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1

Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations. RESULTS: We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations

W. s. Watkins; R. Thara; B. j. Mowry; Y. Zhang; D. j. Witherspoon; W. Tolpinrud; M. j. Bamshad; S. Tiripati; R. Padmavati; H. Smith; D. Nancarrow; C. Filippich; L. b. Jorde

2008-01-01

2

Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Background Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations. Results We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations from the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh. Genetic differentiation among Tamil castes is low (RST = 0.96% for 45 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers), reflecting a largely common origin. Nonetheless, caste- and continent-specific patterns are evident. For 32 lineage-defining Y-chromosome SNPs, Tamil castes show higher affinity to Europeans than to eastern Asians, and genetic distance estimates to the Europeans are ordered by caste rank. For 32 lineage-defining mitochondrial SNPs and hypervariable sequence (HVS) 1, Tamil castes have higher affinity to eastern Asians than to Europeans. For 45 autosomal STRs, upper and middle rank castes show higher affinity to Europeans than do lower rank castes from either Tamil Nadu or Andhra Pradesh. Local between-caste variation (Tamil Nadu RST = 0.96%, Andhra Pradesh RST = 0.77%) exceeds the estimate of variation between these geographically separated groups (RST = 0.12%). Low, but statistically significant, correlations between caste rank distance and genetic distance are demonstrated for Tamil castes using Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal data. Conclusion Genetic data from Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal STRs are in accord with historical accounts of northwest to southeast population movements in India. The influence of ancient and historical population movements and caste social structure can be detected and replicated in South Indian caste populations from two different geographic regions.

Watkins, WS; Thara, R; Mowry, BJ; Zhang, Y; Witherspoon, DJ; Tolpinrud, W; Bamshad, MJ; Tirupati, S; Padmavati, R; Smith, H; Nancarrow, D; Filippich, C; Jorde, LB

2008-01-01

3

DOES CASTE MATTER FOR WAGES IN THE INDIAN LABOR MARKET?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores whether pay gaps on the basis of caste are still evident in the Indian labor market using data from the most recent round of the nationally representative National Sample Survey. Caste in India is the primary source of stratificatio n. The hypothesis is that the hierarchical nature of the caste system and the strong association of ritual

PUJA VASUDEVA DUTTA

4

Independent origins of Indian caste and tribal paternal lineages.  

PubMed

The origins of the nearly one billion people inhabiting the Indian subcontinent and following the customs of the Hindu caste system are controversial: are they largely derived from Indian local populations (i.e. tribal groups) or from recent immigrants to India? Archaeological and linguistic evidence support the latter hypothesis, whereas recent genetic data seem to favor the former hypothesis. Here, we analyze the most extensive dataset of Indian caste and tribal Y chromosomes to date. We find that caste and tribal groups differ significantly in their haplogroup frequency distributions; caste groups are homogeneous for Y chromosome variation and more closely related to each other and to central Asian groups than to Indian tribal or any other Eurasian groups. We conclude that paternal lineages of Indian caste groups are primarily descended from Indo-European speakers who migrated from central Asia approximately 3,500 years ago. Conversely, paternal lineages of tribal groups are predominantly derived from the original Indian gene pool. We also provide evidence for bidirectional male gene flow between caste and tribal groups. In comparison, caste and tribal groups are homogeneous with respect to mitochondrial DNA variation, which may reflect the sociocultural characteristics of the Indian caste society. PMID:14761656

Cordaux, Richard; Aunger, Robert; Bentley, Gillian; Nasidze, Ivane; Sirajuddin, S M; Stoneking, Mark

2004-02-01

5

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

PubMed Central

The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in ?265 males from eight castes of different rank to ?750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%–30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements) in all of the caste and continental populations (?600 individuals). Analysis of these data demonstrated that the upper castes have a higher affinity to Europeans than to Asians, and the upper castes are significantly more similar to Europeans than are the lower castes. Collectively, all five datasets show a trend toward upper castes being more similar to Europeans, whereas lower castes are more similar to Asians. We conclude that Indian castes are most likely to be of proto-Asian origin with West Eurasian admixture resulting in rank-related and sex-specific differences in the genetic affinities of castes to Asians and Europeans.

Bamshad, Michael; Kivisild, Toomas; Watkins, W. Scott; Dixon, Mary E.; Ricker, Chris E.; Rao, Baskara B.; Naidu, J. Mastan; Prasad, B.V. Ravi; Reddy, P. Govinda; Rasanayagam, Arani; Papiha, Surinder S.; Villems, Richard; Redd, Alan J.; Hammer, Michael F.; Nguyen, Son V.; Carroll, Marion L.; Batzer, Mark A.; Jorde, Lynn B.

2001-01-01

6

Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations.  

PubMed

The origins and affinities of the approximately 1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in approximately 265 males from eight castes of different rank to approximately 750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%-30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements) in all of the caste and continental populations (approximately 600 individuals). Analysis of these data demonstrated that the upper castes have a higher affinity to Europeans than to Asians, and the upper castes are significantly more similar to Europeans than are the lower castes. Collectively, all five datasets show a trend toward upper castes being more similar to Europeans, whereas lower castes are more similar to Asians. We conclude that Indian castes are most likely to be of proto-Asian origin with West Eurasian admixture resulting in rank-related and sex-specific differences in the genetic affinities of castes to Asians and Europeans. PMID:11381027

Bamshad, M; Kivisild, T; Watkins, W S; Dixon, M E; Ricker, C E; Rao, B B; Naidu, J M; Prasad, B V; Reddy, P G; Rasanayagam, A; Papiha, S S; Villems, R; Redd, A J; Hammer, M F; Nguyen, S V; Carroll, M L; Batzer, M A; Jorde, L B

2001-06-01

7

HLA-B27 allele diversity in Indians: impact of ethnic origin and the caste system.  

PubMed

HLA-B27 is a serological specificity which encompasses an increasing number of subtypes that show varied racial/ethnic prevalence in the world. Here, data from 5129 Indians (4500 population and caste; 629 tribal) is compiled from the literature. In addition, HLA-B27 subtyping of 58 positive individuals from Maharastra is presented. Analysis revealed an increased B27 antigen frequency among the north Indian groups (>5%) compared to the south Indian groups (<5%). HLA-B27 subtyping identified B*2704 (34.48%), B*2705 (36.2%), B*2707 (15.51%), B*2708 (10.34%) and B*2714 (3.44%) alleles in the population groups from Maharastra, but these differed in their distribution among the caste and tribal groups studied. The study showed that more extensive subtyping in other Indian caste groups will be necessary to resolve the evolutionary implications of HLA-B27 subtypes and their relationship to disease association in the Indian context. PMID:14725340

Shankarkumar, U

2003-01-01

8

The Indian Caste System as a Means of Contract Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caste system in India has been dated to approximately 1000 B.C. and still aff ects the lives of a billion people in South Asia. The persistence of this system of social stratification for 3000 years of changing economic and social environments is puzzling. This paper formalizes a model of the caste system to better understand the institution and the

Kripa Freitas

2006-01-01

9

Social Affiliation and the Demand for Health Services: Caste and Child Health in South India *  

PubMed Central

This paper assesses the role of social affiliation, measured by caste, in shaping investments in child health. The special setting that we have chosen for the analysis – tea estates in the South Indian High Range – allows us to control nonparametrically for differences in income, access to health services, and patterns of morbidity across low caste and high caste households. In this controlled setting, low caste households spend more on their children's health than high caste households, reversing the pattern we would expect to find elsewhere in India. Moreover, health expenditures do not vary by gender within either caste group, in contrast once again with the male preference documented throughout the country. A simple explanation, based on differences in the returns to human capital across castes in the tea estates is proposed to explain these striking results.

Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan

2007-01-01

10

Casting shadows: Dalit assertion in Indian literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation tracks the emergence of literary narratives by and about Dalit communities in India from the 1950s to the 1990s. Examining the literary texts from a historical materialist perspective, I explore their articulation of self-identity and resistance against the caste system. The materialist methodology enables discussion of the literature's focus on labor and the body, while centrally posing the

Shalini Ramachandran

2003-01-01

11

OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE AND RUN OUT WITH TRAVELING TORCH. MACHINE IS CASTING IN TWIN MOLD. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

12

The lost-wax casting of icons, utensils, bells, and other items in South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian artisans and craftsmen have long been masters at extracting and shaping metals and alloys, as proven by archaeological finds from the 2nd—3rd millennia B.C. For example, two well-known artifacts, castings of the dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro and the Mother Goddess of Adichanallur, Tamilnadu, depict a high degree of metallurgical knowledge. Those castings were formed by the lost wax process, which later was modified and became known as investment casting. In various parts of India, this age-old casting process is still being practiced, without any major modifications. This paper discusses details of the process used by the Indian artisans of Swamimalai, Tamilnadu, and Mannar, Kerala, South India in shaping copper-base alloys into icons and utensils, bells, and lamps.

Pillai, R. M.; Pilhii, S. G. K.; Damodaran, A. D.

2002-10-01

13

Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System  

PubMed Central

Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4–6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India.

Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R. Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G.; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E.; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

2012-01-01

14

Traditional occupations and nutritional adaptation among Central Indian caste populations.  

PubMed

The socioeconomic milieu has benefits and drawbacks for determining level of nutrition. The Indian population provides an excellent example of nutrition-driven adaptation. The present paper deals with the relationship between BMI (body mass index) and traditional occupation and process of adaptation among adult males of Central India. Anthropometric data collected by the Anthropological Survey of India on stature, sitting height and weight of 6663 adult males belonging to 22 castes were used for computation of BMI and Cormic index. The caste groups earning their living as labourers are found to be shortest (157.4+/-6.5 cm), and the caste group practising priesthood are tallest (168.6+/-6.6 cm). The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency is found to be highest (72%) among castes earning their living as daily wage labourers. The ANOVA on Cormic index and BMI suggests that people within the same occupational group are more homogeneous than those from different occupational groups. The t test also supports the homogeneity of the same occupational group. PMID:18088450

Gautam, Rajesh K

2007-12-19

15

Swara Indentification for South Indian Classical Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the identification of the swaras in a given Carnatic song, which is an essential component, needed for raga identification of South Indian Classical - Carnatic music. Raga is a representation of the possible swaras that can occur in a given Carnatic song. This paper first deals with the segmentation of Carnatic vocal music and then attempts

Rajeswari Sridhar; T. V. Geetha

2006-01-01

16

South Indian Tropical Cyclone Vector Mean Charts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents resultant directions and distances for tropical cyclone movements in the South Indian Ocean. Charts present the movements for separate five-degree latitude-longitude areas, for five seasons and for six time intervals. In addition, the c...

H. L. Crutcher M. L. Nicodemus

1973-01-01

17

American Indian Population in South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

Hess, Donna

18

Castes, Migration, Immunogenetics and Infectious Diseases in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been said that the grandest genetic experiment of nature has been conducted in south India in the name of the caste system. One can expect the frequency of an infectious disease to be equal to the product of the frequencies of various indicated loci\\/alleles, whether physiological, hormonal or immunological, in an endemic area. The sympatrically isolated caste and

R. M. Pitchappan

2002-01-01

19

De\\/geneticizing Caste: Population Genetic Research in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed a number of population genetics studies aiming to explore the ‘genetic profile’ of the South Asian population and of the caste system. This paper examines four genetic studies and their mass media representations, and discusses interviews with leading historians and social scientists whose work has focused on issues of the caste system. Similar to earlier commentators—from

Yulia Egorova

2009-01-01

20

American Indians of South Atlantic Region by County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for counties in the South Atlantic region with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marital s...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

21

American Indians of West South Central Region by County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for counties in the West South Central region with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marit...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

22

American Indians of East South Central Region by County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for counties in the East South Central region with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marit...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

23

Cystinuria: the South Indian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystinuria is reportedly a rare condition affecting the stone patients in India. This paper presents the occurrence of cystine-related\\u000a abnormality in the population of stone patients reporting to the hospitals in South India. Two thousand and eight hundred\\u000a urine samples from 1,300 patients attending the urinary stone clinic during the period 2004–2008 were assessed for cystinuria\\u000a by performing the nitroprusside

Y. M. Fazil Marickar

2009-01-01

24

Photogrammetric analysis of eyebrow and upper eyelid dimensions in South indians and malaysian South indians.  

PubMed

Background: The eyebrow and eyelid are important sexually dimorphic and ethnic features of the face. In cosmetic surgery, maintenance of these landmarks is important to obtaining satisfactory results. Objectives: The authors quantify the dimension and position of the eyebrow and eyelid in South Indians and Malaysian South Indians and assess whether significant differences exist between the sexes and ethnic groups. Methods: Evaluation of eyebrow and upper eyelid was performed on standardized photographs of 200 South Indian and 200 Malaysian South Indian subjects, aged 18 to 26 years. We measured eyebrow thickness, apex to lateral limbus distance, apex to lateral canthus distance, interbrow distance, medial end of the eyebrow to medial canthus, lateral end of the eyebrow to lateral canthus, eyebrow height, eyebrow apex inclination, and pretarsal skin height. The measured values were evaluated by an independent t test. We also assessed the prevalence of double lid crease and types of epicanthus and eyebrow apex positions. Results: A significant difference was found between women in the South Indian and Malaysian South Indian groups for eyebrow apex to lateral limbus distance, medial end to medial canthus, pretarsal skin height, eyebrow height, and eyebrow apex inclination. Male groups showed significant ethnic difference for eyebrow apex to lateral limbus distance. Sexual dimorphism was found for all measurement categories. A double crease fold appeared in 99% of the subjects. Only epicanthus tarsalis (95%) and epicanthus superciliaris (5%) appeared in the subjects. Four types of eyebrow apex position were found. Conclusions: Ethnic and sex differences exist for eyebrow and eyelid dimensions in the 2 groups we studied. Knowledge of these trends is significant during surgical planning to obtain ideal outcomes. PMID:24018869

Packiriswamy, Vasanthakumar; Kumar, Pramod; Bashour, Mounir

2013-09-09

25

Castes, migration, immunogenetics and infectious diseases in south India.  

PubMed

It has been said that the grandest genetic experiment of nature has been conducted in south India in the name of the caste system. One can expect the frequency of an infectious disease to be equal to the product of the frequencies of various indicated loci/alleles, whether physiological, hormonal or immunological, in an endemic area. The sympatrically isolated caste and sub-caste populations of southern India, with differing origins, migration patterns and breeding habits, differ significantly in their HLA and other immune repertoire and are ideal models to study and test this hypothesis. The prevalence of a number of major infectious diseases, including TB and leprosy, are reviewed in different communities in the light of their genetic history. PMID:14960884

Pitchappan, R M

2002-01-01

26

Labels, Histories, Politics: Indian\\/South Asian Dance on the Global Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I discuss issues revolving around history, historiography, alterity, difference and otherness concealed in the doubled Indian\\/South Asian label used to describe Indian\\/South Asian dance genres in the UK. The paper traces the historical genealogy of the South Asian label to US, Indian and British contexts and describes how the South Asian enunciation fed into Indian nation-state historiography

Avanthi Meduri

2008-01-01

27

Labels, Histories, Politics: Indian\\/South Asian Dance on the Global Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I discuss issues revolving around history, historiography, alterity, difference and otherness concealed in the doubled Indian\\/South Asian label used to describe Indian\\/South Asian dance genres in the UK. The paper traces the historical genealogy of the South Asian label to US, Indian and British contexts and describes how the South Asian enunciation fed into Indian nation-state historiography

AVANTHI MEDURI

2009-01-01

28

The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations  

PubMed Central

Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N that cover populations of different social rank from all over the subcontinent. Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations. H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup. Haplotype frequencies of the MX1 locus of chromosome 21 distinguish Koyas and Chenchus, along with Indian caste groups, from European and eastern Asian populations. Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools.

Kivisild, T.; Rootsi, S.; Metspalu, M.; Mastana, S.; Kaldma, K.; Parik, J.; Metspalu, E.; Adojaan, M.; Tolk, H.-V.; Stepanov, V.; Golge, M.; Usanga, E.; Papiha, S. S.; Cinnioglu, C.; King, R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.; Underhill, P. A.; Villems, R.

2003-01-01

29

The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations.  

PubMed

Two tribal groups from southern India--the Chenchus and Koyas--were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N that cover populations of different social rank from all over the subcontinent. Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations. H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup. Haplotype frequencies of the MX1 locus of chromosome 21 distinguish Koyas and Chenchus, along with Indian caste groups, from European and eastern Asian populations. Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools. PMID:12536373

Kivisild, T; Rootsi, S; Metspalu, M; Mastana, S; Kaldma, K; Parik, J; Metspalu, E; Adojaan, M; Tolk, H-V; Stepanov, V; Gölge, M; Usanga, E; Papiha, S S; Cinnio?lu, C; King, R; Cavalli-Sforza, L; Underhill, P A; Villems, R

2003-01-20

30

On the Twelve Basic Intervals in South Indian Classical Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss various tuning possibilities for the twelve basic musical intervals used in South Indian classical (Carnatic) music. Theoretical values proposed in certain well-known tuning systems are examined. Issues related to the intonation or tuning of the notes in Carnatic music are raised and discussed as well.

Arvindh Krishnaswamy

31

PITCH MEASUREMENTS VERSUS PERCEPTION OF SOUTH INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain pitch inflexions used in South Indian Classical (Carnatic) music are discussed. It is proposed that these inflexions should be considered as time-varying, inflected intervals, equal in impor- tance to constant-pitch intervals. Transient notes and inflexions are also introduced and examined. Possible reasons for some mis- conceptions relating to the number and the nature of the musical intervals used in

Arvindh Krishnaswamy

2003-01-01

32

Application of pitch tracking to South Indian classical music  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of applying pitch trackers to samples of South Indian classical (Carnatic) music. In particular, we investigate the various musical notes used and their intonation. We try different pitch tracking methods and observe their performance in Carnatic music analysis. Examining our data, we find only 12 distinct intervals per octave among the notes that are played with constant

Arvindh Krishnaswamy

2003-01-01

33

Trends in tropical cyclones in the South Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical significance of trends in tropical cyclones (TCs) in the South Indian Ocean (SIO) and the South Pacific Ocean (SPO) has been examined. Calculation of significance is based on nonparametric Monte Carlo methods, and in addition we explore whether a constant model, a linear model, or a simple breakpoint model represents a best fit to the data. For the

Y. Kuleshov; R. Fawcett; L. Qi; B. Trewin; D. Jones; J. McBride; H. Ramsay

2010-01-01

34

Gender differentiation by finger ridge count among South Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study is to determine the gender based on finger ridge count within a well-defined area. Rolled fingerprints were taken from 550 subjects (275 men and 275 women) belonging to South Indian population all within the age range of 18–65 years. Results show that women have a significantly higher ridge count than men. Application of Baye’s theorem

M. D. Nithin; B. Manjunatha; D. S. Preethi; B. M. Balaraj

2011-01-01

35

Prevalence of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism in South Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations in South Indian population was investigated from a total of 608 samples, 420 adults and 188 newborns. Detection of mutation was carried out focussing on the two most common mutations of the MTHFR gene (C677T and A1298C) using PCR- based RFLP method. T-allele frequency was almost simi- lar between the newborns and

A. Radha; Rama Devi; V. Govindaiah; G. Ramakrishna; S. M. Naushad

36

Structure and Mechanisms of South Indian Ocean Climate Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique open-ocean upwelling exists in the tropical South Indian Ocean (SIO), a result of the negative wind curl between the southeasterly trades and equatorial westerlies, raising the thermocline in the west. Analysis of in situ measurements and a model-assimilated dataset reveals a strong influence of subsurface thermocline variability on sea surface temperature (SST) in this upwelling zone. El Nino-Southern

Shang-Ping Xie; H. Annamalai; Friedrich A. Schott; Julian P. McCreary Jr.

2002-01-01

37

Multiple meanings in South Indian temple worship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of the cosmos is said to depend upon proper performance of the complex daily liturgy in large Hindu temples. This paper describes such daily worship in the Murukan temple at Kalugumalai, South India. After considering the significance of the principal stages—unction, decoration, food?offering, and lamp?showing—in the p?ja rite which forms the basis of worship in Saivite temples, it

Anthony Good

2001-01-01

38

Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items.  

PubMed

Dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in South India were screened for their mutagenic activity. Kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and Kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. Certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. Cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seeds, aniseeds and ginger were not. Several perfumes, essential oils and colouring agents, which are commonly used were also screened and many of them exhibited their mutagenic potential by inducing the 'reverse mutation' in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains. PMID:1769715

Sivaswamy, S N; Balachandran, B; Balanehru, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

1991-08-01

39

The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia

Swarkar Sharma; Ekta Rai; Prithviraj Sharma; Mamata Jena; Shweta Singh; Katayoon Darvishi; Audesh K Bhat; A J S Bhanwer; Pramod Kumar Tiwari; Rameshwar N K Bamezai; RNK Bamezai

2009-01-01

40

Climatic records of the last and penultimate deglaciations in the South Atlantic and South Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface and deep-water records of Termination I and II in two twin South Atlantic deep-sea cores (44°09' S, 14°14' W, 3770 m depth) and one South Indian core (46°29' S, 88°01' E, 3420 m depth) are presented. Sea surface temperature has been reconstructed based on planktonic foraminifera census counts in all cases, as well as Mg/Ca of G. bulloides and N. pachyderma s. over the last deglaciation. The uncertainty on reconstructed SST using different statistical methods and different faunal databases is assessed. Over the last deglaciation, combined 14C dating and correlation of the SST record with the air temperature signal recorded in Antarctic ice cores allowed us to correct for variable surface reservoir ages in the South Atlantic core (Skinner et al., 2010). Preliminary dating of the South Indian core over the last termination has been done by correlation of its magnetic signal with those of a neighboring 14C dated core (Smart et al., 2010). We have refined the later age scale using the Atlantic core age scale as reference. Benthic isotopic signals in the South Atlantic and South Indian cores over the last deglaciation exhibit the same amplitude and timing. Our results thus indicate that bottom waters at the South Indian site remained isolated from better ventilated deep waters of northern origin until ~15 ka (Waelbroeck et al., 2011). Over Termination II, the two cores have been dated by correlation of their SST records with the air temperature signal recorded in EDC versus the EDC3 age scale (Govin et al., 2009; 2012). A careful examination of the various sources of uncertainty on the derived dating has been performed. Benthic and planktonic isotopic signals reveal analogies but also differences with respect to the last termination. SST was significantly warmer during the Last Interglacial than during the Holocene in both sites. South Atlantic deep waters were also significantly better ventilated during the Last Interglacial than during the Holocene, whereas bottom water ventilation was similar during these two interglacials at the South Indian site.

Michel, Elisabeth; Waelbroeck, Claire; Govin, Aline; Skinner, Luke; Vàzquez Riveiros, Natalia; Dewilde, Fabien; Isguder, Gulay; Rebaubier, Hélène

2013-04-01

41

The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system.  

PubMed

Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia or Eurasia, which has contributed to the higher castes in India. Y-haplogroup R1a1* has a widespread distribution and high frequency across Eurasia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, with scanty reports of its ancestral (R*, R1* and R1a*) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c). To resolve these issues, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins occupying the upper-most caste position and schedule castes/tribals occupying the lower-most positions) with 55 Y-chromosomal binary markers and seven Y-microsatellite markers and compiled an extensive dataset of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins, and 2128 tribals and schedule castes) for conclusions. A peculiar observation of the highest frequency (up to 72.22%) of Y-haplogroup R1a1* in Brahmins hinted at its presence as a founder lineage for this caste group. Further, observation of R1a1* in different tribal population groups, existence of Y-haplogroup R1a* in ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530 Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1* haplogroup supported the autochthonous origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins. However, it is important to discover novel Y-chromosomal binary marker(s) for a higher resolution of R1a1* and confirm the present conclusions. PMID:19158816

Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Prithviraj; Jena, Mamata; Singh, Shweta; Darvishi, Katayoon; Bhat, Audesh K; Bhanwer, A J S; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

2009-01-09

42

Health inequalities among urban children in India: a comparative assessment of Empowered Action Group (EAG) and South Indian states.  

PubMed

As India rapidly urbanizes, within urban areas socioeconomic disparities are rising and health inequality among urban children is an emerging challenge. This paper assesses the relative contribution of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the less developed Empowered Action Group (EAG) states and more developed South Indian states in urban India using data from the 2005-06 National Family Health Survey. Focusing on urban health from varying regional and developmental contexts, socioeconomic inequalities in child health are examined first using Concentration Indices (CIs) and then the contributions of socioeconomic factors to the CIs of health variables are derived. The results reveal, in order of importance, pronounced contributions of household economic status, parent's illiteracy and caste to urban child health inequalities in the South Indian states. In contrast, parent's illiteracy, poor economic status, being Muslim and child birth order 3 or more are major contributors to health inequalities among urban children in the EAG states. The results suggest the need to adopt different health policy interventions in accordance with the pattern of varying contributions of socioeconomic factors to child health inequalities between the more developed South Indian states and less developed EAG states. PMID:22643297

Arokiasamy, P; Jain, Kshipra; Goli, Srinivas; Pradhan, Jalandhar

2012-05-29

43

Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females  

PubMed Central

Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33 ± 13.12 years) from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02 ± 1.47?kg/m2) was compared with obese group (29.31 ± 3.95?kg/m2), P < 0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92 ± 4.28?kg) was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1?kg), P < 0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

Kishore Mohan, K. B.; Sapthagirivasan, V.; Anburajan, M.

2011-01-01

44

Hepatitis transmission among the Sioux Indians of South Dakota.  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis A continues to occur in cyclical community-wide epidemics on the Indian reservations of South Dakota. In June 1985 a population-based serosurvey for viral hepatitis involving 120 households was conducted at the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux Indian reservations in South Dakota. The serosurvey was performed shortly after a large hepatitis A epidemic on the Pine Ridge reservation in 1983-84, and immediately before a large hepatitis A epidemic on the Rosebud reservation in 1985-86. The overall seroprevalence for antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) was 76.2 percent (Pine Ridge reservation 80.5 percent, Rosebud reservation 72.0 percent, relative risk = 1.12, 95 percent confidence interval = 1.01, 1.24). For age groups 0 to 4 years, 54.2 percent and 36.1 percent of children were seropositive at Pine Ridge and Rosebud, respectively. Seropositivity rose rapidly with age; by age 40, more than 90 percent of persons at both Pine Ridge and Rosebud were anti-HAV positive. Only 1.1 percent of persons tested were positive for hepatitis B markers. Anti-HAV seroprevalence rates in both communities are similar to rates observed in developing countries. The surprisingly high anti-HAV seroprevalence among young children at Rosebud, where clinical hepatitis A had been virtually absent in the previous seven years, indicates that high-grade silent transmission was taking place during the interepidemic period.

Shaw, F E; Shapiro, C N; Welty, T K; Dill, W; Reddington, J; Hadler, S C

1990-01-01

45

Role of south Indian Ocean swells in modulating the north Indian Ocean wave climate through modelling and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementation and validation of a third generation wave model, Wavewatch III was used to study the characteristics of the south Indian ocean swells and their propagation in the north Indian Ocean. The NCEP reanalysis wind data (2.5° x 2.5°) has been used to generate the wind waves for the entire Indian Ocean during 2006 - 2007. The modelled wave parameters have been compared with measured buoy data and with merged altimeter data. The model results show good agreement with the buoy and altimeter data. A case study is carried out to study the propagation of the swells generated at the roaring 40°S in the Indian Ocean during May 2007. The "southern swell" occurred during May 2007 has been successfully reproduced in the wave model, which confirmed by the comparison of modelled significant wave heights with the merged altimeter significant wave heights. These swells were generated in the Atlantic ocean near the southern tip of South Africa and propagated towards the north Indian Ocean. These waves touches the Madagascar region and further hits the La Reunion islands after three days thus creating numerous damages near the islands. The magnitude of the swell is around 15m near the generation area and it reduces to around 6m near the La Reunion islands while propagating towards the north Indian Ocean. Further the swell energy is spataially distributed in the northern and southern Indian Ocean. The study reveals that the swells generated in the roaring forties and propagating in the SW/SSW direction influences more to Bay of Bengal than Arabian Sea. This occurs during pre-monsoon season primarily because large scale winds are weak in the north Indian Ocean during this period and hence swells from south Indian Ocean dominates at this time. The case of "southern swell" also happened to be at the same season. Further wave parameters were extracted at few locations in the northern Indian Ocean to study the impact of May 2007 swells on the wave climate. An average of around 1m wave height was noted at these locations during the normal period (in the absence of swells) whereas during the swell propagation, an increment of 1 to 2m was observed in the wave height. A constant wave height of 2m was observed at a point extracted in mid Bay of Bengal during the swell propagation. After the swells are completely dissipated, the wave heights are reduced back to 1m. The results presented in this paper prove that the propagation of the swells in the Indian Ocean coming from oceans other than Indian Ocean can be very well studied using the wind wave model.

Samiksha, S. V.; Vethamony, P.; Aboobacker, V. M.; Rashmi, R.

2012-04-01

46

Indian Gaming in South Dakota: Conflict in Public Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Legal gaming on Indian reservations has increased dramatically since the 1987 landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court in "California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians." In this case the Supreme Court upheld by a 6-3 vote the right under federal law for Indians to run gambling operations without state regulation in states where such…

Ackerman, William V.

2009-01-01

47

Cardiometabolic risk profile of rural South Indians undergoing coronary interventions  

PubMed Central

Background According to projected estimates, India will bear 60% of the world's cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden by the year 2020. CVD mortality rates are high in South India compared with the rest of India. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of behavioural, biological and metabolic risk factors in different age groups of rural South Indians undergoing coronary interventions under a governmental health insurance scheme. Methods This study includes 1294 patients who underwent coronary interventions. Age, gender and anthropometric measurements were recorded. History of hypertension, diabetes, smoking and family history of ischaemic heart disease was obtained from every subject. Physical activity was assessed using a General Practise physical activity questionnaire. Investigations like haemogram, blood urea, serum creatinine, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, lipid profile and echocardiography were carried out for all patients. Results Hypertension was found in 65% patients, 32.38% had diabetes mellitus, 41.65% were smokers (current and former), 37.17% had dyslipidemia, 31.06% had body mass index more than 25?kg/m, 27.04% were physically active, 37% had left ventricular dysfunction, and 8.57% had renal impairment ( table 1). Statistically significant differences were seen in the prevalence rates of different risk factors in the compared age groups (p=<0.05) except for hypertension and dyslipidemia (p=0.596 and 0.306). Conclusions Risks to health, as an area of study, has recently begun to receive attention in developing countries including India. Population-based strategies aimed at bringing down risk factor levels in the community can translate into major public health benefits.

Sriharibabu, Manne; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Kabir, Zubair

2012-01-01

48

Genetic Distance Analysis of Twenty-Two South American Indian Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extent of genic variability among 22 tribal groups of South American Indians in terms of net codon differences per locus has been studied on the basis of determinations on ten genetic systems. The possibility of more than one (other than the north-south route, considered by others) migrational pattern is discussed in the light of the existing genetic variability among the

Rafael Blanco; Ranajit Chakraborty

1975-01-01

49

Decadal increases in anthropogenic CO2 along 20°S in the South Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used high-quality data for dissolved inorganic carbon and related water properties in the Indian Ocean along 20°S (World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program line I3) and 24°S (I4) obtained 8 years apart (1995–2003\\/2004) to estimate decadal-scale increases of anthropogenic CO2 in the interior of the South Indian Ocean. Significant increases were detected to about 1800 m depth in the

Akihiko Murata; Yuichiro Kumamoto; Ken-ichi Sasaki; Shuichi Watanabe; Masao Fukasawa

2010-01-01

50

Inverted Y chromosome polymorphism in the Gujerati Muslim Indian population of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inverted Y chromosome has been found at a very high frequency in a Muslim Indian community living in the Johannesburg-Witwatersrand area of the Transvaal Province of South Africa: 8 of 141 (5.7%) retrospectively identified Indian males had an inv(Y)(p11.2q11.23) and all were of the Muslim faith. The inversion was found in 22 of 72 (30.5%) prospectively studied normal Muslim

R. Bernstein; A. Wadee; J. Rosendorff; A. Wessels; T. Jenkins

1986-01-01

51

Facial Indices of North and South Indian Adults: Reliability in Stature Estimation and Sexual Dimorphism  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Anthropological studies have document differences in craniofacial features as well as in body characteristics among different populations. The variations in the facial morphology arise through a differential growth and they help us in distinguishing one person from another. These are controlled by a number of factors which include genetic heritage, climate and environment in which we live. Very few researchers from India have worked on these facial features with respect to population and environment. The present work was undertaken to determine whether facial variations were subjected to sexual dimorphism. In addition, comparison of facial indices was made, in order to determine possible variations between south and north Indian populations. Methods: The sample consisted of 200 individuals, 100 each from north and south Indian regions. Various facial parameters were determined on the basis of international anatomical description and facial indices were calculated. Results: North Indian males and females had highest facial height and upper facial height. Facial width of south Indians was more as compared to that of north Indians in both sexes. Regression equation was calculated to compare the probable height with actual height. Conclusion: All the facial parameters and facial indices were found to be statistically highly significant and they showed inter-regional and gender variations. These indices will be beneficial in facial reconstruction surgeries, maxillofacial surgeries, and in forensic medicine, for estimating the stature and sex of an individual.

LC, Prasanna; S, Bhosale; AS, D'Souza; H, Mamatha; RH, Thomas; KS, Sachin

2013-01-01

52

Changes in Food Habits of South Indian Hindu Brahmin Immigrants in State College, PA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to understand the factors influencing changes in the food habits of south Indian Brahmin immigrants in State College, PA. Data was collected from participants (n = 28) using a semi-structured interview based on the PRECEDE framework, and participant observations. Analysis of the data used grounded theory generated themes highlighting their food acculturation experience. Adjusting in State

Meena Mahadevan; Dorothy Blair

2009-01-01

53

Population Growth and Sprawl on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, especially Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and agricultural areas of the reservation are undergoing a change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen

R. L. Campbell

2006-01-01

54

New caulerpenyne-derived metabolites of an Elysia sacoglossan from the South Indian coast.  

