populations in Phase 1 of the 1,000 Genomes Project (1 KGP). SSIP samples exhibited greater intra-population genetic diversity and possessed higher heterozygous-to-homozygous genotype ratio than other Asian populations. When compared against a panel of well-defined Asian Indians, the genetic makeup of the SSIP samples was closely related to South Indians. However, even though the SSIP samples clustered distinctly from the Europeans in the global population structure analysis with autosomal SNPs, eight samples were assigned to mitochondrial haplogroups that were predominantly present in Europeans and possessed higher European admixture than the remaining samples. An analysis of the relative relatedness between SSIP with two archaic hominins (Denisovan, Neanderthal) identified higher ancient admixture in East Asian populations than in SSIP. The data resource for these samples is publicly available and is expected to serve as a valuable complement to the South Asian samples in Phase 3 of 1 KGP. PMID:24832686

Wong, Lai-Ping; Lai, Jason Kuan-Han; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Cheng, Anthony Youzhi; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Liu, Xuanyao; Xu, Wenting; Chen, Peng; Foo, Jia-Nee; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Koo, Seok-Hwee; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus Rene; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Little, Peter; Chia, Kee-Seng; Teo, Yik-Ying

2014-05-01

63

Higher Protein Intake Is Associated with Diabetes Risk in South Asian Indians: The Metabolic Syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Despite a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in South Asian Indians, the impact of diet in this high-risk ethnic group has not been fully explored. The association of macronutrient intake and diabetes in South Asian Indians was examined in this cross-sectional study. Methods A population-based cohort of 146 South Asian Indians aged 45–79 years without existing cardiovascular disease living in the San Francisco Bay Area was recruited between August 2006 and October 2007. Macronutrient intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire developed and validated in South Asians. Diabetes was defined by use of a hypoglycemic medication, a fasting plasma glucose level ?126 mg/dL, or a 2-hour post-challenge glucose level ?200 mg/dL. The association between energy-adjusted macronutrient intake and diabetes was explored using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Forty-one (28%) participants had type 2 diabetes; 20 were unaware of this diagnosis and were classified as having diabetes by laboratory testing. In a model fully adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, and hypertension, there was a 70% increase in the odds of diabetes per standard deviation in gram of protein intake/day (standardized OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.08, 2.68], p = 0.02). There was a trend toward increased protein intake and diabetes in the subset of participants with previously unknown, laboratory-diagnosed diabetes. Results did not vary significantly by sex, body mass index, or dietary pattern. Conclusions Higher level of protein intake was associated with increased odds of diabetes in this cohort of South Asian Indians. Diet may be a modifiable lifestyle factor in this high-risk ethnic group.

Wang, Erica T.; de Koning, Lawrence; Kanaya, Alka M.

2014-01-01

64

The Foramen Ovale Morphometry of Sphenoid Bone in South Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Background: The foramen ovale is an oval opening in the greater wing of sphenoid bone transmitting the mandibular nerve as its major content. It serves as an important landmark for neurosurgeons in certain procedures as to gain access to trigeminal nerve. Therefore, its topographic position in relation to adjacent bony landmarks provides useful tool during these procedures. Aim: To analyse the morphometric measurements of the foramen ovale among South Indian population. Material and Methods: Morphometric analysis was carried out on 104 foramina ovalia of 52 dry human skulls from South India. Following dimensions of foramen ovale were measured: antero-posterior length, transverse width, distance (d1) from tubercle of root of zygoma to the centre of the foramen (CF) and distance (d2) from the midline of the base of the skull to CF. Results: The mean antero-posterior length was 7.0±2.17mm on right side and 6.8±1.40mm on left side, mean transverse width was 5.0±0.42mm and 4.70±0.91mm on right and left side respectively. Mean d1 was 32.58±1.72mm on right side and 32.75±1.76mm on left side. Mean d2 was 25.83±1.26mm on right side and 25.08±1.31mm on left side. Conclusion: Regional variations in the morphometric measures may be useful in neurosurgical procedures like administration of anaesthesia involving the mandibular nerve.

Patil, Jyothsna; Kumar, Naveen; K.G., Mohandas Rao; Ravindra S., Swamy; S N., Somayaji; Nayak B., Satheesha; Marpalli, Sapna; L.S., Ashwini

2013-01-01

65

Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe) status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR). The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of 57Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption.

Kalasuramath, Suneeta; Kurpad, Anura V.; Thankachan, Prashanth

2013-01-01

66

Hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperlipoproteinemia (a) in obese south indian men: an indication for increased cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Obesity is a pathological condition which increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. The present study was designed to evaluate homocysteine, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], apolipoprotein-B (apo-B), apolipoprotein-A-I (apo-A-I) and lipid indices and their association if any in obese South Indian men. Thirty obese men and thirty age-matched males with normal body weight (controls) were recruited in the study. Plasma homocysteine, Lp(a), lipid profile, apo-A-I and apo-B were estimated in all the subjects. Lipid indices such as lipid pentad index (LPI), lipid tetrad index (LTI), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL)/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and apo-B/apo-A-I ratio were calculated in all study subjects. Homocysteine, Lp(a), apo-B, apo-B/apo-A-I ratio and lipid indices were significantly increased in obese men, compared to controls. Both homocysteine and Lp(a) were positively correlated with BMI, waist, hip circumference and apo-B and negatively correlated with apo-A-I. Also we found highly significant positive correlation between homocysteine and Lp(a) levels. The data from the present study concludes that non-conventional risk factors like homocysteine, Lp (a), apo-B/apo-A-I ratio, LTI, LPI, non-HDL/HDL ratio and AIP were significantly elevated in obese Indian men, suggesting they are more prone to develop cardiovascular disease, than the age-matched men with normal body weight. PMID:24311227

Ikkruthi, S; Rajappa, Medha; Nandeesha, H; Satheesh, S; Sundar, I; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Harichandrakumar, K T

2014-03-01

67

Seismotectonics of the Lwandle-Nubia plate boundary between South Africa and the Southwest Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lwandle (LW) plate shares a boundary with the Nubia (NU) plate, extending from a diffuse triple junction with the Rovuma plate in Southern Mozambique to a triple junction with the Antarctic plate along a segment of the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). The LW-NU boundary terminates in the ~750 km-long, complex transform of the Andrew Bain Fracture Zone (ABFZ), but its exact locus is still unclear. Recent works locate it along the eastern boundary of the submarine Mozambique Ridge, parallel to the pre-existing, oceanic transform-fault fabric. However, an early concept of the LW block ('ambiguous region' of Hartnady, 1990, Fig. 2) indicates a more westerly trajectory in the north that includes parts of South Africa, with a southerly extension across old oceanic crust of the submarine Natal Valley and Transkei Basin. This proposed boundary is marked by several, aligned epicentres of moderate to strong earthquakes (1941, 1942, 1956, 1969, 1972, 1975, 1981 and 1989). Our re-examination of seismographic records from the 1975 'intraplate' earthquake (-37.62°N, 30.98°E, mb5.0), in the oceanic crust of the distal Transkei Basin, shows a thrust-faulting focal mechanism along a nodal plane striking N272°E. The largest (ML4.2) of a series of three small earthquakes in the Natal Valley in 2009, close to a zone of recent seafloor deformation mapped in 1992, has similar first-motion patterns at Southern African seismograph stations. When the 1975 slip-vector result (N173°E) is combined with a normal-faulting slip vector (N078°E) from a 1986 onland earthquake (-30.53°N, 28.84°E, mb5.0) near the Lesotho-KZN border, and both are incorporated into the wider data-set previously used to solve for East African Rift kinematics, they produce a LW-NU rotation pole that is located south of Africa, near the Agulhas Plateau, and approximately 950 km from the Natal Valley deformation zone. The modeled low rate of right-lateral, LW-NU slip (~0.50-0.75 mm/yr) across this LW-NU boundary segment suggests that the 1972, 1981 and nearby 2009 earthquakes are instances of a 'long aftershock sequence' in the source zone of the 1850 'i-Nyikima' event, which was felt over a very wide region of the Eastern Cape Colony, and the adjacent territories of British Kaffraria and Pondoland. This remarkable historic shaking appears to have been caused by a great (Mw8.0+), oceanic event along a segment of the LW-NU boundary, resembling the 1942 SWIR event along the ABFZ and the recent (2012 March 11) North Indian Ocean events along the incipient boundary between the Indian and Australian plates. This new interpretation has implications for the re-assessment of seismic and submarine-landslide (tsunami) hazard along the SE continental margin of South Africa. Reference Hartnady CJH (1990). Seismicity and plate boundary evolution in southeastern Africa. S. Afr. J. Geol. 93, 473 484.

Hartnady, Chris; Okal, Emile; Calais, Eric; Stamps, Sarah; Saria, Elifuraha

2013-04-01

68

The use of boulders for characterising past tsunamis: Lessons from the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2009 South Pacific tsunamis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunamis are high energy events capable of transporting extremely heavy loads including boulders. We compare boulder deposits created by two modern tsunami events, the 2004 Indian Ocean and the 2009 South Pacific tsunamis, where the boulder sources were in similar topographic settings, and for which we have accurate data on the wave characteristics. Boulder distribution, preferential orientation and numerical simulation of boulder transport are discussed. A comparison between the impacts of the South Pacific and Indian Ocean tsunamis shows similar characteristics, such as limited landward extent and the absence of landward fining. Differences between the results from modelling and field data are most probably caused by variables such as coastal plain roughness (buildings, trees), microtopography, particle shape, and boulder collision during transport that are summarised as coefficients in the mathematical models. Characterising modern events through coarse sediment deposits provides valuable information to help identify and interpret palaeo-tsunami imprints on coastal landscapes.

Etienne, Samuel; Buckley, Mark; Paris, Raphaël; Nandasena, Aruna K.; Clark, Kate; Strotz, Luke; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James; Richmond, Bruce

2011-07-01

69

Dissolved organic matter cycling in the confluence of the Atlantic and Indian oceans south of Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundary between the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the Southern Ocean is a key spot of the thermohaline circulation, where the following water masses mix up: Indian Central water (ICW), South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), Weddell Sea Deep Water (WSDW) and Antarctic Winter Water (WW). An optimum multiparameter analysis based on the distributions of potential temperature, salinity, NO (=O2+9.3×NO3) and silicate during the GoodHope 2004 (GH04) cruise allowed us to (i) define the realms of these water masses; (ii) obtain the water mass proportion weighted-average (archetypal) apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of each water mass; and (iii) estimate the contribution of DOC to the oxygen demand of the study area. WW represented only 5.2% of the water volume sampled during GH04, followed by WSDW with 10.8%, NADW with 12.7%, SACW with 15.3%, AAIW with 23.1% and CDW with 32.8%. The distributions of DOC and AOU were mainly explained by the mixing of archetypal concentrations of these variables, 75±5% and 65±3% respectively, which retained the variability due to the basin-scale mineralization from the formation area to the barycentre of each water mass along the GH04 line. DOC accounted for 26±2% and 12±5% of the oxygen demand of the meso- and bathypelagic ocean, respectively. Conversely, local mineralization processes, retained by the residuals of the archetypal concentrations of DOC and AOU, did not contribute to improve significantly the mixing model of DOC. HighlightsDissolved organic carbon (DOC) variability in the dark ocean south of Africa is resolved with a multiparamenter water mass analysis.Basin scale mineralization from the water mass formation areas to the study zone controlled the variability of DOC.DOC accounted for 26% and 13% of the oxygen demand of the meso and bathypelagic layers, respectively.

Guerrero-Feijóo, E.; Nieto-Cid, M.; Álvarez, M.; Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.

2014-01-01

70

Blood pressure, arterial compliance, and left ventricular mass: no relation to small size at birth in south Indian adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo determine whether reduced fetal growth leads to raised blood pressure, reduced arterial compliance, and increased left ventricular mass in an Indian population.DESIGNA retrospective cohort study of men and women (age range 40–61 years) whose weight, length, and head circumference at birth were recorded.SETTINGThe Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, South India.SUBJECTS435 men and women born in the hospital between 1934 and

K Kumaran; C H D Fall; C N Martyn; M Vijayakumar; C Stein; R Shier

2000-01-01

71

COMPARISON OF THE COAT PROTEIN OF A SOUTH INDIAN STRAIN OF PRSV WITH OTHER STRAINS FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) causes major diseases in papaya and cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent that result in significant yield losses. Molecular charac- terization of the coat protein (CP) gene of a South Indi- an strain (INP-UAS) of PRSV-P revealed an open read- ing frame of 849 bp that encoded the putative coat pro- tein of 283 amino

M. V. Hema; D. T. Prasad

2004-01-01

72

Zone Based Hybrid Feature Extraction Algorithm for Handwritten Numeral Recognition of South Indian Scripts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is a multi-lingual multi script country, where eighteen official scripts are accepted and have over hundred regional languages. In this paper we propose a zone based hybrid feature extraction algorithm scheme towards the recognition of off-line handwritten numerals of south Indian scripts. The character centroid is computed and the image (character/numeral) is further divided in to n equal zones. Average distance and Average angle from the character centroid to the pixels present in the zone are computed (two features). Similarly zone centroid is computed (two features). This procedure is repeated sequentially for all the zones/grids/boxes present in the numeral image. There could be some zones that are empty, and then the value of that particular zone image value in the feature vector is zero. Finally 4*n such features are extracted. Nearest neighbor classifier is used for subsequent classification and recognition purpose. We obtained 97.55 %, 94 %, 92.5% and 95.2 % recognition rate for Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam numerals respectively.

Rajashekararadhya, S. V.; Ranjan, P. Vanaja

73

Are the current Indian growth charts really representative? Analysis of anthropometric assessment of school children in a South Indian district  

PubMed Central

Background: India currently is posed by the double threat of thinness and overweight/obesity among children. Different growth charts have taken different population and give different cut-off points to assess these conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometry of school children, 5-18 years of age and thereby estimate the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight and obesity. To analyze how the study population compares with that of Agarwal's growth chart. Materials and Methods: The anthropometric measurements of all the students who were studying from 1st to 12th standards were taken from 27 randomly selected Government and private schools. Prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity were assessed using two standards – Indian standard given by Agarwal and International Standards given by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Results: The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among 18,001 students enrolled as per Indian standard were 12.2%, 9.5% and 3% and as per International standard were 15.3%, 8.1% and 2.6% respectively. The mean and the 95th percentile values of body mass index for both boys and girls at all ages in this study are falling short of Agarwal's and IOTF values. Using international cut-offs as well as Indian cut-offs given by Agarwal, underestimate the prevalence of obesity among boys and girls of all age groups. Conclusion: This study shows that under and over-nutrition among school children is in almost equal proportions. There is an underestimation of obesity among children whenever an Indian or an International growth chart is used. Thus, this study brings out the need for a really representative growth chart.

Kumaravel, V.; Shriraam, Vanishree; Anitharani, M.; Mahadevan, S.; Balamurugan, A. N.; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

2014-01-01

74

Cast the Net a Little Wider: Australian Aid in the South Pacific  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the development of Australia's bilateral aid program to higher education in the South Pacific, specifically at the University of the South Pacific (USP). The premise is primarily historical, focusing on the important decades of USP's expansion and Australian aid policy development in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. This article…

Cassity, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

75

Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in South Eastern Africa coupled to sea surface temperature variations in the Western Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the vegetation of South Africa might elucidate the climate system at the edge of the tropics between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. However, vegetation records covering a full glacial cycle have only been published from the eastern South Atlantic. We present a pollen record of the marine core MD96-2048 retrieved by the Marion Dufresne from the Indian Ocean ∼120 km south of the Limpopo River mouth. The sedimentation at the site is slow and continuous. The upper 6 m (spanning the past 342 Ka) have been analysed for pollen and spores at millennial resolution. The terrestrial pollen assemblages indicate that during interglacials, the vegetation of eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique largely consisted of evergreen and deciduous forests. During glacials open mountainous scrubland dominated. Montane forest with Podocarpus extended during humid periods was favoured by strong local insolation. Correlation with the sea surface temperature record of the same core indicates that the extension of mountainous scrubland primarily depends on sea surface temperatures of the Agulhas Current. Our record corroborates terrestrial evidence of the extension of open mountainous scrubland (including fynbos-like species of the high-altitude Grassland biome) for the last glacial as well as for other glacial periods of the past 300 Ka.

Dupont, L. M.; Caley, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Castañeda, I.; Malaizé, B.; Giraudeau, J.

2011-11-01

76

Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in south eastern Africa depend on sea surface temperature variations in the west Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the vegetation of South Africa might elucidate the climate system at the edge of the tropics between Indian and Atlantic Ocean. However, vegetation records covering a full glacial cycle have only been published from the eastern South Atlantic. We present a pollen record of the marine core MD96-2048 retrieved by the Marion Dufresne from the Indian Ocean ~120 km south of the Limpopo River mouth. The sedimentation at the site is slow and continuous. The upper 6 m (down till 342 ka) have been analysed for pollen and spores at millennial resolution. The terrestrial pollen assemblages indicate that during interglacials the vegetation of eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique largely consisted of evergreen and deciduous forests. During glacials open mountainous scrubland dominated. Montane forest with Podocarpus extended during humid periods favoured by strong local insolation. Correlation with the sea surface temperature record of the same core indicates that the extension of mountainous scrubland primarily depends on sea surface temperatures of the Agulhas Current. Our record corroborates terrestrial evidence of the extension of open mountainous scrubland (including elements with affinity to the Cape Flora) for the last glacial as well as for other glacial periods of the past 300 ka.

Dupont, L. M.; Caley, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Castaneda, I.; Malaizé, B.; Giraudeau, J.

2011-07-01

77

Dupal anomaly in existence 115 Ma ago: Evidence from isotopic study of the Kerguelen Plateau (South Indian Ocean)  

SciTech Connect

The Kerguelen Plateau (South Indian Ocean), whose oldest age has been dated as early Cretaceous, shows geochemical and isotopic features characteristic of OIB-type magmatism. It is probably related to the early stages of activity of the Kerguelen hot spot which is also responsible for the Ninetyeast Ridge. It shows all evidence of being an oceanic plateau with an impressive volume of magmatism. The Nd-Sr isotopic systematics of the Plateau basalts show a large spread of values comparable to the systematics shown by the basalts from the Kerguelen Islands. However, while the archipelago basalts have Pb isotopic variations almost within analytical errors, the Plateau basalts show large Pb isotopic variations which overlap the whole range observed amongst Indian Ocean ridge basalts. Contamination of a deep, enriched OIB-type plume, i.e., the Kerguelen hot spot with characteristic Dupal signature, by a depleted, MORB-type reservoir can account for both the trace-element and isotopic geochemistry of the Kerguelen Plateau basalts. This indicates the existence of the Dupal anomaly already 115 Ma ago. In addition, evidence for its involvement in the genesis of Indian Ocean basalts occurs throughout time, including the present day. This favors the hypothesis of a deep-seated source for this major geochemical anomaly which is then probably responsible for the special features of the Indian Ocean.

Weis, D.; Mennessier, J.P. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)); Bassias, Y. (Laboratoire de Geologie du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France)); Gautier, I. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium) Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France))

1989-08-01

78

Interaction of tropical cyclone Ivan (South-West Indian Ocean, 2007) with the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical cyclones are major natural hazards, that regularly wreak havoc in many places of the world. They grow over the tropical oceans, where upper-layer warm waters constitute a main source of energy for their development. A necessary criterion for tropical cyclogenesis is that the sea surface temperature (SST) is higher than 26°C, with warm waters extending down at least 30 to 50m. However, the SST under a cyclone is affected by the strong winds that are responsible for upper-ocean mixing and SST cooling. The interactions of a tropical cyclone with the ocean are therefore critical to understand its dynamics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of the ocean, and more particulary, of a horizontal SST gradient on the rapid intensification and structure change of tropical cyclone Ivan (South-West Indian Ocean, 2007). The cyclone is simulated with the high-resolution (4-km) non-hydrostatic numerical model Meso-NH. Two simulations are computed: the first one uses a realistic SST field which is kept constant during the simulation, while the second one uses a SST which evolves during the simulation through a coupling with a 1D ocean model. This last simulation allows to simulate the SST cooling due to the cyclone winds. The results of these simulations show the impact of the SST gradient and cooling on the surface sensible and latent heat turbulent fluxes, and on the thermodynamical and dynamical structure of the cyclone Ivan. They help to understand the contribution of the ocean to the rapid intensification of this cyclone as it passed over the SST gradient.

Samson, G.; Barbary, D.; Plu, M.; Roux, F.; Giordani, H.

2009-09-01

79

Association study of the ABCC8 gene variants with type 2 diabetes in south Indians  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The ABCC8 gene which encodes the sulfonylurea receptor plays a major role in insulin secretion and is a potential candidate for type 2 diabetes. The -3c ? t (rs1799854) and Thr759Thr (C ? T, rs1801261) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ABCC8 gene have been associated with type 2 diabetes in many populations. The present study was designed to investigate the association of these two SNPs in an Asian Indian population from south India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,300 subjects, 663 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and 637 type 2 diabetic subjects were randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). The -3c ? t and Thr759Thr were genotyped in these subjects using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and a few variants were confirmed by direct sequencing. RESULTS: The frequency of the ‘t’ allele of the -3c ? t SNP was found to be 0.27 in NGT and 0.29 in type 2 diabetic subjects (P = 0.44). There was no significant difference in the genotypic frequency between the NGT and type 2 diabetic group (P = 0.18). Neither the genotypic frequency nor the allele frequency of the Thr759Thr polymorphism was found to differ significantly between the NGT and type 2 diabetic groups. CONCLUSION: The -3c ? t and the Thr759Thr polymorphisms of the ABCC8 gene were not associated with type 2 diabetes in this study. However, an effect of these genetic variants on specific unidentified sub groups of type 2 diabetes cannot be excluded.

Venkatesan, Radha; Bodhini, Dhanasekaran; Narayani, Nagarajan; Mohan, Viswanathan

2014-01-01

80

Late Quaternary Variability in the Deep Water Exchange Between South Atlantic, Southern and Indian Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Ocean, south of Africa, is an important mixing region for northern and southern derived deep-water masses. In this region, the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) extends southward into the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) dividing it into an upper (UCDW) and a lower (LCDW) layer. Thus, marine sediments from this area are a sensitive recorder for changes of the paleocirculation and relative variations in the deep-water formation in both, the northern Atlantic and Antarctic regions. Here we present results from the EXCHANGE Project which is located in this transition zone of the South Atlantic, the Southern Ocean and the Indian Ocean. In this project we investigate six sediment cores taken along a transect from continental slope at the southern tip of Africa towards the Conrad Rise. Pronounced glacial/interglacial variations in the dominance of NADW and LCDW across the transect are reflected in the clay mineral assemblage and carbon isotope composition of benthic foraminifera. High kaolinite/chlorite-ratios associated with high stable carbon isotope ratios indicate stronger influence of NADW during interglacials. In contrast, glacials are dominated by southern-derived LCDW. Our results suggest a fast southward advance of NADW-dominance during the last two terminations while the northward retreat of NADW, with the onset of glacial conditions, is more gradual. In general, interglacial sediments are also characterized by higher mean grain size diameters in the terrigenous silt fraction (10 to 63 microns), thus indicating stronger bottom currents. However, maximum grain size and sortable silt values are reached at the early stages of the last two glacial periods. Due to the generally weakened bottom current strength, as a result of reduced deep water formation, we would expect smaller values when compared with interglacial conditions. We therefore assume that eolian dust input from the Patagonian region plays a significant role especially in the early glacial periods. The exposure of large continental areas with the low glacial sea level and desertification in the hinterland may increase the amount of dust prone for eolian transport. Moreover, the more vigorous westerly winds during glacials are capable of transporting larger grain sizes. As the amount of material prone to wind transport diminishes towards the end of the glacial, eolian influx and grain sizes decrease significantly. Then the grain size distribution is again mainly controlled by the transport through bottom currents.

Leuschner, D. C.; Krueger, S.; Ehrmann, W.; Schmiedl, G.; Kuhn, G.; Mackensen, A.; Diekmann, B.

2005-12-01

81

GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone. With continued transgression, the Greybull fluvial sand graded upward into marginal marine (probably estuarine) sand (upper Greybull) and finally was capped by marine shale and the Fall River Sandstone. Subsurface mapping, incorporated with surface data, has revealed five major Greybull channels crossing the Crow Reservation. The Greybull Sandstone is a proven petroleum reservoir in the Crow Reservation region. Greybull combination traps require the presence of channel sandstone as well as structural closure. With sparse reservation well control, subsurface structural and isopach maps are highly interpretive. Three potential Greybull exploration leads were identified where possible structural closures are coincident with mapped Greybull channels: the Little Woody, Woody Dome, and Crow Agency prospects. Of these, the Crow Agency prospect was confirmed by a significant soil-gas anomaly and appears to have the greatest probability of having trapped a hydrocarbon accumulation.

David A. Lopez

2000-12-14

82

Lack of association of lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene polymorphisms with intracranial aneurysm in a south Indian population.  

PubMed

Intracranial aneurysm (IA) accounts for 85 % of haemorrhagic stroke and is mainly caused due to weakening of arterial wall. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a cuproenzyme involved in cross linking structural proteins collagen and elastin, thus providing structural stability to artery. Using a case-control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether the variants in LOX gene flanking the two LD block, can increase risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. SNPs were genotyped by fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR (KASPar) chemistry. We selected 200 radiologically confirmed aneurysmal cases and 235 ethnically and age and gender matched controls from the Dravidian Malayalam speaking population of South India. We observed marked interethnic differences in the genotype distribution of LOX variants when compared to Japanese and African populations. However, there was no significant association with any of the LOX variants with IA. This study also could not observe any significant role of LOX polymorphisms in influencing IA either directly or indirectly through its confounding factors such as hypertension and gender in South Indian population. PMID:24065528

Sathyan, Sanish; Koshy, Linda; Sarada Lekshmi, K R; Easwer, H V; Premkumar, S; Alapatt, Jacob P; Nair, Suresh; Bhattacharya, R N; Banerjee, Moinak

2013-10-01

83

Nutritional factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in the early stage of pregnancy among urban South Indian women.  

PubMed

Many women of reproductive age from developing countries have poor nutritional status, and the prevalence of depression during pregnancy is high. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy, and to identify the demographic and nutritional factors associated with these symptoms in a sample of urban South Indian pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was the baseline assessment of a prospective randomized controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation in urban pregnant south Indian women between the ages of 18 and 40 years ( www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00641862). 365 women in their first trimester of pregnancy were screened for depressive symptoms at an urban clinic in Karnataka, South India, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10). Nutritional, clinical and biochemical factors were also assessed. Mean (SD) age of the cohort was 22.6 (3.7) years and mean (SD) BMI was 20.4 (3.3) kg/m(2). 121 (33 %) of the women in the 1st trimester had symptoms consistent with depression (K-10 score >6). In multivariate log binomial regression analysis, presence of antenatal depressive symptoms in the first trimester were positively associated with vomiting, prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.54 (95 % CI 1.10, 2.16) and negatively with anemia, PR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.96). Nutrient intakes, serum vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and red cell folate levels were not associated with measures of depression. Antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy are highly prevalent in urban Indian women and are more common in women with vomiting and without anemia. In this cross-sectional data, blood concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate were not associated with depressive symptoms. The relationship between nutritional status and depressive symptoms may require larger and longitudinal studies. PMID:23440491

Lukose, Ammu; Ramthal, Asha; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

2014-01-01

84

Sexual risk behaviors among HIV-infected South Indian couples in the HAART era: implications for reproductive health and HIV care delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines sexual behaviors among HIV-infected Indians in primary care, where access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has recently increased. Between January and April 2008, we assessed the sexual behaviors of 247 HIV-infected South Indians in care. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of being in a HIV-seroconcordant primary relationship, being sexually active, and

Kartik K. Venkatesh; A. K. Srikrishnan; Steven A. Safren; Elizabeth W. Triche; E. Thamburaj; Lakshmi Prasad; Mark N. Lurie; M. Suresh Kumar; N. Kumarasamy; Suniti Solomon; Kenneth H. Mayer

2011-01-01

85

Observation of oligotrophic gyre variability in the south Indian Ocean: Environmental forcing and biological response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expansion of oligotrophic ocean gyre and widespread reduction of phytoplankton biomass will have severe environmental and ecological effect since phytoplankton accounts for half of the global primary production, which forms the trophic base for marine ecosystem. Analysis of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) datasets (1998-2010) suggested significant expansion of South Indian Ocean oligotrophic gyre (SOG) at average annual rate of 4.46%/yr (r=0.66, p=0.013). The annual trend of SOG expansion was accompanied with the significantly declining trend of Chl-a concentration (-1.36%/yr, or -0.0007±0.0001 mg m-3/yr, r=0.76, p=0.002). Environmental parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST) and meridional wind stress (?y) were found to be the most accountable factors controlling the variability of Chl-a/gyre area. Nevertheless, SST was the dominant predictor of biological response (explains more than 60% of Chl-a variability). This study suggests that the observed trend of SOG expansion and accompanied decline in Chl-a concentration is principally due to SST warming (0.05±0.01 °C/yr, r=0.83, p=0.0008) and weakening of wind stress (?) mainly meridional wind stress component, ?y (-0012 Pa/yr, r=0.86, p=0.004). Additionally, the SST trend map showed more than 80% of the SOG area is warming significantly under circumstance of overall gain of net heat flux by the sea surface. Analysis of these climate variables suggests decreased mixing and enhanced stratification in the SOG which reduces nutrient supply to sunlit zone; consequently resulting in low phytoplankton biomass, and gyre expansion. In addition, the sea-level rise observed in SOG (0.48±0.05 cm/yr) is much higher than the global estimates (0.18±0.05 cm/yr) reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, 2007. The variability in Chl-a concentration was also studied with respect to leading climate oscillators.

