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  1. South Korea.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Background notes and statistics on South Korea are provided in the document. 98,500 sq. km. of diversified terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1988 population of 43 million growing at the annual rate of 1%. The work force totals 17 million. South Korea claims a population comprised of Koreans with a small Chinese minority, 4 religious beliefs, and native Korean-speakers. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 98% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 6/1,000, while life expectancy is 67-73 years. 1990 estimated GNP was $224 billion, and was growing at the estimated rate of 9%. Per capita GNP was $5,500, while a 9% increase was reported in the consumer price index for 1990. Agriculture accounts for 9% of GNP, mining and manufacturing for 35%; 1990 international trade deficit totalled $5 billion. Additional data are provided on South Korea's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. South Korea has enjoyed remarkable economic growth over the past 25 years, and has grown to become a middle-ranking industrial power. Korea's bilateral trade surpluses with the United States of nearly $10 billion in 1987 and 1988 declined decisively in 1989 due to a variety of factors. Surplus remained, however, approximately $4 billion in 1990. Whether or not these declines are indicative of structural, lasting trends is not yet discernible. Long-term growth prospects remain good, Korea's ability to adapt to a more open democratic system playing an important role. PMID:12178031

  2. 75 FR 67346 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from South Korea: Correction to Final Results of the Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from South Korea: Correction to Final Results... Co., Ltd. (POSCO), as well as the ``all others'' rate for South Korea. Specifically, the weighted-average margin for POSCO and the ``all others'' rate for South Korea, listed as 16.26 percent, should...

  3. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century. PMID:15074497

  4. South Korea's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  5. Teaching About South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schisgall, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Identifies reasons why social studies educators should improve their teaching about South Korea. Included in the list is the increasing numbers of Koreans being educated in the United States, the summer Olympics in 1988, and the use of Korean culture as a case study demonstrating the effects of cultural transmission and society in transition. (JDH)

  6. Learners' Acceptance of E-Learning in South Korea: Theories and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Byoung-Chan; Yoon, Jeong-Ok; Lee, In

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant changes in the field of education in this information age is the paradigm shift from teacher-centered to learner-centered education. Along with this paradigm shift, understanding of students' e-learning adoption behavior among various countries is urgently needed. South Korea's dense student population and high…

  7. Assessment results of the South Korea TRIGA SNF to be shipped to INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, C.M.; Dirk, W.J.; Cottam, R.E.; Paik, S.T.

    1997-10-09

    This paper describes the Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) examination at the Seoul and the Taejon Research Reactor Facilities in South Korea. The examination was required before the SNF would be accepted for transportation and storage at the INEEL. The results of the aluminum and stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel examination have been summarized. A description of the examination team training, the examination work plan and examination equipment is also included. This paper also explains the technical basis for the examination and physical condition criteria used to determine what, if any, additional packaging would be required for transportation and for the receipt and storage of the fuel at the INEEL. This paper delineates the preparation activities prior to the fuel examinations and includes (1) collecting spent fuel data; (2) preparatory work by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for fuel examination: (3) preparation of a radionuclide report, Radionuclide Mass Inventory, Activity, Decay Heat, and Dose Rate Parametric Data for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuels needed to provide input data for transportation and fuel acceptance at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL); (4) gathering FRR Facility data; and (5) coordination between the INEEL and KAERI. Included, are the unanticipated conditions encountered in the unloading of fuel from the dry storage casks in Taejon in preparation for examination, a description of the damaged condition of the fuel removed from the casks, and the apparent cause of the damages. Lessons learned from all the activities are also addressed. A brief description of the preparatory work for the shipment of the spent fuel from Korea to INEEL is included.

  8. Usage patterns and adverse experiences in traditional Korean medicine: results of a survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although traditional medicine (TM) in South Korea is included in the national health care system, it is considered complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and not mainstream medicine. Therefore, the lack of statistical data regarding the usage and adverse experiences of traditional Korean medicine (TKM) makes difficult to understand the current status of TM. In this study, we aimed to report usage patterns and adverse experiences on TKM targeting consumers in South Korea. Methods A total of 2000 consumers participated in the survey on usage and adverse experiences in 2008. Among the 2,000 participants, 915 (45.8%) had taken herbal medicine or received traditional medicinal therapies; these individuals were further surveyed on the internet or in an interview. Results The usage rate was higher among women and among patients in their 30s. Of the total TKM usage, acupuncture accounted for 36.7%, and herbal medicine accounted for 13.4%. Regarding the frequency of use of TKM, 73.8% of patients reported using TM less than 5 times in 1 year. Of the 915 respondents, 8.2% of individuals had some type of adverse experience resulting from TKM. Adverse experiences were primarily caused by acupuncture and herbal medicines, and they primarily involved diseases of the digestive system and skin. The incidence of adverse experiences was less than 3.7% for acupuncture and 3.8% for herbal medicine. Overall, the incidence rate of adverse experiences for TKM for the entire population was 0.04 per 10,000 individuals. Conclusions The medical usage and occurrence of adverse events on TKM should be surveyed periodically, and the statistical trends should be analysed. The disparity between the survey results for traditional herbal medicines and medical practices, and those for the national pharmacovigilance system or academic reports of adverse experiences should be examined. The national pharmacovigilance system must be improved to compensate for the disparities. Policies

  9. Clinical characteristics of depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts: results from the CRESCEND study in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Tae-Suk; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jeong, Seung Hee; Lee, Chul; Lee, Chang-Uk; Kim, Jae-Min; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2010-10-01

    South Korea is a country with one of the highest suicide rates in the world, and the suicide rate is still on the rise. The purpose of this study was to determine the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of suicide attempts and risk factors related to suicide attempts among depressed patients in South Korea. Among the 1183 participants, 21.4% had a history of a suicide attempt. When the severity of depression was controlled, the risk factors for patients who attempted suicide included younger age, experienced significant life events before 12 years of age, psychotic symptoms, and previous depressive episodes. The characteristics of attempted suicide in depressed patients in South Korea can be summarized as a high suicide attempt rate with no difference in the number of suicide attempts and lethality between males and females. This unique tendency is probably related to the sociodemographic and cultural characteristics of South Korea. PMID:20921866

  10. Morning calm, nuclear sunset: South Korea`s atomic option

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, A.D.

    1998-09-01

    US national security strategy sets nuclear nonproliferation as a high priority. However pursuing nonproliferation without regard for important traditional security relationships might yield undesired results. The Republic of Korea (ROK) requires a high degree of confidence in the US security guarantee one that includes an extended nuclear deterrent. The nuclear weapons program that South Korea began and abandoned in the 1970s was prompted by a decrease in confidence in US security commitments. Conciliatory actions taken recently by the United States toward the Democratic Peoples` Republic of Korea (DPRK) to prevent a possible nuclear weapons program may undermine the US-ROK security arrangement that has been in place for decades. This work examines perceived threats to South Korea and the US security commitment to Korea since 1945 to reveal how US nuclear nonproliferation policy affects Seoul`s propensity to develop nuclear weapons. Recommendations are provided for policy makers regarding strengthening of ROK confidence in the US commitment on the peninsula, with particular emphasis on preventing South Korea from pursuing a nuclear arsenal.

  11. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  12. Association between childhood adversities and adulthood depressive symptoms in South Korea: results from a nationally representative longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Jang, Hyobum; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Park, Young Su; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine how childhood adversity (ie, parental death, parental divorce, suspension of school education due to financial strain or being raised in a relative's house due to financial strain) is associated with prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms and whether this association differs by gender and by age in South Korea. Design Prospective cohort design. Setting Nationally representative longitudinal survey in South Korea. Participants 11 526 participants in South Korea. Outcome measure Prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms were assessed as a dichotomous variable using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale in 2006 and 2007. Results In the prevalence analysis, each of the four childhood adversities was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of adulthood depressive symptoms. The higher incidence of depressive symptoms was associated with suspension of school education (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.82) and parental divorce (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.71). In the age-stratified analyses, prevalence of depressive symptoms was associated with all CAs across different adulthoods, except for parental divorce and late adulthood depressive symptoms. After being stratified by gender, the association was significant for parental divorce (OR 3.76, 95% CI 2.34 to 6.03) in the prevalence analysis and for being raised in a relative’s house (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.94) in the incidence analysis only among women. Conclusions This study suggests that childhood adversity may increase prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms, and the impact of parental divorce or being raised in a relative's house due to financial strain on adulthood depressive symptoms may differ by gender. PMID:23878171

  13. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  14. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  15. Biobank Regulation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Bok

    2016-06-01

    Like many other countries, South Korea has recognized the importance of biobanks as a tool for medical research and has engaged in two very important tasks to foster biobanking infrastructure: funding biobanks and setting up rules to protect the integrity of biobanks that share potentially sensitive personal information. PMID:27338609

  16. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  17. Employment Status and Predictors among People with Visual Impairments in South Korea: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ik Seop; Park, Soo Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the employment status and its predictors among people with visual impairments in South Korea. Factors affecting employment status were gender, education, area of residence, degree of disability, having a secondary disability, living with a partner, practical support, and the receipt of adjustment training. (Contains 4 tables.)

  18. 76 FR 67673 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...On July 1, 2011, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and Taiwan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). The Department has conducted expedited (120-day) sunset reviews for both orders pursuant to section 751(c)(3)(B) of the Act and 19......