PubMed

Chemical analysis of the secondary metabolite pattern of the sacoglossan mollusc Elysia cf. expansa, collected along South Indian coasts, showed the presence of the typical Caulerpa-derived sesquiterpene caulerpenyne (1) and two new minor co- occurring metabolites, the compounds dihydrocaulerpenyne (4) and expansinol (5). The chemical characterization of these molecules, structurally related to 1, is reported. PMID:17971757

Ciavatta, M Letizia; Lopez Gresa, M Pilar; Gavagnin, Margherita; Manzo, Emiliano; Mollo, Ernesto; D'Souza, Lisette; Cimino, Guido

2006-10-25

55

Relationships between South African rainfall and SST anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has indicated the importance of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean for rainfall variability over South Africa. Here, these links are further explored via bandpass filtering of the rainfall and SST data in several bands on the interannual and interdecadal scale that are known to be significant for global climate variability. This procedure suggests

C. J. C. Reason; H. Mulenga

1999-01-01

56

Index and ring finger ratio—A new sex determinant in south Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of human remains is an imperative element of any medicolegal investigation, and a challenging task for forensic experts and physical anthropologists worldwide. Three hundred adult hands (150 males and 150 females) belonging to south Indian population were studied to investigate sexual dimorphism of the index and ring finger ratio. The index and ring finger ratio is derived by dividing

Tanuj Kanchan; G. Pradeep Kumar; Ritesh G. Menezes

2008-01-01

57

Sexual dimorphism of the index to ring finger ratio in South Indian adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex determination from prepubertal human remains is a challenge for forensic experts and physical anthropologists worldwide as definitive sexual traits are not manifested until after the full development of secondary sexual characters that appear during puberty. The research was undertaken in 350 South Indian adolescents to investigate sexual dimorphism of the index and ring finger ratio. The index finger length

Tanuj Kanchan; G. Pradeep Kumar; Ritesh G. Menezes; Prateek Rastogi; P. P. Jagadish Rao; Anand Menon; B. Suresh Kumar Shetty; Y. P. Raghavendra Babu; Francis N. P. Monteiro; Prashantha Bhagavath; Vinod C. Nayak

2010-01-01

58

Greybull Sandstone Petroleum Potential on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the ...

D. A. Lopez

2000-01-01

59

GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other

David A. Lopez

2000-01-01

60

Can't Buy Me Love: A Field Experiment Exploring the Tradeoff Between Income and Caste in the Indian Matrimonial Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to measure discriminatory preferences using a field experiment in an established matrimonial market in India. Indian marriages exhibit strong marital segregation along caste lines, and grooms typically advertise their income in matrimonial advertisements. This combination yields an ideal opportunity to measure discriminatory preferences in terms of foregone financial opportunities. We place matrimonial ads in a leading Bengali

Subhasish Dugar; Haimanti Bhattacharya; David Reiley

61

The effects of migration on the establishment of networks: caste disintegration and reformation among the Indians of Fiji.  

PubMed

"This article focuses on how migration auspices affect the formation of migrant networks and ethnic communities. Using ethnographic data and migration histories to focus on caste ¿reformation' in the subcommunities of the Indians of Fiji, the ability to reestablish and maintain subcaste group ¿extensions' in Fiji is shown as directly related to the migration auspices that originally established the community. By determining the characteristics of migrants, the reason for migrating, and the magnitude and duration of migration streams, migration auspices define a migration type. This migration type affects the strength and density of social ties present in migration streams. It also affects the strength and density of network ties that members of a migrant community can establish in a receiving society." PMID:12293998

Grieco, E M

1998-01-01

62

Generalized Potentiometric Surface of the Arikaree Aquifer, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Bennett County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Bennett County are located in southwest South Dakota. The Pine Ridge Indian Reservation includes all of Shannon County and the part of Jackson County south of the White River. Extensive Indian trust lands are in Bennett County. For purposes of this map, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and all of Bennett County are included in the study area (sheet 1). Ground water from wells and springs is the predominant source of public and domestic supply within the study area. The Arikaree aquifer is the largest source of ground water throughout this area. The Oglala Sioux Tribe is developing a ground-water management plan designed to ?preserve, protect and maintain the quality of ground water for living and future members and non-members of the Oglala Sioux Indian Tribe within the internal and external boundaries of the Pine Ridge Reservation? (Michael Catches Enemy, Oglala Sioux Tribe Natural Resources Regulatory Agency, oral commun., 2007). Hydrologic information about the Arikaree aquifer is important to managing this resource. In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began working in cooperation with the Oglala Sioux Tribe to develop a potentiometric map of the Arikaree aquifer in Jackson and Shannon Counties, with a primary component of that effort being a well inventory in those counties. In 2003, the study area was expanded to include Bennett County.

Carter, Janet M.; Heakin, Allen J.

2007-01-01

63

Polymorphism of properdin factor B in South African Negroid, Indian and Colored populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properdin factor B phenotypes were determined in 7 Bantu speaking Negroid populations, 1 Indian, and 1 Colored population of South Africa in a total of 1258 individuals. In the Negroid populations allele frequencies were: BfF 0.655, BfS 0.282, BfRARE 0.063, in the Indian population: BfF 0.322, BfS 0.645, BfRARE 0.033, and in the Colored population: BfF 0.513, BfS 0.435, BfRARE

G. Mauff; F. D. Gauchel; H. W. Hitzeroth

1976-01-01

64

Mesozoic Sequence Magnetic Anomalies in the South of Corad Rise, the Southern Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Indian Ocean is key area for understanding the fragmentation process of the Gondwana. However, tectonic history in the Southern Indian Ocean still remains less well-defined because of the sparse observations in this area. The R/V Hakuho-maru cruise KH-07-4 Leg3 were conducted to understand the tectonic history related to the Gondwana breakup in the Southern Indian Ocean between Cape Town, South Africa, and off Lutzow-Holm Bay, Antarctica. Total intensity and vector geomagnetic field measurements as well as swath bathymetry mapping were collected during the cruise. Magnetic anomaly data have been collected along WNW-ESE trending inferred from satellite gravity anomalies just to the south of Conrad Rise. We have also collected magnetic anomaly data along NNE-SSW trending lineaments from satellite gravity anomaly data between the south of the Conrad Rise and off Lutzow-Holm Bay. Magnetic anomalies with amplitude of about 500 nT, originating from normal and reversed magnetization of oceanic crust are detected along the WNW-ESE trending structures just to the south of Conrad Rise. Those magnetic anomalies most likely indicate Mesozoic magnetic anomaly sequence, Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies with amplitude of about 300 nT are also observed along the NNE-SSW trending lineaments between the south of the Conrad Rise and off Lutzow-Holm Bay. Oceanic crusts formed during Cretaceous normal polarity superchron are found in both profiles, although magnetic anomaly C34 has been identified just to the north of the Conrad Rise. These suggest the extinct spreading axes in the south of Conrad Rise and the two different seafloor spreading systems were active around Cretaceous normal polarity superchron between the south of the Conrad Rise and off Lutzow-Holm Bay. These provide new constraints for the fragmentation process of the Gondwana.

Nogi, Y.; Ikehara, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Kameo, K.; Katsuki, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kita, S.

2009-04-01

65

The Indian Ocean experiment: widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution levels were observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean toward the Intertropical Convergence Zone at about 6 degrees S. We show that agricultural burning and especially biofuel use enhance carbon monoxide concentrations. Fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning cause a high aerosol loading. The growing pollution in this region gives rise to extensive air quality degradation with local, regional, and global implications, including a reduction of the oxidizing power of the atmosphere. PMID:11161214

Lelieveld, J; Crutzen, P J; Ramanathan, V; Andreae, M O; Brenninkmeijer, C M; Campos, T; Cass, G R; Dickerson, R R; Fischer, H; de Gouw, J A; Hansel, A; Jefferson, A; Kley, D; de Laat, A T; Lal, S; Lawrence, M G; Lobert, J M; Mayol-Bracero, O L; Mitra, A P; Novakov, T; Oltmans, S J; Prather, K A; Reiner, T; Rodhe, H; Scheeren, H A; Sikka, D; Williams, J

2001-02-01

66

Anthropometric Analysis of Palpebral Fissure Dimensions and its Position in South Indian Ethnic Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives The morphology and anatomical relationship of periorbital features vary according to age, sex and ethnicity. Standard database regarding periorbital region is available for other ethnic groups. Since there is no data available in the literature, specifically for south Indian ethnic adults, the present study was carried out to determine the normal average values for South Indian ethnic population related to gender. Methods Anthropometric measurements of both eyes were done on standardized frontal view photograph of 200 South Indian ethnic adults aged 18 to 26 years. Parameters included were palpebral fissure width (PFW), palpebral fissure height (PFH), palpebral fissure inclination (PFI), outercanthal distance (OCD), interpupillary distance (IPD), intercanthal distance (ICD) and comparisons were made between the genders using the independent t test. Results Significant sexual dimorphism was noted in the given parameters. Palpebral fissure width (male: 31.08 mm; female: 29.90 mm), palpebral fissure inclination (male: 5.053°; female: 6.102°), outercanthal distance (male: 95.55 mm; female: 92.44 mm) and interpupillary distance (male: 66.72 mm; female: 62.59 mm). The palpebral fissure height (male: 11.30 mm; female: 11.58 mm) and intercanthal distance (male: 34.27 mm; female: 33.41 mm) showed no significant sexual differences. Conclusion Statistically significant differences were found between South Indian ethnic males and female in certain key parameters. The present study suggests that ethnicity and gender should be considered in orbital surgery. To individualize the treatment planning and diagnosis, it is important for the surgeons to have knowledge of these local norms.

Vasanthakumar, P.; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Mohandas

2013-01-01

67

Sexual dimorphism of the index to ring finger ratio in South Indian adolescents.  

PubMed

Sex determination from prepubertal human remains is a challenge for forensic experts and physical anthropologists worldwide as definitive sexual traits are not manifested until after the full development of secondary sexual characters that appear during puberty. The research was undertaken in 350 South Indian adolescents to investigate sexual dimorphism of the index and ring finger ratio. The index finger length (IFL) and the ring finger length (RFL) were measured in millimeters in each hand and the index and ring finger ratio was computed by dividing the index finger length by the ring finger length. Mean RFL was greater than mean IFL in both males and females. Mean RFL was significantly higher in males. The index and ring finger ratio showed a statistically significant difference between males and females (p South Indian adolescents that may prove useful to determine the sex of an isolated hand when it is subjected for medicolegal examination. The study suggests that a ratio of 0.97 and less is suggestive of male sex, while a ratio of more than 0.97 is suggestive that the hand is of female origin among South Indian adolescents. PMID:20569949

Kanchan, Tanuj; Kumar, G Pradeep; Menezes, Ritesh G; Rastogi, Prateek; Rao, P P Jagadish; Menon, Anand; Shetty, B Suresh Kumar; Babu, Y P Raghavendra; Monteiro, Francis N P; Bhagavath, Prashantha; Nayak, Vinod C

2010-03-29

68

Magnetic Anomalies in the South of Corad Rise, the Southern Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor age estimated from magnetic anomalies in the Southern Indian Ocean are vital to understanding the fragmentation process of the Gondwana, but the seafloor age still remain less well-defined because of the sparse observations in this area. To understand the seafloor spreading history related to the Gondwana breakup, total intensity and vector geomagnetic field measurements as well as swath bathymetry mapping were conducted during the R/V Hakuho-maru cruise KH-07-4 Leg3 in the Southern Indian Ocean between Cape Town, South Africa, and off Lützow-Holm Bay, Antarctica. Magnetic anomaly data have been collected along WNW-ESE trending structures of unknown origin inferred from satellite gravity anomalies just to the south of Conrad Rise. We have also collected magnetic anomaly data along NNE-SSW trending lineaments from satellite gravity anomaly data between the south of the Conrad Rise and off Lützow-Holm Bay. Magnetic anomalies with amplitude of about 500 nT, originating from normal and reversed magnetization of oceanic crust, are detected along the WNW-ESE trending structures just to the south of Conrad Rise. These magnetic anomalies possibly belong to Mesozoic magnetic anomaly sequence and this shows the part of the oceanic crust just to the south of the Conrad Rise formed before the long Cretaceous normal polarity superchron although magnetic anomaly C34 has been identified just to the north of the Conrad Rise. Magnetic anomalies with amplitude of about 300 nT are also observed along the NNE-SSW trending lineaments between the south of the Conrad Rise and off Lützow-Holm Bay, and most likely indicate Mesozoic magnetic anomaly sequence. These suggest the extinct spreading axes in the south of Conrad Rise and complicated seafloor spreading history in this area.

Nogi, Y.; Ikehara, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Kameo, K.; Katsuki, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kita, S.

2008-12-01

69

Susceptibility of south Indian strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to tuberactinomycin.  

PubMed

A total of 114 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from sputum samples of 114 patients of pulmonary tuberculosis in south India, were coded and tested for their in vitro susceptibility to tuberactinomycin (Tum) incorporated in Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. Of these strains, 95 (83.3%) and 15 (13.2%) were susceptible to Tum at 25 and 50 mg/l respectively. Only 4 (3.5%) strains were inhibited at 100 mg/l or more. Of the 37 drug sensitive strains, 2 (5.4%) were not susceptible to Tum at 25 mg/l compared to 17 (22.1%) of 77 strains-resistant to one or more of antituberculosis drugs (P less than 0.02). The drug susceptibility pattern of the strains revealed that there was no significant association of resistance between Tum and streptomycin or rifampicin or ethambutol or ethionamide or isoniazid. However, 15 (53.6%) of 28 kanamycin (K) resistant strains were not susceptible to Tum at 25 mg/l. This cross resistance between Tum and K was further studied in 24 and 15 K sensitive and resistant strains respectively, by correlating their proportion resistance at 16 mg/l and it was found to have a significant positive correlation (r = 0.55; P less than 0.01). PMID:1506058

Selvakumar, N; Kumar, V; Acharyulu, G S; Rehman, F; Paramasivan, C N; Prabhakar, R

1992-05-01

70

Stochastic finite-fault modelling of strong earthquakes in Narmada South Fault, Indian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Narmada South Fault in the Indian peninsular shield region is associated with moderate-to-strong earthquakes. The prevailing hazard evidenced by the earthquake-related fatalities in the region imparts significance to the investigations of the seismogenic environment. In the present study, the prevailing seismotectonic conditions specified by parameters associated with source, path and site conditions are appraised. Stochastic finite-fault models are formulated for each scenario earthquake. The simulated peak ground accelerations for the rock sites from the possible mean maximum earthquake of magnitude M W 6.8 goes as high as 0.24 g while fault-rupture of magnitude M W 7.1 exhibits a maximum peak ground acceleration of 0.36 g. The results suggest that present hazard specification of Bureau of Indian Standards as inadequate. The present study is expected to facilitate development of ground motion models for deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the region.

Sengupta, P.

2012-06-01

71

3,360-Myr old gneisses from the South Indian Craton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliably dated continental crust older than 3,000 Myr is only known from restricted segments of cratons in southern Africa, Greenland-Labrador, and Minnesota (summarised in ref. 1). These rare Archaean nucleii are very important in constraining the timing and mechanism of the differentiation of continental material from the mantle. We report here preliminary Rb-Sr whole rock data for Archaean gneisses from the Gorur-Hassan area, South Indian Craton which yield the oldest age yet reported from the Indian sub continent (3,358+/-66 Myr) with a very unradiogenic initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.7000+/-0.0004) which implies that the igneous precursors of these gneisses were derived from a relatively Rb-depleted source within the mantle.

Beckinsale, R. D.

1980-01-01

72

Nutritional and antinutritional characteristics of seven South Indian wild legumes.  

PubMed

Seeds from seven species of wild legumes of the South India were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral profiles, amino acid profiles of total seed protein, in vitro protein digestibility, and certain antinutritional factors to assess their potential as alternative sources of protein crops. The major findings of the study were as follows: crude protein ranged from 20.3 to 35.0%, crude lipid 3.1-9.6%, crude fiber 5.9-12.1%, ash 2.7-5.1%, and carbohydrates 49.2-61.8%. Minerals viz., sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese occurred in the range 42.9-135.9, 556.2-1639.5, 304.5-572.2, 174.9-686.7, 98.4-947.8, 3.6-16.4, 0.2-1.2, 2.0-30.0, and 1.0-3.9 mg/100 g seed flour, respectively. Profiles of amino acids of total seed proteins detected in the present study revealed that levels of valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, isoleucine, and histidine of all the seven wild legume seed samples, threonine of Canavalia ensiformis and C. gladiata, leucine of Mucuna pruriens var. pruriens, and lysine of Cassia floribunda and C. obtusifolia were found to be higher than FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern. The in vitro protein digestibility of the legumes under study ranged from 63.39 to 83.32%. Antinutritional factors such as total free phenolics ranged from 0.41 to 5.96%, tannins from 0.04 to 0.60%, L-DOPA from 1.34 to 8.37% and trypsin inhibitor activity from 13.48 to 65.43 TIU/mg protein. The detected antinutritional factors probably have little nutritional significance if the seeds are properly processed. PMID:16021834

Vadivel, V; Janardhanan, K

2005-06-01

73

Potential for Agricultural Development on Six Indian Reservations in Montana and South Dakota. Fort Belknap Indian Reservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes a large amount of information on related resources, the existing situation, the development potential, and environmental considerations regarding agriculture on Indian trust lands of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation.

1977-01-01

74

Zonal propagation of kinetic energy and convection in the South China Sea and Indian monsoon regions in boreal summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zonal propagation of kinetic energy (KE) and convection in the South China Sea (SCS) and Indian summer monsoon areas are examined\\u000a in present study. Results suggest that the SCS and Indian summer monsoon prevailed regions (5–15°N) are dominated by the southwesterly\\u000a wind, however, the disturbances of KE at 850 hPa and convection are observed mainly coming from the western Pacific

Longxun Chen; Hui Gao; Jinhai He; Shiyan Tao; Zuhui Jin

2004-01-01

75

Establishment of Cephalometric Norms for the South Indian (Karnataka) Population Based on Burstone’s Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary aim  Variability is characteristic of different faces and facial types, and normative data based on one population group does not\\u000a represent all. Hence, this study was undertaken to establish skeletal cephalometric norms for the South Indian (Karnataka)\\u000a population utilizing the norms laid by Burstones’s analysis for Caucasians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The sample comprised of lateral cephalograms taken in natural head position of 100

K. V. ArunkumarViveka; Viveka Vardhan Reddy; David P. Tauro

2010-01-01

76

Aerosol size distributions in the north and south Indian ocean during the northeast monsoon season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of aerosol size distributions (3- to 1000-nm diameter) were made over the Indian Ocean (15°N, 75°E to 70°S, 11°E) during the onward (December 12, 1996 to January 6, 1997) and return (March 9 to April 5, 1997) cruises of the XVI Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctic. Observations show that during the January to April period, the environment over the Indian Ocean undergoes a transition from a relatively clean to a fairly polluted one. Our observations of the large concentrations and the North-to-South positive gradient of aerosol concentration over the northern Indian Ocean strongly support the transport of aerosols and trace gases with the seasonal northeasterly winds from the Indian subcontinent to the Indian Ocean. The results also indicate the production of new particles over the oceanic region by the gas-to-particle conversion processes. During this season, because of the persistent northeasterly winds and the shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to the Southern Hemisphere in this region, the air pollutants over the northern Indian Ocean are carried into the Southern Hemisphere with the cross-equatorial flow and reach up to the southern limit of the ITCZ. Some pockets of very high aerosol concentrations have been observed in and around the ITCZ. The nucleation mode particles are observed in great abundance up to 30°S. From the Indian coast to 5°N, aerosol particles are observed to have bimodal size distributions with a maximum in accumulation mode at 133-nm diameter and a minimum for nucleation/Aitken mode particles of <74 nm in diameter. The size distributions gradually change to trimodal ones with another minimum appearing for the coarse mode particles>422 nm in the 5°N-Equator belt and are generally trimodal in the Southern Hemisphere. Transport of the nucleation mode particles from the free troposphere to the marine boundary layer (MBL) associated with the large-scale subsidence and the subsequent North-to-South transport of these and continental aerosols with the seasonal northeasterly surface winds over the Indian Ocean is proposed to explain the high concentration of the nucleation mode particles observed up to the ITCZ. Size distributions change to Junge's power-law type in regions of high aerosol concentration inside the ITCZ. Comparatively small concentrations with almost uniform size distributions that are typical of the pristine air in the Southern Hemisphere are observed from 42°S to 56°S. Some high peaks in aerosol concentration that can be associated with the low-pressure systems that encircle Antarctica are observed in the 60-70°S latitudinal belt. Further, our observations strongly demonstrate the effect of wind direction on the land-to-ocean transport of the atmospheric aerosols.

Deshpande, C. G.; Kamra, A. K.

77

Oxygen isotope records of Globigerina bulloides across a north-south transect in the south-western Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along a north-south transect (9.69°N to 55.01°S) in the southwestern Indian Ocean during the Indian Pilot Expedition to Southern Ocean (PESO), the oxygen isotopic analysis of planktic foraminifera ( Globigerina bulloides) from 23 surface sediment samples was carried out to assess the relationship between isotopic composition of G. bulloides and the prevailing physical (seawater temperature and salinity) conditions of the ambient seawater. An increasing trend in the ?18O value is noticed towards higher latitude. Apparently such an increase in ?18O values is inversely related to the temperature changes along the transect. However, slight mismatch is observed at a few stations due to calcification out of optimum conditions or due to the salinity changes. The preliminary results of the present study, if extended to the subsurface sediments coupled with other parameters, may contribute to the reconstruction of the paleohydrography of the region, especially the position of various seawater fronts during the geologic past albeit with areal limitation.

Khare, Neloy; Chaturvedi, Subodh Kumar; Saraswat, Rajeev

2009-06-01

78

Index and ring finger ratio--a morphologic sex determinant in South-Indian children.  

PubMed

To investigate the sexual dimorphism of index and ring finger ratio in South Indian children. The index finger length (IFL) and the ring finger length (RFL) were measured in 350 subjects aged between 2 and 12 years using a steel measuring tape. The index and ring finger ratio was computed by dividing index finger length by ring finger length. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using SPSS, version 11.0. Mean RFL was greater than mean IFL in both males and females. The mean ring finger length was longer in males than females and mean index finger length longer in females than males. However, these sex differences observed for index and ring finger length were not significant in both hands. Statistically significant sex differences were observed from the derived index and ring finger ratio. The mean index and ring finger ratio was found to be higher in females than males. Significant correlation was found between age and index and ring finger lengths. Index and ring finger ratio however, did not show any significant correlation with age. This study suggests that among South-Indian children, the index and ring finger ratio of 0.97 and less is indicative of male, and a ratio of more than 0.97 is indicative of female sex. The ratio can be a useful sex indicator irrespective of the age of the individual. PMID:20369311

Kanchan, Tanuj; Pradeep Kumar, G

2010-04-06

79

RAET1/ULBP alleles and haplotypes among Kolla South American Indians.  

PubMed

NK cell cytolysis of infected or transformed cells can be mediated by engagement of the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D with one of eight known ligands (MICA, MICB and RAET1E-N) and is essential for innate immunity. As well as diversity of NKG2D ligands having the same function, allelic polymorphism and ethnic diversity has been reported. We previously determined HLA class I allele and haplotype frequencies in Kolla South American Indians who inhabit the northwest provinces of Argentina, and were found to have a similar restricted allelic profile to other South American Indians and novel alleles not seen in other tribes. In our current study, we characterized retinoic acid early transcription-1 (RAET1) alleles by sequencing 58 unrelated Kolla people. Only three of six RAET1 ligands were polymorphic. RAET1E was most polymorphic with five alleles in the Kolla including an allele we previously described, RAET1E*009 (allele frequency (AF) 5.2%). Four alleles of RAET1L were also found and RAET1E*002 was most frequent (AF=78%). Potential functional diversity only affected RAET1E and RAET1L, which were in linkage disequilibrium indicating a selective advantage. The results suggest that limited RAET1 polymorphism in the Kolla was not detrimental to human survival but still necessary and may affect disease susceptibility or severity. PMID:23416094

Cox, Steven T; Arrieta-Bolaños, Esteban; Pesoa, Susanna; Vullo, Carlos; Madrigal, J Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

2013-02-13

80

Annotated Bibliography of South Dakota, Pioneer, and Indian Fiction in the Youth Collection of the Learning Resources Lab, I. D. Weeks Library, University of South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography focuses on fiction for children and young adults that is concerned with three subject areas: South Dakota, pioneers, and American Indian culture. The publication dates of these titles span the 1930s to the late 1980s. Entries are listed alphabetically by author and include title, publisher, date of publication, an…

Miller, Margaret B., Comp.

81

Rural Sprawl and the Impact of Human Land Use on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, specifically Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and communities of the reservation are undergoing change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent

R. Campbell; T. Bennett

2005-01-01

82

(Un)settled states: Indian Ocean passages, performative belonging and restless mobility in post?apartheid South African fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of post?apartheid literary works revisit nineteenth? to early twentieth?century Indian Ocean passages. Bringing into visibility South Africa’s other ocean – until recently largely occluded by the conceptual bedazzlement of the black Atlantic – they unsettle some of the paradigms through which it has been imagined. This article explores five such novels, which articulate or critique various citizenship claims

Meg Samuelson

2010-01-01

83

Urban governance, participation and the voice of the poor in South African and Indian cities - research agenda for a comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea for this comparative project emerged out o f a one year international programme funded by French Research Institutes abroad (2007), on the theme of 'Democratic Transformation in Emerging Countries'3. The coordinators of one of the South African projects (C.Bénit-Gbaffou) and of the Indian project (S. Tawa Lama- Rewal), who worked on very similar topics, namely t he place

Claire Bénit-Gbaffou; Stéphanie Tawa Lama-Rewal

84

Hydrothermal circulation and subsidence of ocean basins : a case study from the South-East Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR) flanks between 105° E and 130° E are characterized by anomalously low subsidence rates, less than about 280 m\\/ sqrt(Ma) [Hayes and Kane, JGR, 1994]. While individual estimates of the upper mantle temperature variations below the SEIR axis may vary significantly from one study to the other, all geophysical (axial morphology, seismology and geoid) and

G. B. Louis; F. Jean; C. R. James; L. Cinthia; A. Delphine

2003-01-01

85

Relationships between cloud condensation nuclei spectra and aerosol particles on a south-north transect of the Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do anthropogenic emissions affect cloud microphysical properties? One parameter needed to answer the preceding question is a link between the aerosol number distribution and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) supersaturation spectrum for polluted and unpolluted air masses. On a south-north cruise in the Indian Ocean in March of 1998, we found that measured CCN spectra and CCN spectra calculated from

Will Cantrell; Glenn Shaw; Caroline Leck; Lenart Granat; Hélène Cachier

2000-01-01

86

The impact of advective transport by the South Indian Ocean Countercurrent on the Madagascar plankton bloom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on ten years (1998-2007) of satellite ocean color data we analyze the spatiotemporal patterns in the seasonal Madagascar plankton bloom with respect to the advection of the recently discovered Southern Indian Ocean Countercurrent (SICC). In maps of Finite-time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) and Finite-Time Zonal Drift (FTZD) computed from altimetry derived velocities we observe a narrow zonal jet that starts at ˜25°S at the southern tip of Madagascar, an important upwelling region, and extends to the east further than the largest plankton blooms (˜2500 km). In bloom years, the jet coincides with large parts of the northern boundary of the plankton bloom, acting as a barrier to meridional transport. Our findings suggest that advection is an important and so far underestimated mechanism for the eastward propagation and the extent of the plankton bloom. This supports the hypothesis of a single nutrient source south of Madagascar.

Huhn, F.; von Kameke, A.; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Beron-Vera, F. J.

2012-03-01

87

Unusual lithospheric structure and evolutionary pattern of the cratonic segments of the South Indian shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Indian shield, characterised by several prominent geological and geophysical features, can be divided into three distinct tectonic segments: Western Dharwar craton (WDC), Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC) and Southern Granulite terrain (SGT). With the exception of WDC, the entire crust beneath EDC and SGT has been remobilized several times since their formation during the mid- to late Archeans (3.0-2.5 Ga). In order to understand the evolutionary history of these segments, a multiparametric geological and geophysical study has been made which indicates that the south Indian shield, characterized by a reduced heat flow of 23-38 mW/m2 has a much thinner (88-163 km) lithosphere compared to ~200-450 km found in other global shields. In the EDC-SGT terrain, high velocity upper crust is underlain by considerably low mantle velocity with a thick high conductive/low velocity zone sandwiched at mid crustal level. Our study reveals that the entire EDC region is underlain by granulite facies rocks with a density of about 2.85 to 3.16 g/cm3 at a shallow depth of about 8 km in the southern part and at even shallower depth of about 1 to 2 km below the Hyderabad granitic region in the north. Cratonic mantle lithosphere beneath EDC may contain a highly conductive, anisotropic and hydrous metasomatic zone between the depth of 90 and 105 km where estimated temperatures are in the range of 850-975°C. It is likely that before the early Proterozoic, the entire south Indian shield was a coherent crustal block which subsequently got segmented due to persistent plume-induced episodic thermal reactivations during the last 2.7 Ga. These reactivations led to self destruction of cratonic roots giving rise to negative buoyancy at deeper levels which may have been responsible for crustal remobilisations, followed by regional uplifting and erosion of once substantially thick greenstone belts. Consequently, the crustal column beneath the EDC has become highly evolved and now corresponds closely to SGT at depth.

Agrawal, P. K.; Pandey, O. P.

2004-02-01

88

Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe) status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR). The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of 57Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption.

Kalasuramath, Suneeta; Kurpad, Anura V.; Thankachan, Prashanth

2013-01-01

89

Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic structure, affinities, and diversity of the 1 billion Indians hold important keys to numerous unanswered questions regarding the evolution of human populations and the forces shaping contemporary patterns of genetic variation. Although there have been several recent studies of South Indian caste groups, North Indian caste groups, and South Indian Muslims using Y-chromosomal markers, overall, the Indian population has still not been well studied compared to other geographical populations. In particular, no genetic study has been conducted on Shias and Sunnis from North India. Aim This study aims to investigate genetic variation and the gene pool in North Indians. Subjects and methods A total of 32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins, Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped. Results Three distinct lineages were revealed based upon 13 haplogroups. The first was a Central Asian lineage harbouring haplogroups R1 and R2. The second lineage was of Middle-Eastern origin represented by haplogroups J2*, Shia-specific E1b1b1, and to some extent G* and L*. The third was the indigenous Indian Y-lineage represented by haplogroups H1*, F*, C* and O*. Haplogroup E1b1b1 was observed in Shias only. Conclusion The results revealed that a substantial part of today’s North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers, suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. The presence of haplogroup E in Shias, first reported in this study, suggests a genetic distinction between the two Indo Muslim sects. The findings of the present study provide insights into prehistoric and early historic patterns of migration into India and the evolution of Indian populations in recent history.

Zhao, Zhongming; Khan, Faisal; Borkar, Minal; Herrera, Rene; Agrawal, Suraksha

2009-01-01

90

The representation of the South Tropical Atlantic teleconnection to the Indian Ocean in the AR4 coupled models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of recent papers showed that sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the south equatorial tropical Atlantic modulate\\u000a the interannual variability of the African and Indian monsoon rainfall. Physically this teleconnection can be explained by\\u000a a simple Gill-Matsuno mechanism. In this work, the output from five different models chosen within the CMIP3 (Coupled Model\\u000a Intercomparison Project version 3) ensemble

Annalisa Bracco; Fred Kucharski

2011-01-01

91

Blood pressure, arterial compliance, and left ventricular mass: no relation to small size at birth in south Indian adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo determine whether reduced fetal growth leads to raised blood pressure, reduced arterial compliance, and increased left ventricular mass in an Indian population.DESIGNA retrospective cohort study of men and women (age range 40–61 years) whose weight, length, and head circumference at birth were recorded.SETTINGThe Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, South India.SUBJECTS435 men and women born in the hospital between 1934 and

K Kumaran; C H D Fall; C N Martyn; M Vijayakumar; C Stein; R Shier

2000-01-01

92

Prevalence of Depression in a Large Urban South Indian Population --- The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (Cures - 70)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn India there are very few population based data on prevalence of depression. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression in an urban south Indian population.Methods and FindingsSubjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES), involving 26,001 subjects randomly recruited from 46 of the 155 corporation wards of Chennai (formerly Madras) city

Subramani Poongothai; Rajendra Pradeepa; Anbhazhagan Ganesan; Viswanathan Mohan; Landon Myer

2009-01-01

93

Cast the Net a Little Wider: Australian Aid in the South Pacific  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the development of Australia's bilateral aid program to higher education in the South Pacific, specifically at the University of the South Pacific (USP). The premise is primarily historical, focusing on the important decades of USP's expansion and Australian aid policy development in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. This article…

Cassity, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

94

Cast the Net a Little Wider: Australian Aid in the South Pacific  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the development of Australia's bilateral aid program to higher education in the South Pacific, specifically at the University of the South Pacific (USP). The premise is primarily historical, focusing on the important decades of USP's expansion and Australian aid policy development in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. This article…

Cassity, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

95

Zone Based Hybrid Feature Extraction Algorithm for Handwritten Numeral Recognition of South Indian Scripts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is a multi-lingual multi script country, where eighteen official scripts are accepted and have over hundred regional languages. In this paper we propose a zone based hybrid feature extraction algorithm scheme towards the recognition of off-line handwritten numerals of south Indian scripts. The character centroid is computed and the image (character/numeral) is further divided in to n equal zones. Average distance and Average angle from the character centroid to the pixels present in the zone are computed (two features). Similarly zone centroid is computed (two features). This procedure is repeated sequentially for all the zones/grids/boxes present in the numeral image. There could be some zones that are empty, and then the value of that particular zone image value in the feature vector is zero. Finally 4*n such features are extracted. Nearest neighbor classifier is used for subsequent classification and recognition purpose. We obtained 97.55 %, 94 %, 92.5% and 95.2 % recognition rate for Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam numerals respectively.