Jena, Babula; Sahu, Shanghamitra; Avinash, Kumar; Swain, Debadatta

2013-10-01

86

Outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural and urban south Indian population  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess the visual outcome after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study of subjects aged 40 years or more. Three thousand nine hundred and twenty-four rural subjects from 27 contiguous villages and 3850 urban subjects from five randomly selected divisions were studied. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and dilated retinal examination. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test, t test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Five hundred and twenty-eight (216 males, 312 females, 781 eyes) rural subjects (13.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.4% to 14.6%) and 406 (197 males, 209 females, 604 eyes) urban subjects (10.5%, 95% CI 9.6-11.5%) had undergone cataract surgery. Outcome of cataract surgery was defined based on visual acuity. Using best-corrected visual acuity for classification, the single most important cause for visual impairment was cystoid macular edema in the aphakic group and posterior capsule opacification in the pseudophakic group. Aphakia (visual acuity of <20/60 to ?20/400 - odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.6%, visual acuity of <20/400 - OR 6.2; 95% 4.0 to 9.8%), rural residence (visual acuity of <20/60 to ?20/400 - OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.5% and visual acuity of <20/400 - OR OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.5%) were associated with visual impairment. The urban cataract-operated population had significantly more pseudophakics (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.02) and literates (P < 0.001). In the rural group the prevalence of cataract surgery (13.5% vs. 10.5%, P < 0.001) and number of people that had undergone cataract surgery within three years prior to examination (P < 0.001) were significantly greater. In 30% of rural and 16% of urban subjects uncorrected refraction was the cause of visual impairment. Conclusions: Surgery-related complications were major causes for visual acuity of <20/60.

Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; A, Rashima; Raju, Prema; Arvind, Hemamalini; Baskaran, Mani; Ve, Ramesh S

2010-01-01

87

Spectacle Coverage and Spectacles Use among Elderly Population in Residential Care in the South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Background. There is limited research conducted on uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia, and spectacles use among the elderly population in residential care in developing countries such as India. We conducted a cross-sectional study among elderly in residential care to assess the spectacle coverage and spectacles usage in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods. All 524 residents in the 26 “homes for aged” institutions in the district were enumerated. Eye examination was performed that included visual acuity (VA) assessment for distant and near vision. A questionnaire was used to collect information on spectacles use. Results. 494/524 individuals were examined, 78% were women, and 72% had no education. The mean age of participants was 70 years. The spectacle coverage for refractive errors was 35.1% and 23.9% for presbyopia. The prevalence of current use and past use of spectacles was 38.5% (95% CI: 34.2–42.8; n = 190) and 17.2% (95% CI: 13.9–42.8), respectively. Conclusions. There is low spectacle coverage for both refractive errors and presbyopia among elderly individuals in residential care in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Appropriate service delivery systems should be developed to reach out this vulnerable group of seniors on a priority basis.

Marmamula, Srinivas; Ravuri, L. V. Chandra Sekhar; Boon, Mei Ying; Khanna, Rohit C.

2013-01-01

88

Lipoprotein Ratios as Surrogate Markers for Insulin Resistance in South Indians with Normoglycemic Nondiabetic Acute Coronary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background. Insulin resistance has been associated with dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Even though homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) is a well-known insulin resistance predictor, estimation of serum lipoprotein ratios has been recently suggested as a surrogate marker for insulin resistance. Here, we evaluated the relationship between lipoprotein ratios and insulin resistance in normoglycemic nondiabetic south Indians with acute coronary syndrome. Methods. 100 normoglycemic nondiabetic ACS patients and 140 controls were enrolled in the study. Levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels were measured and lipoprotein ratios were computed. HOMA-IR was used to calculate the insulin resistance. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) analysis was used to compare the power of these lipoprotein ratios to predict insulin resistance. Results. Lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher in normoglycemic nondiabetic ACS patients, as compared to healthy controls, and were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. ROC curve showed that Lp(a)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios were the best surrogate predictors of insulin resistance in normoglycemic nondiabetic ACS. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that serum lipoprotein ratios significantly correlate with insulin resistance in normoglycemic nondiabetic ACS. Lp(a)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios could be used as surrogate markers of insulin resistance in atherosclerosis-prone south Indians with normoglycemic nondiabetic ACS.

Rajappa, Medha; Sridhar, M. G.; Balachander, J.; Sethuraman, K. R.; Rajendiran, Kalai Selvi

2014-01-01

89

Y-chromosome SNP haplotypes suggest evidence of gene flow among caste, tribe, and the migrant Siddi populations of Andhra Pradesh, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

From observations of lack of haplotype sharing based on Y-chromosome specific short tandem repeat (STR) loci, previous reports suggested negligible gene flow among different geographic populations of India. Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sites in combination with STRs, we observed evidence of haplotype sharing across caste-tribe boundaries in South India. We examined 27 SNPs in the non-recombining region of the

Gutala Venkata Ramana; Bing Su; Li Jin; Lalji Singh; Ning Wang; Peter Underhill; Ranajit Chakraborty

2001-01-01

90

Casting Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

Wright, Michael D.; And Others

1992-01-01

91

Phylogeny and colonization history of Pringlea antiscorbutica (Brassicaceae), an emblematic endemic from the South Indian Ocean Province.  

PubMed

The origins and evolution of sub-Antarctic island floras are not well understood. In particular there is uncertainty about the ages of the contemporary floras and the ultimate origins of the lineages they contain. Pringlea R. Br. (Brassicaceae) is a monotypic genus endemic to four sub-Antarctic island groups in the southern Indian Ocean. Here we used sequences from both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes to examine the phylogenetic position of this enigmatic genus. Our analyses confirm that Pringlea falls within the tribe Thelypodieae and provide a preliminary view of its relationships within the group. Divergence time estimates and ancestral area reconstructions imply Pringlea diverged from a South American ancestor ~5 Myr ago. It remains unclear whether the ancestor of Pringlea dispersed directly to the South Indian Ocean Province (SIOP) or used Antarctica as a stepping-stone; what is clear, however, is that following arrival in the SIOP several additional long-distance dispersal events must be inferred to explain the current distribution of this species. Our analyses also suggest that although Pringlea is likely to have inherited cold tolerance from its closest relatives, the distinctive morphology of this species evolved only after it split from the South American lineage. More generally, our results lend support to the hypothesis that angiosperms persisted on the sub-Antarctic islands throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Taken together with evidence from other sub-Antarctic island plant groups, they suggest the extant flora of sub-Antarctic is likely to have been assembled over a broad time period and from lineages with distinctive biogeographic histories. PMID:22871399

Bartish, Igor V; Aïnouche, Abdelkader; Jia, Dongrui; Bergstrom, Dana; Chown, Steven L; Winkworth, Richard C; Hennion, Françoise

2012-11-01

92

Preliminary climatology and improved modelling of south Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean mid-latitude cyclones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intense mid-latitude cyclones that traverse the southern waters of the Indian Ocean, between South Africa and southwestern Western Australia, are among the strongest depressions found anywhere in the world, outside tropical waters. Near-surface winds that exceed storm force (i.e. 24 m/s or 48 knots), and central pressures of 960 hPa and lower, are relatively common for these systems. They pose a constant threat to both open ocean and coastal shipping, and regularly generate severe weather over the populated southwestern corner of Australia. Large ocean waves and swell produce extensive coastal inundation and erosion.There were two main aims in this study. The first aim was to develop a preliminary climatology of these intense mid-latitude cyclones, for the region 20-60 °S, 30-130 °E. The climatology, which is the first that we are aware of for this notoriously data-sparse region, is based largely upon satellite observations, particularly scatterometer data, and is supplemented by ship, buoy and all available land observations. The climatology revealed that, historically, the frequency and intensity of the mid-latitude cyclones in this domain have been significantly underestimated. This underestimation has resulted in analyses that have serious flaws, and the resultant operational forecasts provided to the duty forecasters in the regional forecast centre located in Perth, Western Australia, are of highly variable quality. A number of other climatological features of these storms are discussed in this article.The second aim was to identify the factors that can contribute to a significant improvement in model forecasts of these storms. So far, there have been very few studies of explosively developing cyclones over this part of the world. Results are presented here from a series of high-resolution numerical simulations of an intense cool season Southern Ocean cyclone that developed in 2003, using the HIRES numerical weather prediction model developed by L.M. Leslie. Here, we examine the sensitivity of the cyclone predictions to both model resolution and the initial analyses. The predicted variables of most interest are the central pressure, maximum sustained near-surface wind speeds, extent of storm-force winds, and the horizontal and vertical structure of the storm. Increased detail in the initial state is provided mainly by the assimilation into the archived global operational analyses of high-resolution satellite-derived data, including QuikSCAT scatterometer winds and sea-surface temperatures. The combination of increased horizontal and vertical model resolution, and improved initial model states, was found to produce numerical forecasts with significantly more accurate wind speeds than those obtained from the coarser resolution operational models, which also did not have the benefits of all the additional data. Finally, areas of future research are outlined, including coupling the HIRES atmospheric model with ocean and wave models, to improve forecasts of the sea state, including wind wave heights, swell and storm surges.

Buckley, Bruce W.; Leslie, Lance M.

2004-08-01

93

Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kerguelen Island, south Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These two images show exactly the same area, Kerguelen Island in the southern Indian Ocean. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

Discovered in 1772 by French navigator Chevalier Yves deKerguelen-Tremarac, Kerguelen is the largest of a group of 300 islands, islets and reefs that make up the Kerguelen Archipelago. The islands lie atop the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge and are built up of a thick series of lava flows with deposits of fragmented volcanic rock and some granite. Ice covers about one-third of the island, with the large Cook Glacier visible as the tan-colored region at the center-left. The highest point at 1,850 meters (6,068 feet) is glacier-covered Mount Ross, located near the bottom center. The coastline of the main island is highly irregular with a large number of peninsulas linked to the island by narrow isthmuses. Remarkably, although the island is 120 by 140 kilometers (75 by 87 miles) in size no point is more than 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the sea.

For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: 222 kilometers by 146 kilometers (138 miles by 91 miles) Location: 49.1 degrees South latitude, 69.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North is at the top Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

2002-01-01

94

Locus of Control Beliefs in Male and Female Indian and White Schoolchildren in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study provides information regarding the utility of a multidimensional LOC construct with children. The results suggest caution in assuming white to be more internally oriented than Indian children. Rather, when socioeconomic status factors and urban/rural differences are controlled, any assumptions about such differences become…

Barling, Julian; Fincham, Frank

1978-01-01

95

Observed changes in the South Indian Ocean gyre circulation, 1987-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use hydrographic data at 32°S from 1987, 1995 and 2002 to investigate changes in the strength of the subtropical gyre circulation in the Indian Ocean. Relative geostrophic transports are computed for the ocean interior using geopotential anomalies and a zero-velocity surface at 2230 dbar and then filtered with an 8° Gaussian to remove the high wavenumbers. Our estimates of

Matthew D. Palmer; Harry L. Bryden; Joël Hirschi; Jochem Marotzke

2004-01-01

96

Observed changes in the South Indian Ocean gyre circulation, 1987–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use hydrographic data at 32°S from 1987, 1995 and 2002 to investigate changes in the strength of the subtropical gyre circulation in the Indian Ocean. Relative geostrophic transports are computed for the ocean interior using geopotential anomalies and a zero-velocity surface at 2230 dbar and then filtered with an 8° Gaussian to remove the high wavenumbers. Our estimates of

Matthew D. Palmer; Harry L. Bryden; Joël Hirschi; Jochem Marotzke

2004-01-01

97

Late Precambrian (850-800 Ma) palaeomagnetic pole for the south Indian shield from the Harohalli alkaline dykes: geotectonic implications for Gondwana reconstructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeomagnetic results from nine sites of alkaline dykes in the Harohalli area, Dharwar craton, south India, provide the best palaeomagnetic pole for the Indian shield during 850-800 Ma. The mean palaeomagnetic direction is D = 7.4°; I = 81.5°; n = 9; ? = 46; ?95 = 7.7°) yielding a pole position at ? = 28°S; ? = 260°E (dp\\/dm

T. Radhakrishna; J. Mathew

1996-01-01

98

Social mobility and self-reported limiting long-term illness among West Indian and South Asian migrants living in England and Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between social mobility and self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) in West Indian and South Asian migrants in England and Wales present at the 1971, 1981 and 1991 Censuses in the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study. Most people remained in the same social position regardless of migrant status and those who remained most disadvantaged reported

Seeromanie Harding

2003-01-01

99

Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To report the prevalence, risk factors and associated population attributable risk percentage (PAR) for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage cluster, systematic, stratified random sampling method was used to obtain participants (n = 10293) for this study. Results: The age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence rates in those ?40 years of age were determined for myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < ?0.5 D) 34.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.1–36.1), high-myopia (SE < ?5.0 D) 4.5% (95% CI: 3.8–5.2), hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D) 18.4% (95% CI: 17.1–19.7), astigmatism (cylinder < ?0.5 D) 37.6% (95% CI: 36–39.2), and anisometropia (SE difference between right and left eyes >0.5 D) 13.0% (95% CI: 11.9–14.1). The prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, high-myopia, and anisometropia significantly increased with increasing age (all p < 0.0001). There was no gender difference in prevalence rates in any type of refractive error, though women had a significantly higher rate of hyperopia than men (p < 0.0001). Hyperopia was significantly higher among those with a higher educational level (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI: 1.51–3.95) and significantly higher among the hypertensive group (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03–1.49). The severity of lens nuclear opacity was positively associated with myopia and negatively associated with hyperopia. Conclusions: The prevalence of myopia in this adult Indian population is much higher than in similarly aged white populations. These results confirm the previously reported association between myopia, hyperopia, and nuclear opacity.

Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Srinivas, Marmamula; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

2009-01-01

100

Genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in the South Indian descent  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Decline in circulating estrogen levels causes lessening of bone mass accompanied with musculoskeletal pain, which is the primary cause of treatment discontinuation in patients taking aromatase inhibitors. Evidence from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggests that the genetic variability underlying TCL1A gene increases the risk of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) - induced musculoskeletal toxicity. Currently, no data is available on the frequency distribution of TCL1A gene polymorphisms in Indians. Methods: In this pilot study, we used TaqMan fluorescent probes to assess the genotypes of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in 247 healthy homogenous South Indian subjects on real time thermocycler. Haplotype estimation and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis were executed by Haploview. Results: The incidence of polymorphic variant allele (G) frequencies of rs7158782, rs7159713, rs2369049 and rs11849538 were 22.1%, 23.5%, 18.2% and 22.9% in the study population, respectively. The polymorphisms were found to be in complete LD with each other. Four different haplotypes, each of which having a frequency of above 1% were inferred in South Indians using an expectation-maximization algorithm. Notably, three haplotypes were found to be population specific viz H4 A-A-A-G (1.2%) for South India, H5 G-G-A-C (1.3%) for JPT and H6 G-G-G-C (40.4%) for YRI. Further, H3 G-G-A-G (2.3-16.3%) haplotype occurs primarily in Asians and is virtually absent in Africans. Overall, the genetic variability and haplotype profile of South Indian population revealed significant inter-racial variability compared with HapMap data. Conclusion: This documentation contributes for further investigations on the pharmacogenetics of AIs in South Indians.

Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kumar, Annan Sudarsan Arun; Srinivasa, Rao Katiboina; Kadambari, Dharanipragada; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

2014-01-01

101

Genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in the South Indian descent.  

PubMed

Introduction: Decline in circulating estrogen levels causes lessening of bone mass accompanied with musculoskeletal pain, which is the primary cause of treatment discontinuation in patients taking aromatase inhibitors. Evidence from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggests that the genetic variability underlying TCL1A gene increases the risk of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) - induced musculoskeletal toxicity. Currently, no data is available on the frequency distribution of TCL1A gene polymorphisms in Indians. Methods: In this pilot study, we used TaqMan fluorescent probes to assess the genotypes of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in 247 healthy homogenous South Indian subjects on real time thermocycler. Haplotype estimation and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis were executed by Haploview. Results: The incidence of polymorphic variant allele (G) frequencies of rs7158782, rs7159713, rs2369049 and rs11849538 were 22.1%, 23.5%, 18.2% and 22.9% in the study population, respectively. The polymorphisms were found to be in complete LD with each other. Four different haplotypes, each of which having a frequency of above 1% were inferred in South Indians using an expectation-maximization algorithm. Notably, three haplotypes were found to be population specific viz H4 A-A-A-G (1.2%) for South India, H5 G-G-A-C (1.3%) for JPT and H6 G-G-G-C (40.4%) for YRI. Further, H3 G-G-A-G (2.3-16.3%) haplotype occurs primarily in Asians and is virtually absent in Africans. Overall, the genetic variability and haplotype profile of South Indian population revealed significant inter-racial variability compared with HapMap data. Conclusion: This documentation contributes for further investigations on the pharmacogenetics of AIs in South Indians. PMID:25035853

Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kumar, Annan Sudarsan Arun; Srinivasa, Rao Katiboina; Kadambari, Dharanipragada; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

2014-01-01

102

Acute myocardial infarction in an 18 year old South Indian girl with familial hypercholesterolemia: a case report.  

PubMed

Familial hypercholesterolemia is a single gene disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Here we report an 18 year old South Indian girl who presented with myocardial infarction. She had xanthomas and an elevated serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Her mother and maternal uncle had died at a young age due to myocardial infarction. Her only sibling, 15 year old younger sister also had xanthomas and an elevated LDL-C. This report is to emphasise the need to clinically recognize xanthomas and its association with elevated LDL-C, premature atherosclerosis and familial inheritance. Early diagnosis and early initiation of treatment will save the affected individual and the other family members. PMID:18687118

Kumar, Anita A; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Srinivasan, Yadav; Senthil, N; Rajkumar, K; Paunikar, Neeta; Sudhakar, Mk

2008-01-01

103

Contribution of leaf growth on the disappearance of fungicides used on tea under south Indian agroclimatic conditions  

PubMed Central

The sprayed chemicals on tea leaves disappear over a period of time by the influence of rainfall elution, evaporation, growth dilution, and photodegradation. Influence of plant growth on the four fungicides (hexaconazole, propiconazole, tridemorph, and c) was studied to know the constructive loss of fungicides. The study shows that residues of fungicides sprayed on tea shoots got diluted by the growing process. The expansion of a leaf took 8 to 11 d and more than 50% of the fungicide residues were cleaned out during this leaf expansion period. Under south Indian agroclimatic condition, the fungicides are sprayed at an interval of 10 d, so it is safe that the tea is harvested on the 10th day of the application of fungicides.

Karthika, Chinnachamy; Muraleedharan, Narayanan Nair

2009-01-01

104

Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Paradoxical South Atlantic Ozone Maxima  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a broad resolution of the "Atlantic Paradox" concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone. We describe periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.-April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO)O3 maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.- March highest column-O3 periods in the Atlantic, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 30 or 60 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-Atlantic pollution make important contributions.

Chatfield, Robert B.; Guan, Hong; Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

2003-01-01

105

Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South Atlantic ozone maxima  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a broad resolution of the Atlantic Parado concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution, of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.- April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed combustion sources, then low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, possible stratospheric input, and finally high-level transport to the west, with possible mixing over Africa. For the Jan.-March highest column-O3 periods in the Atlantic, distinct sounding peaks trace to specific NO sources, especially lightning, while in the same episodes, recurring every 20-50 days, more diffuse buildups of Indian-to-Atlantic pollution make important contributions.

Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.

2005-01-01

106

Adaptive developmental plasticity in methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism limits its frequency in South Indians.  

PubMed

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism shows considerable heterogeneity in its distribution in humans worldwide. The current study was conducted to investigate whether this polymorphism exhibited adaptive developmental plasticity in the control of the TT-genotype frequency. We screened 1,818 South Indian subjects (895 males and 923 females) for MTHFR C677T polymorphism using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency in males and females was 9.1 and 11.0 %, respectively. Compared to females, males had lower frequency of TT-genotype [odds ratio 0.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.08-1.01]. The frequency of MTHFR 677T-allele was highest in the age group of 20-40 years and it gradually decreased from 40-60 to 60-80 years (P trend <0.0001). MTHFR 677TT-genotype was associated with 7.02-folds (95 % CI: 2.12-25.63, P < 0.0001) cumulative risk for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), neural tube defects (NTDs) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Linear regression model suggested that male gender exhibited increased homocysteine levels by 9.35 ?mol/L while each MTHFR 677T-allele contributed to 4.63 ?mol/L increase in homocysteine. Plasma homocysteine showed inverse correlation with dietary folate (r = -0.17, P < 0.0001), B2 (r = -0.14, P < 0.0001) and B6 (r = -0.07, P = 0.03). Examination of the spontaneously aborted fetuses (n = 35) showed no significant association of fetal genotype on its in utero viability. From the current study, it was concluded that C677T seemed to have acquired adaptive developmental plasticity among South Indians due to environmental influences thus contributing to hyperhomocysteinemia and its associated complications such as RPL, NTDs, DVT, etc. PMID:24449370

Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Krishnaprasad, Chintakindi; Devi, Akella Radha Rama

2014-05-01

107

Population structure of the Chenchu and other south Indian tribal groups: relationships between genetic, anthropometric, dermatoglyphic, geographic, and linguistic distances.  

PubMed

We describe the genetic structure and interrelationships of nine south Indian tribal groups (seven from Andhra Pradesh and two from the adjoining states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala) using seven polymorphic loci (ABO, MN, RH, PGM, ACP, PGD, and LDH). R matrix analysis indicates that the Andhra Pradesh tribes are clustered and that the Kadar and Irula are genetically isolated from them. This dispersion of populations has been explained by the combination of relatively high frequencies of the alleles RH D and MN M in the Kadar and the relatively high proportions of the allele PGM*2 in the Irula. The Mahaboobnagar Chenchu subgroup is isolated from other Telugu-speaking groups because of high frequencies of the PGM*1 and ACP*A alleles. The regression of mean per locus heterozygosity (H) on distance from the gene frequency centroid (rii) reveals considerable levels of external gene flow among the Lambadi, the Yerukula, and the two Chenchu subgroups and more homogeneity in the Kolam, Koya, Yanadi, Irula, and Kadar. Mantel statistics were used to assess the relative effects of nonbiological processes (i.e., language and geography) on the morphological and genetic patterns of these subdivided populations. The significance of correlations was determined between different data sets (genetic, dermatoglyphic, anthropometric, geographic, and linguistic) at three levels involving nine, six, and five populations. Although multiple correlation analysis reveals significant combined effects of geography and language on genetics, anthropometrics, and dermatoglyphics, highly significant partial correlations suggest strong effects of geography on both anthropometry and genetics. Our analysis indicates that geographic factors have an overwhelming effect on the genetic differentiation of the south Indian tribal groups. PMID:8001914

Sirajuddin, S M; Duggirala, R; Crawford, M H

1994-10-01

108

A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios  

PubMed Central

Understanding the genetic origins and demographic history of Indian populations is important both for questions concerning the early settlement of Eurasia and more recent events, including the appearance of Indo-Aryan languages and settled agriculture in the subcontinent. Although there is general agreement that Indian caste and tribal populations share a common late Pleistocene maternal ancestry in India, some studies of the Y-chromosome markers have suggested a recent, substantial incursion from Central or West Eurasia. To investigate the origin of paternal lineages of Indian populations, 936 Y chromosomes, representing 32 tribal and 45 caste groups from all four major linguistic groups of India, were analyzed for 38 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers. Phylogeography of the major Y-chromosomal haplogroups in India, genetic distance, and admixture analyses all indicate that the recent external contribution to Dravidian- and Hindi-speaking caste groups has been low. The sharing of some Y-chromosomal haplogroups between Indian and Central Asian populations is most parsimoniously explained by a deep, common ancestry between the two regions, with diffusion of some Indian-specific lineages northward. The Y-chromosomal data consistently suggest a largely South Asian origin for Indian caste communities and therefore argue against any major influx, from regions north and west of India, of people associated either with the development of agriculture or the spread of the Indo-Aryan language family. The dyadic Y-chromosome composition of Tibeto-Burman speakers of India, however, can be attributed to a recent demographic process, which appears to have absorbed and overlain populations who previously spoke Austro-Asiatic languages.

Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Singh, Anamika; Himabindu, G.; Banerjee, Jheelam; Sitalaximi, T.; Gaikwad, Sonali; Trivedi, R.; Endicott, Phillip; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard; Kashyap, V. K.

2006-01-01

109

A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: evaluating demic diffusion scenarios.  

PubMed

Understanding the genetic origins and demographic history of Indian populations is important both for questions concerning the early settlement of Eurasia and more recent events, including the appearance of Indo-Aryan languages and settled agriculture in the subcontinent. Although there is general agreement that Indian caste and tribal populations share a common late Pleistocene maternal ancestry in India, some studies of the Y-chromosome markers have suggested a recent, substantial incursion from Central or West Eurasia. To investigate the origin of paternal lineages of Indian populations, 936 Y chromosomes, representing 32 tribal and 45 caste groups from all four major linguistic groups of India, were analyzed for 38 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers. Phylogeography of the major Y-chromosomal haplogroups in India, genetic distance, and admixture analyses all indicate that the recent external contribution to Dravidian- and Hindi-speaking caste groups has been low. The sharing of some Y-chromosomal haplogroups between Indian and Central Asian populations is most parsimoniously explained by a deep, common ancestry between the two regions, with diffusion of some Indian-specific lineages northward. The Y-chromosomal data consistently suggest a largely South Asian origin for Indian caste communities and therefore argue against any major influx, from regions north and west of India, of people associated either with the development of agriculture or the spread of the Indo-Aryan language family. The dyadic Y-chromosome composition of Tibeto-Burman speakers of India, however, can be attributed to a recent demographic process, which appears to have absorbed and overlain populations who previously spoke Austro-Asiatic languages. PMID:16415161

Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Singh, Anamika; Himabindu, G; Banerjee, Jheelam; Sitalaximi, T; Gaikwad, Sonali; Trivedi, R; Endicott, Phillip; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard; Kashyap, V K

2006-01-24

110

Seabirds indicate changes in the composition of plastic litter in the Atlantic and south-western Indian Oceans.  

PubMed

I compare plastic ingested by five species of seabirds sampled in the 1980s and again in 1999-2006. The numbers of ingested plastic particles have not changed significantly, but the proportion of virgin pellets has decreased 44-79% in all five species: great shearwater Puffinus gravis, white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, broad-billed prion Pachyptila vittata, white-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina and white-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria. The populations sampled range widely in the South Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. The most marked reduction occurred in great shearwaters, where the average number of pellets per bird decreased from 10.5 to 1.6. This species migrates between the South and North Atlantic each year. Similar decreases in virgin pellets have been recorded in short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris in the Pacific Ocean and northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea. More data are needed on the relationship between plastic loads in seabirds and the density of plastic at sea in their foraging areas, but the consistent decrease in pellets in birds suggests there has been a global change in the composition of small plastic debris at sea over the last two decades. PMID:18572198

Ryan, Peter G

2008-08-01

111

Prevalence of Depression in a Large Urban South Indian Population -- The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (Cures - 70)  

PubMed Central

Background In India there are very few population based data on prevalence of depression. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression in an urban south Indian population. Methods and Findings Subjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES), involving 26,001 subjects randomly recruited from 46 of the 155 corporation wards of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in South India. 25,455 subjects participated in this study (response rate 97.9%). Depression was assessed using a self-reported and previously validated instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) – 12. Age adjustment was made according to the 2001 census of India. The overall prevalence of depression was 15.1% (age-adjusted, 15.9%) and was higher in females (females 16.3% vs. males 13.9%, p<0.0001). The odds ratio (OR) for depression in female subjects was 1.20 [Confidence Intervals (CI): 1.12–1.28, p<0.001] compared to male subjects. Depressed mood was the most common symptom (30.8%), followed by tiredness (30.0%) while more severe symptoms such as suicidal thoughts (12.4%) and speech and motor retardation (12.4%) were less common. There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of depression with age among both female (p<0.001) and male subjects (p<0.001). The prevalence of depression was higher in the low income group (19.3%) compared to the higher income group (5.9%, p<0.001). Prevalence of depression was also higher among divorced (26.5%) and widowed (20%) compared to currently married subjects (15.4%, p<0.001). Conclusions This is the largest population-based study from India to report on prevalence of depression and shows that among urban south Indians, the prevalence of depression was 15.1%. Age, female gender and lower socio-economic status are some of the factors associated with depression in this population.

