Sample records for south indian castes

  1. OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE AND RUN OUT WITH TRAVELING TORCH. MACHINE IS CASTING IN TWIN MOLD. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Population differentiation of southern Indian male lineages correlates with agricultural expansions predating the caste system.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Ganeshprasad; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Kavitha, Valampuri John; Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S; Royyuru, Ajay K; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10-30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4-6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India. PMID:23209694

  3. Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R. Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G.; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E.; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4–6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India. PMID:23209694

  4. Seasonal circulation in the south Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ffield, Amy; Toole, John; Wilson, Doug

    1997-11-01

    Two World Ocean Circulation Experiment hydrographic cruises in March and June 1995, along with Topex-Poseidon altimeter data and National Meteorological Center wind data are used to estimate seasonal changes in the South Indian Ocean subtropical gyre. Mean annual curves derived from the altimeter and wind data reveal strengthening of the anticyclonic gyre in March and September, and weakening in June and December. The seasonal changes correspond to variations in the wind field south of 30°S at the equinoxes and solstices. In addition, the wind-driven gyre is further north in July, and further south in March. These variations in strength and location of the South Indian Ocean gyre may influence inter-ocean transports south of Africa. Despite the inferred mean annual seasonal variations in the South Indian Ocean gyre, volume transports estimated in 1995 from the hydrographic data are close to mean values. Apparently, a mesoscale eddy in March disrupts the stronger fall gyre, whereas in June the weaker winter gyre is delayed by 1 month.

  5. American Indian Population in South Dakota

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna Hess

    This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

  6. South Dakota Indian Recipients of Social Welfare, December 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Social Services, Pierre. Div. of Program Analysis.

    Because American Indians are the largest minority group in South Dakota and because they are known to be among the most poverty stricken in the Nation, South Dakota annually reports on the extent to which the group depends on welfare payments. The report, prepared by the Program Analysis Section of the State Department of Social Services, analyzes…

  7. Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations

    E-print Network

    Bamshad, Michael; Kivisild, Toomas; Watkins, W. Scott; Dixon, Mary E.; Ricker, Chris E.; Rao, Baskara B.; Naidu, J. Mastan; Prasad, B. V. Ravi; Reddy, P. Govinda; Rasanayagam, Arani; Papiha, Surinder S.; Villems, Richard; Redd, Alan J.; Hammer, Michael F.; Nguyen, Son V.; Carroll, Marion L.; Batzer, Mark A.; Jorde, Lynn B.

    2001-11-01

    West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps... internodes. Bamshad et al. 998 Genome Research www.genome.org mtDNA (Bamshad et al. 1998). It is important to note, however, that the autosomal genetic distances are es- timated from 40 independent loci. This afforded us the opportunity to test...

  8. The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kivisild; S. Rootsi; M. Metspalu; S. Mastana; K. Kaldma; J. Parik; E. Metspalu; M. Adojaan; H.-V. Tolk; V. Stepanov; M. Gölge; E. Usanga; S. S. Papiha; C. Cinnio?lu; R. King; L. Cavalli-Sforza; P. A. Underhill; R. Villems

    2003-01-01

    Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N

  9. The Indian Ocean Experiment: Widespread Air Pollution from South and Southeast Asia

    E-print Network

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    1 The Indian Ocean Experiment: Widespread Air Pollution from South and Southeast Asia J. Lelieveld1-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia towards the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multi-platform field campaign to measure long

  10. American Indians in South Dakota: A Profile. Update Series C229, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Linda L.; Bennett, Mary A.

    Life is changing for the American Indians of South Dakota and the United States. Nationally, the population is young, growing, and becoming more urban. The South Dakota population exhibits these same traits, except that it remains predominantly rural. In South Dakota, American Indians combat poverty, unemployment, underemployment, and inadequate…

  11. Constituents of south Indian vetiver oils.

    PubMed

    Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Ramesh, S; Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara

    2012-02-01

    The essential oils isolated from vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.] roots collected from four locations in south India were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Eighty constituents, representing 94.5-97.8% of the oils, have been identified. The oils from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kundapur, and Mettupalayam were rich in sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with cedrane, bisabolane, eudesmane, eremophilane, and zizaane skeletons. The main components of the four essential oils were: eudesma-4,6-diene (delta-selinene) + beta-vetispirene (3.9-6.1%), beta-vetivenene (0.9-9.4%), 13-nor-trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-11-one + amorph-4-en-10-ol (5.0-6.4%), trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-12-ol (vetiselinenol) + (E)-opposita-4(15),7(11)-dien-12-ol (3.7-5.9%), eremophila-1 (10),11-dien-2alpha-ol (nootkatol) + ziza-6(13)-en-12-ol (khusimol) (16.1-19.2%), and eremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-2alpha-ol (isonootkatol) + (E)-eremophila-1(10),7(11)-12-ol (isovalencenol) (5.6-6.9%). The important compounds that impart the characteristic vetiver odor are: khusimene, delta-selinene, beta-vetivenene, cyclocopacamphan-12-ol (epimers A and B), vetiselinenol, khusimol, isovalencenol, khusimone, alpha-vetivone, and beta-vetivone. The chemical profiles of the oils are comparable to Haitian vetiver oil. PMID:22474964

  12. The caste based mosaic of Indian politics C H R I S T O P H E J A F FR E L O T

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The caste based mosaic of Indian politics C H R I S T O P H E J A F FR E L O T WHILE caste politics voters, are associated with a single caste and/or religious community ­ and this is also true of some that this redrawing of the frontiers of the state in large part stemmed from the demands of dominant castes. In 1947

  13. Prevalence of duodenal diverticulum in South indians: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Sulochana; Kannaiyan, Kavitha; Thiagarajan, Sivakami

    2013-01-01

    Background. Duodenum is the second most common site of diverticula after the colon. Diagnosis of duodenal diverticula is incidental and found during other therapeutic procedures. In 90% of cases, they are asymptomatic, and less than 10% develop clinical symptoms. The difficulty to ascertain the true incidence of duodenal diverticula demanded for the present study to elucidate the prevalence of the duodenal diverticulum in South Indians. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty specimens of duodenum were utilized for the study. The prevalence, anatomical location, and dimension of duodenal diverticulum were studied. Results. Among the 120 specimens of duodenum, five specimens had solitary, extraluminal, and globular-shaped diverticula in the medial wall of the duodenum. In three (60%) cases, it was found in the second part of duodenum and in two (40%) cases in the third part. The mean size of the diverticula was 1.4?cm. Conclusion. In the present study in South Indian people, the prevalence (4.2%) of duodenal diverticula is low comparable to other studies in the literature. Even though most of the duodenal diverticula are asymptomatic, the knowledge about its frequency and location is of great importance to prevent complications like diverticulitis, hemorrhage, obstructive jaundice, and perforation. PMID:25938103

  14. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior among South Asian Indian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes than Whites. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for seven days. Results Just over half (51.8%) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (?150 minutes moderate-intensity or ?75 minutes vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6904.3, which is in the “low active” classification. Discussion Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed. PMID:23686529

  15. Multiple Instrument Translation for Use with South Asian Indian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Manju; Miller, Arlene; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe translation of five measures (physical activity, acculturation, discrimination, self-efficacy, and depression) from English into Hindi using the committee translation method, focus group, and think-aloud interviews. Two South Asian Indian (SAI) immigrant bilingual translators and a moderator reached consensus on 93 of 102 items, using the committee method. Discrepancy in nine items was resolved with a focus group conducted with five bilingual SAI immigrants. Ten other bilingual SAI immigrants participated in think-aloud interviews to assess understanding and interpretation of the questions. More than 10 additional changes were made following the think-aloud interviews. Sequential use of multiple translation techniques improved translation with culturally acceptable language, thereby maintaining equivalence with original versions. PMID:21818758

  16. STUDIES ON SOME SOUTH INDIAN MARKET SAMPLES OF AYURVEDIC DRUGS-IV

    PubMed Central

    Nair, K. Vasudevan; Yoganarasimhan, S.N.; Gopakumar, K.; Shantha, T.R.; Keshavamurthy, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the South Indian crude drug samples of Prsniparni, Sahacara, Hapusa and Renuka are evaluated. Their accepted source, alternative sources along with botanical and chemical constituents for the S. Indian source plants are provided. Suitable photographs of the crude drugs and the herbarium specimens are also provided of facilitate identification. PMID:22557481

  17. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  18. CAST

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

  19. Genetic Distance Analysis of Twenty-Two South American Indian Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Blanco; Ranajit Chakraborty

    1975-01-01

    Extent of genic variability among 22 tribal groups of South American Indians in terms of net codon differences per locus has been studied on the basis of determinations on ten genetic systems. The possibility of more than one (other than the north-south route, considered by others) migrational pattern is discussed in the light of the existing genetic variability among the

  20. Clinical and biochemical parameters in relation to serum leptin levels in South Indian children and adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasa Nageswara Rao; G. Prema Gurumurthy; Priya Gururajan; Sarasa Barathi Arumugam; Saibabu; V. Kirthivasan; K. M. Cherian

    2010-01-01

    Objective  To investigate the relationship between serum leptin and lipid profile in South Indian School children and adolescents, and\\u000a to evaluate the role of serum leptin in obese, overweight and congenital heart diseased children and adolescents; in South\\u000a Indian population and its correlation with anthropometric and biochemical parameters.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study included 185 school going children and adolescents. (52 obese, 49 overweight,

  1. Genetic variation in genes involved in folate and drug metabolism in a south Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Padmalatha S; Murali, T. S; Vasudevan, T. G; Prasada, Shama K.; Bhagavath, Ashok Kumar; Pai, Pranita; Gopinath, P. M.; Satyamoorthy, K.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic variations represented as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) vary across the world population. This genetic polymorphism (such as SNPs) plays an important role in pharmacogenomics. SNPs that affects cellular metabolism, by altering the enzyme activity, have an important role in therapeutic outcome. Allele frequencies in number of clinically relevant SNPs within south Indian populations are not yet known. Hence, we genotyped randomly selected unrelated south Indian subjects from different locations of south India representing the heterogeneous ethnic background of the population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Common variants of MTHFD1, TYMS, SHMT1, MTR, MTRR, CBS and SULT1A1 gene polymorphisms were screened from healthy unrelated south Indian volunteers. Genotypes were determined using RFLP analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified products and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Chi-square test was performed to test for deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for each locus. RESULTS: Gene allele frequency for several polymorphisms in our study differed significantly between the populations of other nations reported for several of the SNPs. These results demonstrate that the populations in different geographic regions may have widely varying genetic allele frequencies for clinically relevant SNPs. CONCLUSION: The present study reports, for the first time, the frequency distribution of MTHFD1, TYMS, SHMT1, MTR, MTRR, CBS and SULTIA1 gene polymorphisms in a south Indian population. Population-specific genetic polymorphism studies will help in practicing pharmacogenomic principles in the clinics. PMID:21747588

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophyte fungal associations in South Indian grasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kullaiyan Sathiyadash; Thangavelu Muthukumar; Eswaranpillai Uma

    2010-01-01

    s We examined arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) fungal association in 50 south Indian grasses from four different sites. AM fungal diversity was also compared among the different sites. Forty-four of the 50 grasses examined had AM association and dual association with DSE fungi occurred in 25 grasses. We report for the first time AM and DSE

  3. Relationships between South African rainfall and SST anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. C. Reason; H. Mulenga

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has indicated the importance of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean for rainfall variability over South Africa. Here, these links are further explored via bandpass filtering of the rainfall and SST data in several bands on the interannual and interdecadal scale that are known to be significant for global climate variability. This procedure suggests

  4. S60 | AUGUST 2013 (although apparently not in the South Indian Ocean

    E-print Network

    the ocean, so near-surface salinity can be used to constrain E­P estimates (Schmitt 2008; Yu 2011). E in section 3e. The zonal mean difference between salinities in the Pacific Ocean in 2012 and the long-te#12;S60 | AUGUST 2013 (although apparently not in the South Indian Ocean this year) are typical

  5. Total antioxidant status and oxidative DNA damage in a South Indian population of essential hypertensives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Subash; K Premagurumurthy; A Sarasabharathi; K M Cherian

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the total antioxidant status (TAS) and the extent of oxidative DNA damage in total lymphocytes and their relation with essential hypertension. A total of 130 South Indian subjects aged 30–65 were recruited for the study. Of these hypertensive subjects investigated, 30 were newly diagnosed and were not on any antihypertensive drugs, but had systolic blood pressure (BP) ranging

  6. Women's Work, Autonomy, and Birth Control: Evidence From Two South Indian Villages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dharmalingam; S. Philip Morgan

    1996-01-01

    In this study we contrast two South Indian villages which offer women very different employment opportunities. Many women in Village I roll beedis, which are crude hand-rolled cigarettes. The structure of beedi work was designed to meet the needs of the beedi contractor, but inadvertently it has provided women with substantial autonomy. In Village II very few women work for

  7. A Population Genetic Study on the Ag Polymorphism in South African Indians and Negroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Hitzeroth; R. Bütler; E. Bütler-Brunner

    1980-01-01

    Two population samples from South Africa, i. e. 555 Bantu-speaking Negroids and 75 Indians, were tested for selected immunogenetic specificities comprising the Ag polymorphism. Within the Negroid sample a new Ag phenotype (i. e. the 49th) was discovered. Interpopulational comparisons involving the present two, as well as three previously studied samples, reveal characteristic differences in regard to the frequency distribution

  8. Population Growth and Sprawl on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Campbell

    2006-01-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, especially Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and agricultural areas of the reservation are undergoing a change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen

  9. Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the annual ventilation of the Antarctic Intermediate Water and Subantarctic Mode Water Masses.

  10. Polymorphism of properdin factor B in South African Negroid, Indian and Colored populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mauff; F. D. Gauchel; H. W. Hitzeroth

    1976-01-01

    Properdin factor B phenotypes were determined in 7 Bantu speaking Negroid populations, 1 Indian, and 1 Colored population of South Africa in a total of 1258 individuals. In the Negroid populations allele frequencies were: BfF 0.655, BfS 0.282, BfRARE 0.063, in the Indian population: BfF 0.322, BfS 0.645, BfRARE 0.033, and in the Colored population: BfF 0.513, BfS 0.435, BfRARE

  11. Can Indian Ocean SST variability impact TC activity in the South Pacific? A Spatial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Andrew D.; Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Kiem, Anthony S.

    2015-04-01

    Tropical Cyclones (TCs) represent a significant natural hazard to the 15 island nations and 2.7 million inhabitants of the South Pacific, accounting for 76% of reported disasters in the region since 1950. This vast area, dominated by the coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions of the South Pacific fuels the highly variable nature of TCs (both spatially and temporally), leading to difficulties in planning for and responding to these extreme events. While it is well known that the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays a significant role in modulating the background state on which TCs form, there are other large-scale climate drivers operating on annual timescales or longer within the South Pacific (e.g. ENSO Modoki and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation) and outside the Pacific Basin (e.g. the Indian Ocean Dipole and the Southern Annular Mode) that may also influence TC formation. In response to this issue, the impact of these large-scale climate drivers upon the spatial characteristics of tropical cyclogenesis is assessed for the South Pacific region (5o-35oS, 145oE-130oW) over a 67-year period (1945-2011). It is shown, that in addition to the impact of 'Pacific-centric' climate drivers, eastern Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures significantly impact the spatial characteristics of tropical cyclogenesis in the South Pacific. In particular, warming (cooling) in the eastern Indian Ocean is found to result in an eastward (westward) shift in the average location of tropical cyclogenesis in the South Pacific (up to 712km between extreme phases). One mechanism that may account for this east/west modulation of TC activity in the South Pacific is the propagation of warmer water from the Timor Sea through the Coral Sea to the Pacific, resulting in a strengthening of the Pacific Warm Pool and associated meteorological characteristics connected with tropical cyclogenesis. Understanding how other large-scale climate modes interact with Indian Ocean processes is important in producing a 'real-life' climatology of TCs for the region. As such, when Indian Ocean SST variability is coupled with other drivers, for example, ENSO, significant amplification of TC activity is found; up to 1540km to the east of the overall mean centre of cyclogenesis. Given the extreme impacts of TCs, any improvements in the understanding of what causes the spatial variability of TC formation may help TC forecasting methods for the region, in turn improving disaster risk management and preparedness for the nations of the South Pacific.

  12. HLA antigens in South India: II. Selected caste groups of Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, R; Kakkanaiah, V N; Pitchappan, R M

    1987-09-01

    HLA-A, B antigen and haplotype frequencies were studied in four different caste groups of Tamil Nadu living in Madurai. A total number of 101 Nadars, 36 Kallars, 54 Iyers and 57 Telugu-speaking Naidus were studied. HLA A3 and B15 were significantly higher in Nadars; A10 & B8 in Kallars and Aw19, B12 & B35 in Iyers. HLA A-B haplotypes A10-B7, A28-B17 & A24-B- were characteristic of Nadars; A10-B8 & A1-B-, Kallars; Aw19-B12 & A1-B15, Iyers and A2-B-, Naidus. Negative linkage disequilibria for Aw19-B7, A28-B15 & A9-B51 were significant in Nadars; A1-B5, A1-B12 & Aw19-B- in Iyers and A2-B17 in Naidus. Heterogeneity chi-square based on antigen frequency and genetic distance also suggest the heterogeneous nature of the population of South India. Will these caste groups with such diverse haplotypic combinations differ from one another in their immune response and susceptibility to a given epidemic or infection? PMID:3424332

  13. Mid latitude winter climate variability in the South Indian and southwest Pacific regions since 1300 AD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Goodwin; T. D. van Ommen; M. A. J. Curran; P. A. Mayewski

    2004-01-01

    Mid-latitude winter atmospheric variability in the South Indian Ocean and southwest Pacific Ocean regions of the circum-Antarctic are reconstructed using sea-salt aerosol concentrations measured in the high resolution Law Dome (DSS) ice core from East Antarctica. The sea-salt aerosol concentration data, as sodium (Na), were measured at approximately monthly resolution spanning the past 700 years. Analyses of covariations between Na

  14. Anthropometric Analysis of Palpebral Fissure Dimensions and its Position in South Indian Ethnic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vasanthakumar, P.; Kumar, Pramod; Rao, Mohandas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The morphology and anatomical relationship of periorbital features vary according to age, sex and ethnicity. Standard database regarding periorbital region is available for other ethnic groups. Since there is no data available in the literature, specifically for south Indian ethnic adults, the present study was carried out to determine the normal average values for South Indian ethnic population related to gender. Methods Anthropometric measurements of both eyes were done on standardized frontal view photograph of 200 South Indian ethnic adults aged 18 to 26 years. Parameters included were palpebral fissure width (PFW), palpebral fissure height (PFH), palpebral fissure inclination (PFI), outercanthal distance (OCD), interpupillary distance (IPD), intercanthal distance (ICD) and comparisons were made between the genders using the independent t test. Results Significant sexual dimorphism was noted in the given parameters. Palpebral fissure width (male: 31.08 mm; female: 29.90 mm), palpebral fissure inclination (male: 5.053°; female: 6.102°), outercanthal distance (male: 95.55 mm; female: 92.44 mm) and interpupillary distance (male: 66.72 mm; female: 62.59 mm). The palpebral fissure height (male: 11.30 mm; female: 11.58 mm) and intercanthal distance (male: 34.27 mm; female: 33.41 mm) showed no significant sexual differences. Conclusion Statistically significant differences were found between South Indian ethnic males and female in certain key parameters. The present study suggests that ethnicity and gender should be considered in orbital surgery. To individualize the treatment planning and diagnosis, it is important for the surgeons to have knowledge of these local norms. PMID:23386941

  15. Exploring Rogue Waves from Observations in South Indian Ocean

    E-print Network

    .S.A. (email: paul.c.liu@noaa.gov) 2 Liebenberg & Stander International (Pty) Ltd Cape Town, 8000 South Africa, were proc- essed and stored along with meteorological parameters, such as wind speed, wind gust, wind height jointly with wind speed and wind gust has provided a unique opportunity for us to explore rogue

  16. Impact of eddies on surface chlorophyll in the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufois, Francois; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Greenwood, Jim; Richardson, Anthony; Feng, Ming; Herbette, Steven; Matear, Richard

    2015-04-01

    A unique feature of the subtropical South Indian Ocean is the existence of anticyclonic eddies that have higher chlorophyll concentrations than cyclonic eddies. Off Western Australia, this anomalous behavior is related to the seeding of anticyclonic eddies with shelf water enriched in phytoplankton biomass and nutrients. Further off-shore, two mechanisms have been suggested to explain the eddy/chlorophyll relationship: (i) eddies originating from the Australian coast maintain their chlorophyll anomaly while propagating westward; and (ii) eddy-induced Ekman upwelling (downwelling) enhances (dampens) nutrient supply in anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddies. Here we describe the relationship between eddies and surface chlorophyll within the South Indian Ocean, and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the anomalous behavior in light of new analyses performed using satellite chlorophyll data. We show that anticyclonic eddies exhibit higher surface chlorophyll concentration than cyclonic eddies across the entire South Indian Ocean basin (from 20 to 28°S), particularly in winter. Using Self Organizing Maps we analyze the chlorophyll patterns within anticyclonic eddies and cyclonic eddies and highlight their complexity. Our analysis suggests that multiple mechanisms may underlie the observed eddy/chlorophyll relationship. Based on Argo float data, we postulate the relationship may be partly related to seasonal adjustment of the mixed layer depth within eddies. Deeper mixing in anticyclonic eddies is expected to enhance nutrient supply to the mixed layer, while shallower mixing in cyclonic eddies is expected to reduce it. This could explain why the observed winter surface chlorophyll bloom is stronger in anticyclonic eddies than in cyclonic eddies.

  17. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Revathi; Kashyap, VK

    2004-01-01

    Background A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Results Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. Conclusion The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was reflected among the southern populations, distinguishing them from the northern groups. Our study also indicates a heterogeneous origin for Lyngayat and Iyengar owing to their genetic proximity with southern populations and northern Brahmins. The high-ranking communities, in particular, Iyengar, Lyngayat, Vanniyar and northern Brahmins might have experienced genetic admixture from East Asian and European ethnic groups. PMID:15317657

  18. Decadal increases in anthropogenic CO2 along 20°S in the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Akihiko; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Shuichi; Fukasawa, Masao

    2010-12-01

    We used high-quality data for dissolved inorganic carbon and related water properties in the Indian Ocean along 20°S (World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program line I3) and 24°S (I4) obtained 8 years apart (1995-2003/2004) to estimate decadal-scale increases of anthropogenic CO2 in the interior of the South Indian Ocean. Significant increases were detected to about 1800 m depth in the longitude range 35-45°E. In the upper thermocline subtropical subsurface water and Indian Central Water, anthropogenic CO2 increased an average of 7.9 ± 1.1 and 7.7 ± 0.5 ?mol kg-1, respectively, whereas in the lower thermocline Antarctic Intermediate Water, the increase was 3.8 ± 0.7 ?mol kg-1. A significant increase was also detected in Circumpolar Deep Water (2.5 ± 1.0 ?mol kg-1). The estimated uptake rate of anthropogenic CO2 along the I3/I4 line over this time interval was 1.0 ± 0.1 mol m-2 a-1. Seasonal variations, which are influential in this ocean because of the Indian monsoon, did not affect detection of the anthropogenic CO2 signals. Comparisons with previous studies showed that increases of anthropogenic CO2 became larger in the most recent decade and that the CO2 uptake rate was similar to that in the South Pacific (1.0 ± 0.4 mol m-2 a-1) but higher than those in the South Atlantic (0.6 ± 0.1 mol m-2 a-1) and North Pacific (0.5 ± 0.1 mol m-2 a-1) Oceans. Deep penetration of anthropogenic CO2 is possibly associated with the higher uptake rate.

  19. Accuracy of Demirjian's 8 teeth method for age prediction in South Indian children: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Srinivas, Baratam; Sanghvi, Praveen; Satyanarayana, Gajjarapu; Gopalakrishnan, Meera; Pavani, B. Vamsi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Demirjian's method of tooth development is most commonly used to assess age in individuals with emerging teeth. However, its application on numerous populations has resulted in wide variations in age estimates and consequent suggestions for the method's adaptation to the local sample. Original Demirjian's method utilized seven mandibular teeth, to which recently third molar is added so that the method can be applied on a wider age group. Furthermore, the revised method developed regression formulas for assessing age. In Indians, as these formulas resulted in underestimation, India-specific regression formulas were developed recently. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the accuracy and applicability of original regression formulas (Chaillet and Demirjian 2004) and India-specific regression formulas (Acharya 2010) using Demirjian's 8 teeth method in South Indian children of age groups 9–20 years. Methods: The present study consisted of 660 randomly selected subjects (330 males and 330 females) were in the aged ranging from 9 to 20 years divided into 11 groups according to their age. Demirjian's 8 teeth method was used for staging of teeth. Results: Demirjian's method underestimated the dental age (DA) by 1.66 years for boys and 1.55 years for girls and 1.61 years in total. Acharya's method over estimated DA by 0.21 years for boys and 0.85 years for girls and 0.53 years in total. The absolute accuracy was better for Acharya's method compared with Demirjian method. Conclusion: This study concluded that both the Demirjian and Indian regression formulas were reliable in assessing age making Demirjian's 8 teeth method applicable for South Indians. PMID:25684903

  20. Allele and Genotype Distributions of DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in South Indian Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Katiboina Srinivasa; Paul, Abialbon; Kumar, Annan Sudarsan Arun; Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Dubashi, Biswajit; Gunaseelan, Karunanithi; Dkhar, Steven Aibor

    2014-01-01

    Various DNA repair pathways protect the structural and chemical integrity of the human genome from environmental and endogenous threats. Polymorphisms of genes encoding the proteins involved in DNA repair have been found to be associated with cancer risk and chemotherapeutic response. In this study, we aim to establish the normative frequencies of DNA repair genes in South Indian healthy population and compare with HapMap populations. Genotyping was done on 128 healthy volunteers from South India, and the allele and genotype distributions were established. The minor allele frequency of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) G23A, Excision repair cross-complementing 2 (ERCC2)/Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) Lys751Gln, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) His46His, XPG Asp1104His, and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg399Gln polymorphisms were 49.2%, 36.3%, 48.0%, 23.0%, and 34.0% respectively. Ethnic variations were observed in the frequency distribution of these polymorphisms between the South Indians and other HapMap populations. The present work forms the groundwork for cancer association studies and biomarker identification for treatment response and prognosis. PMID:25520562

  1. Radiographic evaluation of dental age using Demirjian's eight-teeth method and its comparison with Indian formulas in South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, CH. Sai; Reddy, R. Sudhakara; Ramesh, T.; Madhavi, N. Sai; Ramya, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of Demirjian method and its comparison with Indian formulas for estimation of dental age in subjects attending a dental school in South India. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 individuals (130 males and 120 females) between 7 and 18 years, with orthopantamographs were included in the study. Chronological age was recorded based on subject's date of birth. Dental age was estimated using Demirjian's and Indian formulas. All the data obtained was entered into spreadsheet and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The mean chronological age of the study sample was 12.39 ± 3.32 years; while the mean age obtained from Demirjian's method and Indian-specific regression formula were 11.56 ± 3.17 years and 14.20 ± 3.24 years, respectively. In the present study, the Demirjian's method under estimated dental age by 0.84 years in males and 0.83 years in females (P < 0.05). Indian-specific regression formulas overestimated dental age by 1.72 years in males and 1.91 years in females (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The published Demirjian's and Indian-specific regression formulas are not applicable to the present study group. Hence population-specific cubic regression formulas were developed for males and females in Bhimavaram town (South India). PMID:25709319

  2. Index and ring finger ratio--a morphologic sex determinant in South-Indian children.

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Pradeep Kumar, G

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the sexual dimorphism of index and ring finger ratio in South Indian children. The index finger length (IFL) and the ring finger length (RFL) were measured in 350 subjects aged between 2 and 12 years using a steel measuring tape. The index and ring finger ratio was computed by dividing index finger length by ring finger length. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using SPSS, version 11.0. Mean RFL was greater than mean IFL in both males and females. The mean ring finger length was longer in males than females and mean index finger length longer in females than males. However, these sex differences observed for index and ring finger length were not significant in both hands. Statistically significant sex differences were observed from the derived index and ring finger ratio. The mean index and ring finger ratio was found to be higher in females than males. Significant correlation was found between age and index and ring finger lengths. Index and ring finger ratio however, did not show any significant correlation with age. This study suggests that among South-Indian children, the index and ring finger ratio of 0.97 and less is indicative of male, and a ratio of more than 0.97 is indicative of female sex. The ratio can be a useful sex indicator irrespective of the age of the individual. PMID:20369311

  3. Heat flow, heat generation and crustal thermal structure of the northern block of the South Indian Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Mohan L.; Sharma, S. R.; Sundar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Heat flow values and heat generation data calculated from the concentration of heat producing radioactive elements, U, Th and K in surface rocks were analyzed. The South Indian Craton according to Drury et al., can be divided into various blocks, separated by late Proterozoic shear belts. The northern block comprises Eastern and Western Dharwar Cratons of Rogers (1986), Naqvi and Rogers (1987) and a part of the South Indian granulite terrain up to a shear system occupying the Palghat-Cauvery low lands. The geothermal data analysis clearly demonstrates that the present thermal characteristics of the above two Archaean terrains of the Indian and Australian Shields are quite similar. Their crustal thermal structures are likely to be similar also.

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency & levels of metabolites in an apparently normal urban south Indian elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Shobha, Vineeta; Tarey, Subhash D.; Singh, Ramya G.; Shetty, Priya; Unni, Uma S.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is no published literature on the extent of vitamin B12 deficiency in elderly Indians as determined by plasma vitamin B12 levels and methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels. Vitamin B12 deficiency is expected to be higher in elderly Indians due to vegetarianism, varied socio-economic strata and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. We therefore, studied the dietary habits of south Indian urban elderly population and measured vitamin B12, MMA red cell folate and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: Healthy elderly urban subjects (175, >60 yr) were recruited. Detailed history, physical examination and neurological assessment were carried out. Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary analysis for daily intake of calories, vitamin B12, folate and detailed psychological assessment for cognitive functions was carried out. Blood samples were analyzed for routine haematology and biochemistry, vitamin B12, red cell folate, MMA and Hcy. Results: The mean age of the study population was 66.3 yr. Median values for daily dietary intake of vitamin B12 and folate were 2.4 and 349.2 ?g/day respectively. Sixty two (35%) participants consumed multivitamin supplements. Plasma vitamin B12 level and the dietary intake of vitamin B12 was significantly correlated (P=0.157). Plasma vitamin B12 and Hcy were inversely correlated (P= -0.509). Red cell folate was inversely correlated with Hcy (P= -0.550). Significant negative correlation was observed between plasma vitamin B12 and MMA in the entire study population (P= -0.220). Subjects consuming vitamin supplements (n=62) had significantly higher plasma vitamin B12 levels, lower MMA levels and lower Hcy levels. There was no significant correlation between plasma vitamin B12, MMA, Hcy and red cell folate and any of the 10 cognitive tests including Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study is indicative of higher vitamin B12 (2.4 ?g/day) intakes in urban south Indian population. Thirty five per cent of the study population consumed multivitamin supplements and therefore, low plasma vitamin B12 levels were seen only in 16 per cent of the study subjects. However, MMA was elevated in 55 per cent and Hcy in 13 per cent of the subjects. PMID:22089603

  5. Population Structure of the Chenchu and Other South Indian Tribal Groups: Relationships between Genetic, Anthropometric, Dermatoglyphic, Geographic, and Linguistic Distances

    E-print Network

    Sirajuddin, S. M.; Duggirala, R.; Crawford, Michael H.

    1994-10-01

    We describe the genetic structure and interrelationships of nine south Indian tribal groups (seven from Andhra Pradesh and two from the adjoining states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala) using seven polymorphic loci (ABO, MN, RH, PGM, ACP, PGD, and LDH). R...