Rajashekararadhya, S. V.; Ranjan, P. Vanaja

96

Associations of Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis in a South Indian patient population  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to look for any possible associations in 58 consecutive cases of Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI) in a South Indian patient population. Fifty-eight consecutive cases (59 eyes) of FHI underwent a detailed ocular and systemic evaluation. Routine laboratory investigations for uveitis including serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for toxoplasmosis (IgG and IgM) were done in all the cases. Syndrome Evaluation System comprising of multiplex nucleic acid amplification and signature specific hybridization on the aqueous fluid was done in all 59 eyes for herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results were statistically assessed using the SPSS (version 15) package. Results Thirty-three males and 25 females with FHI were included in the study. Systemic sarcoidosis was seen in two cases. Serological tests failed to confirm an association with toxoplasmosis in all the cases. Aqueous fluid analysis showed positivity only to HSV (one case), CMV (one case), and chikungunya virus (one case). Conclusions We do see associations of sarcoidosis, HSV, and CMV in FHI in our patient populations as well. The detection of chikungunya virus in a patient with FHI in our series adds to the list of associations with FHI.

2013-01-01

97

The Morphology, Structure and Origin of Seamounts on the South-West Indian Ocean Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South-West Indian Ridge (SWIR) between longitude 46 and 57° East is an ultra-slow spreading (~16 mm/a) mid-ocean ridge system with a highly oblique (>50°) spreading direction and a large number of closely spaced transform faults. Previous swath bathymetry surveys onboard R/V Dr. Fridtjof Nansen in 2009 show that the ridge crest is characterised by a number of irregularly shaped seamounts which rise about 2500 m above the mean depth of the surrounding seafloor. However, the origin of these seamounts and whether they reflect passive cracking of the lithosphere or deep mantle processes is not clear. In November/December, 2011 we re-surveyed 5 of these seamounts onboard RRS James Cook using an EM120 swath bathymetry system, a Lacoste-Romberg air-sea gravimeter and a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Preliminary results show that the seamounts are highly fractured, with fault trends parallel and orthogonal to the spreading direction. There is evidence of both growth and collapse structures, including head scars, chutes and debris flows. We present here a preliminary analysis of the morphology, gravity field and rock sample data and its implications for tectonics, mass wasting and eruptive processes at young seamounts that have formed in an active extensional setting.

Muller, L. A.; Watts, A. B.; JC066 shipboard scientific party

2012-04-01

98

Longitudinal trends in physical activity patterns in selected urban south Indian school children  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: There are very few studies describing the pattern of physical activity of children in India. This study was carried out to document patterns of physical activity in south Indian school children aged 8 to 15 yr and examine changes over a one year period. Methods: Physical activity was assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaires at baseline (n=256) and at follow up (n=203) in 2006 and 2007. Frequency and duration of each activity was recorded and metabolic equivalents (MET) assigned. Sedentary activity included activities with MET < 1.5, and moderate-to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with >3.0. For each activity, daily duration, intensity (MET), and the product of the two (MET-minutes) were computed. Children were categorized by age group, gender and socio-economic status. Height and weight were measured. Results: At baseline, sedentary activity was higher in children aged >11 yr, while intensity of MVPA was higher in boys than girls. Over one year, physical activity at school significantly decreased (P<0.001). There was also a significant decrease in MVPA MET-min (P<0.001) with interaction effects of age group (P<0.001) and gender (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: There was a significant decline in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over a single year follow up, largely due to a decrease in physical activity at school. There appears to be a gap between State educational policies that promote physical well-being of school-going children and actual practice.

Swaminathan, Sumathi; Selvam, Sumithra; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V.; Vaz, Mario

2011-01-01

99

GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone. With continued transgression, the Greybull fluvial sand graded upward into marginal marine (probably estuarine) sand (upper Greybull) and finally was capped by marine shale and the Fall River Sandstone. Subsurface mapping, incorporated with surface data, has revealed five major Greybull channels crossing the Crow Reservation. The Greybull Sandstone is a proven petroleum reservoir in the Crow Reservation region. Greybull combination traps require the presence of channel sandstone as well as structural closure. With sparse reservation well control, subsurface structural and isopach maps are highly interpretive. Three potential Greybull exploration leads were identified where possible structural closures are coincident with mapped Greybull channels: the Little Woody, Woody Dome, and Crow Agency prospects. Of these, the Crow Agency prospect was confirmed by a significant soil-gas anomaly and appears to have the greatest probability of having trapped a hydrocarbon accumulation.

David A. Lopez

2000-12-14

100

Lack of association of Lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene polymorphisms with intracranial aneurysm in a south Indian population.  

PubMed

Intracranial aneurysm (IA) accounts for 85 % of haemorrhagic stroke and is mainly caused due to weakening of arterial wall. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a cuproenzyme involved in cross linking structural proteins collagen and elastin, thus providing structural stability to artery. Using a case-control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether the variants in LOX gene flanking the two LD block, can increase risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. SNPs were genotyped by fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR (KASPar) chemistry. We selected 200 radiologically confirmed aneurysmal cases and 235 ethnically and age and gender matched controls from the Dravidian Malayalam speaking population of South India. We observed marked interethnic differences in the genotype distribution of LOX variants when compared to Japanese and African populations. However, there was no significant association with any of the LOX variants with IA. This study also could not observe any significant role of LOX polymorphisms in influencing IA either directly or indirectly through its confounding factors such as hypertension and gender in South Indian population. PMID:24065528

Sathyan, Sanish; Koshy, Linda; Sarada Lekshmi, K R; Easwer, H V; Premkumar, S; Alapatt, Jacob P; Nair, Suresh; Bhattacharya, R N; Banerjee, Moinak

2013-09-25

101

Village division in lowland South America: The case of the Bakairí Indians of central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Brazilian Indian village divided into several settlements during the 1980s. In this article, the political ecology approach is used to account for the process whereby this occurred. Data on ecology, subsistence practices, demography, and regional dynamics are presented. Analysis of results explores the articulation between shifts in population levels both in the region and in the Indian reservation, on

Debra Picchi I

1995-01-01

102

Risk factors for myocardial infarction among low socioeconomic status South Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As longevity increases, cases of myocardial infarction (MI) are likely to be more. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major global health problem reaching epidemic proportions in the Indian subcontinent, also among low socio-economic status (SES) and thin individuals. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to elicit risk factors for MI among low SES Southern Indians and to find out

Ramachandran Meenakshisundaram; Dipti Agarwal; Chinnaswamy Rajendiran; Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian

2010-01-01

103

Peopling of South Asia: investigating the caste–tribe continuum in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In recent years, mtDNA and Y chromosome studies in- volving human populations from South Asia and the rest of the world have revealed new insights about the peopling of the world by anatomically modern humans during the late Pleistocene, some 40,000-60,000 years ago, over the southern coastal route from Africa. Mole- cular studies and archaeological record are both largely

Gyaneshwer Chaubey; Mait Metspalu; Toomas Kivisild; Richard Villems

2007-01-01

104

Sexual risk behaviors among HIV-infected South Indian couples in the HAART era: implications for reproductive health and HIV care delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines sexual behaviors among HIV-infected Indians in primary care, where access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has recently increased. Between January and April 2008, we assessed the sexual behaviors of 247 HIV-infected South Indians in care. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of being in a HIV-seroconcordant primary relationship, being sexually active, and

Kartik K. Venkatesh; A. K. Srikrishnan; Steven A. Safren; Elizabeth W. Triche; E. Thamburaj; Lakshmi Prasad; Mark N. Lurie; M. Suresh Kumar; N. Kumarasamy; Suniti Solomon; Kenneth H. Mayer

2011-01-01

105

Structure and early history of the Labuan Basin South Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent multichannel seismic reflection data from the Labuan Basin, in the Southern Indian Ocean, are used to reevaluate older, single channel data from this region. Together, they throw light on the structure and evolution of this basin, situated between the older than 100 Ma Southern Kerguelen Plateau and the younger than 43 Ma Australian-Antarctic Basin. The Labuan Basin is a deep, extensive basement depression, more than 350,000 km2 in area, located adjacent to the eastern margin of the Southern Kerguelen Plateau. In contrast to the nearby Kerguelen Plateau, no prominent reflectors are observed within the basement of the Labuan Basin. This suggests a different mechanism of formation from that of the Kerguelen Plateau, which is believed to have been formed by thick sequences of large lava flows. The basement surface of most of the Labuan Basin is presently quite rough, as the result of a tectonic event which created prominent tilted block structures and turned it into a large northwest-southeast trending syncline. There is a 1-1.5 km elevation difference between the Labuan Basin and the Australian-Antarctic Basin created at the Southeast Indian Ridge, as well as a large difference in sedimentary thickness between them, indicating that the Labuan Basin is significantly older. The boundary of the Labuan Basin with the Kerguelen Plateau is generally a steep and somewhat linear feature which appears to be of tectonic origin: it seems to result from two extensive tectonic episodes, dated at 96 Ma and 75-68 Ma, associated with the prerift phase of plate breakup between Australia and Antarctica. The basement of the Labuan Basin was created 130-100 Ma ago at about the same time than the Kerguelen Plateau. An extensive tectonic episode, to the south of the Labuan Basin, initiated the formation of the boundary between the Southern Kerguelen Plateau and the Labuan Basin. This tectonic episode could be linked to the beginning of seafloor spreading between Australia and Antarctica 96 Ma ago. Sediments were regularly deposited in the basin until 75-68 Ma, at which time an important extensional tectonic event occurred. It involved two large northwest-southeast uplifts; one, centered on the Kerguelen Plateau, affected the western part of the Labuan Basin while the other, of which only the western half is observed, affected the eastern part of the Labuan Basin. This tectonic episode seems to correspond to the prerifting episode leading to the breakup between the Kerguelen Plateau-Labuan Basin and Broken Ridge-Diamantina Zone at 43 Ma. After this tectonic episode, the sediments of the postuplift megasequence filled topographic lows formed by the normal faults and the tilted blocks. The Diamantina Zone, which prior to 43 Ma was continuous with the Labuan Basin, can be expected to have a similar tectonic history. In particular, the rough basement of the Diamantina Zone can be due to postformation tectonism rather than to slow spreading as previously suggested.

Rotstein, Yair; Munschy, Marc; Schlich, Roland; Hill, Peter J.

1991-03-01

106

The register of "complaint": psychiatric diagnosis and the discourse of grievance in the south Indian mental health encounter.  

PubMed

In the language of the medical file, "complaint" refers to the symptoms and ailments reported by the patient. In this article, I draw on ethnographic fieldwork conducted between 2004 and 2007 in the mental healthcare setting in South India to argue that the typology of "complaint" and the dialogic exchanges involved in its production mark a far wider catchment area for the allegations and grievances that circulate between patient, kin, clinician, and observing anthropologist. I propose the notion of the register of complaint as a hermeneutic for grappling with the emotionally charged, interactional processes of accusation, arbitration, and reportage that drive clinical modes of inquiry and evaluation in the South Indian mental health encounter. Ethnographic case studies suggest that grievance and accusation command both a vital directive force and evidentiary role in the social, moral, and emotional work of psychiatric diagnosis. [complaint, diagnosis, kinship and family, emotion, PMID:22905438

Chua, Jocelyn Lim

2012-06-01

107

Shear wave anisotropy of the Godavari rift in the south Indian shield: Rift signature or APM related strain?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave splitting analysis using SKS, SKKS and S waveforms recorded at eight broadband seismic stations within and in the vicinity of the Proterozoic Godavari rift system in the south Indian shield yielded 104 new measurements of azimuthal anisotropy. Our results reveal that the delay times lie between 0.70 and 1.20 s, similar to the previous measurements from the Indian shield. The orientations of fast polarization directions at most of the stations within and beyond the rift are generally aligned orthogonal to the rift axis, consistent with asthenospheric flow in the extension direction. Absence of clear evidences for a preferentially thinner lithosphere beneath the Godavari rift or anomalously high heat flow values coupled with the fact that the NE oriented fast polarization directions are also close to the APM direction of the Indian plate, result in an ambiguity in interpreting the results as being due to strain related to plate motion or signatures of rifting. A thin lithosphere beneath the rift suggests that the source of anisotropy is likely to be in the asthenosphere. In such a scenario, either the mechanism of (1) active rifting where the asthenospheric flow drives the rifting or (2) passive rifting where mantle flow responds to lithospheric thinning caused by far field stresses or (3) present day APM related strain appear to be the plausible mechanisms for forging the observed anisotropy.

Kumar, Narendra; Kumar, M. Ravi; Singh, Arun; Solomon Raju, P.; Purnachandra Rao, N.

2010-08-01

108

Observation of oligotrophic gyre variability in the south Indian Ocean: Environmental forcing and biological response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expansion of oligotrophic ocean gyre and widespread reduction of phytoplankton biomass will have severe environmental and ecological effect since phytoplankton accounts for half of the global primary production, which forms the trophic base for marine ecosystem. Analysis of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) datasets (1998-2010) suggested significant expansion of South Indian Ocean oligotrophic gyre (SOG) at average annual rate of 4.46%/yr (r=0.66, p=0.013). The annual trend of SOG expansion was accompanied with the significantly declining trend of Chl-a concentration (-1.36%/yr, or -0.0007±0.0001 mg m-3/yr, r=0.76, p=0.002). Environmental parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST) and meridional wind stress (?y) were found to be the most accountable factors controlling the variability of Chl-a/gyre area. Nevertheless, SST was the dominant predictor of biological response (explains more than 60% of Chl-a variability). This study suggests that the observed trend of SOG expansion and accompanied decline in Chl-a concentration is principally due to SST warming (0.05±0.01 °C/yr, r=0.83, p=0.0008) and weakening of wind stress (?) mainly meridional wind stress component, ?y (-0012 Pa/yr, r=0.86, p=0.004). Additionally, the SST trend map showed more than 80% of the SOG area is warming significantly under circumstance of overall gain of net heat flux by the sea surface. Analysis of these climate variables suggests decreased mixing and enhanced stratification in the SOG which reduces nutrient supply to sunlit zone; consequently resulting in low phytoplankton biomass, and gyre expansion. In addition, the sea-level rise observed in SOG (0.48±0.05 cm/yr) is much higher than the global estimates (0.18±0.05 cm/yr) reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, 2007. The variability in Chl-a concentration was also studied with respect to leading climate oscillators.

Jena, Babula; Sahu, Shanghamitra; Avinash, Kumar; Swain, Debadatta

2013-10-01

109

Aerosol size distributions in the north and south Indian ocean during the northeast monsoon season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of aerosol size distributions (3- to 1000-nm diameter) were made over the Indian Ocean (15°N, 75°E to 70°S, 11°E) during the onward (December 12, 1996 to January 6, 1997) and return (March 9 to April 5, 1997) cruises of the XVI Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctic. Observations show that during the January to April period, the environment over

C. G. Deshpande; A. K. Kamra

2002-01-01

110

Casting Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

Wright, Michael D.; And Others

1992-01-01

111

Population structure of humpback whales from their breeding grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans.  

PubMed

Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively). Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region. PMID:19812698

Rosenbaum, Howard C; Pomilla, Cristina; Mendez, Martin; Leslie, Matthew S; Best, Peter B; Findlay, Ken P; Minton, Gianna; Ersts, Peter J; Collins, Timothy; Engel, Marcia H; Bonatto, Sandro L; Kotze, Deon P G H; Meÿer, Mike; Barendse, Jaco; Thornton, Meredith; Razafindrakoto, Yvette; Ngouessono, Solange; Vely, Michel; Kiszka, Jeremy

2009-10-08

112

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism (G894T) and diabetes mellitus (type II) among South Indians.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to find out whether the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) G894T single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in South Indian (Tamil) population. A total number of 260 subjects comprising 100 type 2 diabetic mellitus patients and 160 healthy individuals with no documented history of diabetes were included for the study. DNA was isolated, and eNOS G894T genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme analysis using Ban II. The genotype distribution in patients and controls were compatible with the Hardy-Weinberg expectations (P > 0.05). Odds ratio indicates that the occurrence of mutant genotype (GT/TT) was 7.2 times (95% CI = 4.09-12.71) more frequent in the cases than in controls. Thus, the present study demonstrates that there is an association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (G894T) polymorphism with diabetes mellitus among South Indians. PMID:22110783

Angeline, T; Krithiga, H R; Isabel, W; Asirvatham, A J; Poornima, A

2011-11-09

113

Photogrammetric Analysis of Palpebral Fissure Dimensions and its Position in Malaysian South Indian Ethnic Adults by Gender  

PubMed Central

Background: Anthropometric data describing the palpebral fissure and its position is available for various populations. Unfortunately there is no data available for Malaysian South Indian. Aim: The present study was undertaken to determine the normative values for Malaysian South Indian according to gender. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measurement was done on standardized photographs taken from 300 MSI aged 18-26 years. The parameters were measured using computerized software. Results: Significant sexual difference was observed in all parameters except canthal index, which includes palpebral fissure width (male, 30.9 mm; female, 29.62 mm), palpebral fissure height (male, 11.06 mm; female, 11.48 mm), palpebral fissure inclination (male, 4.72°; female, 7.04°), outercanthal distance (male, 97.15 mm; female, 91.78 mm), interpupillary distance (male, 68.09 mm; female, 63.6 mm), intercanthal distance (male, 34.1 mm; female, 32.77 mm), and canthal index (male, 35.22 mm; female, 35.86±4.44 mm). Conclusions: Sexual dimorphism was found in all parameters. Comparison of our results with other studies revealed the variation and similarities in key parameters. Establishing normative values and understanding the facial morphology of different ethnic groups is important in designing the treatment planning for an aesthetic oculoplastic procedure.

Packiriswamy, Vasanthakumar; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, K G Mohandas

2012-01-01

114

Measurements of Atmospheric Gaseous Mercury, Aerosol Trace Metals and Stable Lead Isotopes Over the South-Western Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During November 2007, continuous measurements were made of total gaseous mercury (TGM) over the Indian Ocean during a two week cruise aboard the R/V Revelle from the Seychelles to Mauritius. Hg concentrations were consistently low during the cruise (1.0-1.4 ng m -3) similar to concentrations observed between 1994 and 2006 at an observatory in South Africa (Slemr et al., 2008). There was no significant diurnal signal observed during the cruise and the low variability in Hg is consistent with well mixed air masses and a long lifetime of Hg in the atmosphere. During this cruise size segregated and bulk aerosol samples were also collected using a high volume aerosol sampler. The aerosols were analysed for major ions, trace metals (Al, Fe, Ba, Mn, Co, V, Cr, Mo, Sr, Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Cu and Ni) and stable lead isotope ratios. The concentrations of most of the metals were similar to those observed in previous aerosol studies over similar regions of the Indian Ocean in 1986 (Chester et al., 1991) and 2002 (Witt et al., 2006). Aerosols were enriched above crustal and oceanic sources in many trace metals such as Pb, Cd, Ni and Zn although air mass back trajectories suggest air encountered had been over the ocean for at least 5 days prior to collection. Metal concentrations over the remote Indian Ocean appear to be intermediate between values reported for the remote Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Lead isotope ratios (206Pb, 207Pb and 208 Pb) in the aerosols fell into a group with a relatively radiogenic signature different to the Pb characteristic of Australian ores, where trajectories suggest air originated. The isotope ratios also differ to those observed in South African cities and are closer to the lead composition more typical of coals. Chester et al., (1991) Mar. Chem., 34; 261-290 Slemr et al., (2008) GRL, 35 (11) doi:10.1029/2008GL033741 Witt et al., (2006) Atmos. Env., 40; 5435-5451

Mather, T. A.; Witt, M. L.; Baker, A. R.; de Hoog, C.; Pyle, D. M.

2008-12-01

115

Abortion index and mortality of offspring among women of different age, caste and population groups of north Indian Muslims.  

PubMed

The Muslims of Aligarh city are predominantly Sunnis, although there are also a considerable number of Shias. Among the Sunnis, approximately a quarter belong to Syed, Sheikh, Moghal and Pathan groups, and three-quarters belong to various lower biradaris. In the present study, 304 women attending the Primary Health Centre of the J. N. Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, were surveyed and the following recorded among Muslim women of high-rank (Ashraf) and low-rank (Ajlaf) castes: incidence of marriage, age of the mother at the time of marriage, present age of the mother, abortions, still births, pre-reproductive mortality and overall mortality. The Ashraf are comprised of the Sheikh, Syed and Pathan, whereas the Ajlafs have Qureshi, Saifi and Ansari biradaris. Maternal age was scored as above and below 45 years in each biradari. Significant effects of maternal age were seen on mortality of offspring, whereas populations did not show consistent differences, except when Ashrafs and Ajlafs were considered separately. The results show higher mortality and abortions for various groups. This may be due to various biological and socio-cultural factors, including hidden inbreeding in the remote past. PMID:17850687

Ara, Gulshan; Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Beg, Tanveer; Afzal, Mohammad

2007-09-13

116

Phylogeny and colonization history of Pringlea antiscorbutica (Brassicaceae), an emblematic endemic from the South Indian Ocean Province.  

PubMed

The origins and evolution of sub-Antarctic island floras are not well understood. In particular there is uncertainty about the ages of the contemporary floras and the ultimate origins of the lineages they contain. Pringlea R. Br. (Brassicaceae) is a monotypic genus endemic to four sub-Antarctic island groups in the southern Indian Ocean. Here we used sequences from both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes to examine the phylogenetic position of this enigmatic genus. Our analyses confirm that Pringlea falls within the tribe Thelypodieae and provide a preliminary view of its relationships within the group. Divergence time estimates and ancestral area reconstructions imply Pringlea diverged from a South American ancestor ~5 Myr ago. It remains unclear whether the ancestor of Pringlea dispersed directly to the South Indian Ocean Province (SIOP) or used Antarctica as a stepping-stone; what is clear, however, is that following arrival in the SIOP several additional long-distance dispersal events must be inferred to explain the current distribution of this species. Our analyses also suggest that although Pringlea is likely to have inherited cold tolerance from its closest relatives, the distinctive morphology of this species evolved only after it split from the South American lineage. More generally, our results lend support to the hypothesis that angiosperms persisted on the sub-Antarctic islands throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Taken together with evidence from other sub-Antarctic island plant groups, they suggest the extant flora of sub-Antarctic is likely to have been assembled over a broad time period and from lineages with distinctive biogeographic histories. PMID:22871399

Bartish, Igor V; Aïnouche, Abdelkader; Jia, Dongrui; Bergstrom, Dana; Chown, Steven L; Winkworth, Richard C; Hennion, Françoise

2012-08-01

117

Preliminary climatology and improved modelling of south Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean mid-latitude cyclones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intense mid-latitude cyclones that traverse the southern waters of the Indian Ocean, between South Africa and southwestern Western Australia, are among the strongest depressions found anywhere in the world, outside tropical waters. Near-surface winds that exceed storm force (i.e. 24 m/s or 48 knots), and central pressures of 960 hPa and lower, are relatively common for these systems. They pose a constant threat to both open ocean and coastal shipping, and regularly generate severe weather over the populated southwestern corner of Australia. Large ocean waves and swell produce extensive coastal inundation and erosion.There were two main aims in this study. The first aim was to develop a preliminary climatology of these intense mid-latitude cyclones, for the region 20-60 °S, 30-130 °E. The climatology, which is the first that we are aware of for this notoriously data-sparse region, is based largely upon satellite observations, particularly scatterometer data, and is supplemented by ship, buoy and all available land observations. The climatology revealed that, historically, the frequency and intensity of the mid-latitude cyclones in this domain have been significantly underestimated. This underestimation has resulted in analyses that have serious flaws, and the resultant operational forecasts provided to the duty forecasters in the regional forecast centre located in Perth, Western Australia, are of highly variable quality. A number of other climatological features of these storms are discussed in this article.The second aim was to identify the factors that can contribute to a significant improvement in model forecasts of these storms. So far, there have been very few studies of explosively developing cyclones over this part of the world. Results are presented here from a series of high-resolution numerical simulations of an intense cool season Southern Ocean cyclone that developed in 2003, using the HIRES numerical weather prediction model developed by L.M. Leslie. Here, we examine the sensitivity of the cyclone predictions to both model resolution and the initial analyses. The predicted variables of most interest are the central pressure, maximum sustained near-surface wind speeds, extent of storm-force winds, and the horizontal and vertical structure of the storm. Increased detail in the initial state is provided mainly by the assimilation into the archived global operational analyses of high-resolution satellite-derived data, including QuikSCAT scatterometer winds and sea-surface temperatures. The combination of increased horizontal and vertical model resolution, and improved initial model states, was found to produce numerical forecasts with significantly more accurate wind speeds than those obtained from the coarser resolution operational models, which also did not have the benefits of all the additional data. Finally, areas of future research are outlined, including coupling the HIRES atmospheric model with ocean and wave models, to improve forecasts of the sea state, including wind wave heights, swell and storm surges.

Buckley, Bruce W.; Leslie, Lance M.

2004-08-01

118

Whistle vocalizations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) inhabiting the south-west Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

Populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) are distributed along coastal regions of the south-west Indian Ocean (SWIO), from South Africa to Kenya. An account of whistles from wild T. aduncus inhabiting the SWIO is provided here. Recordings were made at Plettenberg Bay (South Africa) and Zanzibar Island (Tanzania) and the frequency trace of whistle contours (n = 1677) was extracted. Multiple parameters were measured from each whistle and compared between regions and encounters. Regional variation was significant in all parameters assessed except for start and middle frequency (frequency at half the duration). Whistles from Zanzibar Island ended on average 4 kHz higher than those from Plettenberg Bay, and had a steeper frequency gradient. However, mean frequencies differed by <1 kHz and population averages for the adopted frequency distribution showed similar patterns, with a peak between 5 and 7 kHz. Whistle parameters were strongly influenced by recording encounter, likely reflecting the presence of different individuals, group compositions and behavioral contexts during recording occasions. Comparisons within the genus showed that T. aduncus from the SWIO have amongst the lowest start and minimum frequency of whistles within Tursiops. PMID:23231132

Gridley, Tess; Berggren, Per; Cockcroft, Victor G; Janik, Vincent M

2012-12-01

119

Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South Atlantic ozone maxima  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a broad resolution of the “Atlantic Parado” concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.–April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed

R. B. Chatfield; H. Guan; A. M. Thompson; J. C. Witte

2004-01-01

120

Convective lofting links Indian Ocean air pollution to paradoxical South Atlantic ozone maxima  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a broad resolution of the ``Atlantic Parado'' concerning the seasonal and geographic distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone. We highlight periods of significant maximum tropospheric O3 for Jan.-April, 1999, exploiting satellite estimates and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes). Trajectory analyses connecting sondes and Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) maps suggest a complex influence from the Indian Ocean: beginning with mixed

R. B. Chatfield; H. Guan; A. M. Thompson; J. C. Witte

2004-01-01

121

Satellite observations of intense intraseasonal cooling events in the tropical south Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

feature of SST variability in the Indian Ocean missed by inadequate observations? Which season do these cooling events favor and do they share some common characteristics in space and time? The present study addresses these ques- tions by using eight years of satellite microwave measure- ments of SST. Our analysis shows that strong cooling events like the one described by

N. H. Saji; S.-P. Xie; C.-Y. Tam

2006-01-01

122

Acropora austera connectivity in the south-western Indian Ocean assessed using nuclear intron sequence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypervariable carbonic anhydrase 3\\/550 intron marker was sequenced in order to ascertain the levels of genetic variability\\u000a and connectivity within and between reefal populations of the hard coral, Acropora austera, on the south-east African coastline. Populations were sampled from (north to south) Bazaruto and Inhaca islands (Mozambique),\\u000a Rabbit Rock, Two-mile and Red Sands Reefs and Leadsman Shoal (Maputaland, South

Angus H. H. Macdonald; M. H. Schleyer; J. M. Lamb

2011-01-01

123

Association between the M268T polymorphism in the angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension in a South Indian population.  

PubMed

Essential hypertension is a complex multifactorial disease caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. It is an independent determinant of cardiovascular risk. The main aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of angiotensinogen M268T polymorphisms on hypertension in two endogamous caste populations of South India. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, anthropometric variables, and lipid profiles were assessed. Direct sequencing of PCR products was adopted for genotyping. This polymorphism was found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the patients and controls of both populations. Binary odds ratios showed significant association between the M268T polymorphism and hypertension in both populations. Multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in body mass index, chest girth, calf circumference, skinfold measurements, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between these genotypes in the Gavara and Vaishya populations. These data further support the hypothesis that hypertension is influenced by the AGT M268T polymorphism. PMID:21312059

Gopi Chand, M; Srinath, J; Rao, R S; Lakkakula, Bhaskar V K S; Kumar, Satish; Rao, V R

2011-02-11

124

Directional migration in the Hindu castes: inferences from mitochondrial, autosomal and Y-chromosomal data.  

PubMed

Genetic, ethnographic, and historical evidence suggests that the Hindu castes have been highly endogamous for several thousand years and that, when movement between castes does occur, it typically consists of females joining castes of higher social status. However, little is known about migration rates in these populations or the extent to which migration occurs between caste groups of low, middle, and high social status. To investigate these aspects of migration, we analyzed the largest collection of genetic markers collected to date in Hindu caste populations. These data included 45 newly typed autosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs), 411 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence, and 43 Y-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were assayed in more than 200 individuals of known caste status sampled in Andrah Pradesh, in South India. Application of recently developed likelihood-based analyses to this dataset enabled us to obtain genetically derived estimates of intercaste migration rates. STRPs indicated migration rates of 1-2% per generation between high-, middle-, and low-status caste groups. We also found support for the hypothesis that rates of gene flow differ between maternally and paternally inherited genes. Migration rates were substantially higher in maternally than in paternally inherited markers. In addition, while prevailing patterns of migration involved movement between castes of similar rank, paternally inherited markers in the low-status castes were most likely to move into high-status castes. Our findings support earlier evidence that the caste system has been a significant, long-term source of population structuring in South Indian Hindu populations, and that patterns of migration differ between males and females. PMID:15232732

Wooding, Stephen; Ostler, Christopher; Prasad, B V Ravi; Watkins, W Scott; Sung, Sandy; Bamshad, Mike; Jorde, Lynn B

2004-07-01

125

Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations among South Indian adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the relationship between dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in Asian Indians, a high-risk group for diabetes and premature coronary artery disease.Subjects\\/methods:The study population comprised of 2043 individuals aged ?20 years randomly selected from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study (CURES), an ongoing population-based study on a representative population of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in

G Radhika; A Ganesan; R M Sathya; V Sudha; V Mohan

2009-01-01

126

FTO gene variants are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes in South Asian Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims and hypothesis  Variants of the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in white Europeans, but these associations\\u000a are not consistent in Asians. A recent study in Asian Indian Sikhs showed an association with type 2 diabetes that did not\\u000a seem to be mediated through BMI. We studied the association of FTO

C. S. Yajnik; C. S. Janipalli; S. Bhaskar; S. R. Kulkarni; R. M. Freathy; S. Prakash; K. R. Mani; M. N. Weedon; S. D. Kale; J. Deshpande; G. V. Krishnaveni; S. R. Veena; C. H. D. Fall; M. I. McCarthy; T. M. Frayling; A. T. Hattersley; G. R. Chandak

2009-01-01

127

Gender norms in South Africa: Implications for HIV and pregnancy prevention among African and Indian women students at a South African tertiary institution  

PubMed Central

In post-Apartheid South Africa, women are constitutionally guaranteed protections and freedoms that were previously unknown to them. These freedoms may have positive implications for women’s ability to negotiate sexual protection with partners and hence prevent unintended pregnancy and decrease their risk of HIV. Among tertiary institution students who are a relatively ‘privileged’ group, there is little information on gender norms that might shape responses to HIV prevention programmes. To elicit gender norms regarding women’s and men’s roles, condom and contraceptive use, sexual communication, and sexual pleasure, we conducted 10 semi-structured focus group discussions with African and Indian female tertiary institution students so as to understand how norms might be used to buttress HIV and pregnancy prevention. Participants reported dramatic changes in the structure of gender norms and relations with the formal recognition of women’s rights in the post-Apartheid context. These generational shifts in norms are supported by other research in South Africa. At the same time, women recognized the co-existence of traditional constructions of gender that operate to constrain women’s freedom. The perceived changes that have taken place provide an entry point for intervention, particularly for reinforcing emerging gender norms that promote women’s protection against unintended pregnancy and HIV/STIs.

Mantell, Joanne E.; Needham, Sarah L.; Smit, Jennifer Ann; Hoffman, Susie; Cebekhulu, Queen; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Mabude, Zonke; Beksinska, Mags; Stein, Zena A.; Milford, Cecilia

2009-01-01

128

Reconstructing Indian population history  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been underrepresented in genome-wide surveys of human variation. We analyse 25 diverse groups in India to provide strong evidence for two ancient populations, genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. One, the `Ancestral North Indians' (ANI), is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, whereas the other, the `Ancestral South Indians' (ASI), is as

David Reich; Kumarasamy Thangaraj; Nick Patterson; Alkes L. Price; Lalji Singh

2009-01-01

129

Haplotype structures and functional polymorphic variants of the drug target enzyme aromatase (CYP19A1) in South Indian population.  

PubMed

CYP19A1 gene product aromatase (CYP19A1) is a 58-kDa protein and belongs to the member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, which facilitates the bioconversion of estrogens from androgens. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP19A1 affect the activity of the enzyme and have been implicated in the association of estrogen-dependent disease, prognosis, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Based on ethnicity, the frequency distribution of CYP19A1 alleles will differ, and until now, no data are available for Indians. Using qRT-PCR with TaqMan assays, the frequencies of functionally important polymorphic variants of CYP19A1 gene were determined in 163 healthy subjects of South Indian origin. The observed frequencies of the CYP19A1 minor alleles for the SNPs rs4646 (T), rs10046 (T), rs700519 (T), rs700518 (G), rs727479 (G), rs4775936 (T), rs10459592 (G), rs749292 (A), rs6493497 (T), and rs7176005 (A) are 41.1 (35.8-46.4), 20.0 (15.6-24.3), 33.7 (28.6-38.9), 17.8 (13.6-21.9), 25.8 (21.0-30.5), 19.9 (15.6-24.3), 33.7 (28.6-38.9), 24.9 (20.2-29.5), 35.9 (30.7-41.1), and 35.9 (30.7-41.1), respectively. Strong linkage disequilibrium existed between CYP19A1 SNPs, and sixteen different haplotype structures with a frequency >1% were derived from all the 10 SNPs tested. The most common being the haplotype (H1) GCTATCTGTG with a frequency of about 17.8%. Gender-specific assessment showed significant difference in the allele frequency for rs749292 (p < 0.04), and greater inter-ethnic variation was detected in the distribution of CYP19A1 variants except for rs727479. Our results could provide preliminary insight for further pharmacogenetic investigations of AIs as well as for subsequent molecular epidemiological studies on the contribution of these variants to the occurrence and development of estrogen-dependent disease in South Indians. PMID:23893151

Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kalaivani, Sekar; Anjana, Raj; Revathy, Mohan; Jaharamma, Mohammad; Shree, Kulumani Mahadevan Lakshmi; Kadambari, Dharanipragada; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

2013-07-28

130

Seabirds indicate changes in the composition of plastic litter in the Atlantic and south-western Indian Oceans.  