Poongothai, Subramani; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Ganesan, Anbhazhagan; Mohan, Viswanathan

2009-01-01

112

The prevalence of urinary incontinence in American Indian women from a South Dakota tribe  

PubMed Central

Introduction and hypothesis The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated risk factors for urinary incontinence in a Northern Plains tribe of American Indian women. Methods The Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence in a sample of American Indian women from one tribe. This was a cross-sectional convenience sampling of 234 eligible participants. Participant’s ages ranged from 18 to 80 years. Stata/Se 9.1 software was used in statistical analysis. Results The overall prevalence of urinary stress incontinence was 15.4%, urgency incontinence 2.14%, and mixed incontinence 20.5%. Both stress and urgency incontinence was found to be low in this sample population. Conclusions A reduced prevalence of stress and urgency incontinence is seen in our sample. Our study group showed a high prevalence of known risk factors associated with urinary incontinence. We intend to extend our study for further understanding of this patient population.

Benson, Kevin D.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Prasek, Jennifer; Hansen, Keith A.; VanEerden, Peter

2014-01-01

113

Observed changes in the South Indian Ocean gyre circulation, 1987-2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use hydrographic data at 32°S from 1987, 1995 and 2002 to investigate changes in the strength of the subtropical gyre circulation in the Indian Ocean. Relative geostrophic transports are computed for the ocean interior using geopotential anomalies and a zero-velocity surface at 2230 dbar and then filtered with an 8° Gaussian to remove the high wavenumbers. Our estimates of the relative gyre transports are: 41 +/- 5.1 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3s-1) for 1987, 42 +/- 7.0 Sv for 1995 and 58 +/- 7.0 Sv for 2002. This represents a 40% increase from 1987 to 2002. The main areas of change in the geostrophic transports are just east of Madagascar Ridge and around Broken Plateau, which is consistent with differences we observe in the isopycnal depths in these areas. Maps of contoured velocity suggest that most of the change happened between 1995 and 2002, which supports our transport estimates.

Palmer, Matthew D.; Bryden, Harry L.; Hirschi, Joël; Marotzke, Jochem

2004-08-01

114

Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children  

PubMed Central

The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition ‘track’ from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The ‘snack and fruit’ pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The ‘lacto-vegetarian’ pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the ‘snack and fruit’ pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The ‘snack and fruit’ pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition.

Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline HD; Robinson, Sian M

2014-01-01

115

The complete genome sequence of a south Indian isolate of Rice tungro spherical virus reveals evidence of genetic recombination between distinct isolates.  

PubMed

In this study, complete genome of a south Indian isolate of Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) from Andhra Pradesh (AP) was sequenced, and the predicted amino acid sequence was analysed. The RTSV RNA genome consists of 12,171 nt without the poly(A) tail, encoding a putative typical polyprotein of 3,470 amino acids. Furthermore, cleavage sites and sequence motifs of the polyprotein were predicted. Multiple alignment with other RTSV isolates showed a nucleotide sequence identity of 95% to east Indian isolates and 90% to Philippines isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on complete genome sequence showed that Indian isolates clustered together, while Vt6 and PhilA isolates of Philippines formed two separate clusters. Twelve recombination events were detected in RNA genome of RTSV using the Recombination Detection Program version 3. Recombination analysis suggested significant role of 5' end and central region of genome in virus evolution. Further, AP and Odisha isolates appeared as important RTSV isolates involved in diversification of this virus in India through recombination phenomenon. The new addition of complete genome of first south Indian isolate provided an opportunity to establish the molecular evolution of RTSV through recombination analysis and phylogenetic relationship. PMID:23925555

Sailaja, B; Anjum, Najreen; Patil, Yogesh K; Agarwal, Surekha; Malathi, P; Krishnaveni, D; Balachandran, S M; Viraktamath, B C; Mangrauthia, Satendra K

2013-12-01

116

Variation of tropical cyclone activity in the South Indian Ocean: El Niño–Southern Oscillation and Madden-Julian Oscillation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines variation of tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the South Indian Ocean (SIO) during TC seasons (December–March) for the period 1979–2004. The impact of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the variation is revealed through a composite analysis. During El Niño periods TC genesis was shifted westward, enhancing the formation west of 75°E

Chang-Hoi Ho; Joo-Hong Kim; Jee-Hoon Jeong; Hyeong-Seog Kim; Deliang Chen

2006-01-01

117

Chikungunya Fever: A Clinical and Virological Investigation of Outpatients on Reunion Island, South-West Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for acute febrile polyarthralgia and, in a proportion of cases, severe complications including chronic arthritis. CHIKV has spread recently in East Africa, South-West Indian Ocean, South-Asia and autochthonous cases have been reported in Europe. Although almost all patients are outpatients, medical investigations mainly focused on hospitalised patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we detail clinico-biological characteristics of Chikungunya (CHIK) outpatients in Reunion Island (2006). 76 outpatients with febrile arthralgia diagnosed within less than 48 hours were included by general practitioners during the CuraChik clinical trial. CHIK was confirmed in 54 patients and excluded in 22. A detailed clinical and biological follow-up was organised, that included analysis of viral intrahost diversity and telephone survey until day 300. The evolution of acute CHIK included 2 stages: the ‘viral stage’ (day 1–day 4) was associated with rapid decrease of viraemia and improvement of clinical presentation; the ‘convalescent stage’ (day 5–day 14) was associated with no detectable viraemia but a slower clinical improvement. Women and elderly had a significantly higher number of arthralgia at inclusion and at day 300. Based on the study clinico-biological dataset, scores for CHIK diagnosis in patients with recent febrile acute polyarthralgia were elaborated using arthralgia on hands and wrists, a minor or absent myalgia and the presence of lymphopenia (<1G/L) as major orientation criteria. Finally, we observed that CHIKV intra-host genetic diversity increased over time and that a higher viral amino-acid complexity at the acute stage was associated with increased number of arthralgia and intensity of sequelae at day 300. Conclusions/Significance This study provided a detailed picture of clinico-biological CHIK evolution at the acute phase of the disease, allowed the elaboration of scores to assist CHIK diagnosis and investigated for the first time the impact of viral intra-host genetic diversity on the disease course.

Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Boisson, Veronique; Gaudart, Jean; Simon, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

2013-01-01

118

First Report of OXA-4, an ESBL Isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa a South Indian Strain.  

PubMed

The OXA-type ?-lactamases are so named because of their oxacillin-hydrolyzing abilities. In this study we characterize an extended spectrum ?-lactamase, designated OXA-4, produced by a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ESBL production was detected by double disk synergy test. The P. aeruginosa isolate was obtained from endotracheal suction tip of 84 years old male patient diagnosed with CVA and hypertension. ESBL producing OXA ?-lactamases was detected by PCR with primers specific to the conserved regions of the coding genes. Iso electric focusing was done to confirm the significance, sequencing the amplified product was also done. In the phenotypic identification, the strain was highly resistant to third generation cephalosporins and also to imipenem. The PCR amplified product for OXA ?-lactamase was viewed at 919 bp. The pI point for the same was identified at 7.2. With the help of sequencing the amplified OXA ?-lactamase was identified as OXA-4 gene. Here we report P. aeruginosa producing OXA-4 ESBL for the first time in the Indian subcontinent. PMID:24426128

Kingsley, S A Jemima; Verghese, Susan

2013-09-01

119

The Morphometric Analysis of the Mental Foramen in Adult Dry Human Mandibles: A Study on the South Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Aim: The mental foramen is a small foramen which is located in the antero-lateral aspect of the body of the mandible. It is situated midway between the upper and the lower border of the mandible and it transmits the mental nerve and the vessels. The knowledge on the anatomy of the mental foramen is very important in clinical dentistry and in surgical procedures which involve that area. Material and Methods: Our study was conducted on 90 adult dry human mandibles from the south Indian population, irrespective of age and sex. The location, shape, orientation and the presence of the accessory foramen were studied by visual examination. The size and position of the mental foramen were measured by using a digital vernier caliper. The SPSS, version 15 software was used for the statistical analysis, to calculate the minimum, maximum, incidence, mean and standard deviation. Results: In a majority of the mandibles, the mental foramen was located at the level of the root of the 2nd premolar, midway between the inferior margin and the alveolar margin of the mandible. Most of the mental foramina were oval in shape. The orientation of the foramen was postero-superior in 83% of the mandibles. The accessory foramens were noted in five mandibles. Conclusion: The knowledge on the variations in the position and size of the mental foramen and the presence of the accessory foramen may be of much use to dental surgeons.

Udhaya, K.; Saraladevi, K.V.; Sridhar, J.

2013-01-01

120

Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria.

Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M. S.; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

2014-01-01

121

Assessment of water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District, Palm Beach County, Florida, 1989-94  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to assess ground-water and surface-water quality in the South Indian River Water Control District in northern Palm Beach County from 1989 to 1994. Contamination of the surficial aquifer system and availability of a potable water supply have become of increasing concern. The study consisted of sampling 11 ground-water wells and 14 surface- water sites for determination of major inorganic constituents and physical characteristics, trace metals, nitrogen and phosphorus species, and synthetic organic compounds. Sodium and chloride concentrations exceeded Florida drinking-water standards in ground water at two wells, dissolved- solids concentrations at five ground-water wells and one surface-water site, and color values at all 11 ground-water wells and all 14 surface-water sites. Other constituents also exhibited concentrations that exceeded drinking-water standards. Cadmium and zinc concentrations exceeded the standards in ground water at one well, and lead concentrations exceeded the standard in ground water at five wells. Nitrogen and phosphorus specie concentrations did not exceed respective drinking-water standards in any ground-water or surface-water samples. Several synthetic organic compounds were detected at or above 50 micrograms per liter in water samples collected from six ground-water wells and three surface-water sites.

Lietz, A. C.

1996-01-01

122

Effect of eNOS polymorphisms on salbutamol evoked endothelium dependent vasodilation in South Indian healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: The model of pulse plethysmograph using inhalational salbutamol 400 mcg is studied well to assess endothelium dependent vasodilation. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism may influence the response to salbutamol in healthy subjects. Aim: To find the effect of polymorphisms 894G>T and -786T>C of eNOS gene on endothelium dependent vasodilation in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: One hundred and two south Indian healthy subjects of either sex, aged between 18 to 35 years were recruited for the study. The digital volume pulse (DVP)was measured by pulse plethysmograph before and after salbutamol 400mcg inhalation. Three predose and five postdose recordings of DVP were measured. The average change in the DVP parameters namely reflection index (RI) and stiffness index (SI) were determined. The eNOS894G>T and -786T>C gene polymorphism were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The percentage changes in RI and SI from predose baseline recordings were calculated and compared between the genotype groups. Results: The genotype and allele frequency of study subjects were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The changes in DVP parameters were not significantly different between the genotype groups. Conclusion: eNOS polymorphism do not affect salbutamol evoked endothelium dependent vasodilation in the model of pulse plethysmograph in healthy subjects.

Kumar, Srinivasamurthy Suresh; Kumar, Annan Sudarsan Arun; Padmapriya, Ramamoorthy; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

2013-01-01

123

Assessment of crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancies in a South Indian population  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancy in a sample population from Davangere, South India. Materials and Methods: One hundred adults (50 male and 50 female) of age 18–30 years, with Angle's class I ideal occlusion and balanced profiles, were selected for the study. Study models were prepared and crown angulations and crown inclinations were measured using a customized protractor device. Bolton's analysis was used to measure the tooth size discrepancies. Results: Maxillary and mandibular teeth had less crown angulations. Maxillary and mandibular incisors and maxillary molars showed increased crown inclinations, whereas mandibular molars and premolars had less crown inclinations than the original Andrews sample. The mean maxillary and mandibular tooth size ratios, overall and anterior, were similar to Bolton's ratios. Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that there are possible racial and ethnic factors contributing to variations in crown angulations and crown inclinations.

Doodamani, Geeta Maruti; Khala, Anmol S; Manohar, Mala; Umashankar

2011-01-01

124

Differences in prenatal exposure to mercury in South African communities residing along the Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Mercury is a persistent environmental pollutant that has the potential to adversely affect human health, particularly, foetal neurodevelopment. The purpose of the study was to investigate prenatal mercury (Hg) exposure in the population in three sites along the South Africa coast. Study subjects included women (n=350) who were admitted for delivery at the local hospitals. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected to measure total mercury and each participant was required to answer a questionnaire. The 90th percentile of mercury levels in maternal and cord blood of the total population was 1.15 ?g/l and 1.67 ?g/l, respectively. Site 1 (Manguzi) participants had the highest maternal geometric mean (GM) values of 0.93 ?g/l, which was significantly different from Site 2 (Port Shepstone) (0.49 ?g/l) and Site 3 (Empangeni) (0.56 ?g/l) (ANOVA test, p<0.001). Umbilical cord blood GM Hg level for Site 1 (1.45 ?g/l) was more than double the GM Hg level in Site 2 (0.70 ?g/l) and Site 3 (0.73 ?g/l). Univariate analysis indicated that the following maternal characteristics were positive predictors for elevated umbilical cord Hg levels: maternal blood Hg levels, living with a partner, residing in Site 1, living in informal housing, using wood and gas for cooking, borehole water as a drinking source, and a member of the household being involved in fishing. Maternal dietary predictors of elevated Hg levels in umbilical cord blood included consuming fresh fish, tinned fish, fruit or dairy products, daily. This study provides baseline data and reveals that 2% of the study population were above the EPA's reference value (5.8 ?g/l) suggesting low level exposure to mercury in pregnant women and the developing foetus in South Africa. Further research is required to explore the sources of elevated Hg levels in Site 1. PMID:23787104

Channa, Kalavati; Odland, Jon Ø; Kootbodien, Tahira; Theodorou, Penny; Naik, Inakshi; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Röllin, Halina B

2013-10-01

125

Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

1997-09-01

126

Sexual risk behaviors among HIV-infected South Indian couples in the HAART era: implications for reproductive health and HIV care delivery  

PubMed Central

The current study examines sexual behaviors among HIV-infected Indians in primary care, where access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has recently increased. Between January to April 2008, we assessed the sexual behaviors of 247 HIV-infected South Indians in care. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of being in a HIV-seroconcordant primary relationship, being sexually active, and reporting unprotected sex. Over three-fourths (80%) of participants were HAART-experienced. Among the 58% of participants who were currently in a seroconcordant relationship, one-third were serodiscordant when first tested for HIV. Approximately two-thirds (63.2%) of participants were sexually active; 9.0% reported unprotected sex. In the multivariable analyses, participants who were in a seroconcordant primary relationship were more likely to have children, use alcohol, report unprotected sex, and have been enrolled in care for >12 months. Sexually active participants were more likely to be on HAART, have a prior tuberculosis diagnosis, test Herpes simplex type 2 antibody seropositive, and have low general health perceptions. Participants who reported unprotected sex were more likely to be in a seroconcordant relationship, be childless, want to have a child, and use alcohol. We did not document an association between HAART and unprotected sex. Among HIV-infected Indians in primary care, predictors of unprotected sex included alcohol use and desire for children. Prevention interventions for Indian couples should integrate reproductive health and alcohol use counseling at entry into care.

Venkatesh, Kartik K; Srikrishnan, AK; Safren, Steven A; Triche, Elizabeth W; Thamburaj, E; Prasad, Lakshmi; Lurie, Mark N; Kumar, M Suresh; Kumarasamy, N; Solomon, Suniti; Mayer, Kenneth H

2011-01-01

127

Social mobility and self-reported limiting long-term illness among West Indian and South Asian migrants living in England and Wales.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between social mobility and self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) in West Indian and South Asian migrants in England and Wales present at the 1971, 1981 and 1991 Censuses in the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study. Most people remained in the same social position regardless of migrant status and those who remained most disadvantaged reported more LLTI than those who remained least disadvantaged. Amongst those who were mobile, upward mobility was more common than downward mobility for South Asians and West Indians but not for all other study members. The findings for the impact of downward mobility on LLTI were particularly striking. Migrants who were downwardly mobile reported more LLTI than all other study members. All other study members who were downwardly mobile reported more LLTI than people who remained in the least disadvantaged group they left but less than those who remained in the most disadvantaged group they joined. Downwardly mobile South Asians reported more LLTI than those of the least disadvantaged group but this was not significantly different from the most disadvantaged group they joined. Downwardly mobile West Indians reported also more LLTI than the least disadvantaged group they left but, in contrast, to the South Asians this appeared to be more than that of the disadvantaged group they joined. Empirical studies are needed to understand the context of social mobility and how this affects health-related behaviours and specific diseases among migrants. In a situation where migrants do not have established economic or social support, the loss of resources or self-esteem could have a disproportionate negative effect on their health. PMID:12473320

Harding, Seeromanie

2003-01-01

128

A community-wide tuberculosis survey in a South Indian rural population, 1950-55  

PubMed Central

An investigation carried out under WHO auspices in a small area of South India in 1950-55, and which covered a population of approximately 60 000, has not only shed light on various aspects of tuberculosis epidemiology, but has also served as an exercise in the practical conduct of a control campaign in a less developed area. The programme was based essentially on systematic case-finding by mass miniature X-ray and tuberculin testing and the hospitalization of infectious cases. Its most dramatic effect on the community consisted in the great reduction of mortality—from 200 to 21 per 100 000 in less than four years—due no doubt to the advent of the newer antituberculosis drugs. This and other findings are discussed at length in the present report, which covers such topics as tuberculin sensitivity, infection rate, prevalence, incidence, and the results of a BCG control trial. One of the conclusions reached as a result of the campaign was that domiciliary drug therapy had much to recommend it in an area such as this, given the reluctance of patients to enter hospital and thus be deprived of their earning capacity. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 5

Frimodt-M?ller, J.

1960-01-01

129

Investigation of VSX1 sequence variants in South Indian patients with sporadic cases of keratoconus  

PubMed Central

Background The involvement of VSX1 gene for the genetic basis of keratoconus is unclear and controversial. The genetic screening of VSX1 from different ethnic populations can enlighten this subject. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of VSX1 gene in patients with sporadic cases of keratoconus from South India. Methods The VSX1 gene coding regions, including exon-intron boundaries were screened by direct sequencing analysis in 117 sporadic cases of keratoconus. The identified variations were also analyzed in 108 ethnic matched healthy blood donors. Results In the VSX1 gene screening, no pathogenic mutation was identified, whereas we could find the presence of four reported single nucleotide polymorphisms; c.546A>G (rs12480307), c.627+23G>A (rs6138482), c.627+84T>A (rs56157240) and c.504-24C>T (IVS3-24C). These variations were observed in similar frequency between cases and controls. Conclusions The lack of VSX1 pathogenic variations in a large number of unrelated sporadic keratoconus patients tend to omit its role, and corroborate the involvement of other genetic, environmental or behavioural factors in the development of this complex disorder.

2013-01-01

130

Hospital waste management system - a case study of a south Indian city.  

PubMed

It is more than 5 years since the prescribed deadline, 30 December 2002, for all categories of towns covered by the Biomedical Waste Management (BMW) Rules 1998 elapsed. Various reports indicate that the implementation of the BMW Rules is not satisfactory even in the large towns and cities in India. Few studies have looked at the ;macro system' of the biomedical waste management in India. In this context the present study describes the role of the important stakeholders who comprise the 'macrosystem' namely the pollution control board, common waste management facilities, municipal corporation, state government (Directorate of Medical Education and Health Systems Development Project), professional agencies such as the India Medical Association and non-governmental organizations, in the implementation of BMW rules in a capital city of a state in south India. Brief descriptions of the ;micro-system' (i.e. biomedical waste management practices within a hospital) of six hospitals of different types in the study city are also presented. PMID:19470535

Hanumantha Rao, P

2009-06-01

131

Studies on isozymic variation among the South Indian species of Sphaerostephanos  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the identity and phylogenetic relationships among the three medicinally important species of Sphaerostephanos from South India using isozymic profile. Methods The young fronds were homogenized with 3.5 mL of ice-cold homogenizing buffer in a pre-chilled pestle and mortar. The supernatant was subjected to electrophoresis as described by Anbalagan poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining solutions for isoperoxidase was prepared as per Smila method for the detection of isoenzymes. Results A total of six different bands in five different positions with different molecular weight/Rf values and four active zones have been observed in the isoperoxidase enzyme system of Sphaerostephanos. Only one band with MW/Rf 0.399 is common to two different species i.e. Sphaerostephanos arbuscula (S. arbuscula) and Sphaerostephanos unitus (S. unitus). Among the remaining four bands, two bands (Rf. 0.23, 0.47) are present in Sphaerostephanos subtruncatus (S. subtruncatus) and one distinct band has been observed individually in S. arbuscula (Rf. 0.507) and S. unitus (Rf. 0.56). Conclusions The present preliminary molecular study through isozymic analysis shows the identity of all the three species and the present results confirm distinctness of these three species based on macro-micromorphology, phytochemistry and cytology.

Varaprasadham, Irudayaraj; Marimuthu, Johnson

2011-01-01

132

Indian psychoanalysis, patriarchy and hinduism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian intellectuals have been concerned about the complex links between religion, caste and gender, especially in the formation of social science ideas and practices. The mental and behavioural sciences, however, have only been at the fringes of this interest. As a case?study, and as an initial and tentative attempt in this area, this paper foregrounds the caste and gender basis

Bhargavi V. Davar

1999-01-01

133

The CTLA4 +49 A/G (rs231775) polymorphism influences susceptibility to SLE in South Indian Tamils.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototype autoimmune disease with complex etiology. Loss of immune tolerance and synthesis of autoantibodies against nuclear antigens contributes to the disease. Genetic aberrations disrupting the functions of immune regulatory receptors may facilitate the development of autoimmune diseases. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) is an inhibitory receptor for T cells and this study was carried out to analyze the influence of CTLA4 +49A/G (rs231775) polymorphism on susceptibility to SLE in ethnic Tamils. Three hundred SLE patients and 460 age and sex similar, ethnicity-matched controls were screened for the +49 A/G polymorphism by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The wild allele (A) frequency in controls and cases was 63% and 47%, respectively. The presence of heterozygous (AG) and homozygous mutant (GG) genotype was associated with a significant risk to develop SLE (P?=?0.0001, OR-2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-3.3) and (P?=?0.0001, OR-4.3, 95% CI, 2.8-6.99). The frequency of mutant allele (G) in patients was also significantly associated with SLE (P?=?0.0001, OR-1.9, 95% CI, 1.5-2.4). However, this polymorphism did not influence the clinical or serological phenotypes in our study. Therefore the CTLA4 +49 A/G polymorphism is a potential genetic risk factor for lupus susceptibility in South Indian Tamils, but does not appear to influence either the clinical or serological phenotype. PMID:24758310

Devaraju, P; Gulati, R; Singh, B K; Mithun, C B; Negi, V S

2014-06-01

134

Utility of QuantiFERON TB gold test in a south Indian patient population of ocular inflammation  

PubMed Central

Aim: To study the utility of interferon-? release assays (QuantiFERON TB gold test) in a south Indian patient population of intraocular inflammation. Design: Evaluation of a diagnostic test- a pilot study from January 2007 to October 2008. Materials and Methods: QuantiFERON TB gold test was performed on the following groups of patients following an informed consent. Group A included healthy volunteers without any exposure to tuberculosis (TB) or past history of TB (n=22). Group B included patients with active systemic TB diagnosed by the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli or by the histopathology finding of caseation with granuloma formation from the sputum, lymph node, skin or intestinal biopsies (n=26). Group C included patients with uveitis of known etiologies other than intraocular TB without any history of exposure to active TB (n=21). Group D included patients with a diagnosis of presumed intraocular TB, who responded to antitubercular therapy by decreased or no recurrences following treatment and with a minimum of nine months follow-up following initiation of antitubercular therapy (n=39). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the QuantiFERON TB gold test to pick up active systemic TB was 58% and 77% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the QuantiFERON TB gold test to pickup intraocular TB was 82% and 76% respectively. Conclusions: QuantiFERON TB gold test alone may not be specific for intraocular TB. The significance of this test in a case scenario needs to be interpreted with clinical presentation and other evidences for intraocular TB.

Babu, Kalpana; Satish, Vidya; Satish, S; SubbaKrishna, D K; Abraham, Mariamma Philips; Murthy, Krishna R

2009-01-01

135

Spatiotemporal variability of rainfall extremes in monsoonal climates - examples from the South American Monsoon and the Indian Monsoon Systems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monsoonal rainfall is the crucial component for more than half of the world's population. Runoff associated with monsoon systems provide water resources for agriculture, hydropower, drinking-water generation, recreation, and social well-being and are thus a fundamental part of human society. However, monsoon systems are highly stochastic and show large variability on various timescales. Here, we use various rainfall datasets to characterize spatiotemporal rainfall patterns using traditional as well as new approaches emphasizing nonlinear spatial correlations from a complex networks perspective. Our analyses focus on the South American (SAMS) and Indian (ISM) Monsoon Systems on the basis of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) using precipitation radar and passive-microwave products with horizontal spatial resolutions of ~5x5 km^2 (products 2A25, 2B31) and 25x25 km^2 (3B42) and interpolated rainfall-gauge data for the ISM (APHRODITE, 25x25 km^2). The eastern slopes of the Andes of South America and the southern front of the Himalaya are characterized by significant orographic barriers that intersect with the moisture-bearing, monsoonal wind systems. We demonstrate that topography exerts a first-order control on peak rainfall amounts on annual timescales in both mountain belts. Flooding in the downstream regions is dominantly caused by heavy rainfall storms that propagate deep into the mountain range and reach regions that are arid and without vegetation cover promoting rapid runoff. These storms exert a significantly different spatial distribution than average-rainfall conditions and assessing their recurrence intervals and prediction is key in understanding flooding for these regions. An analysis of extreme-value distributions of our high-spatial resolution data reveal that semi-arid areas are characterized by low-frequency/high-magnitude events (i.e., are characterized by a ';heavy tail' distribution), whereas regions with high mean annual rainfall have a less skewed distribution. In a second step, an analysis of the spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall synchronicity by means of complex networks reveals patterns of the propagation of extreme rainfall events. These patterns differ substantially from those obtained from the mean annual rainfall distribution. In addition, we have developed a scheme to predict rainfall extreme events in the eastern Central Andes based on event synchronization and spatial patterns of complex networks. The presented methods and result will allow to critically evaluate data and models in space and time.

Bookhagen, B.; Boers, N.; Marwan, N.; Malik, N.; Kurths, J.

2013-12-01

136

Noble gases in South Indian carbonatites: Trapped and in situ components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied noble gases in carbonates and apatites from three carbonatites of South India, namely Hogenakal (2400 Ma), Sevattur (770 Ma) and Khambamettuu (523 Ma) by vacuum crushing. Apatite has also been analysed by pyrolysis. Vacuum crushing mostly releases the trapped gas components. The ratios 21Ne/ 20Ne, 22Ne/ 20Ne and 40Ar/ 36Ar increase with progressive crushing due to preservation of different composition gases in smaller inclusions released in later steps. This heterogeneity of isotopic composition of fluid inclusions is a consequence of the involvement of magmas carrying different noble gas signatures. The inclusions with lower ratios suggest the presence of a subducted atmospheric component, while the higher 21Ne/ 20Ne, 22Ne/ 20Ne and 40Ar/ 36Ar can be attributed to the presence of an enriched lithospheric mantle component. In addition, very minor trapped gases from less degassed, deeper mantle may also be present but overprinted by lithospheric and/or nucleogenic components. We propose that these carbonatites were generated only in an advanced stage of magmatism when this lithospheric component overwhelmed any contribution from the deeper mantle source. The lithospheric mantle underwent enrichment during an ancient subduction process through mantle metasomatism manifested in nucleogenic/radiogenic isotopic ratios of 21Ne/ 20Ne, 22Ne/ 20Ne and 40Ar/ 36Ar. The apatites analysed by pyrolysis clearly show nucleogenic 21Ne from 18O(?,n) reaction. We have demonstrated the potential of using U,Th- 21Ne systematics as a thermo-chronometer in conjunction with the established U,Th- 4He and U- 136Xe clocks. While for Hogenakal, the U,Th- 21Ne age of 845 ± 127 Ma is in agreement with the age of emplacement of other adjacent younger carbonatites, syenites and alkali granites, for the Sevattur apatite (738 ± 111 Ma) it indicates the crystallisation age.

Murty, S. V. S.; Basu, S.; Kumar, Anil

2007-04-01

137

Awareness and practice of road safety measures among undergraduate medical students in a South Indian state.  