  6. U.S. Engineering Degrees for Improving South Indian Graduate Students' Marriage and Dowry Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakaboski, Tamara; Sheridan, Robyn Stout; Dade, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The article examines improved marriage opportunities as an unexplored motivator for pursuing international education via U.S. graduate engineering degrees and stresses the need to centralize gender in analyzing academic mobility and international education. This interdisciplinary qualitative study explores how South Indian men and women's…

  7. Rural Sprawl and the Impact of Human Land Use on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Campbell; T. Bennett

    2005-01-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, specifically Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and communities of the reservation are undergoing change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent

  8. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  9. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.

    PubMed

    Stachurski, Frédéric; Tortosa, Pablo; Rahajarison, Patrick; Jacquet, Stéphanie; Yssouf, Amina; Huber, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  10. Predicted equations for pulmonary function in normal adolescent south Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sitalakshmi, R; Shankar, Ravi P; Padmavathi, R; Subhashini, A S; Thanasekaran, M Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary functions are affected by variables like age, sex, height, weight, and geographic location. Our study aims to establish predicted, equations for pulmonary functions in normal South Indian adolescent population. 400 subjects were grouped into pre & peripubertal (10-14 years) and pubertal (15 to 18 years) age categories. Anthropometric data collected, PFT assessed using portable data logging Spirometer MIR II. Mean FVC and FEV1 values were 2.80 L, 2.49 L in boys and 2.34 L, 2.12 L in girls respectively. Predicted equations for both adolescent age groups were generated by using linear regression analysis. PFT were significantly different in both age categories in boys and girls. PFT increased with increasing age and significantly correlated with the anthropometric parameters. Region specific and age specific predicted equations for PFT are generated from this study. PMID:25906614

  11. Plasma homocysteine levels in depression and schizophrenia in South Indian Tamilian population

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Sunil K; Verman, Arul; Kattimani, Shivanand; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Context: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with psychiatric diseases in non-Indian populations. Objectives: We aimed to determine if total plasma Homocysteine (Hcys) is associated with schizophrenia or depression in South Indian Tamil patients and if so, to correlate their severity and phenomenology to Hcys levels. Settings and Design: 40 patients each with schizophrenia and depression and 40 healthy controls were recruited from the psychiatry department of a quaternary referral centre. Association between Hcys and psychiatric disorders was determined using a Case- control design. Hcys levels were correlated with age, gender and severity and duration of the disease by appropriate statistical methods using SPSS17. Materials and Methods: Schizophrenia and depression were defined using ICD10 DCR version. Severity of depression was assessed by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and that of schizophrenia using Positive and Negative Schizophrenia scales (PANSS). Hcys levels were determined using automated chemiluminiscence immunoassay (74-76). Statistical Analysis: Differences between the mean values of plasma homocysteine levels among schizophrenia, depression and control groups were compared using analysis of variants. The association between the severity and duration of schizophrenia and depression and the plasma homocysteine levels were determine using Pearson correlation. Conclusions: In Tamilian population, schizophrenia and depression are associated with total plasma Hcys levels which correlated with the duration and severity of psychosis. PMID:24574558

  12. Freshening of the South Indian Ocean during the Argo period: observations, causes, and impact on regional sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, William; Lee, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Steric sea level change has been identified as one of the major contributors to the regional sea level changes. This contribution varies in space and time. Temperature (thermosteric) contribution to sea level has been found to be generally more important than salinity (halosteric) effect. Based on temperature and salinity data from Argo floats during 2005-2013 and coincident sea level measurements from satellite altimetry, we found that the central-eastern part of the South Indian Ocean stood out in the entire world ocean as a region that had a more dominant halosteric contribution to sea level change. The conspicuously large halosteric contribution was associated with a freshening in the upper few hundred meters. Neither local atmospheric forcing nor halosteric signal transmitted from the Pacific can explain this freshening. An observed strengthening of the Indonesian throughflow since early 2007 and the enhanced precipitation in the Indonesian Seas inferred from various precipitation estimates compounded by strong tidal mixing are the likely causes of the freshening of the South Indian Ocean. The findings also have implications to the potential influence of regional water cycle and ocean currents in the maritime Continent region to sea level changes in the South Indian Ocean prior to the Argo era and sea level projection in the future in response to climate change. Sustained measurements of sea surface salinity from satellites will significantly enhance our capability to study the impact of regional water cycle in the Maritime Continent region to related changes in the marginal seas and the Indian Ocean.

  13. Insights into the genetic structure and diversity of 38 South Asian Indians from deep whole-genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lai-Ping; Lai, Jason Kuan-Han; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Cheng, Anthony Youzhi; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Liu, Xuanyao; Xu, Wenting; Chen, Peng; Foo, Jia-Nee; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Koo, Seok-Hwee; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus Rene; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Little, Peter; Chia, Kee-Seng; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2014-05-01

    South Asia possesses a significant amount of genetic diversity due to considerable intergroup differences in culture and language. There have been numerous reports on the genetic structure of Asian Indians, although these have mostly relied on genotyping microarrays or targeted sequencing of the mitochondria and Y chromosomes. Asian Indians in Singapore are primarily descendants of immigrants from Dravidian-language-speaking states in south India, and 38 individuals from the general population underwent deep whole-genome sequencing with a target coverage of 30X as part of the Singapore Sequencing Indian Project (SSIP). The genetic structure and diversity of these samples were compared against samples from the Singapore Sequencing Malay Project and populations in Phase 1 of the 1,000 Genomes Project (1 KGP). SSIP samples exhibited greater intra-population genetic diversity and possessed higher heterozygous-to-homozygous genotype ratio than other Asian populations. When compared against a panel of well-defined Asian Indians, the genetic makeup of the SSIP samples was closely related to South Indians. However, even though the SSIP samples clustered distinctly from the Europeans in the global population structure analysis with autosomal SNPs, eight samples were assigned to mitochondrial haplogroups that were predominantly present in Europeans and possessed higher European admixture than the remaining samples. An analysis of the relative relatedness between SSIP with two archaic hominins (Denisovan, Neanderthal) identified higher ancient admixture in East Asian populations than in SSIP. The data resource for these samples is publicly available and is expected to serve as a valuable complement to the South Asian samples in Phase 3 of 1 KGP. PMID:24832686

  14. Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhongming; Khan, Faisal; Borkar, Minal; Herrera, Rene; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2009-01-01

    Background The genetic structure, affinities, and diversity of the 1 billion Indians hold important keys to numerous unanswered questions regarding the evolution of human populations and the forces shaping contemporary patterns of genetic variation. Although there have been several recent studies of South Indian caste groups, North Indian caste groups, and South Indian Muslims using Y-chromosomal markers, overall, the Indian population has still not been well studied compared to other geographical populations. In particular, no genetic study has been conducted on Shias and Sunnis from North India. Aim This study aims to investigate genetic variation and the gene pool in North Indians. Subjects and methods A total of 32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins, Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped. Results Three distinct lineages were revealed based upon 13 haplogroups. The first was a Central Asian lineage harbouring haplogroups R1 and R2. The second lineage was of Middle-Eastern origin represented by haplogroups J2*, Shia-specific E1b1b1, and to some extent G* and L*. The third was the indigenous Indian Y-lineage represented by haplogroups H1*, F*, C* and O*. Haplogroup E1b1b1 was observed in Shias only. Conclusion The results revealed that a substantial part of today’s North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers, suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. The presence of haplogroup E in Shias, first reported in this study, suggests a genetic distinction between the two Indo Muslim sects. The findings of the present study provide insights into prehistoric and early historic patterns of migration into India and the evolution of Indian populations in recent history. PMID:19058044

  15. Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Kalasuramath, Suneeta; Kurpad, Anura V.; Thankachan, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe) status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR). The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of 57Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption. PMID:23563376

  16. Dissolved organic matter cycling in the confluence of the Atlantic and Indian oceans south of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Feijóo, E.; Nieto-Cid, M.; Álvarez, M.; Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.

    2014-01-01

    The boundary between the Atlantic and Indian sectors of the Southern Ocean is a key spot of the thermohaline circulation, where the following water masses mix up: Indian Central water (ICW), South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), Weddell Sea Deep Water (WSDW) and Antarctic Winter Water (WW). An optimum multiparameter analysis based on the distributions of potential temperature, salinity, NO (=O2+9.3×NO3) and silicate during the GoodHope 2004 (GH04) cruise allowed us to (i) define the realms of these water masses; (ii) obtain the water mass proportion weighted-average (archetypal) apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of each water mass; and (iii) estimate the contribution of DOC to the oxygen demand of the study area. WW represented only 5.2% of the water volume sampled during GH04, followed by WSDW with 10.8%, NADW with 12.7%, SACW with 15.3%, AAIW with 23.1% and CDW with 32.8%. The distributions of DOC and AOU were mainly explained by the mixing of archetypal concentrations of these variables, 75±5% and 65±3% respectively, which retained the variability due to the basin-scale mineralization from the formation area to the barycentre of each water mass along the GH04 line. DOC accounted for 26±2% and 12±5% of the oxygen demand of the meso- and bathypelagic ocean, respectively. Conversely, local mineralization processes, retained by the residuals of the archetypal concentrations of DOC and AOU, did not contribute to improve significantly the mixing model of DOC.

  17. Holocene tectonics south of the Indus Suture, Lahaul-Ladakh Himalaya, India: a consequence of Indian Plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, O. N.

    1990-03-01

    The continued northward drift of the Indian Plate after the cessation of its further subduction was successively forced upon other planes of dislocations along old lineaments south of the Indus Suture Zone (ISZ). The active tectonics chiefly confined to the Main Central Thrust, the Main Boundary Thrust, the thrust between the Siwalik rocks and the older Alluvium and along certain tensional/extensional faults are steady but not spectacular. The youngest major tectonic activity in the Himalaya, leaving visible signatures, occurred south of ISZ after the last Quaternary glaciation. This activity rejuvenated older faults causing deflection and disorganization of several rivers which had come to occupy the U-shaped glacial valleys in the Ladakh and Lahaul. The strike-slip movements discretely folded the terraces and also formed the pull-apart Tso Morari and Kiogar Tso basins. The Indian Plate motion also affected the Peninsular part, although less intensely.

  18. Seismotectonics of the Lwandle-Nubia plate boundary between South Africa and the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnady, Chris; Okal, Emile; Calais, Eric; Stamps, Sarah; Saria, Elifuraha

    2013-04-01

    The Lwandle (LW) plate shares a boundary with the Nubia (NU) plate, extending from a diffuse triple junction with the Rovuma plate in Southern Mozambique to a triple junction with the Antarctic plate along a segment of the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). The LW-NU boundary terminates in the ~750 km-long, complex transform of the Andrew Bain Fracture Zone (ABFZ), but its exact locus is still unclear. Recent works locate it along the eastern boundary of the submarine Mozambique Ridge, parallel to the pre-existing, oceanic transform-fault fabric. However, an early concept of the LW block ('ambiguous region' of Hartnady, 1990, Fig. 2) indicates a more westerly trajectory in the north that includes parts of South Africa, with a southerly extension across old oceanic crust of the submarine Natal Valley and Transkei Basin. This proposed boundary is marked by several, aligned epicentres of moderate to strong earthquakes (1941, 1942, 1956, 1969, 1972, 1975, 1981 and 1989). Our re-examination of seismographic records from the 1975 'intraplate' earthquake (-37.62°N, 30.98°E, mb5.0), in the oceanic crust of the distal Transkei Basin, shows a thrust-faulting focal mechanism along a nodal plane striking N272°E. The largest (ML4.2) of a series of three small earthquakes in the Natal Valley in 2009, close to a zone of recent seafloor deformation mapped in 1992, has similar first-motion patterns at Southern African seismograph stations. When the 1975 slip-vector result (N173°E) is combined with a normal-faulting slip vector (N078°E) from a 1986 onland earthquake (-30.53°N, 28.84°E, mb5.0) near the Lesotho-KZN border, and both are incorporated into the wider data-set previously used to solve for East African Rift kinematics, they produce a LW-NU rotation pole that is located south of Africa, near the Agulhas Plateau, and approximately 950 km from the Natal Valley deformation zone. The modeled low rate of right-lateral, LW-NU slip (~0.50-0.75 mm/yr) across this LW-NU boundary segment suggests that the 1972, 1981 and nearby 2009 earthquakes are instances of a 'long aftershock sequence' in the source zone of the 1850 'i-Nyikima' event, which was felt over a very wide region of the Eastern Cape Colony, and the adjacent territories of British Kaffraria and Pondoland. This remarkable historic shaking appears to have been caused by a great (Mw8.0+), oceanic event along a segment of the LW-NU boundary, resembling the 1942 SWIR event along the ABFZ and the recent (2012 March 11) North Indian Ocean events along the incipient boundary between the Indian and Australian plates. This new interpretation has implications for the re-assessment of seismic and submarine-landslide (tsunami) hazard along the SE continental margin of South Africa. Reference Hartnady CJH (1990). Seismicity and plate boundary evolution in southeastern Africa. S. Afr. J. Geol. 93, 473 484.

  19. The decadal variability of the tropical Indian Ocean SST-the South Asian High relation: CMIP5 model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, X.; Huang, G.

    2015-07-01

    Based on Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, present study investigates the decadal variability of the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) sea surface temperature (SST)-the South Asian High (SAH) relation (hereafter TSR) as well as its responses to the global warming. Out of the 17 CMIP5 models, only one (GFDL-CM3) reproduces reasonably the influence of the TIO SST on the SAH. In the historical simulations of GFDL-CM3, the TSR features fluctuations modulated by the western Pacific SST and the Indian subcontinent precipitation. When the TIO warming is accompanied by warm western Pacific, the western Pacific SST-induced tropospheric warming propagates westwards, warms the troposphere surrounding the Indian Ocean, enhances SAH and leads to higher TSR; when accompanied by not so warmed western Pacific, the TSR is lower. While, if the TIO warming is accompanied by negative rainfall anomalies over the Indian subcontinent, the rainfall-induced upper-troposphere cyclone over the subtropical Asia weakens the response of the SAH and leads to lower TSR; if not accompanied by negative rainfall anomalies, the TSR is higher. The decadal variability of the TSR is not subject to the global warming. In RCP45 and RCP85 scenarios, the TSR is also not directly affected by global warming. The rainfall over the Indian subcontinent is still a factor modulating the TSR. While, the western Pacific SST is invalid in the influences of the TIO SST on the SAH.

  20. Report of the Select Committee on Indian Affairs to the National Congress of American Indians (at) Rapid City, South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A brief summary of activities of the Senate's Select Committee on Indian Affairs from April 1977 to September 1978 is presented in this report along with a status report on more than 30 of the bills which have been referred to the committee (James Abourezk, chairman). The status report on bills is organized under these headings: jurisdiction and…

  1. Role of TSH on Urinary Calcium Excretion In Post Menopausal Women of South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    G, Niranjan; P V, Amrutha; A R, Srinivasan; R, Ramesh; M, Sathishbabu; R, Sathiya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unforeseen aberrations in the hormonal status during the early postmenopausal period are responsible for several complications including osteoporosis. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) receptors are isolated from various tissues including the bone. A low serum TSH level is known to stimulate osteoclastic activity in bone and accelerate bone resorption. Urinary calcium/creatinine (UCa/Cr) excretion ratio could be an indirect and an early indicator of loss of Bone Mineral Density (BMD). With this background, this study was planned to explore the association of serum TSH levels with the UCa/Cr excretion ratio. Methods: Forty eight women in the postmenopausal age group, with their menopausal age not more than seven years of duration were included in this study. Based on their TSH values, these subjects were divided into two groups A (TSH<0.5 mIU/L) and B (TSH>0.5mIU/L). Urinary calcium, UCa/Cr excretion ratio, serum phosphorous, calcium and calcium phosphorous multiplication products were estimated and compared between the two groups. Results: Twenty two (46%) women were biochemically asymptomatic hyperthyroid cases and Twenty six (54%) were euthyroid. This study documents high UCa/Cr in Group A compared to that of Group B (p<0.05). We also observed significant negative correlation of TSH with UCa/Cr excretion ratio (p=0.041, r = -0.43). Conclusion: Low serum TSH levels were associated with increased UCa/Cr excretion ratio in postmenopausal women of South Indian population. PMID:23905112

  2. Suttur study: An epidemiological study of psychiatric disorders in south Indian rural population

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Darshan, M. S.; Tandon, Abhinav; Raman, Rajesh; Karthik, K. N.; Saraswathi, N.; Das, Keya; Harsha, G. T.; Krishna, V. S. T.; Ashok, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Based on review of literature World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease Study has estimated that psychiatric disorders are among the most burdensome, around the globe and has suggested general population surveys for future research. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and study their association with various socioeconomic variables. Materials and Methods: This was an exploratory study where a door-to-door survey of the entire population residing in a South Indian village was done (n = 3033). Mini international neuropsychiatric interview kid (MINI) or MINI plus were administered to all the subjects according to the age group. Results: It was found that 24.40% of the subjects were suffering from one or more diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Prevalence of depressive disorders was found to be 14.82% and of anxiety disorders was 4%. Alcohol dependence syndrome was diagnosed in 3.95% of the population. Prevalence of dementia in subjects above 60 years was found to be 10%. Conclusion: Our study is among the very few epidemiological studies with respect to methodological design which does not use screening questionnaires and evaluates each subject with detailed administration of MINI. It concluded that one among four were suffering from a psychiatric disorder. Improving the training of undergraduate medical and nursing students is likely to play a significant role in addressing the increasing psychiatric morbidities. PMID:25316934

  3. Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy and Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis in a Family of South Indian Descent

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Muthiah; Senthil, N.; Sujatha, S.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from dysfunction of ion channels in cellular membranes. They may manifest as diseases affecting skeletal muscle contraction, the conduction system of the heart, nervous system function, and vision syndromes. We describe a family of South Indian descent with hypokalemic periodic paralysis in which four members also have idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a genetically heterogeneous channelopathy that has been linked to mutations in genes encoding three ion channels CACNIAS, SCN4A, and KCNJ2 predominantly. Although data on specific gene in idiopathic generalized epilepsy is relatively scarce, mutations of voltage gated sodium channel subunit genes (CACNB4) and nonsense mutations in voltage gated calcium channels (CACNA1A) have been linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in two families. We speculate that gene mutations altering the ability of the beta subunit to interact with the alpha subunit of the CaV1.1 channel and mutations in the pore-forming potassium channel subunit may be possible explanations for the combined manifestation of both diseases. Functional analysis of voltage gated calcium channel and other ion channels mutations may provide additional support and insight for the causal role of these mutations. The understanding of mutations in ion-channel genes will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of such inherited channelopathies. PMID:25893123

  4. The effect of the CYP2C19 genotype on the hydroxylation index of omeprazole in South Indians.

    PubMed

    Rosemary, J; Adithan, C; Padmaja, N; Shashindran, C H; Gerard, N; Krishnamoorthy, R

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between CYP2C19 genotypes and the hydroxylation index (HI) of omeprazole in the South Indian population. Healthy unrelated South Indian subjects (n=300) were separated into three groups based on their CYP2C19 genotypes. They were administered a single oral dose of 20 mg omeprazole, and venous blood was collected 3 h later. Plasma was assayed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the omeprazole HI was calculated. The means of HIs in individuals with CYP2C19*1/*1 (n=124), *1/*2 (n=129) and *2/*2,*2/*3 (n=47) were 2.4, 5.3 and 22.5, respectively, and were found to be significantly different between any two groups (P<0.0001). A good correlation was established between CYP2C19 genotype and omeprazole HI (r=0.54, 95% CI 0.45-0.62; P<0.0001). Of the 300 subjects, 42 (14.0%; 95% CI 10.1-17.9) were phenotypic poor metabolizers (PMs), but only 33 of them had two mutant alleles and the remaining 9 PMs had at least one wild-type allele. Among the 258 extensive metabolizers, 14 had two mutant alleles. The prevalence of PMs in the South Indian population was 14.0%, which is similar to that in North Indians and Orientals but significantly higher than in Caucasians and Africans. A genotype-phenotype relationship was established between the CYP2C19 genotype and HI of omeprazole, but 7.7% of subjects deviated from expected genotype-phenotype associations. This could be due to an additional mutation, either in the exons/introns or in the 5'-regulatory region of the CYP2C19 gene. PMID:15662508

  5. Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in south eastern Africa depend on sea surface temperature variations in the west Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, L. M.; Caley, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Castaneda, I.; Malaizé, B.; Giraudeau, J.

    2011-07-01

    Glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the vegetation of South Africa might elucidate the climate system at the edge of the tropics between Indian and Atlantic Ocean. However, vegetation records covering a full glacial cycle have only been published from the eastern South Atlantic. We present a pollen record of the marine core MD96-2048 retrieved by the Marion Dufresne from the Indian Ocean ~120 km south of the Limpopo River mouth. The sedimentation at the site is slow and continuous. The upper 6 m (down till 342 ka) have been analysed for pollen and spores at millennial resolution. The terrestrial pollen assemblages indicate that during interglacials the vegetation of eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique largely consisted of evergreen and deciduous forests. During glacials open mountainous scrubland dominated. Montane forest with Podocarpus extended during humid periods favoured by strong local insolation. Correlation with the sea surface temperature record of the same core indicates that the extension of mountainous scrubland primarily depends on sea surface temperatures of the Agulhas Current. Our record corroborates terrestrial evidence of the extension of open mountainous scrubland (including elements with affinity to the Cape Flora) for the last glacial as well as for other glacial periods of the past 300 ka.

  6. Glacial-interglacial vegetation dynamics in South Eastern Africa coupled to sea surface temperature variations in the Western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, L. M.; Caley, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Castañeda, I.; Malaizé, B.; Giraudeau, J.

    2011-11-01

    Glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the vegetation of South Africa might elucidate the climate system at the edge of the tropics between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. However, vegetation records covering a full glacial cycle have only been published from the eastern South Atlantic. We present a pollen record of the marine core MD96-2048 retrieved by the Marion Dufresne from the Indian Ocean ∼120 km south of the Limpopo River mouth. The sedimentation at the site is slow and continuous. The upper 6 m (spanning the past 342 Ka) have been analysed for pollen and spores at millennial resolution. The terrestrial pollen assemblages indicate that during interglacials, the vegetation of eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique largely consisted of evergreen and deciduous forests. During glacials open mountainous scrubland dominated. Montane forest with Podocarpus extended during humid periods was favoured by strong local insolation. Correlation with the sea surface temperature record of the same core indicates that the extension of mountainous scrubland primarily depends on sea surface temperatures of the Agulhas Current. Our record corroborates terrestrial evidence of the extension of open mountainous scrubland (including fynbos-like species of the high-altitude Grassland biome) for the last glacial as well as for other glacial periods of the past 300 Ka.

  7. Are the current Indian growth charts really representative? Analysis of anthropometric assessment of school children in a South Indian district

    PubMed Central

    Kumaravel, V.; Shriraam, Vanishree; Anitharani, M.; Mahadevan, S.; Balamurugan, A. N.; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: India currently is posed by the double threat of thinness and overweight/obesity among children. Different growth charts have taken different population and give different cut-off points to assess these conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometry of school children, 5-18 years of age and thereby estimate the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight and obesity. To analyze how the study population compares with that of Agarwal's growth chart. Materials and Methods: The anthropometric measurements of all the students who were studying from 1st to 12th standards were taken from 27 randomly selected Government and private schools. Prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity were assessed using two standards – Indian standard given by Agarwal and International Standards given by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Results: The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among 18,001 students enrolled as per Indian standard were 12.2%, 9.5% and 3% and as per International standard were 15.3%, 8.1% and 2.6% respectively. The mean and the 95th percentile values of body mass index for both boys and girls at all ages in this study are falling short of Agarwal's and IOTF values. Using international cut-offs as well as Indian cut-offs given by Agarwal, underestimate the prevalence of obesity among boys and girls of all age groups. Conclusion: This study shows that under and over-nutrition among school children is in almost equal proportions. There is an underestimation of obesity among children whenever an Indian or an International growth chart is used. Thus, this study brings out the need for a really representative growth chart. PMID:24701431

  8. Urinary casts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Waxy casts; Casts in the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood cell casts ... by dehydration, exercise, or (water pills) diuretic medicines. Red blood cell casts are a sign of bleeding ...

  9. GROWTH OF THE GREAT ESCARPMENT ACROSS THE INDIAN MARGIN OF SOUTH AFRICA: a couple stratigraphic-geomorphologic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baby, Guillaume; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Dall'Asta, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The South African Plateau is formed by marginal bulges clustered around an intracontinental basin (the Kalahari Basin) with a mean elevation between 1000 and 1400 m. On seaward side, marginal bulges form major escarpments that can reach an elevation up to 3500 m in the Drakensberg area, boundering the high elevation continent from a dissected coastal region. The factors controlling escarpment evolution of those high-elevation passive margins are highly debated. On the one hand, geomorphic studies interpret escarpments in term of pulses of uplift and scarp retreat (King, The Natal Monocline, 1982; Partridge & Maud, S.Afr.J.Geol., 1987). On the other hand, thermochronological data and numerical models of escarpment erosion (Gallagher & Brown, Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lon., 1999; Van der Beek et al., J.Geophys.Res., 2002) suggest that escarpments predate the breakup with a minimal escarpment retreat during post-rift margin evolution. To answer this question, we studied the Indian margin of South Africa (from Bushveld area to Port-Elizabeth) using sequence stratigraphy analysis of industrial seismic lines and wells. This study is coupled with an analysis of the adjacent landforms, constrained by dated sediments and weathering deposits. The first outcomes of our study are: 1. A first uplift during Late Cenomanian (95-90 Ma) created an initial escarpment along the Indian coast. 2. A second uplift occurred during the latest Cretaceous to earliest Cenozoïc with a sequential tilting and truncations of the inner part of the margin followed by the incision of pediments on the seaward side of the initial escarpment, 3. A third uplift that occurred during Late Eocene - Early Oligocene and Miocene with the incision of two new generations of pediments. These preliminary results suggest that the "Great Escarpment" along the Indian coast of South Africa results from the stepping of at least four generations of pediments which record the polyphasic uplift history of the South African Plateau during the last 100 Myr

  10. Association study of the ABCC8 gene variants with type 2 diabetes in south Indians

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Radha; Bodhini, Dhanasekaran; Narayani, Nagarajan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ABCC8 gene which encodes the sulfonylurea receptor plays a major role in insulin secretion and is a potential candidate for type 2 diabetes. The -3c ? t (rs1799854) and Thr759Thr (C ? T, rs1801261) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ABCC8 gene have been associated with type 2 diabetes in many populations. The present study was designed to investigate the association of these two SNPs in an Asian Indian population from south India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,300 subjects, 663 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and 637 type 2 diabetic subjects were randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). The -3c ? t and Thr759Thr were genotyped in these subjects using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and a few variants were confirmed by direct sequencing. RESULTS: The frequency of the ‘t’ allele of the -3c ? t SNP was found to be 0.27 in NGT and 0.29 in type 2 diabetic subjects (P = 0.44). There was no significant difference in the genotypic frequency between the NGT and type 2 diabetic group (P = 0.18). Neither the genotypic frequency nor the allele frequency of the Thr759Thr polymorphism was found to differ significantly between the NGT and type 2 diabetic groups. CONCLUSION: The -3c ? t and the Thr759Thr polymorphisms of the ABCC8 gene were not associated with type 2 diabetes in this study. However, an effect of these genetic variants on specific unidentified sub groups of type 2 diabetes cannot be excluded. PMID:24959012

  11. Lightning activity within tropical cyclones in the South West Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovalo, C.; Barthe, C.; Yu, N.; Bègue, N.

    2014-07-01

    Lightning activity within 70 tropical cyclones in the South West Indian Ocean is studied using a large data set (2005-2013) provided by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). The radial and azimuthal distributions of lightning flashes are analyzed in three different regions of the basin: the open ocean, the Mozambique Channel, and the oceanic region up to 400 km off the eastern coast of Madagascar (ECM). Over the open ocean, lightning activity detected by the WWLLN is mainly found in the eyewall and decreases outward, regardless of storm intensity. Lightning activity in the eyewall of tropical cyclones is higher than in the eyewall of tropical storms. The front and the right quadrants (225° to 45°) relative to the storm motion are the regions where lightning flashes are preferentially detected. Near the ECM, lightning density in the eyewall, the inner rainbands, and the outer rainbands is quite similar, presumably owing to the proximity of land. When the system reaches tropical cyclone strength, lightning activity is mainly found in the left and rear quadrants relative to storm motion. In the Mozambique Channel, the radial and azimuthal distributions of lightning flashes are complex due to the geographical configuration of this subdomain. The relationships between lightning activity and intensity change have also been investigated for systems over the open ocean. The proportion of periods with lightning activity is higher during rapid intensity changes of tropical cyclones. During tropical storm stage, lightning activity in the outer rainbands starts increasing 18 h before a rapid intensification period. 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Longitudinal trends in physical activity patterns in selected urban south Indian school children

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Selvam, Sumithra; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V.; Vaz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: There are very few studies describing the pattern of physical activity of children in India. This study was carried out to document patterns of physical activity in south Indian school children aged 8 to 15 yr and examine changes over a one year period. Methods: Physical activity was assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaires at baseline (n=256) and at follow up (n=203) in 2006 and 2007. Frequency and duration of each activity was recorded and metabolic equivalents (MET) assigned. Sedentary activity included activities with MET < 1.5, and moderate-to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with >3.0. For each activity, daily duration, intensity (MET), and the product of the two (MET-minutes) were computed. Children were categorized by age group, gender and socio-economic status. Height and weight were measured. Results: At baseline, sedentary activity was higher in children aged >11 yr, while intensity of MVPA was higher in boys than girls. Over one year, physical activity at school significantly decreased (P<0.001). There was also a significant decrease in MVPA MET-min (P<0.001) with interaction effects of age group (P<0.001) and gender (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: There was a significant decline in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over a single year follow up, largely due to a decrease in physical activity at school. There appears to be a gap between State educational policies that promote physical well-being of school-going children and actual practice. PMID:21911969

  13. Homozygosity Mapping in Leber Congenital Amaurosis and Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa in South Indian Families

    PubMed Central

    Srilekha, Sundaramurthy; Arokiasamy, Tharigopala; Srikrupa, Natarajan N.; Umashankar, Vetrivel; Meenakshi, Swaminathan; Sen, Parveen; Kapur, Suman; Soumittra, Nagasamy

    2015-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are retinal degenerative diseases which cause severe retinal dystrophy affecting the photoreceptors. LCA is predominantly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and contributes to 5% of all retinal dystrophies; whereas RP is inherited by all the Mendelian pattern of inheritance and both are leading causes of visual impairment in children and young adults. Homozygosity mapping is an efficient strategy for mapping both known and novel disease loci in recessive conditions, especially in a consanguineous mating, exploiting the fact that the regions adjacent to the disease locus will also be homozygous by descent in such inbred children. Here we have studied eleven consanguineous LCA and one autosomal recessive RP (arRP) south Indian families to know the prevalence of mutations in known genes and also to know the involvement of novel loci, if any. Complete ophthalmic examination was done for all the affected individuals including electroretinogram, fundus photograph, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography. Homozygosity mapping using Affymetrix 250K HMA GeneChip on eleven LCA families followed by screening of candidate gene(s) in the homozygous block identified mutations in ten families; AIPL1 – 3 families, RPE65- 2 families, GUCY2D, CRB1, RDH12, IQCB1 and SPATA7 in one family each, respectively. Six of the ten (60%) mutations identified are novel. Homozygosity mapping using Affymetrix 10K HMA GeneChip on the arRP family identified a novel nonsense mutation in MERTK. The mutations segregated within the family and was absent in 200 control chromosomes screened. In one of the eleven LCA families, the causative gene/mutation was not identified but many homozygous blocks were noted indicating that a possible novel locus/gene might be involved. The genotype and phenotype features, especially the fundus changes for AIPL1, RPE65, CRB1, RDH12 genes were as reported earlier. PMID:26147992

  14. Cross-amplification and characterization of microsatellite loci in Acropora austera from the south-western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Maya, P H; Macdonald, A H H; Schleyer, M H

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the successful cross-species amplification of previously published acroporid microsatellite markers in the coral Acropora austera from the south-western Indian Ocean. This fast-growing species is a major reef-building coral on South African reefs; however, it is the most damaged coral by scuba diving activity, and is known to be very susceptible to coral bleaching. Neither genetic information nor symbiont-free host tissue was available to develop novel microsatellite markers for this species. Cross-species amplification of previously published microsatellite markers was considered as an alternative to overcome these problems. Of the 21 microsatellite markers tested, 6 were reliably amplified, scored, and found to contain polymorphic loci (3-15 alleles). Although microsatellite sequences are believed to be scarce in the Acropora genome because of its small size, the results of this study and previous research indicate that the microsatellite sequences are well conserved across Acropora species. A detailed screening process identified and quantified the sources of error and bias in the application of these markers (e.g., allele scoring error, failure rates, frequency of null alleles), and may be accounted for in the study of the contemporary gene flow of A. austera in the south-western Indian Ocean. PMID:24634181

  15. Lack of association of lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene polymorphisms with intracranial aneurysm in a south Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sathyan, Sanish; Koshy, Linda; Sarada Lekshmi, K R; Easwer, H V; Premkumar, S; Alapatt, Jacob P; Nair, Suresh; Bhattacharya, R N; Banerjee, Moinak

    2013-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysm (IA) accounts for 85 % of haemorrhagic stroke and is mainly caused due to weakening of arterial wall. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a cuproenzyme involved in cross linking structural proteins collagen and elastin, thus providing structural stability to artery. Using a case-control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether the variants in LOX gene flanking the two LD block, can increase risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. SNPs were genotyped by fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR (KASPar) chemistry. We selected 200 radiologically confirmed aneurysmal cases and 235 ethnically and age and gender matched controls from the Dravidian Malayalam speaking population of South India. We observed marked interethnic differences in the genotype distribution of LOX variants when compared to Japanese and African populations. However, there was no significant association with any of the LOX variants with IA. This study also could not observe any significant role of LOX polymorphisms in influencing IA either directly or indirectly through its confounding factors such as hypertension and gender in South Indian population. PMID:24065528

  16. Suicide Among the American Indians: Two Workshops (Aberdeen, South Dakota, September 1967; Lewistown, Montana, November 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Health problems among the American Indians have been of major concern to the U.S. Public Health Service for some time. As major inroads are now being made into infectious diseases, maternal and child health, and many chronic illnesses, the problems of the mental health of Indians come into a more central focus. Within the framework of mental…

  17. Structure and early history of the Labuan Basin South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstein, Yair; Munschy, Marc; Schlich, Roland; Hill, Peter J.