  19. Rural and urban suicide in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, B C Ben; Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    Suicide rates in 2005 in South Korea were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Those in rural areas more often used pesticides and chemicals as a method for suicide, and there was a greater proportion of men and the elderly, both groups at higher risk for suicide in South Korea. These three factors may account for the high rural suicide rate in South Korea. PMID:23234093

  20. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  1. Men's health in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae-Chul; Kim, Sang Wook; Chung, Yun Jae

    2011-07-01

    Over the last four decades, rapid industrialisation and a Westernized lifestyle have changed disease patterns in South Korea. This study was conducted to review the current state of men's health in South Korea. By reviewing reports of government authorities and domestic and foreign studies related to men's health, we found that in men ≥ 65 years of age, 28.4% considered their health status good, whereas 38.3% considered their health status poor. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms was similar to that in Caucasians. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction was higher than the global average. The incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias showed a tendency towards increase. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continuously increased by 10.8% in 2008 and was the fifth leading cause of death in 2008. The prevalence of obesity increased from 26.0% in 1998 to 31.7% in 2007. The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease has continuously increased, with heart diseases causing one of every 12 deaths. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2005 was 17.2% among adults ≥ 45 years of age. The top five prevalent cancers in men, in descending order, were cancers of the stomach, lung, liver, large bowel and prostate, among which the incidence of stomach, lung and liver cancers decreased by 0.7%, 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively, from 1999 to 2007, whereas the incidence of large bowel and prostate cancers increased by 7.0% and 13.2%, respectively. The prevalence of depression, dementia and sleep disorders was estimated as 17.3%, 4.21% and 20.2%, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that disease patterns in South Korean men are becoming Westernized. PMID:21478896

  2. Association between alcohol drinking behaviour and cognitive function: results from a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Kim, Yongjoo; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research intends to determine how drinking behaviour, such as episodic heavy drinking, is related to cognitive performance in middle-aged and old-aged people in South Korea. Methods A cohort data of 5157 adults, age 45 years or older, with normal cognitive function (the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) ≥24) at baseline (2006), was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Alcohol drinking behaviour was assessed using the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) questionnaire. The relationships between baseline drinking behaviour (in 2006) to the extent of cognitive decline (between 2006 and 2012) and development of cognitive impairment (in 2012) were assessed. Results Individuals with problematic drinking behaviour at baseline experienced a faster decline in cognitive function than those with non-problematic drinking (p<0.05) during 6 years of follow-up, especially among those with relatively lownormal K-MMSE score (24–26) at baseline (p<0.05). Problematic alcohol drinking behaviour was also significantly associated with onset of severe cognitive impairment (SCI) (K-MMSE score ≤17) among those with relatively low-normal K-MMSE score (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.76, 95% CI 1.46 to 9.67). In addition, abstinence, compared with non-problematic drinking, was related to higher risk for developing SCI among men (aOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.39). Conclusions Our results suggest that those with problematic alcohol drinking behaviour could be at an increased risk of cognitive impairment/decline. While further research will provide stronger evidence, intervention targeting alcohol abuse may play a role in prevention of cognitive impairment. PMID:27118285

  3. Modeling Flood Risk for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Y.; Li, S.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophic flood events have caused significant losses for South Korea each year. It is very important to generate high resolution flood return period map for the government and insurance company to evaluate the flood risk. This research was initiated to achieve this goal. A 2000 year spatial distributed stochastical rainfall was generated by analyzing the historical rainfall of South Korea using principle component analysis. A rainfall-runoff model and a routing model were calibrated by driving the model with historical forcing and calibrated against gauge observations. The calibrated model was used to couple with the stochastical forcing to generate 2000 year discharge and runoff. The flood maps with different return periods were generated by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. The results of this research showed a reasonable flood map in South Korea, compared with the observed data. Further, this research could be used as an important reference for the government and insurance companies for risk management purpose.

  4. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing. PMID:18296374

  5. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea. PMID:25441425

  6. The impact of biomass burning in North Korea to the air quality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    South Korea is contiguous to China, Japan and North Koreas, so air pollutants transported from outside South Korea should be investigated. Nevertheless, few researches have dealt with the influences of air pollutants from North Korea to other areas. The objectives of this study are to understand the influences of air pollutants' emission from North Korea to South Korea, especially Seoul, using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model and the backward trajectory analysis. CMB model were applied to analyze the source apportionment of PAHs at Seoul between 2006 and 2007. To understand the transport of air pollutants emitted from North Korea, the backward trajectories in sampling days were classified to four cases depending on which area the trajectories predominantly passed through. Based on the contribution of biomass burning calculated by CMB and the trajectories, the influence of air pollutants from North Korea to Seoul is quantified. In order to strengthen the uncertainty of CMB result, the trend of levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-b-D-glucopyranose) concentration at Seoul is also discussed depending on the classification of trajectories.

  7. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  8. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Han

    2015-01-01

    After the Korean War (1950–1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea’s population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  9. The Cultural Politics of National Testing and Test Result Release Policy in South Korea: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youl-Kwan; Kang, Mi Ok

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the "test plus release" policy, the authors show how the…

  10. Renal denervation for treatment of uncontrolled hypertension in an Asian population: results from the Global SYMPLICITY Registry in South Korea (GSR Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, B-K; Böhm, M; Mahfoud, F; Mancia, G; Park, S; Hong, M-K; Kim, H-S; Park, S-J; Park, C G; Seung, K B; Gwon, H-C; Choi, D-J; Ahn, T H; Kim, C J; Kwon, H M; Esler, M; Jang, Y S

    2016-05-01

    Reports detailing the response of hypertensive patients to renal denervation (RDN) in Asian patients are limited. We evaluated 6- and 12-month outcomes after RDN in an Asian population and compared outcomes to a primarily Caucasian population. The Global SYMPLICITY Registry (GSR) is a prospective, all-comer, worldwide registry that evaluates the safety and effectiveness of RDN and includes the Korean registry substudy (GSR Korea) and a Caucasian subset (GSR Caucasian). Given differences in baseline characteristics among GSR Korea (n=93) as compared with GSR Caucasian (n=169) patients, including lower baseline office systolic blood pressure (SBP), lower body mass index and differences in medications, propensity score adjustment was performed when comparing the change in SBP between subsets. The 6- and 12-month change in SBP in GSR Korea was -19.4±17.2 and -27.2±18.1 mm Hg, respectively (P<0.001 for both vs baseline). GSR Caucasian had a SBP change similar to GSR Korea at 6 months (-20.9±21.4 mm Hg, unadjusted P=0.547, adjusted P=0.998), whereas at 12 months the change was significantly less pronounced (-20.1±23.9 mm Hg, unadjusted P=0.004, adjusted P=0.002). There were no protocol-defined procedure-related adverse events and no chronic adverse events associated with the device in an Asian population. RDN provided a significant reduction in 6- and 12-month office SBP among Asian patients, with a favorable safety profile. The 12-month SBP reduction was larger than that observed in Caucasian patients. PMID:26155994

  11. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  12. Yahak Movement in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Sik

    2004-01-01

    "Yahak" means "night school" in Korean and its history can be traced back to the 1920s when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. This paper will focus on the yahak movement during the years from 1960 to the 1990s. Yahak played an important role in raising workers' consciousness during this democratic movement. Yahak started as a movement trying…

  13. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  14. 75 FR 68324 - Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea and Taiwan; Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 53664 (September 1, 2010) (Initiation Notice). Because no interested domestic... Less Than Fair Value; Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe and Tube Fittings From Japan, 53 FR 9787 (March 25... Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Korea, 58 FR 11029 (February 23, 1993). The Department published...

  15. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  16. Complaining Behavior of Academic Library Users in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Dong-Geun

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the influences of the antecedent factors on the complaints and resulting behaviors of 582 university library users in South Korea. There were statistically significant relationships between personal norms and negative word of mouth and indirect voice behaviors, between service importance and negative word-of-mouth behavior,…

  17. Teachers' Perceptions and Practices of STEAM Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, HyunJu; Byun, Soo-yong; Sim, Jaeho; Han, Hyesook; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions and practices of science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) education in South Korea, drawing on a survey of teachers in STEAM model schools. Results showed that the majority of Korean teachers, especially experienced teachers and male teachers, had a positive view on the role of STEAM…

  18. Prophylaxis of Human Hydrophobia in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Domestic human hydrophobia has not been reported since the one case of 2004 in South Korea, but still a few animal rabies occur persistently since the reemerging stage of rabies from 1993. The government has made efforts to control animal rabies in many aspects, but whether prophylactic strategy for human hydrophobia is performed adequately is in question. The rate of proper post-exposure prophylaxis for animal bite case in 'high-risk region' of rabies is very low with 20% between 2011 and 2013. The National Animal Bite Patient Surveillance targeting 'high-risk region' is missing out animal bite cases who visit directly to hospitals in 'suspect-risk region' of rabies. Little data seems to exist for pre-exposure prophylaxis of domestic hydrophobia. Danger of reoccurrence of human hydrophobia always remain in South Korea. The medical personnel needs to have greater interest on the matter and the government strengthen the management system. PMID:25298903

  19. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  20. Varicella and Varicella Vaccination in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Hwa; Shin, Seon Hee; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Chang, Jin Keun; Choi, Kyong Min; Hur, Jae Kyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Jae Youn; Chung, Eun Hee; Lee, Soo Young; Park, Su Eun; Cha, Sungho; Kim, Kwang-Nam; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Nam Hee; Jo, Dae Sun; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Shin Ah

    2014-01-01

    With continuing occurrence of varicella despite increasing vaccine coverage for the past 20 years, a case-based study, a case-control study, and an immunogenicity and safety study were conducted to address the impact of varicella vaccination in South Korea. Varicella patients under the age of 16 years were enrolled for the case-based study. For the case-control study, varicella patients between 12 months and 15 years of age were enrolled with one control matched for each patient. For the immunogenicity and safety study, otherwise healthy children from 12 to 24 months old were immunized with Suduvax (Green Cross, South Korea). Fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody was measured before and 6 weeks after immunization. In the case-based study, the median age of the patients was 4 years. Among 152 patients between 1 and 15 years of age, 139 children received varicella vaccine and all had breakthrough infections. Clinical courses were not ameliorated in vaccinated patients, but more vaccinated patients received outpatient rather than inpatient care. In the case-control study, the adjusted overall effectiveness of varicella vaccination was 54%. In the immunogenicity and safety study, the seroconversion rate and geometric mean titer for FAMA antibody were 76.67% and 5.31. Even with increasing varicella vaccine uptake, we illustrate no upward age shift in the peak incidence, a high proportion of breakthrough disease, almost no amelioration in disease presentation by vaccination, and insufficient immunogenicity of domestic varicella vaccine. There is need to improve the varicella vaccine used in South Korea. PMID:24671555

  1. Carbon dioxide emissions and the overshoot ratio change resulting from the implementation of 2nd Energy Master Plan in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The direction of the energy policies of the country is important in the projection of environmental impacts of the country. The greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of the energy sector in South Korea is very huge, about 600 MtCO2e in 2011. Also the carbon footprint due to the energy consumption contributes to the ecological footprint is also large, more than 60%. Based on the official plans (the national greenhouse gases emission reduction target for 2030 (GHG target for 2030) and the 2nd Energy Master Plan (2nd EMP)), several scenarios were proposed and the sensitivity of the GHG emission amount and 'overshoot ratio' which is the ratio of ecological footprint to biocapacity were estimated. It was found that to meet the GHG target for 2030 the ratio of non-emission energy for power generation should be over 71% which would be very difficult. We also found that the overshoot ratio would increase from 5.9 in 2009 to 7.6 in 2035. Thus, additional efforts are required to reduce the environmental burdens in addition to optimize the power mix configuration. One example is the conversion efficiency in power generation. If the conversion efficiency in power generation rises up 50% from the current level, 40%, the energy demand and resultant carbon dioxide emissions would decrease about 10%. Also the influence on the environment through changes in consumption behavior, for example, the diet choice is expected to be meaningful.