PubMed

The UN general assembly has declared 2011-2020 as the "Decade of Action for Road Safety". The declaration holds significance because road traffic accidents (RTAs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the adults and middle aged individuals who constitute economically most productive age groups of society. The importance of knowledge and practice of road safety measures needs to be emphasized in the prevention of RTAs. The present study is aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of road safety measures among the students of a medical college in coastal, South India. A total of 260 medical students were included in this cross-sectional study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information from the participants. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Out of the 260 participants, 149 (57.3%) were females and 111 (42.7%) were males. The overall awareness on road safety measures was slightly higher among females (20.6%) than males (19.9%). The participants had significantly low awareness with regard to alcohol and driving (4.2%), use of seat belts (20%) and use of mobile phones without hands free device (6.1%). The participants had a better knowledge about traffic signs and more than half of them identified all the signs correctly. With regard to the road safety practices, 25% were involved in drunken driving in the past one year. The practice of using mobile phones with hands free devices while driving was admitted by 20% of them. Nearly two-third participants (68%) admitted to have crossed speed limits on multiple occasions. Observations of the study emphasize on the need to generate awareness among medical students through training and IEC activities to curb the epidemic of RTAs. PMID:23622464

Kulkarni, Vaman; Kanchan, Tanuj; Palanivel, C; Papanna, M K; Kumar, Nithin; Unnikrishnan, B

2013-05-01

138

Ingestion and defecation of marine debris by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from by-catches in the South-West Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Marine debris, caused by anthropogenic pollution, is a major problem impacting marine wildlife worldwide. This study documents and quantifies the ingestion and defecation of debris by 74 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in the South-West Indian Ocean. Debris was found in 51.4% of gut or fecal samples of loggerheads by-catch from Reunion Island long liners. Anthropogenic debris was ubiquitous in our samples with plastics accounting for 96.2% of the total debris collected. No significant relationship was detected between the characteristics of ingested debris and the biometric characteristics of loggerheads. The number, weight, volume and mean length of debris were higher in gut content of deceased loggerheads than in fecal samples of live turtles, but not significantly, except for the mean length. This is the first record of debris ingestion by sea turtles in the Indian Ocean and our results highlight the magnitude of this pollution of the marine environment. PMID:24916119

Hoarau, Ludovic; Ainley, Lara; Jean, Claire; Ciccione, Stéphane

2014-07-15

139

A note on the proximate principles and some lipid components in colostrum as compared to mature milk of poor class South Indian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Colostrum and mature milk samples of poor class South Indian women were analysed for total protein, casein, lactose, fat and\\u000a different lipid components such as free fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The significance of the whey: casein ratio is discussed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a The data for different lipid components not available in the Indian literature for human colostrum and

K. G. Prasannan; R. Rajan; M. K. Ramanathan

1962-01-01

140

Magnetic mineral deposition and deep circulation in South Indian Ocean during MIS3: correlation with NADW change in the North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that cores taken in the South Indian Ocean, eastwards of the Kerguelen plateau, exhibit variable accumulation rate over the last climatic cycle, with higher values during cold stages (Bareille et al., 1994; Dezileau et al., 2000). Here we focus on short-termed variations of low field susceptibility (X and other bulk magnetic parameters (ARM, IRM) of cores taken in this area, during MIS3. A coherent signature is observed, with limited changes in magnetic mineralogy. Thus, following the approach of Kissel et al. (1999) for the North Atlantic, we interpret these signals in terms of variations in the amount of magnetic minerals transported by deep currents and deposited at the sites. Then, we consider the geomagnetic assisted stratigraphy already used to place SST signals of core MD94-103 on the GISP2 age model around the Laschamp geomagnetic event (Mazaud et al., 2002) to examine the link between these millennial variations and those of the NADW in the North Atlantic. Magnetic parameters indicate a progressive increase in the intensity of deep circulation in the South Indian Ocean globally opposed to the decreasing trend obtained for the NADW before Heinrich event H4. However, the oscillations associated to the successive Dansgaard-Oeschger events in the NADW are damped out. A rapid decrease is then seen during interstadial n° 8, an event which occurred after H4 at northern latitudes and corresponds to a NADW restart. We suggest that a similar scenario may have played around H5, although in this case the magnetic stratigraphy is only tentative. Bulk magnetic parameters also suggest a progressive increase in the activity of South Indian Ocean circulation after interstadial 7. Globally, results obtained around H4 and H5 indicate a deep circulation inversely connected to the NADW, with a smoothing of the fastest variations.

Mazaud, A.; Kissel, C.; Laj, C.; Sicre, M. A.; Ezat, U.; Duprat, J.; Michel, E.; Turon, J. L.

2003-04-01

141

HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study  

PubMed Central

Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI) women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235) or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246). Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01) and reported more sexual partners (p < 0.001). A lower percentage of AI women tested negative for HPV infection compared to Whites (58% [95% CI = 51-65] vs. 77% [95% CI = 71-82]; p < 0.001), and a higher percentage of AI women were infected by oncogenic types (30% [95% CI = 25-36] vs. 16% [95% CI = 11-21]; p = 0.001). Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001). AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p < 0.001). Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women.

2011-01-01

142

Intraseasonal oscillation features of the South China Sea summer monsoon and its response to abnormal MJO in the tropical Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes Intraseasonal Oscillation (ISO) features and inter-annual differences of the South China Sea (SCS) Summer Monsoon (SCSSM), evolution of its Low Frequency (LF) circulation and convection fields and precipitation anomalies, and path of ISO propagation, as well as impact of MJO in tropical Indian Ocean on SCSSM ISO during 1979-2008. It is found that (1) The SCSSM ISO goes through six phases (exclusive of the weak phase) at every complete fluctuation: developing, strongest, weakening, restraining, weakest and recovering phase. Due to tropical LF convection propagating eastward and northward, the LF convection and circulation in the 1st-3rd and 4th-6th phases present the anti-phase in the Arabian Sea-West Pacific zonal band. Its corresponding rainy bands also present anti-phase roughly. The rainy band moves eastward with LF convection mainly in tropical regions in the south of 20° N, while moves northward in East Asia subtropical regions in the north of 20° N. (2) The SCSSM ISO intensity presents significant inter-annual difference. There are three stronger ISO in the stronger SCSSM ISO years. The first two oscillations propagates from the tropical Indian Ocean to the Bay of Bengal firstly, and then to SCS along the 10° -20° N zonal direction, stimulates the ISO to propagate to South China, forming a relay propagation path in meridional-zonal direction. Moreover, in the weaker SCSSM ISO years, the ISO weakens greatly and irregularly. In averaged conditions, the ISO propagates from tropical Indian Ocean to the SCS by about 20 days (one half ISO periods). (3) MJO1 (the first modal of MJO index provided by the Climate Prediction Center) averaged value in the 1st-2nd pentads of April has the negative correlation with the SCSSM ISO intensity. When MJO in tropical Indian Ocean is more active in the 1st-2nd pentads of April, it is stronger in the subsequent May to August, and the ISO also propagates strongly to the SCS, so that the SCSSM ISO strengthens. Conversely, the SCSSM ISO weakens. The abnormal MJO in the 1st-2nd pentads of April contributes to a certain theory basis to predict the subsequent SCSSM ISO intensity and analyze the abnormal rainfall in related regions.

Li, Ting

2014-05-01

143

Evaluation of the Variant Anatomical Disposition of the Renal Hilar Structures in South Indian Adult Human Cadavers and Its Cinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the anatomical disposition of the renal hilar structures in human cadavers of south Indian origin, considering their antero–posterior distribution. Material and Methods: Ninty–six renal hila of the isolated kidneys from adult south Indian cadavers were observed for the branching patterns and the distributions of the renal hilar structures. The number of branches of the renal artery and the divisions of the renal vein in the pre hilar region were noted, along with their pattern of arrangement with respect to the renal pelvis. Results: In the present study on the pre hilar region, we observed that the highest division of the renal artery was 8 and that the highest incidence was of 4 divisions of the renal artery in 30.2% cases. The highest number of venous divisions which was observed was 7. The highest incidence of 40.6 % cases showed 2 divisions of the veins. Regarding the patterns of arrangement of these structures, we observed 12 patterns of arrangement, with a higher incidence (45.8%) of the classical arrangement (V-A-P), as has been described in the standard text books of anatomy, which was followed by the A-V-P pattern (28.1%). Conclusion: An anatomical knowledge on the possible variant topography of the renal hilar structures is of great importance when urological surgical procedures are performed.

Kumar, Naveen; Guru, Anitha; Aithal P., Ashwini; Shetty, Surekha D.; Nayak B., Satheesha; Pamidi, Narendra

2013-01-01

144

Inter and intra ethnic variation of vitamin K epoxide reductase complex and cytochrome P450 4F2 genetic polymorphisms and their prevalence in South Indian population  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex (VKORC1) and cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2) genes were found to be strongly associated with the oral anticoagulant (OA) dose requirement. The distribution of genetic variation in these two genes was found to show large inter- and intra-ethnic difference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 470 unrelated, healthy volunteers of South Indians of either sex (age: 18-60 years) were enrolled for the study. A 5 ml of venous blood was collected and the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted by using phenol-chloroform extraction method. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used for genotyping. RESULTS: The variant allele frequencies of VKORC1 rs2359612 (T), rs8050894 (C), rs9934438 (T) and rs9923231 (A) were found to be 11.0%, 11.8%, 11.7% and 12.0%, respectively. The variant allele VKORC1 rs7294 was (80.1%) more frequent and the variant allele CYP4F2 * 3 was found to be 41.8% in South Indians. The allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of VKORC1 and CYP4F2 gene were distinct from other compared HapMap populations (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The findings of our study provide the basic genetic information for further pharmacogenetic based investigation of OA therapy in the population.

Kumar, Dhakchinamoorthi Krishna; Shewade, Deepak Gopal; Manjunath, Sajjanavar; Ushakiran, Prayaga; Reneega, Gangadharan; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

2013-01-01

145

Nd isotope systematics on ODP Sites 756 and 762 sediments reveal major volcanic, oceanic and climatic changes in South Indian Ocean over the last 35 Ma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed the Nd isotopic composition of both ancient seawater and detrital material from long sequences of carbonated oozes of the South Indian Ocean which are ODP Site 756 (Ninety East Ridge (- 30°S), 1518 m water depth) and ODP Site 762 (Northwest Australian margin, 1360 m water depth). The measurements indicate that the ?Nd changes in Indian seawater over the last 35 Ma result from changes in the oceanic circulation, large volcanic and continental weathering Nd inputs. This highlights the diverse nature of those controls and their interconnections in a small area of the ocean. These new records combined with those previously obtained at the equatorial ODP Sites 757 and 707 in the Indian Ocean (Gourlan et al., 2008) established that the distribution of intermediate seawater ?Nd was uniform over most of the Indian Ocean from 35 Ma to 10 Ma within a geographical area extending from 40°S to the equator and from - 60°E to 120°E. However, the ?Nd value of Indian Ocean seawater which kept an almost constant value (at about - 7 to - 8) from 35 to 15 Ma rose by 3 ?Nd units from 15 to 10 Ma. This sharp increase has been caused by a radiogenic Nd enrichment of the water mass originating from the Pacific flowing through the Indonesian Passage. Using a two end-members model we calculated that the Nd transported to the Indian Ocean through the Indonesian Pathway was 1.7 times larger at 10 Ma than at 15 Ma. The Nd isotopic composition of ancient seawater and that of the sediment detrital component appear to be strongly correlated for some specific events. A first evidence occurs between 20 and 15 Ma with two positive spikes recorded in both ?Nd signals that are clearly induced by a volcanic crisis of, most likely, the St. Paul hot-spot. A second evidence is the very large ?Nd decrease recorded at ODP Sites 756 and 762 during the past 10 Ma which has never been previously observed. The synchronism between the ?Nd decrease in seawater from 10 to 5 Ma and evidences of desertification in the western part of the nearly Australian continent suggests enhanced weathering inputs in this ocean from this continent as a result of climatic changes.

Le Houedec, Sandrine; Meynadier, Laure; Allègre, Claude J.

2012-04-01

146

Indian craniometric variability and affinities.  

PubMed

Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with "Caucasoid" populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

2013-01-01

147

Water quality of selected springs and public-supply wells, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota, 1992-97  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents results of a water-quality study for the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota. The study was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Water Resources Department of the Oglala Sioux Tribe. Discharge and water-quality data were collected during 1992-97 for 14 contact springs located in the northwestern part of the Reservation. Data were collected to evaluate potential alternative sources of water supply for the village of Red Shirt, which currently obtains water of marginal quality from a well completed in the Inyan Kara aquifer. During 1995-97, water-quality data also were collected for 44 public-supply wells that serve about one-half of the Reservation's population. Quality-assurance sampling was used to evaluate the precision and accuracy of environmental samples. Ten of the springs sampled contact the White River Group, and four contact the Pierre Shale. Springs contacting the White River Group range from calcium bicarbonate to sodium bicarbonate water types. Two springs contacting the Pierre Shale have water types similar to this; however, sulfate is the dominant anion for the other two springs. In general, springs contacting the White River Group are shown to have better potential as alternative sources of water supply for the village of Red Shirt than springs contacting the Pierre Shale. Nine of the springs with better water quality were sampled repeatedly; however, only minor variability in water quality was identified. Six of these nine springs, of which five contact the White River Group, probably have the best potential for use as water supplies. Discharge from any of these six springs probably would provide adequate water supply for Red Shirt during most periods, based on a limited number of discharge measurements collected. Concentrations of lead exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) action level of 15 ?g/L for three of these six springs. Five of these six springs also had arsenic concentrations that exceeded 10 ?g/L, which could be problematic if the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) is lowered. Blending of water from one or more springs with water from the existing Inyan Kara well may be an option to address concerns regarding both quantity and quality of existing and potential sources. All nine springs that were sampled for indicator bacteria had positive detections on one or more occasions during presumptive tests. Although USEPA standards for bacteria apply only to public-water supplies, local residents using spring water for domestic purposes need to be aware of the potential health risks associated with consuming untreated water. One spring contacting the White River Group and two springs contacting the Pierre Shale exceeded 15 pCi/L for gross alpha; these values do not necessarily constitute exceedances of the MCL, which excludes radioactivity contributed by uranium and radon. Additional sampling using different analysis techniques would be needed to conclusively determine if any samples exceeded this MCL. Nine springs were sampled for selected pesticides and tritium. The pesticides atrazine, carbaryl, and 2,4-D were not detected in any of the samples. The nine springs were analyzed for tritium in order to generally assess the age of the water and to determine if concentrations exceeded the MCL established for gross beta-particle activity. Tritium results indicated two springs are composed primarily of water recharged prior to atmospheric testing of nuclear bombs and two other springs have a relatively large percentage of test-era water. The remaining five springs had tritium values that indicated some percentage of test-era water; however, additional sampling would be needed to determine whether water is predominantly pre- or post-bomb age. Of the 44 public-supply wells sampled, 42 are completed in the Arikaree aquifer, one is completed in an alluvial aquifer, and one is completed in the Inyan Kara aquifer. Water

Heakin, Allen J.

2000-01-01

148

Television viewing and sleep are associated with overweight among urban and semi-urban South Indian children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is an emerging problem in urban Indian children and increases in childhood overweight and obesity may be major contributors to the adult obesity epidemic. Thus, identifying potential risk factors for childhood obesity and formulating early interventions is crucial in the management of the obesity epidemic. The present study was aimed at evaluating dietary and physical activity patterns

Rebecca Kuriyan; Swarnarekha Bhat; Tinku Thomas; Mario Vaz; Anura V Kurpad

2007-01-01

149

Factors that influence first-career choice of undergraduate engineers in software services companies : A south Indian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify how undergraduate engineering students differ in their perception about software services companies in India based on variables like gender, locations of the college and branches of engineering. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data obtained from 560 undergraduate engineering students who had the opportunity to have multiple job offers from four major Indian software

V. K. Gokuladas

2010-01-01

150

Morphological and toxicological variability of Prorocentrum lima clones isolated from four locations in the south-west Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight clones of the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge from four sites (two clones per site) on the coral reef of La Réunion, Mayotte, Europa, and Mauritius Islands in the SW Indian Ocean were isolated and cultivated under the same conditions. Morphological features of each clone, including cell size and valve and marginal pore numbers, were examined by scanning

A Chézeau; J Turquet; J.-P Quod; S Puiseux-Dao

2001-01-01

151

A comparison of the sensitivity to p-aminosalicylic acid of tubercle bacilli from South Indian and British patients  

PubMed Central

In a comparison of home and sanatorium treatment for tuberculous patients in India, pretreatment cultures of tubercle bacilli showed a higher average level of resistance to p-aminosalicyclic acid (PAS) than pretreatment cultures from a representative sample of patients in Great Britain. The investigation described in the present paper was therefore undertaken to find out the nature of the difference in the PAS sensitivity of cultures from Indian and British patients. In this investigation, carried out jointly at the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, and the Postgraduate Medical School of London, sputum specimens from 147 Indian and 93 British patients were cultured and subjected to sensitivity tests. The tests were set up on slopes containing various concentrations of PAS and inoculated with 105 viable units of the cultures, and the minimal concentrations of PAS inhibiting the growth of 20, 50 and 100 colonies were determined. According to the 20-colony end-point—the one commonly used in routine sensitivity tests—the Indian strains were significantly more resistant than the British strains. This difference in sensitivity was not apparent, however, in either the 50-colony or the 100-colony results. The presence of a small proportion of resistant organisms was found to be a general characteristic of the Indian strains, but did not appear to be related to any special tendency for the patient to fail to respond to treatment with PAS. Since a chance increase in the inoculum size might well affect the 20-colony results, the authors recommend a tenfold decrease in the size of the inoculum used in routine PAS-sensitivity tests on Indian patients.

Selkon, J. B.; Subbaiah, T. V.; Bhatia, A. L.; Radhakrishna, S.; Mitchison, D. A.

1960-01-01

152

Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.  

PubMed Central

The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI.

Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

1996-01-01

153

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at\\u000a birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed\\u000a male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh

Tatiana Zerjal; Arpita Pandya; Kumarasamy Thangaraj; Edmund Y. S. Ling; Jennifer Kearley; Stefania Bertoneri; Silvia Paracchini; Lalji Singh; Chris Tyler-Smith

2007-01-01

154

Correlates of anaemia in pregnant urban South Indian women: a possible role of dietary intake of nutrients that inhibit iron absorption  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify correlates of anaemia during the first trimester of pregnancy among 366 urban South Indian pregnant women. Design Cross-sectional study evaluating demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data on haematological outcomes. Setting A government maternity health-care centre catering predominantly to the needs of pregnant women from the lower socio-economic strata of urban Bangalore. Subjects Pregnant women (n 366) aged ?18 and ?40 years, who registered for antenatal screening at ?14 weeks of gestation. Results Mean age was 22.6 (SD 3.4) years, mean BMI was 20.4 (SD 3.3) kg/m2 and 236 (64.5%) of the pregnant women were primiparous. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb <11.0g/dl) was 30.3% and of microcytic anaemia (anaemia with mean corpuscular volume <80fl) 20.2%. Mean dietary intakes of energy, Ca, Fe and folate were well below the Indian RDA. In multivariable log-binomial regression analysis, anaemia was independently associated with high dietary intakes of Ca (relative risk; 95% CI: 1.79; 1.16, 2.76) and P (1.96; 1.31, 2.96) and high intake of meat, fish and poultry (1.94; 1.29, 2.91). Conclusions Low dietary intake of multiple micronutrients, but higher intakes of nutrients that inhibit Fe absorption such as Ca and P, may help explain high rates of maternal anaemia in India.

Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Finkelstein, Julia; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

2013-01-01

155

Submarine landsliding and canyon evolution on the northern KwaZulu-Natal continental shelf, South Africa, SW Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphometric and geomorphological analysis of landslides found within several submarine canyons of varying sizes and morphologies from the northern KwaZulu-Natal continental shelf, South Africa, provides insight into submarine canyon evolution. Six large shelf indenting canyons are recognised (Leven, North and South Leadsman, Diepgat, Wright, and White Sands) interspersed with smaller canyons that occur prominently in the northernmost Mabibi area.

Andrew Green; Ron Uken

2008-01-01

156

Cytoplasmic Incompatibility as a Means of Controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Mosquito in the Islands of the South-Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands.

Atyame, Celestine M.; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michael Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Severine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylene; Duron, Olivier

2011-01-01

157

Breast milk zinc transfer and early post-natal growth among urban South Indian term infants using measures of breast milk volume and breast milk zinc concentrations.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) deficiency in infancy and early childhood is of public health concern in developing countries. This study aimed to longitudinally assess Zn intake of urban South Indian term infants in the first 6 months of life using measures of breast milk (BM) volume and BM Zn concentrations and, additionally, to study the effect of BM Zn intake on infant length and weight gain. BM intake by the deuterium dilution technique, BM Zn concentration at months 1, 3 and 6, as well as serum Zn level at months 3 and 6 were assessed in 50 mother-infant pairs. BM intake significantly declined from 627?mL?day(-1) at month 1 to 608?mL?day(-1) at month 6 (P?south Indian term infants less than 6 months of age, BM Zn intakes were low, owing to low volumes of BM intake, despite BM Zn concentrations being in the normal range. Promotion of breastfeeding and thereby increasing the volumes of milk produced is a first important step towards improving Zn intake among infants. PMID:22734965

Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Thankachan, Prashanth; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Virtanen, Suvi M; Kurpad, Anura V

2014-07-01

158

The prevalence, patterns of usage and people's attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among the Indian community in Chatsworth, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine, among the Indian community of Chatsworth, South Africa, the prevalence and utilisation patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), attitudes associated with CAM use and communication patterns of CAM users with their primary care doctors. Methods Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted in Chatsworth, a suburb of Durban in which South Africans of Indian origin predominantly reside. Participants were 200 randomly selected adult English-speaking Indian residents. Results The prevalence of CAM usage for period 2000/2001 was 38.5% (95% confidence interval 31.7% to 45.6%). Spiritual healing and herbal/natural medicines, including vitamins were the most common types of CAM used, accounting for 42.8% and 48.1% respectively of overall CAM usage. People used CAM to treat conditions including diabetes mellitus, headaches, arthritis and joint pains, stress, skin disorders, backaches, hypertension and nasal disorders. Half of the CAM users used allopathic medicines concurrently. The cost of CAM utilization over this 1-year period, incurred by 80.5% of users for the duration of therapy for their most troublesome condition was below R500 (approximately US$50). Age, sex, marital status, religion, level of education and income were shown not to influence the use of CAM. Greater than half (51.9%) of CAM users did so either upon the advice of someone they knew, or after noticing a CAM advertisement in the local press. Seventy-nine percent of CAM users indicated that they had positive outcomes with their treatments. Fifty four percent of CAM users (excluding those using spiritual healing only) failed to inform their doctors that they used CAM. The main reason given by half of this group was that informing their doctors did not seem necessary. Conclusion The prevalence of CAM in Chatsworth is similar to findings in other parts of the world. Although CAM was used to treat many different ailments, this practice could not be attributed to any particular demographic profile. The majority of CAM users were satisfied with the effects of CAM. Findings support a need for greater integration of allopathic medicine and CAM, as well as improved communication between patients and caregivers regarding CAM usage.

Singh, Vimal; Raidoo, Deshandra M; Harries, Catherine S

2004-01-01

159

Post-collisional, K-rich mafic magmatism in south Tibet: constraints on Indian slab-to-wedge transport processes and plateau uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-collisional (23-8 Ma), potassium-rich (including ultrapotassic and potassic) mafic magmatic rocks occur within the north-south-trending Xuruco lake-Dangre Yongcuo lake (XDY) rift in the Lhasa terrane of the southern Tibetan Plateau, forming an approximately 130-km-long semi-continuous magmatic belt. They include both extrusive and intrusive facies. Major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data are presented for all of the known exposures within the XDY rift. The potassium-rich, mafic igneous rocks are characterized by high MgO (5.9-10.8 wt.%), K2O (4.81-10.68 wt.%), Ba (1,782-5,618 ppm) and Th (81.3-327.4 ppm) contents, and relatively high SiO2 (52.76-58.32 wt.%) and Al2O3 (11.10-13.67 wt.%). Initial Sr isotopic compositions are extremely radiogenic (0.712600-0.736157), combined with low (206Pb/204Pb) i (18.28-18.96) and (143Nd/144Nd) i (0.511781-0.512046). Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns display relatively weak negative Eu anomalies. Primitive mantle-normalized incompatible trace element patterns exhibit strong enrichments in large ion lithophile elements relative to high-field-strength elements and display strongly negative Ta-Nb-Ti anomalies. The combined major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics of the K-rich igneous rocks suggest that the primitive magmas were produced by 1-10 % partial melting of an asthenospheric mantle source enriched by both fluids and partial melts derived from Indian passive continental margin sediments subducted into the shallow mantle as a consequence of the northward underthrusting of the Indian continental lithosphere beneath Tibet since the India-Asia collision at ~55 Ma. The best-fit model results indicate that a melt with trace element characteristics similar to those of the K-rich rocks could be generated by 8-10 % partial melting of a metasomatized mantle source in the south and 1-2 % melting in the north of the XDY rift. Trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic modeling indicate that the proportion of fluid derived from the subducted sediments, for which we use as a proxy the Higher Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (HHCS), in the mantle source region increases from north (rear-arc) to south (front-arc), ranging from 0 to 5 %, respectively. Correspondingly, the proportion of the melt derived from the subducted HHCS in the source increases from north (2 %) to south (15 %). The increasing proportion of the fluid and melt component in the mantle source from north to south, together with a southward decreasing trend in the age of the K-rich magmatism within the XDY rift, is inferred to reflect rollback of the subducted Indian lithospheric mantle slab during the period 25-8 Ma. Slab rollback may be linked to a decreasing convergence rate between India and Asia. As a consequence of slab rollback at 25 Ma beneath the Lhasa terrane, its geodynamic setting was transformed from a convergent (55-25 Ma) to an extensional (25-8 Ma) regime. The occurrence of K-rich magmatism during the period 25-8 Ma is a consequence of the decompression melting of an enriched mantle source, which may signal the onset of extension in the southern Tibetan Plateau and provide a petrological record of the extension process.

Guo, Zhengfu; Wilson, Marjorie; Zhang, Maoliang; Cheng, Zhihui; Zhang, Lihong

2013-06-01

160

Expanding the proxy toolkit to help identify past events — Lessons from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2009 South Pacific Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the proxies used to identify palaeotsunamis are reviewed in light of new findings following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2009 South Pacific Tsunami, and a revised toolkit provided. The new application of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to the study of tsunami deposits and its usefulness to determine the hydrodynamic conditions during the emplacement of tsunami sequences, together with data from grain size analysis, are presented. The value of chemical proxies as indicators of saltwater inundation, associated marine shell and/or coral, high-energy depositional environment, and possible contamination, is demonstrated and issues of preservation addressed. We also provide new findings from detailed studies of heavy minerals. New information gathered during the UNESCO — International Oceanographic Commission (IOC) International Tsunami Survey of fine onshore sediments following the 2009 South Pacific Tsunami is presented, and includes grain size, chemical, diatom and foraminifera data. The tsunami deposit varied, ranging from fining-upward sand layers to thin sand layers overlain by a thick layer of organic debris and/or a mud cap. Grain size characteristics, chemical data and microfossil assemblages provide evidence for marine inundation from near shore, and changes in flow dynamics during the tsunami.

Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Goff, James R.; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Strotz, Luke

2011-07-01

161

Towards a better understanding of Rift Valley fever epidemiology in the south-west of the Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Rift Valley fever virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus causing intermittent epizootics and sporadic epidemics primarily in East Africa. Infection causes severe and often fatal illness in young sheep, goats and cattle. Domestic animals and humans can be contaminated by close contact with infectious tissues or through mosquito infectious bites. Rift Valley fever virus was historically restricted to sub-Saharan countries. The probability of Rift Valley fever emerging in virgin areas is likely to be increasing. Its geographical range has extended over the past years. As a recent example, autochthonous cases of Rift Valley fever were recorded in 2007-2008 in Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. It has been proposed that a single infected animal that enters a naive country is sufficient to initiate a major outbreak before Rift Valley fever virus would ever be detected. Unless vaccines are available and widely used to limit its expansion, Rift Valley fever will continue to be a critical issue for human and animal health in the region of the Indian Ocean. PMID:24016237

Balenghien, Thomas; Cardinale, Eric; Chevalier, Véronique; Elissa, Nohal; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Jean Jose Nipomichene, Thiery Nirina; Nicolas, Gaelle; Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Roger, Matthieu; Zumbo, Betty

2013-01-01

162

Towards a better understanding of Rift Valley fever epidemiology in the south-west of the Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus causing intermittent epizootics and sporadic epidemics primarily in East Africa. Infection causes severe and often fatal illness in young sheep, goats and cattle. Domestic animals and humans can be contaminated by close contact with infectious tissues or through mosquito infectious bites. Rift Valley fever virus was historically restricted to sub-Saharan countries. The probability of Rift Valley fever emerging in virgin areas is likely to be increasing. Its geographical range has extended over the past years. As a recent example, autochthonous cases of Rift Valley fever were recorded in 2007–2008 in Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. It has been proposed that a single infected animal that enters a naive country is sufficient to initiate a major outbreak before Rift Valley fever virus would ever be detected. Unless vaccines are available and widely used to limit its expansion, Rift Valley fever will continue to be a critical issue for human and animal health in the region of the Indian Ocean.