PubMed

I compare plastic ingested by five species of seabirds sampled in the 1980s and again in 1999-2006. The numbers of ingested plastic particles have not changed significantly, but the proportion of virgin pellets has decreased 44-79% in all five species: great shearwater Puffinus gravis, white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, broad-billed prion Pachyptila vittata, white-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina and white-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria. The populations sampled range widely in the South Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. The most marked reduction occurred in great shearwaters, where the average number of pellets per bird decreased from 10.5 to 1.6. This species migrates between the South and North Atlantic each year. Similar decreases in virgin pellets have been recorded in short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris in the Pacific Ocean and northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea. More data are needed on the relationship between plastic loads in seabirds and the density of plastic at sea in their foraging areas, but the consistent decrease in pellets in birds suggests there has been a global change in the composition of small plastic debris at sea over the last two decades. PMID:18572198

Ryan, Peter G

2008-06-24

131

Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing phase I enzymes CYP2E1, CYP2A6 and CYP3A5 in South Indian population.  

PubMed

CYP2E1, CYP2A6 and CYP3A5 enzymes belong to phase I group of drug-metabolizing enzymes, which are involved in the metabolism of various compounds and xenobiotics. Presence of polymorphisms in the genes coding for these enzymes results in interindividual variations in drug metabolism, therapeutic response and susceptibility towards various diseases. The frequencies of these variants in genes differ considerably between ethnic groups. This study was carried out to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of common variants in CYP2E1, CYP2A6 and CYP3A5 in South Indian population. Six hundred and fifty-two unrelated healthy volunteers of South Indian origin (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu) were included in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, allele-specific PCR, real-time PCR, SNaPshot and gene sequencing methods were used for the identification of gene polymorphisms. The frequencies of CYP2E1*1B, CYP2E1*5B and CYP2E1*6 alleles in South Indian population were 14.3, 1.3 and 22.4%, respectively. The frequencies of CYP2A6*2, CYP2A6*4A and CYP2A6*5 alleles were found to be 1, 8.9 and 0.7%, respectively. The distribution of CYP3A5*3 allele was 63.5%. There were no variant alleles of CYP3A5*2, CYP3A5*4 and CYP3A5*6 in South Indian population. The frequencies of CYP2E1, CYP2A6 and CYP3A5 in the South Indian population are distinct from Caucasians, Chinese, Japanese, African Americans and other compared populations. This is the first study conducted in the South Indian population with a larger sample size. The findings of our study provide the basic genetic information for further pharmacogenomic investigations in the population. PMID:21265876

Krishnakumar, D; Gurusamy, Umamaheswaran; Dhandapani, Kayathri; Surendiran, A; Baghel, Ruchi; Kukreti, Ritushree; Gangadhar, Reneega; Prayaga, Ushakiran; Manjunath, S; Adithan, C

2011-01-25

132

Quality management in a healthcare organisation: a case of South Indian hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to provide an analysis of quality management using the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Criteria (MBNQA) criteria in a 300-bed hospital in South India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) criteria in-depth interviews are conducted with the heads of the departments in the case hospital. Data is analysed

Usha Manjunath; Bhimaraya A. Metri; Shalini Ramachandran

2007-01-01

133

INDIAN EDUCATION, STATE OF SOUTH DAKOTA, JOHNSON O'MALLEY PROGRAM, FISCAL 1966. ANNUAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS DOCUMENT PRESENTS THE FISCAL REPORT AND INFORMATION RELATED TO SOUTH DAKOTA'S PARTICIPATION IN THE JOHNSON O'MALLEY PROGRAM, 1966. CHARTS RELATING THE FINANCIAL BREAKDOWN OF EXPENDITURES, INCOME, ENROLLMENT, AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE, AND THE NUMBER OF 8TH GRADE AND 12TH GRADE GRADUATES OF THE FORTY-THREE SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE PRESENTED. COSTS…

WADE, JON C.

134

Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Recurrent South Atlantic Ozone Maxima  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend on our analysis of equatorial tropospheric ozone to illustrate the contributions of South Asian pollution export in forming episodes of high O3 over the Atlantic Ocean. We amplify on an earlier description of a broad resolution of the \\

R. B. Chatfield; H. Guan; A. M. Thompson; J. Witte

2003-01-01

135

Ancient Platinum Technology in South America ITS USE BY THE INDIANS IN PRE-HISPANIC TIMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early inhabitants of South America had recognised platinum and had used it for making ornaments well before the Spanish Conquest. Their techniques and ability in metal working are reviewed, based upon archaeological evidence and modern metallographic examination. The occurrence of platinum group metals as small inclusions in the goldwork from many parts of the Ancient World is well-known. These

David A. Scott; Warwick Bray

136

Peripheral CD4+\\/CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts estimated by an immunocapture method in the normal healthy south Indian adults and HIV seropositive individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flow cytometry is the standard method for the estimation of CD4\\/CD8 counts, but the high initial investment for this instrument and costly reagents make it unaffordable to most of the centers in a developing country like India. Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of an alternate system for the estimation of CD4 and CD8 counts in normal south Indian adults

R Kannangai; K. J Prakash; S Ramalingam; O. C Abraham; K. P Mathews; M. V Jesudason; G Sridharan

2000-01-01

137

Life Events in a South Indian Population and Their Association With Psychiatric Disorder in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western research suggests that life events contribute to childhood psychiatric disorder but no studies have examined this in developing countries. During a population-based study of 1403 8-12 year old children in Kerala, South India, a life events schedule was administered to parents of children with ICD10 psychiatric disorders (n = 72) and controls.Life events were associated with lower social class,

Richard Hackett; Latha Hackett; Preetha Bhakta; Simon Gowers

2000-01-01

138

Genetic polymorphism of Fc?-receptors IIa, IIIa and IIIb in South Indian patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that polymorphisms in Fc? receptors are associated with different forms of periodontitis. However, the Fc?R genotypes and their allele frequency differ among subjects from different ethnic backgrounds. The aim of the present study was to determine whether specific Fc?RIIa, Fc?RIIIa, and Fc?RIIIb alleles and/or genotypes are associated with susceptibility to generalized aggressive periodontitits (GAgP) in a South Indian population. Buccal scrapings were obtained from 60 subjects with GAgP and 60 periodontally healthy individuals, and DNA was extracted from each of the samples. Fc?RIIa and Fc?RIIIa genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA with allele-specific primers followed by allele-specific restriction digestion of the products, whereas Fc?RIIIb genotyping was done by allele-specific PCR. There was no significant difference in the distribution of the Fc?RIIa H/R genotype between GAgP patients and healthy subjects, although significant over-representation of the R allele was noted in GAgP patients. With regard to Fc?RIIIa F/V genetic polymorphism, the homozygous V/V genotype and V allele were significantly over-represented in the GAgP group, whereas the F/F genotype and F allele were over-represented in the controls. Furthermore, there was significant over-representation of the Fc?RIIIb-NA2 allele and NA2/NA2 genotype in GAgP patients, and of the NA1/NA1 genotype and NA1 allele in the controls. These data suggest that the Fc?RIIIa V/V genotype and/or V allele, as well as the Fc?RIIIb NA2/NA2 and/or NA2 allele, along with the Fc?RIIa- R allele, may be risk factors for GAgP in the population of South India. PMID:22167032

Hans, Veenu Madaan; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

2011-12-01

139

CAN'T BUY ME LOVE? A FIELD EXPERIMENT EXPLORING THE TRADE?OFF BETWEEN INCOME AND CASTE?STATUS IN AN INDIAN MATRIMONIAL MARKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of literature depicts that status?based discrimination is pervasive, but is silent on how economic incentive interacts with such discrimination. This study addresses this question by designing a field experiment in a reputable arranged marriage market that is prone to strong caste?status?based discrimination. We place newspaper advertisements of potential grooms by systematically varying their caste and income and

SUBHASISH DUGAR; HAIMANTI BHATTACHARYA; DAVID REILEY

2012-01-01

140

The morphometric analysis of the mental foramen in adult dry human mandibles: a study on the South Indian population.  

PubMed

Aim: The mental foramen is a small foramen which is located in the antero-lateral aspect of the body of the mandible. It is situated midway between the upper and the lower border of the mandible and it transmits the mental nerve and the vessels. The knowledge on the anatomy of the mental foramen is very important in clinical dentistry and in surgical procedures which involve that area. Material and Methods: Our study was conducted on 90 adult dry human mandibles from the south Indian population, irrespective of age and sex. The location, shape, orientation and the presence of the accessory foramen were studied by visual examination. The size and position of the mental foramen were measured by using a digital vernier caliper. The SPSS, version 15 software was used for the statistical analysis, to calculate the minimum, maximum, incidence, mean and standard deviation. Results: In a majority of the mandibles, the mental foramen was located at the level of the root of the 2(nd) premolar, midway between the inferior margin and the alveolar margin of the mandible. Most of the mental foramina were oval in shape. The orientation of the foramen was postero-superior in 83% of the mandibles. The accessory foramens were noted in five mandibles. Conclusion: The knowledge on the variations in the position and size of the mental foramen and the presence of the accessory foramen may be of much use to dental surgeons. PMID:24086835

Udhaya, K; Saraladevi, K V; Sridhar, J

2013-08-01

141

The Morphometric Analysis of the Mental Foramen in Adult Dry Human Mandibles: A Study on the South Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Aim: The mental foramen is a small foramen which is located in the antero-lateral aspect of the body of the mandible. It is situated midway between the upper and the lower border of the mandible and it transmits the mental nerve and the vessels. The knowledge on the anatomy of the mental foramen is very important in clinical dentistry and in surgical procedures which involve that area. Material and Methods: Our study was conducted on 90 adult dry human mandibles from the south Indian population, irrespective of age and sex. The location, shape, orientation and the presence of the accessory foramen were studied by visual examination. The size and position of the mental foramen were measured by using a digital vernier caliper. The SPSS, version 15 software was used for the statistical analysis, to calculate the minimum, maximum, incidence, mean and standard deviation. Results: In a majority of the mandibles, the mental foramen was located at the level of the root of the 2nd premolar, midway between the inferior margin and the alveolar margin of the mandible. Most of the mental foramina were oval in shape. The orientation of the foramen was postero-superior in 83% of the mandibles. The accessory foramens were noted in five mandibles. Conclusion: The knowledge on the variations in the position and size of the mental foramen and the presence of the accessory foramen may be of much use to dental surgeons.

Udhaya, K.; Saraladevi, K.V.; Sridhar, J.

2013-01-01

142

Rate of inactivation of isoniazid in South Indian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis*  

PubMed Central

Since isoniazid is metabolized in man to several derivatives with little or no specific activity against the tubercle bacillus, its rate of inactivation in the body may have an important bearing on its efficacy as an antituberculosis drug. The inactivation rate, though constant in any one person, is known to vary from individual to individual and from race to race. A series of studies on the rate of inactivation of isoniazid in Indian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis has recently been undertaken at the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras. The present paper describes the first of these studies, in which the concentration of isoniazid in the serum of patients admitted to a controlled comparison of four domiciliary chemotherapeutic regimens was determined by microbiological assay four-and-a-half hours after administration of a standard dose of isoniazid (3 mg/kg body-weight). Patients with serum levels of 0.58 ?g/ml or more were classified as slow inactivators of isoniazid and those with levels below 0.58 ?g/ml as rapid inactivators. By this definition, 195 (61%) of the 321 patients studied were found to be slow inactivators and 126 (39%) rapid inactivators. A relationship was shown between sex and the rate of inactivation, there being a significantly higher proportion of rapid inactivators among the females than among the males. The observed estimates of the error of the microbiological assay procedure are discussed and possible ways of reducing the error suggested.

Gangadharam, P. R. J.; Bhatia, A. L.; Radhakrishna, S.; Selkon, J. B.

1961-01-01

143

Caste in India, Past and Present  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traced is the sociocultural framework for the system in Indian culture which emphasized duty and obligations rather than individual freedom and rights. Also discussed are contemporary changes in the caste system. (DB)

Bishop, Donald H.

1971-01-01

144

Association of CAPN10 SNPs and Haplotypes with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome among South Indian Women  

PubMed Central

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is known to be characterized by metabolic disorder in which hyperinsulinemia and peripheral insulin resistance are central features. Given the physiological overlap between PCOS and type-2 diabetes (T2DM), and calpain 10 gene (CAPN10) being a strong candidate for T2DM, a number of studies have analyzed CAPN10 SNPs among PCOS women yielding contradictory results. Our study is first of its kind to investigate the association pattern of CAPN10 polymorphisms (UCSNP-44, 43, 56, 19 and 63) with PCOS among Indian women. 250 PCOS cases and 299 controls from Southern India were recruited for this study. Allele and genotype frequencies of the SNPs were determined and compared between the cases and controls. Results show significant association of UCSNP-44 genotype CC with PCOS (p?=?0.007) with highly significant odds ratio when compared to TC (OR?=?2.51, p?=?0.003, 95% CI?=?1.37–4.61) as well as TT (OR?=?1.94, p?=?0.016, 95% CI?=?1.13–3.34). While the haplotype carrying the SNP-44 and SNP-19 variants (21121) exhibited a 2 fold increase in the risk for PCOS (OR?=?2.37, p?=?0.03), the haplotype containing SNP-56 and SNP-19 variants (11221) seems to have a protective role against PCOS (OR?=?0.20, p?=?0.004). Our results support the earlier evidence for a possible role of UCSNP-44 of the CAPN10 gene in the manifestation of PCOS.

Dasgupta, Shilpi; Sirisha, Pisapati V. S.; Neelaveni, Kudugunti; Anuradha, Katragadda; Reddy, B. Mohan

2012-01-01

145

Mutational Screening of LCA Genes Emphasizing RPE65 in South Indian Cohort of Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the most severe form of inherited retinal visual impairment in children. So far, mutations in more than 20 genes have been known to cause LCA and among them, RPE65 is a suitable candidate for gene therapy. The mutational screenings of RPE65 and other LCA genes are requisite in support of emerging gene specific therapy for LCA. Therefore, we have carried out a comprehensive LCA genes screening using a combined approach of direct sequencing and DNA microarray based Asper chip analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty clinically diagnosed index LCA cases from Southern India were screened for coding and flanking intronic regions of RPE65 through direct sequencing. Among thirty, 25 cases excluded from RPE65 mutations were subjected to Asper chip analysis, testing 784 known pathogenic variations in 15 major LCA genes. In RPE65 screening, four different pathogenic variations including two novel (c.361insT & c.939T>A) and two known (c.394G>A & c.361delT) mutations were identified in five index cases. In the chip analysis, seven known pathogenic mutations were identified in six index cases, involving genes GUCY2D, RPGRIP1, AIPL1, CRX and IQCB1. Overall, 11 out of 30 LCA cases (36.6%) revealed pathogenic variations with the involvement of RPE65 (16.6%), GUCY2D (10%), RPGRIP1 (3.3%), AIPL1 (3.3%) and CRX & IQCB1 (3.3%). Conclusions/Significance Our study suggests that such combined screening approach is productive and cost-effective for mutation detection and can be applied in Indian LCA cohort for molecular diagnosis and genetic counselling.

Verma, Anshuman; Perumalsamy, Vijayalakshmi; Shetty, Shashikant; Kulm, Maigi; Sundaresan, Periasamy

2013-01-01

146

Effects of water quality and water quantity on nutritional status: findings from a south Indian community  

PubMed Central

Quantitative assessments of the relative effects on health of various aspects of water supply are virtually absent from the literature. Despite the lack of information, resources are being allocated throughout the developing world, for projects related to water and sanitation. The present study was designed specifically to overcome many of the methodological problems that other researchers have faced. Data were collected concerning the nutritional status of 627 children in three urban communities in South India. Information was also collected on water quality, water quantity, household sanitation, socioeconomic conditions, and housing. A statistical technique is presented that allows for controlling potential confounding factors in the analyses. The results, in general, indicate that at young ages (i.e., under 3 years old) water quality is relatively more important as a determinant of nutritional status, while at older ages water quantity is relatively more important.

Hebert, James R.

1985-01-01

147

Some aspects of a tuberculosis prevalence survey in a South Indian district*  

PubMed Central

As a preliminary to a number of pilot projects intended to assess the efficiency of various tuberculosis control measures, a sample prevalence survey was undertaken in the Tumkur District of Mysore State, South India. Such surveys would be greatly simplified if correlations could be established between the infection rates, as determinated by a positive tuberculin reaction, and the prevalence rates for radiologically active and bacteriologically confirmed disease. The paper discusses various indices of infection and radiological disease. Prevalence rates for these indices are presented and their degree of correlation with each other and with the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed disease is determined. The value of the various indices is discussed in the light of these results. Although the correlations do not justify a clear-cut selection of the best possible indices, they provide a useful basis for further work. The survey also revealed certain interesting variations in prevalence that suggest the desirability of stratification in sampling when making surveys in future.

Narain, Raj; Geser, A.; Jambunathan, M. V.; Subramanian, M.

1963-01-01

148

25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians BUREAU OF...TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis...

2013-04-01

149

Simulation of the anthropogenic aerosols over South Asia and their effects on Indian summer monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional climate model coupled with a chemistry-aerosol model is employed to simulate the anthropogenic aerosols including sulfate, black carbon and organic carbon and their direct effect on climate over South Asia. The model is driven by the NCAR/NCEP re-analysis data. Multi-year simulations with half, normal and double emission fluxes are conducted. Results show that the model performs well in reproducing present climate over the region. Simulations of the aerosol optical depth and surface concentration of aerosols are also reasonable although to a less extent. The negative radiative forcing is found at the top of atmosphere and largely depended on emission concentration. Surface air temperature decreases by 0.1-0.5°C both in pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. The range and intensity of cooling areas enlarge while aerosol emission increases. Changes in precipitation are between -25 and 25%. Different diversifications of rainfall are showed with three emission scenarios. The changes of precipitation are consistent with varieties of monsoon onset dates in pre-monsoon season. In the regions of increasing precipitation, monsoon onset is advanced and vice versa. In northeast India and Myanmar, aerosols lead the India summer monsoon onset advancing 1-2 pentads, and delaying by 1-2 pentads in central and southeast India. These changes are mainly caused by the anomaly of local Hadley circulations and enhancive precipitation. Tibetan Plateau played a crucial role in the circulation changes.

Ji, Zhenming; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Zhu, Chunzi; Wu, Jia; Xu, Ying

2011-05-01

150

Studies on isozymic variation among the South Indian species of Sphaerostephanos  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the identity and phylogenetic relationships among the three medicinally important species of Sphaerostephanos from South India using isozymic profile. Methods The young fronds were homogenized with 3.5 mL of ice-cold homogenizing buffer in a pre-chilled pestle and mortar. The supernatant was subjected to electrophoresis as described by Anbalagan poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining solutions for isoperoxidase was prepared as per Smila method for the detection of isoenzymes. Results A total of six different bands in five different positions with different molecular weight/Rf values and four active zones have been observed in the isoperoxidase enzyme system of Sphaerostephanos. Only one band with MW/Rf 0.399 is common to two different species i.e. Sphaerostephanos arbuscula (S. arbuscula) and Sphaerostephanos unitus (S. unitus). Among the remaining four bands, two bands (Rf. 0.23, 0.47) are present in Sphaerostephanos subtruncatus (S. subtruncatus) and one distinct band has been observed individually in S. arbuscula (Rf. 0.507) and S. unitus (Rf. 0.56). Conclusions The present preliminary molecular study through isozymic analysis shows the identity of all the three species and the present results confirm distinctness of these three species based on macro-micromorphology, phytochemistry and cytology.

Varaprasadham, Irudayaraj; Marimuthu, Johnson

2011-01-01

151

Hospital waste management system - a case study of a south Indian city.  

PubMed

It is more than 5 years since the prescribed deadline, 30 December 2002, for all categories of towns covered by the Biomedical Waste Management (BMW) Rules 1998 elapsed. Various reports indicate that the implementation of the BMW Rules is not satisfactory even in the large towns and cities in India. Few studies have looked at the ;macro system' of the biomedical waste management in India. In this context the present study describes the role of the important stakeholders who comprise the 'macrosystem' namely the pollution control board, common waste management facilities, municipal corporation, state government (Directorate of Medical Education and Health Systems Development Project), professional agencies such as the India Medical Association and non-governmental organizations, in the implementation of BMW rules in a capital city of a state in south India. Brief descriptions of the ;micro-system' (i.e. biomedical waste management practices within a hospital) of six hospitals of different types in the study city are also presented. PMID:19470535

Hanumantha Rao, P

2009-05-26

152

Observations on the protective effect of BCG vaccination in a South Indian rural population*  

PubMed Central

Doubts have been raised on theoretical grounds concerning the effect of BCG in tropical countries, where in most places a large proportion of the population have a naturally acquired tuberculin allergy of low strength and unknown (but almost certainly non-specific) origin. Furthermore, vaccinations in the tropics may be less efficient if the BCG vaccine used has deteriorated from exposure to heat or light. The BCG trial reported here is relevant to these two problems. A series of epidemiological studies in South India, begun in 1950 and still in progress, included a BCG trial in which half of the tuberculin-negative persons, randomly selected, were vaccinated. In a first report in 1960, preliminary data indicated that the vaccination had conferred no protection against tuberculosis; however, the total number of cases of tuberculosis involved was extremely small. Since then, further follow-up has added a considerable number of cases, and a statistically significant protection from the BCG vaccination is now demonstrated. The number of cases is still too small to show the precise degree of protection. As this is the first controlled trial on BCG undertaken in an Asiatic population, the present report is of special interest.

Frimodt-M?ller, J.; Thomas, Jacob; Parthasarathy, R.

1964-01-01

153

SOME ASPECTS OF A TUBERCULOSIS PREVALENCE SURVEY IN A SOUTH INDIAN DISTRICT.  

PubMed

As a preliminary to a number of pilot projects intended to assess the efficiency of various tuberculosis control measures, a sample prevalence survey was undertaken in the Tumkur District of Mysore State, South India. Such surveys would be greatly simplified if correlations could be established between the infection rates, as determinated by a positive tuberculin reaction, and the prevalence rates for radiologically active and bacteriologically confirmed disease. The paper discusses various indices of infection and radiological disease. Prevalence rates for these indices are presented and their degree of correlation with each other and with the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed disease is determined. The value of the various indices is discussed in the light of these results. Although the correlations do not justify a clear-cut selection of the best possible indices, they provide a useful basis for further work. The survey also revealed certain interesting variations in prevalence that suggest the desirability of stratification in sampling when making surveys in future. PMID:14102039

NARAIN, R; GESER, A; JAMBUNATHAN, M V; SUBRAMANIAN, M

1963-01-01

154

Multiparametric Body Composition Analysis and Anthropometric Empirical Indicator: Obesity based South Indian Perspective.  

PubMed

Background: Obesity has emerged to be global threat to mankind. Many abnormalities such as Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes emerge as outcomes of obesity. Objectives: The present study aimed at bringing out a technique, which considers the combinational measurement of all essential anthropometric circumferences and BMI, so that the accurate assessment of obesity can be made. Till date, BMI has been considered to be the main adiposity index. But, the distribution of body fat was not taken into account by BMI. The contradictory outcomes by BMI pertaining to risk factor detection in various ethnicities and populations were witnessed. Also, BMI failed to gauge obesity in muscular body builders who possess small waists and large torsos Materials and Methods: The study adopted cross-sectional design in which 107 subjects from urban south India were participated. The measurements of body composition and anthropometry were manifested on the studied population. Results: The higher significant difference of ?0.001 was witnessed in male and female studied population, when AEI (BIA1), AEI (EXTERNAL) and BMI were compared against BFM (measured by both the devices BIA1 and BIA2). Conclusion: The results exhibited the prominence of AEI {Anthropometric Empirical Indicator, which is the combinational measurement of all essential anthropometric circumferences and BMI} over BMI.Also,the validity of the effective functioning of low cost,portable,simple protocol based body composition analyzer on par with the higher cost, standard body composition analyzer was demonstrated by the present study. PMID:23558309

Kishore, Mohan K B; Anburajan, M

2013-04-01

155

Utility of QuantiFERON TB gold test in a south Indian patient population of ocular inflammation  

PubMed Central

Aim: To study the utility of interferon-? release assays (QuantiFERON TB gold test) in a south Indian patient population of intraocular inflammation. Design: Evaluation of a diagnostic test- a pilot study from January 2007 to October 2008. Materials and Methods: QuantiFERON TB gold test was performed on the following groups of patients following an informed consent. Group A included healthy volunteers without any exposure to tuberculosis (TB) or past history of TB (n=22). Group B included patients with active systemic TB diagnosed by the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli or by the histopathology finding of caseation with granuloma formation from the sputum, lymph node, skin or intestinal biopsies (n=26). Group C included patients with uveitis of known etiologies other than intraocular TB without any history of exposure to active TB (n=21). Group D included patients with a diagnosis of presumed intraocular TB, who responded to antitubercular therapy by decreased or no recurrences following treatment and with a minimum of nine months follow-up following initiation of antitubercular therapy (n=39). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the QuantiFERON TB gold test to pick up active systemic TB was 58% and 77% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the QuantiFERON TB gold test to pickup intraocular TB was 82% and 76% respectively. Conclusions: QuantiFERON TB gold test alone may not be specific for intraocular TB. The significance of this test in a case scenario needs to be interpreted with clinical presentation and other evidences for intraocular TB.

Babu, Kalpana; Satish, Vidya; Satish, S; SubbaKrishna, D K; Abraham, Mariamma Philips; Murthy, Krishna R

2009-01-01

156

Begomovirus 'melting pot' in the south-west Indian Ocean islands: molecular diversity and evolution through recombination.  

PubMed

During the last few decades, many virus species have emerged, often forming dynamic complexes within which viruses share common hosts and rampantly exchange genetic material through recombination. Begomovirus species complexes are common and represent serious agricultural threats. Characterization of species complex diversity has substantially contributed to our understanding of both begomovirus evolution, and the ecological and epidemiological processes involved in the emergence of new viral pathogens. To date, the only extensively studied emergent African begomovirus species complex is that responsible for cassava mosaic disease. Here we present a study of another emerging begomovirus species complex which is associated with serious disease outbreaks in bean, tobacco and tomato on the south-west Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands off the coast of Africa. On the basis of 14 new complete DNA-A sequences, we describe seven new island monopartite begomovirus species, suggesting the presence of an extraordinary diversity of begomovirus in the SWIO islands. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences reveal a close relationship between monopartite and bipartite African begomoviruses, supporting the hypothesis that either bipartite African begomoviruses have captured B components from other bipartite viruses, or there have been multiple B-component losses amongst SWIO virus progenitors. Moreover, we present evidence that detectable recombination events amongst African, Mediterranean and SWIO begomoviruses, while substantially contributing to their diversity, have not occurred randomly throughout their genomes. We provide the first statistical support for three recombination hot-spots (V1/C3 interface, C1 centre and the entire IR) and two recombination cold-spots (the V2 and the third quarter of V1) in the genomes of begomoviruses. PMID:18024917

Lefeuvre, P; Martin, D P; Hoareau, M; Naze, F; Delatte, H; Thierry, M; Varsani, A; Becker, N; Reynaud, B; Lett, J-M

2007-12-01

157

Association of family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus with markers of endothelial dysfunction in South Indian population.  

PubMed

Studies indicate that risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) or cardiovascular disease is detectable in childhood, though these disorders may not emerge until adulthood. This study was aimed to assess the markers of endothelial dysfunction in patients with the family history of T2D from South Indian population. A total of 450 subjects were included in the study comprising Group I (n = 200) of T2D, Group II (n = 200) of age- and sex-matched healthy controls, Group III (n = 25) of children of T2D patients and Group IV (n = 25) of children of healthy controls. Results showed that intimal medial thickening (IMT) was significantly higher in T2D patients, compared with control subjects with no family history of diabetes. The fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were significantly increased, whereas HDL-cholesterol and serum nitrite levels were significantly decreased in T2D patients. However, children of T2D patients who were not diabetic did not show significant increase in the IMT, as compared to those of healthy controls. In conclusion, the present study demonstrate that IMT was significantly higher in the T2D patients and increased with age and family history. The increased levels of lipids, hsCRP, IMT and decreased nitrite levels might contribute to the risk of endothelial dysfunction in patients with T2D. However, further studies are warranted with other biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in T2D patients with increased sample size. PMID:23720882

Dhananjayan, R; Malati, T; Brindha, G; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

2013-04-01

158

Paniya Voices: A Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment among a marginalized South Indian tribal population  

PubMed Central

Background In India, indigenous populations, known as Adivasi or Scheduled Tribes (STs), are among the poorest and most marginalized groups. 'Deprived' ST groups tend to display high levels of resignation and to lack the capacity to aspire; consequently their health perceptions often do not adequately correspond to their real health needs. Moreover, similar to indigenous populations elsewhere, STs often have little opportunity to voice perspectives framed within their own cultural worldviews. We undertook a study to gather policy-relevant data on the views, experiences, and priorities of a marginalized and previously enslaved tribal group in South India, the Paniyas, who have little 'voice' or power over their own situation. Methods/design We implemented a Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment (PPHA). We adopted guiding principles and an ethical code that promote respect for Paniya culture and values. The PPHA, informed by a vulnerability framework, addressed five key themes (health and illness, well-being, institutions, education, gender) using participatory approaches and qualitative methods. We implemented the PPHA in five Paniya colonies (clusters of houses in a small geographical area) in a gram panchayat (lowest level decentralized territorial unit) to generate data that can be quickly disseminated to decision-makers through interactive workshops and public forums. Preliminary findings Findings indicated that the Paniyas are caught in multiple 'vulnerability traps', that is, they view their situation as vicious cycles from which it is difficult to break free. Conclusion The PPHA is a potentially useful approach for global health researchers working with marginalized communities to implement research initiatives that will address those communities' health needs in an ethical and culturally appropriate manner.

2010-01-01

159

Sequence variation of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (677C>T and 1298?A>C) and traditional risk factors in a South Indian population.  

PubMed

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a significant role in the metabolism of methionine. MTHFR deficiency is an autosomal recessive trait that could be a significant risk factor for a number of defects, for example, vascular events, due to lower dietary folate intake among South Indians. To find the incidence of 677 C>T and 1298?A>C in MTHFR gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the south Indian population, polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were employed among 152 patients with myocardial infarction and 167 controls. The MTHFR 677CT genotype was found among 35 (22.4%) cases and 08 (4.8%) controls, the MTHFR 677CC allele was found among 115 (73.7%) cases and 159 (94.6%) controls. Also, the analysis of the MTHFR 1298A>C SNP identified the MTHFR 1298CC genotype among 16 (10.3%) cases and 01 (0.6%) control, the MTHFR 1298AC genotype was found in 56 (35.9%) cases and 27 (16.2%) controls, and the MTHFR 1298AA genotype was observed in 80 (51.3%) cases and 139 (82.6%) controls. The C vs. A allele also showed significantly higher frequency among the patients in comparison with the controls (p<0.0001). The results of this study indicate that the MTHFR A1298C SNP is more prevalent among south Indians compared with the MTHFR C677T SNP, suggesting a possible role of MTHFR A1298C in the pathogenesis of heart diseases. PMID:21749215

Dayakar, Seetha; Goud, Kalal Iravathy; Reddy, Thavanati Parvathi Kumara; Rao, Seshagiri P; Sesikeran, Shyamala B; Sadhnani, Muralidhar

2011-07-12

160

Electroslag Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains an examination of the most important characteristics of the physico-mechanical properties of electroslag cast metal in comparison with the properties of open hearth steel, subjected to deformation by forging or used in the cast form.

B. E. Paton B. I. Medovar G. A. Boiko

1975-01-01

161

Casting a Blind Eye: The Ironic Consequences of Color-Blindness in South Africa and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the politics of color-blindness in comparative perspective as its meaning has changed over the past half-century. Drawing on the cases of South Africa and the United States, I focus in particular on the socio-political and psychological functions that color-blind ideology performs for whites in defending white advantage in the present context. Although in the past color-blindness served

Amy E. Ansell

2006-01-01

162

HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study  

PubMed Central

Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI) women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235) or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246). Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01) and reported more sexual partners (p < 0.001). A lower percentage of AI women tested negative for HPV infection compared to Whites (58% [95% CI = 51-65] vs. 77% [95% CI = 71-82]; p < 0.001), and a higher percentage of AI women were infected by oncogenic types (30% [95% CI = 25-36] vs. 16% [95% CI = 11-21]; p = 0.001). Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001). AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p < 0.001). Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women.