    1991-03-01

    Recent multichannel seismic reflection data from the Labuan Basin, in the Southern Indian Ocean, are used to reevaluate older, single channel data from this region. Together, they throw light on the structure and evolution of this basin, situated between the older than 100 Ma Southern Kerguelen Plateau and the younger than 43 Ma Australian-Antarctic Basin. The Labuan Basin is a deep, extensive basement depression, more than 350,000 km2 in area, located adjacent to the eastern margin of the Southern Kerguelen Plateau. In contrast to the nearby Kerguelen Plateau, no prominent reflectors are observed within the basement of the Labuan Basin. This suggests a different mechanism of formation from that of the Kerguelen Plateau, which is believed to have been formed by thick sequences of large lava flows. The basement surface of most of the Labuan Basin is presently quite rough, as the result of a tectonic event which created prominent tilted block structures and turned it into a large northwest-southeast trending syncline. There is a 1-1.5 km elevation difference between the Labuan Basin and the Australian-Antarctic Basin created at the Southeast Indian Ridge, as well as a large difference in sedimentary thickness between them, indicating that the Labuan Basin is significantly older. The boundary of the Labuan Basin with the Kerguelen Plateau is generally a steep and somewhat linear feature which appears to be of tectonic origin: it seems to result from two extensive tectonic episodes, dated at 96 Ma and 75-68 Ma, associated with the prerift phase of plate breakup between Australia and Antarctica. The basement of the Labuan Basin was created 130-100 Ma ago at about the same time than the Kerguelen Plateau. An extensive tectonic episode, to the south of the Labuan Basin, initiated the formation of the boundary between the Southern Kerguelen Plateau and the Labuan Basin. This tectonic episode could be linked to the beginning of seafloor spreading between Australia and Antarctica 96 Ma ago. Sediments were regularly deposited in the basin until 75-68 Ma, at which time an important extensional tectonic event occurred. It involved two large northwest-southeast uplifts; one, centered on the Kerguelen Plateau, affected the western part of the Labuan Basin while the other, of which only the western half is observed, affected the eastern part of the Labuan Basin. This tectonic episode seems to correspond to the prerifting episode leading to the breakup between the Kerguelen Plateau-Labuan Basin and Broken Ridge-Diamantina Zone at 43 Ma. After this tectonic episode, the sediments of the postuplift megasequence filled topographic lows formed by the normal faults and the tilted blocks. The Diamantina Zone, which prior to 43 Ma was continuous with the Labuan Basin, can be expected to have a similar tectonic history. In particular, the rough basement of the Diamantina Zone can be due to postformation tectonism rather than to slow spreading as previously suggested.

  18. Reconstructing Indian Population History

    PubMed Central

    Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.; Singh, Lalji

    2009-01-01

    India has been underrepresented in genome-wide surveys of human variation. We analyze 25 diverse groups to provide strong evidence for two ancient populations, genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. One, the “Ancestral North Indians” (ANI), is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, while the other, the “Ancestral South Indians” (ASI), is as distinct from ANI and East Asians as they are from each other. By introducing methods that can estimate ancestry without accurate ancestral populations, we show that ANI ancestry ranges from 39-71% in India, and is higher in traditionally upper caste and Indo-European speakers. Groups with only ASI ancestry may no longer exist in mainland India. However, the Andamanese are an ASI-related group without ANI ancestry, showing that the peopling of the islands must have occurred before ANI-ASI gene flow on the mainland. Allele frequency differences between groups in India are larger than in Europe, reflecting strong founder effects whose signatures have been maintained for thousands of years due to endogamy. We therefore predict that there will be an excess of recessive diseases in India, different in each group, which should be possible to screen and map genetically. PMID:19779445

  19. MTNR1B gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes: A pilot study in South Indians.

    PubMed

    Salman, Mohammed; Dasgupta, Shruti; Cholendra, A; Venugopal, P N; Lakshmi, G L; Xaviour, D; Rao, Jayashankar; D'Souza, Cletus J M

    2015-07-25

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is the major health concern in the Indian subcontinent. A genome-wide association study carried out with non-diabetic Indians showed association of MTNR1B variants with fasting glucose. MTNR1B mediates the effect of melatonin on insulin secretion. In light of the growing importance of MTNR1B in the etiology of T2D, we sought to test its association with the disease in the south Indian type 2 diabetics. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms of MTNR1B (rs10830962, rs10830963, rs3847554, rs1387153 and rs2166706) were genotyped in 346 T2D patients and 341 non-diabetic controls. None of the SNPs differed significantly between patients and controls with respect to allele and genotype frequencies. Linear regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex and BMI showed a significant positive association of rs3847554 with fasting glucose under recessive model (?=14.98, p=0.012). Haplotypes constituted by minor alleles of rs3847554, rs1387153, rs2166706, rs10830963 and major allele of rs10830962 showed significant positive correlation with fasting glucose (p<0.05). Though the results obtained are suggestive of MTNR1B role in T2D etiology, they need to be confirmed with much larger sample sizes. PMID:25922310

  20. Observation of oligotrophic gyre variability in the south Indian Ocean: Environmental forcing and biological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Babula; Sahu, Shanghamitra; Avinash, Kumar; Swain, Debadatta

    2013-10-01

    Expansion of oligotrophic ocean gyre and widespread reduction of phytoplankton biomass will have severe environmental and ecological effect since phytoplankton accounts for half of the global primary production, which forms the trophic base for marine ecosystem. Analysis of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) datasets (1998-2010) suggested significant expansion of South Indian Ocean oligotrophic gyre (SOG) at average annual rate of 4.46%/yr (r=0.66, p=0.013). The annual trend of SOG expansion was accompanied with the significantly declining trend of Chl-a concentration (-1.36%/yr, or -0.0007±0.0001 mg m-3/yr, r=0.76, p=0.002). Environmental parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST) and meridional wind stress (?y) were found to be the most accountable factors controlling the variability of Chl-a/gyre area. Nevertheless, SST was the dominant predictor of biological response (explains more than 60% of Chl-a variability). This study suggests that the observed trend of SOG expansion and accompanied decline in Chl-a concentration is principally due to SST warming (0.05±0.01 °C/yr, r=0.83, p=0.0008) and weakening of wind stress (?) mainly meridional wind stress component, ?y (-0012 Pa/yr, r=0.86, p=0.004). Additionally, the SST trend map showed more than 80% of the SOG area is warming significantly under circumstance of overall gain of net heat flux by the sea surface. Analysis of these climate variables suggests decreased mixing and enhanced stratification in the SOG which reduces nutrient supply to sunlit zone; consequently resulting in low phytoplankton biomass, and gyre expansion. In addition, the sea-level rise observed in SOG (0.48±0.05 cm/yr) is much higher than the global estimates (0.18±0.05 cm/yr) reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, 2007. The variability in Chl-a concentration was also studied with respect to leading climate oscillators.

  1. Aerosol size distributions in the north and south Indian ocean during the northeast monsoon season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Deshpande; A. K. Kamra

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol size distributions (3- to 1000-nm diameter) were made over the Indian Ocean (15°N, 75°E to 70°S, 11°E) during the onward (December 12, 1996 to January 6, 1997) and return (March 9 to April 5, 1997) cruises of the XVI Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctic. Observations show that during the January to April period, the environment over

  2. Population Structure of Humpback Whales from Their Breeding Grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Pomilla, Cristina; Mendez, Martin; Leslie, Matthew S.; Best, Peter B.; Findlay, Ken P.; Minton, Gianna; Ersts, Peter J.; Collins, Timothy; Engel, Marcia H.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Kotze, Deon P. G. H.; Meÿer, Mike; Barendse, Jaco; Thornton, Meredith; Razafindrakoto, Yvette; Ngouessono, Solange; Vely, Michel; Kiszka, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively). Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region. PMID:19812698

  3. Lipoprotein Ratios as Surrogate Markers for Insulin Resistance in South Indians with Normoglycemic Nondiabetic Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rajappa, Medha; Sridhar, M. G.; Balachander, J.; Sethuraman, K. R.; Rajendiran, Kalai Selvi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Insulin resistance has been associated with dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Even though homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) is a well-known insulin resistance predictor, estimation of serum lipoprotein ratios has been recently suggested as a surrogate marker for insulin resistance. Here, we evaluated the relationship between lipoprotein ratios and insulin resistance in normoglycemic nondiabetic south Indians with acute coronary syndrome. Methods. 100 normoglycemic nondiabetic ACS patients and 140 controls were enrolled in the study. Levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels were measured and lipoprotein ratios were computed. HOMA-IR was used to calculate the insulin resistance. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) analysis was used to compare the power of these lipoprotein ratios to predict insulin resistance. Results. Lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher in normoglycemic nondiabetic ACS patients, as compared to healthy controls, and were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. ROC curve showed that Lp(a)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios were the best surrogate predictors of insulin resistance in normoglycemic nondiabetic ACS. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that serum lipoprotein ratios significantly correlate with insulin resistance in normoglycemic nondiabetic ACS. Lp(a)/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios could be used as surrogate markers of insulin resistance in atherosclerosis-prone south Indians with normoglycemic nondiabetic ACS. PMID:24959351

  4. Report of Annual Conference on Indian Affairs (Pierre Boarding School, Pierre, South Dakota, October 29-30, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. Inst. of Indian Studies.

    The Institute of Indian Studies and the United Sioux Tribes jointly sponsored a conference on 29-30 October 1969. The needs of the American Indian people were discussed by a large cross section of Indian participants. Indian concern about education and the malpreparation of Indian youths in education stood out. The conference report is divided…

  5. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kerguelen Island, south Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, Kerguelen Island in the southern Indian Ocean. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    Discovered in 1772 by French navigator Chevalier Yves deKerguelen-Tremarac, Kerguelen is the largest of a group of 300 islands, islets and reefs that make up the Kerguelen Archipelago. The islands lie atop the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge and are built up of a thick series of lava flows with deposits of fragmented volcanic rock and some granite. Ice covers about one-third of the island, with the large Cook Glacier visible as the tan-colored region at the center-left. The highest point at 1,850 meters (6,068 feet) is glacier-covered Mount Ross, located near the bottom center. The coastline of the main island is highly irregular with a large number of peninsulas linked to the island by narrow isthmuses. Remarkably, although the island is 120 by 140 kilometers (75 by 87 miles) in size no point is more than 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the sea.

    For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 222 kilometers by 146 kilometers (138 miles by 91 miles) Location: 49.1 degrees South latitude, 69.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North is at the top Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  6. Genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in the South Indian descent

    PubMed Central

    Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kumar, Annan Sudarsan Arun; Srinivasa, Rao Katiboina; Kadambari, Dharanipragada; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Decline in circulating estrogen levels causes lessening of bone mass accompanied with musculoskeletal pain, which is the primary cause of treatment discontinuation in patients taking aromatase inhibitors. Evidence from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggests that the genetic variability underlying TCL1A gene increases the risk of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) - induced musculoskeletal toxicity. Currently, no data is available on the frequency distribution of TCL1A gene polymorphisms in Indians. Methods: In this pilot study, we used TaqMan fluorescent probes to assess the genotypes of four TCL1A gene polymorphisms associated with musculoskeletal toxicity in 247 healthy homogenous South Indian subjects on real time thermocycler. Haplotype estimation and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis were executed by Haploview. Results: The incidence of polymorphic variant allele (G) frequencies of rs7158782, rs7159713, rs2369049 and rs11849538 were 22.1%, 23.5%, 18.2% and 22.9% in the study population, respectively. The polymorphisms were found to be in complete LD with each other. Four different haplotypes, each of which having a frequency of above 1% were inferred in South Indians using an expectation-maximization algorithm. Notably, three haplotypes were found to be population specific viz H4 A-A-A-G (1.2%) for South India, H5 G-G-A-C (1.3%) for JPT and H6 G-G-G-C (40.4%) for YRI. Further, H3 G-G-A-G (2.3-16.3%) haplotype occurs primarily in Asians and is virtually absent in Africans. Overall, the genetic variability and haplotype profile of South Indian population revealed significant inter-racial variability compared with HapMap data. Conclusion: This documentation contributes for further investigations on the pharmacogenetics of AIs in South Indians. PMID:25035853

  7. Observed changes in the South Indian Ocean gyre circulation, 1987-2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. Palmer; Harry L. Bryden; Joël Hirschi; Jochem Marotzke

    2004-01-01

    We use hydrographic data at 32°S from 1987, 1995 and 2002 to investigate changes in the strength of the subtropical gyre circulation in the Indian Ocean. Relative geostrophic transports are computed for the ocean interior using geopotential anomalies and a zero-velocity surface at 2230 dbar and then filtered with an 8° Gaussian to remove the high wavenumbers. Our estimates of

  8. Observed changes in the South Indian Ocean gyre circulation, 1987–2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. Palmer; Harry L. Bryden; Joël Hirschi; Jochem Marotzke

    2004-01-01

    We use hydrographic data at 32°S from 1987, 1995 and 2002 to investigate changes in the strength of the subtropical gyre circulation in the Indian Ocean. Relative geostrophic transports are computed for the ocean interior using geopotential anomalies and a zero-velocity surface at 2230 dbar and then filtered with an 8° Gaussian to remove the high wavenumbers. Our estimates of

  9. Population structure of the Chenchu and other south Indian tribal groups: relationships between genetic, anthropometric, dermatoglyphic, geographic, and linguistic distances.

    PubMed

    Sirajuddin, S M; Duggirala, R; Crawford, M H

    1994-10-01

    We describe the genetic structure and interrelationships of nine south Indian tribal groups (seven from Andhra Pradesh and two from the adjoining states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala) using seven polymorphic loci (ABO, MN, RH, PGM, ACP, PGD, and LDH). R matrix analysis indicates that the Andhra Pradesh tribes are clustered and that the Kadar and Irula are genetically isolated from them. This dispersion of populations has been explained by the combination of relatively high frequencies of the alleles RH D and MN M in the Kadar and the relatively high proportions of the allele PGM*2 in the Irula. The Mahaboobnagar Chenchu subgroup is isolated from other Telugu-speaking groups because of high frequencies of the PGM*1 and ACP*A alleles. The regression of mean per locus heterozygosity (H) on distance from the gene frequency centroid (rii) reveals considerable levels of external gene flow among the Lambadi, the Yerukula, and the two Chenchu subgroups and more homogeneity in the Kolam, Koya, Yanadi, Irula, and Kadar. Mantel statistics were used to assess the relative effects of nonbiological processes (i.e., language and geography) on the morphological and genetic patterns of these subdivided populations. The significance of correlations was determined between different data sets (genetic, dermatoglyphic, anthropometric, geographic, and linguistic) at three levels involving nine, six, and five populations. Although multiple correlation analysis reveals significant combined effects of geography and language on genetics, anthropometrics, and dermatoglyphics, highly significant partial correlations suggest strong effects of geography on both anthropometry and genetics. Our analysis indicates that geographic factors have an overwhelming effect on the genetic differentiation of the south Indian tribal groups. PMID:8001914

  10. FTO gene variants are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes in South Asian Indians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Yajnik; C. S. Janipalli; S. Bhaskar; S. R. Kulkarni; R. M. Freathy; S. Prakash; K. R. Mani; M. N. Weedon; S. D. Kale; J. Deshpande; G. V. Krishnaveni; S. R. Veena; C. H. D. Fall; M. I. McCarthy; T. M. Frayling; A. T. Hattersley; G. R. Chandak

    2009-01-01

    Aims and hypothesis  Variants of the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in white Europeans, but these associations\\u000a are not consistent in Asians. A recent study in Asian Indian Sikhs showed an association with type 2 diabetes that did not\\u000a seem to be mediated through BMI. We studied the association of FTO

  11. Metamorphic pressure-temperature conditions of Indian plate rocks south of the main mantle thrust, lower Swat, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipietro, Joseph A.

    1991-08-01

    The Lower Swat rock sequence, in northern Pakistan, is composed of greenschist and amphibolite facies Indian plate rocks that crop out in a dome directly south of the Main Mantle thrust zone and Kohistan arc terrane. The metamorphism is Eocene to Oligocene in age and records the collision of the Indian plate with the Kohistan arc. This paper presents mineral assemblage, mineral composition and garnet zoning data on the Lower Swat rock sequence in order to estimate the pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphism and to infer a possible pressure-temperature-time path. The stratigraphic sequence consists of Precambrian to Cambrian(?) Manglaur formation unconformably overlain by late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic Alpurai group. The Alpurai group is further subdivided into the Marghazar, Kashala, Saidu and Nikanai Ghar formations. The Manglaur formation, in the core of the dome, is at kyanite grade. Metamorphic grade decreases in the overlying Alpurai group where a garnet "isograd" is mapped in calcareous schist of the Kashala formation. Mineral composition geothermometers and geobarometers indicate final metamorphic equilibrium conditions of about 600°-700°C and 9-11 kbar in the Manglaur and Marghazar formations. These conditions are associated with a phase of static recrystallization which postdates the main phases of deformation. Correlation of the structural-tectonic history with the pressure-temperature estimates, and with the garnet zoning analysis, suggests that in the Eocene the Lower Swat rock sequence was subducted to a depth of 35 to 45 km beneath the MMT suture melange. Subduction was followed immediately by exhumation. The initiation of exhumation is believed to have been triggered by a change from subduction to strike slip motion in the MMT, thereby allowing the relatively buoyant Lower Swat crust to rise. The entire metamorphic-deformational cycle lasted from 7 to 16 m.y., ending in the late Eocene about 38 Ma when the rocks cooled through the argon blocking temperature in hornblende (? 550°C).

  12. Rural Sprawl and the Impact of Human Land Use on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, R.; Bennett, T.

    2005-12-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, specifically Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and communities of the reservation are undergoing change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. The capacity of satellite imagery to encompass large land tracts make the use of this technology a cost effective way to visualize and investigate population growth in rural communities. Likewise, integrating remotely sensed data into a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be a powerful tool to identify environmental and other land use issues that impact the people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of this research is to (1) observe and calculate land cover change around three communities on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using remotely sensed data (Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+) and Geographic Information Systems over a 20 year span, and (2) to discuss the potential impacts of rural sprawl on the Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Preliminary results indicate that land cover has changed in relationship to increased population growth within three communities on the reservation. New housing developments, roads and buildings have appeared and these changes were detectable using Landsat imagery. These results will be discussed along with the experiences and education through the NASA Goddard Internship sponsored by the North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges.

  13. Isolation, Characterization and Identification of a Potential Probiont from South Indian Fermented Foods ( Kallappam , Koozh and Mor Kuzhambu ) and Its Use as Biopreservative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Satish Kumar; D. Ragu Varman; P. Kanmani; N. Yuvaraj; K. A. Paari; V. Pattukumar; V. Arul

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-five strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from South Indian traditional fermented foods Kallappam batter, Koozh and Mor Kuzhambu. Further 6 strains were selected based on their antimicrobial activity. They were identified according to morphological, biochemical\\u000a and physiological criteria. Identification by 16S rDNA sequence homology of the isolates revealed the presence of Weissella paramesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum.

  14. Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Recurrent South Atlantic Ozone Maxima

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Chatfield; H. Guan; A. M. Thompson; J. Witte

    2003-01-01

    We extend on our analysis of equatorial tropospheric ozone to illustrate the contributions of South Asian pollution export in forming episodes of high O3 over the Atlantic Ocean. We amplify on an earlier description of a broad resolution of the \\

  15. Dietary patterns in Asian Indians in the United States: an analysis of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, Meghana D; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M

    2014-02-01

    Dietary patterns contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Asian Indians have earlier onset, more severe, and more prevalent CVD than many other racial/ethnic groups. We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in Asian Indians living in the United States and examine associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred fifty Asian Indians, aged 45 to 84 years, without known CVD, living in the San Francisco Bay, CA, area between August 2006 and October 2007 were enrolled into the Metabolic syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. A food frequency questionnaire validated in Asian Indians, fasting blood samples, and computed tomography scans were obtained for all participants. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to determine prevalent dietary patterns. Linear regression analyses were performed for associations between dietary patterns and metabolic factors, adjusting initially for age and sex, then additionally for BMI, income, education, metabolic equivalent of task-minutes of exercise, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified that we termed "Western," and "Vegetarian." Compared with the Western diet, the Vegetarian diet was associated with lower homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (-1.12 mmol/L × mU/L; P=0.05) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-4.77 mg/dL; P=0.09). Given that the Western and Vegetarian dietary patterns were each associated with adverse metabolic changes, healthful diet choices may help Asian Indians improve risk factors for CVD. PMID:24295929

  16. Observed changes in the South Indian Ocean gyre circulation, 1987-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Matthew D.; Bryden, Harry L.; Hirschi, Joël; Marotzke, Jochem

    2004-08-01

    We use hydrographic data at 32°S from 1987, 1995 and 2002 to investigate changes in the strength of the subtropical gyre circulation in the Indian Ocean. Relative geostrophic transports are computed for the ocean interior using geopotential anomalies and a zero-velocity surface at 2230 dbar and then filtered with an 8° Gaussian to remove the high wavenumbers. Our estimates of the relative gyre transports are: 41 +/- 5.1 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3s-1) for 1987, 42 +/- 7.0 Sv for 1995 and 58 +/- 7.0 Sv for 2002. This represents a 40% increase from 1987 to 2002. The main areas of change in the geostrophic transports are just east of Madagascar Ridge and around Broken Plateau, which is consistent with differences we observe in the isopycnal depths in these areas. Maps of contoured velocity suggest that most of the change happened between 1995 and 2002, which supports our transport estimates.

  17. Temperature control of microbial respiration and growth efficiency in the mesopelagic zone of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazuecos, Ignacio P.; Arístegui, Javier; Vázquez-Domínguez, Evaristo; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Gasol, Josep M.; Reche, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    We have measured both prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) and respiration (R), then providing direct estimates of prokaryotic growth efficiencies (PGE), in the upper mesopelagic zone (300-600 m) of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Our results show that in situ R ranged 3-fold, from 87 to 238 ?mol C m-3 d-1. In situ PHP rates were much lower but also more variable than R (ranging from 0.3 to 9.1 ?mol C m-3 d-1). The derived in situ PGE values were on average ~1.4% (from 0.3% to 3.7%), indicating that most of the organic substrates incorporated by prokaryotes were respired instead of being used for growth. Together with the few previous studies on PGE published before for the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, our findings support the hypothesis that the global mesopelagic zone represents a key remineralization site for export production in the open ocean. We also found a strong correlation between R and PGE with temperature across a gradient ranging from 8.7 to 14.9 °C. The derived Q10 value of 3.7 suggests that temperature variability in the mesopelagic zone plays a significant role in the remineralization of organic matter.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel lepidopteran-selective toxin from the venom of South Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus

    PubMed Central

    Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Inceoglu, Bora; Herrmann, Rafael; Derbel, Maher; Choudary, Prabhakara V; Hammock, Bruce D

    2001-01-01

    Background Scorpion venom contains insect and mammal selective toxins. We investigated the venom of the South Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus for the purpose of identifying potent insecticidal peptide toxins. Results A lepidopteran-selective toxin (Buthus tamulus insect toxin; ButaIT) has been isolated from this venom. The primary structure analysis reveals that it is a single polypeptide composed of 37 amino acids cross-linked by four disulfide bridges with high sequence homology to other short toxins such as Peptide I, neurotoxin P2, Lqh-8/6, chlorotoxin, insectotoxin I5A, insect toxin 15 and insectotoxin I1. Three dimensional modeling using Swiss automated protein modeling server reveals that this toxin contains a short ?-helix and three antiparallel ?-strands, similar to other short scorpion toxins. This toxin is selectively active on Heliothis virescens causing flaccid paralysis but was non-toxic to blowfly larvae and mice. Conclusion This is the first report of a Heliothine selective peptide toxin. Identification of diverse insect selective toxins offer advantages in employing these peptides selectively for pest control. PMID:11782289

  19. Comparative immunogenicity of two peste des petitis ruminants (PPR) vaccines in South Indian sheep and goats under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, A K; Gomes, Amitha R; Hegde, Raveendra; Rathnamma, D; Veeregowda, B M; Byregowda, S M; Renukaprasad, C; Bhanuprakash, V; Prabhudas, K; Hegde, Nagendra R; Isloor, Shrikrishna

    2013-12-01

    Peste des petitis ruminants (PPR) is an economically important endemic viral disease of sheep and goats in India, where several different homologous PPR vaccine candidates have been developed. We evaluated the serological response to two vaccine strains, Arasur/87 and Sungri/96, in South Indian cross-bred and native sheep and goats reared under organized and unorganized settings. Animals seronegative (percent inhibition or PI <40) by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) were immunized with either of the vaccine strains or placebo. Sera collected on 21, 60 and 90 days post-vaccination were subjected to c-ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT). Seropositivity (PI >40), seroconversion (fourfold increase in SNT titres) and seroprotection (SNT titre of ?8 deemed to be protective) ranged from 66.7 to 84.0 %, 56.0 to 69.2 %, and 60.0 to 76.0 %, respectively. However, no significant difference was observed between responses to the two vaccine strains. These results support the premise that the two vaccine strains are equally efficacious. PMID:24426300

  20. Association analysis of common variants in FOXO3 with type 2 diabetes in a South Indian Dravidian population.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anup Kumar; Sugunan, Divya; Kumar, Harish; Anilkumar, Gopalakrishnapillai

    2012-01-10

    Recent studies have identified common variants in forkhead box O3 gene (FOXO3) to be strongly associated with longevity in different populations. But studies have not been carried out to analyse the role of common variants in FOXO3 with type 2 diabetes. Since type 2 diabetes is an age related disorder and FOXO proteins play an important role in the regulation of metabolism, we studied the role of common variants in FOXO3 for association with type 2 diabetes. The study was carried out in 994 type 2 diabetic samples and 984 normoglycemic control samples from a South Indian Dravidian population. In our analysis, we found that there was no association between any of the selected SNPs in FOXO3 with type 2 diabetes. Analysis of these SNPs with diabetes related biochemical and clinical parameters also did not reveal any significant association. Haplotype association of SNPs in FOXO3 with type 2 diabetes was observed, but the frequency of the haplotypes was considerably lower and they do not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, we did not observe any association of SNPs in FOXO3 with type 2 diabetes and related parameters suggesting an entirely different mechanism by which these SNPs influence longevity. However additional studies in other populations are required to completely rule out the association of common variants in FOXO3 with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22015955

  1. Association of serum antibodies with protection against rotavirus infection and disease in South Indian children.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Prasanna; Lopman, Ben; Ramani, Sasirekha; Paul, Anu; Gladstone, Beryl; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Parashar, Umesh; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-08-11

    Serum antibodies play an important role in natural protection from rotavirus infection and disease, but conflicting estimates of association have emerged from epidemiological studies in different geographical settings. In this study, we aim to assess the relationship between pre-existing serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA titers with protection against rotavirus infection and disease in a birth cohort of Indian children. Children were recruited at birth and followed up for 36 months. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks and during episodes of diarrhea and serum samples were obtained at least every 6 months. The incidence rate of rotavirus infection and diarrhea was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.99) and 0.2 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.25) episodes per child year, respectively. The risk of rotavirus infection and diarrhea decreased with age, while antibody titers (IgG and IgA) increased with age. After adjusting for age and number of previous infections, higher levels of IgG and IgA were independently associated with reduced risk of rotavirus infection. However, we did not find a clear association of IgG or IgA with rotavirus diarrhea risk or a threshold level of protection. The study supports a correlation of serum antibodies in reducing the risk of rotavirus infections, however the potential of serum antibody titer as a correlate of protection is not clear for children in lower income settings. PMID:25091682

  2. Factors affecting the occurrence and transport of atmospheric organochlorines in the China Sea and the northern Indian and South East Atlantic Oceans.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Li, Jun; Schuster, Jasmin; Zhang, Yanlin; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong; Spiro, Baruch; Bhatia, Ravinder S; Dachs, Jordi; Jones, Kevin C

    2012-09-18

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are reported in 97 air samples collected on board the RV Polarstern in November 2007 from the equator to Cape Town, South Africa and the MV Oceanic II (The Scholar Ship) in January-March 2008 from Shanghai, China to Cape Verde in the Central Atlantic Ocean. The atmospheric concentrations were higher close to the coast and lower in remote regions of the Indian and South Atlantic Ocean. Groups of samples were selected in the South China Sea, Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean where the relative wind direction matched the trajectory of the ship, thus all the samples had the same input of sources upwind. In these three regions the concentrations of OCPs and PCBs declined during atmospheric transport following first order kinetics. These sets of measurements provided estimates of field derived residence times (FDRTs) for individual compounds. These values were compared with predicted atmospheric residence times (PARTs) computed using a model of long-range atmospheric transport potential of POPs. The FDRTs are 5-10 times longer for the more volatile PCB congeners and TC, CC, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE than the respective PARTs, while they are similar to PARTs for the less volatile compounds. Possible causes of discrepancies between PARTs and FDRTs are discussed, and revolatilization from the ocean surface seems to be the main cause for the higher values of FDRTs of the more volatile compounds in comparison with the respective PARTs. PMID:22871129

  3. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians BUREAU OF...TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis...

  4. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians BUREAU OF...TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis...

  5. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians BUREAU OF...TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis...

  6. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians BUREAU OF...TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis...

  7. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians BUREAU OF...TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis...

  8. Atmospheric trace metals over the Atlantic and South Indian Oceans: Investigation of metal concentrations and lead isotope ratios in coastal and remote marine aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Melanie; Baker, Alex R.; Jickells, Tim D.