2013-01-01

163

Solubility of iron and other trace elements in rainwater collected on the Kerguelen Islands (South Indian Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soluble fraction of aerosols that is deposited on the open ocean is vital for phytoplankton growth. It is believed that a large proportion of this dissolved fraction is bioavailable for marine biota and thus plays an important role in primary production, especially in HNLC oceanic areas where this production is limited by micronutrient supply. There is still much uncertainty surrounding the solubility of atmospheric particles in global biogeochemical cycles and it is not well understood. In this study, we present the solubilities of seven elements (Al, Ce, Fe, La, Mn, Nd, Ti) in rainwater on the Kerguelen Islands, in the middle of the Southern Indian Ocean. The solubilities of elements exhibit high values, generally greater than 70%, and Ti remains the least soluble element. Because the Southern Indian Ocean is remote from its dust sources, only a fraction of smaller aerosols reaches the Kerguelen Islands after undergoing several cloud and chemical processes during their transport, resulting in a drastic increase in solubility. Finally, we deduced an average soluble iron deposition flux of 27 ± 6 ?g m-2 d-1 (~0.5 ?mol m-2 d-1) for the studied oceanic area, taking into account a median iron solubility of 82% ± 18%.

Heimburger, A.; Losno, R.; Triquet, S.

2013-10-01

164

Reliability of inter-anterior superior iliac spinous distance as compared to foot length for stature estimation in South Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of stature from isolated body parts is especially important to forensic scientists and anthropologists. The aims of this study were, to evaluate the accuracy of inter-anterior superior iliac spinous distance in determining stature of an individual as compared to foot length, and to note sex differences in the above mentioned parameters.One hundred normal healthy adult subjects from South India

S. Nachiket; N. Sujatha; R. Priya; V. Raveendranath; D. Rema; R. Roopa

2010-01-01

165

Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase levels in Obese South Indian adults with reference to atherogenic lipid risk factors and lipid peroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions especially in South India. In recent years, Waist circumference (WC), which reflects central obesity, has been regarded as an independent predictor of risk. Generation of free radicals occurs in central obesity and depletes intracellular glutathione, thereby inducing the production and release of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) into circulation. High GGT levels are known to

Niranjan Gopal; Ajeet Selvam; Srinivasan A R; Saha S; Prakash H Muddegowda; Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth

2012-01-01

166

An interdisciplinary approach to controlling chikungunya outbreaks on French islands in the south-west Indian ocean.  

PubMed

The outbreak of chikungunya that occurred on French Island territories in the southwest Indian Ocean in 2005 and 2006 caused severe morbidity and mortality. In the aftermath, French authorities set up a scientific task force including experts in epidemiology, public health, entomology, virology, immunology, sociology, animal health, community and hospital medicine. The mission of the task force was to conceive and propose research programs needed to increase understanding of the disease and epidemic and to help public health officials in improving epidemic response measures. The purpose of this article is to describe the findings of the task force at the end of its two-year existence and initial outcomes in the the areas studied. Discussion emphasizes topics requiring further study. PMID:22693932

Flahault, A; Aumont, G; Boisson, V; de Lamballerie, X; Favier, F; Fontenille, D; Journeaux, S; Lotteau, V; Paupy, C; Sanquer, M A; Setbon, M; Gaüzere, B A

2012-03-01

167

Possible risk modification by CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms in lung cancer susceptibility in a South Indian population.  

PubMed

Susceptibility to lung cancer has been shown to be modulated by inheritance of polymorphic genes encoding cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and glutathione S transferases (GSTM1 and GSTT1), which are involved in the bioactivation and detoxification of environmental toxins. As the incidence of lung cancer is known to differ according to ethnicity, we have conducted a case-control study of 146 South Indian lung cancer patients along with 146 healthy controls, to assess any association between CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms, either separately or in combination, with the likelihood of development of lung cancer in our population. The current weight of evidence from our study indicated that the frequency of CYP1A1 MspI homozygous variant alleles was significantly higher in cases (OR = 3.178). We observed a considerable difference in the GSTT1 null deletion frequency in this population when compared with other populations (OR = 2.472, 95% CI: 1.191-5.094, P = 0.014). There was no relative risk in GSTM1 null genotype when analysed singly (P = 0.453). Considering genotype combinations, risk of lung cancer increased remarkably significantly in individuals having one variant allele of CYP1A1, GSTM1, or GSTT1, suggesting gene-gene interactions. Rare genotypic combinations (such as CYP1A1 wild GSTM1 or GSTT1 either null; CYP1A1 variant both GSTM1 and GSTT1 present; CYP1A1 variant GSTM1 or GSTT1 either null), were at higher risk compared to the reference group. Moreover, patients who had smoked <20 pack years and harboured the CYP1A1 variant allele or the GSTT1 null genotype also had a significant risk of lung cancer. Hence our study-the first to analyse a South Indian population-suggests the importance of combined CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in the development of smoking-induced lung cancer. PMID:16228113

Sreeja, Leelakumari; Syamala, Vani; Hariharan, Sreedharan; Madhavan, Jayaprakash; Devan, Sivanandan Choondal; Ankathil, Ravindran

2005-01-01

168

Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, Lp (a), apolipoprotein AI, AII, B, C-II, C-III, and E in healthy South Indians from Andhra Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease is steadily increasing in South East Asian countries including\\u000a Indian sub continent. Many lipids, apolipoproteins and Lp (a) except HDL-C and apo A-I, A-II are implicated as risk factors\\u000a for coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease. There is great need to have national guidelines for each country\\u000a like the ATP III guidelines recommended

T. Malati; M. R. U. Mahesh

2009-01-01

169

The invaders: phylogeography of dengue and chikungunya viruses Aedes vectors, on the South West islands of the Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti are the two main worldwide arbovirus vectors that have experienced invasion phases. Aedes aegypti is a pantropical species that spread centuries ago whereas Ae. albopictus started the main wave of invasion in the 1980s. Both species have been at various times on the different islands in Southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO). This area provides an opportunity to examine the extent to which mosquitoes colonization patterns are influenced by different introductory events likely linked with human settlement and migration between the islands. To explore this hypothesis, we propose a CO1-based phylogeny using a large sampling of fresh Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Ae. mascarensis, and 50-year-old dry specimens originating from different Indian Ocean islands. Our data allow us to hypothesize the existence of at least two waves of invasion for Ae. albopictus in the islands of SWIO. The first one most likely occurred several centuries ago with establishments in Madagascar, Mauritius and Reunion Island. The other one that appears to currently still on-going, reached almost all the islands of SWIO during the 1990s or later. The low genetic diversity found between the ancient invasive strain and the contemporary one, indicates with great certainty that Ae. albopictus is not indigenous to the islands of SWIO. Recently, in Madagascar, an invasive lineage of Ae. albopictus has expanded all over the island while Ae. aegypti populations have declined in urban areas. Three clusters of Aedes aegypti have been observed, two fitting with the wild form Ae. aegypti formosus and the other one fitting with the more domestic form Ae. ae. aegypti. Sequence of Ae. mascarensis, endemic to Mauritius suggest that this species might belong to Ae. aegypti species and on this basis we propose to classify it as a sub species or form of Ae. aegypti species. Given the increase of human population flux on these islands, the occurrence of these vectors and their ability to spread quickly are of high importance of arbovirus transmission and the epidemicity of the associated diseases in these islands. PMID:21827872

Delatte, H; Bagny, L; Brengue, C; Bouetard, A; Paupy, C; Fontenille, D

2011-10-01

170

Special Casting Techniques (Chapter 9).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Special casting techniques are progressive production methods. These casting techniques include the following: metal mold casting (chill mold casting), shell-mold casting, investment casting, centrifugal casting, and others. Each of these methods of casti...

N. P. Dubinin

1965-01-01

171

Establishing a Patient Navigator Program to Reduce Cancer Disparities in the American Indian Communities of Western South Dakota: Initial Observations and Results  

PubMed Central

Background American Indians (AIs) in the Northern Plains region suffer disproportionately high cancer mortality rates compared with the general US population and with AIs from other regions in the United States. Methods The National Cancer Institute developed the Cancer Disparity Research Partnership to address these inequities. This initiative in Rapid City, South Dakota, attempts to lower cancer mortality rates for AIs by access to innovative clinical trials, behavioral research, and a genetic study. Patient navigation is a critical part of the program. Two navigation strategies are described: navigators at the cancer center and navigators on each reservation. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine if navigated patients (n = 42) undergoing potentially curative radiotherapy had fewer treatment interruptions compared with nonnavigated patients (n = 74). Results A total of 213 AIs with cancer have undergone patient navigation. For those undergoing cancer treatment, the median number of patient navigation interactions was 15 (range 1 to 95), whereas for those seen in follow-up after their cancer treatment, the median number of contacts was 4 (range 1 to 26). AIs who received navigation services during curative radiation treatment had on average 3 fewer days of treatment interruptions compared to AIs who did not receive navigation services during curative radiation treatment (P = .002, N = 116). Conclusions Early findings suggest that patient navigation is a critical component in addressing cancer disparities in this population. The program has established trust with individual cancer patients, with the tribal councils, and with the general population on each of the three reservations of western South Dakota.

Petereit, Daniel G.; Molloy, Kevin; Reiner, Mary L.; Helbig, Petra; Cina, Kristin; Miner, Raylene; Rost, Catherine; Conroy, Patricia; Roberts, Chester R.

2008-01-01

172

Clinical profile, outcomes, and progression to type 2 diabetes among Indian women with gestational diabetes mellitus seen at a diabetes center in south India  

PubMed Central

Aim: To describe the clinical profile, maternal and fetal outcomes, and the conversion rates to diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) seen at a tertiary care diabetes center in urban south India. Materials and Methods: Clinical case records of 898 women with GDM seen between 1991 and 2011 were extracted from the Diabetes Electronic Medical Records (DEMR) of a tertiary care diabetes center in Chennai, south India and their clinical profile was analyzed. Follow-up data of 174 GDM women was available. To determine the conversion rates to diabetes, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done in these women. Glucose tolerance status postpartum was classified based on World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 criteria. Results: The mean maternal age of the women was 29 ± 4 years and mean age of gestation at first visit were 24 ± 8.4 weeks. Seventy percent of the women had a family history of diabetes. Seventy-eight percent of the women delivered full-term babies and 65% underwent a cesarean section. The average weight gain during pregnancy was 10.0 ± 4.2 kg. Macrosomia was present in 17.9% of the babies, hypoglycemia in 10.4%, congenital anomalies in 4.3%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 1.9%. Mean follow-up duration of the 174 women of whom outcome data was available was 4.5 years. Out of the 174, 101 women who were followed-up developed diabetes, of whom half developed diabetes within 5 years and over 90%, within 10 years of the delivery. Conclusions: Progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indian women with GDM is rapid. There is an urgent need to develop standardized protocols for GDM care in India that can improve the maternal and fetal outcomes and help prevent future diabetes in women with GDM.

Mahalakshmi, Manni Mohanraj; Bhavadharini, Balaji; Kumar, Maheswari; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Shah, Sapna S.; Bridgette, Akila; Choudhury, Mridusmita; Henderson, Margaret; Desborough, Lane; Viswanathan, Mohan; Ranjani, Harish

2014-01-01

173

Guild structure, diversity and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung in South Western Ghats forests  

PubMed Central

The diversity, guild structure and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung is described in a deciduous forest site in Western Ghats, a hot spot of diversity in India. Dung beetles were collected using baited pitfall traps and from exposed dung pats in the forest at intervals of 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 and 21 days. Twenty-one dung beetle species belonging to the 3 major functional guilds were recorded. Abundance of dwellers was high compared to rollers deviating from earlier reports on the high abundance of rollers in the afrotropical regions. Dweller Drepanocerus setosus and tunneler Onthophagus bronzeus were the most abundant species. Dung pats aged 3–5 days attracted the highest abundance of dung beetles. Bray Curtis similarity index indicated low community similarity between different stages of succession. Species richness and abundance of tunnelers increased with dung age and decreasing moisture up to a threshold level, followed by a decrease. Rollers and dwellers did not show any significant relationship with dung moisture content. Further research is needed to estimate the dung beetle community associated with the dung pats of other mega herbivores as well as of elephant dung in other forests of the Western Ghats.

Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K. V.; Vineesh, P. J.

2006-01-01

174

Androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism and epigenetic influence among the south Indian women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to assess the role of androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism and X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern among Indian PCOS women and controls which has not been hitherto explored and also to test the hypothesis that shorter CAG alleles would be preferentially activated in PCOS. CAG repeat polymorphism and X chromosome methylation patterns were compared between PCOS and non-PCOS women. 250 PCOS women and 299 controls were included for this study. Androgen receptor CAG repeat sizes, XCI percentages, and clinical and biochemical parameters were measured. The mean CAG repeat number is similar between the cases (18.74±0.13) and controls (18.73±0.12). The obese PCOS women were significantly more frequent in the <18 and >20 CAG repeat category than the lean PCOS women, yielding a highly significant odds (p=0.001). Among the women with non-random X-inactivation, alleles with <19 repeats were more frequently activated among cases than controls (p=0.33). CAG repeat polymorphism by itself cannot be considered as a useful marker for discriminating PCOS. We observed a trend of preferential activation of the shorter allele among the PCOS cases with non random XCI pattern. In the obese PCOS women, this microsatellite variation may account for the hyperandrogenicity to a larger extent than the lean PCOS women. PMID:20865044

Dasgupta, Shilpi; Sirisha, Pisapati V S; Neelaveni, Kudugunti; Anuradha, Kathragadda; Reddy, Alla G; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Reddy, B Mohan

2010-01-01

175

Summer and winter distribution of ?13CDIC in surface waters of the South Indian Ocean [20°S-60°S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT This paper describes for the first time the summer and winter distributions of sea surface ?13CDIC in the Southern Indian Ocean (20°S-60°S). For this we used ?13CDIC measurements from 10 cruises conducted between 1998 and 2005. For summer and winter, the highest ?13CDIC values (>2‰) are observed in sub-Antarctic waters (40°S-50°S) and attributed mainly to biological activity, enhanced in the vicinity of Crozet and Kerguelen Archipelagoes. The lowest ?13CDIC values are found in subtropical waters (25°S-35°S), with a minimum (<1‰) in the Agulhas Current region and in the Mozambique channel. On the seasonal scale, ?13CDIC is higher during summer than during winter in all regions. The largest seasonal amplitude of variation (~0.3‰), observed in the region 35°S-40°S, is attributed to biological activity during summer and to deep vertical mixing during winter. In subtropical oligotrophic waters, the mean seasonal amplitude of variation (~0.15‰) is mainly explained by air-sea CO2 fluxes. On the interannual scale, we also identified a large negative anomaly of ?13CDIC in the subtropical waters during austral summer 2002, associated to an anomalous ocean CO2 sink due to cold conditions during this period.

Racapé, V.; Lo Monaco, C.; Metzl, N.; Pierre, C.

2010-11-01

176

Morphological and toxicological variability of Prorocentrum lima clones isolated from four locations in the south-west Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Eight clones of the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge from four sites (two clones per site) on the coral reef of La Réunion, Mayotte, Europa, and Mauritius Islands in the SW Indian Ocean were isolated and cultivated under the same conditions. Morphological features of each clone, including cell size and valve and marginal pore numbers, were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The toxic potential of each clone was determined by protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) inhibition test and fibroblast cell line FR3T3 bioassay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that variation in morphological features of clones within and between sites was minimal and not significant. However, equivalent okadaic acid content, determined by PP2A assay, was different within and between clones isolated from the four islands. Cytotoxicity bioassay with the FR3T3 cell line confirmed the variation on global toxic potential within and between the eight P. lima clones. This test also suggested the presence of other toxic compounds without PP2A inhibiting activity in crude extracts of some clones. PMID:11306130

Bouaïcha, N; Chézeau, A; Turquet, J; Quod, J P; Puiseux-Dao, S

2001-08-01

177

Television viewing and sleep are associated with overweight among urban and semi-urban South Indian children  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity is an emerging problem in urban Indian children and increases in childhood overweight and obesity may be major contributors to the adult obesity epidemic. Thus, identifying potential risk factors for childhood obesity and formulating early interventions is crucial in the management of the obesity epidemic. The present study was aimed at evaluating dietary and physical activity patterns as determinants of overweight in a sample of children. Methods Five hundred and ninety eight children aged 6–16 years, visiting St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore City, India for minor complaints or routine checkups were recruited into the study. These children were studied for their physical activity patterns, sleep duration, sedentary habits and eating behaviours as potential determinants of overweight. Results Decreased duration of sleep and increased television viewing were significantly associated with overweight. Among the eating behaviours, increased consumption of fried foods was significantly associated with overweight. Conclusion Our data suggests that duration of sleep, television viewing and consumption of fried foods may be significant factors that contribute to overweight. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Kuriyan, Rebecca; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Thomas, Tinku; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura V

2007-01-01

178

Association of Inflammatory Sialoproteins, Lipid Peroxides and Serum Magnesium Levels with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese Children of South Indian Population  

PubMed Central

The Incidence of childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing even in rural and semi-urban regions of India. Adipose tissue mass secretes several inflammatory proteins, which could potentially alter the metabolic processes, leading to several complications at the later stages of life. With limited studies on protein bound sialic acid (PBSA) as a marker of oxidative stress mediated inflammation in obese children, this study was aimed to assess and correlate PBSA with lipid peroxidation and other cardiometabolic risk factors like Insulin Resistance (IR), serum magnesium, and high sensitive C reactive Protein (hsCRP) levels in order to provide an insight into the degree of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. This study included 62 obese children (?95% percentile of the CDC chart) and 60 non obese controls. This study documents significant higher levels of PBSA, IR, Malondialdehyde (MDA), hsCRP and uric acid in obese children (p<0.001). PBSA was associated with IR, hsCRP, uric acid, hypomagnesaemia. Higher degrees of oxidative stress, Insulin resistance and low serum magnesium levels were noted in obese children. PBSA and hsCRP levels were elevated and were associated with Insulin resistance in obese children of South Indian population.

Niranjan, G.; Anitha, D.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Velu, V. Kuzhandai; Venkatesh, C.; Babu, M. Sathish; Ramesh, R.; Saha, S.

2014-01-01

179

Multiplex PCR based screening for microdeletions in azoospermia factor region of Y chromosome in azoospermic and severe oligozoospermic south Indian men  

PubMed Central

Background: Y chromosomal microdeletion is an important genetic disorder, which may arise due to intrachromosomal recombination between homologous sequences in the male specific region of the human Y chromosome. It is frequently associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The screening for Y chromosomal microdeletions has a great clinical value. Objective: To develop a sequence tagged site (STS) based multiplex PCR protocol, which could be specific for the rapid detection of AZF deletions and thereby estimating the frequency of AZF sub deletions in infertile South Indian men. Materials and Methods: In the current study, PCR based Y chromosomal microdeletion screening analysis was performed in 75 men including 30 non-obstructive azoospermic men, 20 severe oligozoospermic, and 25 normozoospermic fertile men (controls) using 15 known STS primer pairs mapped within the AZF locus. Deletion frequency was estimated after successful PCR amplification. Results: We designed and optimized a STS based multiplex PCR protocol, which could be helpful for the clinicians to detect the Y chromosomal deletions rapidly and specifically. In our study, we estimated an overall deletion frequency of 36%. Among these 12 (40%) were azoospermic and 6 (30%) were oligozoospermic. No microdeletions were observed in normozoospermic fertile men. Conclusion: Our Study emphasizes the fact that Y chromosomal microdeletion screening tests are unavoidable in the workup of idiopathic male infertility. Mandatory screening for Y deletions should be done in all azoospermic and severe oligozoospermic patients before undergoing assisted reproductive technology.

Suganthi, Ramaswamy; Vijesh, VV; Jayachandran, Sanjay; Fathima Benazir, Jahangir Ali

2013-01-01

180

Adiponectin levels in south Indian children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and nondiabetic children and its correlation with anthropometry and glycemic control.  

PubMed

Studies have reported high adiponectin levels in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Adiponectin has been found to have anti-atherogenic action and other protective functions. We wanted to estimate adiponectin level in south Indian T1DM children and compare it with that of non-diabetic children and study its correlation with anthropometry and glycemic status. Sixty children with T1DM and forty non-diabetic children of age less than 15 years were analysed. Mean adiponectin level was higher in T1DM group than in non diabetic group (p < 0.001) irrespective of the age group or sex. Negative correlation was observed between SFT- triceps and adiponectin in diabetic and control group. Multiple regression coefficient analysis of various parameters showed SFT- triceps as a statistically significant predictor of adiponectin level (p = 0.001). We conclude that, children with T1DM had higher adiponectin level than non-diabetic children. Low SFT- triceps measuremet may be a predictor of higher adiponectin level. PMID:24079077

Solomon, J Ritchie Sharon; Varadarajan, Poovazhagi; Varadarajan, V Poovazhagi

2013-09-01

181

Assessment of Prevalence and Mortality Incidences Due to Poisoning in a South Indian Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital  

PubMed Central

WHO reports estimate poisoning as one of the most common causes of increased morbidity and mortality rate world-wide. Various agents such as pesticides, drugs have been used for intentional and accidental poisoning in different countries. In the Indian scenario, pesticides are the most commonly used poisoning agents. To assess the prevalence and mortality incidence rate due to various poisoning agents a retrospective and prospective study conducted over a period of nine months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Retrospective data of poisoning cases was collected from the medical records section and the prospective data of poisoning cases was collected from the emergency and causality departments. A total of 1045 poisoning related admissions were identified during the period January 2005 to September 2008. Among them, 68.40% of cases were due to intentional poisoning and 31.60% were due to accidental poisoning. Of the poisoning related admissions, 84.4% of patients recovered, whereas in 7.6% of cases condition did not improve. Mortality rate was observed 4%. Intentional poisoning was observed more in male population (60.2%) in the age group of 18-29 years. Accidental poisoning was seen more in children in the age group of 1-3 years. Incidence of overall poisoning cases were high due to pesticides (39.5%) followed by medicines (26.1%), household products (22.1%), environmental poisoning (12.1%) and heavy metals (0.2%). It was observed that availability of centralised poison information centre and treatment protocols will improvise poison management practices in tertiary care hospitals by the clinicians.

Jesslin, J.; Adepu, R.; Churi, S.

2010-01-01

182

Paper Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project, based on the work of artist Chew Teng Beng, in the molding of wet paper on a plaster cast to create embossed paper designs. The values of such a project are outlined, including a note that its tactile approach makes it suitable to visually handicapped students. (SJL)

Arrasjid, Dorine A.

1980-01-01

183

Casting methods  

DOEpatents

A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

2012-12-18

184

Evaluation of Body Mass Index (BMI) Percentile cut-off Levels with Reference to Insulin Resistance: A Comparative Study on South Indian Obese and Non-Obese Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the relationship of Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile cut off with Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), a surrogate marker for insulin resistance in obese, overweight and non–obese adolescents. Study Design: A cross-sectional analysis of 120 adolescents (divided into sixty overweight/obese and an equal number of non–obese) was performed on nondiabetic, nonpregnant (11 to 18 year old school going) adolescents in south Indian (Puducherry) population. The main outcome measure of insulin resistance was calculated as HOMA-IR (greater than 3.16). Obesity was defined as per the BMI criteria, BMI greater than or equal to 95th percentile,overweight greater than or equal to 85th percentile and non–obese less than 84.9th percentile. All adolescents were subjected to analysis of anthropometric parameters that included weight, height and BMI (body mass index). Biochemical parameters, namely venous plasma glucose (fasting) and venous plasma insulin (fasting) were included for insulin resistance calculation by HOMA-IR. Results: Having a BMI of greater than or equal to 85th percentilewas associated with high HOMA-IR levels. As the BMI percentile increased, HOMA-IR levels also increased. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of less than 84.9 was nil. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of 85-94.9 was 26%.Prevalence of insulin resistance for BMI of greater than or equal to 95th percentile was 64%. Conclusion: Insulin resistance is highly prevalent in obese and overweight adolescents as compared to that in non–obese adolescents. The onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) is associated with the development of severe hyper–insulinaemia in obese adolescents and early primordial and primary prevention can thus alleviate the burden of future cardiometabolic disorders.

Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; M., Lenin; Srinivasan, A.R.

2013-01-01

185

Frequency variations in the methylated pattern of p73/p21 genes and chromosomal aberrations correlating with different grades of glioma among south Indian population.  

PubMed

Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in India. The main epigenetic modification in glioma is aberrant DNA methylation that is now renowned to be a common hallmark of brain tumors. This study was designed to determine the frequency of aberrant CpG island methylation in the promoter regions of p21 and p73 in different grades of glioma and to explore their respective chromosomal aberrations. Total of 160 patients with histologically confirmed grades of glioma (I, II, III, and IV) were included in the study. DNA samples from blood and brain tissues, including benign lesions were subjected to sodium bisulfite conversion and hypermethylation detection using methylation-specific PCR followed by RT-PCR. Western blotting was also carried out for p21 and its related protein, p53. A total of 124 of 160 glioma samples (77.5%) displayed CpG island hypermethylation of both p73, p21 genes associated with the loss of mRNA expression (P < 0.001) and the loss of protein expressions (p53 independent p21 expression). p73 gene showed increased methylation frequency in all grades, 40 of 60 (66%) glioblastomas and 16 of 30 (53.3%) anaplastic astrocytoma, 10 of 20(50%) oligodendrogliomas, 8 of 20 (40%) ependymoma, and low-grade glioma 6 of 20 (30%). The percentage of methylation significantly well correlated with the overall survival and also with chromosomal loss. Thus, the studied glioma patients among south Indians showed a high frequency of aberrant methylation with varied chromosomal signatures in different grades, playing a role in aggressiveness and characterization of a particular grade, the appreciation of which might help for designing a specific therapy. PMID:20844987

Palani, Mahalakshmi; Devan, Sabarinathan; Arunkumar, R; Vanisree, A J

2011-12-01

186

Wisconsin Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

187

An early South Asian dust storm during March 2012 and its impacts on Indian Himalayan foothills: A case study.  

PubMed

The impacts of an early South Asian dust storm that originated over the western part of the Middle East and engulfed northwest parts of India during the third week of March 2012 have been studied at four different stations covering India and Pakistan. The impacts of this dust storm on aerosol optical properties were studied in detail at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi. The impact could also be traced up to central Himalayan foothills at Manora Peak. During dust events, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500nm reached a peak value of 0.96, 1.02, 2.17 and 0.49 with a corresponding drop in Ångström exponent (AE for 440-870nm) to 0.01, -0.02, 0.00 and 0.12 at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi, respectively. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 675nm was relatively lower at Delhi (0.87) and Jodhpur (0.86), with absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) less than 1.0, but a large value of SSA was observed at Lahore (0.98) and Karachi (0.93), with AAE value greater than 1.0 during the event. The study of radiative impact of dust aerosols revealed a significant cooling at the surface and warming in the atmosphere (with corresponding large heating rate) at all the stations during dust event. The effect of this dust storm was also seen at Manora Peak in central Himalayas which showed an enhancement of ~28% in the AOD at 500nm. The transport of dust during such events can have severe climatic implications over the affected plains and the Himalayas. PMID:24973722

Srivastava, A K; Soni, V K; Singh, Sachchidanand; Kanawade, V P; Singh, N; Tiwari, S; Attri, S D

2014-09-15

188

Casting materials  

SciTech Connect

A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

2011-06-14

189

Thunderstorms, Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This large tropical cumulonimbus thunderstorm was photographed in the Indian Ocean south of the Maldive Islands (12.0S, 73.0E). Cumulonimbus clouds are the familiar towering thunderheads that can rise up to as much as 75,000 ft. producing thunderstorms and sometimes tornadoes as well. This particular storm system displays a variety of meteorological phenommena such as towers, overshooting tops, squall lines and areas of high speed downdrafts.

1990-01-01

190

Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of pH1N1 2009 Influenza Virus in Reunion Island, South West Indian Ocean Region: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Molecular epidemiology is a powerful tool to decipher the dynamics of viral transmission, quasispecies temporal evolution and origins. Little is known about the pH1N1 molecular dynamics in general population. A prospective study (CoPanFlu-RUN) was carried out in Reunion Island to characterize pH1N1 genetic variability and molecular evolution occurring in population during the pH1N1 Influenza pandemic in 2009. Methodology We directly amplified pH1N1 genomes from 28 different nasal swabs (26 individuals from 21 households). Fifteen strains were fully sequenced and 13 partially. This includes pairs of sequences from different members of 5 separate households; and two pairs from individuals, collected at different times. We assessed the molecular evolution of pH1N1 by genetic variability and phylogenetic analyses. Principal Findings We found that i) Reunion pH1N1 sequences stemmed from global “clade 7” but shaped two phylogenetic sub-clades; ii) D239E mutation was identified in the hemagglutinin protein of all Reunion sequences, a mutation which has been associated elsewhere with mild-, upper-respiratory tract pH1N1 infecting strains; iii) Date estimates from molecular phylogenies predicted clade emergence some time before the first detection of pH1N1 by the epidemiological surveillance system; iv) Phylogenetic relatedness was observed between Reunion pH1N1 viruses and those from other countries in South-western Indian Ocean area; v) Quasispecies populations were observed within households and individuals of the cohort-study. Conclusions Surveillance and/or prevention systems presently based on Influenza virus sequence variation should take into account that the majority of studies of pH1N1 Influenza generate genetic data for the HA/NA viral segments obtained from hospitalized-patients, which is potentially non-representative of the overall viral diversity within whole populations. Our observations highlight the importance of collecting unbiased data at the community level and conducting whole genome analysis to accurately understand viral dynamics.