  2. Prospect for future South-Korea arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.

    1992-04-22

    This study deals with the Hot issues of the first five Prime Ministers (PM) meetings, which encompassed 15 months of negotiations and have resulted in the completion of the Agreement on South-North Reconciliation/Non-aggression and Cooperation after 46 years of division. After the signing of the agreement, detailed worker level progress has culminated in North Korea signing the nuclear safety treaty of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Acceptance of International Inspection of Nuclear Facilities South-North civil economic progress is on the way and at the 6th meeting, a head of state meeting was discussed. Taking all this into consideration, it is safe to say that an affirmative direction is being taken towards South-North relations. In this arena, a critical element for better South-North relations is arms control. If meetings on arms control between South-North make good progress, the solution for the Korean peninsula's reunification, as well as detente, will be achieved more quickly. Therefore, arms control on the Korean peninsula should be considered as an important point for improvement of the future South-North Korean relationship. The important fact that we should remember is that arms control is a common issue. Arms control should be solved by South-North Korea because a phased arms control can develop prior to conditions for reunification.

  3. Motivations and Experiences of Expatriate Educators in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Nicolette

    2009-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of native English instructors at the Gyeonggi-do Institute for Foreign Language Education (GIFLE) in South Korea. A literature review of issues regarding expatriate educators is included. The guiding questions for this study include why these instructors chose to become educators, move to South Korea, and…

  4. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a…

  5. Globalization and Higher Education: A South Korea Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine globalization and higher education from a perspective of South Korea. First, the paper reviews the concepts of globalization and internationalization. Second, the author describes a historical synopsis regarding internationalization and higher education in South Korea. Third, Korean government policies on…

  6. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  7. Early results of pediatric appendicitis after adoption of diagnosis-related group-based payment system in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Suk-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose As an alternative to the existing fee-for-service (FFS) system, a diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based payment system has been suggested. The aim of this study was to investigate the early results of pediatric appendicitis treatment under the DRG system, focusing on health care expenditure and quality of health care services. Patients and methods The medical records of 60 patients, 30 patients before (FFS group), and 30 patients after adoption of the DRG system (DRG), were reviewed retrospectively. Results Mean hospital stay was shortened, but the complication and readmission rates did not worsen in the DRG. Overall health care expenditure and self-payment decreased from Korean Won (KRW) 2,499,935 and KRW 985,540, respectively, in the FFS group to KRW 2,386,552 and KRW 492,920, respectively, in the DRG. The insurer’s payment increased from KRW 1,514,395 in the FFS group to KRW 1,893,632 in the DRG. For patients in the DRG, calculation by the DRG system yielded greater overall expenditure (KRW 2,020,209 vs KRW 2,386,552) but lower self-payment (KRW 577,803 vs KRW 492,920) than calculation by the FFS system. Conclusion The DRG system worked well in pediatric patients with acute appendicitis in terms of cost-effectiveness over the short term. The gradual burden on the national health insurance fund should be taken into consideration. PMID:26648734

  8. Copycat Suicide Induced by Entertainment Celebrity Suicides in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Soo Ah; Sung, Ji Min; Park, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective Throughout the past several years, there have been a number of entertainment celebrity suicides in South Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the clustering of suicides following celebrities' suicides in South Korea from 2005 to 2008, particularly according to certain characteristics. Methods Seven celebrity suicides were examined and defined using the Korean Integrated Newspaper Database System (KINDS) and from these, we considered four affected periods occurring 28 days after each celebrity's suicide. A Poisson time-series autoregression model was used to estimate the relative risk of the total suicide number for each affected period from 2005 to 2008. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether there were specific increases in the numbers of suicides in subgroups matching each celebrity. Results There were significant increases in the risk of suicide during the affected periods. Remarkable increases were found in the subgroups matching each celebrity, especially in the group in which all factors (sex, age, and method) were similar. Conclusion This study provides confirmation that a significant copycat effect was induced by these celebrities' suicides, especially among people who identified more with the celebrities. This implies that countermeasures for upright media coverage of celebrity suicides should be discussed and practiced properly in South Korea. PMID:26766949

  9. Teaching Psychometrics in South Korea through a Reunification Attitude Scale Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Sandra K.

    The introduction of a team term project into a Korean psychometrics class is described. Students developed an item pool of attitude statements regarding the reunification of South Korea and North Korea. Then teams of students used the item pool to develop attitude questionnaires, survey other students, analyze the results, and recommend which…

  10. Contributions to the Foliicolous Lichens Flora of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Oh, Soon Ok; Lücking, Robert; Joshi, Santosh; Kim, Jung A; Park, Jung-Shin

    2013-01-01

    South Korea is covered primarily by temperate vegetation; therefore, foliicolous lichens may not be expected to play an important role in its lichen flora. However, this study describes four foliicolous lichen species, Strigula concreta, S. macrocarpa, S. melanobapha, and S. subelegans, which are new to South Korea. These findings will lead to further research on foliicolous lichens and provide a better understanding of their distribution within the East Asian region. This is the first detailed report on foliicolous lichens and their distribution in South Korea. PMID:24493940

  11. Preliminary Report: Results of Computed Tracer Concentrations over Eastern China, South Korea, and Japan for 01 March to 30 May 2007 Daily Simulated Releases from Taiyuan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, P

    2007-08-07

    In order to prepare for a proposed long range tracer experiment in China for the spring of 2008 time period, NARAC computed hypothetical PMCH concentrations over Eastern China, South Korea and Japan for simulated releases from Taiyuan, China. Normalized 1 kg of PMCH source strength releases were made twice a day, with wind input from global forecast weather model. We used 6-hour analysis fields valid at the start of each model run, resulting in four wind fields per day. The selected domain encompassed the region of interest over eastern Asia and the Western Pacific. Screening runs were made for each day at 0000 and 1200 UTC from 01 April, 2007 through 29 May, 2007 for a total of 90 days and 180 cases. 24-hour average air concentrations were evaluated at 22 sample cities in the three regions of interest for each case. 15 sample cities were selected to help quantify modeling results for experiment objectives. Any case that resulted in model predicted air concentrations exceeding 2.0E-02 fL/L at a sample city in all three regions was then selected for a detailed model run with source times six hours before and after evaluated in addition to the case time. The detailed runs used the same wind fields and model domain, but 6-hour average air concentrations were generated and analyzed for the 15 sample cities. Each of the 180 cases were ranked subjectively, based on whether or not the model prediction indicated the possibility that a release on that date and time might achieve the long range experiment objectives. Ranks used are High, Good, Low, Poor, and Bad. Of the 180 cases run, NARAC dispersion models predicted 6 instances of High possibility, 8 cases of Good, 32 of Low, 74 of Poor, and 60 cases of Bad probability. Detailed model runs were made for all 14 High or Good probability cases, a total of only 7.8% of all analyzed. Based on the results of this study we have identified a few dates on which a release of a reasonable amount of PMCH tracer (on the order of 500 kg

  12. The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in a General Population in South Korea: Results from a National Survey in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Ock, Sun Myeong; Choi, Jun Yeong; Cha, Young Soo; Lee, JungBok; Huh, Chang Hun; Lee, Soon Young; Lee, Sung Jae

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to obtain information on the prevalence, costs, and patterns of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a general population in the Republic of Korea. In 2006, we conducted nationwide and population-weighted personal interviews with 6,021 adults ranging from 30 to 69 yr of age; the final sample consisted of 3,000 people with a 49.8% response rate. In addition to their general socio-demographics, the respondents were asked about their use of CAM during the previous 12-month period, costs, sources of information, and reasons for use. The prevalence of use overall was 74.8%, while biologically based CAM therapies were the most likely type of use (65.4%). The median annual out-of-pocket expenditures for CAM therapies was about US$203. The primary reason for using CAM was for disease prevention and health promotion (78.8%). The main source of advice about CAM therapies use was most likely to be from family and friends (66.9%). Our study suggests that CAM use has been and continues to be very popular in South Korea. Conventional western medical doctors and governments should obtain more evidence and become more interested in CAM therapies. PMID:19270805

  13. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…

  14. The Factors Affecting the Development of National Identity as South Korean in North Korean Refugees Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi-Eun; Eom, Jin-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to observe the factors that influence the development of national identity of North Korean refugees who have resettled in South Korea. Methods The study population was comprised of 500 North Korean refugees who immigrated to South Korea in 2007. The variables measured national identity as South Korean, a scale for discrimination perceived during daily life, a social for supporting social network, a for childhood trauma experience, traumatic experiences in North Korea, and traumatic experiences during the escape process. Factor analysis was conducted on the result from the scale for national identity as South Korean which produced 4 factors including national consciousness, positive emotions, positive values, and negative values. Multiple regression was done to identify how variables such as demographic data, discrimination, social network, and past trauma had influenced each of 4 factors. Results National identity was negatively related by traumatic experience during childhood, perceived discrimination, and positively influenced by social networks. Positive emotion was related negatively to education level in North Korea and perceived discrimination, but positively related to traumatic experiences in North Korea. Negative value was related positively age and perceived discrimination but negatively related to supporting social network. Conclusion The results of this study suggests that promoting social networks, decreasing discrimination and healing past traumas were important factors for North Korean refugees in South Korea to facilitate a new national identity as a South Korean. PMID:22993518

  15. Optimal medical therapy for secondary prevention after an acute coronary syndrome: 18-month follow-up results at a tertiary teaching hospital in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Hee Ja; Yang, Young-Mo; Choi, Eun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a fatal cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerotic plaque erosion or rupture and formation of coronary thrombus. The latest guidelines for ACS recommend the combined drug regimen, comprising aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitor, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker, β-blocker, and statin, at discharge after ACS treatment to reduce recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine prescription patterns of secondary prevention drugs in Korean patients with ACS after hospital discharge, to access the appropriateness of secondary prevention drug therapy for ACS, and to evaluate whether to persistently use discharge medications for 18 months. Methods This study was retrospectively conducted with the patients who were discharged from the tertiary hospital, located in South Korea, after ACS treatment between September 2009 and August 2013. Data were collected through electronic medical record. Results Among 3,676 patients during the study period, 494 were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The regimen of aspirin + clopidogrel + β-blocker + angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker + statin was prescribed to 374 (75.71%) patients with ACS at discharge. Specifically, this regimen was used in 177 (69.69%) unstable angina patients, 44 (70.97%) non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, and 153 (85.96%) ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Compared with the number of ACS patients with all five guideline-recommended drugs at discharge, the number of ACS patients using them 12 (n=169, 34.21%) and 18 (n=105, 21.26%) months after discharge tended to be gradually decreased. Conclusion The majority of ACS patients in this study received all five guideline-recommended medications at discharge from the hospital. However, the frequency of using all of them had been gradually decreased 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after