2011-01-01

163

Comparison of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban South Indian population  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To compare the prevalence of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Four thousand eight hundred subjects (age >39 years) each from rural and urban Tamil Nadu were enumerated for a population-based study. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmic evaluation including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), objective and subjective refraction. Out of 3924 rural responders 63.91% and out of 3850 urban responders 81.64% were phakic in the right eye with BCVA of 20/40 or better and were included in the study. Association of spectacle use and refractive errors with different parameters were analysed using logistic regression. Statistical Analysis: Chi square, t test, Chi square for trend and Pearson?s correlation coefficient were used for analysis. Results: Spectacle use was significantly higher and positively associated with literacy and employment in the urban population. The age and gender-adjusted prevalence of emmetropia, myopia of spherical equivalent (SE) ?-0.50 diopter sphere (DS), high myopia (SE ?-5.00DS), hyperopia (SE >0.50DS) and astigmatism ? 0.50 diopter cylinder (DC) were 46.8%, 31.0%, 4.3%, 17.9% and 60.4% respectively in the rural population and 29.0%, 17.6%, 1.5%, 51.9%, 59.1% respectively in the urban population. The prevalence of emmetropia decreased with age (p < 0.001); prevalence of myopia and high myopia increased with age (p = 0.001) and were associated with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Hyperopia was commoner among women than men (p = 0.001); was positively associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.008) in the rural population and negatively with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Conclusion: Spectacle use was found to be significantly lower in the rural population. The pattern of refractive errors was significantly different between both populations.

Prema, Raju; Sathyamangalam Ve, Ramesh; Hemamalini, Arvind; Baskaran, Mani; Kumaramanickavel, Govindaswamy; Catherine, McCarty; Vijaya, Lingam

2008-01-01

164

Nd isotope systematics on ODP Sites 756 and 762 sediments reveal major volcanic, oceanic and climatic changes in South Indian Ocean over the last 35 Ma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed the Nd isotopic composition of both ancient seawater and detrital material from long sequences of carbonated oozes of the South Indian Ocean which are ODP Site 756 (Ninety East Ridge (- 30°S), 1518 m water depth) and ODP Site 762 (Northwest Australian margin, 1360 m water depth). The measurements indicate that the ?Nd changes in Indian seawater over the last 35 Ma result from changes in the oceanic circulation, large volcanic and continental weathering Nd inputs. This highlights the diverse nature of those controls and their interconnections in a small area of the ocean.These new records combined with those previously obtained at the equatorial ODP Sites 757 and 707 in the Indian Ocean (Gourlan et al., 2008) established that the distribution of intermediate seawater ?Nd was uniform over most of the Indian Ocean from 35 Ma to 10 Ma within a geographical area extending from 40°S to the equator and from - 60°E to 120°E. However, the ?Nd value of Indian Ocean seawater which kept an almost constant value (at about - 7 to - 8) from 35 to 15 Ma rose by 3 ?Nd units from 15 to 10 Ma. This sharp increase has been caused by a radiogenic Nd enrichment of the water mass originating from the Pacific flowing through the Indonesian Passage. Using a two end-members model we calculated that the Nd transported to the Indian Ocean through the Indonesian Pathway was 1.7 times larger at 10 Ma than at 15 Ma.The Nd isotopic composition of ancient seawater and that of the sediment detrital component appear to be strongly correlated for some specific events. A first evidence occurs between 20 and 15 Ma with two positive spikes recorded in both ?Nd signals that are clearly induced by a volcanic crisis of, most likely, the St. Paul hot-spot. A second evidence is the very large ?Nd decrease recorded at ODP Sites 756 and 762 during the past 10 Ma which has never been previously observed. The synchronism between the ?Nd decrease in seawater from 10 to 5 Ma and evidences of desertification in the western part of the nearly Australian continent suggests enhanced weathering inputs in this ocean from this continent as a result of climatic changes.

Le Houedec, Sandrine; Meynadier, Laure; Allègre, Claude J.

2012-04-01

165

mtDNA variation in caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Various anthropological analyses have documented extensive regional variation among populations on the subcontinent of India using morphological, protein, blood group, and nuclear DNA polymorphisms. These patterns are the product of complex population structure (genetic drift, gene flow) and a population history noted for numerous branching events. As a result, the interpretation of relationships among caste populations of South India and between Indians and continental populations remains controversial. The Hindu caste system is a general model of genetic differentiation among endogamous populations stratified by social forces (e.g., religion and occupation). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has unique properties that facilitate the exploration of population structure. We analyzed 36 Hindu men born in Andhra Pradesh who were unrelated matrilineally through at least 3 generations and who represent 4 caste populations: Brahmin (9), Yadava (10), Kapu (7), and Relli (10). Individuals from Africa (36), Asia (36), and Europe (36) were sampled for comparison. A 200-base-pair segment of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS2) of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in all individuals. In the Indian castes 25 distinct haplotypes are identified. Aside from the Cambridge reference sequence, only two haplotypes are shared between caste populations. Middle castes form a highly supported cluster in a neighbor-joining network. Mean nucleotide diversity within each caste is 0.015, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.012 for the Brahmin, Yadava, Kapu, and Relli, respectively. mtDNA variation is highly structured between castes (GST = 0.17; p < 0.002). The effects of social structure on mtDNA variation are much greater than those on variation measured by traditional markers. Explanations for this discordance include (1) the higher resolving power of mtDNA, (2) sex-dependent gene flow, (3) differences in male and female effective population sizes, and (4) elements of the kinship structure. Thirty distinct haplotypes are found in Africans, 17 in Asians, and 13 in Europeans. Mean nucleotide diversity is 0.019, 0.014, 0.009, and 0.007 for Africans, Indians, Asians, and Europeans, respectively. These populations are highly structured geographically (GST = 0.15; p < 0.001). The caste populations of Andhra Pradesh cluster more often with Africans than with Asians or Europeans. This is suggestive of admixture with African populations. PMID:8907753

Bamshad, M; Fraley, A E; Crawford, M H; Cann, R L; Busi, B R; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B

1996-02-01

166

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at\\u000a birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed\\u000a male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh

Tatiana Zerjal; Arpita Pandya; Kumarasamy Thangaraj; Edmund Y. S. Ling; Jennifer Kearley; Stefania Bertoneri; Silvia Paracchini; Lalji Singh; Chris Tyler-Smith

2007-01-01

167

Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.  

PubMed Central

The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI.

Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

1996-01-01

168

Factors that influence first-career choice of undergraduate engineers in software services companies : A south Indian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify how undergraduate engineering students differ in their perception about software services companies in India based on variables like gender, locations of the college and branches of engineering. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data obtained from 560 undergraduate engineering students who had the opportunity to have multiple job offers from four major Indian software

V. K. Gokuladas

2010-01-01

169

Community-based household waste management: Lessons learnt from EXNORA's ‘zero waste management’ scheme in two South Indian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two case studies on the efforts by a community-based organisation to promote a sustainable integrated waste management system in Indian mega cities. This effort was initiated in 1989 by a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) called EXNORA and is based on a ‘zero waste management scheme’ set up, run and financed by the residents themselves. As this model

Marine Colon; Ben Fawcett

2006-01-01

170

Guild structure, diversity and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung in South Western Ghats forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity, guild structure and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung is described in a deciduous forest site in Western Ghats, a hot spot of diversity in India. Dung beetles were collected using baited pitfall traps and from exposed dung pats in the forest at intervals of 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 and 21 days. Twenty-one dung

Thomas K. Sabu; K. V. Vinod; P. J. Vineesh

2006-01-01

171

Predictors of Nonadherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-Infected South Indians in Clinical Care: Implications for Developing Adherence Interventions in Resource-Limited Settings  

PubMed Central

Abstract In light of the increasing availability of generic highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in India, further data are needed to examine variables associated with HAART nonadherence among HIV-infected Indians in clinical care. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 198 HIV-infected South Indian men and women between January and April 2008 receiving first-line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based HAART. Nonadherence was defined as taking less than 95% of HAART doses in the last 1 month, and was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Half of the participants reported less than 95% adherence to HAART, and 50% had been on HAART for more than 24 months. The median CD4?cell count was 435?cells per microliter. An increased odds of nonadherence was found for participants with current CD4?cell counts greater than 500?cells per microliter (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.22 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.04–4.75]; p?=?0.038), who were on HAART for more than 24 months (AOR: 3.07 [95% CI: 1.35–7.01]; p?=?0.007), who reported alcohol use (AOR: 5.68 [95%CI: 2.10-15.32]; p?=?0.001), who had low general health perceptions (AOR: 3.58 [95%CI: 1.20-10.66]; p?=?0.021), and who had high distress (AOR: 3.32 [95%CI: 1.19-9.26]; p?=?0.022). This study documents several modifiable risk factors for nonadherence in a clinic population of HIV-infected Indians with substantial HAART experience. Further targeted culturally specific interventions are needed that address barriers to optimal adherence.

Venkatesh, Kartik K.; Srikrishnan, A.K.; Kumarasamy, N.; Raminani, Sudha; Thamburaj, E.; Prasad, Lakshmi; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Solomon, Suniti; Safren, Steven A.

2010-01-01

172

Die Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Mechanical properties of creep resistant zinc die casting alloys; Studies on a gravity die cast zinc base alloy; Parashot system for turbulence-free injection of metal; Zinc--the versatile metal; Prevention of metal dribble on hot chamber die ca...

1977-01-01

173

Investment casting  

SciTech Connect

Materials and manufacturing technologies for investment casting have made impressive gains over the past several years, resulting in higher productivity, shorter lead times, and superior castings. To improve efficiency, investment casters have applied total quality control methods, new management concepts, and computer controls. Management and production efficiency improvements have been critical factors in maintaining and expanding market share.

Bidwell, H.T. [Investment Casting Inst., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-04-01

174

FMR1 Haplotype Analysis among Indian Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyse fragile X mental retardation 1 haplotypes among non-fragile X males from different Indian caste-based communities in order to enable inter-community comparisons to be made and permit wider comparisons with other ethnic groups. Subjects and Methods: Males (n = 124) from four major Hindu castes (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras) and the Indian Muslim community were typed using

B. K. Thelma; D. Sharma

2002-01-01

175

Genotypes of hepatitis C virus in the Indian sub-continent: A decade-long experience from a tertiary care hospital in South India.  

PubMed

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease (CLD) that can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Genotypes of HCV can vary in pathogenicity and can impact on treatment outcome. Objectives: To study the different genotypes among patients with HCV related CLD attending a tertiary care hospital in south India during 2002-2012. Study Design: Study subjects were those referred to clinical virology from the liver clinic. Genotyping was performed using the genotype specific core primers in nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 5' non-coding regions based PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism and NS5B sequencing methods. With the latter method, obtained sequences were compared with published GenBank sequences to determine the genotype. Results: Of the 451 samples tested, HCV genotype 3 was found to be the most predominant (63.85%). Other genotypes detected were genotype 1 (25.72%), genotype 2 (0.002%), genotype 4 (7.5%) and genotype 6 (2.7%). Genotype 3 was the common genotype in patients from Eastern India while genotype 1 and 4 were mainly seen in South Indian patients. Genotype 6 was seen exclusively in patients from North-Eastern India. Two other patients were infected with recombinants of genotype 1 and 2. Conclusions: In this study spanning a decade, HCV genotype 3 and genotype 1 were found to be the predominant genotypes in the Indian sub-continent. Genotype 4 and genotype 6 appeared to show some geographic restriction. A continued monitoring of HCV genotypes is essential for the optimum management of these chronically infected patients. In addition, knowledge of circulating genotypes could impact on future vaccine formulations. PMID:24064640

Christdas, J; Sivakumar, J; David, J; Daniel, Hdj; Raghuraman, S; Abraham, P

176

Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

Atyame, Célestine M; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

2011-12-20

177

Post-collisional, K-rich mafic magmatism in south Tibet: constraints on Indian slab-to-wedge transport processes and plateau uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-collisional (23-8 Ma), potassium-rich (including ultrapotassic and potassic) mafic magmatic rocks occur within the north-south-trending Xuruco lake-Dangre Yongcuo lake (XDY) rift in the Lhasa terrane of the southern Tibetan Plateau, forming an approximately 130-km-long semi-continuous magmatic belt. They include both extrusive and intrusive facies. Major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data are presented for all of the known exposures within the XDY rift. The potassium-rich, mafic igneous rocks are characterized by high MgO (5.9-10.8 wt.%), K2O (4.81-10.68 wt.%), Ba (1,782-5,618 ppm) and Th (81.3-327.4 ppm) contents, and relatively high SiO2 (52.76-58.32 wt.%) and Al2O3 (11.10-13.67 wt.%). Initial Sr isotopic compositions are extremely radiogenic (0.712600-0.736157), combined with low (206Pb/204Pb) i (18.28-18.96) and (143Nd/144Nd) i (0.511781-0.512046). Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns display relatively weak negative Eu anomalies. Primitive mantle-normalized incompatible trace element patterns exhibit strong enrichments in large ion lithophile elements relative to high-field-strength elements and display strongly negative Ta-Nb-Ti anomalies. The combined major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics of the K-rich igneous rocks suggest that the primitive magmas were produced by 1-10 % partial melting of an asthenospheric mantle source enriched by both fluids and partial melts derived from Indian passive continental margin sediments subducted into the shallow mantle as a consequence of the northward underthrusting of the Indian continental lithosphere beneath Tibet since the India-Asia collision at ~55 Ma. The best-fit model results indicate that a melt with trace element characteristics similar to those of the K-rich rocks could be generated by 8-10 % partial melting of a metasomatized mantle source in the south and 1-2 % melting in the north of the XDY rift. Trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic modeling indicate that the proportion of fluid derived from the subducted sediments, for which we use as a proxy the Higher Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (HHCS), in the mantle source region increases from north (rear-arc) to south (front-arc), ranging from 0 to 5 %, respectively. Correspondingly, the proportion of the melt derived from the subducted HHCS in the source increases from north (2 %) to south (15 %). The increasing proportion of the fluid and melt component in the mantle source from north to south, together with a southward decreasing trend in the age of the K-rich magmatism within the XDY rift, is inferred to reflect rollback of the subducted Indian lithospheric mantle slab during the period 25-8 Ma. Slab rollback may be linked to a decreasing convergence rate between India and Asia. As a consequence of slab rollback at 25 Ma beneath the Lhasa terrane, its geodynamic setting was transformed from a convergent (55-25 Ma) to an extensional (25-8 Ma) regime. The occurrence of K-rich magmatism during the period 25-8 Ma is a consequence of the decompression melting of an enriched mantle source, which may signal the onset of extension in the southern Tibetan Plateau and provide a petrological record of the extension process.

Guo, Zhengfu; Wilson, Marjorie; Zhang, Maoliang; Cheng, Zhihui; Zhang, Lihong

2013-06-01

178

The prevalence, patterns of usage and people's attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among the Indian community in Chatsworth, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine, among the Indian community of Chatsworth, South Africa, the prevalence and utilisation patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), attitudes associated with CAM use and communication patterns of CAM users with their primary care doctors. Methods Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted in Chatsworth, a suburb of Durban in which South Africans of Indian origin predominantly reside. Participants were 200 randomly selected adult English-speaking Indian residents. Results The prevalence of CAM usage for period 2000/2001 was 38.5% (95% confidence interval 31.7% to 45.6%). Spiritual healing and herbal/natural medicines, including vitamins were the most common types of CAM used, accounting for 42.8% and 48.1% respectively of overall CAM usage. People used CAM to treat conditions including diabetes mellitus, headaches, arthritis and joint pains, stress, skin disorders, backaches, hypertension and nasal disorders. Half of the CAM users used allopathic medicines concurrently. The cost of CAM utilization over this 1-year period, incurred by 80.5% of users for the duration of therapy for their most troublesome condition was below R500 (approximately US$50). Age, sex, marital status, religion, level of education and income were shown not to influence the use of CAM. Greater than half (51.9%) of CAM users did so either upon the advice of someone they knew, or after noticing a CAM advertisement in the local press. Seventy-nine percent of CAM users indicated that they had positive outcomes with their treatments. Fifty four percent of CAM users (excluding those using spiritual healing only) failed to inform their doctors that they used CAM. The main reason given by half of this group was that informing their doctors did not seem necessary. Conclusion The prevalence of CAM in Chatsworth is similar to findings in other parts of the world. Although CAM was used to treat many different ailments, this practice could not be attributed to any particular demographic profile. The majority of CAM users were satisfied with the effects of CAM. Findings support a need for greater integration of allopathic medicine and CAM, as well as improved communication between patients and caregivers regarding CAM usage.

Singh, Vimal; Raidoo, Deshandra M; Harries, Catherine S

2004-01-01

179

Alu Polymorphic Insertions Reveal Genetic Structure of North Indian Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations

Manorama Tripathi; Piyush Tripathi; Ugam Kumari Chauhan; Rene J. Herrera; Suraksha Agrawal

2008-01-01

180

Kalinga In South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overseas trade and maritime activities played a significant role in the spread of the glorious Indian civilization abroad. Indians and more specifically the people of Kalinga went to South East Asia and established colonies there. The colonizing activity of the ancient Indians was distinctive in several respects. The Indians wherever they went, settled down there, absorbed some of the cultural

Benudhar Patra

181

Measuring pregnancy planning: An assessment of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy among urban, south Indian women  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the psychometric properties of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy among Indian women using classical methods and Item Response Modeling. The scale exhibited good internal consistency and internal structure, with overall scores correlating well with each item’s response categories. Items performed similarly for pregnant and non-pregnant women, and scores decreased with increasing parity, providing evidence for validity. Analyses also detected limitations, including infrequent selection of middle response categories and some evidence of differential item functioning by parity. We conclude that the LMUP represents an improvement over existing measures but recommend steps for enhancing scale performance for this cultural context.

Rocca, Corinne H.; Krishnan, Suneeta; Barrett, Geraldine; Wilson, Mark

2010-01-01

182

Gender norms in South Africa: implications for HIV and pregnancy prevention among African and Indian women students at a South African tertiary institution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In post?Apartheid South Africa, women are constitutionally guaranteed protections and freedoms that were previously unknown to them. These freedoms may have positive implications for women's ability to negotiate sexual protection with partners and hence prevent unintended pregnancy and decrease their risk of HIV. Among tertiary institution students, who are a relatively ‘privileged’ group, there is little information on gender norms

Joanne E. Mantell; Sarah L. Needham; Jennifer Ann Smit; Susie Hoffman; Queen Cebekhulu; Theresa M. Exner; Zonke Mabude; Mags Beksinska; Zena A. Stein; Cecilia Milford

2009-01-01

183

Is a Theory of Caste still Possible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of caste must offer a way of ordering the facts in such a way that it does not diminish the significance of some or ignore others. It must also be comparative. Caste organization is found in some parts of South Asia but not all. Equally, structural parallels may be found in many other parts of the world and

Declan Quigley

2002-01-01

184

WATCHING INDIAN MOVIES IN AUSTRALIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws on a body of interviews conducted during 2003–04 with movie?viewers, distributors and exhibitors of Indian movies in Australia, primarily in the Sydney region of New South Wales. My immediate concern is with the manner in which Indian movies reach an audience in Australia and how that audience is described, both by themselves and by those who seek

Adrian Athique

2005-01-01

185

R/V Sonne Cruise SO199 CHRISP: New Insights Into the Geodynamic History of northern Wharton Basin (South-East Indian Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology of the northern Wharton Basin (South-East Indian Ocean) is dominated by the Investigator Ridge, a ~1800 km long, N-S striking fracture zone and a huge (~1800 x 600 km) submarine volcanic province of unknown origin which includes Cocos/Keeling Islands, Muirfield Seamount, Vening Meinesz Seamounts, Christmas Island, and many unnamed seamounts further south and east. From August 3 through September 22, 2008, RV Sonne cruise SO199 CHRISP (short for Christmas Island Seamount Province) conducted extensive multi-beam mapping and the first systematic hard rock sampling of these features. Age and geochemical data from samples obtained on cruise SO199 aim to contribute to the ongoing debates (1) on the origin of the enriched composition of the Indian Mantle Domain and (2) on the origin of intraplate volcanism in the northern Wharton Basin. Mapping of ~1300 km of the Investigator Ridge revealed a steep west-facing scarp along most of the fracture zone, suggesting recent reactivation related to the presently diffuse but developing new plate boundary between the eastern (Australian) and the western (Indian) parts of the Indo-Australian Plate. Faulted sediments and north-south oriented ravines and asymmetric tops of seamounts adjacent to the ridge imply left-lateral reactivation of older seafloor fractures, consistent with the regional tectonic picture in which Australia is continuing to move northwards whereas India has been stuck since colliding with Asia. The multi- beam data also suggest that the largest intraplate earthquake ever recorded (on June 18, 2000 near the Cocos/Keeling Islands; mag. 7.8) may be related to a reactivated fracture zone just west of the Investigator Ridge. Sampling along the ridge at ~100km intervals yielded a spectacular array of rock types (e.g., lavas, sheeted dikes, mafic and felsic intrusives, layered cumulates, serpentinites), representing a full cross section through the ocean crust into the upper mantle. Particularly surprising is that a magnetic profile just east but subparallel to the southern half of the Investigator Ridge, over crust previously believed to be formed during the Cretaceous Magnetic Quiet Zone, showed anomalies suggesting that this crust was formed in the Jurassic, consistent with the 6000 m deep seafloor in this area. At time of submission of this abstract, surveys of the "Christmas Island Seamount Province" were still ongoing. First samples from about 15 seamounts comprise mafic and evolved lavas and a wide range of volcaniclastic rocks. Guyot-type seamounts, representing former island volcanoes, occur frequently. The present depth of their erosional platforms imply different ages of these volcanoes and non-uniform subsidence rates of ~2500 to 1200 m. Uneroded volcanic cones on the guyot platforms as well as uneroded seamounts being higher than the guyots indicate revival of volcanic activity after subsidence of the guyots below sea level, being inconsistent with a stationary plume source below a moving plate.

Werner, R.; Hoernle, K.; Hauff, F.; Heydolph, K.; Barckhausen, U.; Scientific Party, S.

2008-12-01

186

Reliability of inter-anterior superior iliac spinous distance as compared to foot length for stature estimation in South Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of stature from isolated body parts is especially important to forensic scientists and anthropologists. The aims of this study were, to evaluate the accuracy of inter-anterior superior iliac spinous distance in determining stature of an individual as compared to foot length, and to note sex differences in the above mentioned parameters.One hundred normal healthy adult subjects from South India

S. Nachiket; N. Sujatha; R. Priya; V. Raveendranath; D. Rema; R. Roopa

2010-01-01

187

Music Education and Minority Groups Cultural and Musical Identities in the "Newer" South Africa: White Afrikaners and Indians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Music Education, as well as cultural and musical identities are all being renegotiated, post-Apartheid, within the so-called "newer" rather than the commonly known "new" South Africa. The developing situation with certain minority groups is particularly interesting. Education in general has undergone much change since the first democratic…

Joseph, Dawn; van Niekerk, Caroline

2007-01-01

188

African, southern Indian and South American cratons were not part of the Rodinia supercontinent: evidence from field relationships and geochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the question whether the late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic rocks of eastern, central and southern Africa, Madagascar, southern India, Sri Lanka and South America have played any role in the formation and dispersal of the supercontinent Rodinia, believed to have existed between about 1000 and 750 Ma ago. First, there is little evidence for the production of significant

Alfred Kröner; Umberto Cordani

2003-01-01

189

Special Casting Techniques (Chapter 9).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Special casting techniques are progressive production methods. These casting techniques include the following: metal mold casting (chill mold casting), shell-mold casting, investment casting, centrifugal casting, and others. Each of these methods of casti...

N. P. Dubinin

1965-01-01

190

Latin America's Racial Caste System: Salient Marketing Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American societies are structured in a fuzzy racial caste system. Whites are at the top. Next are individuals of mixed European and Indian or mixed European and African ancestry, the Mestizos and the Mulattos, respectively. At the bottom are the Indians and the blacks. Integral to this system is an overt preference for European appearance and, among many whites,

Rutilio Martinez

191

BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation analysis among Indian women from south India: identification of four novel mutations and high-frequency occurrence of 185delAG mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes profoundly increase the risk of developing breast and\\/or ovarian cancer among women. To explore the contribution of\\u000a BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the development of hereditary breast cancer among Indian women, we carried out mutation analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 61 breast or ovarian cancer patients from south India with

Kannan Vaidyanathan; Smita Lakhotia; H. M. Ravishankar; Umaira Tabassum; Geetashree Mukherjee; Kumaravel Somasundaram

2009-01-01

192

An interdisciplinary approach to controlling chikungunya outbreaks on French islands in the south-west Indian ocean.  

PubMed

The outbreak of chikungunya that occurred on French Island territories in the southwest Indian Ocean in 2005 and 2006 caused severe morbidity and mortality. In the aftermath, French authorities set up a scientific task force including experts in epidemiology, public health, entomology, virology, immunology, sociology, animal health, community and hospital medicine. The mission of the task force was to conceive and propose research programs needed to increase understanding of the disease and epidemic and to help public health officials in improving epidemic response measures. The purpose of this article is to describe the findings of the task force at the end of its two-year existence and initial outcomes in the the areas studied. Discussion emphasizes topics requiring further study. PMID:22693932

Flahault, A; Aumont, G; Boisson, V; de Lamballerie, X; Favier, F; Fontenille, D; Journeaux, S; Lotteau, V; Paupy, C; Sanquer, M A; Setbon, M; Gaüzere, B A

2012-03-01

193

GPS derived spatial ionospheric total electron content variation over South-Indian latitudes during intense geomagnetic storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geomagnetic storms are turbulence in geomagnetic field when interplanetary magnetic field driven by solar wind move southward and continue for extended period of time. Although these occur less frequently, but may energize ionospheric electrons and particles adversely affecting ground- and space-based electronic systems. Ionosphere at higher latitude is more prone to geomagnetic storms. Over lower latitude region like Indian sub-continent, the effect is less prominent but still can exhibit many distinctive effects like scintillations, equatorial ionization anomaly, fountain effect and equatorial electrojets. The increased numbers of free electrons in ionosphere introduce delays in global positioning system (GPS) satellite signals resulting in errors during GPS positioning. In a dual frequency GPS receiver, the line integral of free electron density along the pathway of signal through the ionosphere (i.e., Total Electron Content, TEC) can be measured. In this present paper, GPS observation data of three low latitude GPS stations in India located at Bangalore, Hyderabad and Mumbai during four severe geomagnetic storms from 2003-2005, are processed to measure ionospheric TEC during the events. The measured TEC at each of the station is compared with quietest days of the months to investigate its abnormal changes in responses to severe geomagnetic storms. The consequences of TEC variation is analyzed and correlated with interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz), geomagnetic Kp and Dst-indices to study its behavioral changes during the storms. Eventually the aim of the study is to estimate the influence of ionospheric condition on GPS positioning to devise suitable method for accurate position measurements in the low latitude Indian region.

Panda, Sampad K.; Gedam, Shirishkumar S.

2012-10-01

194

Prevalence, intensity and risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth infection in a South Indian fishing village  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the prevalence, intensity and risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth infection was undertaken among school children aged 5–9 years attending a primary school in the fishing village in Peda Jalaripet, Visakhapatnam, South India. One hundred and eighty nine (92.6%) of 204 children were infected with one or more soil transmitted helminth parasites. The predominant parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides

S Naish; J McCarthy; G. M Williams

2004-01-01

195

Use of web technology in providing information services by south Indian technological universities as displayed on library websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to discuss the present status of using new generation web technology, social media and Web 2.0 features among the technological university library websites in south India. It seeks to assess the library websites as a primary platform and one-stop portal for information services and to examine how much library websites are effective in providing web-based

Preedip Balaji B; Vinit Kumar

2011-01-01

196

Establishing a Patient Navigator Program to Reduce Cancer Disparities in the American Indian Communities of Western South Dakota: Initial Observations and Results  

PubMed Central

Background American Indians (AIs) in the Northern Plains region suffer disproportionately high cancer mortality rates compared with the general US population and with AIs from other regions in the United States. Methods The National Cancer Institute developed the Cancer Disparity Research Partnership to address these inequities. This initiative in Rapid City, South Dakota, attempts to lower cancer mortality rates for AIs by access to innovative clinical trials, behavioral research, and a genetic study. Patient navigation is a critical part of the program. Two navigation strategies are described: navigators at the cancer center and navigators on each reservation. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine if navigated patients (n = 42) undergoing potentially curative radiotherapy had fewer treatment interruptions compared with nonnavigated patients (n = 74). Results A total of 213 AIs with cancer have undergone patient navigation. For those undergoing cancer treatment, the median number of patient navigation interactions was 15 (range 1 to 95), whereas for those seen in follow-up after their cancer treatment, the median number of contacts was 4 (range 1 to 26). AIs who received navigation services during curative radiation treatment had on average 3 fewer days of treatment interruptions compared to AIs who did not receive navigation services during curative radiation treatment (P = .002, N = 116). Conclusions Early findings suggest that patient navigation is a critical component in addressing cancer disparities in this population. The program has established trust with individual cancer patients, with the tribal councils, and with the general population on each of the three reservations of western South Dakota.

Petereit, Daniel G.; Molloy, Kevin; Reiner, Mary L.; Helbig, Petra; Cina, Kristin; Miner, Raylene; Rost, Catherine; Conroy, Patricia; Roberts, Chester R.

2008-01-01

197

Glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and insulin secretion in young south Indian adults; relationships to parental size, neonatal size and childhood body mass index  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the relationship of newborn size and post-natal growth to glucose intolerance in south Indian adults. Research design and Methods 2,218 men and women (mean age 28 years) were studied from a population-based birth cohort born in a large town and adjacent rural villages. The prevalence of adult diabetes mellitus [DM] and impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], and insulin resistance and insulin secretion (calculated) were examined in relation to BMI and height at birth, and in infancy, childhood and adolescence and changes in BMI and height between these stages. Results Sixty-two (2.8%) subjects had type 2 diabetes (DM) and 362 (16.3%) had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). IGT and DM combined (IGT/DM) and insulin resistance were associated with low childhood body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001 for both) and above-average BMI gain between childhood or adolescence and adult life (p<0.001 for both). There were no direct associations between birthweight or infant size and IGT/DM; however, after adjusting for adult BMI, lower birthweight was associated with an increased risk. Conclusions The occurrence of IGT and Type 2 DM is associated with thinness at birth and in childhood followed by accelerated BMI gain through adolescence.

Raghupathy, Palany; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Geethanjali, Finney S; Saperia, Julia; Leary, Samantha D; Priya, G; Richard, Joseph; Barker, David JP; Fall, Caroline HD

2012-01-01

198

Adiponectin levels in south Indian children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and nondiabetic children and its correlation with anthropometry and glycemic control.  

PubMed

Studies have reported high adiponectin levels in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Adiponectin has been found to have anti-atherogenic action and other protective functions. We wanted to estimate adiponectin level in south Indian T1DM children and compare it with that of non-diabetic children and study its correlation with anthropometry and glycemic status. Sixty children with T1DM and forty non-diabetic children of age less than 15 years were analysed. Mean adiponectin level was higher in T1DM group than in non diabetic group (p < 0.001) irrespective of the age group or sex. Negative correlation was observed between SFT- triceps and adiponectin in diabetic and control group. Multiple regression coefficient analysis of various parameters showed SFT- triceps as a statistically significant predictor of adiponectin level (p = 0.001). We conclude that, children with T1DM had higher adiponectin level than non-diabetic children. Low SFT- triceps measuremet may be a predictor of higher adiponectin level. PMID:24079077

Solomon, J Ritchie Sharon; Varadarajan, V Poovazhagi

2013-09-01

199

CASTING FURNACES  

DOEpatents

A device is described for casting uranium which comprises a crucible, a rotatable table holding a plurality of molds, and a shell around both the crucible and the table. The bottom of the crucible has an eccentrically arranged pouring hole aligned with one of the molds at a time. The shell can be connected with a vacuum.

Ruppel, R.H.; Winters, C.E.

1961-01-01

200

Project CAST.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

201

Television viewing and sleep are associated with overweight among urban and semi-urban South Indian children  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood obesity is an emerging problem in urban Indian children and increases in childhood overweight and obesity may be major contributors to the adult obesity epidemic. Thus, identifying potential risk factors for childhood obesity and formulating early interventions is crucial in the management of the obesity epidemic. The present study was aimed at evaluating dietary and physical activity patterns as determinants of overweight in a sample of children. Methods Five hundred and ninety eight children aged 6–16 years, visiting St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore City, India for minor complaints or routine checkups were recruited into the study. These children were studied for their physical activity patterns, sleep duration, sedentary habits and eating behaviours as potential determinants of overweight. Results Decreased duration of sleep and increased television viewing were significantly associated with overweight. Among the eating behaviours, increased consumption of fried foods was significantly associated with overweight. Conclusion Our data suggests that duration of sleep, television viewing and consumption of fried foods may be significant factors that contribute to overweight. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Kuriyan, Rebecca; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Thomas, Tinku; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura V

2007-01-01

202

Guild structure, diversity and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung in South Western Ghats forests.  

PubMed

The diversity, guild structure and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung is described in a deciduous forest site in Western Ghats, a hot spot of diversity in India. Dung beetles were collected using baited pitfall traps and from exposed dung pats in the forest at intervals of 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 and 21 days. Twenty-one dung beetle species belonging to the 3 major functional guilds were recorded. Abundance of dwellers was high compared to rollers deviating from earlier reports on the high abundance of rollers in the afrotropical regions. Dweller Drepanocerus setosus and tunneler Onthophagus bronzeus were the most abundant species. Dung pats aged 3-5 days attracted the highest abundance of dung beetles. Bray Curtis similarity index indicated low community similarity between different stages of succession. Species richness and abundance of tunnelers increased with dung age and decreasing moisture up to a threshold level, followed by a decrease. Rollers and dwellers did not show any significant relationship with dung moisture content. Further research is needed to estimate the dung beetle community associated with the dung pats of other mega herbivores as well as of elephant dung in other forests of the Western Ghats. PMID:19537983

Sabu, Thomas K; Vinod, K V; Vineesh, P J

2006-01-01

203

6. DETAIL, STATUTE OF FEMALE INDIAN IN NICHE AT SECOND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL, STATUTE OF FEMALE INDIAN IN NICHE AT SECOND FLOOR LEVEL, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Administration Building, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

204

7. DETAIL, BAS RELIEF OF INDIAN HEAD, SECOND FLOOR LEVEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL, BAS RELIEF OF INDIAN HEAD, SECOND FLOOR LEVEL ABOVE NICHE, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Administration Building, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

205

5. DETAIL, STATUE OF MALE INDIAN IN NICHE AT SECOND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL, STATUE OF MALE INDIAN IN NICHE AT SECOND FLOOR LEVEL, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Administration Building, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

206

Reliability of inter-anterior superior iliac spinous distance as compared to foot length for stature estimation in South Indians.  