Turpin, Magali; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Dellagi, Koussay

2012-01-01

191

American Indian Administrator Preparation: A Program Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the shortage of qualified Native Americans available to serve as educational leaders for Indian schools and describes South Dakota State University's American Indian Administrator Education Program as a possible solution. Indicates that the program is located between the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux Reservations and leads to a master's…

Mills, Ed; Amiotte, Lowell

1996-01-01

192

A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

2012-01-01

193

Genetic Variation of Apolipoproteins in North Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation at three apolipoprotein loci (APOA4, APOH, and APOE) has been examined in nine endogamous populations of Punjab, North India. The overall pattern of allele frequency variation at different loci is compatible with that of European populations, but observed microvariation differentiates the populations according to their position in the Indian caste structure. The most common allele at the APOA4

Puneet Pal Singh; Monica Singh; S. Mastana

2011-01-01

194

Thin Wall Iron Castings  

SciTech Connect

Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

2001-10-31

195

Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.

196

Hydrographic and Biological characteristics along 45°E longitude in the South Western Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean during austral summer 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the austral summer 2004, an intensive multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean to study the main hydrographic features and the associated productivity processes. This sector includes circumpolar zones and fronts with distinct hydrographic and trophic regimes, such as the Subtropical Zone, Subtropical Frontal Zone, Sub Antarctic Zone, Polar Frontal Zone, Northern

P. Jasmine; K. R. Muraleedharan; N. V. Madhu; C. R. Ashadevi; R. Alagarsamy; C. T. Achuthankutty; P. Revi; V. N. Sanjeevan

2009-01-01

197

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION TO ENSURE MAXIMUM PRODUCTION AND QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

198

Indian Ocean analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality control of data as research bodies are replaced by operational bodies in the Global Ocean Observing System.

Meyers, Gary

1992-01-01

199

Radium 228 based nitrate fluxes in the eastern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea and a silicon-induced ``alkalinity pump'' hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of 228Ra and 226Ra in the seawaters of the eastern Indian Ocean and its adjacent seas were measured during the 1996\\/1997 ``Piscis Austrinus'' Expedition using R\\/V Hakuho-Maru. The surface Ra data are in good agreement with those in literature and indicate that the continental shelves of the southeast Asian Seas are strong sources for 228Ra and, to much

Yoshiyuki Nozaki; Yoshiyuki Yamamoto

2001-01-01

200

High Performance Castings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report delineates the factors influencing the characteristics, design, and properties of high-performance castings and the outstanding problems that must be resolved to enhance the reliability and use of these castings. It suggests a number of program...

1972-01-01

201

LLNL casting technology  

SciTech Connect

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III [eds.

1994-01-01

202

LLNL casting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

1994-01-01

203

Indian Summer  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

204

The "flatback" cast.  

PubMed

A properly applied above-elbow cast in a child presents difficulties not seen in adults. Because of the differences in anatomy, physiology, and compliance, children can benefit from modification of the standard above-elbow cast. We report on a method of application of the "flatback" cast to address these concerns. PMID:8421630

Black, G B; Klippenstein, N L

1993-01-01

205

Casting and Molding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can explore the process used to cast and mold molten metal, glass, and plastics. Using gelatin, the learner will work with a variety of molds to create castings. When the shapes are unmolded, the learner can tactually explore the casts.

Blind, Perkins S.

2012-06-26

206

Advanced Cast Aluminum Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent advancement in cast aluminum alloys has demonstrated that complex shapes can be cast from a microalloyed Al-Cu alloy in dry sand molds with chills and that these castings can be heat treated to produce mechanical and physical properties nearly co...

A. P. Druschitz J. Griffin

2009-01-01

207

Indian Summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the

Galindo

1997-01-01

208

Indian Orphanages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

Holt, Marilyn Irvin

209

South Asian diets and insulin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A role of dietary nutrients in relation to insulin resistance has been suggested but conclusive evidence in human beings is lacking. Asian Indians and South Asians are prone to develop insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. In the present paper, data pertaining to nutrient intake, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians and South Asians have been reviewed.

Anoop Misra; Lokesh Khurana; Sumit Isharwal; Swati Bhardwaj

2008-01-01

210

Remote sensing on Indian and public lands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of remote sensing techniques by the Bureaus of Indian Affairs and Land Management in planning resource problems, making decisions, writing environmental impact statements, and monitoring their respective programs is investigated. For Indian affairs, data cover the Papago, Fort Apache, San Carlos, and South Dakota Reservations. For the Land Management Office, data cover cadastral surveys, California desert study, range watersheds, and efforts to establish a natural resources information system.

Torbert, G. B.; Woll, A. M.

1972-01-01

211

Contradictions in consciousness or variations in tradition: Hindu women in the South African diaspora.  

PubMed

The introductory section of this paper reviews previous studies of the Indian diaspora to show their lack of attention to gender issues. While ideals of Hindu fundamentalism and social conditions imposed by caste are unlikely to be recreated in South Africa, it is proposed that Hindu women in South Africa are custodians of Hindu values. The paper goes on to present a brief history of middle and upper-class Hindu women in South Africa to place them within the context of the Indian diaspora. After describing the fieldwork and methodology (data were gathered from extensive interviews with 20 women representing the four major linguistic groups currently living in Durban), some of the distinctive characteristics of women's experiences and the problems these present because they are either contradictions or variations of conditions in India are discussed. The study then demonstrates that the individual choices made by the women are inconsistent with the apartheid notions of unambiguous social boundaries and also challenge the opposing Marxist perspective that ethnic consciousness is false. It is concluded that cultural adornments and self-imposed limitations on travel and socialization publicize status and ethnic identity and continuity with tradition. Hindu women in South Africa emphasize this continuity through personal beliefs or through the way they present themselves in public. PMID:12292073

Singh, A

1995-10-01

212

Improving Metal Casting Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

1998-01-01

213

Is there a pattern of gene differentiation in the Indian populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian populations divided into a number of endogamous groups consisting of different castes, languages, religions, and tribes provide unique opportunities for examining the extent and nature of genetic differentiation at a microevolutionary stage. The genetic relationships between some of these Indian population groups have been examined using electrophoretic data from several biochemical loci in a gene diversity analysis. Does this

Ranajit Chakraborty; Arun K. Roychoudhury

1978-01-01

214

Changes in the Food Habits of Asian Indians in the United States: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study focused on acculturation in the food habits of first generation Asian Indian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that: 1) food habits of Asian Indians are changing toward the American pattern; and 2) these changes are directly related to the subject's sex, caste, age, marital status, and duration of exposure…

Gupta, Santosh P.

1975-01-01

215

Navajo Indians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's learn about Utah History! Let's learn about the Navajo Indians. Learning Objective After reading and researching information about the Navajo tribe, students will be able understand the culture and traditions of this tribe and make comparisons to their own culture, by researching, writing about and creating Navajo jewelry and completing a cultural comparison worksheet. Grades 3 4th Grade Content Area(s) Social Studies Content Targets History, culture ...

Chamberlain, Keshia

2009-11-28

216

Possible risk modification by CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms in lung cancer susceptibility in a South Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility to lung cancer has been shown to be modulated by inheritance of polymorphic genes encoding cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and glutathione S transferases (GSTM1 and GSTT1), which are involved in the bioactivation and detoxification of environmental toxins. As the incidence of lung cancer is known to differ according to ethnicity, we have conducted a case-control study of 146 South

Leelakumari Sreeja; Vani Syamala; Sreedharan Hariharan; Jayaprakash Madhavan; Sivanandan Choondal Devan; Ravindran Ankathil

2005-01-01

217

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

218

17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Elevations - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

219

14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, N&, 1934 Foundation Plan - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

220

18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 Detail sheet - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

221

16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16 Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 first floor mechanical plan - heating - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

222

15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from Albuquerque Area Indian Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Albuquerque, New Mexico) Mayers, Murray, and Phillip, Architects, New York, NY, 1934 First Floor - plumbing - Taos Indian Health Center, 0.3 mile south-southwest of Pueblos Plaza, Taos Pueblo, Taos County, NM

223

MARINE RESERVOIR CORRECTIONS FOR THE INDIAN OCEAN AND SOUTHEAST ASIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured radiocarbon in prebomb known-age shells and coral from the Indian Ocean and southeast Asia to determine marine reservoir age corrections. Western Indian Ocean results show a strong 14C depletion due to upwelling in the Arabian Sea, and indicate that this signal is advected over a wide area to the east and south. In contrast, th e surface

John Southon; Michaele Kashgarian; Michel Fontugne; Bernard Metivier; Wyss W-S Yim

2002-01-01

224

About Indians: A Listing of Books, 4th Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled to provide information for teachers, librarians and other persons interested in books written about American Indians, this annotated bibliography cites 1,452 books about the Native peoples of North and South America. Those books having Canadian authorship or specific Canadian interest, are indicated by a maple leaf. Canadian Indian

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

225

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general purpose of the first six months' work was to identify techniques which will produce sound castings in reusable chill molds - techniques which are compatible with an automated machine casting process. To do this, castings made in permanent chil...

M. F. X. Gigliotti

1973-01-01

226

76 FR 60855 - Regional Tribal Consultation on Implementation of Indian Land Consolidation Program Under Cobell...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting with Indian tribes in Rapid City, South Dakota, to obtain oral and...place on October 26, 2011, in Rapid City, South Dakota. Comments for all...Conference Center, 4300 Southwest Third, Oklahoma City, OK 73108, (405)...

2011-09-30

227

Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands  

PubMed Central

The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component) or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B), many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-?s) or betasatellites (DNA-?s). Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs) DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world.

Rey, Marie E. C.; Ndunguru, Joseph; Berrie, Leigh C.; Paximadis, Maria; Berry, Shaun; Cossa, Nurbibi; Nuaila, Valter N.; Mabasa, Ken G.; Abraham, Natasha; Rybicki, Edward P.; Martin, Darren; Pietersen, Gerhard; Esterhuizen, Lindy L.

2012-01-01

228

Casting Footprints for Eternity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin has his footprints casted during the dedication ceremony of the rocket fountain at Building 4200 at Marshall Space Flight Center. The casts of Aldrin's footprints will be placed in the newly constructed Von Braun courtyard representing the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

1999-01-01

229

Computer cast blast modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than

S. Chung; M. McGill; D. S. Preece

1994-01-01

230

Tiospaye in Engineering and Science: Inculcating a sustained culture for recruiting, retaining, and graduating American Indian students  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the general population of South Dakota is 10 percent American Indian, participation in higher education of this group in South Dakota universities remains relatively low, typically around 1.5 percent. Following best practices developed by American Indian educators and tribal colleges, the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has developed a new program, Tiospaye in Engineering and Science, which

Jacqueline McNeil; Carter Kerk; Stuart Kellogg

2011-01-01

231

Socioeconomic Differences in Heights of Adult Indian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides additional insights into the nature of variations in heights of adult Indian women based on the demographic and health survey data for the year 2005–06. Though contiguous regions show similar mean heights, the gap between geographic regions reduce once socio-economic differences are accounted for. While teenage child birth, wealth differences and caste affiliations are some of the

Brinda Viswanathan; Viney Sharma

2009-01-01

232

International Indian Treaty Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is "an organization of indigenous peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific working for the sovereignty and self determination of indigenous peoples." To achieve their broad goals, the IITC works to support networks of indigenous peoples around the world through their policy work in areas that include global trade, women's rights, reproductive health, and the environment. On their homepage, visitors can browse through thematic headings on the left-hand side of the page, such as "Treaty Conferences", "Cultural Rights", "Health/Toxics", and about a dozen additional listings. Visitors should also click on the "Web Content" tab to read flyers, United Nations resolutions, and draft declarations. Also, visitors can sign up to subscribe to the IITC's electronic news updates here.

233

Clean Metal Casting  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

234

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE OPERATOR SPRAYING A POWDER TO HELP SOLIDIFY THE PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

235

Optimum cast plan for steelmaking-continuous casting production scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A planning method of cast for steelmaking continuous casting production scheduling in CIMS is studied. The cast plan model is established. An adaptive operator genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the optimum cast plan problem. The computation with practical data shows that the model and the solving method are very effective.

Yuncan Xue; Qiwen Yang; Huihe Shao

2004-01-01

236

Who Should Control Indian Education? A History, Three Case Studies, Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted in 1967 by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development at the request of the National Indian Youth Council, this 1-year study was made on American Indians at the following sites; Loneman, South Dakota; Ponca City, Oklahoma; Crow Agency, Montana; Fort Berthold, North Dakota; Nondalton, Alaska; South Nek Nek, Alaska;…

McKinley, Francis; And Others

237

American Indians Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

Snipp, C. Matthew

238

Indian Education Project, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A product of Michigan's Indian Education Project, this report includes two proposals designed to help meet the educational needs of Michigan American Indian students at various levels. The first of the two feasibility studies includes: a perspective on Michigan's American Indians; problems of Indian education (priorities, roots of the problem,…

Martin, Larry; Morris, Joann

239

Indians of Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Goldfinch" examines the history of American Indians in Iowa. This volume's featured articles include: "Encounter"; "Iowa Earthworks"; "The Long Way Home"; "How One Learns, a Mesquakie Woman's Life Story"; "Indians of Iowa"; "Little Brother Snares the Sun"; "Being Indian in an Urban World"; and "Indian Wars Myth." (DB)

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1992-01-01

240

17. NEW CASTINPLACE CONCRETE AUXILIARY FLAME DUCT ON SOUTH SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. NEW CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE AUXILIARY FLAME DUCT ON SOUTH SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK; VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

241

A Resolution on "The Indian Question"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses episodes from the history of the Sioux Indians in North and South Dakota and suggests ways in which this information can be incorporated into social studies classroom activities. Information is taken from primary source material in the Educational Division of the National Archives. (Author/DB)

Byers, CeCe; Alexander, Mary

1978-01-01

242

Concrete Casting Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The machine is for casting, on a production line basis, articulated concrete revetment mats employed to protect riverbanks and flood control levees from hydraulic erosion. The apparatus includes a moving conveyor system which carries flat pallets to a cas...

J. I. Boswell T. Burks G. F. Dixon G. S. Lee

1964-01-01

243

Cast changes: synthetic versus plaster.  

PubMed

A review of the changes in casting since the introduction of improved synthetic casting materials in the 1970s is presented. There is very little in the literature on nursing implications regarding the newer casting materials. Improvements in synthetic materials used in the casting of children include a fiberglass-free, latex-free casting polymer, with child-friendly prints now available. Though the use of synthetic casting predominates the market, plaster of Paris is still the mainstay for serial casting and casting requiring superior moldability and conformability. The advantages and disadvantages of synthetic and plaster of Paris casting, as well as nursing care of the child in each type of cast are summarized. PMID:9282058

Adkins, L M

1997-01-01

244

Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

245

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

Poco, J.F.

1993-09-07

246

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01

247

Bence Jones Cast Nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with Bence Jones cast nephropathy usually present with acute renal failure (less commonly with chronic renal failure)\\u000a and Bence Jones proteinuria. It has been known for many years that intravenous radiocontrast media, dehydration, infections,\\u000a and the use of nonsteroidal antiin- fl ammatory drugs may induce the precipitation of renal tubular light chain casts and\\u000a result in acute renal failure,

Arthur H. Cohen

248

A Winning Cast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

2001-01-01

249

Predictors of mortality among elderly people living in a south Indian urban community; a 10/66 Dementia Research Group prospective population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Eighty percent of deaths occur in low and middle income countries (LMIC), where chronic diseases are the leading cause. Most of these deaths are of older people, but there is little information on the extent, pattern and predictors of their mortality. We studied these among people aged 65 years and over living in urban catchment areas in Chennai, south India. Methods In a prospective population cohort study, 1005 participants were followed-up after three years. Baseline assessment included sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviours, physical, mental and cognitive disorders, disability and subjective global health. Results At follow-up, 257 (25.6%) were not traced. Baseline characteristics were similar to the 748 whose vital status was ascertained; 154 (20.6%) had died. The mortality rate was 92.5/1000 per annum for men and 51.0/1000 per annum for women. Adjusting for age and sex, mortality was associated with older age, male sex, having no friends, physical inactivity, smaller arm circumference, dementia, depression, poor self-rated health and disability. A parsimonious model included, in order of aetiologic force, male sex, smaller arm circumference, age, disability, and dementia. The total population attributable risk fraction was 0.90. Conclusion A balanced approach to prevention of chronic disease deaths requires some attention to proximal risk factors in older people. Smoking and obesity seem much less relevant than in younger people. Undernutrition is preventable. While dementia makes the largest contribution to disability and dependency, comorbidity is the rule, and more attention should be given to the chronic care needs of those affected, and their carers.

2010-01-01

250

The Western Ghat as the water tower of the South Indian Rivers : a stable isotope investigation on the origin of water and factors affecting the water cycle.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long stretch (1600 km) of Ghats on the western side (Western Ghats) of Peninsular India separates relatively wetter west coast from drier eastern coast. The western and eastern sides of the Ghats are having distinct isotopic signatures indicating unequal distribution of the moisture sources. South India is characterized by having moisture source for southwest monsoon from Arabian Sea and northeast monsoon from Bay of Bengal. The wetter side of Peninsular region is covered by combination of evergreen tropical forest and grass lands, termed as Shola Forests which support higher vapor recycling process. Very few isotopic studies have been undertaken in these areas, except few places, mainly along the coast lines. This study presents the stable isotope results on rivers and groundwater of the Western Ghats covering Agumbe (Karnataka) to Ooty (Tamil Nadu) and its west coast river basins as observed for the three year period. The stable isotope results on the surface, subsurface and deep water pools show that the mean d18O value range from -4 o to -2 o on the west slope, and from -5 o to -4 o on the east slope, with quite no altitude or amount effect up to 2000 m asl. The more depleted values are found only in higher elevation, like the Doddabeta in the Nilgiri (2637m), with d18O close to -9 o which is exceptional for a tropical area. The hills on the west slope of the Western Ghats as well as in the mountainous Shola forest exhibit strong water vapor recycling as evidenced by high d-excess values. On the contrary on the eastern slope, the drier condition and the numerous impoundments and river damming support strong evaporation process. Thus, the study identifies the profound effect of tropical vegetation and anthropogenic factors on the recharge functioning of river and groundwater pools in Southern India.

Lambs, Luc; Tripti, Muguli; Balakrishna, Keshava

2014-05-01

251

Mixed layer heat budget south of Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region south of Africa is a global ocean circulation choke point where the waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current meet waters originating from the Indian and South Atlantic Ocean. We analyze the ocean mixed layer heat budget south of Africa using in situ observations from Argo floats (many of them were released during the GOODHOPE project) combined with remote

Vincent Faure; Michel Arhan; Sabrina Speich

2010-01-01

252

The Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup H1a1a-M82 Reveals the Likely Indian Origin of the European Romani Populations  

PubMed Central

Linguistic and genetic studies on Roma populations inhabited in Europe have unequivocally traced these populations to the Indian subcontinent. However, the exact parental population group and time of the out-of-India dispersal have remained disputed. In the absence of archaeological records and with only scanty historical documentation of the Roma, comparative linguistic studies were the first to identify their Indian origin. Recently, molecular studies on the basis of disease-causing mutations and haploid DNA markers (i.e. mtDNA and Y-chromosome) supported the linguistic view. The presence of Indian-specific Y-chromosome haplogroup H1a1a-M82 and mtDNA haplogroups M5a1, M18 and M35b among Roma has corroborated that their South Asian origins and later admixture with Near Eastern and European populations. However, previous studies have left unanswered questions about the exact parental population groups in South Asia. Here we present a detailed phylogeographical study of Y-chromosomal haplogroup H1a1a-M82 in a data set of more than 10,000 global samples to discern a more precise ancestral source of European Romani populations. The phylogeographical patterns and diversity estimates indicate an early origin of this haplogroup in the Indian subcontinent and its further expansion to other regions. Tellingly, the short tandem repeat (STR) based network of H1a1a-M82 lineages displayed the closest connection of Romani haplotypes with the traditional scheduled caste and scheduled tribe population groups of northwestern India.

Pathak, Ajai Kumar; Singh, Vipin Kumar; Karmin, Monika; Singh, Manvendra; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Anugula, Sharath; Yadav, Brijesh Kumar; Singh, Ashish; Srinivasagan, Ramkumar; Yadav, Anita; Kashyap, Manju; Narvariya, Sapna; Reddy, Alla G.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2012-01-01

253

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

254

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

255

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

256

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

257

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-09-28

258

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

259

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

260

Variability of the southwest Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

The variability in the southwest Indian Ocean is connected to the basin-scale and global-scale ocean circulation. Two bands of enhanced variability stretch across the Southern Indian Ocean east of Madagascar around 12 degrees S and 25 degrees S, respectively. They mark the preferred routes along which anomalies, generated by varying forcing over the central basin, near the eastern boundary or in the equatorial region, propagate westward as baroclinic Rossby waves. Sea-surface height anomalies pass along the northern tip of Madagascar and are observed by satellite altimetry to propagate into the central Mozambique Channel. There, eddies are subsequently formed that propagate southward into the Agulhas retroflection region. The anomalies along the southern band trigger the formation of large dipolar vortex pairs in the separation region of the East Madagascar Current at the southern tip of the island. South of Africa these eddies and dipoles trigger the shedding of Agulhas Rings that feed the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with warm, salty, Indian Ocean water. Interannual variability of the forcing over the Indian Ocean, such as that associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole/El Nino climate modes, propagates along these pathways and leads to associated modulations of the eddy transports into the South Atlantic. PMID:15598623

de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P M; Ridderinkhof, Herman; Schouten, Mathijs W

2005-01-15

261

Indian Education Project: An Abridgment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthesizing two priority proposals identified by the Indian Education Project of Michigan, this report outlines a proposal for establishing an Indian Education Center (staffed by American Indians and advised by a University Advisory Committee made up of Indian parents and the Indian community) to meet the needs of Indian students and…

Stevenson, Sharon

262

Quartz ceramic nozzles for casting steel on continuous casting plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions A technology was developed for making steel casting nozzles for the continuous casting of steel with different versions of lateral input of metal into the crystallizer. In laboratory conditions we made nozzles 600–650 mm long.

R. S. Churakova; E. P. Fedorova; Yu. A. Polonskii; E. I. Ermolaeva; A. M. Pozhivanov; N. D. Karpov

1972-01-01

263

Unlocking Indian Maritime Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Indian navy has undergone several periods of expansion in its short history which have signaled significant change in the Indian Ocean region. It is currently undergoing another. This thesis examines the current expansion, and interprets it in light o...

D. Rahn

2006-01-01

264

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the mold in the center-right of the photo are present immediately after the pour has been completed - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

265

Slip casting under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of a pressure during slip casting increases the rate of material deposition and enables larger pieces to be fabricated. In this study, this process has been further developed using monolithic Al2O3 and Al2O3-SiC composites. Slip casting formulations based on both dispersed and coagulated slurries have been analyzed. Excellent results are achieved using coagulated slurries, with no cracking present after drying. The effect of pressure is to increase the green density with a consequent increase in the fired density. In addition, homogeneous microstructures are achieved in the composite system, despite the large difference in particle size used.

Grazzini, H. H.; Wilkinson, D. S.

1992-08-01

266

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

267

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the

Michael Bamshad; Toomas Kivisild; W. Scott Watkins; Mary E. Dixon; Chris E. Ricker; Baskara B. Rao; J. Mastan Naidu; B. V. Ravi Prasad; P. Govinda Reddy; Arani Rasanayagam; Surinder S. Papiha; Richard Villems; Alan J. Redd; Michael F. Hammer; Son V. Nguyen; Marion L. Carroll; Mark A. Batzer; Lynn B. Jorde

2001-01-01

268

Nevada Indians Speak.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anthology presents Indian works which reflect the attitudes of the native Indian people of the State of Nevada, commencing with the possible first White-Indian contact in the 1820's when Anglo American fur trappers and Mexican traders entered the Great Basin. The writer points out in the Preface that no effort has been made to exclude native…

Forbes, Jack D., Ed.

269

National Indian Education Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

Harvey, Karen Kay

2006-01-01

270

American Indian Language Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for the National Center for Bilingual Research, the document provides information on the "state of the art" in American Indian language education and presents a full picture of the situation exploring concepts (e.g., self-determination, Indian language diversity) and concerns (e.g., tribal reluctance to see Indian language instruction…

Leap, William

271

Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

Wilson, James

272

Pressure Casting in Investment Molds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of methods for pressure casting nonferrous alloys into investment molds. The experimental methods were compared with standard suction casting practices. The best method studied was the direct pressure diaphragm method. By this method, met...

S. Lipson F. Ripkin

1964-01-01

273

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in temperature which take place during pouring of a melt and flow into the mould vary greatly, and also depend on\\u000a the casting technique used. Understanding these changes is important for optimum casting practice.

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1986-01-01

274

Sealing micropores in thin castings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microscopic pores in thin-walled aluminum castings are sealed by impregnation pretreatment. Technique was developed for investment castings used in hermetically sealed chassic for electronic circuitry. Excessively high leakage rates were previously measured in some chassis.

Mersereau, G. A.; Nitzschke, G. O.; Ochs, H. L.; Sutch, F. S.

1981-01-01

275

Rapid casting solutions: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to review the industrial applications of state-of-the-art additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in metal casting technology. An extensive survey of concepts, techniques, approaches and suitability of various commercialised rapid casting (RC) solutions with traditional casting methods is presented. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The tooling required for producing metal casting such as fabrication of patterns, cores and moulds with

Munish Chhabra; Rupinder Singh

2011-01-01

276

Casting Of Multilayer Ceramic Tapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedure for casting thin, multilayer ceramic membranes, commonly called tapes, involves centrifugal casting at accelerations of 1,800 to 2,000 times normal gravitational acceleration. Layers of tape cast one at a time on top of any previous layer or layers. Each layer cast from slurry of ground ceramic suspended in mixture of solvents, binders, and other components. Used in capacitors, fuel cells, and electrolytic separation of oxygen from air.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.

1991-01-01

277

BIMETALLIC CASTING. Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium and Zr were bonded by melting the two metals in contact with one ; another in a bimetallic casting process. Tensile tests of specimens containing ; the original zone of interface between the two metals showed that all failures ; were at locations other than the interface. The coefficients obtained for ; diffusion between molten U and molten Zr

T. Poole; D. Krashes

1962-01-01

278

ShakeCast Manual  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users? facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

Lin, Kuo-Wan; Wald, David J.

2008-01-01

279

Casting and Angling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

Smith, Julian W.

280

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of iron, nickel, and cobalt base alloys were permanent mold cast under varying conditions to evaluate techniques for improving the integrity of die casting. By appropriate control of heat flow it is possible to achieve permanent mold casting with...

M. F. X. Gigliotti

1974-01-01

281

Flow impact on cast ingots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium alloys are a standard cast metal used in a number of automotive and transportation applications, allowing manufacturers to reduce vehicle weight, increase the strength of components and improve emission controls. One of the most challenging problems associated with aluminium casting is the influence of convection during all stages of solidification. The strength of fluid flow changes the as-cast internal

Lorenz Ratke; Yves Fautrelle; Jacques Lacaze; Georg Müller; Andras Roosz; Gerhard Zimmermann; Phillippe Jarry; Rene Kieft; Zsolt Csepeli; Józef Sándor; Gerd-Ulrich Grün; Nándor Sillinger; Ralf Gerke-Cantow

2005-01-01

282

Mix/Cast Contamination Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

Wallentine, M.

2005-01-01

283

Bureau of Indian Affairs Safety of Dams Program. 1996 Intermediate SEED Examination Report for La Jara Dam, Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

La Jara Dam is located on the Jucarilla Apache Indian reservation in north-central New Mexico about 20 miles south of the town of Dulce, New Mexico. The dam is operated by the Jicarilla Indian Tribe and is under the jurisdiction of the BIA. The dam was or...