  16. Health Care Reform in South Korea: Success or Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2003-01-01

    South Korea is one of the world’s most rapidly industrializing countries. Along with industrialization has come universal health insurance. Within the span of 12 years, South Korea went from private voluntary health insurance to government-mandated universal coverage. Since 1997, with the intervention of the International Monetary Fund, Korean national health insurance (NHI) has experienced deficits and disruption. However, there are lessons to be drawn for the United States from the Korean NHI experience. PMID:12511383

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in South Korea and Migratory Bird Routes Between China, South Korea, and Japan.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yeojun; Heo, Sang Taek; Kim, Gwanghun; Hewson, Roger; Kim, Hyemin; Park, Dahee; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Oh, Won Sup; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Kwon, Ki Tae; Medlock, Jolyon M; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2015-09-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne viral disease. The SFTS virus (SFTSV) has been detected in the Haemaphysalis longicornis, which acts as a transmission host between animals and humans. SFTSV was first confirmed in China in 2009 and has also been circulating in Japan and South Korea. However, it is not known if a genetic connection exists between the viruses in these regions and, if so, how SFTSV is transmitted across China, South Korea, and Japan. We therefore hypothesize that the SFTSV in South Korea share common phylogenetic origins with samples from China and Japan. Further, we postulate that migratory birds, well-known carriers of the tick H. longicornis, are a potential source of SFTSV transmission across countries. Our phylogenetic analysis results show that the SFTSV isolates in South Korea were similar to isolates from Japan and China. We connect this with previous work showing that SFTSV-infected H. longicornis were found in China, South Korea, and Japan. In addition, H. longicornis were found on migratory birds. The migratory bird routes and the distribution of H. longicornis are concurrent with the occurrence of SFTSV. Therefore, we suggest that migratory birds play an important role in dispersing H. longicornis-borne SFTSV. PMID:26033016

  18. Renal cell carcinoma in South Korea: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haeryoung; Cho, Nam Hoon; Kim, Dong-Sug; Kwon, Young-Mi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Rha, Seo Hee; Park, Yong Wook; Shim, Jung Weon; Lee, Sang Sook; Lee, Shi Nae; Lee, Juhie; Lee, Jin Sook; Lee, Tae-Jin; Jung, Soo Jin; Jung, Soon-Hee; Chung, Jin Haeng; Cho, Hyun Yee; Joo, Hee Jae; Choi, Yeong-Jin; Choi, Chan; Han, Woon Sup; Hur, Bang; Ro, Jae Y

    2004-12-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in South Korea is steadily becoming similar to that in Western countries. This study summarizes the results of a 3-year multicenter survey of RCC in South Korea, conducted by the Korean Genitourinary Pathology Study Group. A total of 795 cases of RCC were collected from 20 institutes between 1995 and 1997, including 686 clear cell RCCs (86.3%), 58 papillary RCCS (7.30%), 49 chromphobe RCCs (6.16%), and 2 collecting duct RCCs (0.25%). At least 5 years of follow-up was available for 627 clear cell, 54 papillary, and 49 chromophobe RCCs. All subtypes presented most frequently with stage T3aN0M0 at the time of operation, and papillary RCCs demonstrated more frequent lymph node metastasis. Overall survival was not significantly related to the histological subtype (clear cell vs papillary, P = 0.8651; clear cell vs chromophobe, P = 0.0584; papillary vs chromophobe, P = 0.0743). For clear cell RCCs, statistically significant associations were found between overall survival and sex (P = 0.0153), multiplicity (P = 0.0461), necrosis (P = 0.0191), age, sarcomatoid change, TNM stage, nuclear grade, and modality of treatment (all P <0.0001). Overall survival was significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.0307), nuclear grade (P = 0.0235), multiplicity, sarcomatoid change, and TNM stage (all P <0.0001) for papillary RCCs and with the presence of sarcomatoid change (P = 0.0281), nuclear grade (P = 0.0015), treatment modality (P = 0.0328), and TNM stage (P <0.0001) for chromophobe RCCs. Age (P = 0.0125), nodal stage (P = 0.0010), and treatment modality (P = 0.0001) were significant independent prognostic indicators for clear cell RCC on multivariate analysis. This is the first multicenter study of RCC in South Korea, demonstrating the general patterns and prognostic factors of Korean RCCs. PMID:15619217

  19. Total atmospheric mercury deposition in forested areas in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin-Su; Seo, Yong-Seok; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Holsen, Thomas M.; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2016-06-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) was sampled weekly in dry and wet deposition and throughfall and monthly in litterfall, and as it was volatilized from soil from August 2008 to February 2010 to identify the factors influencing the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in a temperate deciduous forest in South Korea. For this location there was no significant correlation between the estimated monthly dry deposition flux (litterfall + throughfall - wet deposition) (6.7 µg m-2 yr-1) and directly measured dry deposition (9.9 µg m-2 yr-1) likely due primarily to Hg losses from the litterfall collector. Dry deposition fluxes in cold seasons (fall and winter) were lower than in warmer seasons (spring and summer). The volume-weighted mean (VWM) Hg concentrations in both precipitation and throughfall were highest in winter, likely due to increased scavenging by snow events. Since South Korea experiences abundant rainfall in summer, VWM Hg concentrations in summer were lower than in other seasons. Litterfall fluxes were highest in the late fall to early winter, when leaves were dropped from the trees (September to November). The cumulative annual Hg emission flux from soil was 6.8 µg m-2 yr-1. Based on these data, the yearly deposition fluxes of Hg calculated using two input approaches (wet deposition + dry deposition or throughfall + litterfall) were 6.8 and 3.6 µg m-2 yr-1, respectively. This is the first reported study which measured the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in South Korea, and thus our results provide useful information to compare against data related to Hg fate and transport in this part of the world.

  20. The characteristics of drought occurrence in North Korea and its comparison with drought in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea over a period of 56 years (1952-2007) were analyzed by region, compared with those of South Korea, and graphed as a drought map for easy detection of the drought's history. To assess them, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), which was calculated from the daily precipitation data for 109 grids of the Korean Peninsula, was used. The daily precipitation data were extracted from the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE). The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea were summed up in the following five points. First, North Korea was divided into four drought sub-regions: the Northeastern region (G1), the Northern region (G2), the Central region (G3), and the Southern region (G4). Second, droughts occurred most frequently in G1 (28) and G4 (28 events) and least frequently in G3 (15 events). Third, in all sub-regions, short-term droughts lasting less than 100 days were the most frequent (53 % or higher) and the longest drought lasted 2,911 days (June 30, 1973 to June 20, 1981), which occurred in G3. Fourth, short-term droughts occurred mainly in spring, mid-term droughts (100-500 days) in spring and summer, and long-term droughts (over 500 days) in summer. Fifth, a dry period (monthly mean EDI <0) appeared in all sub-regions between 1973 and 1981 and between 1990 and 1993, and a strong negative precipitation anomaly appeared during each of these periods. When compared to the droughts in South Korea, those in North Korea were less frequent, but the mean duration was longer. Until 1979, droughts occurred almost at the same time in North Korea as South Korea, but beginning in 1980, the time differences between two regions became larger. Thus, the characteristics of the drought occurrence in North and South Korea differ.

  1. School Expansion in North Korea and South Korea: Two Systems, Two Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyangkue

    2001-01-01

    Examines differences in the public-policy objectives and financing of school expansion efforts in North and South Korea. Institutionalizing credentialism and reliance on financing private education dominates South Korean school expansion, while the financing of public schools and greater government control of education dominates North Korean…

  2. Confucian Family Values and Childless Couples in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sungeun; Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    The Korean family has long met Confucian values by producing children to maintain and support the paternal family line, but in South Korea's transition to a low birth rate, an increasing number of couples have remained childless. Have Confucian family values been abandoned? In this study, 103 young single South Koreans wrote protocols describing…

  3. Language Policies in North and South Korea: Divergence and Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the language policies in North and South Korea are in some respects divergent and in others convergent. The North uses more nativized words, while the South retains Sino-Korean words. Awareness of each other's policies and their implications in the event of reunification is evident in the regressive measures taken. (23 references) (CK)

  4. Revisiting the Role of Cultural Capital in East Asian Educational Systems: The Case of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Soo-yong; Schofer, Evan; Kim, Kyung-keun

    2013-01-01

    The concept of cultural capital has proved invaluable in understanding educational systems in Western countries, and recent work seeks to extend those insights to the diverse educational systems of other geographic regions. We explored cultural capital in South Korea by investigating the relationships among family socioeconomic status (SES), cultural capital, and children's academic achievement using data from the 2000 Programme for International Student Assessment. South Korea was compared with Japan, France, and the United States to understand how institutional features of South Korean education shape the role of cultural capital in academic success. Results showed that family SES had a positive effect on both parental objectified cultural capital and children's embodied cultural capital in South Korea, consistent with evidence from the other countries. Moreover, parental objectified cultural capital had a positive effect on children's academic achievement in South Korea. In contrast to other countries, however, children's embodied cultural capital had a negative effect on academic achievement in South Korea controlling for the other variables. We highlighted several institutional features of South Korean education including a standardized curriculum, extreme focus on test preparation, and extensive shadow education, which may combine to suppress the effect of children's embodied cultural capital on academic achievement. PMID:24285909

  5. Assessing the correctional orientation of corrections officers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Byongook; Maxwell, Sheila Royo

    2004-12-01

    The correctional goal in South Korea has recently changed from the straightforward punishment of inmates to rehabilitation. Currently, emphases are being placed on education, counseling, and other treatment programs. These changes have consequently begun to also change the corrections officers' roles from a purely custodial role to a human service role, in which officers are expected to manage rehabilitation and treatment programs. Despite these changes, few studies have examined the attitudes of corrections officers toward rehabilitation programming. This is an important dimension to examine in rehabilitation programming, as corrections officers play a major role in the delivery of institutional programs. This study examines the attitudes of South Korean corrections officers toward rehabilitation programs. Approximately 430 corrections officers were sampled. Results show that correctional attitudes are largely influenced by not only officers' own motivations for joining corrections but also by institutional factors such as job stress. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:15538029