PubMed

Estimation of stature from isolated body parts is especially important to forensic scientists and anthropologists. The aims of this study were, to evaluate the accuracy of inter-anterior superior iliac spinous distance in determining stature of an individual as compared to foot length, and to note sex differences in the above mentioned parameters. One hundred normal healthy adult subjects from South India consisting of 50 males and 50 females were studied. The height, interspinous distance, and foot length of the subjects were measured. The mean and standard deviation of the height, interspinous distance, foot length and proportions of interspinous distance and foot length to height were calculated and significance testing done for sex differences. The correlation between stature and interspinous distance and stature and foot length was estimated, and linear regression equations for stature estimation were calculated. The height, interspinous distance and foot length were significantly greater in males. The proportion of interspinous distance to stature was significantly greater in females. Foot length showed a stronger positive correlation with stature compared to interspinous distance. When the sexes were considered separately the accuracy of stature estimation from interspinous distance increased greatly. Though interspinous distance is not as reliable as foot length in stature estimation, it could provide valuable data regarding the stature when isolated pelvises are available. PMID:20650428

Nachiket, S; Sujatha, N; Priya, R; Raveendranath, V; Rema, D; Roopa, R

2010-06-09

207

Evaluation of Body Mass Index (BMI) Percentile cut-off Levels with Reference to Insulin Resistance: A Comparative Study on South Indian Obese and Non-Obese Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the relationship of Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile cut off with Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), a surrogate marker for insulin resistance in obese, overweight and non–obese adolescents. Study Design: A cross-sectional analysis of 120 adolescents (divided into sixty overweight/obese and an equal number of non–obese) was performed on nondiabetic, nonpregnant (11 to 18 year old school going) adolescents in south Indian (Puducherry) population. The main outcome measure of insulin resistance was calculated as HOMA-IR (greater than 3.16). Obesity was defined as per the BMI criteria, BMI greater than or equal to 95th percentile,overweight greater than or equal to 85th percentile and non–obese less than 84.9th percentile. All adolescents were subjected to analysis of anthropometric parameters that included weight, height and BMI (body mass index). Biochemical parameters, namely venous plasma glucose (fasting) and venous plasma insulin (fasting) were included for insulin resistance calculation by HOMA-IR. Results: Having a BMI of greater than or equal to 85th percentilewas associated with high HOMA-IR levels. As the BMI percentile increased, HOMA-IR levels also increased. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of less than 84.9 was nil. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of 85-94.9 was 26%.Prevalence of insulin resistance for BMI of greater than or equal to 95th percentile was 64%. Conclusion: Insulin resistance is highly prevalent in obese and overweight adolescents as compared to that in non–obese adolescents. The onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) is associated with the development of severe hyper–insulinaemia in obese adolescents and early primordial and primary prevention can thus alleviate the burden of future cardiometabolic disorders.

Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; M., Lenin; Srinivasan, A.R.

2013-01-01

208

Frequency variations in the methylated pattern of p73/p21 genes and chromosomal aberrations correlating with different grades of glioma among south Indian population.  

PubMed

Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in India. The main epigenetic modification in glioma is aberrant DNA methylation that is now renowned to be a common hallmark of brain tumors. This study was designed to determine the frequency of aberrant CpG island methylation in the promoter regions of p21 and p73 in different grades of glioma and to explore their respective chromosomal aberrations. Total of 160 patients with histologically confirmed grades of glioma (I, II, III, and IV) were included in the study. DNA samples from blood and brain tissues, including benign lesions were subjected to sodium bisulfite conversion and hypermethylation detection using methylation-specific PCR followed by RT-PCR. Western blotting was also carried out for p21 and its related protein, p53. A total of 124 of 160 glioma samples (77.5%) displayed CpG island hypermethylation of both p73, p21 genes associated with the loss of mRNA expression (P < 0.001) and the loss of protein expressions (p53 independent p21 expression). p73 gene showed increased methylation frequency in all grades, 40 of 60 (66%) glioblastomas and 16 of 30 (53.3%) anaplastic astrocytoma, 10 of 20(50%) oligodendrogliomas, 8 of 20 (40%) ependymoma, and low-grade glioma 6 of 20 (30%). The percentage of methylation significantly well correlated with the overall survival and also with chromosomal loss. Thus, the studied glioma patients among south Indians showed a high frequency of aberrant methylation with varied chromosomal signatures in different grades, playing a role in aggressiveness and characterization of a particular grade, the appreciation of which might help for designing a specific therapy. PMID:20844987

Palani, Mahalakshmi; Devan, Sabarinathan; Arunkumar, R; Vanisree, A J

2010-09-16

209

[Rebus Reading Book Series: A Product of a Project to Create Stories and Beginning Reading Material for Pre-School Indian Children in South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Rebus Reading Book Series" in this document consists of 10 booklets, each containing an illustrated story adopted from an Indian folk tale. The booklets, intended for use as supplementary readers, are designed to introduce readers in grades 1.7 to 2.2 to Indian cultural history as well as to improve use of English by building larger speaking…

Webster, Loraine; Schleif, Mabel

210

[Rebus Reading Book Series: A Product of a Project to Create Stories and Beginning Reading Material for Pre-School Indian Children in South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Rebus Reading Book Series" in this document consists of 10 booklets, each containing an illustrated story adopted from an Indian folk tale. The booklets, intended for use as supplementary readers, are designed to introduce readers in grades 1.7 to 2.2 to Indian cultural history as well as to improve use of English by building larger speaking…

Webster, Loraine; Schleif, Mabel

211

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India.  

PubMed

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh and 86 from the rest of India. We typed 131 Y-chromosomal binary markers and 16 microsatellites. We find striking evidence for male substructure: in particular, Brahmins and Kshatriyas (but not other castes) from Jaunpur each show low diversity and the predominance of a single distinct cluster of haplotypes. These findings confirm the genetic isolation and drift within the Jaunpur upper castes, which are likely to result from founder effects and social factors. In the other castes, there may be either larger effective population sizes, or less strict isolation, or both. PMID:17075717

Zerjal, Tatiana; Pandya, Arpita; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Ling, Edmund Y S; Kearley, Jennifer; Bertoneri, Stefania; Paracchini, Silvia; Singh, Lalji; Tyler-Smith, Chris

2006-10-31

212

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India  

PubMed Central

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh and 86 from the rest of India. We typed 131 Y-chromosomal binary markers and 16 microsatellites. We find striking evidence for male substructure: in particular, Brahmins and Kshatriyas (but not other castes) from Jaunpur each show low diversity and the predominance of a single distinct cluster of haplotypes. These findings confirm the genetic isolation and drift within the Jaunpur upper castes, which are likely to result from founder effects and social factors. In the other castes, there may be either larger effective population sizes, or less strict isolation, or both.

Zerjal, Tatiana; Pandya, Arpita; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Ling, Edmund Y. S.; Kearley, Jennifer; Bertoneri, Stefania; Paracchini, Silvia; Singh, Lalji; Tyler-Smith, Chris

2008-01-01

213

Cast Aluminum Structures Technology, Phase III (Cast).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of CAST is to establish the necessary structural and manufacturing technologies and to demonstrate the validate the integrity, producibility, and viability of cast aluminum primary airframe structures. The baseline design is the AMST prototy...

D. Goehler

1978-01-01

214

American Indian Studies: A Bibliographic Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book lists sources of information available on Native Americans in the United States, Canada, and Alaska. Some sources also include information on native Hawaiians, Indians of Mexico, and Indians of Central and South America. The purpose of the guide is to provide researchers with direction and organization for selecting and using the best…

White, Phillip M.

215

A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

2012-01-01

216

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds Bethlehem Steel Corporation, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

217

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

218

10. Detail view of decorative cast and wrought iron railing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Detail view of decorative cast and wrought iron railing on pedestrian walkway. Jack Boucher, photographer, 1977 - Neshanic Station Lenticular Truss Bridge, State Route 567, spanning South Branch of Raritan River, Neshanic Station, Somerset County, NJ

219

Village and Tribal Genetic Distances among American Indians, and the Possible Implications for Human Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pair-wise genetic distances based on six genetic systems (Rh, MNSs, Kidd, Duffy, Diego, and haptoglobins) are presented for seven villages of Makiritare Indians, seven villages of Yanomama Indians, and 12 Indian tribes of Central and South America. It is shown that the mean genetic distance between Indian villages is 85-90 per cent of the distance between tribes. Since in the

James V. Neel; Richard H. Ward

1970-01-01

220

Indian Calendars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian calendars are interesting, but very complicated. Indians use both solar and lunisolar calendars. The solar calendars follow the sidereal year. The lunisolar calendars are of two types; some have months that run from new Moon to new Moon, while some have months that run from full Moon to full Moon. Leap months are a common feature of these

221

Indian Legends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

222

Keeping up with the Vaishyas? Caste and relative standing in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

People care about relative, and not only absolute, income. This paper investigates the importance of relative income within and between castes in the Indian caste system, using a choice experimental approach. The results indicate that slightly more than half of the marginal utility of income comes from some kind of relative income effects, on average. This is comparable to the

Fredrik Carlsson; Gautam Gupta; Olof Johansson-Stenman

2009-01-01

223

An Indian in White America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In his autobiography, Mark Monroe relates his life experiences as a Lakota Sioux Indian in White America. The book begins with Monroe reminiscing about his happy childhood on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his father Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his…

Monroe, Mark; Reyer, Carolyn, Ed.

224

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION TO ENSURE MAXIMUM PRODUCTION AND QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

225

Political Stability and Continuity in the Indian States During the Nehru Era, 1947-1964: A Statistical Analysis. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The period of Nehru's administration of India, 1974-1964, is statistically analyzed for political continuity and stability by examining the office terms of chief ministers for the Indian states during that time. After a brief introduction, the document mainly consists of statistical tables. A summary table of percentage turnover of ministers and…

Singh, Baljit; Vajpeyi, Dhirendra K.

226

"I'm Not Indian Anymore": The Challenge of Providing Culturally Sensitive Services to American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents observations and findings from a site visit to Southern Hills Developmental Services (SHDS), an agency providing services to people with disabilities in the South Dakota community of Hot Springs. Half of the people using the services are American Indians. The report discusses the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and traditions…

O'Connor, Susan

227

Titanium Castings Today.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Titanium castings weighing from a few grams to over half a ton are being produced. Three foundries produce castings in rammed graphite molds chiefly for applications where high resistance to corrosion is important. Three other foundries use investment mol...

J. G. Kura

1973-01-01

228

Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-01-01

229

76 FR 78692 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, Bemidji, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Santee Sioux Tribe of South Dakota; Fond du Lac Band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Minnesota...Keweenaw Bay Indian Community, Michigan; Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin; Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior...

2011-12-19

230

LLNL casting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

1994-01-01

231

LLNL casting technology  

SciTech Connect

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III [eds.

1994-01-01

232

Egyptian Caste System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understand the culture, character, and societal characteristics of different classes in the ancient Egyptian caste system Understand the culture, character, and societal characteristics of different classes in the ancient Egyptian caste system Go to these sites to learn about the Egyptian Caste System ...

Issen, Ms.

2009-09-17

233

Advances in aluminum casting technology  

SciTech Connect

This symposium focuses on the improvements of aluminum casting quality and reliability through a better understanding of processes and process variables, and explores the latest innovations in casting-process design that allow increasing use of the castings to replace complex assemblies and heavy steel and cast-iron components in aerospace and automotive applications. Presented are 35 papers by international experts in the various aspects of the subject. The contents include: Semisolid casting; Computer-aided designing of molds and castings; Casting-process modeling; Aluminum-matrix composite castings; HIPing of castings; Progress in the US car project; Die casting and die design; and Solidification and properties.

Tiryakioglu, M.; Campbell, J. (eds.)

1998-01-01

234

99. INTERIOR, THIRD FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, SOUTH END, WESTERN GATES: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

99. INTERIOR, THIRD FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, SOUTH END, WESTERN GATES: INDIAN GATES SCULPTED DOORS (PANEL SHOWING INDIAN WITH SHIELD) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

235

Tape Casting Method and Tape Cast Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A precursor tape casting method is one in which chemical precursors are converted into a final chemical phase from green tapes to products. Because chemical precursors are employed rather than the final powder materials, sintering is not required to form ...

D. Xiao M. Wu S. Hui Y. Zhang

2005-01-01

236

Contradictions in consciousness or variations in tradition: Hindu women in the South African diaspora.  

PubMed

The introductory section of this paper reviews previous studies of the Indian diaspora to show their lack of attention to gender issues. While ideals of Hindu fundamentalism and social conditions imposed by caste are unlikely to be recreated in South Africa, it is proposed that Hindu women in South Africa are custodians of Hindu values. The paper goes on to present a brief history of middle and upper-class Hindu women in South Africa to place them within the context of the Indian diaspora. After describing the fieldwork and methodology (data were gathered from extensive interviews with 20 women representing the four major linguistic groups currently living in Durban), some of the distinctive characteristics of women's experiences and the problems these present because they are either contradictions or variations of conditions in India are discussed. The study then demonstrates that the individual choices made by the women are inconsistent with the apartheid notions of unambiguous social boundaries and also challenge the opposing Marxist perspective that ethnic consciousness is false. It is concluded that cultural adornments and self-imposed limitations on travel and socialization publicize status and ethnic identity and continuity with tradition. Hindu women in South Africa emphasize this continuity through personal beliefs or through the way they present themselves in public. PMID:12292073

Singh, A

1995-10-01

237

Indian Summer  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

238

Alu polymorphic insertions reveal genetic structure of north Indian populations.  

PubMed

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations in North India were examined for 10 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs). The investigated PAIs exhibit high levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity. Limited interpopulation variance and genetic flow in the present study suggest admixture. The results of this study demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, the caste system has not provided an impermeable barrier to genetic exchange among Indian groups. PMID:19341319

Tripathi, Manorama; Tripathi, Piyush; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Herrera, Rene J; Agrawal, Suraksha

2008-10-01

239

Casting Design Knowledge Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has a global competitive advantage in medium-volume engineering-intensive metal products, such as automobile castings. To maintain and enhance this advantage, foundries need to adopt a systematic approach to preserve and reuse their in-house knowledge accumulated through years of experience. In this paper, we present a casting knowledge management system that facilitates: (1) capturing and updating casting knowledge in the

B. Ravi

240

Cast aluminized explosives (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current status and future trends of aluminized explosives. The major focus is on cast compositions,\\u000a which encompass both the melt-cast trinitrotoluene (TNT) based and the slurry cast polymer-based compositions. Widely reported\\u000a RDX and HMX based aluminized compositions with TNT used as a binder are discussed in detail. Various researchers have suggested\\u000a a 15–20% Al content as

P. P. Vadhe; R. B. Pawar; R. K. Sinha; S. N. Asthana; A. Subhananda Rao

2008-01-01

241

Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: inference from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: India is a country with enormous social and cultural diversity due to its positioning on the crossroads of many historic and pre-historic human migrations. The hierarchical caste system in the Hindu society dominates the social structure of the Indian populations. The origin of the caste system in India is a matter of debate with many linguists and anthropologists suggesting

Ismail Thanseem; Kumarasamy Thangaraj; Gyaneshwer Chaubey; Vijay Kumar Singh; Lakkakula VKS Bhaskar; B Mohan Reddy; Alla G Reddy; Lalji Singh

2006-01-01

242

Some Economic Implications of Caste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares outcomes across two types of villages in a poor region of rural India. The two types of villages systematically vary by which caste is dominant, i.e., the caste group which owns the majority of land. The dominant caste is either from an upper caste or a lower backward caste. The key finding is that income is substantially

Siwan Anderson

243

Evolution of halictine castes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social halictine bees have female castes that range from species with no size differences to those with a discrete bimodality. Female caste differences are inversely correlated with the number of males produced in the first brood. It is proposed that the sexual dimorphism of solitary forms is being usurped by the female caste system of species in the process of turning social. Thus, caste differences and summer male suppression are greatest in the social species originating from solitary precursors with distinct sexual dimorphism, and are least in species evolving from solitary ancestors with a continuous sexual polymorphism.

Knerer, Gerd

1980-03-01

244

Cast Aluminum Structures Technology (CAST) Manufacturing Methods--Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of CAST is to establish the necessary structural and manufacturing technologies and to demonstrate and validate the integrity, producibility, and viability of cast aluminum primary airframe structures. The necessary casting foundry practices...

D. D. Goehler R. G. Christner

1978-01-01

245

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

246

INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 24' PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 24' PIPE AND OPERATOR JOHNNY NIXON. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

247

Indian Orphanages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

Holt, Marilyn Irvin

248

Changes in the Food Habits of Asian Indians in the United States: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study focused on acculturation in the food habits of first generation Asian Indian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that: 1) food habits of Asian Indians are changing toward the American pattern; and 2) these changes are directly related to the subject's sex, caste, age, marital status, and duration of exposure…

Gupta, Santosh P.

1975-01-01

249

4. Photocopy of photograph, circa 1930 VIEW NORTH SHOWING SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopy of photograph, circa 1930 VIEW NORTH SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Administration Building, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

250

76 FR 60855 - Regional Tribal Consultation on Implementation of Indian Land Consolidation Program Under Cobell...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting with Indian tribes in Rapid City, South Dakota, to obtain oral and...place on October 26, 2011, in Rapid City, South Dakota. Comments for all...Conference Center, 4300 Southwest Third, Oklahoma City, OK 73108, (405)...

2011-09-30

251

LLNL casting technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from ...

A. B. Shapiro W. J. Comfort

1994-01-01

252

Description of the adult female and male of Naobranchia kabatana n. sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) from Muraenesox bagio (Hamilton) (Muraenesocidae) caught in the Indian Ocean off South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naobranchia Hesse, 1863 is a genus of the family Lernaeopodidae. This report presents an illustrated description of the adult female\\u000a and male of a new species of this genus collected from the gill filaments of Muraenesox bagio (Hamilton) (pike conger) caught off the coast of Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Its morphological features were\\u000a examined using light and scanning electron

Susan M. Dippenaar; Bea P. Jordaan

2008-01-01

253

Expendable Pattern Casting Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expendable pattern casting (EPC) process is a potential casting process breakthrough which could dramatically improve the competitiveness of the U.S. foundry industry. Cooperatively supported by U.S. Industry and the Department of Energy and managed by the American Foundrymen's Society, a project was started in May 1989 to develop and optimize expendable pattern casting technology. Four major tasks were conducted in the first phase of the project. Those tasks involved: (1) reviewing published literature to determine the major problems in the EPC process; (2) evaluating factors influencing sand flow and compaction; (3) evaluating and comparing casting precision obtained in the EPC process with that obtained in other processes; and (4) identifying critical parameters that control dimensional precision and defect formation in EP castings.

1990-07-01

254

48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, SOUTH WALL, DEER STALKING MURAL - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

255

Tiospaye in Engineering and Science: Inculcating a sustained culture for recruiting, retaining, and graduating American Indian students  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the general population of South Dakota is 10 percent American Indian, participation in higher education of this group in South Dakota universities remains relatively low, typically around 1.5 percent. Following best practices developed by American Indian educators and tribal colleges, the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has developed a new program, Tiospaye in Engineering and Science, which

Jacqueline McNeil; Carter Kerk; Stuart Kellogg

2011-01-01

256

Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands  

PubMed Central

The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component) or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B), many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-?s) or betasatellites (DNA-?s). Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs) DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world.

Rey, Marie E. C.; Ndunguru, Joseph; Berrie, Leigh C.; Paximadis, Maria; Berry, Shaun; Cossa, Nurbibi; Nuaila, Valter N.; Mabasa, Ken G.; Abraham, Natasha; Rybicki, Edward P.; Martin, Darren; Pietersen, Gerhard; Esterhuizen, Lindy L.

2012-01-01

257

Diversity of dicotyledenous-infecting geminiviruses and their associated DNA molecules in southern Africa, including the South-west Indian ocean islands.  

PubMed

The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component) or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B), many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-?s) or betasatellites (DNA-?s). Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs) DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world. PMID:23170182

Rey, Marie E C; Ndunguru, Joseph; Berrie, Leigh C; Paximadis, Maria; Berry, Shaun; Cossa, Nurbibi; Nuaila, Valter N; Mabasa, Ken G; Abraham, Natasha; Rybicki, Edward P; Martin, Darren; Pietersen, Gerhard; Esterhuizen, Lindy L

2012-09-24

258

Casting in Sport  

PubMed Central

Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the “least hard” of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.

DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

1994-01-01

259

Clean Metal Casting  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

260

Predictive performance of eGFR equations in South Africans of African and Indian ancestry compared with 99m Tc-DTPA imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  South African guidelines for early detection and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) recommend using the Cockcroft–Gault\\u000a (CG) or Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations for calculating estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)\\u000a with the correction factor, 1.212, included for MDRD-eGFR in black patients. We compared eGFR against technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic\\u000a acid (99mTc-DTPA) imaging.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using clinical records, we retrospectively recorded demographic,

Nomandla D. Madala; Ntombifikile Nkwanyana; Thozama Dubula; Indiran P. Naiker

261

CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE  

DOEpatents

A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

Shuck, A.B.

1958-04-01

262

Women psychiatrists--Indian impetus.  

PubMed

Incredible India is a multicultural, multilingual, multifaceted, country of contradictions, where the women mental health professionals are participating in substantially increasing numbers. Evolving social, cultural and economical factors have facilitated the empowerment of women which is reflected in the health services. The contemporary Indian Woman Medical Professional is liberated, articulate and free. Remunerative employment has decreased economic vulnerability and dependence on men. Her decisions though, from choosing medicine as a vocation, opting for psychiatry, to specializing in a particular field are all coloured by class, caste, sex, region and religion. Cultural expectations and influences set norms for all in a society, dictating the behaviour and attitude of colleagues, superiors, patients, family and that of the psychiatrist herself. Egalitarianism, while on the rise, the long tradition of social hierarchies replicates themselves in professional arenas. An ever increasing number, women are still less than 10% of all Indian psychiatrists. Women psychiatrists continue to be underrepresented as policy makers in most psychiatric organizations and institutes. This article will discuss some of the experiences of the young Indian woman psychiatrist influencing her life architecture. PMID:18833903

Ruksheda, Syeda N

2008-01-01

263

PALEONTOLOGY: Team Rejects Claim of Early Indian Fossils.  

PubMed

A team of Indian paleontologists has failed to find evidence to support a 1998 paper that cast doubt on the earliest claimed dates for the origin of animals. The discovery, if true, would also have made the Vindhyan Mountains, where the fossils were found, much younger than previously thought. PMID:17772987

Bagla, P

2000-08-25

264

Who Should Control Indian Education? A History, Three Case Studies, Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted in 1967 by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development at the request of the National Indian Youth Council, this 1-year study was made on American Indians at the following sites; Loneman, South Dakota; Ponca City, Oklahoma; Crow Agency, Montana; Fort Berthold, North Dakota; Nondalton, Alaska; South Nek Nek, Alaska;…

McKinley, Francis; And Others

265

New approaches in microcasting: permanent mold casting and composite casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, microcasting was based on investment casting. New approaches are now the permanent mold casting and composite\\u000a casting of micro parts. Casting was performed with aluminum bronze of the type CuAl10Ni5Fe4. Permanent mold casting was commenced with steel mold inserts in a lost mold. The development of a band heater enabled the\\u000a heating of permanent molds inside the

G. Baumeister; D. Buqezi-Ahmeti; J. Glaser; H.-J. Ritzhaupt-Kleissl

2011-01-01

266

International Indian Treaty Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is "an organization of indigenous peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific working for the sovereignty and self determination of indigenous peoples." To achieve their broad goals, the IITC works to support networks of indigenous peoples around the world through their policy work in areas that include global trade, women's rights, reproductive health, and the environment. On their homepage, visitors can browse through thematic headings on the left-hand side of the page, such as "Treaty Conferences", "Cultural Rights", "Health/Toxics", and about a dozen additional listings. Visitors should also click on the "Web Content" tab to read flyers, United Nations resolutions, and draft declarations. Also, visitors can sign up to subscribe to the IITC's electronic news updates here.

267

MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

1962-02-27

268

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

Poco, J.F.

1993-09-07

269

Aluminum Fluidity in Casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding and control of fluidity is, and has been, a major aspect of foundry technology development. This paper reviews the progress made in this area over the years as it applies to aluminum castings. As a result of this development, thin-wall, high-integrity aluminum castings which were previously not thought possible have been produced. Further work in this area is expected to allow metal-matrix composites to fulfill their technical and economic promise.

Mollard, Francois R.; Flemings, Merton C.; Niyama, Eisuke F.

1987-11-01

270

Casting critical components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investment casting is an essential processing route for critical rotating and static aero gas turbine components and for a wide spectrum of high integrity parts. These must perform reliably under arduous operating conditions involving high stresses and, frequently, extremely hostile environments. The advanced technology, in-process controls, rigorous specifications, and stringent testing and inspection procedures required for high integrity investment castings are considered along with some examples of the technological 'spin-off' into diverse industry sectors.

McCallum, R.

1982-06-01

271

Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

272

From “ghetto” to mainstream: Bollywood in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores two aspects of the Bollywood “phenomenon” as it has played out, in the past decade, in South Africa — a part of the Indian diaspora where the popularity of Hindi-language Indian cinema has an established history. Firstly, the article maps the expansion of Bollywood beyond the Indian diasporic audience to so-called “crossover” audiences, a phenomenon I have

Haseenah Ebrahim

2008-01-01

273

Indian Education Project, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A product of Michigan's Indian Education Project, this report includes two proposals designed to help meet the educational needs of Michigan American Indian students at various levels. The first of the two feasibility studies includes: a perspective on Michigan's American Indians; problems of Indian education (priorities, roots of the problem,…

Martin, Larry; Morris, Joann

274

American Indians Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

Snipp, C. Matthew

275

The New Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen short vignettes depicting recent incidents involving various forms of aggressiveness and nationalism on the part of Indians are employed by the author to suggest a modern American Indian renaissance, led primarily by articulate, and at times militant, Indian youth who are dissatisfied with the manner in which the American Indian is still…

Steiner, Stan

276

Indians of Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Goldfinch" examines the history of American Indians in Iowa. This volume's featured articles include: "Encounter"; "Iowa Earthworks"; "The Long Way Home"; "How One Learns, a Mesquakie Woman's Life Story"; "Indians of Iowa"; "Little Brother Snares the Sun"; "Being Indian in an Urban World"; and "Indian Wars Myth." (DB)

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1992-01-01

277

Indians of Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of "The Goldfinch" examines the history of American Indians in Iowa. This volume's featured articles include: "Encounter"; "Iowa Earthworks"; "The Long Way Home"; "How One Learns, a Mesquakie Woman's Life Story"; "Indians of Iowa"; "Little Brother Snares the Sun"; "Being Indian in an Urban World"; and "Indian Wars Myth." (DB)|

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1992-01-01

278

Spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that A, B and O allele frequency surfaces on the Indian subcontinent are highly fractured.  

PubMed

Spatial autocorrelation analysis performed on published data pertaining to caste and tribal populations of the Indian subcontinent has revealed that the surfaces of A, B and O allele frequencies are highly fractured. The only significant spatial autocorrelation was observed in respect of the A allele frequency among caste populations. PMID:9270330

Mukherjee, B N; Majumder, P P

1995-12-01

279

The Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup H1a1a-M82 Reveals the Likely Indian Origin of the European Romani Populations  

PubMed Central

Linguistic and genetic studies on Roma populations inhabited in Europe have unequivocally traced these populations to the Indian subcontinent. However, the exact parental population group and time of the out-of-India dispersal have remained disputed. In the absence of archaeological records and with only scanty historical documentation of the Roma, comparative linguistic studies were the first to identify their Indian origin. Recently, molecular studies on the basis of disease-causing mutations and haploid DNA markers (i.e. mtDNA and Y-chromosome) supported the linguistic view. The presence of Indian-specific Y-chromosome haplogroup H1a1a-M82 and mtDNA haplogroups M5a1, M18 and M35b among Roma has corroborated that their South Asian origins and later admixture with Near Eastern and European populations. However, previous studies have left unanswered questions about the exact parental population groups in South Asia. Here we present a detailed phylogeographical study of Y-chromosomal haplogroup H1a1a-M82 in a data set of more than 10,000 global samples to discern a more precise ancestral source of European Romani populations. The phylogeographical patterns and diversity estimates indicate an early origin of this haplogroup in the Indian subcontinent and its further expansion to other regions. Tellingly, the short tandem repeat (STR) based network of H1a1a-M82 lineages displayed the closest connection of Romani haplotypes with the traditional scheduled caste and scheduled tribe population groups of northwestern India.

Pathak, Ajai Kumar; Singh, Vipin Kumar; Karmin, Monika; Singh, Manvendra; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Anugula, Sharath; Yadav, Brijesh Kumar; Singh, Ashish; Srinivasagan, Ramkumar; Yadav, Anita; Kashyap, Manju; Narvariya, Sapna; Reddy, Alla G.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2012-01-01

280

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds; each pour is done with a three-man crew - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

281

40 CFR 147.2101 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and all wells on Indian lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Dakota § 147.2101 EPA-administered...II wells on Indian lands in the state of South Dakota is administered by EPA. This...III, IV and V wells on all lands in South Dakota, including Indian lands,...

2013-07-01

282

Slip casting under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of a pressure during slip casting increases the rate of material deposition and enables larger pieces to be fabricated. In this study, this process has been further developed using monolithic Al2O3 and Al2O3-SiC composites. Slip casting formulations based on both dispersed and coagulated slurries have been analyzed. Excellent results are achieved using coagulated slurries, with no cracking present after drying. The effect of pressure is to increase the green density with a consequent increase in the fired density. In addition, homogeneous microstructures are achieved in the composite system, despite the large difference in particle size used.

Grazzini, H. H.; Wilkinson, D. S.

1992-08-01

283

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

284

Bhakti Rhetoric in the Hagiography of ‘Untouchable’ Saints: Discerning Bhakti ’s Ambivalence on Caste and Brahminhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bhakti has often been praised as a form of religion based on loving devotion that transcends social class, caste, and gender. Since at least the early twentieth century, the history of bhakti has generally been told in terms of “the bhakti movement,” a single coherent “wave” of devotional sentiment and egalitarian social reform that spread across the entire Indian subcontinent.

Patton Burchett

2009-01-01

285

Prevalence of coronary artery disease and its relationship to lipids in a selected population in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in a native urban South Indian population.BACKGROUNDHigh prevalence rates of premature CAD have been reported in migrant Asian Indians. There are very few studies on CAD in native Indians living in the Indian subcontinent.METHODSThe Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS) is an epidemiological

Viswanathan Mohan; Raj Deepa; Subramaniam Shanthi Rani; Gopal Premalatha

2001-01-01

286

Aluminum Castings for Anodic Oxidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The significance of the manufacture of decorative anodically oxidized aluminum castings is demonstrated by means of examples, and alloys suitable for this are enumerated. Then dealt with are errors of casting and melting technique which become apparent wi...

A. A. Bloch

1966-01-01

287

Investment Casting of Columbium Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state of the art of columbium alloy investment castings has been advanced. In addition to demonstration of castability of four different alloys, the cast material itself has been characterized with respect to microstructure, alloy segregation, weldabi...

J. R. Humphrey A. I. Niravath

1975-01-01

288

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in temperature which take place during pouring of a melt and flow into the mould vary greatly, and also depend on\\u000a the casting technique used. Understanding these changes is important for optimum casting practice.

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1986-01-01

289

The fractography of casting alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of casting alloys were fractured using various loading modes (uniaxial tension, bending, impact, and torsion, and cyclic stressing), and the corresponding mechanical properties were determined. The unetched and etched fracture surfaces and the microstructures were examined using conventional techniques. The types of casting alloys that were the subjects f these investigations include gray iron, ductile iron, cast steel,

G POWELL

1994-01-01

290

Casting and Angling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

Smith, Julian W.

291

Nickel based casting alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nickel base casting alloy containing 10 to 25 percent chromium, 3 to 8 percent manganese, 3 to 10 percent niobium, 0 to 3.5 percent aluminum, 0.5 to 2.0 percent beryllium which exhibits lower melting characteristics allowing enhanced compatibility to gypsum bonded investments.

A. P. Burnett; W. C. Bollinger

1985-01-01

292

Casting the Untrained Actor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the arduous task of casting and directing untrained middle and secondary school actors in terms of auditioning, getting started, planning for the first meeting, focusing on the obvious, rehearsing, learning the lines, becoming the character, running work-through rehearsals, and doing run-throughs and performances. Notes not to forget to…

Bogar, Thomas A.

2000-01-01

293

ShakeCast Manual  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users? facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

Lin, Kuo-Wan; Wald, David J.

2008-01-01

294

Clad Cast Steel Strip.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for producing continuous cast hot band crystalline metal strips comprising feeding thin gauge metal strips and molten metal into a gap formed between opposed quenching surfaces. The film of molten metal is cooled while in contact with the quench...

R. L. Sheneman

1983-01-01

295

Computer cast blast modelling  

SciTech Connect

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

Chung, S. [ICI Explosives Canada, North York, ON (Canada); McGill, M. [ICI Explosives USA, Dallas, TX (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01

296

Indian Caste Origins: Genomic Insights and Future Outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Kshatriya), Brahmin being of a socially higher rank than Kshatriya. The third rank was made up of Vis, that is, all the subjects. To this society, a fourth rank was added: Shudra, who had no rights to Aryan ritual. In southern India, the me- nial workers, the so-called \\

Partha P. Majumder

2001-01-01

297

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the

Michael Bamshad; Toomas Kivisild; W. Scott Watkins; Mary E. Dixon; Chris E. Ricker; Baskara B. Rao; J. Mastan Naidu; B. V. Ravi Prasad; P. Govinda Reddy; Arani Rasanayagam; Surinder S. Papiha; Richard Villems; Alan J. Redd; Michael F. Hammer; Son V. Nguyen; Marion L. Carroll; Mark A. Batzer; Lynn B. Jorde

2001-01-01

298

American Indian Health Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A progress report is presented on the Student American Medical Association's (SAMA) American Indian Health Project, designed to assist in the development of Indian health resources through identification of alternative methods of dealing with health needs...