    Atmospheric concentrations of trace metals over the oceans are investigated through analysis of aerosol samples collected during cruises from the UK to the Falkland Islands and from South Africa to Australia. The readily soluble concentrations of Cu (4-256 pmol m -3), Ni (0.1-54 pmol m -3), Ba (0.2-60 pmol m -3), Zn (6-316 pmol m -3), Cd (0.01-0.29 pmol m -3) and Pb (0.4-22 pmol m -3) were measured in the aerosols, along with total concentrations of crustal elements (Fe, Al and Mn) to evaluate the crustal contributions. Air mass back trajectories suggested most of the aerosol samples had spent several days over the ocean prior to collection. The highest metal concentrations were observed in aerosols close to South Africa, Australia and major cities in South America, although these concentrations were lower than had been reported previously in the literature. Apart from Ba, which had a major crustal source, the trace metals were enriched relative to crustal sources in most samples, including some collected thousands of kilometers from emission sources. The mean trace metal concentrations in the remote Indian Ocean were lower than those measured in the Atlantic Ocean. Even lower concentrations are reported in the literature for the remote Pacific Ocean. In contrast to previous studies, no clear north-south gradient is observed in the concentrations of the trace metals in the aerosols. Lead isotope measurements were also carried out on aerosol samples using a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to assist in source apportionment. Clear differences were noted in the isotope ratios collected on either side of the Indian Ocean with Australian lead ore dominating over much of the eastern and mid-southern Indian Ocean. Samples collected over the western Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean under South African influence had lead isotopes quite different from those seen in South African cities in the past, and are closer in ratio to the coal signature of the region.

  9. Evaluation of body composition and its association with cardio respiratory fitness in south Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometry is generally considered as the single most easily obtainable, inexpensive, and noninvasive method that reflects body composition and VO2(max) is an indication of the physical fitness of the subject. There is a paucity of data on t3he age related changes in the body composition parameters and VO2(max), and the association between them in the Indian adolescent population. Hence, the present study was conceived to assess and find the association between these parameters in the students in the age group of 12-17 years. Body composition was assessed using anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and skin fold thickness) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using estimated VO2(max) from Rockport Walk Fitness Test. We observed that the anthropometric measures were normal for the respective age groups and VO2(max) (mL/kg/min) in all the age groups in both the genders were in superior category according to Heywood classification. We observed higher body fat percentage (BF%) in girls of all the age groups compared to the boys and higher fat free mass (FFM) and VO2(max) in the boys of all age groups when compared to girls. VO2(max) showed a strong correlation with FFM (r = 0.891, P < 0.001) and a weak correlation with BF% (r = -0.322, P < 0.0001). Optimal body composition and CRF can be attributed to the regular structured physical activity of one hour duration daily and the provision of adequate nutrition. FFM can be put forth as a stronger determinant of CRF than BF% in the adolescents. PMID:24968579

  10. Indian psychoanalysis, patriarchy and hinduism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhargavi V. Davar

    1999-01-01

    Indian intellectuals have been concerned about the complex links between religion, caste and gender, especially in the formation of social science ideas and practices. The mental and behavioural sciences, however, have only been at the fringes of this interest. As a case?study, and as an initial and tentative attempt in this area, this paper foregrounds the caste and gender basis

  11. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and their association with plasma levels of resistin and the metabolic syndrome in a South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Haseeb, Abdul; Iliyas, Mohammad; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Farooqui, Arif A; Naik, Sudhir R; Ghosh, Sudip; Suragani, Madhuri; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z

    2009-09-01

    Studies on the association of the Pro12Ala and C1431T polymorphisms of PPAR? with diabetes and obesity have revealed extensive population-dependent variations. However, association of these polymorphisms with the metabolic syndrome and its individual components has not been well investigated in the Indian population. The Indian population harbours the maximum number of diabetics in the world who are thus more susceptible to metabolic disorders. We screened a South Indian population (N=699) for a possible association of these polymorphisms with the metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes. We also investigated the correlation of these two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with plasma resistin levels. The C1431T SNP was associated with higher levels of plasma resistin (P=0.017). Furthermore, C1431T was associated with resistin in different tertiles. Prevalence of the 'Pro-C' haplotype decreased with increasing tertiles of resistin (84.1% to 75.4%, P=0.037). Plasma resistin levels were not found to be associated with MS and type 2 diabetes. These results point to a likely association of plasma resistin levels with PPAR? polymorphisms in the Indian population. PMID:19805902

  12. Begomovirus 'melting pot' in the south-west Indian Ocean islands: molecular diversity and evolution through recombination.

    PubMed

    Lefeuvre, P; Martin, D P; Hoareau, M; Naze, F; Delatte, H; Thierry, M; Varsani, A; Becker, N; Reynaud, B; Lett, J-M

    2007-12-01

    During the last few decades, many virus species have emerged, often forming dynamic complexes within which viruses share common hosts and rampantly exchange genetic material through recombination. Begomovirus species complexes are common and represent serious agricultural threats. Characterization of species complex diversity has substantially contributed to our understanding of both begomovirus evolution, and the ecological and epidemiological processes involved in the emergence of new viral pathogens. To date, the only extensively studied emergent African begomovirus species complex is that responsible for cassava mosaic disease. Here we present a study of another emerging begomovirus species complex which is associated with serious disease outbreaks in bean, tobacco and tomato on the south-west Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands off the coast of Africa. On the basis of 14 new complete DNA-A sequences, we describe seven new island monopartite begomovirus species, suggesting the presence of an extraordinary diversity of begomovirus in the SWIO islands. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences reveal a close relationship between monopartite and bipartite African begomoviruses, supporting the hypothesis that either bipartite African begomoviruses have captured B components from other bipartite viruses, or there have been multiple B-component losses amongst SWIO virus progenitors. Moreover, we present evidence that detectable recombination events amongst African, Mediterranean and SWIO begomoviruses, while substantially contributing to their diversity, have not occurred randomly throughout their genomes. We provide the first statistical support for three recombination hot-spots (V1/C3 interface, C1 centre and the entire IR) and two recombination cold-spots (the V2 and the third quarter of V1) in the genomes of begomoviruses. PMID:18024917

  13. Heat Flow on the South West Indian Ridge at 14°E and the Consequences for Microbiological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, N. E.; Molari, M.; Boetius, A.

    2014-12-01

    During RV POLARSTERN cruise PS81 to the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR) at 52°S, 14°E an integrated study was carried out in more than 4000 m water depth employing seismology, geology, microbiology, deep-sea ecology, heat flow and others. Heat flow is supposed to be an indicator for the varying depth of the magma chamber beneath the ridge axis. Bottom observations from previous work on the SWIR are scarce and visual information about geostructures, habitat landscapes, benthic faunal communities and their distribution in this area have so far been missing. Vigorous fluid flow in the form of black smokers or shimmering water could not be detected but enhanced heat flow due to upward pore water migration occurred. This leads to values of very high heat flow (up to 850 mW/m2) and advection rates up to 25 cm/a Darcy velocity. Enhanced biomass and a greater variation of megafauna along those sites of high heat flow could be inferred from reconnaissance observations with a camera sledge. A closer investigation of microbial activity in the material of gravity corers revealed favorable living conditions for microorganisms. We find the inorganic carbon fixation rates, here applied like a proxy of microbial metabolic activity, were significantly higher (up to 7 times higher) in surficial sediments in proximity of the station PS 81/640 compared to other stations along the ridge. Conversely the extracellular enzymatic activities did not show any significant difference in the potential organic matter degradation between the stations investigated. These results suggest an increase of chemosynthetic activities at St PS 81/649, possibly related to increase of availability of reduced compounds (i.e. sulphide, reduced metals) in presence of pore water flow.

  14. NOTCH1 and FBXW7 mutations favor better outcome in pediatric South Indian T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Valliyammai; Bandapalli, Obul R; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Sagar, Tenali Gnana; Karunakaran, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    The NOTCH1 signaling pathway is essential for hematopoiesis and a critical regulatory step for T-cell proliferation and maturation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXW7 controls NOTCH1 protein stability. Mutations in NOTCH1/FBXW7 activate NOTCH signaling and are of prognostic significance in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In this study we analyzed NOTCH1 and FBXW7 mutations in 50 South Indian T-ALL patients treated by a modified ALL BFM 95 regimen. The hot spot exons (HD-N, HD-C, TAD, and PEST) of NOTCH1 and exons 9 of the 10 of FBXW7 were polymerase chain reaction amplified and sequenced. In total, 20 of the 50 (40%) T-ALL patients revealed heterozygous mutations in the NOTCH1 domains, and a predominance of missense mutations in HD-N (70%) and PEST (15%) domains. FBXW7 mutations were detected in 5 of the 50 (10%) T-ALL patients. T-ALL patients with NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations expressed higher protein level of NOTCH1 compared with patients without NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations. Six of the mutations detected in NOTCH1 were not reported previously. When tested in a Dual Luciferase Renilla reporter assay some of these conferred increased NOTCH activity, suggesting that these are activating mutations. Importantly, 13 of the 20 (65%) NOTCH1/FBXW7-mutated T-ALL patients showed a good prednisone response (P=0.01) and a better clinical outcome compared with NOTCH1/FBXW7 nonmutated patients (P=0.03). These data suggest that NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations are present in T-ALL patients from Southern India and may be useful biomarkers to predict prognosis in T-ALL. PMID:25493453

  15. Malaria epidemics and the influence of the tropical South Atlantic on the Indian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, B. A.; Rodó, X.; Ballester, J.; Bouma, M. J.; Baeza, A.; Dhiman, R.; Pascual, M.

    2013-05-01

    The existence of predictability in the climate system beyond the relatively short timescales of synoptic weather has provided significant impetus to investigate climate variability and its consequences for society. In particular, relationships between the relatively slow changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and climate variability at widely removed points across the globe provide a basis for statistical and dynamical efforts to predict numerous phenomena, from rainfall to disease incidence, at seasonal to decadal timescales. We describe here a remote influence, identified through observational analysis and supported through numerical experiments with a coupled atmosphere-ocean model, of the tropical South Atlantic (TSA) on both monsoon rainfall and malaria epidemics in arid northwest India. Moreover, SST in the TSA is shown to provide the basis for an early warning of anomalous hydrological conditions conducive to malaria epidemics four months later, therefore at longer lead times than those afforded by rainfall. We find that the TSA is not only significant as a modulator of the relationship between the monsoon and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, as has been suggested by previous work, but for certain regions and temporal lags is in fact a dominant driver of rainfall variability and hence malaria outbreaks.

  16. Studies on isozymic variation among the South Indian species of Sphaerostephanos

    PubMed Central

    Varaprasadham, Irudayaraj; Marimuthu, Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the identity and phylogenetic relationships among the three medicinally important species of Sphaerostephanos from South India using isozymic profile. Methods The young fronds were homogenized with 3.5 mL of ice-cold homogenizing buffer in a pre-chilled pestle and mortar. The supernatant was subjected to electrophoresis as described by Anbalagan poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining solutions for isoperoxidase was prepared as per Smila method for the detection of isoenzymes. Results A total of six different bands in five different positions with different molecular weight/Rf values and four active zones have been observed in the isoperoxidase enzyme system of Sphaerostephanos. Only one band with MW/Rf 0.399 is common to two different species i.e. Sphaerostephanos arbuscula (S. arbuscula) and Sphaerostephanos unitus (S. unitus). Among the remaining four bands, two bands (Rf. 0.23, 0.47) are present in Sphaerostephanos subtruncatus (S. subtruncatus) and one distinct band has been observed individually in S. arbuscula (Rf. 0.507) and S. unitus (Rf. 0.56). Conclusions The present preliminary molecular study through isozymic analysis shows the identity of all the three species and the present results confirm distinctness of these three species based on macro-micromorphology, phytochemistry and cytology. PMID:23569778

  17. Age estimation using development of third molars in South Indian population: A radiological study

    PubMed Central

    Priyadharshini, K. Indra; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Sivapathasundaram, B.; Mohanbabu, V.; Augustine, Dominic; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the estimation of chronological age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A–H) method of Demirjian et al. in Chennai population of South India. Materials and Methods: A sample consisting of 848 individuals (471 males and 377 females) aged between 14 and 30 years was randomly selected for the clinical evaluation and 323 orthopantomograms with clinically missing third molars were taken for radiological evaluation using Demirjian's method from a Chennai population of known chronological age and sex. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's Chi-square test and mean values were compared between the study groups using t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's highly significant difference (HSD). In the present study, P < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: The results showed that the mean age of having clinically completely erupted maxillary third molars was 22.41 years in male subjects and 23.81 years in female subjects and that of mandibular third molars was 21.49 years in male subjects and 23.34 years in female subjects. Mandibular third molars were clinically missing more often in females than in males. Eruption of mandibular third molars was generally ahead of the emergence of maxillary third molars into the oral cavity. Third molar development between male and female subjects showed statistically significant differences at calcification stage F and stage G in maxillary third molars and stage F in mandibular third molars (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There are differences indicating that maxillary and mandibular third molar eruption reached Demirjian's formation stages earlier in males than in females. It is suggested that in future studies, to increase the accuracy of age determination, indications of sexual maturity and ossification should also be evaluated in addition to third molar mineralization. PMID:25984465

  18. Community perceptions of health and chronic disease in South Indian rural transitional communities: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hayter, Arabella K. M.; Jeffery, Roger; Sharma, Chitra; Prost, Audrey; Kinra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are now the leading cause of death and disability worldwide; this epidemic has been linked to rapid economic growth and urbanisation in developing countries. Understanding how characteristics of the physical, social, and economic environment affect behaviour in the light of these changes is key to identifying successful interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk. Design We undertook a qualitative study consisting of nine focus group discussions (FGDs) (n=57) in five villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India, to understand people's perceptions of community development and urbanisation in relation to chronic disease in rural transitional communities. Specifically, we sought to understand perceptions of change linked to diet, physical activity, and pollution (because these exposures are most relevant to chronic diseases), with the aim of defining future interventions. The transcripts were analysed thematically. Results Participants believed their communities were currently less healthy, more polluted, less physically active, and had poorer access to nutritious food and shorter life expectancies than previously. There were contradictory perceptions of the effects of urbanisation on health within and between individuals; several of the participants felt their quality of life had been reduced. Conclusions In the present study, residents viewed change and development within their villages as an inevitable and largely positive process but with some negative health consequences. Understanding how these changes are affecting populations in transitional rural areas and how people relate to their environment may be useful to guide community planning for health. Measures to educate and empower people to make healthy choices within their community may help reduce the spread of chronic disease risk factors in future years. PMID:25669238

  19. A description of eddy-mean flow feedbacks in equatorial and boundary current systems of the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Maas, Leo R. M.; Ridderinkhof, Herman; van Aken, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    While many observational and modeling efforts have addressed eddy-mean flow interactions acting over nearly idealized zonal jets, little is know about whether findings in those studies can be extended to current systems with different configurations in the real ocean. This topic is of special interest for ocean-climate models where eddy interactions with the mean flow may be unresolved, demanding further insight on the mechanism by which the eddy field and the mean circulation should feed back in a realistic representation of future climate change scenarios. Following this motivation, we investigate local exchange of momentum and kinetic energy operating in a variety of eddy-mean flow systems of the South Indian Ocean (SIO). To this aim we use 21 years (1993-2013) of newly processed satellite altimetry observations, and adopt a definition of the mean flow as a seasonally-dependent temporal mean where the eddy field encompasses the daily instantaneous deviation from the altimeter-derived velocities. This approach allows time-varying feedbacks to evolve throughout the year. We find that the eddy field feeds back on the mean circulation, contributing importantly to the overall seasonal strengthening and weakening of all current systems involved in the tropical and subtropical gyre of the SIO. Although significant contributions to the momentum and energy balances were also obtained along the Agulhas (Return) Current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), they exhibit a weak/absent seasonal cycle, suggesting that the strength of these dynamical processes is mostly persistent throughout the year. Spatial distribution of the eddy kinetic energy conversion rates and the convergence of horizontal eddy momentum fluxes indicate that over regions where the eddy field draws energy from the mean flow through barotropic instabilities, the current is importantly decelerated by alongstream eddy forces on its upstream side, while further downstream the situation reverses with accelerating alongstream eddy forces and kinetic energy being transferred from the eddy field to the mean flow. This is the case for 1) the meandering Indonesian Throughflow, ITF (winter and spring); 2) the southward along-slope flow crossing the narrows of the Mozambique Channel and shedding anticyclonic eddies; 3) the southern South East Madagascar Current shedding dipoles; and, 4) the Agulhas Retroflection, shedding Agulhas rings into the Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, we observe a well-known feature of the eastward-flowing Agulhas Return Current and the ACC, also along the South Equatorial Countercurrent, the ITF and the North East Madagascar Current. In all cases (either eastward- or westward-flowing), these nearly zonal currents exhibit convergence (divergence) of the cross-stream eddy momentum forces acting over its left-hand (right-hand) side, looking downstream, pointing to a systematic drift of the mean flow towards its left-hand side by cross-stream eddy forces. Quantitative estimates and qualitative spatial patterns from this study provide a unique tool for testing the performance of eddy-resolving models on predicting realistically eddy-mean flow feedbacks in the SIO.

  20. An In-Vivo Correlation Analysis of the Distance Between Lingual Frenal Attachment and Mandibular Incisal Edge Position as an Aid in Establishing Mandibular Occlusal Plane in South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, R; Raj, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Statement of problem: The aim of the study is to find the reliability in measuring the distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and the incisal edge of the mandibular central incisor on casts to be used as a pre-extraction record. Purpose: The objective of this study is to give a range of numerical values from anterior attachment of lingual frenum to mandibular central incisors in a class I ridge relation in south Indian population, which may be used in establishing the vertical dimension of the edentulous patient and also to locate the mandibular incisors in teeth arrangement of complete denture fabrication. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects (50 males and 50 females) under the age group of 21-28y, with class I dental relationship and who have never undergone orthodontic treatment were selected. Two models were made for each subject using irreversible hydrocolloid impression material and type III gypsum product to obtain an average value for each subject. The distance between the incisal edges of the lower central incisor and the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum is measured using a divider and digital vernier caliper. Statistical Analysis: Mean and Standard deviation using descriptive statistics tool using SPSS software version 18. Result: The distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and incisal edges of mandibular central incisors among the 100 subjects was 14.50mm ± 2.2245 mm. Conclusion: The value obtained aided in establishing the vertical dimension easier by making a pre-determined height of mandibular occlusal rim. PMID:25859527

  1. Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

  2. Project EARTH-12-ABW1: The Morphology, Structure and Origin of Seamounts on the South-West Indian

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    -West Indian Ridge (SWIR) between longitude 46-57o E where the ridge is spreading slowly (~16 mm of the SWIR and to other very slow spreading ridges (e.g. Gakkel) in order to determine the main controls

  3. Comparison of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Prema, Raju; Sathyamangalam Ve, Ramesh; Hemamalini, Arvind; Baskaran, Mani; Kumaramanickavel, Govindaswamy; Catherine, McCarty; Vijaya, Lingam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the prevalence of refractive errors and factors associated with spectacle use in a rural and urban south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Four thousand eight hundred subjects (age >39 years) each from rural and urban Tamil Nadu were enumerated for a population-based study. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmic evaluation including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), objective and subjective refraction. Out of 3924 rural responders 63.91% and out of 3850 urban responders 81.64% were phakic in the right eye with BCVA of 20/40 or better and were included in the study. Association of spectacle use and refractive errors with different parameters were analysed using logistic regression. Statistical Analysis: Chi square, t test, Chi square for trend and Pearson?s correlation coefficient were used for analysis. Results: Spectacle use was significantly higher and positively associated with literacy and employment in the urban population. The age and gender-adjusted prevalence of emmetropia, myopia of spherical equivalent (SE) ?-0.50 diopter sphere (DS), high myopia (SE ?-5.00DS), hyperopia (SE >0.50DS) and astigmatism ? 0.50 diopter cylinder (DC) were 46.8%, 31.0%, 4.3%, 17.9% and 60.4% respectively in the rural population and 29.0%, 17.6%, 1.5%, 51.9%, 59.1% respectively in the urban population. The prevalence of emmetropia decreased with age (p < 0.001); prevalence of myopia and high myopia increased with age (p = 0.001) and were associated with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Hyperopia was commoner among women than men (p = 0.001); was positively associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.008) in the rural population and negatively with nuclear sclerosis (p = 0.001) in both populations. Conclusion: Spectacle use was found to be significantly lower in the rural population. The pattern of refractive errors was significantly different between both populations. PMID:18292625

  4. Hydrothermal circulation and subsidence of ocean basins : a case study from the South-East Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, G. B.; Jean, F.; James, C. R.; Cinthia, L.; Delphine, A.

    2003-12-01

    The South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR) flanks between 105° E and 130° E are characterized by anomalously low subsidence rates, less than about 280 m/ sqrt(Ma) [Hayes and Kane, JGR, 1994]. While individual estimates of the upper mantle temperature variations below the SEIR axis may vary significantly from one study to the other, all geophysical (axial morphology, seismology and geoid) and geochemical (major and trace elements systematics) evidence is compatible with variations of less than about 100° C. Such a temperature anomaly is not sufficient to fully explain the observed anomalously low subsidence rates, using the present available models for the thermal evolution of the lithosphere. Ad hoc explanations, such as, for instance, variations in mantle thermal parameters cannot be readily rejected, but are not completely satisfactory because they cannot be supported by direct estimates. In contrast, of direct evidence is the lack of sedimentation that characterizes the flanks of the SEIR and the fact, recognized from heat flow data, that in absence of sediment cover, seawater penetrates into the ocean crust and plays a key role in the mechanisms of heat transfer through the seafloor. Although it is now widely accepted that seawater may penetrate massively into poorly sedimented off-axis crust, the contribution of water circulation to the seafloor subsidence rate has only been considered so far near crestal areas, but not at the scale of tens of millions years. We thus propose a simple model which assumes, at first approximation, that seawater penetrates into highly permeable off-axis crust to a depth H below the seafloor and maintains the temperature equal to Tc at that depth (Note : H may depend on age crust). Assuming that hydrothermal circulation is active over large periods (of tens of Ma, for instance), the subsidence rate is controlled by Tm-Tc. The model thus predicts that variations in the hydrothermal regime, by affecting Tc, may affect the subsidence rate. Estimates for the best fitting values of Tc and H are proposed and discussed. Agreement with re-assessed subsidence estimates a posteriori supports the model hypothesis, suggesting that in absence of sedimentation sealing the upper crust, anomalously low temperatures could be forced for tens of millions of years, down to the base of the layer penetrated by the diffusive seawater circulation.

  5. Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

    2013-01-01

    Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with “Caucasoid” populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

  6. Correlates of anaemia in pregnant urban South Indian women: a possible role of dietary intake of nutrients that inhibit iron absorption

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Finkelstein, Julia; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify correlates of anaemia during the first trimester of pregnancy among 366 urban South Indian pregnant women. Design Cross-sectional study evaluating demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data on haematological outcomes. Setting A government maternity health-care centre catering predominantly to the needs of pregnant women from the lower socio-economic strata of urban Bangalore. Subjects Pregnant women (n 366) aged ?18 and ?40 years, who registered for antenatal screening at ?14 weeks of gestation. Results Mean age was 22.6 (SD 3.4) years, mean BMI was 20.4 (SD 3.3) kg/m2 and 236 (64.5%) of the pregnant women were primiparous. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb <11.0g/dl) was 30.3% and of microcytic anaemia (anaemia with mean corpuscular volume <80fl) 20.2%. Mean dietary intakes of energy, Ca, Fe and folate were well below the Indian RDA. In multivariable log-binomial regression analysis, anaemia was independently associated with high dietary intakes of Ca (relative risk; 95% CI: 1.79; 1.16, 2.76) and P (1.96; 1.31, 2.96) and high intake of meat, fish and poultry (1.94; 1.29, 2.91). Conclusions Low dietary intake of multiple micronutrients, but higher intakes of nutrients that inhibit Fe absorption such as Ca and P, may help explain high rates of maternal anaemia in India. PMID:22575487

  7. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility as a Means of Controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Mosquito in the Islands of the South-Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

  8. Clinical applications and implications of common and founder mutations in Indian subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Ankala, Arunkanth; Tamhankar, Parag M; Valencia, C Alexander; Rayam, Krishna K; Kumar, Manisha M; Hegde, Madhuri R

    2015-01-01

    South Asian Indians represent a sixth of the world's population and are a racially, geographically, and genetically diverse people. Their unique anthropological structure, prevailing caste system, and ancient religious practices have all impacted the genetic composition of most of the current-day Indian population. With the evolving socio-religious and economic activities of the subsects and castes, endogamous and consanguineous marriages became a commonplace. Consequently, the frequency of founder mutations and the burden of heritable genetic disorders rose significantly. Specifically, the incidence of certain autosomal-recessive disorders is relatively high in select Indian subpopulations and communities that share common recent ancestry. Although today clinical genetics and molecular diagnostic services are making inroads in India, the high costs associated with the technology and the tests often keep patients from an exact molecular diagnosis, making more customized and tailored tests, such as those interrogating the most common and founder mutations or those that cater to select sects within the population, highly attractive. These tests offer a quick first-hand affordable diagnostic and carrier screening tool. Here, we provide a comprehensive catalog of known common mutations and founder mutations in the Indian population and discuss them from a molecular, clinical, and historical perspective. PMID:25323826

  9. 137Cs water profiles in the South Indian Ocean – An evidence for accumulation of pollutants in the subtropical gyre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Povinec; M. Aoyama; M. Fukasawa; K. Hirose; K. Komura; J.-A. Sanchez-Cabeza; J. Gastaud; M. Jeskovský; I. Levy; I. Sýkora

    2011-01-01

    The 137Cs seawater transect along the 20°S latitude in the Indian Ocean, sampled during the round the globe BEAGLE2003 (Blue Ocean Global Expedition) clearly shows a presence of two cores of higher 137Cs concentrations at 100°E and 55°E in water column depths between 100 and 200m. The subsurface maximum of 137Cs activity concentration (2.1mBq\\/L) observed near 100°E is the highest

  10. Performance on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices by African, East Indian, and White engineering students in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Philippe Rushton; Mervyn Skuy; Peter Fridjhon

    The hypothesis is tested that the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) has the same construct validity in African university students as it does in non-African university students. Analyses were made of scores from 294 highly select 17-23-year-olds in the Faculties of Engineering and the Built Environment at the University of the Witwatersrand (187 Africans, 40 East Indians, 67 Whites; 70

  11. Performance on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices by African, East Indian, and White engineering students in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Philippe Rushton; Mervyn Skuy; Peter Fridjhon

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis is tested that the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) has the same construct validity in African university students as it does in non-African university students. Analyses were made of scores from 294 highly select 17–23-year-olds in the Faculties of Engineering and the Built Environment at the University of the Witwatersrand (187 Africans, 40 East Indians, 67 Whites; 70

  12. Hair casts.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Sweta S; Parmar, Kirti S; Shah, Bela J

    2014-10-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  13. Hair casts

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  14. Pigmented casts.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented casts have been reported with variable frequency in scalp biopsies from alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia and postoperative (pressure induced) alopecia. Their presence and morphology in other scalp disorders has not been described. The authors assessed for the presence and morphology of pigmented casts in 308 transversely bisected scalp biopsies from nonscarring and scarring alopecia, referred to the Department of Dermatology, University of Miami within a year. The pigmented casts were present in 21 of 29 cases of alopecia areata (72%), 7 of 7 cases of trichotillomania (100%), 1 case of friction alopecia, 4 of 28 cases of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (14%), and 4 of 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis (100%). They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morphology in trichotillomania, which included twisted, linear (zip), and "button"-like pigment aggregation. The linear arrangement was found also in friction alopecia and dissecting cellulitis. Pigmented casts in the hair canals of miniaturized/vellus hairs was a clue to alopecia areata. Pigmented casts can be observed in biopsies of different hair disorders, but they are not specific for the diagnosis. Horizontal sections allow to better assess their morphology and the follicular level of presence of pigmented casts, which in the context of the other follicular findings may be a clue to the diagnosis. PMID:23823025

  15. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF A CAST IRON POST SUPPORTING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF A CAST IRON POST SUPPORTING A WOOD BEAM; SOUTH ROOM OF THE LOWER LEVEL, LOOKING WSW. (Ceronie) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 17, Arnold Lane, South of Dalliba Avenue, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  16. Contribution of Food Sources to the Vitamin B12 Status of South Indian Children from a Birth Cohort Recruited in the City of Mysore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence that sub-clinical vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is common in India. Vegetarianism is prevalent and therefore meat consumption is low. Our objective was to explore the contribution of B12 source-foods and maternal B12 status during pregnancy to plasma B12 concentrations. Design Maternal plasma B12 concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Children’s dietary intakes and plasma B12 concentrations were measured at age 9.5 years; B12 and total energy intakes were calculated using food composition databases. We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal B12 status and children’s intakes of B12 and B12 source-foods, and children’s plasma B12 concentrations. Setting South Indian city of Mysore and surrounding rural areas. Subjects Children from the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort (n=512, 47.1% male). Results Three percent of children were B12 deficient (<150 pmol/l). A further 14% had ‘marginal’ B12 concentrations (150-221 pmol/l). Children’s total daily B12 intake and consumption frequency of meat and fish, and micronutrient-enriched beverages were positively associated with plasma B12 concentrations (p=0.006, p=0.01 and p=0.04, adjusted for socio-economic indicators and maternal B12 status). Maternal pregnancy plasma B12 was associated with children’s plasma B12 concentrations, independent of current B12 intakes (p<0.001). Milk and curd (yoghurt) intakes were unrelated to B12 status. Conclusions Meat and fish are important B12 sources in this population. Micronutrient-enriched beverages appear to be important sources in our cohort, but their high sugar content necessitates care in their recommendation. Improving maternal B12 status in pregnancy may improve Indian children’s status. PMID:24866058

  17. Electromagnetic casting

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.W.; Kageyama, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deepak [Motorola Corp., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Cook, D.P. [Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (United States); Prasso, D.C. [Intel Corp., Aloha, OR (United States); Nishioka, S. [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Electromagnetic casting (EMC) is a technology that is used extensively in the aluminum industry to cast ingots with good surface finish for subsequent rolling into consumer product. The paper reviews briefly some investigations from the eighties wherein models for EMC were developed. Then more recent work is examined wherein more realistic 3D models have been developed, the traditional studies of electromagnetic and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena have been supplemented with research on heat transport, and the stability of the metal free surface has been examined. The paper concludes with three generalizations concerning modeling that may have wider applicability than EMC.

  18. Late Holocene South American and Indian summer monsoon variability: Assessing the regional significance of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, B. W.; Rudloff, O. M.; Escobar, J.; Polissar, P. J.; Steinman, B. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Yao, T.

    2014-12-01

    The response of Earth's major climate systems to natural forcings during the last 2000 years can provide valuable insight into the affect that ongoing climate change may have on these systems. Understanding the relationship between temperature, monsoonal hydroclimate and radiative forcing is of particular interest because hydrologic responses in these systems have the ability to impact over half of the global population. Here, late Holocene variability in the South American and Indian summer monsoon regions is examined using sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic proxies from high altitude lake sediment archives from the Colombian Andes and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. New results from Laguna de Ubaque, a small moraine dammed lake at 2060 m ASL in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, suggest a reduction in Andean South American summer monsoon (SASM) rainfall during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 900 to 1200 CE) that is consistent with other records from the Andes. During the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1450 to 1900 CE), Ubaque shows wet conditions between 1450 and 1600 CE and drier conditions from1600 to 1900 CE. This pattern is similar to accumulation at the Quelccaya Ice Cap, but differs from ice core, speleothem and lake sediment oxygen isotope records of synoptic-scale monsoonal precipitation, suggesting that Andean rainfall anomalies may have differed from upstream monsoonal trends over the Amazon. In contrast, results from Badi Namco and Paru Co on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau suggest that the MCA and LIA were relatively minor hydroclimate events superimposed on a larger millennial scale variation in Indian summer monsoon precipitation (1200 to 200 cal yr B.P.) that was associated with changes in the position of the ITCZ, surface air temperature over the Tibetan Plateau and sea surface temperatures in the western tropical Pacific. The unique hydroclimate variations in the ISM and SASM regions supports the idea that while spatially extensive, the MCA and LIA had heterogeneous global expressions and that local factors played an important role in the regional expressions of these events. Analysis of Last Millennium simulations from the CMIP5 ensemble support inferences derived from proxy records and provide further insight into variability in global monsoonal systems.