  6. Paths toward hepatitis B immunization in South Korea and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    South Korea and Taiwan have had similar experiences of economic development in the post-war era. The two societies have also successfully overcome the threat of liver cancer by using mass hepatitis B vaccinations. However, to reach their current states, they followed different directions, and experienced differing effects on their national health governance systems. In South Korea, vaccine production occurred prior to effectively introducing immunization programs. In contrast, Taiwan established an effective immunization program first. However, industrialization of vaccines against hepatitis B has failed. Taiwan has to import vaccines for domestic use. This article provides a contextual overview on the different methods South Korea and Taiwan have used to arrive at their modern status of hepatitis B immunization. PMID:23858397

  7. Paths toward hepatitis B immunization in South Korea and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzung-Wen

    2013-07-01

    South Korea and Taiwan have had similar experiences of economic development in the post-war era. The two societies have also successfully overcome the threat of liver cancer by using mass hepatitis B vaccinations. However, to reach their current states, they followed different directions, and experienced differing effects on their national health governance systems. In South Korea, vaccine production occurred prior to effectively introducing immunization programs. In contrast, Taiwan established an effective immunization program first. However, industrialization of vaccines against hepatitis B has failed. Taiwan has to import vaccines for domestic use. This article provides a contextual overview on the different methods South Korea and Taiwan have used to arrive at their modern status of hepatitis B immunization. PMID:23858397

  8. Effect of Latitude and Seasonal Variation on Scrub Typhus, South Korea, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Jeung, Ye Sul; Kim, Choon-Mee; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Seok-Won; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Dong-Min

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea, scrub typhus is one of the most common rickettsial diseases. The number of scrub typhus patients has increased in South Korea, a total of 69,210 cases were reported from 2001 to 2013. The seasonality and relation of scrub typhus cases to latitude were analyzed in this article using data obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System website of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The incidence of scrub typhus tended to increase in the later months of the year, especially in October-December. In general, lower latitudes were associated with a later peak incidence. Our results suggest for the first time that the monthly observed incidence tended to increase in the later months of the year as the latitude decreased, and on a yearly basis in Korea. PMID:26503283

  9. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  10. Spatial epidemiology of dry eye disease: findings from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background DED rate maps from diverse regions may allow us to understand world-wide spreading pattern of the disease. Only few studies compared the prevalence of DED between geographical regions in non-spatial context. Therefore, we examined the spatial epidemiological pattern of DED prevalence in South Korea using a nationally representative sample. Methods We analyzed 16,431 Korean adults aged 30 years or older of the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. DED was defined as previously diagnosed by an ophthalmologist as well as symptoms experienced. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the spatial pattern in the prevalence of DED, and effects of environmental factors. Results Among seven metropolitan cities and nine provinces, three metropolitan cities located in the southeast of Korea revealed the highest prevalence of DED. After adjusting for sex, age and survey year, people living in urban areas had higher risk of having DED. Adjusted odds ratio for having previously diagnosed DED was 1.677 (95% CI 1.299-2.166) for metropolitan cities and 1.580 (95% CI 1.215-2.055) for other cities compared to rural areas. Corresponding odds ratio for presenting DED symptoms was 1.388 (95% CI 1.090-1.766) for metropolitan cities and 1.271 (95% CI 0.999-1.617) for other cities. Lower humidity and longer sunshine duration were significantly associated with DED. Among air pollutants, SO2 was associated with DED, while NO2, O3, CO, and PM10 were not. Conclusion Our findings suggest that prevalence of DED can be affected by the degree of urbanization and environmental factors such as humidity and sunshine duration. PMID:25128034

  11. High resolution mapping of flood hazard for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sourima; Nzerem, Kechi; Zovi, Francesco; Li, Shuangcai; Mei, Yi; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Hilberts, Arno; Tillmanns, Stephan; Mitas, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Floods are one of primary natural hazards that affect South Korea. During the past 15 years, catastrophic flood events which mainly have occurred during the rainy and typhoon seasons - especially under condition where soils are already saturated, have triggered substantial property damage with an average annual loss of around US1.2 billion (determined from WAter Management Information System's flood damage database for years 2002-2011) in South Korea. According to Seoul Metropolitan Government, over 16,000 households in the capital city Seoul were inundated during 2010 flood events. More than 10,000 households in Seoul were apparently flooded during one major flood event due to torrential rain in July 2011. Recently in August 2014, a serious flood event due to heavy rainfall hit the Busan region in the south east of South Korea. Addressing the growing needs, RMS has recently released country-wide high resolution combined flood return period maps for post-drainage local "pluvial" inundation and undefended large-scale "fluvial" inundation to aid the government and the insurance industry in the evaluation of comprehensive flood risk. RMS has developed a flood hazard model for South Korea to generate inundation depths and extents for a range of flood return periods. The model is initiated with 30 years of historical meteorological forcing data and calibrated to daily observations at over 100 river gauges across the country. Simulations of hydrologic processes are subsequently performed based on a 2000 year set of stochastic forcing. Floodplain inundation processes are modelled by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. Taking into account the existing stormwater drainage standards, economic exposure densities, etc., reasonable flood maps are created from inundation model output. Final hazard maps at one arcsec grid resolution can be the basis for both evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood

  12. Older Adults’ Perception of Chronic Illness Management in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minah; Kim, Jaiyong; Bae, Sang-Soo; Choi, Yong-Jun; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the recent emphasis on a patient-centered chronic care model, few studies have investigated its use in older adults in South Korea. We explored how older Korean adults perceive and cope with their chronic illness. Methods: We conducted focus group interviews in Seoul, Korea in January 2010. Focus groups were formed by disease type (hypertension and type 2 diabetes) and gender using purposive sampling. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 60 and over who had been diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension and received care at a community health center for at least six months prior to participation. Interview data were analyzed through descriptive content analysis. Results: Among personal factors, most participants felt overwhelmed when they received their diagnosis. However, with time and control of their acute symptoms using medication, their worry diminished and participants tended to denying being identified as a patient or sick person. Among socio-familial factors, participants reported experiencing stigma with their chronic illness and feeling it was a symbol of weakness. Instead of modifying their lifestyles, which might interfere with their social relationships, they resorted to only following their medicine regime prescribed by their doctor. Participants also reported feeling that their doctor only prescribed medications and acted in an authoritative and threatening manner to induce and reinforce participants’ compliance with treatment. Conclusions: For successful patient-centered management of chronic illnesses, supportive environments that include family, friends, and healthcare providers should be established. PMID:25139170

  13. Transnational Curriculum Studies: Reconceptualization Discourse in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Chun

    2010-01-01

    Creating transnational spaces of curriculum inquiry calls for dialogic encounters between East and West. This article makes visible, both for Western and non-Western curriculum scholars, the historical development of curriculum studies in South Korea over the last 3 decades. Focusing on reconceptualist approaches to curriculum, the article argues…

  14. Shock: South Korea wins Battle of nuclear titans

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-15

    A South Korean consortium won the contract to build and operate four nuclear power plants in Abu Dhabi valued at $20.4 billion. The deal was significant since it is the first major nuclear contract of its kind awarded in the rapidly growing Persian Gulf region, and signals the rise of Korea as an exporter of nuclear know-how.

  15. The Determinants of Demand for Private Tutoring in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Ha; Park, Daekwon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the determinants of the demand for private tutoring (PT) in South Korea, especially focusing on the effectiveness of governmental regulations regarding the operating hours of cram schools in decreasing expenditure on PT. Survey data from 3,605 parents of 12th grade students were collected from 45 proportionally stratified…

  16. Profiles of School Administrators in South Korea: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Songmi; Kim, Eugene P.

    2005-01-01

    Research literature considering school administrators in South Korea is disappointingly sparse. A central focus of this article is to investigate vital descriptors of Korean school administrators, including demographic profiles, entry perspectives, pre-service and in-service training and career commitment. Secondarily, the findings are compared to…

  17. International Physics Olympiad Competition 2004 in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawson, Robert; Lovett, David

    2005-02-01

    A British team attended the 35th International Physics Olympiad in South Korea. In the competition, a team of five, along with candidates from over 70 other nations, answered five-hour theoretical and experimental papers. In addition the candidates, together with their leaders and observers, were able to attend an extensive scientific, cultural and social programme.

  18. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  19. Stakeholders' Views of South Korea's Higher Education Internationalization Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Young Ha; Palmer, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the stakeholders' perceptions of South Korea's higher education internationalization policy. Based on the research framework that defines four policy values--propriety, effectiveness, diversity, and engagement, the convergence model was employed with a concurrent mixed method sampling strategy to analyze the stakeholders'…

  20. Reconceptualizing Kindergarten Education in South Korea: A Postcolonial Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the relevance of postcolonialism in early childhood education, with special reference to the kindergarten education system of South Korea. Most of the research on Korean kindergarten education has conceptualized it as preparing children for their later schooling and helping them learn the moral and social values most desired…

  1. Relationships between suicide and three economic factors in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ken; Nishimura, Yukika; Nishida, Atsushi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige; Masaki, Mina; Fujita, Yoshitsugu; Nata, Masayuki; Okazaki, Yuji; Ono, Yuichiro

    2010-03-01

    The number of suicides in South Korea totaled 4840 in 1995 and 8569 in 1998; in Japan, suicides totaled 21,420 in 1995 and 31,755 in 1998. Suicide prevention is an important issue for both South Korea and Japan. In South Korea, factors related to the increase in suicides must be clarified, and specific suicide prevention measures must be promptly discussed in order to decrease the number of suicides. Therefore, this report examined suicide and unemployment rates and increased rates of mining and industrial production and of money supply in South Korea from 1990 to 2002. This report also discusses the relationships between suicide and unemployment rates and increased rates of mining and industrial production and increased rates of money supply during the same period. During the period studied, annual suicide rates ranged from 7.1 to 18.3 per 100,000 populations. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the suicide rate was clearly related to the unemployment rate, but the suicide rate was not related to increased rates of mining and industrial production and increased rates of money supply. Thus, when unemployment rates increase, relevant organizations and the community should pay close attention to the increase in suicide rates. PMID:20116322