1973-01-01

299

Diagonal ear lobe crease in diabetic south Indian population: Is it associated with Diabetic Retinopathy?. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular-genetics Study (SN-DREAMS, Report no. 3)  

PubMed Central

Background To report the prevalence of ear lobe crease (ELC), a sign of coronary heart disease, in subjects (more than 40 years old) with diabetes and find its association with diabetic retinopathy. Methods Subjects were recruited from the Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular-genetics Study (SN-DREAMS), a cross-sectional study between 2003 and 2006; the data were analyzed for the1414 eligible subjects with diabetes. All patients' fundi were photographed using 45° four-field stereoscopic digital photography. The diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy was based on the modified Klein classification. The presence of ELC was evaluated on physical examination. Results The prevalence of ELC, among the subjects with diabetes, was 59.7%. The ELC group were older, had longer duration of diabetes, had poor glycemic control and had a high socio-economic status compared to the group without ELC and the variables were statistically significant. There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in two groups. On multivariate analysis for any diabetic retinopathy, the adjusted OR for women was 0.69 (95% CI 0.51-0.93) (p = 0.014); for age >70 years, 0.49 (95% CI 0.26-0.89) (p = 0.024); for increasing duration of diabetes (per year increase), 1.11(95% CI 1.09-1.14) (p < 0.0001); and for poor glycemic control (per unit increase in glycosylated heamoglobin), 1.26 (95% CI 1.19-1.35) (p < 0.0001). For sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy, no variable was significant on multivariable analysis. In predicting any diabetic retinopathy, the presence of ELC had sensitivity of 60.4%, and specificity, 40.5%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.50 (95% CI 0.46-0.54) (p 0.02). Conclusion The ELC was observed in nearly 60% of the urban south Indian population. However, the present study does not support the use of ELC as a screening tool for both any diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening retinopathy.

Raman, Rajiv; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Kulothungan, Vaitheeswaran; Sharma, Tarun

2009-01-01

300

The American Indian Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides a basic source of historical and contemporary Indian information from an American Indian perspective and includes study questions at the end of each section. The primary function of this guide is to be a quick-study reference handbook. Basic questions essential to understanding current problems and issues of American Indians

Russell, George

301

Indian Education Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The major problem in the administration and funding of Indian education is that it has been and continues to be the responsibility of diverse federal, state, and private agencies. Currently there are four school systems involved in Indian education: public schools, Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools, contract schools, and mission and other…

Indian Education Training, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

302

Indian Health Care. Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Undertaken at the request of House and Senate committees with responsibility for Indian affairs and government health programs, this study examines the health status of Indians and the services and technologies that are provided to them through Federal Indian health programs. The first half of the report contains background information and the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

303

American Indian Population Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population statistics from the 1990 Census. In 1990 there were about 2 million persons who identified themselves as American Indians in the United States, a 38 percent increase over the 1980 census. More than half of the Indian population lived in six states, with Oklahoma having…

Thomason, Timothy C., Ed.

304

National Indian Education Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

Harvey, Karen Kay

2006-01-01

305

Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy  

SciTech Connect

The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

1998-11-01

306

Volume MLS ray casting.  

PubMed

The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data. PMID:18988986

Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

307

USGS CoreCast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just about everyone seems to be creating a podcast these days, and a number of government agencies have entered the fray as of late. The United States Geological Survey recently decided to hang out their own podcast shingle, and the results of their labors can be explored here. The site states that their "CoreCast" is "natural science from the inside out", which seems like an appropriate label. The podcasts range in length from two to fifteen minutes, and they cover topics such as polar bear research, sex-changing fish, and climate change. One podcast that shouldn't be overlooked is "This Episode of CoreCast is Highly Questionable". In a mere three minutes, host Scott Horvath responds to a number of questions in an engaging fashion. After listening to an episode or two, visitors will probably want to sign up to receive email updates about new episodes.

308

USGS ShakeCast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Automating, Simplifying, and Improving the Use of ShakeMap for Post-Earthquake Decisionmaking and Response. ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

Wald, David; Lin, Kuo-Wan

2007-01-01

309

Cast Tenzaloy aluminum optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early sixties, cast aluminum optics has held out a promise of low cost, durability, lightweight, ease of manufacture, the possibility of welding together sections to form large optics and a good match of some astronomical programs such as photometry. Needless to say, this rosy future has been fraught with difficulties. Poor short-term stability, sensitivity to temperature, porosity, bimetallic warping, soft optical surface, poor specularity, nickel adhesion problems, poor image quality, and the inability to generate aspherics, have all contributed to the bad name cast aluminum optics has acquired over the years. With the advent of improved aluminum alloys, long-term dimensional stability data, advances in adaptive optics and the need for very large monolithic mirrors with a relatively low handling risk, aluminum optics deserve another look. This paper is a collection of some of the early attempts to build cast aluminum mirrors using the stable alloy, Tenzaloy. The results of those efforts are discussed together with recommendations for future aluminum metal mirror work.

Forbes, Fred F.

1993-10-01

310

Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the

V. K. Sikka; D. Wilkening; J. Liebetrau; B. Mackey

1998-01-01

311

Temperature variability over the Indian Ocean and its relationship with Indian summer monsoon rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examines the long term trend in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Equatorial South India Ocean in the context of global warming for the period 1901 2002 and for a subset period 1971 2002. An attempt has also been made to identify the relationship between SST variations over three different ocean areas, and All-India and homogeneous region summer monsoon rainfall variability, including the role of El-Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Annual sea surface temperatures of the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Equatorial South India Ocean show a significant warming trend of 0.7 °C, 0.6 °C and 0.5 °C per hundred years, respectively, and a relatively accelerated warming of 0.16 °C, 0.14 °C and 0.14 °C per decade during the 1971 2002 period. There is a positive and statistically significant relationship between SSTs over the Arabian Sea from the preceding November to the current February, and Indian monsoon rainfall during the period 1901 2002. The correlation coefficient increases from October and peaks in December, decreasing from February to September. This significant relationship is also found in the recent period 1971 2002, whereas, during 1901 70, the relationship is not significant. On the seasonal scale, Arabian Sea winter SSTs are positively and significantly correlated with Indian monsoon rainfall, while spring SSTs have no significant positive relationship. Nino3 spring SSTs have a negative significant relationship with Indian monsoon rainfall and it is postulated that there is a combined effect of Nino3 and Arabian Sea SSTs on Indian monsoon. If the Nino3 SST effect is removed, the spring SSTs over the Arabian Sea also have a significant relationship with monsoon rainfall. Similarly, the Bay of Bengal and Equatorial South Indian Ocean spring SSTs are significantly and positively correlated with Indian monsoon rainfall after removing the Nino3 effect, and correlation values are more pronounced than for the Arabian Sea.

Kothawale, D. R.; Munot, A. A.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

2008-03-01

312

South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

McNeill, David

2009-01-01

313

Modeling of alloy casting solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alloy casting solidification processes involve many physical phenomena such as chemistry variation, phase transformation, heat transfer, fluid flow, microstructure evolution, and mechanical stress.1 Simulation technologies are applied extensively in casting industries to understand the effects of these phenomena on the formation of defects and on the final mechanical properties of the castings. As of today, defect prediction is still one of the main purposes for casting solidification simulation. In this paper, we will first present the commonly used microstructure simulation methods, then discuss the predictions of the major defects of a casting, such as porosity, hot tearing, and macrosegregation. The modeling of casting solidification can be chained with later stages of heat treatment such that the resultant microstructure, defects, and mechanical state will be used as the initial conditions of the subsequent processes, ensuring the tracking of the component history and maintaining a high level of accuracy across metallurgical stages.

Guo, Jianzheng; Samonds, Mark

2011-07-01

314

LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS  

SciTech Connect

The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval

2007-01-01

315

Warming in the northwestern Indian Ocean associated with the El Niño event  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates possible warming effects of an El Niño event on the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the\\u000a northwestern Indian Ocean. Most pure positive Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events (without an El Niño event co-occurring) have\\u000a a maximum positive SSTA mainly in the central Indian Ocean south of the equator, while most co-occurrences with an El Niño\\u000a event

Yuan Yuan; Wen Zhou; Hui Yang; Chongyin Li

2008-01-01

316

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200‡C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

317

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200°C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

318

The Indian Child Welfare Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

Steward, Katy Jo

319

The Caste-Class Association in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically analyzes the association between caste and class in India. I find a tentative congruence between castes and classes at the extremes of the caste system and a slight weakening in this association over time. Although Scheduled Castes have low upward mobility, higher castes are not entirely protected from downward mobility.

Divya Vaid

2012-01-01

320

STME T\\/C casting technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The T\\/C casting technology developed by the National Launch System for the Space Transportation Main Engine is described. Special attention is given to the selection of JBK-75 as the combustion chamber casting alloy, some unique casting issues, and the development castings which were produced. Current plans call for producing a 650K full cast jacket mockup in the 4500 pound furnace.

J. R. Lobitz; P. C. Ackerman; S. L. Weber

1992-01-01

321

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts  

PubMed Central

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry.

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

322

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.  

PubMed

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

323

Biodiversity of Saline and Brakish Marshes of the Indian River Lagoon: Historic and Current Patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) crosses a zone of climatic transition. Historically, marshes dominated saline and brackish environments in the north of the lagoon, while mangroves became important to the south. Distribution of marsh communities was influenc...

P. A. Schmalzer

1995-01-01

324

`AS MOTHER MADE IT': THE COSMOPOLITAN INDIAN FAMILY, `AUTHENTIC' FOOD AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF CULTURAL UTOPIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the aesthetics and pragmatics of packaged food consumption in the twin transnational communities of the urban middle class in Bangalore city in south India, and the diasporic middle class Indian community in Boston, USA. It investigates the construction of an ethnic `Indian' identity in a multicultural field through ritualized food consumption, focusing upon the relationship between `authentic'

TULASI SRINIVAS

2006-01-01

325

Regional differences in albuminuria among American Indians: An epidemic of renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional differences in albuminuria among American Indians: An epidemic of renal disease. Albuminuria is a risk factor for renal and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a cross sectional survey of 4549 older American Indians in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota of (micro)albuminuria. A range of 20.1 to 48.3% of all participants had either micro- (? 30 to < 300

David C Robbins; William C Knowler; Elisa T Lee; Jeunliang Yeh; Oscar T Go; Thomas Welty; Richard Fabsitz; Barbara V Howard

1996-01-01

326

Accuracy of Lipoprotein Lipids and Apoproteins in Predicting Coronary Heart Disease in Diabetic American Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of lipoprotein lipids and apoproteins in predicting coronary heart disease (CHD) in diabetic American Indians.METHODS: This study included 2099 diabetic participants of the Strong Heart Study, which is a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors in American Indians in Arizona, Oklahoma, and South and North Dakota. Diabetic participants with incident CHD

Dongsheng Hu; Kathleen A Jablonski; Yvonne H Sparling; David C Robbins; Elisa T Lee; Thomas K Welty; Barbara V Howard

2002-01-01

327

Indian Culture Strives To Survive: Youth Workers Tie History, Language to Life Lessons for Urban Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urban American Indians lack access to tribal services and traditional cultures. Youth programs for urban American Indians in Rapid City, South Dakota; Phoenix, Arizona; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Lincoln, Nebraska are described. Substance abuse, dropping out, physical fitness, health, and self-esteem issues are addressed through Native language,…

Kelly, John

2002-01-01

328

Impact of the Indian Ocean subtropical dipole on the precipitation of east China during winter monsoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A link between the Indian Ocean subtropical dipole (IOSD) of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and rainfall in east China during winter monsoons is unraveled, and the associated physical mechanism has been identified. A sea-air interaction in the southern Indian Ocean (IO) linked to IOSD changes the internal heating distribution of the atmosphere over south Asia and east Asia, and

Qiuming Yang

2009-01-01

329

Bollywood and neonationalism: The emergence of nativism as the norm in Indian conventional cinema  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article utilizes a transnational feminist perspective to examine the genre of Bollywood cinema and the representation of Indian citizens in the national narrative that it promotes. The author analyzes the resurgence of nationalisms among South Asians on diasporic shores and the role played by Indian and Pakistani cinema in stoking patriotic flames in its discourse of citizenship among the

Shoba Sharad Rajgopal

2011-01-01

330

40 CFR 147.2051 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Carolina § 147.2051 EPA-administered programâIndian...

2013-07-01

331

COMPARISON OF FATIGUE BEHAVIOR FOR CENTRIFUGALLY CAST AND KEEL BLOCK CAST STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine if location through the wall thickness of centrifugal castings affects fatigue properties and to compare fatigue and monotonic tensile properties of centrifugal castings to statically cast keel block castings. Specimens were machined from centrifugal and keel block AISI 8630 steel castings. Centrifugal casting specimens were taken from three different locations (outer, middle

J. J. Gradman; R. I. Stephens; R. A. Hardin; C. Beckermann

332

Living Apart? Place, Identity and South Asian Residential Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at changing patterns of residence for South Asians (Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and other South Asians as represented in the census) in Greater Glasgow, as well as considering what South Asians' motivations for choice of residential location are, and how these relate to issues of personal identity. Providing a single account for the city of Glasgow proves difficult,

Jennifer Mcgarrigle; Ade Kearns

2009-01-01

333

"Education Makes You Have More Say in the Way Your Life Goes": Indian Women and Arranged Marriages in the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores Indian women's views on arranged marriages in the United Kingdom. It is based on research carried out with 32 Indian women studying at a university in the South East of England, UK. The article draws on Wenger's social theory of learning to explore how Indian women's participation in communities of practice in higher education…

Bhopal, Kalwant

2011-01-01

334

High Strength Aluminum Casting Technology: Squeeze Casting of 7075 Alloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this investigation was to develop wrought 7075-T6 mechanical properties in a cast aluminum alloy component of net or near-net shape. A squeeze casting process was selected as the manufacturing process. Following a limited heat treatment o...

J. R. Thompson

1977-01-01

335

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

336

Pima Indians: Pathfinders for Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The Pima Indians: Pathfinders for Health; The Pima Indians and Genetic Research; Breaking the Vicious Cycle; A Pima Mother and Her Daughters; Advanced Technology Used to Measure Energy Expenditure; Kidney Disease of Diabetes in the Pima Indians;...

J. Demouy J. Chamberlain M. Harris L. H. Marchand

1995-01-01

337

Marine geophysical study of the Comorin Ridge, North Central Indian Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine geophysical data are used to interpret the continental margin structure south of India and west of Sri Lanka in the northern Central Indian Basin. Free-air and isostatic anomaly maps are presented. They show the prominent Indian Ocean gravity low with values more negative than -100 mgal south-west of Sri Lanka. A steep gradient in the free-air and isostatic anomaly

Hans-Gert Kahle; Bhoopal R. Naini; Manik Talwani; Olav Eldholm

1981-01-01

338

Investment Casting of Magnesium-Lithium Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method was developed for investment casting magnesium-lithium alloys into inhibited gypsum-bonded molds. Both prototype castings and separately cast test bars (0.252 inch) were produced. Visual and metallographic examination showed no evidence of metal-...

A. Saia R. E. Edelman

1966-01-01

339

14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in...

2013-01-01

340

14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in...

2013-01-01

341

Improved Foundry Castings Utilizing CAD/CAM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CAD/Cam Casting process is being developed as an aid to casting engineers in designing better steel castings in a fraction of the time presently required. The computer routines incorporate drafting routines and computer assisted computations relative ...

T. Wassel J. Chevalier R. Nariman W. S. Hwang S. Miller

1981-01-01

342

Electroslag-Casting Process and Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electroslag-casting process is an extension of the electroslag-remelting process. The castings produced by this technique have the advantages of smooth defect-free finish, freedom from conventional casting defects, more reproducible mechanical propert...

V. K. Sikka

1986-01-01

343

25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

2013-04-01

344

25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

2011-04-01

345

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials ( STEREOLITHOGRAPHY'') continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming more feasible as we continue to successfully yield experimental castings by the SHELL'' processing method. This supplemental (to 11/90 publication) report briefly reviews the original project objectives, activities related to these objectives since November 1990, and progress made through December 1991. We discuss several new case studies involving new resin materials (and other materials) tested along with investment casting processing results. The most recent success, the processing of the highly complex C'' HOUSING design by the shell'' mold process in both aluminum and steel, will be discussed. This is considered a major breakthrough toward establishing this new technology as a viable approach to the rapid development of prototype investment castings, employing the most common aerospace (precision) cast process. Our future planning calls for expanding the study to help the investment casting industry in refining related processing techniques and to continue our evaluation of new resins suitable for the casting process. Present project planning calls for the completion of this study by the third quarter FY93 or sooner. We believe that with the continued excellent cooperation of our casting supplier study team and an accelerated effort by resin materials producers to further refine related materials, we can achieve all objectives during the planned time frame.

Cromwell, W.E.

1992-03-01

346

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials (``STEREOLITHOGRAPHY``) continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming more feasible as we continue to successfully yield experimental castings by the ``SHELL`` processing method. This supplemental (to 11/90 publication) report briefly reviews the original project objectives, activities related to these objectives since November 1990, and progress made through December 1991. We discuss several new case studies involving new resin materials (and other materials) tested along with investment casting processing results. The most recent success, the processing of the highly complex ``C`` HOUSING design by the ``shell`` mold process in both aluminum and steel, will be discussed. This is considered a major breakthrough toward establishing this new technology as a viable approach to the rapid development of prototype investment castings, employing the most common aerospace (precision) cast process. Our future planning calls for expanding the study to help the investment casting industry in refining related processing techniques and to continue our evaluation of new resins suitable for the casting process. Present project planning calls for the completion of this study by the third quarter FY93 or sooner. We believe that with the continued excellent cooperation of our casting supplier study team and an accelerated effort by resin materials producers to further refine related materials, we can achieve all objectives during the planned time frame.

Cromwell, W.E.

1992-03-01

347

Education and Caste in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

2008-01-01

348

Education and caste in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that affirmative

Chandra Pal Singh Chauhan

2008-01-01

349

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emphasis of the work is on development of a process or processes involving casting of semi-solid alloys. During the six month period of research covered by the report, emphasis was on developing casting systems which combine (1) a method of producing a se...

J. R. Melcher M. C. Flemings N. Matsumoto R. Mehrabian R. G. Riek

1974-01-01

350

Surface carburization of steel castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shaping methods based on sand-resin mixtures have undoubted benefits and accordingly are increas? ingly used in the manufacture of highperformance iron, steel, and nonferrousalloy castings. However, they cannot be unconditionally recommended for lowcarbon steel castings. This is because heat from the molten metal destroys the organic components present in such molds. At low temperatures (150 °C), these mixtures mainly emit

E. B. Ten; O. A. Kol’; I. B. Badmazhapova; M. P. Klyuev

2011-01-01

351

Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)|

Mihalow, Paula

1980-01-01

352

Electroslag component casting. [Nickel aluminide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is directed toward the development of electroslag-casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is also to develop a sufficient data base to permit electroslag casting to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. A

Sikka

1986-01-01

353

Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

Mihalow, Paula

1980-01-01

354

Casting Freedom, 1860-1862  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting

Social Education, 2005

2005-01-01

355

18. VIEW SOUTH OF TIMBER COLUMNS ON FIRST FLOOR OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW SOUTH OF TIMBER COLUMNS ON FIRST FLOOR OF BUILDING 21 SHOWING TYPICAL MILL CONSTRUCTION; COLUMNS REST ON CAST IRON BASE PLATES - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

356

Electroslag component casting. [Nickel aluminide  

SciTech Connect

This project is directed toward the development of electroslag-casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is also to develop a sufficient data base to permit electroslag casting to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. A total of 32 electroslag castings of 2.25Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, type 316, and nickel aluminide were procured from four facilities for evaluation (Table 1). The most complex castings procured during this program were the valve bodies shown in Figure 2. The castings were subjected to various heat treatments (Table 2), checked for chemical composition uniformity from top to bottom, and subjected to macrostructural evaluation and mechanical properties testing. Results are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Sikka, V.K.

1986-01-01

357

An evaluation of fiberglass cast application techniques.  

PubMed

Cylindrical casts constructed from 2, 3, 4, and 5 inch widths of fiberglass casting material were evaluated for strength in bending using an unstable fracture model. Five-inch casting material produced the strongest casts. The effect of longitudinal splinting with 2-inch fiberglass tape was evaluated in cylindrical casts constructed from 4-inch tape. Casts with splints on the compression side or with splints on both the tension and compression sides were stronger in bending than casts with a single splint on the tension side or casts without splints. PMID:7778250

Wilson, D G; Vanderby, R

358

Working women, re-working space: Representations of women's workplaces in contemporary Indian writing in English  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project examines representations of the sites of Indian women's labor in the writings of Shashi Deshpande, Githa Hariharan, Anita Nair and Brinda Charry, in order to demonstrate the complex interplay of gender, class, and caste tensions within these spaces. I argue that the systemic physical and psychical violence encountered by working women at the hands of employers, co-workers and

Karen Renee Remedios

2007-01-01

359

Religion Among American Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primitive religious ideas of the American Indians. their ritual istic forms, their social function, and their chief practitioners are described in this article. The persistence of these ideas and the manner in which they affect the Indian's acceptance of the white man's ways are illustrated. Special attention is paid to the rise of the Peyote Cult and its development

Ruth Underhill

1957-01-01

360

Indian Child Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports descriptive characteristics of Indian child welfare programs organized to deal with new tribal responsibilities following passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Most programs consist of one to five staff with an administrator whose responsibilities also include casework. Program continuity is uncertain since funding comes from competitive grants. Although more than one-third of respondents report

Dale M. Wares; Kenneth R. Wedel; James A. Rosenthal; Antonia Dobrec

1994-01-01

361

Protecting American Indian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act has caused concern and misunderstanding among social workers. The Act is seen as a victory for tribal sovereignty but must be viewed within the context of American Indian culture and child rearing practices. (Author/JAC)|

Fischler, Ronald S.; And Others

1980-01-01

362

Urban Indian Adjustment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The degree of economic, social, and psychological adjustment of urban American Indians residing in Seattle, Washington was investigated. The assumption that the 3 types of adjustment are highly correlated was assessed and hypotheses relating length of urban residence and "Indianness" (observable actions and physical characteristics) to urban…

Stauss, Joseph H.; Chadwick, Bruce A.

363

Indian Americans in Chicago.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The location, funding, organization, goals, and activities of the St. Augustine's Center for American Indians are described in an attempt to focus attention on the problems of urban Indians. Services provided by the Center in the areas of social and psychiatric casework, medical and legal aid, and subsistence requirements are discussed.…

Woods, Richard G.; Harkins, Arthur M.

364

Indian aerosols: present status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the

A. P Mitra; C Sharma

2002-01-01

365

Indians of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

366

Suicide in American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews present knowledge about suicidal behavior in American Indians, prevention efforts in Native communities, and recommendations for understanding suicidal behavior and developing suicide prevention efforts. Data from Canadian aboriginal groups is also included. Chapter 1 explains why suicide in American Indians is of concern to…

Lester, David

367

Contemporary American Indian Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his keynote address to the Fifth Annual American Indian Studies Consortium in 2005 David Wilkins began by commenting on earlier attempts to formally organize such a gathering in ways that might help establish and accredit Indian studies programs. He said he had the sense that the thrust of earlier meetings "was really an opportunity for Native…

Larson, Sidner

2009-01-01

368

Indians in Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Every student in high school is faced with the question of what to do after graduation. American Indian students, whether on or off reservations, need ideas as to what is available to them. This compilation of interviews with 10 individuals who are maintaining their "Indian identity" and making contributions in the working world provides role…

Hollow, Kitty, Ed.; Heuving, Jeanne, Ed.

369

Harvesting Identities: Youth, Work, and Gender in the Indian Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of young people's lichen collection in the Indian Himalayas shows how youth in the global South can imbue their work with meaning, manage their work practices, and sometimes transgress established norms in specific work settings. Building on fifteen months' intensive field research in the high Himalayas, this article describes how young men and women have used the opportunity

Jane Dyson

2008-01-01

370

Rose K Lenses for Keratoconus—An Indian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To describe initial lens selection and our experience of Rose K lens fitting in keratoconus in Indian eyes. Methods: Retrospective study of patients who underwent the Rose K contact lens (CL) trial during a 6-month period from July 2007 to December 2007 in a tertiary eye care centre in South India. We obtained data on patient demographics, prefitting refraction

Preeji Mandathara Sudharman; Varsha Rathi; Srikanth Dumapati

2010-01-01

371

Subtropical SST dipole events in the southern Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the subtropical southern Indian Ocean show interannual dipole events that are seasonally phase-locked to the austral summer. A positive phase of the event is characterized by cold SST anomalies in the eastern part i.e. off Australia and warm SST anomalies in the southwestern part, south of Madagascar. Such an event is found to produce

Swadhin K. Behera; Toshio Yamagata

2001-01-01

372

Career Education and the American Indian. Fall 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These materials are for use in the instruction on current occupations existing on the Standing Rock, Cheyenne River, Sisseton, Lower Brule, Crow Creek, Flandreau, Pine Ridge, Rosebud, and Yankton Sioux Indian Reservations in South Dakota. Objectives of the materials are to help learners identify the geographical locations of each of the nine…

South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. School of Education.

373

Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski's…

Milton, John R.

374

Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…

Roop, Peter

375

A Teacher's Guide To: Indians and the Outdoor Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a basic teacher's guide to the study of plants in their environment, this document serves primarily as a starting point for outdoor education with an American Indian emphasis in the State of South Dakota. The State is divided into three broad environmental categories or "biotic communities" (Prairie and Plains, Woodlands, and Wet Places); lists…

Schumacher, C. M.

376

Hydrogeology of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fort Peck Indian Reservation, which encompasses about 3,300 square miles in northeastern Montana, is characterized by three major types of terrain: Missouri River bottom lands, badlands, and topographically higher benchlands. The reservation lies on the western flank of the Williston Basin, a large, petroleum-rich structural depression in Montana, North and South Dakota, and Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. Structurally, the

J. N. Thamke; S. D. Craigg

1993-01-01

377

Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book draws on hundreds of letters by students, parents, and school officials to explore American Indian, specifically Ojibwa, perspectives of the boarding school experience in the period from 1900-1940. The three institutions studied are Haskell Institute (Kansas), Flandreau School (South Dakota), and Pipestone School (Minnesota). Chapter 1…

Child, Brenda J.

378

Instant Casting Movie Theater: The Future Cast System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a visual entertainment system called “Future Cast” which enables anyone to easily participate in a pre-recorded or pre-created film as an instant CG movie star. This system provides audiences with the amazing opportunity to join the cast of a movie in real-time. The Future Cast System can automatically perform all the processes required to make this possible, from capturing participants' facial characteristics to rendering them into the movie. Our system can also be applied to any movie created using the same production process. We conducted our first experimental trial demonstration of the Future Cast System at the Mitsui-Toshiba pavilion at the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi Japan.

Maejima, Akinobu; Wemler, Shuhei; Machida, Tamotsu; Takebayashi, Masao; Morishima, Shigeo

379

Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll  

DOEpatents

A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O' Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

1997-01-01

380

Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll  

DOEpatents

A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

1997-07-29

381

Strip casting apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

1988-09-20

382

The niche for steel castings  

SciTech Connect

In the early days of the steel casting industry, little was known about shrinkage cavities, inclusions, sulfur content, cooling rates, quenching, and all the other factors that influence casting quality. Since then, steel founders have learned how to control and reduce porosity and shrinkage, and have discovered how inclusions form and how they can be eliminated. Other advances in foundry technology include new refining techniques and molding processes, computer-aided design, new quenchants, and improved machining methods. Today's foundries can produce high-quality, sound casting in shapes and sizes that the forging process cannot emulate and that would be too costly to fabricate by welding.

Blair, M. (Steel Founders' Society of America, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

1994-08-01

383

Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural materials, such as bone and abalone nacre, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, a product of their intricate microstructural organization. Freeze casting is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and adaptable materials processing method to form porous ceramic scaffolds with controllable microstructural features. After infiltration of a second polymeric phase, hybrid ceramic-polymer composites can be fabricated that closely resemble the architecture and mechanical performance of natural bone and nacre. Inspired by the narwhal tusk, magnetic fields applied during freeze casting can be used to further control architectural alignment, resulting in freeze-cast materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

Porter, Michael M.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

2013-06-01

384

Indian Music for the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian Music for the Classroom presents the different styles of Indian music and their cultural contexts, with chapters on Indian culture and sound, Indian classical vocal and instrumental music, folk music, film music, and traditional popular musics. From Hindi-Pop to bhangra to the Urdu ghazal, the book covers them all, as well as national songs, children's songs, and the devotional

Natalie Rose Sarrrazin

2009-01-01

385

Some Resources in Indian Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the resources in the literature by and about the American Indian and lists numerous anthologies and bibliographies in this area. More than 40 publications are listed, including "Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian,""American Indian Almanac,""Ethnographic Bibliography of North America,""American Indian Prose…

Marken, Jack W.

386

RETHINKING POWER AND CASTE IN RURAL INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caste as a system of social stratification remains an important aspect in the lives of many peoples throughout the world. Dimensions of caste are found in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and even North America. Yet, it is India that stands out among nations as the most notable in terms of caste stratification today. Although elements of the caste system, such

KIRK JOHNSON; MICHAEL KARLBERG

387

Modeling of casting microstructures and defects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Casting is an ancient art that has been a trial-and-error process for more than 4000 years. To predict the size, shape, and quality of a cast product, casting manufacturers typically cast full-size prototypes. If one part of the process is done incorrectl...

A. B. Shapiro L. T. Summers D. J. Eckels V. Sahai

1997-01-01

388

Clinical experience with a new casting tape.  

PubMed

Between October 1977 and 1978, 93 CutterCast casts were applied at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. The composition and application of this new casting system are described, and the performance of the 93 casts is evaluated in relation to ease of application, roentgenographic clarity, skin condition, patient comfort, and ease of removal. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:7375970

Fleming, L L; Miller, K; Sinback, M

1980-05-01

389

Use of high-strength alloyed cast iron for heat-resistant castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Casting Problems has developed technology for cupola melting of aluminum-containing heat-resistant cast irons. The favorable effect of aluminum in increasing the scale resistance of materials is increased further in spheroidal graphite cast irons. Two variants of master alloys were made to obtain these conditions. Tests and experimental casting of inoculated cast iron was carried out. Scale resistance

G. N. Shtyka; A. V. Borodin; V. N. Oleinik; S. N. Primerov

1983-01-01

390

Investment casting design of experiment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Specific steps in the investment casting process were analyzed in a designed experiment. The casting`s sensitivity to changes in these process steps was experimentally determined Dimensional and radiographic inspection were used to judge the sensitivity of the casting. Thirty-six castings of different pedigrees were poured and measured. Some of the dimensional inspection was conducted during the processing. It was confirmed that wax fixturing, number of gates, gate location, pour and mold temperature, pour speed, and cooling profile all affected the radiographic quality of the casting. Gate and runner assembly techniques, number of gates, and mold temperature affect the dimensional quality of the casting.

Owens, R.

1997-10-01

391

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new product development technology is emerging which could have a major impact on the investment casting industry. It's identified by several names, the most common of which is ''STEREOLITHOGRAPHY.'' This technology involves a three-dimensional printing...

W. E. Cromwell

1990-01-01

392

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials (''STEREOLITHOGRAPHY'') continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming mo...

W. E. Cromwell

1992-01-01

393

Ingot Casting by Electroslag Remelting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conditions influencing the development of the cast structure of ingots produced by electroslag remelting are discussed. Reference is made to a two-dimensional analogue model and to experimental melts within transparent moulds which allow the behavior of m...

J. D. W. Rawson D. I. Dawson

1972-01-01

394

Indian Monsoon, Indian Ocean Dipoles and ENSO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have been widely documented for over 100 years. Indeed, the Southern Oscillation (SO) itself was first documented by Walker (1923) in his search for ISM rainfall predictors. Since this pioneering work, the links between ISM and ENSO have been documented in many observational and modeling studies

P. TERRAY; F. CHAUVIN; S. DOMINIAK; H. DOUVILLE

395

25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section...FOR INDIANS § 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian...their presence will not exclude Indian pupils eligible under § 31.1....

2009-04-01

396

25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section...FOR INDIANS § 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian...their presence will not exclude Indian pupils eligible under § 31.1....

2010-04-01

397

Teaching English to American Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The education provided to American Indians by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) over the last two centuries has received considerable justified criticism by both Indians and non-Indians. How-ever, it is important to realize that the BIA has also attempted to im-prove the quality of Indian education throughout its history. This pa-per details efforts within the BIA to

Jon Reyhner

398

AGARD handbook on advanced casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to improve aircraft performance and, simultaneously, to reduce costs has led to a re-examination of the use of casting processes in aircraft manufacture. The Structures and Materials Panel of AGARD has provided practical information about design, mechanical values, applications, quality assurance and damage tolerance. By providing the data in this form it is hoped that the designer will be encouraged to exploit the many recent advances in casting to optimum effect.

Mietrach, Dietmar

1991-03-01

399

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porosity is one of the important causes for the rejection of jewellery items cast by the lost wax process. If it is of the\\u000a shrinkage type, then there is a considerable reservoir of knowledge, arising from experience in the casting of dental gold\\u000a and other gold alloys, which can be drawn upon to overcome the problem. If it is gas

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub; William S. Rapson

1985-01-01

400

Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema\\u000aThe production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an instantaneous transformation, but occurs in temperature interval. In the casting process the latent heat is moved

J. Zuidema

2005-01-01

401

The dental morphology of Pima Indians.  