  19. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  20. 40 CFR 147.2051 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Carolina § 147.2051 EPA-administered program—Indian...effective date of the UIC program for Indian lands in South Carolina is November 25, 1988. [53 FR 43090, Oct....

  1. 40 CFR 147.2051 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Carolina § 147.2051 EPA-administered program—Indian...effective date of the UIC program for Indian lands in South Carolina is November 25, 1988. [53 FR 43090, Oct....

  2. 40 CFR 147.2051 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS South Carolina § 147.2051 EPA-administered program—Indian...effective date of the UIC program for Indian lands in South Carolina is November 25, 1988. [53 FR 43090, Oct....

  3. Clinical profile, outcomes, and progression to type 2 diabetes among Indian women with gestational diabetes mellitus seen at a diabetes center in south India

    PubMed Central

    Mahalakshmi, Manni Mohanraj; Bhavadharini, Balaji; Kumar, Maheswari; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Shah, Sapna S.; Bridgette, Akila; Choudhury, Mridusmita; Henderson, Margaret; Desborough, Lane; Viswanathan, Mohan; Ranjani, Harish

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To describe the clinical profile, maternal and fetal outcomes, and the conversion rates to diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) seen at a tertiary care diabetes center in urban south India. Materials and Methods: Clinical case records of 898 women with GDM seen between 1991 and 2011 were extracted from the Diabetes Electronic Medical Records (DEMR) of a tertiary care diabetes center in Chennai, south India and their clinical profile was analyzed. Follow-up data of 174 GDM women was available. To determine the conversion rates to diabetes, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done in these women. Glucose tolerance status postpartum was classified based on World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 criteria. Results: The mean maternal age of the women was 29 ± 4 years and mean age of gestation at first visit were 24 ± 8.4 weeks. Seventy percent of the women had a family history of diabetes. Seventy-eight percent of the women delivered full-term babies and 65% underwent a cesarean section. The average weight gain during pregnancy was 10.0 ± 4.2 kg. Macrosomia was present in 17.9% of the babies, hypoglycemia in 10.4%, congenital anomalies in 4.3%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 1.9%. Mean follow-up duration of the 174 women of whom outcome data was available was 4.5 years. Out of the 174, 101 women who were followed-up developed diabetes, of whom half developed diabetes within 5 years and over 90%, within 10 years of the delivery. Conclusions: Progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indian women with GDM is rapid. There is an urgent need to develop standardized protocols for GDM care in India that can improve the maternal and fetal outcomes and help prevent future diabetes in women with GDM. PMID:24944938

  4. Determining the probiotic potential of cholesterol-reducing Lactobacillus and Weissella strains isolated from gherkins (fermented cucumber) and south Indian fermented koozh.

    PubMed

    Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Sivasankari, Balayogan; Santhanakaruppu, Rajendran; Manimaran, Muthusamy; Rani, Rizwana Parveen; Sivakumar, Subramaniyan

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditionally fermented south Indian koozh and gherkin (cucumber). A total of 51 LAB strains were isolated, among which four were identified as Lactobacillus spp. and three as Weissella spp. The strains were screened for their probiotic potential. All isolated Lactobacillus and Weissella strains were capable of surviving under low pH and bile salt conditions. GI9 and FKI21 were able to survive at pH 2.0 and 0.50% bile salt for 3 h without losing their viability. All LAB strains exhibited inhibitory activity against tested pathogens and were able to deconjugate bile salt. Higher deconjugation was observed in the presence of sodium glycocholate (P < 0.05). Strain FKI21 showed maximum auto-aggregation (79%) and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli MTCC 1089 (68%). Exopolysaccharide production of LAB strains ranged from 68.39 to 127.12 mg/L (P < 0.05). Moreover, GI9 (58.08 ?g/ml) and FKI21 (56.25 ?g/ml) exhibited maximum cholesterol reduction with bile salts. 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed GI9 and FKI21 as Lactobacillus crispatus and Weissella koreensis, respectively. This is the first study to report isolation of W. koreensis FKI21 from fermented koozh and demonstrates its cholesterol-reducing potential. PMID:25839996

  5. Evaluation of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk in South Indian Women Based on MTHFR (C677T) and FVL (G1691A) Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran Ali; Shaik, Noor Ahmad; Kamineni, Vasundhara; Jahan, Parveen; Hasan, Qurratulain; Rao, Pragna

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to scrutinize the extent to which single amino acid substitutions in the MTHFR and factor V Leiden (FVL) genes affect the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women of South Indian descendant. This case–control study was implemented once the ethical approval has been obtained. Overall, 237 women were recruited in this study: 137 had been diagnosed with GDM and the remaining 100 women were used as normal controls or non-GDM. The diagnosis of GDM was confirmed with biochemical analysis, i.e., GCT and oral glucose tolerance tests. Five milliliters of peripheral blood was collected and used for biochemical and molecular analyses. DNA was isolated, and genotyping for MTHFR (C677T) and FVL (G1691A) mutations was performed using PCR–RFLP. FVL (G1691A) locus was not polymorphic in the investigated sample. There was no significant difference in the allele and genotype frequencies of C677T polymorphism between GDM and non-GDM women (p?=?0.8892). PMID:26000264

  6. Elevated nitrogen isotope ratios of tropical Indian aerosols from Chennai: Implication for the origins of aerosol nitrogen in South and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Tachibana, Eri; Swaminathan, T.

    2010-09-01

    To better understand the origins of aerosol nitrogen, we measured concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and its isotope ratios (? 15N) in tropical Indian aerosols (PM 10) collected from Chennai (13.04°N; 80.17°E) on day- and night-time basis in winter and summer 2007. We found high ? 15N values (+15.7 to +31.2‰) of aerosol N (0.3-3.8 ?g m -3), in which NH 4+ is the major species (78%) with lesser contribution from NO 3- (6%). Based on the comparison of ? 15N in Chennai aerosols with those reported for atmospheric aerosols from mid-latitudes and for the particles emitted from point sources (including a laboratory study), as well as the ? 15N ratios of cow-dung samples (this study), we found that the atmospheric aerosol N in Chennai has two major sources; animal excreta and bio-fuel/biomass burning from South and Southeast Asia. We demonstrate that a gas-to-particle conversion of NH 3 to NH 4HSO 4 and (NH 4) 2SO 4 and the subsequent exchange reaction between NH 3 and NH 4+ are responsible for the isotopic enrichment of 15N in aerosol nitrogen.

  7. Association of inflammatory sialoproteins, lipid peroxides and serum magnesium levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children of South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Niranjan, G; Anitha, D; Srinivasan, A R; Velu, V Kuzhandai; Venkatesh, C; Babu, M Sathish; Ramesh, R; Saha, S

    2014-06-01

    The Incidence of childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing even in rural and semi-urban regions of India. Adipose tissue mass secretes several inflammatory proteins, which could potentially alter the metabolic processes, leading to several complications at the later stages of life. With limited studies on protein bound sialic acid (PBSA) as a marker of oxidative stress mediated inflammation in obese children, this study was aimed to assess and correlate PBSA with lipid peroxidation and other cardiometabolic risk factors like Insulin Resistance (IR), serum magnesium, and high sensitive C reactive Protein (hsCRP) levels in order to provide an insight into the degree of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. This study included 62 obese children (?95% percentile of the CDC chart) and 60 non obese controls. This study documents significant higher levels of PBSA, IR, Malondialdehyde (MDA), hsCRP and uric acid in obese children (p<0.001). PBSA was associated with IR, hsCRP, uric acid, hypomagnesaemia. Higher degrees of oxidative stress, Insulin resistance and low serum magnesium levels were noted in obese children. PBSA and hsCRP levels were elevated and were associated with Insulin resistance in obese children of South Indian population. PMID:25018680

  8. Association of Inflammatory Sialoproteins, Lipid Peroxides and Serum Magnesium Levels with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese Children of South Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Niranjan, G.; Anitha, D.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Velu, V. Kuzhandai; Venkatesh, C.; Babu, M. Sathish; Ramesh, R.; Saha, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Incidence of childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing even in rural and semi-urban regions of India. Adipose tissue mass secretes several inflammatory proteins, which could potentially alter the metabolic processes, leading to several complications at the later stages of life. With limited studies on protein bound sialic acid (PBSA) as a marker of oxidative stress mediated inflammation in obese children, this study was aimed to assess and correlate PBSA with lipid peroxidation and other cardiometabolic risk factors like Insulin Resistance (IR), serum magnesium, and high sensitive C reactive Protein (hsCRP) levels in order to provide an insight into the degree of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. This study included 62 obese children (?95% percentile of the CDC chart) and 60 non obese controls. This study documents significant higher levels of PBSA, IR, Malondialdehyde (MDA), hsCRP and uric acid in obese children (p<0.001). PBSA was associated with IR, hsCRP, uric acid, hypomagnesaemia. Higher degrees of oxidative stress, Insulin resistance and low serum magnesium levels were noted in obese children. PBSA and hsCRP levels were elevated and were associated with Insulin resistance in obese children of South Indian population. PMID:25018680

  9. Television viewing and sleep are associated with overweight among urban and semi-urban South Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Thomas, Tinku; Vaz, Mario; Kurpad, Anura V

    2007-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is an emerging problem in urban Indian children and increases in childhood overweight and obesity may be major contributors to the adult obesity epidemic. Thus, identifying potential risk factors for childhood obesity and formulating early interventions is crucial in the management of the obesity epidemic. The present study was aimed at evaluating dietary and physical activity patterns as determinants of overweight in a sample of children. Methods Five hundred and ninety eight children aged 6–16 years, visiting St. John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore City, India for minor complaints or routine checkups were recruited into the study. These children were studied for their physical activity patterns, sleep duration, sedentary habits and eating behaviours as potential determinants of overweight. Results Decreased duration of sleep and increased television viewing were significantly associated with overweight. Among the eating behaviours, increased consumption of fried foods was significantly associated with overweight. Conclusion Our data suggests that duration of sleep, television viewing and consumption of fried foods may be significant factors that contribute to overweight. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:17880729

  10. Guild structure, diversity and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung in South Western Ghats forests

    PubMed Central

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K. V.; Vineesh, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    The diversity, guild structure and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung is described in a deciduous forest site in Western Ghats, a hot spot of diversity in India. Dung beetles were collected using baited pitfall traps and from exposed dung pats in the forest at intervals of 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 and 21 days. Twenty-one dung beetle species belonging to the 3 major functional guilds were recorded. Abundance of dwellers was high compared to rollers deviating from earlier reports on the high abundance of rollers in the afrotropical regions. Dweller Drepanocerus setosus and tunneler Onthophagus bronzeus were the most abundant species. Dung pats aged 3–5 days attracted the highest abundance of dung beetles. Bray Curtis similarity index indicated low community similarity between different stages of succession. Species richness and abundance of tunnelers increased with dung age and decreasing moisture up to a threshold level, followed by a decrease. Rollers and dwellers did not show any significant relationship with dung moisture content. Further research is needed to estimate the dung beetle community associated with the dung pats of other mega herbivores as well as of elephant dung in other forests of the Western Ghats. PMID:19537983

  11. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  12. Casting methods

    DOEpatents

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  13. Heat Flow measurements along a 14 Ma isochron paralleling the South-East Indian Ridge between 90°E and 130°E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, L. B.; Turon, J. L.; Aslanian, D.; Cochran, J. R.; Francheteau, J.; Harmegnies, F.

    2001-12-01

    New heat flow data were obtained during the MD120-ANTAUS expedition of R/V Marion Dufresne (Oct. 12th - Nov. 7th 2000), along a profile paralleling the Southeast Indian Ridge, between 90o and 130oE, on 14 Ma old sea floor. The prime objective of the cruise was to quantify the temperature anomalies within the earth upper mantle associated with the Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD), an anomalously deep section of the Mid-Ocean Ridge that is often attributed to a mantle ``cold spot''. The second objective was to collect sediment cores from the southern ocean in order to study past climate changes. Despite rough weather and bad seas, a total of 25 thermal measurements was obtained, using 9 autonomous digital temperature probes fitted on a 18 m-long, 13 cm-diameter, gravity corer. Full penetration of 18 m was regularly achieved. In order to quantify water advection, sediment samples sealed in copper tubes will be analyzed to determine the 3He/4He isotope ratio, used as a tracer of hydrothermal activity (with the assumption that if water has circulated within the crust, then the 3He/4He isotopic signature is expected to be that of the crust and upper mantle). The data are highly variable and the measured heat flow is everywhere less than the theoretical heat flow predicted by conductive lithospheric models, probably because of advective heat transport linked to hydrothermal circulation, which is most certainly still active on 14 Ma old crust. Within the deep AAD region, the thermal gradient in the sediments departs from linearity as it approaches the water/sediment interface, probably because of step-changes in the bottom water temperature. The AAD is a major passageway for deep water formed around Antarctica (AABW: Antarctic Deep Bottom Water), and our data reveal 0.05 to 0.08oC temperature fluctuations of this deep water mass. The average heat flow is lower inside the AAD than outside, but this could be the result of differing sedimentation in the two regions that induce differences in hydrothermal activity. We suggest that variations in hydrothermal crustal cooling induced by the eastward decrease in sedimentation may partly explain the large variations in subsidence rate that have been documented along the South-East Indian Ridge between 90oE and 140oE (e. g. Hayes and Kane, JGR, 99, 19679-19692, 1994).

  14. Associations between body weight perception and weight control behaviour in South Indian children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Selvam, Sumithra; Pauline, Maria; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of weight loss behaviour and the association between weight loss attempts with actual weight status and children's and parental perceptions of weight status. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Karnataka, South India. Participants 1874 girls and boys aged 8–14?years from seven schools in Karnataka, South India. Main outcome measures The association between weight loss attempts and sociodemographic factors, weight status and the child's or the parent's perception of weight status. Results Approximately 73% of overweight and obese, 35% of normal weight and 22% of underweight children attempted to lose weight. Children of lower socioeconomic groups studying in schools in the local vernacular and overweight/obese children were more likely to attempt to lose weight (adjusted OR ie, AOR=1.57, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.25; AOR=4.38, 95% CI 2.64 to 7.28, respectively). Perception of weight status was associated with weight loss attempts. Thus, children who were of normal weight but perceived themselves to be overweight/obese were three times more likely to attempt weight loss compared with those who accurately perceived themselves as being of normal weight, while the odds of attempting weight loss were the highest for those who were overweight and perceived themselves to be so (AOR?18). Conclusions Children are likely to attempt weight loss in India irrespective of their weight status, age and gender. Children who were actually overweight as well as those who were perceived by themselves or by their parents to be overweight or obese were highly likely to try to lose weight. It is necessary to understand body weight perceptions in communities with a dual burden of being overweight and undernourished, if intervention programmes for either are to be successful. PMID:23474789

  15. Clamshell Casting! Stefanie Wuhrer

    E-print Network

    Wuhrer, Stefanie

    Clamshell Casting! By Stefanie Wuhrer A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research acceptance of the thesis, Clamshell Casting! submitted by Stefanie Wuhrer Douglas Howe (Director is casting, where liquid is poured into a cast and the cast is removed once the liquid has hardened. We

  16. Deciphering post-Deccan weathering and erosion history of South Indian Archean rocks from cryptomelane 40Ar-39Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Arnaud, Nicolas; Beauvais, Anicet; Chardon, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Since the extrusion of Deccan traps ~ 63 Ma ago, weathering and erosion processes have shaped the landscapes of this Peninsula India. This resulted in pervasive bauxitic weathering on traps and deep lateritic weathering of their basement on either side of the Western Ghats Escarpment, which separates a coastal lowland from an East-dipping highland plateau. Mn-rich lateritic profiles formed by supergene weathering of Late Archean manganiferous protores in the different greenstone belts are exposed on relict paleosurfaces, which are preserved at different elevations on the highland plateau and in the coastal lowland, allowing for direct comparison of paleosurfaces and geomorphological processes across one of the most prominent relief in the Indian peninsula. Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of samples collected in the different Mn-rich lateritic profiles allowed for precise characterization of cryptomelane [Kx Mn8-xIV MnxIII O16, nH2O], a Mn-oxide suitable for 40Ar-39Ar dating. The ages obtained document major weathering periods at ~ 53-50 Ma, ~ 40-32 Ma, and ~ 30-23 Ma in the highland profiles, and ~ 47-45 Ma, ~ 24-19 Ma and a younger age at ~ 9 Ma in the coastal lowland profiles. The age clusters are in good agreement with major regional and global Cenozoic paleoclimatic events, e.g., the Eocene climatic optimum and the early beginnings of Asian monsoons at ~ 40 Ma. The old ages obtained both in the coastal lowland and high plateau indicate synchronous lateritic (mostly bauxitic) weathering on both sides of the escarpment. The ages also indicate that most of the incision and dissection of plateau landsurfaces must have taken place during successive periods after 45, 32 and 23 Ma, while the coastal lowland surface was only weakly incised after 19 Ma. Our results thus document post-Eocene divergent erosion and weathering histories across the escarpment since it was formed at least 47 Ma ago, suggesting installation of a dual climatic regime on either sides of this escarpment after the Eocene greenhouse peak.

  17. Digital radiographic evaluation of mandibular third molar for age estimation in young adults and adolescents of South Indian population using modified Demirjian's method

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Koganti, Ravichandra; Kalyan, Siva V.; Tircouveluri, Saritha; Singh, Johar Rajvinder; Srinivasulu, Enganti

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly important to determine the age of living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility and for many other social events such as birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army and retirement Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of mandibular third molar for estimation of dental age (DA) in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA) in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Digital orthopantomography of 330 subjects (165 males, 165 females) who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular third molar development was performed using Demirjian et al., modified method and DA was assessed using tooth specific stages. Results and Discussion: The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males and females. Third molar development commenced around 9 years and root completion takes place around 18.9 years in males and in females 9 years and 18.6 years respectively. Demirjian modified method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.8 years and females by 0.5 years and also showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. Conclusion: Digital radiographic assessment of mandibular third molar development can be used to generate mean DA using Demirjian modified method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA. Since the Demirjian method is based on French-Canadian population, to enhance the accuracy of forensic age estimates based on third molar development, the use of population-specific standards is recommended. PMID:25177143

  18. Food Marketing towards Children: Brand Logo Recognition, Food-Related Behavior and BMI among 3–13-Year-Olds in a South Indian Town

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Peter; Tong, Leilei; Viedma, Cristobal; Chandy, Sujith J.; Marrone, Gaetano; Simon, Anna; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess exposure to marketing of unhealthy food products and its relation to food related behavior and BMI in children aged 3–13, from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a south Indian town. Methods Child-parent pairs (n?=?306) were recruited at pediatric clinics. Exposure to food marketing was assessed by a digital logo recognition test. Children matched 18 logos of unhealthy food (high in fat/sugar/salt) featured in promotion material from the food industry to pictures of corresponding products. Children's nutritional knowledge, food preferences, purchase requests, eating behavior and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed by a digital game and parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results Recognition rates for the brand logos ranged from 30% to 80%. Logo recognition ability increased with age (p<0.001) and socioeconomic level (p<0.001 comparing children in the highest and lowest of three socioeconomic groups). Adjusted for gender, age and socioeconomic group, logo recognition was associated with higher BMI (p?=?0.022) and nutritional knowledge (p<0.001) but not to unhealthy food preferences or purchase requests. Conclusions Children from higher socioeconomic groups in the region had higher brand logo recognition ability and are possibly exposed to more food marketing. The study did not lend support to a link between exposure to marketing and poor eating behavior, distorted nutritional knowledge or increased purchase requests. The correlation between logo recognition and BMI warrants further investigation on food marketing towards children and its potential role in the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in this part of India. PMID:23082137

  19. Diversity and N-acyl-homoserine lactone production by Gammaproteobacteria associated with Avicennia marina rhizosphere of South Indian mangroves.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Ganga; Jegan, Sekar; Baskaran, Viswanathan; Kathiravan, Raju; Prabavathy, Vaiyapuri Ramalingam

    2015-07-01

    The diversity of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-producing rhizosphere bacterial community associated with Avicennia marina in the mangrove ecosystems of South India was investigated. Approximately 800 rhizobacteria were isolated from A. marina, and they were screened for the production of AHL using two biosensors, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 (pZLR4). Among the total isolates screened, 7% of the rhizobacteria showed positive induction for AHL signals. The BOX-PCR profile of 56 positive isolates represented 11 distinct genotypic groups. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA sequences of 16 representatives showed that the isolates belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria, which represented six different genera: Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Photobacterium, Serratia and Halomonas. The study also identified three AHL-producing species, namely, Photobacterium halotolerans MSSRF QS48, Vibrio xiamenensis MSSRF QS47 and Pseudomonas sp. MSSRF QS1 that had not been reported previously. AHL profiling by TLC detected short chains C4, C6 and C8-HSL, and long chains C10 and C12-HSL with both unsubstituted and substituted side chains among the 16 representative AHL positives. This is the first report concerning the diversity of AHL-producing Gammaproteobacteria from mangrove ecosystems exhibiting diverse AHL profiles. PMID:25956585

  20. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of Indian Tribes of North America. Part I: The Sioux Tribes of South Dakota. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    To facilitate the study and understanding of present-day Indian tribal organization and governmental procedures, the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of…

  1. An early South Asian dust storm during March 2012 and its impacts on Indian Himalayan foothills: a case study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Soni, V K; Singh, Sachchidanand; Kanawade, V P; Singh, N; Tiwari, S; Attri, S D

    2014-09-15

    The impacts of an early South Asian dust storm that originated over the western part of the Middle East and engulfed northwest parts of India during the third week of March 2012 have been studied at four different stations covering India and Pakistan. The impacts of this dust storm on aerosol optical properties were studied in detail at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi. The impact could also be traced up to central Himalayan foothills at Manora Peak. During dust events, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm reached a peak value of 0.96, 1.02, 2.17 and 0.49 with a corresponding drop in Ångström exponent (AE for 440-870 nm) to 0.01, -0.02, 0.00 and 0.12 at Delhi, Jodhpur, Lahore and Karachi, respectively. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 675 nm was relatively lower at Delhi (0.87) and Jodhpur (0.86), with absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) less than 1.0, but a large value of SSA was observed at Lahore (0.98) and Karachi (0.93), with AAE value greater than 1.0 during the event. The study of radiative impact of dust aerosols revealed a significant cooling at the surface and warming in the atmosphere (with corresponding large heating rate) at all the stations during dust event. The effect of this dust storm was also seen at Manora Peak in central Himalayas which showed an enhancement of ~28% in the AOD at 500 nm. The transport of dust during such events can have severe climatic implications over the affected plains and the Himalayas. PMID:24973722

  2. TGF?1 (Leu10Pro), p53 (Arg72Pro) can predict for increased risk for breast cancer in south Indian women and TGF?1 Pro (Leu10Pro) allele predicts response to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thangarajan Rajkumar; Mani Samson; Ranganathan Rama; Veluswami Sridevi; Urmila Mahji; Rajaraman Swaminathan; Nirmala K. Nancy

    2008-01-01

    The breast cancer incidence has been increasing in the south Indian women. A case (n = 250)–control (n = 500) study was undertaken to investigate the role of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP’s) in GSTM1 (Present\\/Null); GSTP1\\u000a (Ile105Val), p53 (Arg72Pro), TGF?1 (Leu10Pro), c-erbB2 (Ile655Val), and GSTT1 (Null\\/Present) in breast cancer. In addition,\\u000a the value of the SNP’s in predicting primary tumor’s pathologic response following neo-adjuvant

  3. The peripatetic cultural psychiatrist: reflections on a forty-five year longitudinal study of a South India village.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Helen E

    2011-04-01

    This article presents one woman's odyssey, which began with a career in linguistics and later incorporated cultural psychiatry. While engaged in fieldwork as a linguist, studying the syntactic structure of Havyaka Kannada and dialectal accommodation among the castes in a South India village, I developed language skills and rapport with the village residents. Then I transferred my community-wide rapport to research on depression as a cultural psychiatrist. The articles I wrote on depression and its relationship to socialized passivity and endorsed assertiveness in progressive generations of South Indian women, illustrate the impact of change on mental health. The cultural background from my community-based longitudinal study of more than forty-five years has contributed to my understanding disorders in Indian patients living in a globalized world. PMID:21511853

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  5. Awareness of chronic disease related health benefits of physical activity among residents of a rural South Indian region: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity trends for a lower-middle income country like India suggest a gradual decline in work related physical activity and no concomitant increase in leisure time physical activity. Perceived health benefits of physical activity and intention to increase physical activity have been established as independent correlates of physical activity status. In India, not much is known about peoples’ perceptions of health benefits of physical activity and their intention to increase physical activity levels. This study was performed to understand peoples’ perceptions and awareness about health benefits of physical activity in a rural South Indian region. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted using a multistage cluster sampling design. A content validated, field tested questionnaire was administered in person by a trained interviewer in the participants’ native language. The questionnaire assessed the participants’ perceptions about their lifestyle (active or sedentary), health benefits of physical activity and need for increasing their physical activity. In addition, the participant’s physical activity was assessed using version 2 of global physical activity questionnaire. Frequencies and percentages were used to summarise perceived health benefits of physical activity and other categorical variables. Age and body mass index were summarised using mean?±?SD, whereas physical activity (MET.min.wk ?1) was summarised using median and interquartile range. Results Four hundred fifty members from 125 randomly selected households were included in the study, of which 409 members participated. 89% (364) of participants felt they lead an active lifestyle and 83.1% (340) of participants did not feel a need to increase their physical activity level. 86.1%, (352) of the participants were physically active. Though 92.4% (378) of participants felt there were health benefits of physical activity, majority of them (75.1%) did not report any benefit related to chronic diseases. None mentioned health benefits related to heart disease or stroke. Conclusion There is low awareness of chronic disease related benefits of physical activity and participants do not see a need to increase their physical activity level. Public health awareness programs on importance and health benefits of physical activity would be useful to counter the anticipated decline in physical activity. PMID:24575767

  6. The Role of Sediment Supply in the Formation of Tsunami Deposits: A Comparison of the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2009 South Pacific Tsunamis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apotsos, A. A.; Jaffe, B. E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Buckley, M. L.; Watt, S. G.

    2010-12-01

    An integral part of tsunami preparedness is an understanding of how often large tsunamis occur, an understanding that is often constrained by a lack of knowledge concerning tsunamis that occurred prior to written history. Recent efforts have sought to use information preserved in paleo-tsunami sediment deposits to lengthen the pre-written history tsunami record. This requires a detailed understanding of the processes that control sediment transport during tsunami inundation and thus the patterns of deposition. Unfortunately, deposition during a tsunami depends upon site-specific conditions, such as sediment availability, which may vary substantially among different environments. Field observations and a numerical model are used to investigate tsunami-induced sediment transport near Kuala Meurisi, Sumatra during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and around Fagafue Bay on the north side of Tutuila, American Samoa during the 2009 South Pacific tsunami. Detailed measurements of the bathymetry, topography, tsunami flow depth and direction, and sediment deposition were collected after both the 2004 and the 2009 tsunamis. Kuala Meurisi is characterized by an abundant sediment supply in the near- and offshore fronting a low-lying progradational coastal plain. The resulting deposit at Kuala Meurisi, where the wave height relative to the sea level exceeded 18 m, was a continuous sheet of sediment up to 0.3 m thick that extended for more than 1800 m onshore. Conversely, on American Samoa erodable sandy sediments occur primarily as pocket beaches fronting steep alluvial valleys between volcanic rock headlands. The resulting onshore deposit here was thin (typically less than 0.04 m thick), patchy, and limited in extent (the deposit only extended 250 onshore), even though the wave height exceeded 13 m and a number of large coral boulders (diameter > 2.5 m) were transported onshore by the tsunami. The extent to which the supply of sediment and the topographic slopes played in producing the observed patterns of deposition at the two field sites are discussed, and the processes that created these patterns examined using a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic/sediment transport/morphological change model (Delft3D). Similarities and differences between the depositional patterns are identified and related to current efforts to estimate tsunami magnitude and flow velocity from historical tsunamis. The preservation potential of tsunami deposits on low-lying coastal plains and steep alluvial valleys, the recovery of the sandy beaches, and the effects of onshore vegetation and offshore reefs are also discussed. It is concluded that the supply of sediment and topographic slope, as well as vegetation and offshore reefs, can affect deposition, indicating the importance of knowing the pre-tsunami environment.

  7. 42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  8. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION TO ENSURE MAXIMUM PRODUCTION AND QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. The 26 December 2004 Sumatra Tsunami: Analysis of Tide Gauge Data from the World Ocean Part 1. Indian Ocean and South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Thomson, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    The M w = 9.3 megathrust earthquake of December 26, 2004 off the northwest coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated a catastrophic tsunami that was recorded by a large number of tide gauges throughout the World Ocean. Part 1 of our study of this event examines tide gauge measurements from the Indian Ocean region, at sites located from a few hundred to several thousand kilometers from the source area. Statistical characteristics of the tsunami waves, including wave height, duration, and arrival time, are determined, along with spectral properties of the tsunami records.

  10. An Indian in White America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Mark; Reyer, Carolyn, Ed.

    In his autobiography, Mark Monroe relates his life experiences as a Lakota Sioux Indian in White America. The book begins with Monroe reminiscing about his happy childhood on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his father Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his father…

  11. "I'm Not Indian Anymore": The Challenge of Providing Culturally Sensitive Services to American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Susan

    This report documents observations and findings from a site visit to Southern Hills Developmental Services (SHDS), an agency providing services to people with disabilities in the South Dakota community of Hot Springs. Half of the people using the services are American Indians. The report discusses the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and traditions…

  12. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea) dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  13. Cool Cast Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Placed? First, the doctor or cast technician — tech for short (or another person who is trained ... some water on it. The doctor or cast tech wraps the plaster or fiberglass around the soft ...

  14. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-01-01

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a

  15. [Read Aloud Stories Series: A Product of a Project to Create Stories and Beginning Reading Materials for Pre-School Indian Children in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Loraine; Schleif, Mabel

    The "Read Aloud Stories" series in this document consists of 10 booklets, each containing an illustrated story of Sioux origin which is intended to be read to preschool and early elementary non-proficient readers (grades 1.9 to 3.4). Each story is designed to convey a simple concept concerning the child's Indian heritage as well as to improve use…

  16. Political Stability and Continuity in the Indian States During the Nehru Era, 1947-1964: A Statistical Analysis. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Baljit; Vajpeyi, Dhirendra K.

    The period of Nehru's administration of India, 1974-1964, is statistically analyzed for political continuity and stability by examining the office terms of chief ministers for the Indian states during that time. After a brief introduction, the document mainly consists of statistical tables. A summary table of percentage turnover of ministers and…

  17. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III [eds.

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  18. Casting and Molding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Perkins School for the Blind

    2012-06-26

    This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can explore the process used to cast and mold molten metal, glass, and plastics. Using gelatin, the learner will work with a variety of molds to create castings. When the shapes are unmolded, the learner can tactually explore the casts.

  19. Biophysical coupling in remotely-sensed wind stress, sea surface temperature, sea ice and chlorophyll concentrations in the South Indian Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill N. Schwarz; Ben Raymond; Guy D. Williams; Bénédicte Pasquer; Simon J. Marsland; Rebecca J. Gorton

    2010-01-01

    Satellite records of chlorophyll, sea-surface temperature, sea-ice concentration and wind-stress curl, together with reanalysis wind fields, have been analysed to identify connections between the physical environment and phytoplankton growth. The study focusses on the BROKE-West survey region in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean: 20° to 90°E, 70° to 50°S. Correlation and regression analyses showed that, of the

  20. South Asian diets and insulin resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anoop Misra; Lokesh Khurana; Sumit Isharwal; Swati Bhardwaj

    2008-01-01

    A role of dietary nutrients in relation to insulin resistance has been suggested but conclusive evidence in human beings is lacking. Asian Indians and South Asians are prone to develop insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. In the present paper, data pertaining to nutrient intake, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians and South Asians have been reviewed.