  2. School Choice and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Park, Hyunjoon

    2012-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of eleventh grade students in South Korea, we investigated how the residentially based school assignment policy called the High School Equalization Policy (HSEP) shaped the separation of low and high socioeconomic status (SES) students between schools. We found that there was a smaller between-school…

  3. Conflicting Discourses on Content Reduction in South Korea's National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Kyunghee; Kang, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the discourses on content reduction of South Korea's national curriculum shaped by policymakers and subject specialists, as well as compares the two discourses to uncover the differences between the two. For this purpose, the paper collected academic articles that discuss the issue of content reduction from the past thirty…

  4. English, Tracking, and Neoliberalization of Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byean, Hyera

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon the experiences and dilemmas of the author, a middle school English teacher in South Korea, this article illuminates the ways in which neoliberal reforms in education intersect with English, and how such links have entailed the class-based polarization of education in Korean society. Given the prominent role that English plays in…

  5. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 3 Persons, South Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jeong-Sun; Park, SungHan; Kim, You-Jin; Kang, Hae Ji; Kim, Hak; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Han Saem; Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, A-Reum; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Joo Ae; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Jung, Hee-Dong; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Kim, Kisoon; Lee, Joo-Shil

    2015-01-01

    In May 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection was laboratory confirmed in South Korea. Patients were a man who had visited the Middle East, his wife, and a man who shared a hospital room with the index patient. Rapid laboratory confirmation will facilitate subsequent prevention and control for imported cases. PMID:26488745

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 3 Persons, South Korea, 2015.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Sun; Park, SungHan; Kim, You-Jin; Kang, Hae Ji; Kim, Hak; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Han Saem; Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, A-Reum; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Joo Ae; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Jung, Hee-Dong; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Kim, Kisoon; Lee, Joo-Shil; Kim, Sung Soon

    2015-11-01

    In May 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection was laboratory confirmed in South Korea. Patients were a man who had visited the Middle East, his wife, and a man who shared a hospital room with the index patient. Rapid laboratory confirmation will facilitate subsequent prevention and control for imported cases. PMID:26488745

  7. Online Education for Adult Learners in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes three applications of online learning and technology in South Korea: development of single-mode virtual universities; online education in conventional universities; and Web-based corporate training. Concludes with principles of online learning derived from experiences in implementing such environments. (AEF)

  8. Reunification of Korea: Bringing back the south. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, J.F.

    1996-05-20

    Hypothetical advice provided by Chinese military advisor to North Korean leader on how to employ weapons of mass destruction to force South Korea to unify with the north on North Korean terms. Advice is provided in the context of operational art and principles of war.

  9. Middle School Students' Motivation for Learning Technology in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Hyuksoo

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a feasible instrument for determining middle school students' motivation to learn technology in South Korea. The authors translated Glynn's motivational instrument and modified it to measure Korean middle school students' motivation to learn technology. The instrument was applied to 441 students of grade 8 and 9 from six…

  10. Fluorine geochemistry in bedrock groundwater of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Seong-Yong; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kangjoo; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2007-10-15

    High fluoride concentrations (median=4.4 mg/L) in deep bedrock groundwater of South Korea prevent the usage of it as a drinking water source. The hydrogeochemistry of deep thermal groundwaters (N=377) in diverse bedrocks has been studied in order to evaluate the geologic and geochemical controls on fluoride concentrations in groundwater. The groundwater samples were clustered geologically, and the average and median concentrations of fluoride were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. The order of median fluoride concentration with respect to geology is as follows: metamorphic rocks> or =granitoids > or =complex rock>volcanic rocks> or =sedimentary rocks. This result indicates that the geological source of fluoride in groundwater is related to the mineral composition of metamorphic rocks and granitoids. With respect to groundwater chemistry, the fluoride concentration was highest in Na-HCO3 type groundwater and lowest in Ca-HCO3 type groundwater. Ionic relationships also imply that the geochemical behavior of fluoride in groundwater is related to the geochemical process releasing Na and removing Ca ions. The thermodynamic relationship between the activities of Ca and F indicates that fluoride concentration is controlled by the equilibrium of fluorite (CaF2). In other words, the upper limits of fluoride concentration are determined by the Ca ion; i.e., Ca concentrations play a crucial role in fluoride behavior in deep thermal groundwater. The result of this study suggests that the high fluoride in groundwater originates from geological sources and fluoride can be removed by fluorite precipitation when high Ca concentration is maintained. This provides a basis for a proper management plan to develop the deep thermal groundwater and for treatment of high fluoride groundwater frequently found in South Korea. PMID:17655916

  11. Indicators and indices for sustainable water use in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. B.; Kim, Y.; Kong, I.; Kim, I. J.; Chae, Y.

    2015-12-01

    After the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992 established a mandate for the UN to establish a set of indicators of sustainable development, the indicators to gauge sustainability have been widely used. In the water sector, the concept of sustainable water use has been used in many different ways. In this study, we aimed to develop sustainability indicators and indices for sustainable water use in South Korea. We identified major indicators for sustainable water use with considering multiple aspects of water use: not only physical, biological and chemical aspects but also social and environmental aspects. Furthermore, stressors for sustainable water use were of major interests because they were straightforward and easy to measure in comparison to indicators representing the state- and impact-related indictors. As a result, sets of indicators were identified with a theme-based hierarchical approach, including 1) human water requirements, 2) renewability of water resources, 3) water quality requirements, 4) health of aquatic ecosystems and 5) equitable water use. Then for each sub-component, multiple indicators, i.e., proxy variables were identified. We have evaluated our indicators and indices for drainage basins as well as grid boxes with multiple sizes of 0.5 km and 0.25 km in South Korea. Indicator data were collected for concurrent time, 2010 per se, with number of datasets from earlier or later times and integrated. At last, we evaluated sustainability index with focusing on the spatial variability of index and indicators and the sensitivity of index to individual indicators. Also the sensitivities of indices to different spatial scales were examined.

  12. Urbanization of Scrub Typhus Disease in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Won; Ha, Na-Young; Ryu, Boyeong; Bang, Ji Hwan; Song, Hoyeon; Kim, Yuri; Kim, Gwanghun; Oh, Myoung-don; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Lee, Jong-koo

    2015-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is an endemic disease in Asia. It has been a rural disease, but indigenous urban cases have been observed in Seoul, South Korea. Urban scrub typhus may have a significant impact because of the large population. Methods Indigenous urban scrub typhus was epidemiologically identified in Seoul, the largest metropolitan city in South Korea, using national notifiable disease data from 2010 to 2013. For detailed analysis of clinical features, patients from one hospital that reported the majority of cases were selected and compared to a historic control group. Chigger mites were prospectively collected in the city using a direct chigger mite-collecting trap, and identified using both phenotypic and 18S rDNA sequencing analyses. Their infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi was confirmed by sequencing the 56-kDa antigen gene. Results Eighty-eight cases of urban scrub typhus were determined in Seoul. The possible sites of infection were mountainous areas (56.8%), city parks (20.5%), the vicinity of one’s own residence (17.0%), and riversides (5.7%). Eighty-seven chigger mites were collected in Gwanak mountain, one of the suspected infection sites in southern Seoul, and seventy-six (87.4%) of them were identified as Helenicula miyagawai and eight (9.2%) as Leptotrombidium scutellare. Pooled DNA extracted from H. miyagawai mites yielded O. tsutsugamushi Boryong strain. Twenty-six patients from one hospital showed low APACHE II score (3.4 ± 2.7), low complication rate (3.8%), and no hypokalemia. Conclusions We identified the presence of indigenous urban scrub typhus in Seoul, and a subgroup of them had mild clinical features. The chigger mite H. miyagawai infected with O. tsutsugamushi within the city was found. In endemic area, urban scrub typhus needs to be considered as one of the differential febrile diseases and a target for prevention. PMID:26000454

  13. Susceptibility of South Korea to hydrologic extremes affecting the global food system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puma, M. J.; Chon, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food security in South Korea is closely linked to trade in the global food system. The country's production of major grains declined from 5.8 million metric tons (mmt) in 1998 to 4.8 mmt in 2014, which coincided with a shift in grain self sufficiency from 43% down to 24% over this same period. Many factors led to these changes, including reductions in domestic agricultural land, governmental policies supporting industry over agriculture, and a push towards trade liberalization. South Korea's self sufficiency is now one of the lowest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, leaving it vulnerable to disruptions in the global food system. Here we explore this vulnerability by assessing how global trade disruptions would affect Korea's food security. We impose historical extreme drought and flood events that would possibly affect today's major food producing regions concurrently. Next we compute food supply deficits in South Korea that might result from these events. Our analyses provide a framework for formulating domestic food policies to enhance South Korea's food security in the increasingly fragile global food system.

  14. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Myung, Woojae; Lee, Geung-Hee; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects. PMID:26035175

  15. Paraquat Prohibition and Change in the Suicide Rate and Methods in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects. PMID:26035175

  16. An Assessment of Forest Cover Trends in South and North Korea, From 1980 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engler, Robin; Teplyakov, Victor; Adams, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that forest cover in North Korea has undergone a substantial decrease since 1980, while in South Korea, forest cover has remained relatively static during that same period of time. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments—based on the reported forest inventories from North and South Korea—suggest a major forest cover decrease in North Korea, but only a slight decrease in South Korea during the last 30 years. In this study, we seek to check and validate those assessments by comparing them to independently derived forest cover maps compiled for three time intervals between 1990 and 2010, as well as to provide a spatially explicit view of forest cover change in the Korean Peninsula since the 1990s. We extracted tree cover data for the Korean Peninsula from existing global datasets derived from satellite imagery. Our estimates, while qualitatively supporting the FAO results, show that North Korea has lost a large number of densely forested areas, and thus in this sense has suffered heavier forest loss than the FAO assessment suggests. Given the limited time interval studied in our assessment, the overall forest loss from North Korea during the whole span of time since 1980 may have been even heavier than in our estimate. For South Korea, our results indicate that the forest cover has remained relatively stable at the national level, but that important variability in forest cover evolution exists at the regional level: While the northern and western provinces show an overall decrease in forested areas, large areas in the southeastern part of the country have increased their forest cover.