W. Y. Young

1997-01-01

284

Stable carbon isotopic compositions of total carbon, dicarboxylic acids and glyoxylic acid in the tropical Indian aerosols: Implications for sources and photochemical processing of organic aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable carbon isotopic compositions in the tropical Indian aerosolsImplication for carbonaceous aerosols sources in South and Southeast AsiaImplication for photochemical processing of organic aerosols

Chandra Mouli Pavuluri; Kimitaka Kawamura; T. Swaminathan; Eri Tachibana

2011-01-01

285

Gm and Inv Allotypes in French Guiana Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 302 individuals belonging to three populations of French Guiana Indians are reported. All the phenotypes except two can be explained by three haplotypes: Gm1,21, Gm1,2,21 and Gm1,10,11,25. The gene frequencies found in the present study are generally in accordance with those previously described among other South American Indians. For the Inv1,2 gene a high value has been found

Maryvonne Daveau; Liliane Rivat; A. Langaney; Nawal Afifi; E. Bois; C. Ropartz

1975-01-01

286

A History of Southeastern Indians in Cuba, 1513-1823  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in the early 16th century, small numbers of Florida Indians were sporadically transported to Cuba, which became a staging ground for many Florida expeditions. Cuban vessels also maintained trade with South Florida Indians between the 16th and early 19th centuries, involving indigenous groups and immigrant Creeks after the 1760s. And from 1704 to 1760, several hundred refugees from slave-raiding

John E. Worth

2004-01-01

287

AMCC casting development, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PCC successfully cast and performed nondestructive testing, FPI and x-ray, on seventeen AMCC castings. Destructive testing, lab analysis and chemical milling, was performed on eleven of the castings and the remaining six castings were shipped to NASA or Aerojet. Two of the six castings shipped, lots 015 and 016, were fully processed per blueprint requirements. PCC has fully developed the gating and processing parameters of this part and feels the part could be implemented into production, after four more castings have been completed to ensure the repeatability of the process. The AMCC casting has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or thermal gradient control. This method of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. The alloy, JBK75, is a relatively new alloy in the investment casting arena and required our engineering staff to learn the gating, processing, and dimensional characteristics of the material.

1995-01-01

288

Volume MLS ray casting.  

PubMed

The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data. PMID:18988986

Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

2008-01-01

289

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.  

PubMed

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

290

USGS ShakeCast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Automating, Simplifying, and Improving the Use of ShakeMap for Post-Earthquake Decisionmaking and Response. ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

Wald, David; Lin, Kuo-Wan

2007-01-01

291

Thermal fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the weekly measurements made by the advanced very high resolution radiometers of NOAA satellites were used to investigate the structure and space-time variability of large-scale fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean (30-60S and 20-150E) during the period of 1997-1999. Monthly SST gradient gave an overall view of five basic fronts: the North and South

A. G. Kostianoy; A. I. Ginzburg; M. Frankignoulle; B. Delille

2003-01-01

292

Focus on South Africa. Varieties of English Around the World, Volume 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays on English in South Africa and its neighboring countries include: "A History of English in South Africa" (Len Lanham); "English in South African Society: A Preliminary Overview" (Bill Branford); "Black English in South Africa" (David Gough); "Language Contact, Transmission, Shift: South African Indian English" (Rajend Mesthrie); "Afrikaans…

de Klerk, Vivian, Ed.

293

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

294

48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

2013-10-01

295

76 FR 80347 - Applications for New Awards; Indian Education-Demonstration Grants for Indian Children  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Awards; Indian Education--Demonstration Grants for Indian Children AGENCY: Office...Information: Indian Education--Demonstration Grants for Indian Children Notice inviting...under the Indian Education--Demonstration Grants for Indian Children program, CFDA...

2011-12-23

296

South Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

2002-01-01

297

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

298

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

299

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

300

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

301

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

302

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

303

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

304

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

305

75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February...

2010-02-23

306

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

307

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

308

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

309

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

310

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

311

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

312

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

313

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

314

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

315

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

316

78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs...

2013-07-23

317

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

318

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

319

The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

Bunge, Robert P.

1978-01-01

320

A Mechanism Relating the Indian Ocean SSTs, ENSO, and the Nile Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is associated with ElNino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Fluctuations of the Indian Ocean Sea Surface temperature (SST) are also associated with the Nile flow. Here, we investigate the intermediate role of Indian Ocean SSTs in the teleconnection between Nile flow and ENSO. Using the partial coherency analysis, we show that connection between the North and Middle of Indian Ocean SSTs and Nile flow is driven by ENSO. However, the South of Indian Ocean SSTs have an independent role from ENSO in shaping variability of Nile flow. This independence allows for indices of SSTs over the South of Indian Ocean and ENSO to explain about 60% of the variability of the Nile flow when they are used together. During ElNino events, the SSTs over the Indian Ocean increase following the warming of the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), which forces a Matsuno-Gill circulation with enhanced westerlies winds over Indian Ocean that decreases the convergence of boundary layer air over the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin. On the other hand, the increased SSTs over South of Indian Ocean generate a cyclonic motion, which has a similar effect on the convergence of boundary layer air over the UBN. The proposed mechanism has an important implication in understanding the potential climate change impacts on the Nile flow induced by warming of over Indian Ocean and provide new indices for Nile flow forecast models.

Siam, M.; Eltahir, E. A.

2012-12-01

321

Fort Toulouse of the Alabamas and the eighteenth?century Indian trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

French colonization of Indian territory in the south?eastern United States during the eighteenth century included the building of both fortresses and trading posts. Fort Toulouse in central Alabama, one of the most important garrisons for the implementation of French policy in the region, was in actuality an early French embassy to the Creek Indian Nation. Archaeological explorations of Fort Toulouse

Donald P. Heldman

1973-01-01

322

Measured size distributions of aerosols over the Indian Ocean during INDOEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submicron aerosol number size distributions are measured over the Indian Ocean (15°N, 77°E to 20°S, 58°E) during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) in winter monsoon seasons of 1998 and 1999. Large concentrations of 4 × 102 and 104 cm?3 are observed with comparatively much higher values toward north than south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The nucleation mode

A. K. Kamra; P. Murugavel; S. D. Pawar

2003-01-01

323

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200‡C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

324

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200°C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

325

Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator  

DOEpatents

A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA) [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

2009-11-10

326

Location, Characterization and Quantification of Hydroacoustic Signals in the Indian Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data from three Indian Ocean hydroacoustic stations (Diego Garcia North, Diego Garcia South, and Cape Leeuwin) have been characterized and quantified for the calendar year 2002. These results were delivered in the form of a 2002 catalogue, and are briefly...

M. Tolstoy, D. Bohnenstiehl

2004-01-01

327

Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian has a beautiful online exhibit, Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian which is meant to accompany the in situ exhibition in Washington D.C. and New York. Scholder's work is the subject of much debate in the world of Native Art, as his work has no obvious Native American imagery in it and he oftentimes denied he was Native American. By clicking on "Biography" near the top of the page, a list of links, "The Early Years", "The IAIA Years", and "The 70s and After" will appear. Below these links a clickable timeline also appears which advances when rolled over with the mouse. Another way to get an introduction to Scholder's life and the exhibit is to click on the "Podcasts" link near the top of the page. The first podcast listed is "Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian". Visitors should also not miss looking at his bold and sometimes disturbing paintings and sculptures, under the "Works" tab near the top of the page. They can be viewed by either D.C. or New York displays, as well as by "Curator's Choice", which is the default view. Each piece of work is also accompanied by commentary offered by the curators. Just click on the artwork, and under the bottom right hand corner of the image is a speaker to click on, complete with the name of the curator doing the commentary.

2008-01-01

328

Black consciousness in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

South African concept. Black consciousness is vaguely defined and contradictions exist in respect of its philosophical bases and objectives. The relative contributions of the cultures of Indians and Coloureds appear to be slight and African culture dominates. There is no doubt about the existential nature and political objectives of the movementBlack consciousness and human relations. In spite of denials by

D. A. Kotzé

1974-01-01

329

Genetic variation of apolipoproteins in North Indians.  

PubMed

Genetic variation at three apolipoprotein loci (APOA4, APOH, and APOE) has been examined in nine endogamous populations of Punjab, North India. The overall pattern of allele frequency variation at different loci is compatible with that of European populations, but observed microvariation differentiates the populations according to their position in the Indian caste structure. The most common allele at the APOA4 locus was APOA4*1 with a narrow frequency range (89%-92%). APOH*2 allele frequency was highest in these populations (0.852-0.914). APOE*E4 allele frequency was relatively low (6%-10%) in the North Indian populations compared to its frequency in many European populations. The anthropological usage of these polymorphisms was evaluated using multivariate analyses. Genetic distance analysis and principal correspondence analysis showed that the North Indian populations are closest to Europeans, followed by Chinese and African populations. Overall, this study highlights the usefulness of apolipoproteins as genetic markers for clinical, population, and anthropological studies. PMID:12495081

Singh, Puneet Pal; Singh, Monica; Mastana, Sarabjit S

2002-10-01

330

Indians of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

331

Indian Ocean Geopolitics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strong deterrent and stability in the Indian Ocean is the obscure island of Diego Garcia in the middle of the Indian Ocean. It sits astride all of the oil lanes to and from the Persian Gulf, the major source of oil. Diego Gracia is now a small naval com...

J. H. Hayes

1975-01-01

332

The Tarascan Indian House.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan introduces K-grade three students to Mexican Indian architecture. Students will become familiar with the cultural context of the Indian treasure house; discuss the use of wood as the sole building material; compare the treasure house with present day structures; and create miniature treasure houses using wood materials. (GEA)

Quinn, Joyce

1989-01-01

333

INDIAN HEAVEN ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mining activity surveys the Indian Heaven Roadless Area, Washington offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic or nonmetallic mineral resources. Preliminary investigations of the geothermal potential of the area are inconclusive; however, a hot spring is located approximately 10 mi south of the roadless area, and the data indicate an aquifer of unknown extent at a temperature of less than 212 degree F. Geothermal lease applications were filed on about 23. 5 sq mi of the roadless area indicating potential interest in the development of a geothermal resource. In addition, about 39 sq mi of the roadless area have been leased for oil and gas exploration.

Church, S. E.; Barnes, D. J.

1984-01-01

334

Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

Mihalow, Paula

1980-01-01

335

Biotransformation and ToxCast?  

EPA Science Inventory

A major focus in toxicology research is the development of in vitro methods to predict in vivo chemical toxicity. Within the EPA ToxCast program, a broad range of in vitro biochemical and cellular assays have been deployed to profile the biological activity of 320 ToxCast Phase I...

336

Casting Freedom, 1860-1862  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting

Social Education, 2005

2005-01-01

337

Friction drilling of cast metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the friction drilling process, a nontraditional hole-making technique, for cast metals. In friction drilling, a rotating conical tool is applied to penetrate work-material and create a bushing in a single step without generating chip. The cast aluminum and magnesium alloys, two materials studied, are brittle compared to the ductile metal workpiece material used in previous friction drilling

Scott F. Miller; Jia Tao; Albert J. Shih

2006-01-01

338

Clogging in Continuous Casting Nozzles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nozzle clogging is a serious productivity and qua lity problem in continuous casting. This work reviews the causes, effects, and solutions to cloggi ng in continuous casting nozzles. The results of a one-dimensional, steady state analysis of the heat loss from the molten steel stream through the nozzle wall are discussed. The analyses show that steel may freeze within the

K. G. Rackers; B. G. Thomas

339

An evaluation of fiberglass cast application techniques.  

PubMed

Cylindrical casts constructed from 2, 3, 4, and 5 inch widths of fiberglass casting material were evaluated for strength in bending using an unstable fracture model. Five-inch casting material produced the strongest casts. The effect of longitudinal splinting with 2-inch fiberglass tape was evaluated in cylindrical casts constructed from 4-inch tape. Casts with splints on the compression side or with splints on both the tension and compression sides were stronger in bending than casts with a single splint on the tension side or casts without splints. PMID:7778250

Wilson, D G; Vanderby, R

1995-01-01

340

The American Indian Development Bank?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

Pottinger, Richard

1992-01-01

341

Storytelling the American Indian Way.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the storytelling program at the Department of American Indian Studies, San Diego State University, which has involved Indian elders and storytellers, students, and both Indian and non-Indian children and adults from the local community. Includes a Wyandot tale that warns against jealousy, bitterness, and revenge. (SV)

Trafzer, Clifford E.

1989-01-01

342

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

343

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

344

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

345

Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book draws on hundreds of letters by students, parents, and school officials to explore American Indian, specifically Ojibwa, perspectives of the boarding school experience in the period from 1900-1940. The three institutions studied are Haskell Institute (Kansas), Flandreau School (South Dakota), and Pipestone School (Minnesota). Chapter 1…

Child, Brenda J.

346

Deep Western Boundary Current in the Eastern Indian Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Historical temperature data suggest that the deep circulation of the eastern Indian Ocean is a system separate from that in the west, with its water being supplied directly from the south. If so, then circulation theory would require that the northward fl...

B. A. Warren

1976-01-01

347

Indian concepts on sexuality  

PubMed Central

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

348

[Indian workers in Oman].  

PubMed

Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable savings. Working and living conditions are difficult: the hours are long, the weather is hot, housing conditions are primitive and provide no relief from the heat, the food supply is the minimum required, and almost no diversions are available. There are no unions even among Omani workers, and troublemakers are quickly repatriated. The Indian embassy occasionally intercedes for workers, brief work stoppages may occur if pay is delayed, and some conflicts are settled individually. Resistence among Indian workers may take less visible forms, especially absenteeism and requests for leave. PMID:12280376

Longuenesse, E

1985-01-01

349

String of Pearls: Chinese Maritime Presence in the Indian Ocean and Its Effect on Indian Naval Doctrine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'String of Pearls' is a term that has permeated Indian naval policy circles in recent years. This term encapsulates the idea that, since the early 1990s, China has been developing a network of naval bases in south Asian littoral nations as a means to ...

J. R. Marshall

2012-01-01

350

Cast to Cast Variations in Type 316 Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The microscopic examination of creep specimens from eight casts of AISI Type 316 stainless steel which ruptured with variable ductility is reported. The specimen microstructures are discussed and attempts are made to identify factors responsible for high ...

A. J. Hooper C. J. Bolton J. Lai J. E. Cordwell P. Marshall

1977-01-01

351

A Quantitative Approach to Casting Solidification: Freezing of Cast Iron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The separate processes involved in casting solidification, such as eutectic nucleation and growth, have been previously studied separately in controlled experiments. The interaction of the separate processes has now been treated, using the freezing of cas...

W. Oldfield

1966-01-01

352

Instant Casting Movie Theater: The Future Cast System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a visual entertainment system called “Future Cast” which enables anyone to easily participate in a pre-recorded or pre-created film as an instant CG movie star. This system provides audiences with the amazing opportunity to join the cast of a movie in real-time. The Future Cast System can automatically perform all the processes required to make this possible, from capturing participants' facial characteristics to rendering them into the movie. Our system can also be applied to any movie created using the same production process. We conducted our first experimental trial demonstration of the Future Cast System at the Mitsui-Toshiba pavilion at the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi Japan.

Maejima, Akinobu; Wemler, Shuhei; Machida, Tamotsu; Takebayashi, Masao; Morishima, Shigeo

353

Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll  

DOEpatents

A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

1997-07-29

354

Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll  

DOEpatents

A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O'Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

1997-01-01

355

Control of Cast Grain Size of Steel Castings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques for the quantative evaluation of refinement of a high strength cast steel have been evolved and used to test the effectiveness of various inoculants in achieving microstructural and macrostructural refinement. Of the various materials tested on...

P. Wieser N. Church J. F. Wallace

1964-01-01

356

Strip casting apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

Williams, Robert S. (Plum, PA); Baker, Donald F. (Hempfield, PA)

1988-01-01

357

Strip casting apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

1988-09-20

358

Rapid Manufacturing Via Metal Casting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The metal casting industry in undergoing significant changes and it is necessary for manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering and design students to recognize these changes. Rapid manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize the metal casting industry by greatly reducing the tooling requirements necessary to produce components. The lead times to produce complex components are being reduced from months to days. A large reduction in the traditional labor requirements for molders, coremakers, patternmakers, and toolmakers will occur. The numerous advantages of the process are discussed and the major limitations are also presented. The "Third Wave" has arrived in the metal casting industry.

Creese, Robert

2009-07-14

359

Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural materials, such as bone and abalone nacre, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, a product of their intricate microstructural organization. Freeze casting is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and adaptable materials processing method to form porous ceramic scaffolds with controllable microstructural features. After infiltration of a second polymeric phase, hybrid ceramic-polymer composites can be fabricated that closely resemble the architecture and mechanical performance of natural bone and nacre. Inspired by the narwhal tusk, magnetic fields applied during freeze casting can be used to further control architectural alignment, resulting in freeze-cast materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

Porter, Michael M.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

2013-06-01

360

American Indians by Reservations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data from the 1970 Census on the American Indian population living on reservations. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, relationship to head of household, families by...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

361

Depression in Indian history.  

PubMed

This write up on some aspects of Indian history of depression touches briefly on references to some aspects of depression in Ayurveda, in philosophical texts and in the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. PMID:11002619

Rao, A V

2000-05-01

362

Indian Summer for Wayfarers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

Kaltenbronn, Kyra

1977-01-01

363

Tourism and Indian Exploitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cursory review of Federal support to the Eastern Cherokees shows that the Cherokee Historical Association and not the Cherokee Indians are the recipients and beneficiaries of many Federal grants. (JC)

French, Lawrence

1977-01-01

364

Indian allotment water rights  

SciTech Connect

Allotted tribal lands create troublesome questions for western water lawyers. The author reviews the history of basic Indian reservation water rights created by the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Winters v. United States. He then explains the disposition of those rights when reservation lands are allotted. Finally, he discusses the difficult issues that arise when allotted lands pass from the federal trust, become subject to state law, and are transferred to non-Indians.

Collins, R.B.

1985-01-01

365

Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

Water., United S.

366

Investment casting design of experiment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Specific steps in the investment casting process were analyzed in a designed experiment. The casting`s sensitivity to changes in these process steps was experimentally determined Dimensional and radiographic inspection were used to judge the sensitivity of the casting. Thirty-six castings of different pedigrees were poured and measured. Some of the dimensional inspection was conducted during the processing. It was confirmed that wax fixturing, number of gates, gate location, pour and mold temperature, pour speed, and cooling profile all affected the radiographic quality of the casting. Gate and runner assembly techniques, number of gates, and mold temperature affect the dimensional quality of the casting.

Owens, R.

1997-10-01

367

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emphasis of the work at the University of Illinois is on processes and casting systems which employ a partially solid alloy as charge material. The program at the University of Illinois is especially designed to establish the processing conditions necessa...

R. Mehrabian D. G. Backman G. J. Abbaschian Y. V. Murty S. D. E. Ramati

1977-01-01

368

A New 'Shell Casting' Technic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new shell investment was formulated that hardened rapidly enough so that consecutive layers could be applied to a wax pattern without requiring intermediate drying cycles between each layer. This new 'shell casting investment' is a two component system....

E. R. Dootz R. G. Craig F. A. Peyton

1966-01-01

369

Care of Casts and Splints  

MedlinePLUS

... support. Casts can be made of plaster or fiberglass — a plastic that can be shaped. Splints or ... to put on, take off, and adjust. Materials Fiberglass or plaster materials form the hard supportive layer ...

370

Casting Using A Polystyrene Pattern  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New technique for making metal aircraft models saves significant amount of time and effort in comparison with conventional lost-wax method. Produces inexpensive, effective wind-tunnel models. Metal wind-tunnel model cast by use of polystyrene pattern.

Vasquez, Peter; Guenther, Bengamin; Vranas, Thomas; Veneris, Peter; Joyner, Michael

1993-01-01

371

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porosity is one of the important causes for the rejection of jewellery items cast by the lost wax process. If it is of the\\u000a shrinkage type, then there is a considerable reservoir of knowledge, arising from experience in the casting of dental gold\\u000a and other gold alloys, which can be drawn upon to overcome the problem. If it is gas

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub; William S. Rapson

1985-01-01

372

Central obesity, insulin resistance, syndrome X, lipoprotein(a), and cardiovascular risk in Indians, Malays, and Chinese in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that the higher rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Indians (South Asians) compared with Malays and Chinese is at least partly explained by central obesity, insulin resistance, and syndrome X (including possible components). DESIGN: Cross sectional study of the general population. SETTING: Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 961 men and women (Indians, Malays,

K Hughes; T C Aw; P Kuperan; M Choo

1997-01-01

373

Indian Ocean experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one- and

V. Ramanathan; P. J. Crutzen; J. Lelieveld; A. P. Mitra; D. Althausen; J. Anderson; M. O. Andreae; W. Cantrell; G. R. Cass; C. E. Chung; A. D. Clarke; J. A. Coakley; W. D. Collins; W. C. Conant; F. Dulac; J. Heintzenberg; A. J. Heymsfield; B. Holben; S. Howell; J. Hudson; A. Jayaraman; J. T. Kiehl; T. N. Krishnamurti; D. Lubin; G. McFarquhar; T. Novakov; J. A. Ogren; K. Priestley; J. M. Prospero; P. K. Quinn; K. Rajeev; P. Rasch; S. Rupert; R. Sadourny; S. K. Satheesh; G. E. Shaw; P. Sheridan; F. P. J. Valero

2001-01-01

374

Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by establishing…

Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

2005-01-01

375

Titan Casts Revealing Shadow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in diameter, which corresponds to the size of a dime as viewed from about two and a half miles. Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Unlike almost all of Chandra's images which are made by focusing X-ray emission from cosmic sources, Titan's X-ray shadow image was produced in a manner similar to a medical X-ray. That is, an X-ray source (the Crab Nebula) is used to make a shadow image (Titan and its atmosphere) that is recorded on film (Chandra's ACIS detector). Titan's atmosphere, which is about 95% nitrogen and 5% methane, has a pressure near the surface that is one and a half times the Earth's sea level pressure. Voyager I spacecraft measured the structure of Titan's atmosphere at heights below about 300 miles (500 kilometers), and above 600 miles (1000 kilometers). Until the Chandra observations, however, no measurements existed at heights in the range between 300 and 600 miles. Understanding the extent of Titan's atmosphere is important for the planners of the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will reach Saturn in July of this year to begin a four-year tour of Saturn, its rings and its moons. The tour will include close flybys of Titan that will take Cassini as close as 600 miles, and the launching of the Huygens probe that will land on Titan's surface. Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan "If Titan's atmosphere has really expanded, the trajectory may have to be changed." said Tsunemi. The paper on these results has been accepted and is expected to appear in a June 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Other members of the research team were Haroyoski Katayama (Osaka University), David Burrows and Gordon Garmine (Penn State University), and Albert Metzger (JPL). Chandra observed Titan from 9:04 to 18:46 UT on January 5, 2003, using its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters,

2004-05-01

376

Pneumococcal Pneumonia among Navajo Indians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Indian Health Service (IHS)-University of New Mexico (UNM) collaborative studies have been in progress at the Gallup Indian Medical Center (GIMC) since July 1971 to determine the feasibility of an antipneumococcal vaccine field trial in the Gallup service...

B. Tempest

1973-01-01

377

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Amendment allows for multi- player games on video lottery terminals (VLTs). Dated: November 1, 2010. Larry Echo Hawk, Assistant Secretary--Indian...

2010-11-09

378

Melvil Dewey and the Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This poem discusses Melvil Dewey's system for organizing information, focusing on information related to American Indians. Suggests instead of grouping all materials on Indians in one place they could be distributed throughout the Dewey system. (LRW)

Roberts, Michael

2002-01-01

379

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

380

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

381

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

382

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

383

American Indian Policy Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Arizona State University, the American Indian Policy Institute collaborates with tribal governments and American Indian communities on issues that affect them and also works to nurture innovation for American Indian sustainability. The site offers a wealth of reports, news articles, publications, conference programs, and other items that will be of interest to scholars. The Reports & Publications area contains thoughtful missives such as "Tribes and Energy within Arizona" and "Land Use Challenges and Choices for the 21st Century." The Award-Winning First Innovations area offers up a host of best practices designed to introduce sustainability entrepreneurship in Native American communities. Additionally, the Projects & Initiatives area offers detailed program information about tribal planning summits and financial management seminars.

384

QUESTIONS REGARDING AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT, AMERICAN INDIAN MEANS A SOCIAL-LEGAL GROUP. THE STATISTICS WERE OBTAINED FROM FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SOURCES. IN 1960, THERE WERE OVER 70,000 INDIAN ARRESTS OUT OF FOUR MILLION ARRESTS REPORTED TO THE F.B.I. THE PER CAPITA AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY IS NEARLY SEVEN TIMES THE NATIONAL AVERAGE, NEARLY…

STEWART, OMER C.

385

The American Indian: A Microcourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

Glick, Norman; And Others

386

Facts about American Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

American Indian College Fund, 2010

2010-01-01

387

Title IV: Improving Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Education Act of 1972, Title IV, has improved Native American education by emphasizing Native American control; it comes after 400 years of Euro-American involvement in Indian education during which assimilation was the primary goal. In 1568 Jesuit priests began "civilizing" and Christianizing the "savage" Indians; in 1794 the first…

Barker, Kipp A.

388

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2012-12-28

389

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

390

Population genetic studies in kerala and the nilgiris (South West India).  

PubMed

A total of nearly 1,000 persons belonging to a number of caste, religious and tribal groupings in Kerala and the Nilgiri Hills of South India have been tested for genetic variation in 4 blood group, 5 serum protein and 17 enzyme systems as well as haemoglobin. The distribution of blood groups, serum protein and enzyme groups is similar to that reported for other South Indian populations. Abnormal haemoglobins were detected in several populations. Abnormal haemoglobins were detected in several populations, HbS being present in more than 20% of the Irula and Kurumba in the Nilgiri Hills. In the Kerala populations there were 4 examples of Hb AD and 1 of Hb AE. Genetic distance estimates using the gene frequency data indicate that the closest groups are the Nayar and Izhava and the Brahmin and Nayar. The tribal populations are approximately twice as far from the Nayar as they are from the Izhava. The Todas of the Nilgiri Hills are somewhat closer to the Brahmin of Kerala than they are to the other tribal populations. PMID:955642

Saha, N; Kirk, R L; Shanbhag, S; Joshi, S R; Bhatia, H M

1976-01-01

391

STME T/C casting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The T/C casting technology developed by the National Launch System for the Space Transportation Main Engine is described. Special attention is given to the selection of JBK-75 as the combustion chamber casting alloy, some unique casting issues, and the development castings which were produced. Current plans call for producing a 650K full cast jacket mockup in the 4500 pound furnace. Once a 650K mockup casting has been successfully produced, a design of experiments (DOE) will be conducted to establish the best gating system. This will be followed by the design of permanent wax pattern tooling, gating tooling, and process fixtures, and, finally, by a process DOE.

Lobitz, J. R.; Ackerman, P. C.; Weber, S. L.

1992-07-01

392

Interannual variability of the Indian monsoon and the Southern Oscillation  

SciTech Connect

Years with abundant Southwest monsoon rainfall in India are characterized by anomalously low pressure over South Asia and the adjacent waters, enhanced cross-equatorial flow in the western, and increased cloudiness over the northern portion of the Indian Ocean, continuing from the pre-monsoon through the post-monsoon season; positive temperature anomalies over land and in the Arabian Sea in the pre-monsoon season, changing to negative departures after the monsoon onset. The following causality chain is suggested: the anomalously warm surfaces of south Asia and the adjacent ocean in the pre-monsoon season induce a thermal low, thus enhancing the northward directed pressure gradient, and favoring a vigorous cross-equatorial flow over the Indian Ocean. After the monsoon onset the land surfaces are cooled by evaporation, and the Arabian Sea surface waters by various wind stress effects. However, latent heat release over South Asia can now maintain the meridional topography gradients essential to the monsoon circulation. The positive phase of the Southern Oscillation (high pressure over the Eastern South Pacific) is associated with circulation departures in the Indian Ocean sector similar to those characteristic of years with abundant India monsoon rainfall. Abundant rainfall over India during the northern summer monsoon leads the positive mode of the southern Oscillation, and this in turn leads Java rainfall, whose peak is timed about half a year after that of India. A rising Southern Oscillation tendency presages abundant India Southwest Monsoon rainfall but a late monsoon onset. 46 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

Wu, M.; Hastenrath, S.

1986-01-01

393

Morphological castes in a vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Morphological specialization for a specific role has, until now, been assumed to be restricted to social invertebrates. Herein we show that complete physical dimorphism has evolved between reproductives and helpers in the eusocial naked mole-rat. Dimorphism is a consequence of the lumbar vertebrae lengthening after the onset of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct from continuous size variation between breeders and helpers in other species of cooperatively breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example of convergent evolution for enhanced fecundity in societies characterized by high reproductive skew. Similarities in the selective environment between naked mole-rats and eusocial insect species highlight the selective conditions under which queen/worker castes are predicted to evolve in animal societies.

O'Riain, M. J.; Jarvis, J. U. M.; Alexander, R.; Buffenstein, R.; Peeters, C.

2000-01-01

394

South Atlantic interbasin exchange  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exchange of mass and heat between the South Atlantic and the neighboring ocean basins was estimated using hydrographic data and inverse methods, in order to gain information on the links between the deep-water formation processes occurring within the Atlantic and the global thermohaline circulation. Results demonstrate that the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation and export of North Atlantic deep water (NADW) is closed primarily by a 'cold water path' in which deep water leaving the Atlantic ultimately returns as intermediate water entering the basin through Drake Passage. This conclusion conflicts with the suggestion by Gordon (1986) that the global thermohaline circulation associated with the formation of NADW is closed primarily by a 'warm water path', in which the export of NADW is compensated by an inflow of warm Indian Ocean thermocline water south of Africa.