  1. Indian Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  2. INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  3. INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 24' PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 24' PIPE AND OPERATOR JOHNNY NIXON. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Changes in the Food Habits of Asian Indians in the United States: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Santosh P.

    1975-01-01

    This exploratory study focused on acculturation in the food habits of first generation Asian Indian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that: 1) food habits of Asian Indians are changing toward the American pattern; and 2) these changes are directly related to the subject's sex, caste, age, marital status, and duration of exposure…

  5. Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page

  6. Indian Students 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Mutiny on the ?Rocked Boat?......................................... 124 An Undercover Asian American ..................................... 129 From Victims, to Perpetrators .............................................. 130... origin are considered white, where the majority of Asians lie within the ?honorary white? or ?collective black? status. Asian Americans in the ?honorary white? tier include Japanese, Chinese, Asian Indian, Korean, and Filipino Americans. Asian...

  7. Computer cast blast modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chung; M. McGill; D. S. Preece

    1994-01-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than

  8. Days and Nights in the Forest: An Indian Epic Awry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Dailey

    2005-01-01

    For much of the fall of 2000, a sensational crime dominated India's news. At a time when resurgent Hindu chauvinism had already called into question the possibility of a secular pluralistic nation, this affair threatened to topple the governments of two South Indian states and set off a renewal of intercommunity conflict, exposing new cracks in the Indian federation's increasingly

  9. 1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  10. INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE OPERATOR SPRAYING A POWDER TO HELP SOLIDIFY THE PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  11. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  12. Casting in Sport

    PubMed Central

    DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the “least hard” of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3. PMID:16558257

  13. Muscogee folio, Indian Territory 

    E-print Network

    Taff, Joseph A. (Joseph Alexander), b. 1862.

    1905-01-01

    phones and the consumption of television programs and movies. Through these practices, participants attempted to displace the link between Indianness and Hindu culture and show that Catholic culture can also reflect Indianness, when Indianness is defined...

  14. Rising Tide of Cardiovascular Disease in American Indians The Strong Heart Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara V. Howard; Elisa T. Lee; Linda D. Cowan; Richard B. Devereux; James M. Galloway; Oscar T. Go; William James Howard; Everett R. Rhoades; David C. Robbins; Maurice L. Sievers; Thomas K. Welty

    Background—Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) used to be rare among American Indians, Indian Health Service data suggest that CVD mortality rates vary greatly among American Indian communities and appear to be increasing. The Strong Heart Study was initiated to investigate CVD and its risk factors in American Indians in 13 communities in Arizona, Oklahoma, and South\\/North Dakota. Methods and Results—A total

  15. The relation between caste ratios and division of labor in the ant genus Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward O. Wilson

    1984-01-01

    Ten species of Pheidole, representing as many species groups from various localities in North and South America, Asia, and Africa, were analyzed to probe for possible relationships between caste ratios and division of labor.

  16. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  17. Indian Ledger Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an innovative way to teach mid-nineteenth century North American Indian history by having students create their own Indian Ledger art. Purposes of the project are: to understand the role played by American Indians, to reveal American Indian stereotypes, and to identify relationships between cultures and environments. Background and…

  18. 17. PLANS & SECTIONS: 36" CAST IRON BITS: USED AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. PLANS & SECTIONS: 36" CAST IRON BITS: USED AT LOWER END OF PIER 5, DWG. 208, 1/2 SIZE, DRAWN BY W.B.C., MARCH 4, 1910 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. 25. "CAST IRON HOWE TRUSS CARRYING PENNA STATE HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. "CAST IRON HOWE TRUSS - CARRYING PENNA STATE HIGHWAY ROUTE #83 OVER READING CO. TRACKS - SOUTH OF READING, PENNA, Dwg. #6 - Sht. #1", dated November 20, 1956, shows partial side elevation of bridge truss, beginning at end post - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA

  20. Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 2 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 3 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 4 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 5 #12

  1. CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Sealing micropores in thin castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mersereau, G. A.; Nitzschke, G. O.; Ochs, H. L.; Sutch, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic pores in thin-walled aluminum castings are sealed by impregnation pretreatment. Technique was developed for investment castings used in hermetically sealed chassic for electronic circuitry. Excessively high leakage rates were previously measured in some chassis.

  3. Casting Of Multilayer Ceramic Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Procedure for casting thin, multilayer ceramic membranes, commonly called tapes, involves centrifugal casting at accelerations of 1,800 to 2,000 times normal gravitational acceleration. Layers of tape cast one at a time on top of any previous layer or layers. Each layer cast from slurry of ground ceramic suspended in mixture of solvents, binders, and other components. Used in capacitors, fuel cells, and electrolytic separation of oxygen from air.

  4. Rapid casting solutions: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munish Chhabra; Rupinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to review the industrial applications of state-of-the-art additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in metal casting technology. An extensive survey of concepts, techniques, approaches and suitability of various commercialised rapid casting (RC) solutions with traditional casting methods is presented. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The tooling required for producing metal casting such as fabrication of patterns, cores and moulds with

  5. Association of seven functional polymorphisms of one-carbon metabolic pathway with total plasma homocysteine levels and susceptibility to Parkinson's disease among South Indians.

    PubMed

    Kumudini, Nadella; Uma, Addepally; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Mridula, Rukmini; Borgohain, Rupam; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2014-05-01

    This study from South India was performed to ascertain the impact of seven functional polymorphisms of one-carbon metabolic pathway on total plasma homocysteine levels and susceptibility to PD. A total of 151 cases of Parkinson's disease and 416 healthy controls were analyzed for fasting plasma homocysteine levels by reverse phase HPLC. PCR-RFLP approaches were used to analyze glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) 1561 C>T, reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) 80 G>A, cytosolic serine hydroxymethyl transferase (cSHMT) 1420 C>T, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T, methionine synthase (MTR) 2756 A>G and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66 A>G polymorphisms. PCR-AFLP was used for the analysis of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 5'-UTR 28bp tandem repeat. PD cases exhibited elevated plasma homocysteine levels compared to controls (men: 28.8 ± 6.9 vs. 16.4 ± 8.8 ?mol/L; women: 25.4 ± 5.3 vs. 11.2 ± 5.1?mol/L). Homocysteine levels showed positive correlation with male gender (r=0.39, p<0.0001) and MTRR 66 A>G (r=0.31, p<0.0001) whereas an inverse correlation was observed with cSHMT 1420 C>T polymorphism. MTRR 66 A>G polymorphism showed independent risk for PD (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 2.35-4.98) whereas cSHMT 1420 C>T conferred protection against PD (OR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.07-0.17). Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed synergistic interactions between MTHFR 677 C>T and MTRR 66 A>G, whereas cSHMT 1420 C>T exhibited counteracting interactions in altering susceptibility to PD. To conclude, PD cases exhibited hyperhomocysteinemia and MTRR 66 A>G and cSHMT 1420 C>T gene variants were shown to modulate PD risk by altering the homocysteine levels. PMID:24686188

  6. Evaluation of an improved centrifugal casting machine.

    PubMed

    Donovan, T E; White, L E

    1985-05-01

    A Type III gold alloy, a silver-palladium alloy, and a base metal alloy were cast in two different centrifugal casting machines. With the number of complete cast mesh squares as an indicator of castability, the Airspin casting machine produced superior castings with all three alloys. The base metal alloy produced the greatest number of complete squares with both casting machines. PMID:3889295

  7. The fractography of casting alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G POWELL

    1994-01-01

    Several types of casting alloys were fractured using various loading modes (uniaxial tension, bending, impact, and torsion, and cyclic stressing), and the corresponding mechanical properties were determined. The unetched and etched fracture surfaces and the microstructures were examined using conventional techniques. The types of casting alloys that were the subjects f these investigations include gray iron, ductile iron, cast steel,

  8. Ohno continuous casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Soda; A. McLean; G. Motoyasu; A. Ohno

    1995-01-01

    Production of net-shape products directly from the liquid is an attractive manufacturing route for alloys that are difficult to process or that cannot be rolled, drawn, or extruded. Developed at the Chiba Institute of Technology in Japan, the Ohno Continuous Casting (OCC) approach not only provides significant cost savings, but also has the potential to create new products. OCC process

  9. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mildred J.; Bunting, Camille

    The self-contained packet contains background information, lesson plans, 15 transparency and student handout masters, drills and games, 2 objective examinations, and references for teaching a 15-day unit on casting and angling to junior high and senior high school students, either as part of a regular physical education program or as a club…

  10. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

  11. 2014-2015 HUNTING GUIDE TO INDIAN BAYOU WELCOME TO INDIAN BAYOU

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    , New Orleans District welcomes you to the Indian Bayou Area located in South-Central Louisiana of management under an antler restriction for white-tailed deer. It is your responsibility to know the hunting seasons and regulations. Please read through this hunting pamphlet prior to hunting for your safety

  12. Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5 Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5 Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5, page 1 CTD002 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5 Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5, page 2 CTD002 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5 Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5, page 3 CTD002 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5 Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5, page 4 CTD002 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 2

  13. Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5 Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5 Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5, page 1 CTD003 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5 Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5, page 2 CTD003 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5 Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5, page 3 CTD003 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5 Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5, page 4 CTD003 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 3

  14. Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10 Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10 Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10, page 1 CTD006 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10 Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10, page 2 CTD006 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10 Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10, page 3 CTD006 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10 Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10, page 4 CTD006 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts

  15. Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD006 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7, page 1 #12;CTD006 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7, page 2 #12;CTD006 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7, page 3 #12;CTD006 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7, page 4 #12;CTD006 Hickey, TT162, casts 6

  16. AMCC casting development, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    PCC successfully cast and performed nondestructive testing, FPI and x-ray, on seventeen AMCC castings. Destructive testing, lab analysis and chemical milling, was performed on eleven of the castings and the remaining six castings were shipped to NASA or Aerojet. Two of the six castings shipped, lots 015 and 016, were fully processed per blueprint requirements. PCC has fully developed the gating and processing parameters of this part and feels the part could be implemented into production, after four more castings have been completed to ensure the repeatability of the process. The AMCC casting has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or thermal gradient control. This method of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. The alloy, JBK75, is a relatively new alloy in the investment casting arena and required our engineering staff to learn the gating, processing, and dimensional characteristics of the material.

  17. Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Bamshad; Toomas Kivisild; W. Scott Watkins; Mary E. Dixon; Chris E. Ricker; Baskara B. Rao; J. Mastan Naidu; B. V. Ravi Prasad; P. Govinda Reddy; Arani Rasanayagam; Surinder S. Papiha; Richard Villems; Alan J. Redd; Michael F. Hammer; Son V. Nguyen; Marion L. Carroll; Mark A. Batzer; Lynn B. Jorde

    2001-01-01

    The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the

  18. Focus on South Africa. Varieties of English Around the World, Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Vivian, Ed.

    Essays on English in South Africa and its neighboring countries include: "A History of English in South Africa" (Len Lanham); "English in South African Society: A Preliminary Overview" (Bill Branford); "Black English in South Africa" (David Gough); "Language Contact, Transmission, Shift: South African Indian English" (Rajend Mesthrie); "Afrikaans…

  19. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  20. Ecological organization of Indian society.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, M

    1991-01-01

    Some of the factors involved in securing the well being of an Indian rural population in a sustainable and environmentally sound fashion are discussed. Population pressure on the land and declining productivity threaten the balance between man and nature. The options are to provide outside technological inputs and/or to empower the rural population who may be able to provide an intimate knowledge of the local environment and must be organized and motivated to value and protect their resource base. Attention in paid to the Indian caste system, resource use diversification, group size and range, group dynamics, elites and the ecosystem, the drain on rural resources, the iron triangle of beneficiaries of subsidies, of administrators of subsidies, and of politicians, and the growing strife. The Indian caste system is differentiated by its subgroups which maintain communication within the subgroup, and resource access is determined by an individual's affiliation with the subgroup. It is not a smooth continuum between subgroups. Inequalities in resource access can create social tensions and/or partitioning of resources. The example is given of the subgroups Gavlis and Kunbis, in the Western Ghats in Pune district of Maharashtra, where exchanges are made for livestock or surplus grain, and the multicaste system of 40 subgroups in Uttara Kannada, with occupations specific to each subgroup. In order to function effectively as a subgroup the numbers must be limited or splinter groups develop. Several estimates of possible ranges are given, i.e., an upper limit of 10,000 or the equivalent of a subcaste and 10-20 endogenous groups/larger village with an area of 1000 km. Mergers and group splits are described among the Gavlis in Western Ghat and Tirumal Nadivallas and settlers of the Andaman Islands. Historically, communities were self-sufficient and surrounded elite communities; they had their own self-government and organized local resources for sustainable use, even though this was sometimes inequitable but not overexploited. Elites formed on the surplus of resources, but there was little outflow to other regions. British colonial rule made tremendous changes which led to the lack of security within depressed subgroups. The resources were controlled by the elite in the iron triangle at the expense of the small landholder, landless agricultural workers, village artisans, tribals and nomads, and urban slum dwellers. There was no reason for efficient resource use, and development was wasteful and benefited the elites. Regionalism is growing as well as tension between the elites and the poorer members of minorities. PMID:12285490

  1. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  2. The Indian Software Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashish Arora; V. S. Arunachalam; Jai Asundi; Ronald Fernandes

    1999-01-01

    Abstract This paper reports on the results of research on the Indian software industry, carried out at Carnegie Mellon University. We use a variety of sources, including a questionnaire survey of Indian software firms, and field visits and interviews with industry participants, observers, and US based clients. The Indian software industry is remarkable in a number of respects. It is

  3. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  4. American Indian Language Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leap, William

    Prepared for the National Center for Bilingual Research, the document provides information on the "state of the art" in American Indian language education and presents a full picture of the situation exploring concepts (e.g., self-determination, Indian language diversity) and concerns (e.g., tribal reluctance to see Indian language instruction…

  5. [Casting faults and structural studies on bonded alloys comparing centrifugal castings and vacuum pressure castings].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, P; Küfmann, W

    1978-07-01

    The casting processes in use today such as centrifugal casting and vacuum pressure casting were compared with one another. An effort was made to answer the question whether the occurrence of shrink cavities and the mean diameter of the grain of the alloy is dependent on the method of casting. 80 crowns were made by both processes from the baked alloys Degudent Universal, Degudent N and the trial alloy 4437 of the firm Degusa. Slice sections were examined for macro and micro-porosity and the structural appearance was evaluated by linear analysis. Statistical analysis showed that casting faults and casting structure is independent of the method used and their causes must be found in the conditions of casting and the composition of the alloy. PMID:352670

  6. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  7. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Sikka; D. Wilkening; J. Liebetrau; B. Mackey

    1998-01-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the

  8. AsCast Acicular Ductile Aluminum Cast Iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SM Mostafavi Kashani; SMA Boutorabi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of nickel (2.2%) and molybdenum (0.6%) additions on the kinetics, microstructure, and mechanical properties of ductile aluminum cast iron were studied under the as-cast and tempered conditions. Test bars machined from cast to size samples were used for mechanical and metallurgical studies. The results showed that adding nickel and molybdenum to the base iron produced an upper bainitic

  9. Isostatic response of the Central Indian Ridge (Western Indian Ocean) based on transfer function analysis of gravity and bathymetry data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Radha Krishna

    1996-01-01

    The Central Indian Ridge (CIR) is a part of the major active mid-ocean ridge system trending north-south between 2°N and the triple junction at 25°S. Previous investigations suggest that the half-spreading rate varies from 1.6 to 2.5 cm\\/yr between the northern and southern ends of the ridge, and the diffuse plate boundary dividing the Indian and Australian plates intersects the

  10. LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval

    2007-01-01

    The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  11. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  12. The South Asian Genome

    PubMed Central

    Scott, William R.; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Afzal, Uzma; Afaq, Saima; Loh, Marie; Lehne, Benjamin; O'Reilly, Paul; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Pearson, Richard D.; Li, Xinzhong; Lavery, Anita; Vandrovcova, Jana; Wass, Mark N.; Miller, Kathryn; Sehmi, Joban; Oozageer, Laticia; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Al-Hussaini, Abtehale; Mills, Rebecca; Grewal, Jagvir; Panoulas, Vasileios; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Northwood, Korrinne; Wander, Gurpreet S.; Geoghegan, Frank; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Aitman, Timothy J.; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians. PMID:25115870

  13. High density tape casting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A system is provided for casting thin sheets (or tapes) of particles bound together, that are used for oxygen membranes and other applications, which enables the particles to be cast at a high packing density in a tape of uniform thickness. A slurry contains the particles, a binder, and a solvent, and is cast against the inside walls of a rotating chamber. Prior to spraying the slurry against the chamber walls, a solvent is applied to a container. The solvent evaporates to saturate the chamber with solvent vapor. Only then is the slurry cast. As a result, the slurry remains fluid long enough to spread evenly over the casting surface formed by the chamber, and for the slurry particles to become densely packed. Only then is the chamber vented to remove solvent, so the slurry can dry. The major novel feature is applying solvent vapor to a rotating chamber before casting slurry against the chamber walls.

  14. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

  15. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  16. Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 1 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 2 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 3 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 4 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162

  17. Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47 Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47 Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47, page 1 CTD038 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47 Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47, page 2 CTD039 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47 Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47, page 3 CTD039 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47 Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47, page 4 CTD040 #12;Hickey, TT162

  18. Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 1 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 2 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 3 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 4 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162

  19. Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 1 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 2 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 3 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 4 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136

  20. Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49 Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49 Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49, page 1 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49 Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49, page 2 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49 Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49, page 3 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49 Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49, page 4 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT162

  1. Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 1 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 2 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 3 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 4 #12;CTD041

  2. Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95 Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95 Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95, page 1 CTD091 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95 Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95, page 2 CTD091 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95 Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95, page 3 CTD091 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95 Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95, page 4 CTD091 #12;Hickey, TT136

  3. Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD001 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 1 #12;CTD001 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 2 #12;CTD002 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 3 #12;CTD002 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 4 #12;CTD003 Hickey, W8201

  4. Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 1 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 2 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 3 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 4 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136

  5. Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 1 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 2 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 3 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 4 #12;CTD037

  6. Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 1 CTD011 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 2 CTD011 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 3 CTD012 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 4 CTD013 #12;Hickey, TT136

  7. Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 1 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 2 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 3 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 4 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136

  8. Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 1 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 2 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 3 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 4 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136

  9. Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82 Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82 Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82, page 1 CTD073 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82 Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82, page 2 CTD073 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82 Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82, page 3 CTD073 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82 Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82, page 4 CTD074 #12;Hickey, TT162

  10. Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 1 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 2 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 3 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 4 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136

  11. Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 1 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 2 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 3 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 4 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136

  12. Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 1 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 2 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 3 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 4 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136

  13. Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 1 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 2 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 3 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts

  14. Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47 Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47 Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47, page 1 CTD046 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47 Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47, page 2 CTD046 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47 Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47, page 3 CTD046 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47 Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47, page 4 CTD046 #12;Hickey, TT136

  15. Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55 Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55, pager 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55 Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55, pager 1 CTD052 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55 Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55, pager 2 CTD052 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55 Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55, pager 3 CTD052 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55 Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55, pager 4 CTD052 #12;Hickey, TT

  16. Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 1 CTD017 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 2 CTD017 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 3 CTD018 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 4 CTD018 #12;Hickey, TT162

  17. Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72 Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72 Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72, page 1 CTD063 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72 Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72, page 2 CTD063 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72 Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72, page 3 CTD063 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72 Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72, page 4 CTD064 #12;Hickey, TT162

  18. Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 1 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 2 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 3 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 4 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162

  19. Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 1 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 2 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 3 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 4 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201

  20. Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32 Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32 Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32, page 1 CTD026 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32 Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32, page 2 CTD026 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32 Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32, page 3 CTD027 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32 Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32, page 4 CTD027 #12;Hickey, W8201

  1. British Troops, Colonists, Indians, and Slaves in Southeastern North America, 1756-1763

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hyun Wu

    2014-05-01

    with colonists, but these works have often lacked the Atlantic perspective of white-Indian relations in the Southeast. For instance, James Axtell’s The Indians’ New South, James Merrell’s The Indians’ New World, and John Juricek’s Colonial Georgia and the Creeks... World: Catawbas and Their Neighbors from European Contact through the Era of Removal (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989), John Juricek, Colonial Georgia and the Creeks (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2010) 7 home...

  2. Imaging the Indian subcontinent beneath the Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Monsalve, Gaspar; Sheehan, Anne; Pandey, M R; Sapkota, Som; Bilham, Roger; Wu, Francis

    2005-06-30

    The rocks of the Indian subcontinent are last seen south of the Ganges before they plunge beneath the Himalaya and the Tibetan plateau. They are next glimpsed in seismic reflection profiles deep beneath southern Tibet, yet the surface seen there has been modified by processes within the Himalaya that have consumed parts of the upper Indian crust and converted them into Himalayan rocks. The geometry of the partly dismantled Indian plate as it passes through the Himalayan process zone has hitherto eluded imaging. Here we report seismic images both of the decollement at the base of the Himalaya and of the Moho (the boundary between crust and mantle) at the base of the Indian crust. A significant finding is that strong seismic anisotropy develops above the decollement in response to shear processes that are taken up as slip in great earthquakes at shallower depths. North of the Himalaya, the lower Indian crust is characterized by a high-velocity region consistent with the formation of eclogite, a high-density material whose presence affects the dynamics of the Tibetan plateau. PMID:15988523

  3. PRE-PRINT VERSION | 1 Southeast Asian `Indianness'Southeast Asian `Indianness'Southeast Asian `Indianness'Southeast Asian `Indianness'

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    PRE-PRINT VERSION | 1 Southeast Asian `Indianness'Southeast Asian `Indianness'Southeast Asian `Indianness'Southeast Asian `Indianness' AAAA LocalLocalLocalLocal vs.vs.vs.vs. Trans, Taipei LACITO, Paris This article is an attempt to define the concept `(Southeast Asian) Indianness

  4. 76 FR 80398 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, Bemidji, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...Council (MIAC) professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe of South Dakota; Leech Lake Band of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Minnesota; Lower Sioux Indian Community in the State of Minnesota; Minnesota...

  5. On the interannual variability of the Indian monsoon and the Southern Oscillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Chin Wu; S. Hastenrath

    1986-01-01

    Summary  The mechanisms of the interannual variability of the Indian monsoon are investigated from observations in the Indian Ocean sector through correlation and stratification techniques. Years with abundant Southwest monsoon rainfall in India are characterized by anomalously low pressure over South Asia and the adjacent waters, enhanced cross-equatorial flow in the western, and increased cloudiness over the northern portion of the

  6. Indian Culture Strives To Survive: Youth Workers Tie History, Language to Life Lessons for Urban Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John

    2002-01-01

    Urban American Indians lack access to tribal services and traditional cultures. Youth programs for urban American Indians in Rapid City, South Dakota; Phoenix, Arizona; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Lincoln, Nebraska are described. Substance abuse, dropping out, physical fitness, health, and self-esteem issues are addressed through Native language,…

  7. "Education Makes You Have More Say in the Way Your Life Goes": Indian Women and Arranged Marriages in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores Indian women's views on arranged marriages in the United Kingdom. It is based on research carried out with 32 Indian women studying at a university in the South East of England, UK. The article draws on Wenger's social theory of learning to explore how Indian women's participation in communities of practice in higher education…

  8. Gastrointestinal pathology in South America.

    PubMed

    Rolón, P A

    1979-04-01

    Non-neoplastic gastrointestinal disease in South America is largely related to environmental conditions. Parasitic disorders, including Chagas' disease with megacolon, predominate in endemic regions. Common enteritides of various etiologie are frequent, whereas appendicits, diverticulosis of the colon, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are extremely rare. There was no appendicitis in native Indians of Paraguay. PMID:109417

  9. A Mechanism Relating the Indian Ocean SSTs, ENSO, and the Nile Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siam, M.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is associated with ElNino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Fluctuations of the Indian Ocean Sea Surface temperature (SST) are also associated with the Nile flow. Here, we investigate the intermediate role of Indian Ocean SSTs in the teleconnection between Nile flow and ENSO. Using the partial coherency analysis, we show that connection between the North and Middle of Indian Ocean SSTs and Nile flow is driven by ENSO. However, the South of Indian Ocean SSTs have an independent role from ENSO in shaping variability of Nile flow. This independence allows for indices of SSTs over the South of Indian Ocean and ENSO to explain about 60% of the variability of the Nile flow when they are used together. During ElNino events, the SSTs over the Indian Ocean increase following the warming of the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), which forces a Matsuno-Gill circulation with enhanced westerlies winds over Indian Ocean that decreases the convergence of boundary layer air over the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin. On the other hand, the increased SSTs over South of Indian Ocean generate a cyclonic motion, which has a similar effect on the convergence of boundary layer air over the UBN. The proposed mechanism has an important implication in understanding the potential climate change impacts on the Nile flow induced by warming of over Indian Ocean and provide new indices for Nile flow forecast models.

  10. Cast duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, A.P.; Grobner, P.J.; Poznansky, A.

    1985-02-19

    A casting alloy is provided containing about 0.02% to 0.05% carbon, about 23% to about 25% chromium, about 8% to 12% nickel, about 5% to 7% molybdenum, about 0.4% to 0.8% manganese, about 0.1% to 0.3% silicon, about 0.1% to 0.4% nitrogen, and the balance essentially iron, the alloy having a duplex austenite-ferrite grain structure, and being resistant to the corrosive effects of acids, chloride solutions and seawater.

  11. 48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

  12. 48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

  13. 48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

  14. 48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

  15. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems...and fuel and oil tank supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Noncritical castings. For...

  16. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems...and fuel and oil tank supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Noncritical castings. For...

  17. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems...and fuel and oil tank supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Noncritical castings. For...

  18. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems...and fuel and oil tank supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Non-critical castings. For...

  19. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems...and fuel and oil tank supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Non-critical castings. For...

  20. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems...and fuel and oil tank supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Non-critical castings. For...

  1. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems...and fuel and oil tank supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Noncritical castings. For...

  2. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems...and fuel and oil tank supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Non-critical castings. For...

  3. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems...and fuel and oil tank supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Noncritical castings. For...

  4. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...apply to any structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems...and fuel and oil tank supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Non-critical castings. For...

  5. 21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...component is a device intended for medical purposes to protect or support a cast. This generic type of device includes the cast heel, toe cap, cast support, and walking iron. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  6. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid... (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...

  7. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid... (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...

  8. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid... (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...

  9. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid... (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...

  10. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid... (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...

  11. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid... (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...

  12. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid... (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...

  13. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid... (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...

  14. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid... (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...

  15. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and (d) of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid... (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...

  16. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  17. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. National Indian Gaming Commission

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

  19. Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalow, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

  20. Biotransformation and ToxCast?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major focus in toxicology research is the development of in vitro methods to predict in vivo chemical toxicity. Within the EPA ToxCast program, a broad range of in vitro biochemical and cellular assays have been deployed to profile the biological activity of 320 ToxCast Phase I...

  1. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting

  2. SLIP CASTING OF MAGNESIATITANIA BODIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosenfels

    1961-01-01

    Titania is known to increase the rate of diffusion and sintering in ; pressed magnesia-titania bodies. To meet a need for dense ceramic containers ; which would hold a molten chloride eutectic, methods were developed for slip ; casting and sintering fused magnesia containing 10 wt% titania. The procedures ; were based on the Los Alamos method of slip casting

  3. Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM;Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan

  4. Genetic epidemiology of NIDDM among Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, A

    1992-12-01

    Prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in India was reported to be 2.3% in the urban and 1.5% in the rural areas in the early 1970s by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). Recent studies both in the migrant Indians and in the native Indians have shown the prevalence to be much higher than the above values. Similar prevalence of NIDDM in the migrant and native Indians in affluent areas suggests that Indians as an ethnic group have a high genetic risk for diabetes. Our recent study in South India showed a high prevalence of diabetes in the urban area (8.2%) versus a low prevalence of 2.4% in the rural area. Age, urban-rural factor, body mass index (BMI) and the waist:hip ratio (WHR) were positively associated with diabetes. Interestingly, the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was similar in urban and rural areas (8.7% and 7.8%, respectively) despite a four-fold lower prevalence of diabetes in the latter. The ratio of new to known diabetes was 1:2 in the urban and 3:1 in the rural areas. There was a male preponderance among Indian diabetic patients. Migration from rural to urban environment with changes in dietary habits and physical inactivity may have contributed to the increased prevalence of diabetes. A high rate of familial aggregation is noted in NIDDM in India and the genetic risk of NIDDM increases with increasing family history of diabetes. In the adult offspring of diabetic parents, hyperinsulinaemia and decreased insulin sensitivity are observed before the development of glucose intolerance. PMID:1485945

  5. Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    The Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian has a beautiful online exhibit, Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian which is meant to accompany the in situ exhibition in Washington D.C. and New York. Scholder's work is the subject of much debate in the world of Native Art, as his work has no obvious Native American imagery in it and he oftentimes denied he was Native American. By clicking on "Biography" near the top of the page, a list of links, "The Early Years", "The IAIA Years", and "The 70s and After" will appear. Below these links a clickable timeline also appears which advances when rolled over with the mouse. Another way to get an introduction to Scholder's life and the exhibit is to click on the "Podcasts" link near the top of the page. The first podcast listed is "Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian". Visitors should also not miss looking at his bold and sometimes disturbing paintings and sculptures, under the "Works" tab near the top of the page. They can be viewed by either D.C. or New York displays, as well as by "Curator's Choice", which is the default view. Each piece of work is also accompanied by commentary offered by the curators. Just click on the artwork, and under the bottom right hand corner of the image is a speaker to click on, complete with the name of the curator doing the commentary.

  6. Suicide in American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    This book reviews present knowledge about suicidal behavior in American Indians, prevention efforts in Native communities, and recommendations for understanding suicidal behavior and developing suicide prevention efforts. Data from Canadian aboriginal groups is also included. Chapter 1 explains why suicide in American Indians is of concern to…

  7. An American Indian Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tvedten, Benet, Comp.

    The anthology is intended to be a discovery for the many Americans whose superficial knowledge of the American Indians has been derived from history books, Hollywood films, and other stereotyped views of the Indian culture. Understanding and appreciation of a particular culture can be found in the stories and poetry of the people. This small…

  8. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  9. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  10. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O'Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  11. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  12. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S. (Plum, PA); Baker, Donald F. (Hempfield, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  13. Pressure Rig for Repetitive Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, P.; Hutto, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment life increased by improved insulation. New design cuts time of preparation for casting from several days to about 1 hour. Savings due to elimination of lengthy heating and drying operations associated with preparation of ceramic mold. Quality of casting improved because moisture in cavity eliminated by use of insulating material, and more uniform pressure applied to process. Commercial blanket insulator protects components from heat, increasing life of pressure rig and enabling repeated use. Improved heat protection allows casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures in pressure rig.

  14. Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…

  15. A Teacher's Guide To: Indians and the Outdoor Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, C. M.

    As a basic teacher's guide to the study of plants in their environment, this document serves primarily as a starting point for outdoor education with an American Indian emphasis in the State of South Dakota. The State is divided into three broad environmental categories or "biotic communities" (Prairie and Plains, Woodlands, and Wet Places); lists…

  16. Subtropical SST dipole events in the southern Indian Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swadhin K. Behera; Toshio Yamagata

    2001-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the subtropical southern Indian Ocean show interannual dipole events that are seasonally phase-locked to the austral summer. A positive phase of the event is characterized by cold SST anomalies in the eastern part i.e. off Australia and warm SST anomalies in the southwestern part, south of Madagascar. Such an event is found to produce

  17. The Fauna and Flora of the Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry O. Forbes

    1883-01-01

    I HAVE only recently been able to obtain my copy of Mr. Wallace's ``Island Life,'' in which I find an estimate of the fauna and flora of the Keeling Atoll in the South Indian Ocean. I had the fortune to visit that outlying spot in the year 1879, and made a collection both of its plants and of its animal

  18. Career Education and the American Indian. Fall 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. School of Education.

    These materials are for use in the instruction on current occupations existing on the Standing Rock, Cheyenne River, Sisseton, Lower Brule, Crow Creek, Flandreau, Pine Ridge, Rosebud, and Yankton Sioux Indian Reservations in South Dakota. Objectives of the materials are to help learners identify the geographical locations of each of the nine Sioux…

  19. A MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Sclater

    Magnetic anomaly and fracture zone information is used to develop a self- consistent tectonic history of the Indian and South Atlantic oceans. Working backward in time we have made three reasonably well constrained (39, 53, and 65 Ma) and two speculative (80 and ll5 Ma) reconstructions of the positions of the Gondwana continents (Ma is m.y.B.P. ). Our final fit,

  20. Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 1 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 2 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 3 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 4 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136

  1. Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Marc W.

    Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide Version B January 27, 2003 IM-1002 Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide General information and protocols for using Novex® pre-cast gels www.invitrogen.com tech.....................................................................................................................1 Novex® Pre-Cast Gels

  2. Federal Financing of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loon, Eric Van

    Since over 200 million Federal dollars are disbursed annually for American Indian education under Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I, Indian Education Act Title IV, and Johnson O'Malley programs, it is difficult to understand the dismal state of Indian education. However, factors contributing to abuse of…

  3. AGARD handbook on advanced casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietrach, Dietmar

    1991-03-01

    The need to improve aircraft performance and, simultaneously, to reduce costs has led to a re-examination of the use of casting processes in aircraft manufacture. The Structures and Materials Panel of AGARD has provided practical information about design, mechanical values, applications, quality assurance and damage tolerance. By providing the data in this form it is hoped that the designer will be encouraged to exploit the many recent advances in casting to optimum effect.

  4. The dental morphology of Pima Indians.

    PubMed

    Scott, G R; Potter, R H; Noss, J F; Dahlberg, A A; Dahlberg, T

    1983-05-01

    Fourteen morphologic crown traits were observed in a sample of 1528 Pima Indians of south-central Arizona. Pima dentitions are characterized by high frequencies of shoveling, incisor winging, the hypocone, the lower canine distal accessory ridge, cusp 6, and the protostylid. They exhibit low frequencies of the metaconule and lower premolar multiple lingual cusps and moderate frequencies of the canine tubercle, Carabelli's trait, cusp 7, and lower second molars with four cusps and X groove patterns. When Pima crown trait frequencies were compared to those of 13 Southwest Indian samples, their closest affinities were to other Uto-Aztecan groups, the Papago and Hopi. The Pima are most divergent from Athapaskans and are also clearly removed from Yuman speaking groups and the Zuni. In general, the pattern of dental morphologic variation in the Southwest corresponds closely to linguistic divisions. PMID:6869510

  5. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  6. South Campus South Campus

    E-print Network

    Oh, Kwang W.

    South Campus South Campus To Dow ntow n Cam pus Clinic Parking Zipcar space EOC M.W. Kapoor Hall Hall Sherman Annex Allen Lot Foster Lot Squire Loop NFTA Park & Ride Lot Garage Building 36 5/12MR 4 1 (COE) 6. Roswell Park Cancer Institute 5. Buffalo General 4. Parker Lot 3. Main Circle 2. Goodyear 1

  7. South Africa South Korea

    E-print Network

    Tchumper, Gregory S.

    ,150 6 hours of various credit France Chemistry in France: Research in Food, Health, and Culture TBA $2AFRICA South Africa ASIA China Japan South Korea Thailand CARIBBEAN Barbados Jamaica EUROPE Belgium 30-July 15 $3,700 6 hours of various credit Belize Education, Health, and Child Welfare May 16-May 28

  8. Heterogeneity of coronary heart disease risk factors in Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and European origin populations: cross sectional study 

    E-print Network

    Bhopal, Raj; Unwin, Nigel; White, M; Yallop, J; Walker, L; Alberti, K G; Harland, J; Patel, S; Ahmad, N; Turner, C; Watson, B; Kaur, D; Kulkarni, A; Laker, M; Tavridou, A

    1999-07-01

    Objective: To compare coronary risk factors and disease prevalence among Indians, Pakistanis, and Bangladeshis, and in all South Asians (these three groups together) with Europeans. Design: Cross sectional survey. ...

  9. A Comprehensive Evaluation of OEO Community Action Programs on Six Selected American Indian Reservations. Report 4 - Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James G. E.; And Others

    The impact of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) Community Action Programs (CAP) on 6 selected American Indian reservations (Gila River and Papago, Arizona; Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico; Pine Ridge, South Dakota; Turtle Mountain, North Dakota, and White Earth Chippewa, Minnesota) are evaluated. After considering the development of Indian

  10. CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 1 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 2 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 3 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 4 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21

  11. CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 1 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 2 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 3 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 4 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23

  12. CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 1 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 2 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 3 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 4 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19

  13. NEVADA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Nevada. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. As...

  14. REGION 9 INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location...

  15. ARIZONA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Arizona. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. A...

  16. Indian Summer for Wayfarers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltenbronn, Kyra

    1977-01-01

    A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

  17. Indian Health Disparities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on the IHS is available at ihs.gov . MORTALITY DISPARITY RATES American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ ... 2009 and U.S. All Races 2008 (Age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 population) AI/AN Rate ...

  18. Ready Indian Country

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tribal governments to build emergency management capability and partnerships to ensure continued survival of Tribal nations and ... region to reflect the diverse local conditions and cultures found in Alaska and Indian Country. Select a ...

  19. Indian River Lagoon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water.

    Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

  20. Ishi: A Yahi Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Yahi Indians were part of a larger tribal group called the Yana. The Yahi way of life, along with the lives of many other California Indian groups, changed when European and U.S. settlers came to California. In 1872 Ishi and his family were the last of the Yahi living in the Deer Creek (California) area. By 1911 Ishi was the last surviving…

  1. Casting Castings: A Classroom Hands-on Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Craig

    This learning activity will provide a useful technique for students to learn casting concepts. The class will be allowed a hands-on experience with casting. Students will make their own fishing sinkers. The lesson plan document includes step by step instructions for the lesson along with photographs.This activity would be appropriate for high school and college level students. The lesson should take about one hour of class time. This document will serve as a framework for instructors and may be downloaded in PDF format.

  2. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  3. Blasting casting to raise productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Pilshaw, S.R.

    1987-07-01

    Normally, surface mines employ draglines or truck and shovel systems to remove overburden. Blasting merely fragments and displaces the overburden enough to allow for easy digging. But during the past two decades, the effect of inflation and increased labor costs have encouraged unconventional methods of overburden removal. All of us are aware of the tremendous inflationary effects on costs of equipment, fuel, labor, interest, insurance, environmental compliance, etc. This has allowed the authors to take a new look at the use of explosives as an effective alternate method of overburden removal. This technique is known by several names, but basically blast casting or just casting best describes it. Other terms in vogue are explosive casting, controlled trajectory blasting, trajectory control blasting, and whatever terminology comes to mind.

  4. CAST results and Axion review

    E-print Network

    T. Geralis; for the CAST collaboration

    2009-05-26

    We present results from the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), together with a brief review on prospects on Axion searches with a variety of experimental techniques. CAST has explored masses up to 0.64 eV setting the most stringent limit on the axion-photon coupling, apart for the micro-eV region where ADMX is the most competitive experiment. CAST is aiming at surpassing the 1eV WMAP upper limit and possibly revisiting the operation in vacuum with extra sensitive X-ray detectors, while ADMX, using improved extra sensitive SQUID amplifiers will explore the micro-eV mass range.

  5. Magnesium-lithium casting alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latenko, V. P.; Silchenko, T. V.; Tikhonov, V. A.; Maltsev, V. P.; Korablin, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    The strength properties of magnesium-lithium alloys at room, low, and high temperatures are investigated. It is found that the alloys may have practical application at ambient temperatures up to 100 C, that negative temperatures have a favorable influence on the alloy strength, and that cyclic temperature variations have practically no effect on the strength characteristics. The influence of chemical coatings on corrosion resistance of the MgLi alloys is examined. Several facilities based on pressure casting machines, low-pressure casting machines, and magnetodynamic pumps were designed for producing MgLi alloy castings. Results were obtained for MgLi alloys reinforced with fibers having a volumetric content of 15%.

  6. Navigating the Nation and Positioning the Other: Undergraduate Students' Experiences with Caste, Class, Gender, and Communalism in Bangalore, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranha, Rima Marina

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the idea of national belonging, held amongst Indian youth in general, and male and female college students in an urban city in particular, to examine the multiple ways in which social and cultural dynamics (e.g., communalism, gender, class, and caste) interact with their idea of nation. It analyses the data gathered…

  7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH CASTING SUPERINTENDENT OVERSEEING TRANSFER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH CASTING SUPERINTENDENT OVERSEEING TRANSFER OF MOLTEN METAL TO A CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING EXTRACTED FROM CASTING MACHINE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST, AS OPERATOR WATCHES TO ENSURE QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE PRIOR TO EXTRACTION FROM CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING WEIGHED ON SCALES AT CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 2005 May JOM 29 Casting DefectsOverview

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    2005 May · JOM 29 Casting DefectsOverview Casting designs are generally based factors of safety, which leadtoincreasedcomponentweightsand inefficient use of materials. In castings in castings and determine their effect on performance. INTRODUCTION Designers are responsible for the per

  13. Loss and Reconstitution of Sioux Tribal Lands in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    Inconsistent government policies towards American Indian landholdings have created jurisdictional chaos on South Dakota's Sioux reservations. Although the Sioux had occupied the area of South Dakota since the seventeenth century, white settlers began to move into the territory in the 1840's. Despite treaties, the federal government began…

  14. Cementite Solidification in Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, J. J.; Sinatora, A.; Albertin, E.

    2014-06-01

    Two hypereutectic cast irons (5.01 pct Cr and 5.19 pct V) were cast and the polished surfaces of test pieces were deep-etched and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. The results show that graphite lamellae intersect the cementite and a thin austenite film nucleates and grows on the cementite plates. For both compositions, graphite and cementite can coexist as equilibrium phases, with the former always nucleating and growing first. The eutectic carbides grow from the austenite dendrites in a direction perpendicular to the primary plates.

  15. Casting behavior of titanium alloys in a centrifugal casting machine.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Miyakawa, O; Takada, Y; Okuno, O; Okabe, T

    2003-05-01

    Since dental casting requires replication of complex shapes with great accuracy, this study examined how well some commercial titanium alloys and experimental titanium-copper alloys filled a mold cavity. The metals examined were three types of commercial dental titanium [commercially pure titanium (hereinafter noted as CP-Ti), Ti-6Al-4V (T64) and Ti-6Al-7Nb (T67)], and experimental titanium-copper alloys [3%, 5% and 10% Cu (mass %)]. The volume percentage filling the cavity was evaluated in castings prepared in a very thin perforated sheet pattern and cast in a centrifugal casting machine. The flow behavior of the molten metal was also examined using a so-called "tracer element technique." The amounts of CP-Ti and all the Ti-Cu alloys filling the cavity were similar; less T64 and T67 filled the cavity. However, the Ti-Cu alloys failed to reach the end of the cavities due to a lower fluidity compared to the other metals. A mold prepared with specially designed perforated sheets was effective at differentiating the flow behavior of the metals tested. The present technique also revealed that the more viscous Ti-Cu alloys with a wide freezing range failed to sequentially flow to the end of the cavity. PMID:12593955

  16. Porosity formation in axi-symmetric castings produced by counter-pressure casting method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. H. Katzarov; Y. B. Arsov; P. Stoyanov; T. Zeuner; A. Buehrig-Polaczek; P. R. Sahm

    2001-01-01

    We propose a method for simultaneous treatment of heat and mass transfer processes and porosity formation of castings produced by Counter Pressure Casting (CPC) method. The method enables us to account for the influence of the CPC parameters on the mechanical properties of the casting. Numerical results and comparison with experimental data are given for an axis-symmetric casting (hemisphere with

  17. Size effects in aluminium alloy castings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. G. Wang; M. Praud; A. Needleman; K. S. Kim; J. R. Griffiths; C. J. Davidson; C. H. Cáceres; A. A. Benzerga

    2010-01-01

    A finding by Benzerga et al. (Acta Mater 2001; 49:3071) that the yield strength of Al–7Si–0.3Mg castings is smaller for castings with a fine secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) than for those with a coarse SDAS is revisited. Previous experimental data for Al–Si–Mg castings are reviewed, and new experiments carried out, both on the original castings used in Benzerga et

  18. Melvil Dewey and the Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This poem discusses Melvil Dewey's system for organizing information, focusing on information related to American Indians. Suggests instead of grouping all materials on Indians in one place they could be distributed throughout the Dewey system. (LRW)

  19. Association of American Indian Physicians

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Becoming a Member Pay Dues Job Center Programs Capacity Building Assistance Program Diabetes Impact Topics Student Programs College ... American Indian Physicians provides educational programs, health initiatives, capacity building assistance and services to American Indian and Alaska ...

  20. Pressure distribution in centrifugal dental casting.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J P

    1978-02-01

    Equations are developed for liquid metal pressure in centrifugal dental casting, given the instantaneous rotational velocity, density, and certain dimensions of the casting machine and casting pattern. A "reference parabola" is introduced making the fluid pressure concept more understandable. A specially designed specimen demonstrates experimentally the reference parabola at freezing. PMID:355283

  1. July/August 20056 Casting aluminum

    E-print Network

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    July/August 20056 Bob Rapp Casting aluminum Lay people unfamiliar with metallurgical processing dispersion of TiB2 particles without agglomeration or density segregation. These master alloys are then cast to cast Al commercially. Perhaps I can interest the reader with a summary of this important process. I

  2. The Ins and Outs of Relief Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on clay casting that introduces students to relief sculpture. The unit takes three 45 to 50 minute class periods three weeks apart. Discusses each class session in detail: (1) creating the casting; (2) turning out and rinsing the casting; and (3) enriching the surface with color. (CMK)

  3. Master thesis Supercooled Simultaneous Composite Casting

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    I Master thesis Supercooled Simultaneous Composite Casting for Microstructure Refinement of AlloySimultaneousCompositeCastingforMicrostructureRefinementofAlloy2008Kim,YongKi #12;3 SupercooledSimultaneousCompositeCasting for Microstructure Refinement of Alloy #12;4 Supercooled Simultaneous Composite Casting for Microstructure Refinement of Alloy by Kim

  4. Coping with type casts in C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Siffr; Satish Chandra; Thomas Ball; Krishna Kunchithapadam; Thomas W. Reps

    1999-01-01

    The use of type casts is pervasive in C. Although casts provide great flexibility in writing programs, their use obscures the meaning of programs, and can present obstacles during maintenance. Casts involving pointers to structures (C structs) are particularly problematic, because by using them, a programmer can interpret any memory region to be of any desired type, thereby compromising C's

  5. Simulation of Dimensional Changes in Steel Casting

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Simulation of Dimensional Changes in Steel Casting Shouzhu (Hans) Ou and Christoph Beckermann Pattern allowances in casting of steel are predicted using the casting simulation software MAGMASOFT expansion, etc.). The purpose of the study is to assess the capabilities of this simulation software

  6. 48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian Organizations, Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises, and Native Hawaiian...

  7. 48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian Organizations, Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises, and Native Hawaiian...

  8. 48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian Organizations, Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises, and Native Hawaiian...

  9. Geophysical evidences for a thick crust south of Palghat-Tiruchi gap in the High Grade Terrains of South India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    The regional gravity and magnetic features of the South Indian Shield were discussed. The prominent regional gravity low of 20 to 30 mgls over the charnockite terrain of South India, coupled with the correlation of a steep gravity gradient with a prominent shear zone to the north, can be interpreted in terms of increased crustal thickness in the South Indian high-grade terrain. There is some support for this from deep seismic sounding. The magnetic signature of the high-grade terrain is also distinctive, and Mishra argued that the Palghat-Tiruchi line might represent a Precambrian boundary such as a suture between two distinct crustal blocks.

  10. Surface ozone in the Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Moti L.; Hess, Peter G.; Jain, S. L.; Arya, B. C.; Sharma, C.

    Ozone (O3) is a dangerous air pollutant in terms of damage to crop plants and human health. It is phytotoxic to vegetation and a toxic agent for human health. Tropospheric ozone (O3) in the Indian sub-continent from Afghanistan in the west (60?E) to parts of Southeast Asian countries in the east (105?E) and parts of China in the north (45?N) to Sri Lanka in the south (0?N) is simulated with an episodic chemical transport model christened HANK for the spring and summer months (February-May 2000). O3 concentrations are mapped on the gridded region. It provides a general picture of the variations in the surface ozone concentrations in the different regions of the Indian sub-continent. Simulated O3 is compared with the measurements at Delhi, Ahmedabad, and the Arabian Sea. AOT40—a parameter that represents the accumulated dose of ozone over a threshold of 40 ppb is computed for the region. The Indo-Gangatic plain in the Northeast region of India has been found to have very high AOT40 and also much higher concentrations of O3 and CO compared to the rest of the Indian region. There is substantial temporal and spatial variation in O3 across the region due to meteorological conditions and anthropogenic emissions of precursor gases. O3 concentrations are higher in March compared to other months during February-May period. Northern region of India has higher concentrations of O3 then the southern region.

  11. Indian Womanhood: Some Psychological Concepts*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Dhanalakshmi; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Indian womanhood today is at crossroads. The present paper discusses the status of Indian womanhood and its psychological underpinnings. It discusses how Indian women have suffered at the hands of their families and society leaving no path but to succumb to psychiatric illness. The role of mental health professionals and family members in supporting and promoting growth and development of the Indian woman is outlined. PMID:25838719

  12. Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C

  13. CTD024Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD024Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26, page 1 #12;ATTEN ATTEN CTD024 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26, page 2 #12;ATTENATTEN CTD024 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26, page 3 #12;ATTEN ATTEN CTD024 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26 Hickey, W8101, casts

  14. CTD031Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD031Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36, page 1 #12;CTD031 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36, page 2 #12;CTD031 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36, page 3 #12;CTD031 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36, page 4 #12;CTD031

  15. CTD025Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30 Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD025Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30 Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30, page 1 #12;CTD025Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30 Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30, page 2 #12;CTD025Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30 Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30, page 3 #12;CTD025Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30 Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30, page 4 #12;CTD025Hickey, TT162

  16. CTD051Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53 Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD051Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53 Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53, page 1 #12;CTD051Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53 Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53, page 2 #12;CTD051Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53 Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53, page 3 #12;CTD051Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53 Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53, page 4 #12;CTD051Hickey, TT162

  17. CTD054Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55 Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD054Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55 Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55, page 1 #12;CTD054Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55 Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55, page 2 #12;CTD054Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55 Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55, page 3 #12;CTD054Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55 Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55, page 4 #12;CTD054Hickey, TT162

  18. CTD033Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37 Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD033Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37 Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37, page 1 #12;CTD033Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37 Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37, page 2 #12;CTD033Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37 Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37, page 3 #12;CTD033Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37 Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37, page 4 #12;CTD033Hickey, W8201

  19. South Dakota Kids Count Factbook, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Carole, Ed.

    This Kids Count factbook examines statewide trends in well-being for South Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on 24 indicators in the areas of demographics, health, education, economic status, and safety. The indicators are: (1) poverty thresholds; (2) population; (3) population on Indian Reservations; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  20. Experimental benchmark for casting problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Kowalewski; A. Cybulski; T. Michalek

    The problem motivating the current work is a mould filling during casting process. The aim of our analysis is to provide a simple experimental model simulating the main flow characteristics accompanying such process. Hence, the hot fluid is supplied under high pressure into an inclined box. Fluid flows inside the box between two cold isothermal walls, passing obstacles simulating internal

  1. Overview of ToxCast?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, EPA launched ToxCast? in order to develop a cost-effective approach for prioritizing the toxicity testing of large numbers of chemicals in a short period of time. Using data from state-of-the-art high throughput screening (HTS) bioassays developed in the pharmaceutical i...

  2. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  3. Homogenization heat treating cast microstructure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Krane, Matthew J. M.

    2008-10-25

    Cast microstructures have variations in composition on the length scale of dendrites and homogenization heat treatments are performed to smooth out these variations. This problem is an integral analysis of the 1D diffusion mass transfer in this problem. The results using two different assumed profiles are compared.

  4. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

  6. Facts about American Indian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  7. QUESTIONS REGARDING AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEWART, OMER C.

    FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT, AMERICAN INDIAN MEANS A SOCIAL-LEGAL GROUP. THE STATISTICS WERE OBTAINED FROM FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SOURCES. IN 1960, THERE WERE OVER 70,000 INDIAN ARRESTS OUT OF FOUR MILLION ARRESTS REPORTED TO THE F.B.I. THE PER CAPITA AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY IS NEARLY SEVEN TIMES THE NATIONAL AVERAGE, NEARLY…

  8. American Indian Teacher Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonemah, Stuart A.

    This paper describes the broad goals of an American Indian Teacher Training Program (AITTP), a master's program focusing on teaching gifted and talented Native Americans. The program is administered by American Indian Research and Development, Inc. (AIRD) through Oklahoma City University, with the goal of helping up to 10 American Indian educators…

  9. The American Indian: A Microcourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Norman; And Others

    Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

  10. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  11. Directory of American Indian Tribes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff. Inst. for Human Development.

    This directory provides general information on American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and lands. The information was compiled from several resources including the "Federal Register," the Bureau of Indian Affairs, "The Native American Almanac" (A. Hirschfelder, M. K. de Montano), the "Atlas of North American Indian Tribes" (Carl Waldman), the…

  12. Indian Issues and Party Platforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Gayle

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson for teaching about the development of political party platforms dealing with American Indian issues. Explains that, although Indians are part of the electorate and sometimes hold political office, Indian issues are included in political platforms rarely if ever. Includes a list of contemporary issues to be used for discussion.…

  13. Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

    Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

  14. The Indian Mineral Development Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Antoinette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

  15. Sociocultural Perspective on Organ and Tissue Donation among Reservation-Dwelling American Indian Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy L. Fahrenwald; Wendy Stabnow

    2005-01-01

    To discover the sociocultural patterns that influence decisions about organ and tissue donation among American Indian (AI) adults.DesignThis qualitative ethnographic study used a social–ecological framework. A snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 21 Oglala Lakota Sioux participants (age???19 years) living on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from

  16. Land-based turbine casting initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.A.; Spicer, R.A. [Howmet Corp., Whitehall, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    To meet goals for the ATS program, technical advances developed for aircraft gas turbine engines need to be applied to land-based gas turbines. These advances include directionally solidified and single crystal castings, alloys tailored to exploit these microstructures, complex internal cooling schemes, and coatings. The proposed program to scale aircraft gas turbine casting technology up to land based gas turbine size components is based on low sulfur alloys, casting process development, post-cast process development, and establishing casting defect tolerance levels. The inspection side is also discussed.

  17. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  18. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  19. Indian-atlantic transfer of thermocline water at the agulhas retroflection.

    PubMed

    Gordon, A L

    1985-03-01

    During November and December 1983, two anticyclonic eddies were observed west of the Agulhas Retroflection, apparently spawned at the retroflection. The western eddy, centered 300 kilometers southwest of Cape Town, has a winter cooled core encircled by warm Indian Ocean water. Between Cape Town and the "Cape Town Eddy" is a net geostrophic transport of Indian Ocean thermocline water (14 x 10(6) cubic meters per second) into the South Atlantic Ocean. This circulation configuration, similar to that observed by earlier researchers, suggests that Indian-Atlantic thermocline exchange is a common occurrence. Such a warmwater link between the Atlantic and Indian oceans would strongly influence global climate patterns. The Indian Ocean water is warmer than the adjacent South Atlantic water and thus represents a heat input of 2.3 x 10(13) to 47 x 10(13) watts into the Atlantic. The large uncertainty arises from the unknown partition between two possible routes for the return flow from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean: cooler South Atlantic thermocline water or much colder North Atlantic Deep Water. In either case, interocean mass and heat exchange of thermocline water at the Agulhas Retroflection is a distinct likelihood. PMID:17794226

  20. Titanium casting: the surface reaction layer of castings obtained using ultra-low-temperature molds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, H; Onouchi, M; Hsu, H C; Kurotani, T; Nishiyama, M

    2001-03-01

    To examine whether the surface reaction layer of titanium castings can be reduced by lowering the mold temperature during casting, we cast titanium at three mold temperatures, including an ultra-low temperature produced by cooling the mold with liquid nitrogen, then measured the tensile strength and elongation of the castings. The titanium was cast using a centrifugal casting machine, and the molds were incinerated according to the manufacturers' instructions. Castings were then made with the molds at 200 degrees C, 600 degrees C, and an ultra-low temperature (-196 degrees C). The castability of titanium cast in the mold at the ultra-low temperature was good. The Vickers hardness near the surface layer of castings decreased as the mold temperature decreased. PMID:11383633

  1. Inner surface roughness of complete cast crowns made by centrifugal casting machines.

    PubMed

    Ogura, H; Raptis, C N; Asgar, K

    1981-05-01

    Six variables that could affect the surface roughness of a casting were investigated. The variables were (1) type of alloy, (2) mold temperature, (3) metal casting temperature, (4) casting machine, (5) sandblasting, and (6) location of each section. It was determined that the training portion of a complete cast crown had rougher surfaces than the leading portion. Higher mold and casting temperatures produced rougher castings, and this effect was more pronounced in the case of the base metal alloy. Sandblasting reduced the roughness, but produced scratched surfaces. Sandblasting had a more pronounced affect on the surface roughness of the base metal alloy cast either at a higher mold temperature or metal casting temperature. The morphology and the roughness profile of the original cast surface differed considerably with the type of alloy used. PMID:7012322

  2. Tectonic Fabric of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and Continental Drift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Heezen; Marie Tharp

    1965-01-01

    The floor of the Indian Ocean is dominated by (1) the scismically active Mid-Oceanic Ridge, (2) scattered linear micro-continents (mostly meridional), and (3) fracture zones (some displace the axis of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge and others parallel the micro-continents). The pattern suggests that movement along the Diamantina Fracture Zone has displaced Australia to the cast relative to Broken Ridge. In the

  3. Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts

  4. Atoka folio, Indian Territory 

    E-print Network

    Taff, Joseph A. (Joseph Alexander), b. 1862.

    1902-01-01

    This thesis edits and compares two diaries written during one of the earliest Spanish expeditions into Texas during 1691-1692. The first governor of the Province of the Tejas Indians, Domingo Ter??n de los R??os, steered the military and exploratory...

  5. Downriver Indians' Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Exline, Jesse

    Yurok Indian legends in Yurok Unifon text include English translations of the entire texts in order to produce fluent reading for English speakers and a continuous text for Yurok readers. Although corresponding sentences are numbered, translation is not word-for-word or sentence-for-sentence. The five stories refer to a time when animals could…

  6. Indian School Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil H.

    This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age from 4 to…

  7. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  8. The Urban Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Winona DuBray

    The document presents six articles that provide a glimpse of the uniqueness of American Indian cultural conflict, focusing on aspects of the culture which warrant special attention. Since there are over 100 tribes, an effort was made to enumerate commonalities amongst the tribal cultures in looking at issues raised in the urban areas throughout…

  9. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend. Characteristics of…

  10. Indians of the Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

  11. INDIAN NATIONAL SCIENCE ACADEMY

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, N.

    and bring out proceedings and monographs. The academies promote public awareness and understandingINDIAN NATIONAL SCIENCE ACADEMY Science academies play a crucial role in promoting, recognizing on critical issues. Importantly they serve as forums for interaction among scientists within and outside

  12. Indian Ayurvedic SPORTS MASSAGE

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    Indian Ayurvedic SPORTS MASSAGE For Information or Bookings Contact Felipe Estenos at 086 883 1404 or felipe.estenos@gmail.com at Trinity College Sports Centre Available Wednesdays Only With Felipe Estenos · Combats fatigue,tension and depression and restores emotional equilibrium · Stimulates production

  13. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  14. Full-Fledged Indian

    E-print Network

    Hart, Josh Benjamin

    2010-04-26

    Lee Stafford is in his seventh summer as a counselor at Camp Arrowdance. While Lee enjoys his status as one of the most popular staff members at camp, he begins to wonder if he's in danger of going "Full-Fledged Indian", ...

  15. Mescalero Indian Reservation 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    Florida’s Spanish borderland was the result of over two hundred and fifty years of cooperation and contention among Indians, Spain, Britain, the United States and Africans who lived with them all. The borderland was shaped by the differing cultural...

  16. The JC and BK human polyoma viruses appear to be recent introductions to some South American Indian tribes: There is no serological evidence of cross-reactivity with the simian polyoma virus SV40

    PubMed Central

    Major, Eugene O.; Neel, James V.

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to understand the unusual cytogenetic damage earlier encountered in the Yanomama Indians, plasma samples from 425 Amerindians representing 14 tribes have been tested for hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to the human JC polyoma virus and from 369 Amerinds from 13 tribes for hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to the human BK polyoma virus. There is for both viruses highly significant heterogeneity between tribes for the prevalence of serum antibody titers ?1/40, the pattern of infection suggesting that these two viruses only relatively recently have been introduced into some of these tribes. Some of these samples, from populations with no known exposure to the simian polyoma virus SV40, also were tested for antibodies to this virus by using an immunospot assay. In contrast to the findings of Brown et al. (Brown, P., Tsai, T. & Gajdusek, D. C. (1975) Am. J. Epidemiol. 102, 331–340), none of the samples was found to possess antibodies to SV40. In addition, no significant titers to SV40 were found in a sample of 97 Japanese adults, many of whom had been found to exhibit elevated titers to the JC and BK viruses. This study thus suggests that these human sera contain significant antibody titers to the human polyoma viruses JC and BK but do not appear to contain either cross-reactive antibodies to SV40 or primary antibodies resulting from SV40 infection. PMID:9861002

  17. Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Dickerson; M. O. Andreae; T. Campos; O. L. Mayol-Bracero; C. Neusuess; D. G. Streets

    2002-01-01

    Air from South Asia carries heavy loadings of organic and light-absorbing aerosol but low concentrations of ozone. We investigate ambient pollutant concentrations measured during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), and we estimate emissions to determine the origin, magnitude, and impacts of air pollution from South Asia and to understand better the uncertainty in emission inventories. In India, the preponderance of

  18. A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

  19. Search for chameleons with CAST

    E-print Network

    V. Anastassopoulos; M. Arik; S. Aune; K. Barth; A. Belov; H. Bräuninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; F. Christensen; J. I. Collar; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; K. Desch; A. Dermenev; C. Eleftheriadis; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; P. Friedrich; J. Galán; J. A. García; A. Gardikiotis; J. G. Garza; E. N. Gazis; T. Geralis; I. Giomataris; C. Hailey; F. Haug; M. D. Hasinoff; D. H. H. Hoffmann; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; A. Jakobsen; K. Jakov?i?; J. Kaminski; M. Karuza; M. Kavuk; M. Kr?mar; C. Krieger; A. Krüger; B. Laki?; J. M. Laurent; A. Liolios; A. Ljubi?i?; G. Luzón; S. Neff; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovarov; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; M. Rosu; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; S. K. Solanki; T. Vafeiadis; J. A. Villar; J. K. Vogel; S. C. Yildiz; K. Zioutas; P. Brax; I. Lavrentyev; A. Upadhye

    2015-03-16

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  20. Search for chameleons with CAST

    E-print Network

    Anastassopoulos, V; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Desch, K; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Hailey, C; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hofmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakobsen, A; Jakov?i?, K; Kaminski, J; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Kr?mar, M; Krieger, C; Krüger, A; Laki?, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubi?i?, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovarov, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Solanki, S K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K; Brax, P; Lavrentyev, I; Upadhye, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  1. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter (inventor); Hutto, William R. (inventor); Philips, Albert R. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  2. Indian Juvenile Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Prevention. Hearings before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on H.R. 1156 to Coordinate and Expand Services for the Prevention, Identification, Treatment, and Follow-Up Care of Alcohol and Drug Abuse among Indian Youth, and for Other Purposes and H.R. 2624 to Authorize Programs for the Treatment and Prevention of Drug and Alcohol Abuse among Indian Juveniles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    Three hearings held in Arizona, New Mexico, and South Dakota provide individual statements and panel presentations on problems, programs, and proposals for prevention, identification, treatment, and follow-up care of alcohol and drug abuse among American Indian juveniles. The majority of witnesses are members of Indian tribes in the three…

  3. Romantic Experiences of Homeland and Diaspora South Asian Youth: Westernizing Processes of Media and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined 1316 South Asian youth socialized in progressively Westernized contexts: "traditional" Indian homeland single-sex schools, "transitional" Indian homeland co-educational schools, and the immigrant "diaspora" in Canadian schools. Results showed youth in the three contexts were similar on romantic desire. Yet those in…

  4. Cast shadows in wide perspective.

    PubMed

    Pont, Sylvia C; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Oomes, Augustinus H J; van Doom, Andrea; van Nierop, Onno; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the apparent spatial layout of cast shadows up to very wide fields of view. We presented up to 130 degrees wide images in which two 'flat poles' were standing on a green lawn under a cloudless blue sky on a sunny day. The poles threw sharp cast shadows on the green, of which one was fixed. The observer's task was to adjust the azimuth of the shadow of the other pole such that it fitted the scene. The source elevation was kept constant. The two cast shadows are, of course, parallel in physical space, but generically not in the picture plane because of the wide perspective. We found that observers made huge systematic errors, indicating that, generically, they fail to account for these perspective effects. The systematic deviations could be well described by a weighted linear combination of the directions in the picture plane and in the physical space, with weights that depended on the positions of, and distance between, the poles. PMID:22132508

  5. Will the "Real" Indians Please Stand Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pewewardy, Cornel

    1998-01-01

    Explores what it means to be an American Indian in an era in which nearly half of the identifiable Indians live off the reservations and in urban areas. As the principal definition of "Indian-ness" today, the issue of blood quantum leads to misunderstandings. Being an Indian, to the author, is being a person connected to a tribe. (SLD)

  6. [The cast structure after vacuum-pressure casting and centrifugal casting].