PubMed

Fourteen morphologic crown traits were observed in a sample of 1528 Pima Indians of south-central Arizona. Pima dentitions are characterized by high frequencies of shoveling, incisor winging, the hypocone, the lower canine distal accessory ridge, cusp 6, and the protostylid. They exhibit low frequencies of the metaconule and lower premolar multiple lingual cusps and moderate frequencies of the canine tubercle, Carabelli's trait, cusp 7, and lower second molars with four cusps and X groove patterns. When Pima crown trait frequencies were compared to those of 13 Southwest Indian samples, their closest affinities were to other Uto-Aztecan groups, the Papago and Hopi. The Pima are most divergent from Athapaskans and are also clearly removed from Yuman speaking groups and the Zuni. In general, the pattern of dental morphologic variation in the Southwest corresponds closely to linguistic divisions. PMID:6869510

Scott, G R; Potter, R H; Noss, J F; Dahlberg, A A; Dahlberg, T

1983-05-01

402

Moldless casting by laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle of laser cladding involves the use of high power carbon-dioxide lasers and powder deposition technology to provide wear and corrosion resistant surface coatings to engineering components. By injecting metal powder into a laser generated melt pool on a moving substrate a solidified metal track can be produced. Deposition of successive tracks produces a multi-layer build. Laser direct casting (LDC) utilizes a coaxial nozzle enabling consistent omnidirectional deposition to produce 3D components from a selection of metal powders. The influence of the principal process parameters over the process features namely, powder catchment efficiency, beam shape and build rates are presented with several successfully generated 3D components. Nickel, stainless steel and satellite powders were deposited at laser powders of 0.4 to 1.4 kW and speeds of 500 to 1000 mm/min achieving build rates of 3 to 9 mm3/s. Fully dense metallurgical structures have been produced with no cracking or porosity and powder catchment efficiencies up to 85% have been achieved.

McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

1997-09-01

403

Indian Summer for Wayfarers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)|

Kaltenbronn, Kyra

1977-01-01

404

American Indians by Reservations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data from the 1970 Census on the American Indian population living on reservations. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, relationship to head of household, families by...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

405

Indian remote sensing programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and development of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS?1A and the successful operation of the space and ground segments of IRS?1A over the past three years form a major milestone in the Indian Remote Sensing Programme. Significant growth in Remote Sensing application\\/activities in almost all the sectors of natural resources survey and management, supply of various remote sensing data products

M. G. Chandrasekhar; K. Radhakrishnan; V. Jayaraman; B. Manikiam

1991-01-01

406

Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

Water., United S.

407

Distribution and Ecology of Living Planktonic Foraminifera in Surface Waters of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans(6).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distributional patterns and relative abundance of twenty seven species of living planktonic Foraminifera are described, based on 703 surface plankton tows in the North and South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The species are grouped into five faunal zone...

A. W. H. Be D. S. Tolderlund

1968-01-01

408

Distribution of marine boundary layer ammonia over the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the Aerosols99 cruise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the Atlantic Ocean and southern Indian Ocean an overall large variation in gas phase ammonia was encountered with peak values occurring in regions heavily influenced by the smoke plume from biomass combustion and continental sources on the African continent. Concentrations were typically in the range 7 to 22 nmol m?3. Over the remote clean South Atlantic and Indian Oceans,

Michael Norman; Caroline Leck

2005-01-01

409

Heterogeneity of coronary heart disease risk factors in Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and European origin populations: cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare coronary risk factors and disease prevalence among Indians, Pakistanis, and Bangladeshis, and in all South Asians (these three groups together) with Europeans. Design Cross sectional survey. Setting Newcastle upon Tyne. Participants 259 Indian, 305 Pakistani, 120 Bangladeshi, and 825 European men and women aged 25›74 years. Main outcome measures Social and economic

Raj Bhopal; Nigel Unwin; Martin White; Julie Yallop; Jane Harland; Sheila Patel; Naseer Ahmad; Catherine Turner; Dalvir Kaur; Anna Kulkarni; Mike Laker; Anna Tavridou

410

Locally produced textiles on the Indian Ocean periphery 1500-1850: East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

'deindustrialised' its Indian Ocean periphery, by exploiting its advanced proto-industrial techniques, especially for the production of cloth. (Pearson 1998: 109-12, 121, 126) After 1500, the picture was complicated by the violent irruption of Europeans, and yet they failed to dislodge South Asian cloth from its hegemonic position. All scholars agree on the continued market penetration of Indian cottons and silks

William Gervase Clarence-Smith

411

Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings  

SciTech Connect

The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

2002-07-30

412

Flow impact on cast ingots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium alloys are a standard cast metal used in a number of automotive and transportation applications, allowing manufacturers to reduce vehicle weight, increase the strength of components and improve emission controls. One of the most challenging problems associated with aluminium casting is the influence of convection during all stages of solidification. The strength of fluid flow changes the as-cast internal structure (microstructure) such that the yield, fracture and fatigue strengths of the cast ingot can vary considerably. Although the importance of fluid flow has been recognised for decades, not even a simple model has been developed to predict the effect on microstructure. The MICAST project aims to identify and control experimentally the fluid-flow patterns that affect microstructure evolution during casting processes, and to develop analytical and advanced numerical models. The microgravity environment of the International Space Station and sounding rockets is of special importance to this project because only there are all gravity-induced convections eliminated and well-defined conditions for solidification prevail that can be disturbed by fluid flow controlled by experimenters.

Ratke, Lorenz; Fautrelle, Yves; Lacaze, Jacques; Müller, Georg; Roosz, Andras; Zimmermann, Gerhard; Jarry, Phillippe; Kieft, Rene; Csepeli, Zsolt; Sándor, Józef; Grün, Gerd-Ulrich; Sillinger, Nándor; Gerke-Cantow, Ralf

2005-10-01

413

Casting Castings: A Classroom Hands-on Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity will provide a useful technique for students to learn casting concepts. The class will be allowed a hands-on experience with casting. Students will make their own fishing sinkers. The lesson plan document includes step by step instructions for the lesson along with photographs.This activity would be appropriate for high school and college level students. The lesson should take about one hour of class time. This document will serve as a framework for instructors and may be downloaded in PDF format.

Johnson, Craig

2012-11-08

414

STME T/C casting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The T/C casting technology developed by the National Launch System for the Space Transportation Main Engine is described. Special attention is given to the selection of JBK-75 as the combustion chamber casting alloy, some unique casting issues, and the development castings which were produced. Current plans call for producing a 650K full cast jacket mockup in the 4500 pound furnace. Once a 650K mockup casting has been successfully produced, a design of experiments (DOE) will be conducted to establish the best gating system. This will be followed by the design of permanent wax pattern tooling, gating tooling, and process fixtures, and, finally, by a process DOE.

Lobitz, J. R.; Ackerman, P. C.; Weber, S. L.

1992-07-01

415

34 CFR 303.19 - Indian; Indian tribe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... means any Federal or State Indian tribe, band...services or funding to a State Indian Tribe that is...receive services from the United States, published...

2013-07-01

416

Genetic diversity and admixture patterns in Indian populations.  

PubMed

India is a diverse land whose population holds the history of waves of human dispersal. Recent studies suggest two major ancestral contributions to most of the Indian sub-populations. However, present day Indians are thought to contain huge genetic diversity derived consequent to multiple cultural, linguistic and geographical variations. Genome-wide survey of individuals from current North (N-In) and South (S-In) India along with populations from HapMap Phase III and Indian sub-populations from HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium is performed. Multivariate analysis (MDS and PCA) was carried out after merging data from the current study and other consortia. Indian sub-populations clustered separately from populations of major global geographical regions in MDS and PCA in a loose agglomeration except for two Indian subpopulations clustering near far eastern populations. F(st) values indicated diversity among Indian sub-populations which was substantiated by STRUCTURE analysis suggesting the possibility of additional admixture events. PMID:22892377

Chakrabarti, Biswaroop; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Randeep; Dimitrova, Nevenka

2012-08-08

417

Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations  

SciTech Connect

Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

2004-03-15

418

Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian folk story; "How the Animals…

Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

419

STIGMA AND EVERYDAY RESISTANCE PRACTICESChildless Women in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on fieldwork and interviews from South India (Kerala), the author analyzes married women's experiences of stigma when they are childless and their everyday resistance practices. As stigma theory predicts, childless women deviate from the “ordinary and natural” life course and are deeply discredited, but contrary to Goffman's theory, South Indian women cannot “pass” or selectively disclose the “invisible” attribute,

CATHERINE KOHLER RIESSMAN

2000-01-01

420

Cultural Issues in the Primary Care of South Asians  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fastest growing immigrant groups in the United States is from the Indian subcontinent of South Asia. Included in this group are people from India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. Although there is considerable heterogeneity within and between the populations of these countries, cultural similarities contribute to common challenges when South Asian immigrants are seen in primary care

Syed M. Ahmed; Jeanne P. Lemkau

2000-01-01

421

Culture and Economic Development in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of culture on economic development in South Asia has drawn scholarly interest since Max Weber argued that the rise of Protestantism abetted the origination of capitalism. Weber claimed that the spirituality and otherworldliness of Hinduism, along with its associated caste system, were not compatible with this new economic constellation. This sharp dichotomy posited by Weber and others has

John Adams

2001-01-01

422

American Indian Education Opportunities Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activities of the American Indian Education Opportunities Program (AIEOP) at Hampton University for this reporting period included the establishment of a student chapter of the American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES), a move to new office ...

P. F. Molin

1997-01-01

423

Indian Pottery of San Ildefonso.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maria Martinez, a noted indian pottery maker, demonstrates the traditional Indian ways beginning with the spreading of sacred corn before the clay is gathered. Also shows mixing of clay, construction of pottery, hand decorating, and building of the firing...

1994-01-01

424

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

425

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

426

Cast-a-Box: Casting Conditions and Macroporosity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An illustration of three-dimensional finite difference simulation of heat conduction with phase change and complex boundary conditions, this requires students to adjust boundary conditions to make the top surface of a regular hexahedral "casting" to freeze last, eliminating macroporosity.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-08-24

427

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING EXTRACTED FROM CASTING MACHINE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

428

INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING WEIGHED ON SCALES AT CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

429

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE PRIOR TO EXTRACTION FROM CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

430

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH CASTING SUPERINTENDENT OVERSEEING TRANSFER OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH CASTING SUPERINTENDENT OVERSEEING TRANSFER OF MOLTEN METAL TO A CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

431

Interannual variability of the Indian monsoon and the Southern Oscillation  

SciTech Connect

Years with abundant Southwest monsoon rainfall in India are characterized by anomalously low pressure over South Asia and the adjacent waters, enhanced cross-equatorial flow in the western, and increased cloudiness over the northern portion of the Indian Ocean, continuing from the pre-monsoon through the post-monsoon season; positive temperature anomalies over land and in the Arabian Sea in the pre-monsoon season, changing to negative departures after the monsoon onset. The following causality chain is suggested: the anomalously warm surfaces of south Asia and the adjacent ocean in the pre-monsoon season induce a thermal low, thus enhancing the northward directed pressure gradient, and favoring a vigorous cross-equatorial flow over the Indian Ocean. After the monsoon onset the land surfaces are cooled by evaporation, and the Arabian Sea surface waters by various wind stress effects. However, latent heat release over South Asia can now maintain the meridional topography gradients essential to the monsoon circulation. The positive phase of the Southern Oscillation (high pressure over the Eastern South Pacific) is associated with circulation departures in the Indian Ocean sector similar to those characteristic of years with abundant India monsoon rainfall. Abundant rainfall over India during the northern summer monsoon leads the positive mode of the southern Oscillation, and this in turn leads Java rainfall, whose peak is timed about half a year after that of India. A rising Southern Oscillation tendency presages abundant India Southwest Monsoon rainfall but a late monsoon onset. 46 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

Wu, M.; Hastenrath, S.

1986-01-01

432

Dimensional variability of production steel castings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work is ongoing to characterize the dimensional variability of steel casting features. Data are being collected from castings produced at representative Steel Founders' Society of America foundries. Initial results based on more than 12,500 production cas...

F. E. Peters J. W. Risteu W. G. Vaupel E. C. DeMeter R. C. Voigt

1994-01-01

433

Processing of IN-718 Lattice Block Castings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently a low cost casting method known as lattice block casting has been developed by JAM Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts for engineering materials such as aluminum and stainless steels that has shown to provide very high stiffness and strength w...

M. G. Hebsur

2002-01-01

434

Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ''step ...

R. L. Hecht R. B. Dinwiddie W. D. Porter H. Wang

1996-01-01

435

Investment casting design of experiment. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Specific steps in the investment casting process were analyzed in a designed experiment. The casting's sensitivity to changes in these process steps was experimentally determined Dimensional and radiographic inspection were used to judge the sensitivity o...

R. Owens

1997-01-01

436

Investment Castings: A National Security Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A national security/industrial capabilities assessment of the domestic investment casting industry. The report includes a detailed review of the investment casting industry and its performance, production capabilities, surge and mobilization capabilities,...

1987-01-01

437

Mundrabilla: A Microgravity Casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The name "Mundrabilla" is applied to two nickel-iron meteorite masses (combined mass over 22,700 kg), which apparently were a single mass before atmospheric entry [1]. A medium octahedrite, Mundrabilla exhibits the microstructural features common to other nickel-iron meteorites such as Widmanstatten structure and troilite; however, its macrostructure is anything but common. Described by Buchwald as "anomalous" [1], Mundrabilla's macrostructural morphology is characterized by strikingly prominent, rounded Widmanstatten areas separated by regions of sulfur segregation (Fig. 1). While microstructural development of a metal can reflect both solidification and solid state reactions, macrostructural features are determined during solidification. Thus, a typical metallurgist, unfamiliar with microgravity solidification, might describe Mundrabilla's macrostructure as an "anomalous" casting. Those familiar with microgravity solidification might characterize Mundrabilla's macrostructural features as due to solidification of two immiscible liquids [2]--one rich in nickel-iron, the other rich in sulfur. Combining these observations, Mundrabilla's macrostructural features are consistent with that of a liquid mass solidified under microgravity conditions [3,4]. Since nickel-iron meteorite cooling rates often serve as the foundation for assumptions about the formation of solar system bodies, information on the solidification time for the Mundrabilla mass may give additional insights. How long did it take for Mundrabilla, with a minimum "as received" mass of approximately 22,700 kg to solidify? Because Mundrabilla's mass before atmospheric entry is unknown, we take as an upper boundary a mass of 4.1 x 10^15kg. These masses, assumed spherical, range in diameter between 1.8 meters and 10 kilometers, respectively. Mundrabilla can be idealized as a pure iron liquid mass cooling from the melting point of pure iron (1535C) by radiation into space at absolute zero. The latent heat of transformation for iron is used to calculate "excess temperature," i.e., the amount the mass temperature can be raised due to recalescence. Solidification is considered complete when the center of the mass is solid. Fig. 2, is a plot of the solidification times for an iron mass in the range 1.8 meters to 10 kilometers in diameter. At the lower bound, solidification time is about 1.6 hours; at the upper bound, solidification time is on the order of 3,400 years. References: [1] Buchwald V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, University of California, Berkeley. [2] Carlberg T. and Fredriksson H. (1980) Metallurgical Transactions A, 11A, 1665-1676. [3] Budka P. Z. (1988) Metallurgical Transactions A, 19A, 1919-1923. [4] Budka P. Z. (1988) J. Metals, 40, 9, 6-9. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows Mundrabilla--a scale in inches. Figure 2, which appears here in the hard copy, shows solidification time vs. diameter.

Budka, P. Z.; Viertl, J. R. M.

1993-07-01

438

Effect of ferrite on cast stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Premature failure of stainless steel castings in bleach washing service is attributed to poor casting quality high porosity and to a high ferrite content, which makes the castings susceptible to corrosion by hot acid chloride solutions. A survey of the chemical compositions and ferrite contents of corrosion-resistant castings in bleach plants at three pulp mills found high [delta]-ferrite levels in the austenitic matrix due to the improper balance between austenite and ferrite stabilizers.

Nadezhdin, A.; Cooper, K. (Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada)); Timbers, G. (James Maclaren Inc., Quebec (Canada). Kraft Pulp Division)

1994-09-01

439

Titanium investiment casting defects: A metallographic overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although titanium castings have been used in aerospace structures for decades, those uses have largely been in secondary applications. Expanding the use of titanium castings in critical applications would be encouraged by a better understanding of investment casting defects in titanium alloy systems. This paper describes several types of casting-related defects that are identified as potentially affecting the design life of a structure: inclusions, voids, and weld repair defects.

Cotton, J. D.; Clark, L. P.; Phelps, H. R.

2006-06-01

440

New fibreglass casting system in orthopaedic practice.  

PubMed

The composition, manufacture and application of a new fibreglass casting system for use in orthopaedic practice are described. The performance of the first 51 fibreglass casts used in routine fracture work is reviewed. The advantages (the cast is waterprof, extremely light and strong) and the disadvantages (an ultraviolet light source is required to cure the cast and the fiberglass tape is rather expensive) are evaluated. PMID:979766

Davis, B; Dooley, B

1976-06-26

441

Alcohol and American Indian Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

Boyce, George A.

442

Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

443

Indian Youth Leadership Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Youth Leadership Program and the Indian Youth Leadership Camp (IYLC) were created in 1981 in response to the need to develop specific skills in Indian youth who will assume leadership positions in the future at the family, school, community, tribal, and national level. Patterned after the National Youth Leadership Camp, the IYLC emerged…

Hall, McClellan

444

Researching American Indian Revitalization Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Indian revitalization movements evolved during the 18th and 19th centuries in North America in response to European cultures overwhelming and clashing with native lifestyles and cultures. Revitalization movements emerged due to many factors: the devastating effects of diseases brought in by the Europeans, the displacement of Indians from their traditional lands, warfare between Indians and Whites, the introduction of

Phillip M. White

2009-01-01

445

White Control of Indian "Education."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper is about White control of Indian education; how Euro-Canadian missionaries and government agents worked hand-in-hand in their relentless attempts to transform Indian people into their own image. The shrill and persistent theme of Euro-Canadians was how best to civilize and Christianize the Indians. Controlled situations in school and in…

LaRocque, Emma D.

446

Indian Child Welfare in Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

447

Indian Education in New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The percentage of Indian children in New Mexico public schools is increasing, but dropout rates remain high and a low level of academic achievement by Indian children persists. An effort should be made to increase Johnson-O'Malley funds for Indian students, and more detailed accounting procedures should be required to ensure that these funds are…

Smith, Anne M.

448

Directory of American Indian Tribes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This directory provides general information on American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and lands. The information was compiled from several resources including the "Federal Register," the Bureau of Indian Affairs, "The Native American Almanac" (A. Hirschfelder, M. K. de Montano), the "Atlas of North American Indian Tribes" (Carl Waldman), the…

Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff. Inst. for Human Development.

449

A History of Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of assimilating American Indians into an alien culture seemed inevitable as superior weaponry and foreign diseases conquered the Indians. Only in the 20th century has serious consideration been given to allowing Indians to choose their own destiny. Using many excerpts from historical accounts, this book describes educational efforts by…

Reyhner, Jon; Eder, Jeanne

450

Facts about American Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

American Indian College Fund, 2010

2010-01-01

451

Directory of American Indian Tribes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory provides general information on American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and lands. The information was compiled from several resources including the "Federal Register," the Bureau of Indian Affairs, "The Native American Almanac" (A. Hirschfelder, M. K. de Montano), the "Atlas of North American Indian Tribes" (Carl Waldman), the…

Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff. Inst. for Human Development.

452

South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

Cochran, Carole, Ed.

453

Social class related inequalities in household health expenditure and economic burden: evidence from Kerala, south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the Indian context, a household's caste characteristics are most relevant for identifying its poverty and vulnerability status. Inadequate provision of public health care, the near-absence of health insurance and increasing dependence on the private health sector have impoverished the poor and the marginalised, especially the scheduled tribe population. This study examines caste-based inequalities in households' out-of-pocket health expenditure

Subrata Mukherjee; Slim Haddad; Delampady Narayana

2011-01-01

454

Cast data matrix symbols performance characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data matrix symbols are used as a robust means of unique part identification in many industries. Research of cast data matrix symbols has been limited and expected symbol performance unknown. To develop knowledge of cast data matrix symbol performance, the investigation initially focused on feasibility of casting data matrix symbol. Results of a feasibility experiment led to further investigation of

Greg Carl Saveraid

2010-01-01

455

CONTROLLED DIFFUSION SOLIDIFICATION: APPLICATION TO METAL CASTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wrought aluminum-based alloys exhibit superior physical and mechanical properties compared to conventional cast alloys. However, wrought alloys cannot be cast because they develop hot tears and hot cracks during solidification. For this reason, these alloys are typically cast into ingots and are subsequently brought to final shape by mechanical processes such as rolling, extrusion, drawing and forging. Controlled Diffusion Solidification

K. Symeonidis; D. Apelian; M. M. Makhlouf

456

A Microbiological Study of Earthworm Casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Microbiological, physical and chemical changes were followed in worm casts ageing in the field. Filamentous fungi and yeasts increased in number rapidly after the cast was produced, but not bacteria or actinomycetes which were initially numerous. Measurements of hyphal length confirmed the increased growth of fungi. Ageing casts showed a declining respiratory activity, possibly because the bacteria formed resting

J. N. Parle

1963-01-01

457

The Ins and Outs of Relief Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a unit on clay casting that introduces students to relief sculpture. The unit takes three 45 to 50 minute class periods three weeks apart. Discusses each class session in detail: (1) creating the casting; (2) turning out and rinsing the casting; and (3) enriching the surface with color. (CMK)

Greene, Yvonne

2000-01-01

458

Coping with type casts in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of type casts is pervasive in C. Although casts provide great flexibility in writing programs, their use obscures the meaning of programs, and can present obstacles during maintenance. Casts involving pointers to structures (C structs) are particularly problematic, because by using them, a programmer can interpret any memory region to be of any desired type, thereby compromising C's

Michael Siffr; Satish Chandra; Thomas Ball; Krishna Kunchithapadam; Thomas W. Reps

1999-01-01

459

Prediction of Microporosity in Shrouded Impeller Castings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Morris Bean and Company was to link computer models of heat and fluid flow with previously developed quality criteria for the prediction of microporosity in a Al-4.5% Cu alloy shrouded impeller casting. The results may be used to analyze the casting process design for the commercial production of 206 o alloy shrouded impeller castings. Test impeller castings were poured in the laboratory for the purpose of obtaining thermal data and porosity distributions. Also, a simulation of the test impeller casting was conducted and the results validated with porosity measurements on the test castings. A comparison of the predicted and measured microporosity distributions indicated an excellent correlation between experiments and prediction. The results of the experimental and modeling studies undertaken in this project indicate that the quality criteria developed for the prediction of microporosity in Al-4.5% Cu alloy castings can accurately predict regions of elevated microporosity even in complex castings such as the shrouded impeller casting. Accordingly, it should be possible to use quality criteria for porosity prediction in conjunction with computer models of heat and fluid flow to optimize the casting process for the production of shrouded impeller castings. Since high levels of microporosity may be expected to result in poor fatigue properties, casting designs that are optimized for low levels of microporosity should exhibit superior fatigue life.

Viswanathan, S. Nelson, C.D.

1998-09-01

460

Conversion of RP models to investment castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tooling and Casting subgroup of the European Action on Rapid Prototyping (EARP) has undertaken a project to investigate the problems associated with using rapid prototype models as sacrificial patterns for investment casting. The accuracy and surface finish of the models and the castings were also assessed so that a comparison could be made. Models from each process were manufactured

P. M. Dickens; R. Stangroom; M. Greul; B. Holmer; K. K. B. Hon; R. Hovtun; R. Neumann; S. Noeken; D. Wimpenny

1995-01-01

461

Tape casting of nanocrystalline ceria gadolinia powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ceramic ceria gadolinia solid solution membrane for solid oxide fuel cells was fabricated by tape casting using a nanopowder of 37nm average particle size. A novel combination of solvent and dispersant was used to disperse the nanoparticles. The polymer was added in a dilute stage to guarantee a homogeneous distribution. After casting a remarkable densification of the cast tape

Lorenz P. Meier; Lukas Urech; Ludwig J. Gauckler

2004-01-01

462

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

463

The fractography of casting alloys  

SciTech Connect

Several types of casting alloys were fractured using various loading modes (uniaxial tension, bending, impact, and torsion, and cyclic stressing), and the corresponding mechanical properties were determined. The unetched and etched fracture surfaces and the microstructures were examined using conventional techniques. The types of casting alloys that were the subjects f these investigations include gray iron, ductile iron, cast steel, and aluminum-base alloys (A380, A356, and 319). The fractographic studies have yielded these generalizations regarding the topography of the fracture surfaces. In the case of low-ductility alloys such as gray iron and the aluminum-base alloys, the tensile edge of a fracture surface produced by a stress system with a strong bending-moment component has a highly irregular contour, whereas the compressive edge of the fracture surface is quite straight and parallel to the bend axis. On the other hand, the periphery of a fracture surface produced by uniaxial tension has a completely irregular contour. The fracture surface produced by cyclic loading of a gray iron does not display any macroscopic evidence (such as a thumb nail) of the loading mode. However, the fracture surface of each of the other casting alloys displays clear, macroscopic evidence of failure induced by fatigue. The aluminum-base alloys fracture completely within the interdendritic region of the microstructure when subjected to monotonic loading by uniaxial tension or bending, whereas a fatigue crack propagates predominantly through the primary crystals of the microstructure.

Powell, G.W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

1994-10-01

464

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the research for the period of the eighteenth to the thirthieth month of a four-year program. During this period the 'Continuous Rheocaster' has been greatly improved and a machine casting system using semi-solid alloys 'Thixocasting' h...

M. C. Flemings R. Mehrabian J. R. Melcher R. G. Riek K. P. Young

1975-01-01

465

Tape casting of magnesium oxide.  

SciTech Connect

A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

2008-02-01

466

Molding A Cast Metals Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cast metals program, a two-year associate degree program, at Muskegon Community College, Musegon, Michigan operates in close cooperation with the local foundry industry to provide a background for entry-level technical jobs and for continued studies toward a four-year degree. (EA)

Trumble, Dale E.

1975-01-01

467

Homogenization heat treating cast microstructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cast microstructures have variations in composition on the length scale of dendrites and homogenization heat treatments are performed to smooth out these variations. This problem is an integral analysis of the 1D diffusion mass transfer in this problem. The results using two different assumed profiles are compared.

Krane, Matthew J.

2008-10-25

468

Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

2000-11-30

469

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements made by a very simple method have shown that many of the factors which affect the quality of castings are sensitive\\u000a to surface and interfacial energies during the pouring of the melt. The results of a number of measurements of these parameters\\u000a are presented and discussed.

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1985-01-01

470

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency with which the moulds are filled is one of the most important aspects in the lost wax procedure for casting\\u000a jewellery. The factors which affect it are briefly discussed and the results of a number of experiments aimed at increasing\\u000a knowledge of the complex interrelationships between them are presented.

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1986-01-01

471

Restoration of Castings of Compressor and Refrigerating Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, cast iron [mainly grey cast iron SCh (GCI) 20)] is the chief structural material of compressor and refrigerating equipment. In the cast-making process, the loss due to defects is about 9%. In order to raise output of castings of a satisfactory quality, a variety of cast restoration techniques are applied. The techniques for repair of defects in cast

A. I. Lyubich

2002-01-01

472

British South Asians and pathways into selective schooling: social class, culture and ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a theoretical and empirical study of the ways in which different South Asian groups, Bangladeshi, Indian, and Pakistani, achieve entry into the selective education system, taking into consideration the factors of social class, ethnicity and culture. In?depth interviews with 42 South Asian school pupils from three single?sex selective schools (one independent and two grammar), 47 South Asian

Tahir Abbas

2007-01-01

473

Introduction to the Special Issue on Domestic Violence and the South Asian Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Asian community in the United States is composed of immigrants from the Indian subcontinent (primarily, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) and immigrants from the lands of the South Asian diaspora, including the Caribbean nations and South American countries. In themselves, these countries represent complex and diverse histories. Individuals coming from these countries are therefore influenced by a variety of

Helen E. Sheehan; Rafael Art. Javier; Theresa Thanjan

2000-01-01

474

Anisotropy of the Indian continental lithospheric mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the paucity of seismological data available in the public domain, the structure of the Indian lithosphere is still little known. We investigate the lithospheric structure and potential mechanical coupling between the crust and upper mantle along the Himalayan arc and underneath peninsular India using seismic anisotropy. Shear wave splitting measurements are performed on core-refracted phases. For each event recorded at a given seismological station we measured the orientation of the polarization plane of the fast S wave (phi), assumed to be a proxy for the orientation of the a axis of olivine, and the delay (dt) between the arrival time of the fast and slow S waves. We present a very comprehensive data set recorded at 86 seismological stations, deployed from the Himalayas to the southern tip of the Indian peninsula, in a joint effort by the National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India, the University of Cambridge and the Indian Institute of Astrophysics. The unprecedented data set we present sheds light on the mechanisms involved in the India-Eurasia continental collision in a region along the Himalayan arc, south of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone. At the scale of the Indian plate, the majority of the stations show a NNE-SSW orientation of phi over hundreds of kilometres, from Sri Lanka to the northern part of the Dharwar craton. This direction closely parallels the trend of the Indian plate motion, with respect to a fixed Eurasian plate, as defined through the NUVEL1A plate model. Along the Himalayan arc, from Ladakh in the northwest, to Bhutan and the Shillong plateau in the east, the orientation of phi rotates to become ~EW, perpendicular to the plate motion as defined through NUVEL1A. Unlike previous studies, we do find strong evidence for seismic anisotropy south of the Indus Tsangpo suture zone. A large number of null results have been computed, with consistent orientation of the two fast polarization directions (phi) across the subcontinent. We demonstrate the potential value of the too often neglected null measurements in the interpretation of seismic anisotropy. From these results, we infer the dominance, beneath the Indian lithosphere, of the asthenospheric flow in aligning minerals in the sheared lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary layer, masking any compression induced anisotropy expected to be normal to this direction. Closer to the collision front in northern India, the anisotropy may in part, be due to the foliation planes of the Himalayan fold and thrust belt aligning the a axis of olivine perpendicular to the compression axis, but more likely to the turning of the relative asthenospheric flow along the strike caused by the downthrusting Indian lithosphere acting as a barrier. The continent-wide consistency of results strengthens the understanding that the Indian lithosphere has distinct anisotropic signatures, contrary to the hitherto assumed isotropy and allows one to interpret the results in a coherent framework of Indo-Eurasian convergence.

Heintz, Maggy; Kumar, V. Pavan; Gaur, Vinod K.; Priestley, Keith; Rai, Shyam S.; Prakasam, K. Surya

2009-12-01

475

Social exclusion, caste & health: a review based on the social determinants framework.  

PubMed

Poverty and social exclusion are important socio-economic variables which are often taken for granted while considering ill-health effects. Social exclusion mainly refers to the inability of our society to keep all groups and individuals within reach of what we expect as society to realize their full potential. Marginalization of certain groups or classes occurs in most societies including developed countries and perhaps it is more pronounced in underdeveloped countries. In the Indian context, caste may be considered broadly as a proxy for socio-economic status and poverty. In the identification of the poor, scheduled caste and scheduled tribes and in some cases the other backward castes are considered as socially disadvantaged groups and such groups have a higher probability of living under adverse conditions and poverty. The health status and utilization patterns of such groups give an indication of their social exclusion as well as an idea of the linkages between poverty and health. In this review, we examined broad linkages between caste and some select health/health utilization indicators. We examined data on prevalence of anaemia, treatment of diarrhoea, infant mortality rate, utilization of maternal health care and childhood vaccinations among different caste groups in India. The data based on the National Family Health Survey II (NFHS II) highlight considerable caste differentials in health. The linkages between caste and some health indicators show that poverty is a complex issue which needs to be addressed with a multi-dimensional paradigm. Minimizing the suffering from poverty and ill-health necessitates recognizing the complexity and adopting a perspective such as holistic epidemiology which can challenge pure technocentric approaches to achieve health status. PMID:18032810

Nayar, K R

2007-10-01

476

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography  

SciTech Connect

A new product development technology is emerging which could have a major impact on the investment casting industry. It's identified by several names, the most common of which is STEREOLITHOGRAPHY.'' This technology involves a three-dimensional printing process which will yield plastic parts (polymer models) from solid, surface, or wireframe CAD files. The concept links a CAD database to a process which guides a laser beam to solidify liquid photo-curable polymer into a programmed shaped. The process can produce models in far less time and at far less cost than can be done by other known (conventional) model producing methods. Parts that would normally require weeks or months to prototype with conventional processes can be produced in a matter of hours by Stereolithography. The Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, is engaged in a development project (funded by the Department of Energy) which is aimed at establishing this process as a practical, expedient, and cost-effective method fabricating prototype investment castings. The early phases of the project include procurement of a special designed test unit for several companies (Service Centers) involved in fabrication of models. These models are produced in various materials and used in experimental casting programs being conducted with four casting suppliers (two ferrous and two non-ferrous). This presentation will cover the objectives of the project and the results obtained up to this time. We will also briefly review future plans for the continuation of the project, until this new technology has been proven as a viable process for rapid development of investment castings.

Cromwell, W.E.

1990-11-01

477

Coenzyme Q 10 and differences in coronary heart disease risk in Asian Indians and Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indians or South Asians have been found to be particularly susceptible to coronary heart disease (CHD) in many countries. A novel risk factor for CHD may be coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). In this study, plasma CoQ10 (including ubiquinol-10, CoQ10H2, and total CoQ10), various lipid parameters, and antioxidant levels were determined in a random sample of Indians and Chinese from the general

Kenneth Hughes; Bee Lan Lee; Xiang Feng; Jeanette Lee; Choon-Nam Ong

2002-01-01

478

Sociocultural Perspective on Organ and Tissue Donation among Reservation-Dwelling American Indian Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

To discover the sociocultural patterns that influence decisions about organ and tissue donation among American Indian (AI) adults.DesignThis qualitative ethnographic study used a social–ecological framework. A snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 21 Oglala Lakota Sioux participants (age???19 years) living on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from

Nancy L. Fahrenwald; Wendy Stabnow

2005-01-01

479

Lipoprotein(a) in American Indians is Low and Not Independently Associated with Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To evaluate the distribution of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and assess its association to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in American Indians.METHODS: Lp(a) was measured in 3991 American Indians (aged 45–74 years with no prior history of CVD at baseline) from 13 communities in Arizona, Oklahoma, and South\\/North Dakota. They were followed prospectively from 1989 to 1997 for CVD.