  17. School Choice and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Soo-yong; Kim, Kyung-keun; Park, Hyunjoon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the choice debate in South Korea, which centers on the residentially based school assignment policy called the High School Equalization Policy (HSEP). Using a nationally representative sample of South Korean 11th graders, the study further explored the role of the HSEP in educational equality by investigating how HSEP implementation was related to the separation of low and high socioeconomic status (SES) students between schools and how the socioeconomic composition of a school was related to student achievement. Results showed that the odds that low SES students were separated into low SES schools was smaller in the regions of HSEP implementation, where students were randomly assigned to a school based on place of residence, than in the regions of non-HSEP implementation, where students were allowed to choose a school. Results also showed that student achievement significantly depended on the socioeconomic composition of a school students attended in the regions of non-HSEP implementation, whereas this was not the case in the regions of HSEP implementation. We discussed the implications of these findings for the potential impact of school choice policies on educational inequality. PMID:24834021

  18. South Korea's renewed focus on space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byung-Ho

    2011-10-01

    Nearly 1000 years before European scientists David Fabricius and Galileo Galilei made historic observations of sunspots, royal astronomers in Korea were recording their observations of blemishes on the Sun. Sunspot records appeared as early as 640 C.E. in Korea [Yang et al., 1998], and records with statistically significant populations of data have been available since 1105 C.E. during the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392). The records are quite meticulous. For example, one entry dated 1151 in the annals of the Goryeo dynasty says, "There is a black spot in the sun as large as an egg" (Goryeo-Sa, 1451). At that time, sunspots were categorized according to size: plum, egg, peach, or pear. In Goryeo-Sa, various celestial phenomena such as solar eclipses, comets, novae, meteors, etc., were also recorded. Along with sunspots, aurorae were carefully described in several Korean chronicles, including Goryeo-Sa. Descriptions of aurorae, commonly referred to as "red energy," include their color, shape, motion, and distribution. For example, a description written in 1770 reads, "It spread across the sky like a piece of silk cloth and then dispersed" [Chanjipcheong, 1908; Park, 2008]. Applying a power spectrum analysis technique to all sunspot and aurora records during the Goryeo dynasty, Yang et al. [1998] and Lee et al. [2005] have shown 10.5-year and 97-year cycles for the sunspot records and 10-year and 87-year cycles for the aurora records.

  19. The Economic Value of Career Counseling Services for College Students in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Bo Young; Lee, Ji Hee; Kim, Areum; Kim, Boram; Cho, Daeyeon; Lee, Sang Min

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated college students' perception of the monetary value of career counseling services by using the contingent valuation method. The results of a multivariate survival analysis based on interviews with a convenience sample of 291 undergraduate students in South Korea indicate that, on average, participants' expressed willingness…

  20. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…

  1. The Nursing Students' Experience of Psychiatric Practice in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Eunju

    2015-10-01

    In 1995, South Korea passed the Mental Health Act, and since this time it has developed many mental health policies and facilities. The aim of this study is to understand and explore the experience of nursing students in the changed psychiatric practice environment since 1995. The present study is a qualitative thematic analysis. Interviews were conducted with 11 third and fourth grade nursing students who had experienced psychiatric practice in South Korea. A thematic analysis of 11 in-depth student interviews identified three themes: 'orientation before psychiatric practice', 'facing the mental hospital', and 'change and choice'. After practicing, nursing students developed positive attitude regarding psychiatry. Educators will have to focus more on education and support in order for the students to maintain positive attitude throughout their experience. The research herein shows that the role of the educators and psychiatric nurses is extremely important for nursing students in the elimination of a negative attitude towards psychiatry. PMID:26397441

  2. Notes on the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayala, Udenil; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung-Shin; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale is a somewhat rare lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded more than two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the present study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Hypotrachyna in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confirmed the presence of seven species of Hypotrachyna from South Korea, including one new record, Hypotrachyna nodakensis (Asahina) Hale. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characters together with a key to all known Hypotrachyna species are presented. PMID:23610534

  3. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation between suicide rate and the rate of hanging or the rate of jumping, and a significant negative correlation between suicide rate and the rate of poisoning. Among older adults in Japan, annual changes in the suicide rate and the pattern of suicide methods were less conspicuous, and no correlation was found between them. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that the increasing use of lethal suicide methods has contributed to the rise in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea. Targeted efforts to reduce the social acceptability and accessibility of lethal suicide methods might lead to lower suicide rate among older adults in South Korea. PMID:27081378

  4. 77 FR 25141 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and South Korea: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... International Trade Administration Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and South Korea... Germany and South Korea (Korea), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act...-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from Germany and South Korea: Adequacy Redetermination...

  5. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Jung; Lee, Yo Han; Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Kyeong Jin; An, Jee Hyun; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Hee Young; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its related factors among North Korean refugees (NKR) in South Korea. Design Cross-sectional study conducted using a questionnaire and anthropometric and biochemical data on NKR in South Korea. Setting Seoul, South Korea. Participants A sample of NKR who voluntarily underwent medical examinations in Anam Hospital of Korea University, Seoul, South Korea (N=708, consisting of 161 males and 547 females). To compare the prevalence of MetS, 1416 age- and gender-matched individuals from the South Korean population (SKP, at a ratio of 1:2 to NKR) were randomly selected from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Main outcome measures The prevalence of MetS and its related factors among NKR in South Korea and comparison with its prevalence among the general SKP. Results The prevalence of MetS among male and female NKR in South Korea was 19.7% and 17.2%, respectively. Although obesity is more prevalent in South than in North Korea, we found no difference in the prevalence of MetS between the female NKR and SKP groups (17.2% vs 16.6%, respectively; p=0.830). As regards the males, the small sample size of the NKR group yielded insufficient evidence of any difference in MetS prevalence between the NKR and SKP groups (19.7% vs 26.2%, respectively; p=0.134). We found that excess weight gain (≥5%) in South Korea was significantly associated with MetS among NKR. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS among NKR did not differ from that in the SKP group despite the lower prevalence of obesity in NKR than in the general SKP. The fact that excess weight gain in South Korea was associated with the risk of MetS suggests that public health policy makers should focus on preventing excess weight gain in NKR during resettlement in South Korea. PMID:27251685

  6. Mapping South Korea's Paddy Rice During 2001-2015 Based on Landsat Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land use change substantially affects terrestrial water and carbon cycles, and it is also significant for food security. Rice is an important food crop in South Korea, and its planting area has changed over the past years due to climate change and social development. However, the paddy rice maps in South Korea with high spatial, temporal resolutions and quality are still unavailable. In this study, annual paddy rice planting areas in South Korea during 2001-2015 were extracted using the phenology-based and artificial neural networks(ANN)-based method according to the availability of Landsat images. Three types of vegetation indices, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI), were calculated for both methods. For the phenology-based method, we calculated difference and ratio of the vegetation indices from the Landsat images before and after the inundating/transplanting phase, and set the extraction thresholds for rice paddy using the training samples. For the ANN-based method, using the vegetation indices of the Landsat image after inundation, slope and soil type data of the training samples as input, an ANN was established for rice paddy identification. The resultant maps of paddy rice were evaluated using validation samples and agricultural statistics. Finally, we analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of South Korea's rice paddy during 2001-2015, and investigated the possible reasons.

  7. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 → 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 → 23.8 kg/m2) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSION Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students. PMID:26060543

  8. Imported Melioidosis in South Korea: A Case Series with a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Woo; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Kim, Bongyoung; Kwon, Donghyok; Shin, Jaeseung; Bae, Geun-Ryang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Melioidosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the environmental anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is endemic to areas of northern Australia and Southeast Asia. With increasing international travel and migration, imported cases of melioidosis are being reported regularly. Here, we summarize the 11 cases of melioidosis reported in South Korea from 2003 to 2014. Methods Tracing epidemiological investigations were performed on every patient reported to the National Surveillance System since 2011. A systematic literature search was performed to identify melioidosis cases that occurred prior to 2011. Results The overall fatality rate was 36.4%. All the patients had visited Southeast Asia where melioidosis is endemic. The stay in the endemic region ranged from 4 days to 20 years. Of the seven patients who developed initial symptoms after returning to South Korea, the time interval between returning to South Korea and symptom onset ranged from 1 day to 3 years. The remaining four patients developed symptoms during their stay in the endemic region and were diagnosed with melioidosis in South Korea. Seven (63.6%) patients possessed at least one risk factor, all of whom were diabetic. Pneumonia was the most frequent clinical manifestation, but the patients showed a wide spectrum of clinical features, including internal organ abscesses, a mycotic aneurysm of the aorta, and coinfection with tuberculosis. Conclusion An early diagnosis and initiation of the appropriate antibiotics can reduce the mortality of melioidosis. Consequently, increased awareness of the risk factors and clinical features of melioidosis is required. PMID:26835246

  9. Assessment of transboundary ozone contribution toward South Korea using multiple source-receptor modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Chul; Lee, Jong-Jae; Bae, Chang Han; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Soontae; Chang, Lim-Seok; Ban, Soo-Jin; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Jongchoon; Woo, Jung-Hun

    2014-08-01

    Ozone concentrations in East Asia were simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, and its source contributions were estimated by multiple source-receptor modeling techniques. To study relationships between ozone concentrations and precursor emission sources, three approaches were applied to four months (January, April, July, and October 2009) to represent seasonal characteristics and compare results, with a particular focus on South Korea. Brute force (BF) is a traditional sensitivity analysis method used to estimate model output response to an input change. The high-order decoupled direct method (HDDM), a computational method, is an efficient and accurate alternative to the BF method for sensitivity. The Ozone and Particulate Precursor Tagging Methodology (OPTM) provides contribution information quantified by tracking emissions from selected sources throughout the simulation period. The approaches generally show that most of the receptor regions were substantially influenced by emissions from central China, which is the largest anthropogenic emissions source region in East Asia. Local emissions were still major contributors, especially South Korea and Japan during July 2009. On the other hand, a case study of maximum 8-h ozone concentrations derived from CMAQ-OPTM on April 9 in South Korea shows that the NOx and VOCs emissions from China contributed approximately 82% and 91%, respectively, to maximum 8-h ozone in Region 4 (South Korea) without boundary inflow, which indicates that Chinese emissions are the dominant contributor in this episode. A comparison study of the three approaches shows that HDDM tends to estimate biogenic source contributions lower than that from OPTM in China but similar to OPTM in South Korea and Japan. When comparing the BF method and HDDM, the sensitivity results show a reasonably good agreement during a given period. The location- and time-dependent maximum 8-h ozone isopleths over South Korea as a receptor

  10. The Psychological Problems of North Korean Adolescent Refugees Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Mun; Shin, Ok Ja