    PubMed

    Finger, W; Jung, T; Quast, U

    1975-02-01

    Evaluation of polished sections revealed the following: 1. Grain size in marginal areas of the crown is, in general, smaller than it is in the occlusal region. 2. Grain size varies depending on the casting method applied. Differences in hardness were found only to a limited extent. They were not always in line with the grain structure. This phenomenon deviating from the rule cannot satisfactorily be explained. The piping distribution was in accordance with observations made so far. PMID:1091455

  7. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  8. Casting an Object with a Core Hee-Kap Ahn

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Siu-Wing

    Casting an Object with a Core Hee-Kap Ahn Sang Won Bae Siu-Wing Cheng Kyung-Yong Chwa Abstract This paper addresses geometric problems that concern manufacturing an object using a cast with a core. In casting, molten material is poured into the cavity of the cast and allowed to solidify. The cast has two

  9. The Effects of Scaphoid and Colles Casts on Hand Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. KARANTANA; M. J. DOWNS-WHEELER; K. WEBB; C. A. PEARCE; A. JOHNSON; G. C. BANNISTER

    2006-01-01

    Although necessary for bone healing, immobilisation temporarily prevents hand function and may necessitate corrective physiotherapy later. Scaphoid and Colles casts are both commonly used to immobilize scaphoid fractures. Non-union rates are comparable with both casts. The Scaphoid cast incorporates the thumb, whereas the Colles cast leaves the thumb free. We compared the effect of the two casts on hand function

  10. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-011D13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was to determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity

  11. A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast components. This enables incorporation of the residual stresses at the design phase along with external loads for accurate predictions of fatigue and fracture performance of the cast components.

  12. Quantitative understanding of the fly casting stroke through measurements and robotic casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Anderson; N. C. Perkins; B. Richards

    2006-01-01

    A stumbling point for many learning to fly fish is being able to fly cast well enough to ‘present’ a fly to a feeding fish.\\u000a Even among more skilled fly fishers, learning to fly cast better is often a bottleneck towards advancement in the sport. Fly\\u000a casting instruction today relies on the visual inspection of the fly casting stroke and

  13. High-Density-Tape Casting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Centrifuge packs solids from slurry into uniform, dense layer. New system produces tapes of nearly theoretical packing density. Centrifugal system used to cast thin tapes for capacitors, fuel cells, and filters. Cylindrical rotary casting chamber mounted on high-speed bearings and connected to motor. Liquid for vapor-pressure control and casting slurry introduced from syringes through rotary seal. During drying step, liquid and vapor vented through feed tubes or other openings. Laminated tapes produced by adding more syringes to cast additional layers of different materials.

  14. Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 1 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 2 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 3 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 4 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1

  15. American Indian Higher Education Consortium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), since 1972, has been the collective spirit and voice of our nation's Tribal Colleges and Universities, advocating on behalf of individual institutions of higher education that are defined and controlled by their respective tribal nations. AIHEC's mission is to nurture, advocate, and protect American Indian history, culture, art and language, and the legal and human rights of American Indian people to their own sense of identity and heritage.

  16. West Indian Orchidaceae Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The New York Botanical Garden has recently placed online this searchable database of West Indian Orchids. Containing approximately 5,200 specimen records for the family Orchidacese (from the New York Botanical Garden's collection), the database may be searched by Family, Collector, Country, Taxon, State/Province, and other select fields. Typical returns provide information on Specimen name (scientific name), Location, Collector, Description, and Habitat.

  17. Release of ToxCastDB and ExpoCastDB databases

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released two databases - the Toxicity Forecaster database (ToxCastDB) and a database of chemical exposure studies (ExpoCastDB) - that scientists and the public can use to access chemical toxicity and exposure data. ToxCastDB users can search and download data from over 50...

  18. Indian Converts Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    First published in 1727, the remarkable book "Indian Converts, or Some account of the lives and dying speeches of a considerable number of the Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard" is now available in full online. Written by Experience Mayhew, the book provides remarkable insights into the lives and culture of four generations of Native Americans in colonial America. This digitized version was created at Reed College, and visitors can look through all four sections of the work, which include "Indian Ministers" and "Pious Children." Throughout the work, Mayhew details the books that different age groups were reading, provides insights into early New England pedagogy and childrearing practices, and also describes each individual in terms of their own genealogy and personal history. The truly fantastic thing about the site is that it also contains an archive with over 600 images and documents that further contextualize the work. Also, the site contains study guides designed for classroom use that cover artifact analysis, genealogy, and reading gravestones.

  19. South Centre

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in Switzerland, South Centre is a multi-national organization which promotes the global organization of its 46 member nations in order to become "effective in mobilizing its considerable combined expertise and experience or its bargaining power." The site contains a large number of current working papers, South Centre's quarterly newsletter South Letter, and relevant links.

  20. Simulated Groundwater Flow in the Ogallala and Arikaree Aquifers, Rosebud Indian Reservation Area, South Dakota-Revisions with Data Through Water Year 2008 and Simulations of Potential Future Scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andrew J.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2010-01-01

    The Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers are important water resources in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area and are used extensively for irrigation, municipal, and domestic water supplies. Drought or increased withdrawals from the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area have the potential to affect water levels in these aquifers. This report documents revisions and recalibration of a previously published three-dimensional, numerical groundwater-flow model for this area. Data for a 30-year period (water years 1979 through 2008) were used in steady-state and transient numerical simulations of groundwater flow. In the revised model, revisions include (1) extension of the transient calibration period by 10 years, (2) the use of inverse modeling for steady-state calibration, (3) model calibration to base flow for an additional four surface-water drainage basins, (4) improved estimation of transient aquifer recharge, (5) improved delineation of vegetation types, and (6) reduced cell size near large capacity water-supply wells. In addition, potential future scenarios were simulated to assess the potential effects of drought and increased groundwater withdrawals. The model comprised two layers: the upper layer represented the Ogallala aquifer and the lower layer represented the Arikaree aquifer. The model's grid had 168 rows and 202 columns, most of which were 1,640 feet (500 meters) wide, with narrower rows and columns near large water-supply wells. Recharge to the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers occurs from precipitation on the outcrop areas. The average recharge rates used for the steady-state simulation were 2.91 and 1.45 inches per year for the Ogallala aquifer and Arikaree aquifer, respectively, for a total rate of 255.4 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Discharge from the aquifers occurs through evapotranspiration, discharge to streams as base flow and spring flow, and well withdrawals. Discharge rates for the steady-state simulation were 171.3 ft3/s for evapotranspiration, 74.4 ft3/s for net outflow to streams and springs, and 11.6 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Estimated horizontal hydraulic conductivity used for the numerical model ranged from 0.2 to 84.4 feet per day (ft/d) in the Ogallala aquifer and from 0.1 to 4.3 ft/d in the Arikaree aquifer. A uniform vertical hydraulic conductivity value of 4.2x10-4 ft/d was estimated for the Ogallala aquifer. Vertical hydraulic conductivity was estimated for five zones in the Arikaree aquifer and ranged from 8.8x10-5 to 3.7 ft/d. Average rates of recharge, maximum evapotranspiration, and well withdrawals were included in the steady-state simulation, whereas the time-varying rates were included in the transient simulation. Inverse modeling techniques were used for steady-state model calibration. These methods were designed to estimate parameter values that are, statistically, the most likely set of values to result in the smallest differences between simulated and observed hydraulic heads and base-flow discharges. For the steady-state simulation, the root mean square error for simulated hydraulic heads for all 383 wells was 27.3 feet. Simulated hydraulic heads were within ?50 feet of observed values for 93 percent of the wells. The potentiometric surfaces of the two aquifers calculated by the steady-state simulation established initial conditions for the transient simulation. For the transient simulation, the difference between the simulated and observed means for hydrographs was within ?40 feet for 98 percent of 44 observation wells. A sensitivity analysis was used to examine the response of the calibrated steady-state model to changes in model parameters including horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, evapotranspiration, recharge, and riverbed conductance. The model was most sensitive to recharge and maximum evapotranspiration and least sensitive to riverbed and spring conductances. To simulate a potential future drought scenario, a synthetic

  1. Spray casting project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  2. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

  3. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  4. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Welding § 192.275 Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a...

  5. DE LAVAUD CASTING FACING NORTH, NOTE CORE MOUNTED IN PREPARATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DE LAVAUD CASTING FACING NORTH, NOTE CORE MOUNTED IN PREPARATION FOR NEXT PIPE CASTING. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  6. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 20' DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 20' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING EXTRACTED USING PIPE PULLERS. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Edinburgh College of Art : cast collection and architecture 

    E-print Network

    Stoica, Ruxandra-Iulia; Stewart, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cast Collection comprises 265 plaster casts of Antique, Renaissance, and Gothic statues, bas reliefs, and architectural passages held at the Edinburgh College of Art and the University of Edinburgh. The plaster casts at the Edinburgh...

  8. Effects of Aerosols over the Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aerosols that contain black carbon both absorb and reflect incoming sunlight. Even as these atmospheric particles reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the surface, they increase the amount of solar energy absorbed in the atmosphere, thus making it possible to both cool the surface and warm the atmosphere. The images above show satellite measurements of the region studied during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX)a vast region spanning the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal (west to east), and from the foot of the Himalayan Mountains, across the Indian subcontinent to the southern Indian Ocean (north to south). The Aerosol images show aerosol pollution (brownish pixels) in the lower atmosphere over the INDOEX study area, as measured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Terra. These were composited from March 14-21, 2001. The Albedo images show the total solar energy reflected back to space, as measured by Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) aboard Terra. White pixels show high values, greens are intermediate values, and blues are low. Note how the aerosols, particularly over the ocean, increase the amount of energy reflected back to space. The Atmospheric Warming images show the absorption of the black carbon aerosols in the atmosphere. Where the aerosols are most dense, the absorption is highest. Red pixels indicate the highest levels of absorption, blues are low. The Surface Cooling images show that the aerosol particles reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the surface. Dark pixels show where the aerosols exert their cooling influence on the surface (or a high magnitude of negative radiative forcing). The bright pixels show where there is much less aerosol pollution and the incoming sunlight is relatively unaffected.

  9. Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scans

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date;Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date;Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date

  10. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  11. Modeling of nickel and iron aluminide castings

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Duncan, A.J.; Porter, W.D.; Webb, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses some issues in producing Ni and Fe aluminide castings and illustrates use of computer simulation of the casting process to solve these problems. Available casting software and issues in their use are reviewed. Importance of availability of accurate thermophysical properties is illustrated by comparing sensitivity of computed cooling curves to changes in these properties. If constant thermophysical properties must be used in solidification simulation, the values at the solidus temperature are likely to provide greatest accuracy; significant errors may be incurred by use of constant room temperature properties. Examples are given of the mold filling analysis of sand cast heat treating trays and centrifugally cast transfer rolls of Ni aluminide alloy. In the case of sand cast heat treating trays, the simulation of mold filling is used to illustrate benefits of pouring the mold at a tilt to reduce turbulence in the runner. In the case of centrifugally cast rolls, the simulation is used to illustrate effect of inlet velocity during the pour on casting quality.

  12. Iron/Phosphorus Alloys for Continuous Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufresne, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous casting becomes practicable because of reduced eutectic temperature. Experimental ferrous alloy has melting point about 350 degrees C lower than conventional steels, making possible to cast structural members and eliminating need for hot rolling. Product has normal metal structure and good physical properties. Process used to make rails, beams, slabs, channels, and pipes.

  13. Casting Shadows in the Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    Uses the metaphor of shadows in a critical exploration of what it means to know and how the cultures of classrooms have shaped these images of knowing. Directs attention to objects that cast shadows on the learning and knowing of mathematics and science through the voices of preservice teachers. Discusses shadow casting toward textbooks, teachers,…

  14. RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION Richard Hardin1 , K.K. Choi1 , and Christoph 52242-1527 Keywords: Casting Process Design, Optimization, Reliability-Based Design Optimization purpose reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) software tool previously developed at the University

  15. C++ Dynamic Cast in Autonomous Space Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian Dechev; Rabi N. Mahapatra; Bjarne Stroustrup; David Wagner

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic cast operation allows flexibility in the design and use of data management facilities in object- oriented programs. Dynamic cast has an important role in the implementation of the Data Management Services (DMS) of the Mission Data System Project (MDS), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's experimental work for providing a state-based and goal-oriented unified architecture for test- ing and development

  16. Automated Radioscopic Inspection of Aluminum Die Castings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Domingo Mery

    Castings produced for the automotive industry are c onsidered important components for overall roadworthiness. To ensure the safety of con struction, it is necessary to check every part thoroughly using non-destructive testing . Radioscopy rapidly became the accepted way for controlling the quality of die cas t pieces. In this paper the fundamental principles of the automated detection of casting

  17. Control of semicontinuous aluminum casting process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Besancon-Voda; C. Delclos

    1998-01-01

    In a semicontinuous casting process, the metal level is controlled by the inflow of liquid metal. The quality of the cast product depends on the accuracy of the mold level control. There is a need for a control strategy giving better results than the fixed parameter controller and simple enough to be implemented on the existing control structure, in order

  18. Processing of IN-718 Lattice Block Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2002-01-01

    Recently a low cost casting method known as lattice block casting has been developed by JAM Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts for engineering materials such as aluminum and stainless steels that has shown to provide very high stiffness and strength with only a fraction of density of the alloy. NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated research to investigate lattice block castings of high temperature Ni-base superalloys such as the model system Inconel-718 (IN-718) for lightweight nozzle applications. Although difficulties were encountered throughout the manufacturing process , a successful investment casting procedure was eventually developed. Wax formulation and pattern assembly, shell mold processing, and counter gravity casting techniques were developed. Ten IN-718 lattice block castings (each measuring 15-cm wide by 30-cm long by 1.2-cm thick) have been successfully produced by Hitchiner Gas Turbine Division, Milford, New Hampshire, using their patented counter gravity casting techniques. Details of the processing and resulting microstructures are discussed in this paper. Post casting processing and evaluation of system specific mechanical properties of these specimens are in progress.

  19. Sparse representation of cast shadows via

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue Mei; Haibin Ling; David W. Jacobs

    2009-01-01

    Scenes with cast shadows can produce complex sets of images. These images cannot be well approximated by low-dimensional linear subspaces. However, in this paper we show that the set of images produced by a Lambertian scene with cast shadows can be efficiently represented by a sparse set of images generated by directional light sources. We first model an image with

  20. Shallow water model for horizontal centrifugal casting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Bohá?ek; A Kharicha; A Ludwig; M Wu

    2012-01-01

    A numerical model was proposed to simulate the solidification process of an outer shell of work roll made by the horizontal centrifugal casting technique. Shallow water model was adopted to solve the 2D average flow dynamics of melt spreading and the average temperature distribution inside the centrifugal casting mould by considering the centrifugal force, Coriolis force, viscous force due to

  1. View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. BMM SHAKEOUT AND VIBRATING CONVEYOR TRANSPORT SAND AND CASTINGS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BMM SHAKEOUT AND VIBRATING CONVEYOR TRANSPORT SAND AND CASTINGS TO SEPARATIONS SCREENS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Shaking, Degating & Sand Systems, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Native Americans: 23 Indian Biographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axford, Roger W.

    The lives and careers of 24 contemporary American Indians, including Dr. Louis W. Ballard (musician and composer, Cherokee and Sioux); Charles Banks Wilson (artist and historian); Veronica L. Murdock (President of the National Congress of American Indians, Mohave); Peter MacDonald, Sr. (Chairman of the Navajo Tribal Council, Navajo); and Jim…

  4. English 367: American Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert W.; DeFlyer, Joseph E.

    A study guide to American Indian Literature (English 367), a 3-credit hour correspondence course available through the University of North Dakota, contains eight lessons to be used with the following six textbooks: "Black Elk Speaks,""Carriers of the Dream Wheel,""Ceremony,""The Portable North American Indian Reader,""Winter in Blood,""In the…

  5. DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN SOCIETIES: An Essay in Comparative Pragmatics THESIS SUBMITTED and complexity are presented in the first part of the thesis, as a basis of comparison with the decision-makingSl).cietal organization in the Plains and surrounding area. #12;DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN SOCIETIES: An Essay

  6. University success for Canadian Indians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilly S. Walker

    1977-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the {core} educational model in aiding students to adjust to and succeed in the university environment. On the basis of performance on basic skills test, personality tests, and in selection interviews, 21 status Indians (i.e., Indians who were band members, had treaty numbers, and were eligible for financial assistance from the federal govenment) were enrolled in

  7. The Indian software services industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashish Arora; V. S. Arunachalam; Jai Asundi; Ronald Fernandes

    2001-01-01

    The Indian software exports have grown in spectacular fashion. Its success has, for the most part, been a combination of resource endowments, a mixture of benign neglect and active encouragement from a normally intrusive government, and good timing. The bulk of the Indian software exports have consisted of fairly mundane services such as low level programming and maintenance. The marked

  8. Trends in Indian Health, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Health Service (PHS/HSA), Rockville, MD.

    The Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is responsible for providing health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives living on or near federal reservations (about 60 percent of the Native population). This publication is composed primarily of data tables and graphs that describe…

  9. Federal Indian Law and Policy Affecting American Indian and Alaska Native Education. Indian Education Legal Support Project "Tribalizing Indian Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Melody L.

    The Native American Rights Fund is the national legal defense fund for American Indian and Alaska Native tribes. Its Indian Education Legal Support Project advances Native American education by emphasizing the legal rights of tribes to control the formal education of tribal members in all types of schools--federal, state, and tribal. This booklet…

  10. California Indian Food and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

  11. Human Behavior and American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Wynne DuBray; Eisenbise, Margaret DeOcampo

    Divided into five sections, the monograph is intended to make students aware that the practices customary to social work agencies are not relevant to the needs of most American Indian clientele. The first section provides an overview of the following historical, geographical, and cultural areas of American Indian tribes: California, Plateau, Great…

  12. American Indian Literacy and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene

    2004-01-01

    Literacy, which has only positive connotations in most cultures, has long been associated in Native communities with colonial education, "the reculturing and reeducation of American Indians by the secular and religious institutions of colonizing nations." Early educators imposed literacy on Indian children attending government-organized boarding…

  13. American Indians of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Bertha P.

    Designed for both the specialist and nonspecialist, the book provides a synthesis of Southwestern Indian culture based on long familiarity with the people. Chapter 1 describes the physical aspects of American Indians, land and Aboriginal inhabitants, and development of socio-religious patterns. Chapter II is about Pueblo Peoples (Tanoans,…

  14. Indian Education: An Intergenerational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalohead, Priscilla; Sterner, Michele

    The Indian Education Program in the Osseo School District (Minnesota) serves approximately 200 American Indian students in grades K-12 from 27 schools and a variety of tribes. The Program's intergenerational approach reflects tribal traditions in that generations learn together and grandparents, parents, and students are involved in the…

  15. Possible segregation caused by centrifugal titanium casting.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Okawa, S; Kanatani, M; Nakano, S; Miyakawa, O; Kobayashi, M

    1996-12-01

    The possibility of the segregation under solidification process using a centrifugal casting machine was investigated using an electron probe microanalyzer with elemental distribution map, line analysis and quantitative analysis. When a very small quantity of platinum was added to local molten titanium during the casting process, macroscopic segregation was observed under conditions of density difference of 0.1 g/cm3 at the most, confirming that the centrifugal force of the casting machine is extremely strong. When a Ti-6Al-4V alloy was cast, however, no macroscopic segregation was observed. The centrifugal force of the casting machine examined in the present study hardly results in the body-force segregation in this titanium alloy. PMID:9550020

  16. The role of water in slip casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, R. A.; Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. Slip casting rate and viscosity are functions of temperature. Slip rheology and response to deflocculating agents varies significantly as the kinds and amounts of colloid modifiers change. Water is considered as a raw material. Various concepts of water/clay interactions and structures are discussed. Casting is a de-watering operation in which water moves from slip to cast to mold in response to a potential energy termed moisture stress. Drying is an evaporative process from a free water surface.

  17. Reasons Why Teachers Leave the Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools on Pine Ridge Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Jerome L.

    The study investigated why Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) teachers leave the Bureau schools on the Pine Ridge Oglala Sioux Reservation in South Dakota. The BIA Aberdeen Area Office was contacted to obtain information on teacher turnover. Records were examined to learn the number of teachers teaching on Pine Ridge Reservation during 1965-67 who are…

  18. A SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE PERSPECTIVE: MONSOON, SEASONAL AND INTERANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF AN INDIAN OCEAN OBSERVING SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary MEYERS; Stuart GODFREY; Arnold GORDON; Peter HACKER; Mark JURY; Bill LAU; Satish SHETYE; Tien SRIBIMAWATI; Toshio YAMAGATA

    This paper explores the path between Indian Ocean observations and applications. Farming impacts of interannual climate variation in Australia and South Africa are associated with gains and losses of annual production and profit. Management of impacts is beginning to rely on timely, oceanic information and prediction from specific ocean-areas. Floods in Asia are related to intraseasonal oscillation over the eastern

  19. Eruptive disseminated Spitz naevus (EDSN) in a young girl of Indian origin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Niyati; Ho, Stephanie; Bing, Tan Kong; McCormack, Chris; Scolyer, Richard; Lee, Joyce

    2015-05-01

    Eruptive disseminated Spitz naevus (EDSN) is a rare entity and has never been documented in a South-east Asian individual (of Indian origin) previously. We report an adolescent with this condition which, to our knowledge, has only been previously reported a few times. PMID:25482351

  20. Configuration of the Indian Moho beneath the NW Himalaya and Ladakh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Rai; K. Priestley; V. K. Gaur; S. Mitra; M. P. Singh; M. Searle

    2006-01-01

    Teleseismic receiver function analysis of seismograms recorded on a ~700 km long profile of 17 broadband seismographs traversing the NW Himalaya shows a progressive northward deepening of the Indian Moho from ~40 km beneath Delhi south of the Himalayan foredeep to ~75 km beneath Taksha at the Karakoram Fault. Similar studies by Wittlinger et al. (2004) to the north of

  1. Cancer and Cancer Prevention and Control Programs in the Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes cancer control activities by the Indian Health Service in North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, and Nebraska, including risk factor assessment and cancer screening using a modified Health Risk Appraisal; interventions to reduce smoking; community empowerment; development of health education materials; and clinical preventive services. (SV)

  2. Observations of the 2004 and 2006 Indian Ocean tsunamis from a pressure gauge array in Indonesia

    E-print Network

    Gille, Sarah T.

    Observations of the 2004 and 2006 Indian Ocean tsunamis from a pressure gauge array in Indonesia by the earthquakes off the northwest coast of Sumatra in December 2004 and the south coast of Java in July 2006 in Indonesia, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C07038, doi:10.1029/2007JC004662. 1. Introduction [2] On 26 December 2004

  3. Host specificity of Ischnodemus variegatus, an herbivore of West Indian marsh grass (Hymenachne amplexicaulis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    West Indian marsh grass, Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Poaceae), is an emergent wetlands weed that is native to South/Central America and the Caribbean, and is invasive in Florida and Australia. The neotropical bug, Ischnodemus variegatus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Blissidae) was found feeding on H. amplexi...

  4. Primary organic production in relation to the chemistry and hydrography of the western Indian Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN H. RYTHER; JOHN R. HALL; ALLAN K. PEASE; MARK M. JONES

    1966-01-01

    Primary organic production was mcasurcd at 231 stations in the wcstcrn Indian Ocean, Low levels were mcasurcd in the eastern part of the region, both north and south of the Equator. Intermediate levels were encountered in the equatorial arca, in the Mozambique Channel, and in the southern part of the region. High productivity was observed in the northern and western

  5. Native American Kids: American Indian Children's Well-Being Indicators for the Nation and Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willeto, Angela A. A.

    2007-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native well-being, survival-based data are rare. This study explores the question of whether or not it is possible to produce such well-being information using secondary data sources. The answer is yes, with some limitations. Hence, Native American data for 10 well-being indicators nationally and for New Mexico and South

  6. Childhood Cancer Incidence in British Indians & Whites in Leicester, 1996–2008

    PubMed Central

    Sayeed, Shameq; Barnes, Isobel; Cairns, Benjamin J.; Finlayson, Alexander; Ali, Raghib

    2013-01-01

    Background South Asians in England have an increased risk of childhood cancer but incidence by their individual ethnicities using self-assigned ethnicity is unknown. Our objective was to compare the incidence of childhood cancer in British Indians and Whites in Leicester, which has virtually complete, self-assigned, ethnicity data and the largest population of Indians in England. Methods We obtained data on all cancer registrations from 1996 to 2008 for Leicester with ethnicity obtained by linkage to the Hospital Episodes Statistics database. Age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for childhood cancers in Indians and Whites as well as rate ratios, adjusted for age. Results There were 33 cancers registered among Indian children and 39 among White children. The incidence rate for Indians was greater compared to Whites for all cancers combined (RR 1.82 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.89); p?=?0.01), with some evidence of increased risk of leukaemia (RR 2.20 (0.95 to 5.07); p?=?0.07), lymphoma (RR 3.96 (0.99 to 15.84); p?=?0.04) and central nervous system tumours (RR 2.70 (1.00 to 7.26); p?=?0.05). Rates were also higher in British Indian children compared to children in India. Conclusions British Indian children in Leicester had an increased risk of developing cancer compared to White children, largely due to a higher incidence of central nervous system and haematological malignancies. PMID:23613964

  7. American-Indian diabetes mortality in the Great Plains Region 2002–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Allyson; Giroux, Jennifer; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Bob; Wallace, Debra; Bell, Ronny; Morrison, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare American-Indian and Caucasian mortality rates from diabetes among tribal Contract Health Service Delivery Areas (CHSDAs) in the Great Plains Region (GPR) and describe the disparities observed. Research design and methods Mortality data from the National Center for Vital Statistics and Seer*STAT were used to identify diabetes as the underlying cause of death for each decedent in the GPR from 2002 to 2010. Mortality data were abstracted and aggregated for American-Indians and Caucasians for 25 reservation CHSDAs in the GPR. Rate ratios (RR) with 95% CIs were used and SEER*Stat V.8.0.4 software calculated age-adjusted diabetes mortality rates. Results Age-adjusted mortality rates for American-Indians were significantly higher than those for Caucasians during the 8-year period. In the GPR, American-Indians were 3.44 times more likely to die from diabetes than Caucasians. South Dakota had the highest RR (5.47 times that of Caucasians), and Iowa had the lowest RR, (1.1). Reservation CHSDA RR ranged from 1.78 to 10.25. Conclusions American-Indians in the GPR have higher diabetes mortality rates than Caucasians in the GPR. Mortality rates among American-Indians persist despite special programs and initiatives aimed at reducing diabetes in these populations. Effective and immediate efforts are needed to address premature diabetes mortality among American-Indians in the GPR. PMID:25926992

  8. Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40 Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40 Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40, page 1 CTD035 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40 Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40, page 2 CTD035 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40 Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40, page 3 CTD035 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40 Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40, page 4 CTD035 #12;Hickey, W8010A

  9. Hickey, W8010A casts 41-51 Hickey, W8010A casts 41-51, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8010A casts 41-51 Hickey, W8010A casts 41-51, page 1 CTD041 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 41-51 Hickey, W8010A casts 41-51, page 2 CTD041 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 41-51 Hickey, W8010A casts 41-51, page 3 CTD042 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 41-51 Hickey, W8010A casts 41-51, page 4 CTD042 #12;Hickey, W8010A

  10. Hickey, W8010A casts 11-20 Hickey, W8010A casts 11-20, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8010A casts 11-20 Hickey, W8010A casts 11-20, page 1 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 11-20 Hickey, W8010A casts 11-20, page 2 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 11-20 Hickey, W8010A casts 11-20, page 3 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 11-20 Hickey, W8010A casts 11-20, page 4 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8010A

  11. Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128 Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128 Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128 Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128 Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128 Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128, page 4 #12;Hickey

  12. Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34 Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34 Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34, page 1 CTD032 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34 Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34, page 2 CTD032 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34 Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34, page 3 CTD032 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34 Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34, page 4 CTD032 #12;Hickey, W8010A

  13. Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27 Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27 Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27, page 1 CTD021 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27 Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27, page 2 CTD021 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27 Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27, page 3 CTD021 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27 Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27, page 4 CTD022 #12;Hickey, W8010A

  14. Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31 Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31 Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31, page 1 CTD028 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31 Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31, page 2 CTD028 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31 Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31, page 3 CTD028 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31 Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31, page 4 CTD028 #12;Hickey, W8010A

  15. Hickey, W8010A, Casts 7-10 Hickey, W8010A, Casts 7-10, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8010A, Casts 7-10 Hickey, W8010A, Casts 7-10, page 1 CTD007 #12;Hickey, W8010A, Casts 7-10 Hickey, W8010A, Casts 7-10, page 2 CTD007 #12;Hickey, W8010A, Casts 7-10 Hickey, W8010A, Casts 7-10, page 3 CTD007 #12;Hickey, W8010A, Casts 7-10 Hickey, W8010A, Casts 7-10, page 4 CTD007 #12;Hickey, W8010A

  16. The Provision of School Library Resources in a Changing Environment: A Case Study from Gauteng Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlamini, Busi; Brown, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Before 1994 education in South Africa was divided along racial lines. There were separate departments of education for whites, coloureds (people of mixed decent), Indians (people of East Indian decent), and blacks (black Africans). Education for white children was much better funded than any of the others. The quality of the education that white…

  17. De-Indianizing the American Indian: An Essay on the Education of the American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, David B., Jr.

    Included in this essay is a historical review of Federal policy and practice in Indian education from 1500 to 1970. The earliest period, the missionary period, is representative of the religious zeal of the 16th and 17th centuries wherein the missionaries had as their responsibility the education of the Indian--including the dual effort of…

  18. Indian Tribes as Developing Nations; A Question of Power: Indian Control of Indian Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Americans for Indian Opportunity, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    The report discusses how Indian tribes can conserve and develop their own resources at their own pace and explores the options available to them as owners of valuable natural resources. Discussed are problems encountered by tribal leaders with various government agencies; the basic precepts of the Bureau of Indian Affairs; how the problems of…

  19. Jurisdictional Problems of Indian Controlled Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killer, Francis

    An overwhelming confusion caused by lack of knowledge exists among the general public, American Indian parents, and even Indian school boards concerning the rules, purposes, and regulations of the myriad pieces of legislation dealing with Indian education. Such confusion is used by school administrators to perpetuate the power in Bureau of Indian

  20. Indian Giving: Federal Programs for Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Sar A.; Johnston, William B.

    Aimed at highlighting American Indian reservation conditions, outlining the scope of Federal aid to Indians, and suggesting the nature of future Indian problems and choices, this book attempts to assess the current socioeconomic status of the Indian community and its relationship with the Federal Government. Specifically, this book provides both…