Rintoul, Stephen Rich

1991-01-01

395

Casting propellant in rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for casting a solid propellant in the casing of a rocket engine having a continuous wall with a single opening which is formed by leaves of a material which melt at a temperature of the propellant and with curved edges concentric to the curvature of the spherical casing. The leaves are inserted into the spherical casing through the opening forming a core having a greater width than the width of the single opening and with curved peripheral edges. The cast propellant forms a solid mass and then heated to melt the leaves and provide a central opening with radial projecting flutes.

Roach, J. E.; Froehling, S. C. (inventors)

1976-01-01

396

Cementite Solidification in Cast Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hypereutectic cast irons (5.01 pct Cr and 5.19 pct V) were cast and the polished surfaces of test pieces were deep-etched and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. The results show that graphite lamellae intersect the cementite and a thin austenite film nucleates and grows on the cementite plates. For both compositions, graphite and cementite can coexist as equilibrium phases, with the former always nucleating and growing first. The eutectic carbides grow from the austenite dendrites in a direction perpendicular to the primary plates.

Coronado, J. J.; Sinatora, A.; Albertin, E.

2014-06-01

397

Cementite Solidification in Cast Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hypereutectic cast irons (5.01 pct Cr and 5.19 pct V) were cast and the polished surfaces of test pieces were deep-etched and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. The results show that graphite lamellae intersect the cementite and a thin austenite film nucleates and grows on the cementite plates. For both compositions, graphite and cementite can coexist as equilibrium phases, with the former always nucleating and growing first. The eutectic carbides grow from the austenite dendrites in a direction perpendicular to the primary plates.

Coronado, J. J.; Sinatora, A.; Albertin, E.

2014-04-01

398

Cast-a-Box: Casting Conditions and Macroporosity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An illustration of three-dimensional finite difference simulation of heat conduction with phase change and complex boundary conditions, this requires students to adjust boundary conditions to make the top surface of a regular hexahedral "casting" to freeze last, eliminating macroporosity.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-08-24

399

Casting behavior of titanium alloys in a centrifugal casting machine.  

PubMed

Since dental casting requires replication of complex shapes with great accuracy, this study examined how well some commercial titanium alloys and experimental titanium-copper alloys filled a mold cavity. The metals examined were three types of commercial dental titanium [commercially pure titanium (hereinafter noted as CP-Ti), Ti-6Al-4V (T64) and Ti-6Al-7Nb (T67)], and experimental titanium-copper alloys [3%, 5% and 10% Cu (mass %)]. The volume percentage filling the cavity was evaluated in castings prepared in a very thin perforated sheet pattern and cast in a centrifugal casting machine. The flow behavior of the molten metal was also examined using a so-called "tracer element technique." The amounts of CP-Ti and all the Ti-Cu alloys filling the cavity were similar; less T64 and T67 filled the cavity. However, the Ti-Cu alloys failed to reach the end of the cavities due to a lower fluidity compared to the other metals. A mold prepared with specially designed perforated sheets was effective at differentiating the flow behavior of the metals tested. The present technique also revealed that the more viscous Ti-Cu alloys with a wide freezing range failed to sequentially flow to the end of the cavity. PMID:12593955

Watanabe, K; Miyakawa, O; Takada, Y; Okuno, O; Okabe, T

2003-05-01

400

Minnesota Indian Resources Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Training Center for Community Programs was established at the University of Minnesota to increase understanding of, and to provide opportunity for, the economically disadvantaged. The Center published this directory of services and organizations to provide American Indians with sources of assistance in adjusting to community life in the urban…

Stickney, Avis L., Comp.

401

Indians of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Pima, Papago, Yuma, Maricopa, Mohave, Cocopah, Havasupai, Hualapai, Yavapai, and Paiute Indian tribes of Arizona are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, housing, employment, and economic development taking place on the…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

402

Indians of New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

403

Indians of the Northwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

404

Problems of Indian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…

Linton, Marigold

405

Indian Wisdom Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rather than simply recreating a real or imagined event or experience for entertainment purposes, the wisdom stories of the American Indians were sophisticated teaching devices that kept alive the history and traditions of the tribe at the same time that they instructed the young tribe members in the areas of history, geography, nature study, and…

Blanche, Jerry D.

406

Indian genetic disease database  

PubMed Central

Indians, representing about one-sixth of the world population, consist of several thousands of endogamous groups with strong potential for excess of recessive diseases. However, no database is available on Indian population with comprehensive information on the diseases common in the country. To address this issue, we present Indian Genetic Disease Database (IGDD) release 1.0 (http://www.igdd.iicb.res.in)—an integrated and curated repository of growing number of mutation data on common genetic diseases afflicting the Indian populations. Currently the database covers 52 diseases with information on 5760 individuals carrying the mutant alleles of causal genes. Information on locus heterogeneity, type of mutation, clinical and biochemical data, geographical location and common mutations are furnished based on published literature. The database is currently designed to work best with Internet Explorer 8 (optimal resolution 1440?×?900) and it can be searched based on disease of interest, causal gene, type of mutation and geographical location of the patients or carriers. Provisions have been made for deposition of new data and logistics for regular updation of the database. The IGDD web portal, planned to be made freely available, contains user-friendly interfaces and is expected to be highly useful to the geneticists, clinicians, biologists and patient support groups of various genetic diseases.

Pradhan, Sanchari; Sengupta, Mainak; Dutta, Anirban; Bhattacharyya, Kausik; Bag, Sumit K.; Dutta, Chitra; Ray, Kunal

2011-01-01

407

Great Indian Chiefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief biographies and pen and ink portraits of over 40 chiefs and other distinguised American Indians comprise this book. Each page contains a full page portrait and a biography that notes tribal affiliation, important dates, geographical location, major accomplishments, and dealings with other tribes, white settlers, and the United States or…

Pastron, Allen

408

Indian Reserved Water Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

Bond, Frank M.

1986-01-01

409

Indians of North Carolina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

410

Eastern American Indian Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

Thomas, Robert K.

411

Indian Education in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pictorial publication briefly discusses Indian education in Canada. Discussed are: nursery schools and kindergartens; elementary and secondary schools; teaching staff--preschool instructors, teacher aides, classroom assistants, teachers, and principals; guidance staff--guidance and social counsellors, and home and school coordinators; support…

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

412

Indian School Days.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age from 4 to…

Johnston, Basil H.

413

New Lubricant for Pressure Die Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three lubricant formulations for the pressure die casting of large and complex castings were developed. The lubricants include mineral oils, synthetic acids, finely dispersed graphite preparations, etc. The new lubricants are not inferior in their propert...

B. P. Khrenov L. A. Tabanov L. Y. Kisilenko V. V. Romanov

1972-01-01

414

Welding of Castings in the Mining Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews the types of steel castings available to, and used in, the mining industry. The welding properties of carbon manganese, low alloy, and austenitic manganese steel castings are considered, and reference is made to the selection of welding ...

L. J. Lalor

1977-01-01

415

Metal Casting: Industry of the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies Metal Casting Industry of The Future; a partnership between the Department of Energy and the metal casting industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.

2001-01-01

416

The Role of Water in Slip Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. ...

R. A. Mccauley G. W. Phelps

1984-01-01

417

Electrochemical Etching of Titanium-Alloy Castings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to determine whether a potentiostatic electrochemical method could be used to etch selectively either the dendrites or the interdendritic material from Ti cast structures and thereby reveal their microstructures. Cast binary titan...

J. C. Griess S. A. David R. J. Gray C. W. Houck

1983-01-01

418

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST, AS OPERATOR WATCHES TO ENSURE QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

419

Indian aerosols: present status.  

PubMed

This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

2002-12-01

420

Deep Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Indian Ocean and Its Relation to Indian Ocean Dipole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian deep ocean has rarely been discussed in relation to the Indian Ocean dipole mode (IOD) albeit its pronounced interannual variability. This study characterizes the Indian meridional overturning circulation (DMOC) during IOD events based on 42-year GECCO synthesis data. To assess contributions of various dynamical processes, the DMOC is decomposed into Ekman component, geostrophic current, the external mode accounting for zonal topographic gradients, and a residual term. The first three terms successfully describe the DMOC with only a marginal contribution from the residual term. Our analysis concludes the following results. First, the seasonal cycle of the DMOC is mainly determined by the Ekman component. Exception is during the transitional season (March-April and September-October) in the northern Indian Ocean basin, where the geostrophic component dominates. Second, IOD influences the deep ocean through wind and ocean temperature anomalies. At the beginning phase of IOD (May-June), the Ekman component dominates the DMOC structure; at and after the peak phase of IOD (September-December), the DMOC structure is primarily determined by the geostrophic component in correspondence with the well-developed ocean temperature anomalies; the wind (thus the Ekman component) plays a positive but secondary role south of 10°S and contributes negatively within the zonal band of 10 degrees both sides of the equator. Therefore, there exists a surface-to-deep ocean connection in the Indian Ocean, through which what occurs on the ocean surface is transferred down, possibly by the aid of the prominent annual wind-driven Rossby waves.

Wang, W.; Zhu, X.; Wang, C.; Koehl, A.

2013-12-01

421

New fibreglass casting system in orthopaedic practice.  

PubMed

The composition, manufacture and application of a new fibreglass casting system for use in orthopaedic practice are described. The performance of the first 51 fibreglass casts used in routine fracture work is reviewed. The advantages (the cast is waterprof, extremely light and strong) and the disadvantages (an ultraviolet light source is required to cure the cast and the fiberglass tape is rather expensive) are evaluated. PMID:979766

Davis, B; Dooley, B

1976-06-26

422

Effect of ferrite on cast stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Premature failure of stainless steel castings in bleach washing service is attributed to poor casting quality high porosity and to a high ferrite content, which makes the castings susceptible to corrosion by hot acid chloride solutions. A survey of the chemical compositions and ferrite contents of corrosion-resistant castings in bleach plants at three pulp mills found high [delta]-ferrite levels in the austenitic matrix due to the improper balance between austenite and ferrite stabilizers.

Nadezhdin, A.; Cooper, K. (Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada)); Timbers, G. (James Maclaren Inc., Quebec (Canada). Kraft Pulp Division)

1994-09-01

423

Porosity formation in axi-symmetric castings produced by counter-pressure casting method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method for simultaneous treatment of heat and mass transfer processes and porosity formation of castings produced by Counter Pressure Casting (CPC) method. The method enables us to account for the influence of the CPC parameters on the mechanical properties of the casting. Numerical results and comparison with experimental data are given for an axis-symmetric casting (hemisphere with

I. H. Katzarov; Y. B. Arsov; P. Stoyanov; T. Zeuner; A. Buehrig-Polaczek; P. R. Sahm

2001-01-01

424

Sociocultural Perspective on Organ and Tissue Donation among Reservation-Dwelling American Indian Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

To discover the sociocultural patterns that influence decisions about organ and tissue donation among American Indian (AI) adults.DesignThis qualitative ethnographic study used a social–ecological framework. A snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 21 Oglala Lakota Sioux participants (age???19 years) living on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from

Nancy L. Fahrenwald; Wendy Stabnow

2005-01-01

425

Caribbean biogeography: molecular evidence for dispersal in West Indian terrestrial vertebrates.  

PubMed Central

The geological association of the Greater Antilles with North and South America in the late Cretaceous led to the hypothesis that the present Antillean biota reflects those ancient land connections. Molecular data from diverse West Indian amphibians and reptiles and their mainland relatives support a more recent derivation of the Antillean vertebrate fauna by overwater dispersal. The catastrophic bolide impact in the Caribbean region at the close of the Cretaceous provides a proximate cause for the absence of an ancient West Indian biota.

Hedges, S B; Hass, C A; Maxson, L R

1992-01-01

426

Complete genome sequencing and evolutionary analysis of Indian isolates of Dengue virus type 2  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Complete genome of Indian DENV-2 was deciphered for the first time in this study. •The recent Indian DENV-2 revealed presence of many unique amino acid residues. •Genotype shift (American to Cosmopolitan) characterizes evolution of DENV-2 in India. •Circulation of a unique clade of DENV-2 in South Asia was identified. -- Abstract: Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of global public health significance. It is now endemic in most parts of the South East Asia including India. Though Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) is predominantly associated with major outbreaks in India, complete genome information of Indian DENV-2 is not available. In this study, the full-length genome of five DENV-2 isolates (four from 2001 to 2011 and one from 1960), from different parts of India was determined. The complete genome of the Indian DENV-2 was found to be 10,670 bases long with an open reading frame coding for 3391 amino acids. The recent Indian DENV-2 (2001–2011) revealed a nucleotide sequence identity of around 90% and 97% with an older Indian DENV-2 (1960) and closely related Sri Lankan and Chinese DENV-2 respectively. Presence of unique amino acid residues and non-conservative substitutions in critical amino acid residues of major structural and non-structural proteins was observed in recent Indian DENV-2. Selection pressure analysis revealed positive selection in few amino acid sites of the genes encoding for structural and non-structural proteins. The molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of both complete coding region and envelope protein gene with globally diverse DENV-2 viruses classified the recent Indian isolates into a unique South Asian clade within Cosmopolitan genotype. A shift of genotype from American to Cosmopolitan in 1970s characterized the evolution of DENV-2 in India. Present study is the first report on complete genome characterization of emerging DENV-2 isolates from India and highlights the circulation of a unique clade in South Asia.

Dash, Paban Kumar, E-mail: pabandash@rediffmail.com; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Agarwal, Ankita; Parida, Manmohan; Rao, P.V.Lakshmana

2013-07-05

427

Pressure Rig for Repetitive Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metals. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal i...

P. Vasquez W. R. Hutto A. R. Philips

1987-01-01

428

Benchmarking aluminium die casting operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demand in world automotive markets for aluminium die cast components is creating significant opportunities and challenges for the Australian industry, which is positioning itself as a global player. To meet these challenges, the industry is continuously seeking to improve its overall resource efficiency that can result in the reduction of cost and impact on green house gas (GHG) emissions.

A. Tharumarajah

2008-01-01

429

Homogenization heat treating cast microstructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cast microstructures have variations in composition on the length scale of dendrites and homogenization heat treatments are performed to smooth out these variations. This problem is an integral analysis of the 1D diffusion mass transfer in this problem. The results using two different assumed profiles are compared.

Krane, Matthew J.

2008-10-25

430

Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

2000-11-30

431

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first semi-annual report describing research conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign as part of a joint university-industry research program on machine casting of ferrous alloys. During the six months covered by this report...

D. G. Backman R. Mehrabian R. J. Lauf S. D. E. Ramati Y. V. Murty

1976-01-01

432

Molding A Cast Metals Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cast metals program, a two-year associate degree program, at Muskegon Community College, Musegon, Michigan operates in close cooperation with the local foundry industry to provide a background for entry-level technical jobs and for continued studies toward a four-year degree. (EA)

Trumble, Dale E.

1975-01-01

433

Overview of ToxCast?  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2007, EPA launched ToxCast? in order to develop a cost-effective approach for prioritizing the toxicity testing of large numbers of chemicals in a short period of time. Using data from state-of-the-art high throughput screening (HTS) bioassays developed in the pharmaceutical i...

434

Tape casting of magnesium oxide.  

SciTech Connect

A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

2008-02-01

435

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to the lack of economic permanent die materials for use in Hipocasting ferrous alloys, three innovative approaches for creating a mold cavity for use in machine casting of ferrous alloys were explored. They were: use of liquid metal cooling of a thin ...

G. D. Chandley G. Scholl

1975-01-01

436

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

437

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements made by a very simple method have shown that many of the factors which affect the quality of castings are sensitive\\u000a to surface and interfacial energies during the pouring of the melt. The results of a number of measurements of these parameters\\u000a are presented and discussed.

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1985-01-01

438

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency with which the moulds are filled is one of the most important aspects in the lost wax procedure for casting\\u000a jewellery. The factors which affect it are briefly discussed and the results of a number of experiments aimed at increasing\\u000a knowledge of the complex interrelationships between them are presented.

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1986-01-01

439

Prediction of Microporosity in Shrouded Impeller Castings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Morris Bean and Company was to link computer models of heat and fluid flow with previously developed quality criteria for the prediction of microporosity in a Al-4.5% Cu alloy shrouded impeller casting. The results may be used to analyze the casting process design for the commercial production of 206 o alloy shrouded impeller castings. Test impeller castings were poured in the laboratory for the purpose of obtaining thermal data and porosity distributions. Also, a simulation of the test impeller casting was conducted and the results validated with porosity measurements on the test castings. A comparison of the predicted and measured microporosity distributions indicated an excellent correlation between experiments and prediction. The results of the experimental and modeling studies undertaken in this project indicate that the quality criteria developed for the prediction of microporosity in Al-4.5% Cu alloy castings can accurately predict regions of elevated microporosity even in complex castings such as the shrouded impeller casting. Accordingly, it should be possible to use quality criteria for porosity prediction in conjunction with computer models of heat and fluid flow to optimize the casting process for the production of shrouded impeller castings. Since high levels of microporosity may be expected to result in poor fatigue properties, casting designs that are optimized for low levels of microporosity should exhibit superior fatigue life.

Viswanathan, S. Nelson, C.D.

1998-09-01

440

South Australian rainfall variability and climate extremes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall extremes over South Australia are connected with broad-scale atmospheric rearrangements associated with strong meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in the eastern Indian Ocean. Thirty-seven years of winter radiosonde data is used to calculate a time series of precipitable water (PW) and convective available potential energy (CAPE) in the atmosphere. Principle component analysis on the parameters of CAPE and

Alexander D. Evans; John M. Bennett; Caecilia M. Ewenz

2009-01-01

441

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

442

Geophysical evidences for a thick crust south of Palghat-Tiruchi gap in the High Grade Terrains of South India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The regional gravity and magnetic features of the South Indian Shield were discussed. The prominent regional gravity low of 20 to 30 mgls over the charnockite terrain of South India, coupled with the correlation of a steep gravity gradient with a prominent shear zone to the north, can be interpreted in terms of increased crustal thickness in the South Indian high-grade terrain. There is some support for this from deep seismic sounding. The magnetic signature of the high-grade terrain is also distinctive, and Mishra argued that the Palghat-Tiruchi line might represent a Precambrian boundary such as a suture between two distinct crustal blocks.

Mishra, D. C.

1988-01-01

443

Diabetic Neuropathy: What is a Total Contact Cast?  

MedlinePLUS

... Web version Diabetic Neuropathy | What is a Total Contact Cast? What is a total contact cast? A total contact cast is a cast used to treat ulcers ( ... foot--that's why it is called a total contact cast. The cast helps to protect the skin ...

444

Indian-atlantic transfer of thermocline water at the agulhas retroflection.  

PubMed

During November and December 1983, two anticyclonic eddies were observed west of the Agulhas Retroflection, apparently spawned at the retroflection. The western eddy, centered 300 kilometers southwest of Cape Town, has a winter cooled core encircled by warm Indian Ocean water. Between Cape Town and the "Cape Town Eddy" is a net geostrophic transport of Indian Ocean thermocline water (14 x 10(6) cubic meters per second) into the South Atlantic Ocean. This circulation configuration, similar to that observed by earlier researchers, suggests that Indian-Atlantic thermocline exchange is a common occurrence. Such a warmwater link between the Atlantic and Indian oceans would strongly influence global climate patterns. The Indian Ocean water is warmer than the adjacent South Atlantic water and thus represents a heat input of 2.3 x 10(13) to 47 x 10(13) watts into the Atlantic. The large uncertainty arises from the unknown partition between two possible routes for the return flow from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean: cooler South Atlantic thermocline water or much colder North Atlantic Deep Water. In either case, interocean mass and heat exchange of thermocline water at the Agulhas Retroflection is a distinct likelihood. PMID:17794226

Gordon, A L

1985-03-01

445

The Educational Dilemma Facing Urban Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents objectives and programs of a model Indian education project designed to work through local Indian centers to aid urban universities with substantial Indian student populations in the provision of better educational opportunities for urban Indians and improved education of the public concerning the Indians' plight. (SB)

French, Laurence

1979-01-01

446

Physical Activity and Incident Diabetes in American Indians  

PubMed Central

The authors examined the association between total physical activity (leisure-time plus occupational) and incident diabetes among 1,651 American Indians who participated in the Strong Heart Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors among 13 American Indian communities in 4 states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Arizona). Discrete Cox models were used to examine the association between physical activity level (in tertiles), compared with no physical activity, and incident diabetes, after adjustment for potential confounders. During 10 years of follow-up (f1989–1999), 454 incident cases of diabetes were identified. Compared with participants who reported no physical activity, those who reported any physical activity had a lower risk of diabetes: Odds ratios were 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.99), 0.67 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.99), and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.99) for increasing tertile of physical activity, after adjustment for age, sex, study site, education, smoking, alcohol use, and family history of diabetes. Further adjustment for body mass index and other potential mediators attenuated the risk estimates. These data suggest that physical activity is associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes in American Indians. This study identifies physical activity as an important determinant of diabetes among American Indians and suggests the need for physical activity outreach programs that target inactive American Indians.

Howard, Barbara V.; Kriska, Andrea M.; Smith, Nicolas L.; Lumley, Thomas; Lee, Elisa T.; Russell, Marie; Siscovick, David

2009-01-01

447

Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols on the Indian Monsoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six-member ensemble of twentieth-century simulations with changes to only time-evolving global distributions of black carbon aerosols in a global coupled climate model is analyzed to study the effects of black carbon (BC) aerosols on the Indian monsoon. The BC aerosols act to increase lower-tropospheric heating over South Asia and reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during

Gerald A. Meehl; Julie M. Arblaster; William D. Collins

2008-01-01

448

Land-based turbine casting initiative  

SciTech Connect

To meet goals for the ATS program, technical advances developed for aircraft gas turbine engines need to be applied to land-based gas turbines. These advances include directionally solidified and single crystal castings, alloys tailored to exploit these microstructures, complex internal cooling schemes, and coatings. The proposed program to scale aircraft gas turbine casting technology up to land based gas turbine size components is based on low sulfur alloys, casting process development, post-cast process development, and establishing casting defect tolerance levels. The inspection side is also discussed.

Mueller, B.A.; Spicer, R.A. [Howmet Corp., Whitehall, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

449

Tectonic Fabric of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and Continental Drift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The floor of the Indian Ocean is dominated by (1) the scismically active Mid-Oceanic Ridge, (2) scattered linear micro-continents (mostly meridional), and (3) fracture zones (some displace the axis of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge and others parallel the micro-continents). The pattern suggests that movement along the Diamantina Fracture Zone has displaced Australia to the cast relative to Broken Ridge. In the

B. C. Heezen; Marie Tharp

1965-01-01

450

INDIAN PEAKS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.

Pearson, Robert, C.; Speltz, Charles, N.

1984-01-01

451

Indian fusion test reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion reactor as a volumetric neutron source can serve many applications needed for realizing fusion power reactor. For the Indian energy scenario, such a device can also produce fissile fuel for accelerating the nuclear power production. The Indian Fusion Test Reactor (FTR) is a low fusion gain (Q = 3-5) device to be used as component test facility for qualifying future reactor materials as well as for demonstrating the production of fissile fuel. FTR will be a medium sized tokamak device with a neutron wall load of 0.2 MW/m2. The presently available structural materials can be used for this device and such a device can be realized in ten years time from now. This device should produce about 25-50 kg of fissile fuel in one full-power-year and also produce the tritium needed for its operation. This device will greatly help the nuclear fission power program by producing fissile fuel.

Srinivasan, R.; FTR Team

2012-06-01

452

A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

1985-01-01

453

Thermohaline forcing of the Indian Ocean by the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An idealized box model of the Indian Ocean forced by steady winds and Haney-type surface heat fluxes is used to examine the importance of the warm, fresh throughflow from the equatorial Pacific on the climate of the Indian Ocean. In particular, the hypothesis proposed by GODFREY and WEAVER (1991, Progress in Oceanography, 27, 225-272), that the anomalous poleward buoyancy-forced Leeuwin current off the west coast of Australia is a manifestation of a basinwide thermohaline circulation driven by the Indonesian throughflow, is examined. The stronger Sverdrup circulation dominates the thermohaline circulation in most of the model ocean except near the eastern boundary. The effects of the throughflow, however, can be determined by comparing two runs forced by a Pacific Ocean with either the warm, fresh profile of the western equatorial Pacific or a cooler, more saline profile more typical of the eastern equatorial Pacific (where a more usual equatorward wind-driven boundary current is found). It is found that heat imported from the Pacific is transported zonally across the Indian Ocean to the western boundary by the South Equatorial Current. The enhanced meridional steric height gradient south of the SEC drives an eastward return flow back to the eastern boundary, where it turns south to form the poleward Leeuwin Current. The reverse path is traced out by the waters immediately below the thermocline. None of these features are observed when the model Pacific has the cooler profile typical of the eastern boundaries of other oceans. Indonesian throughflow significantly affects the surface heat fluxes and the meridional heat transport in the Indian Ocean. The importance of the throughflow in maintaining the very warm climate of the Indian Ocean (a net exporter of heat) is noted. In the model, the poleward western boundary current along the coast of Africa south of about 27°S appears to play only a very minor role in the basinwide thermohaline circulation described above. This differs from the "warm water route" proposed by GORDON (1986, Journal of Geophysical Research, 91, 5037-5046) where heat is returned to the South Atlantic past the Agulhas Retroflection. Large-scale, fairly long period (>100 days) barotropic eddies are found in the western portion of the basin for some solutions. The generation mechanism for these eddies appears to be barotropic instability in the model South Equatorial Current.

Hughes, Tertia M. C.; Weaver, Andrew J.; Godfrey, J. Stuart

1992-06-01

454

West Indian Orchidaceae Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York Botanical Garden has recently placed online this searchable database of West Indian Orchids. Containing approximately 5,200 specimen records for the family Orchidacese (from the New York Botanical Garden's collection), the database may be searched by Family, Collector, Country, Taxon, State/Province, and other select fields. Typical returns provide information on Specimen name (scientific name), Location, Collector, Description, and Habitat.

455

Survival from breast cancer among South Asian and non-South Asian women resident in South East England.  

PubMed

Ethnic differences in breast cancer survival have been observed in the USA but have not been examined in Britain. We aimed to investigate such differences between South Asian (i.e. those with family roots in the Indian subcontinent) and non-South Asian (essentially British-native) women in England. Primary breast cancer cases incident in 1986 -1993 and resident in South East England were ascertained through the Thames Cancer and Registry and followed up to the end of 1997. Cases of South Asian ethnicity were identified on the basis of their names by using a previously validated computer algorithm. A total of 1037 South Asian and 50 201 non-South Asian breast cancer cases were included in the analysis; 30% of the South Asian (n=312) and 44% (n=22 201) of the non-South Asian cases died during follow-up. South Asian cases had a higher relative survival than non-South Asians throughout the follow-up period. The 10-year relative survival rates were 72.6% (95% confidence interval: 69.0, 75.9%) and 65.2% (64.5, 65.8%) for South Asians and non-South Asians, respectively. The excess mortality rates experienced by South Asians were 82% (72, 94%) of those experienced by non-South Asians (P=0.004). The magnitude of this effect was slightly reduced with adjustment for differences in age at diagnosis, but was strengthened with further adjustment for differences in stage at presentation and socioeconomic deprivation (excess mortality rates in South Asians relative to non-South Asians=72% (63, 82%), P&<0.001). These findings indicate that the higher survival from breast cancer in the first 10 years after diagnosis among South Asian was not due to differences in age at diagnosis, socioeconomic deprivation or disease stage at presentation. PMID:12888822

dos Santos Silva, I; Mangtani, P; De Stavola, B L; Bell, J; Quinn, M; Mayer, D

2003-08-01

456

Viscosity of casting fluxes used during continuous casting of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten flux viscosity of eighteen commercially available casting fluxes has been measured as a function of temperature in\\u000a the range of 1223 to 1723 K. Results show that, at a constant temperature, the flux viscosity is primarily dependent on the\\u000a mole fractions of SiO2 and A12O3. The calculated activation energy for viscous flow at 1573 K varies from 59 to

Michael D. Lanyi; Casimir J. Rosa

1981-01-01

457

Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K. [National Institute of Rock Mechanics, KGF (India)

2005-07-01

458

National Indian Law Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Law Library (NILL) has worked for over three decades to bring together key resources for Native Americans and their advocates in the field of legal scholarship and service. Today it remains the only entity that offers a comprehensive vision of past and present tribal governmental documents from across the United States. The NILL is based in Boulder, Colorado and its website provides selected documents, information on ongoing activities and the very useful Indian Law News Bulletins. These bulletins are published almost every week and offer succinct and timely information about new developments in Indian Law. Visitors can search through the archives of these bulletins back to 1998, or look through the bulletins for links to germane legal briefs. This same area contains links to digests that cover activities in state courts, federal trial courts, and law review journal articles. Users shouldn't miss the Research By Topic area, which contains links that deal with 20 different themes, including tribal education, health & human services, sacred sites, prisoners' issues, and child welfare.

459

Indian Converts Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First published in 1727, the remarkable book "Indian Converts, or Some account of the lives and dying speeches of a considerable number of the Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard" is now available in full online. Written by Experience Mayhew, the book provides rema