    2012-01-01

    Objective As the number of North Korean adolescent refugees drastically increased in South Korea, there is a growing interest in them. Our study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods The subjects of this study were 102 North Korean adolescent refugees in Hangyeore middle and high School, the public educational institution for the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea, and 766 general adolescents in the same region. The Korean version of Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL) standardized in South Korea was employed as the mental health evaluation tool. Results The adolescent refugees group showed a significantly different score with that of the normal control group in the K-CBCL subscales for sociality (t=29.67, p=0.000), academic performance (t=17.79, p=0.000), total social function (t=35.52, p=0.000), social withdrawal (t=18.01, p=0.000), somatic symptoms (t=28.85, p=0.000), depression/anxiety (t=13.08, p=0.000), thought problems (t=6.24, p=0.013), attention problems (t=4.14, p=0.042), internalized problems (t=26.54, p=0.000) and total problems (t=5.23, p=0.022). Conclusion The mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees was severe particularly in internalized problems when compared with that of the general adolescents in South Korea. This result indicates the need for interest in not only the behavior of the North Korean adolescent refugees but also their emotional problem. PMID:22993519

  11. Learning through Working: A Case Study of Chinese College Students in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Minyoung; Chang, Wonsup

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to provide an understanding of the work experience of Chinese college students in South Korea. A growing number of Chinese students are coming to South Korea for college education, and their aspirations for better work materialize into work experiences in South Korean businesses. In-depth interviews were…

  12. A Statist Political Economy and High Demand for Education in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    1999-01-01

    Explores the high demand for higher education in South Korea and attributes this phenomenon to a loss of flexibility in the management of "developmental policies" by the South Korean government. Suggests that a "personalist ethic" prevails in education and government in South Korea. (SLD)

  13. Attitudes toward suicide among college students in South Korea and the United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Korea (hereafter, Korea) has witnessed a rapid increase in its suicide rate over the past few decades and currently reports the highest rate among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Conversely, the United States has maintained its suicide rate near the OECD average. The present study examines and compares attitudes toward suicide among college students in either country to explain the higher prevalence of suicide in Korea. Findings Non-Korean students in the United States, Korean students in the United States, and Korean students in Korea completed a web-based questionnaire on Attitudes Toward Suicide (ATTS). A series of two-way 3 × 2 between subjects Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests of the participants’ group and gender, as well as post-hoc comparisons, were conducted to examine differences across various attitude domains. As expected, the results revealed group differences in the majority of attitude areas. Most notably, students in Korea reported more permissive attitudes toward suicide and were less likely to believe in the right to prevent others’ suicide. Gender did not have an effect on any attitudes except on the right to prevent suicide and there were no interactions between group and gender. Conclusions The results suggest the importance of addressing public attitudes toward suicide in future suicide prevention efforts in Korea. PMID:24843383

  14. Dactylospora glaucomarioides (Ascomycetes, Dactylosporaceae): A Lichenicolous Fungus New to South Korea.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Yogesh; Knudsen, Kerry; Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2010-12-01

    The lichenicolous fungi flora of South Korea is poorly known. During recent field trips to various parts of South Korea and after an extensive examination of herbarium lichen specimens, we encountered a lichenicolous fungi growing over a thallus of the lichen Ochrolechia yasudae Vain., characterized by small black apothecia with mostly three-septate brown ascospores. It was identified as Dactylospora glaucomarioides. This is the first report of this lichenicolous fungus from South Korea. A taxonomic description and comments are presented. PMID:23956673

  15. Task conflicts and exclusive professionalism in nursing in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2014-01-01

    Task conflicts among medical professions are essential problems to be solved in health care organizations. This study examined job conflicts between practical nurses (PNs) and registered nurses (RNs) in their duties and tasks with representative panelists from South Korea. This qualitative study used the Dacum Task Analysis process. Subject-matter experts in practical nursing were recruited utilizing stratified sampling: Ten experts developed job descriptions of PNs, and 20 validated the descriptions. The on-site tasks and duties of the PNs were measured by means of Dacum, and the results were reviewed by RNs using 3 focus-group interviews. The job description of PNs consisted of 10 duties and 117 tasks, overlapping with some tasks of RNs. Core tasks performed by PNs, such as invasive activities, led to task conflicts between the 2 groups, as these activities were regarded as the inherent duty of nursing professions. Thus, the RNs did not concede the expanded job scope of the PNs in terms of exclusive professionalism. To reduce task conflict, there is a need for the balanced development of nursing professionalism. PMID:24463592

  16. A Taxonomic Study of the Genus Myelochroa in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2012-01-01

    Myelochroa (Asahina) Elix & Hale is a common foliose lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded nearly two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the current study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Myelochroa in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confirmed the presence of twelve species of Myelochroa from S. Korea, including one new record, Myelochroa xantholepis (Mont. & Bosch) Elix & Hale. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characters together with a key to all known Myelochroa species are presented. PMID:23323045

  17. Real-time GPS Ionospheric TEC Estimation over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Kyu; Yoo, Sung-Moon; Roh, Kyoung-Min; Lee, Sang-Jeong

    2013-09-01

    Ionosphere is one of the largest error sources when the navigational signals produced by Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are transmitted. Therefore it is very important to estimate total electron contents (TEC) in ionosphere precisely for navigation, precise positioning and some other applications. When we provide ionospheric TEC values in real-time, its application can be expanded to other areas. In this study we have used data obtained from nine Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reference stations which have been operated by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) to detect ionospheric TEC over South Korea in real-time. We performed data processing that covers converting 1Hz raw data delivered from GNSS reference stations to Receiver INdependent Exchange (RINEX) format files at intervals of 5 minutes. We also analyzed the elevation angles of GPS satellites, vertical TEC (VTEC) values and their changes.

  18. Stigma of Mental Illnesses as Perceived by North Korean Defectors Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Song, In-Gyu; Bae, Jae-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to provide the information of the stigmas of mental illness such as psychosis, alcoholism, attempt suicide, and depression among North Korean defectors. Methods We examined stigma for the mental illnesses of 639 North Korean defectors aged 19 to 65 years who live in the Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees. The stigmas of mental illnesses were assessed using the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale We directly compared the stigma level between North Korean defectors and the general population of South Korea. Results North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Perceived stigma associated with attempted suicide was similar for North Korean defectors and South Koreans. Only marital status in sociodemographic variables had associations with higher perceived stigma of psychosis, alcoholism, and depression in the North Korean defectors. North Korean defectors, who spent more than one year in transit country, had associations with lower perceived stigma of psychosis and alcoholism. North Korean defectors, who had the experience of compulsory repatriation to North Korea or North Korean family in South Korea, had an association with higher perceived stigma of depression. Conclusion North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Further studies are needed to document serial changes in stigmas for mental illnesses associated with the receipt of education at the Settlement Support Center for North Korean defectors. PMID:25670940

  19. Baseline study on essential and trace elements in polished rice from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Myung Chae; Yun, Seong-Taek; Lee, Jin-Soo; Lee, Jong-Un

    2005-09-01

    In 2000, 63 (polished) white rice samples were collected in eight administrative areas all over South Korea and analyzed for 16 elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Potassium had the highest content, next to Mg, Ca, Si, Zn, Na, Al and Fe. Most of the samples contained worldwide average concentrations of essential and trace elements in rice grains reported by various researches. For inter-area differences in those elements in the rice, the statistical analysis showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the eight administrative areas, suggesting that inter-area differences were not substantial in most cases. Thus, the present data can be used as national background levels of elements in rice produced in South Korea. Using the published data on daily consumption of rice in South Korea, it was possible to estimate the daily intake of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn via rice. The results showed that a regular consumption of rice produced in Korea plays an important role in accumulation of essential and trace elements in Korean, especially for farm-households consuming relatively large amounts of rice. PMID:16237601

  20. A Study of Mental Health Literacy Among North Korean Refugees in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Methods: Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. Results: The North Korean refugees’ mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. Conclusions: This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees’ mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future. PMID:25652712

  1. Diversity and spatial distribution of surname structure in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Okyu; Son, Woo-Sik

    2015-11-01

    We studied the population structure of South Korea by using the distributions of surnames for all 246 administrative regions. Every 4,177 surnames are distinguished by their bon-gwan which indicates the place of their family clans. Using Fisher's Alpha, we found that the level of inbreeding increases as the distance from the capital Seoul increases. We introduced the Shannon index to measure the level of spatial diffusion for each surname population, and the geographical clusters based on similarities of the surname compositions among the regions show almost exact agreement with those at the administrative districts.

  2. Wood Decay Fungi in South Korea: Polypores from Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Hanbyul; Lee, Young Min; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Min, Mihee; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu

    2014-01-01

    In Seoul, a majority of plant communities have undergone significant changes over the last few decades; however, how wood decay fungi have responded and adapted to the changes in vegetation remains unknown. Through an ongoing investigation of Korean indigenous fungi, ca. 300 specimens with poroid basidiocarp were collected in Seoul during 2008~2012. Morphological examination and molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA region sequences helped identify 38 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders in this area. Among them, three polypores, Abundisporus pubertatis, Coriolopsis strumosa, and Perenniporia maackiae were found to be new to South Korea. PMID:25071382

  3. Hearing Aid Use and Associated Factors in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Joon; Baek, Sun Young; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-10-01

    Despite the high prevalence of hearing impairment in the elderly, the rate of hearing aid use is still low. The objectives of this study were to report the nation-wide prevalence of hearing aid use in the Korean population and to determine the associated factors with hearing aid use utilizing a nationally representative data set.We obtained data from the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which were cross-sectional surveys of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the Republic of Korea at age ≥40 years (N = 12,709). A field survey team performed interviews as well as physical examinations. Hearing aid use was assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and pure-tone audiometry was administered for all participants in a sound-attenuating booth. Prevalence of hearing aid acquisition and regular use were calculated in participants who reported perceived hearing loss and who have bilateral hearing thresholds exceeding the 40 dB hearing level. Multivariable analyses were used to examine the associated factors with hearing aid use.The prevalence of hearing aid acquisition and regular use was 17.4% and 12.6%, respectively, in South Korea. Increased hearing threshold (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), severe perceived hearing loss (OR 10.73, 95% CI 4.52-25.46), annoying tinnitus (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.61-6.74), balance problems (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18-0.86), and myopia (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.76) were associated factors of regular use of hearing aids.The prevalence of hearing aid use in Korea is relatively low. Finding relevant factors of hearing aid use could provide further insight in setting up hearing-rehabilitation strategy for the elderly with significant hearing loss. PMID:26496259

  4. Hearing Aid Use and Associated Factors in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Il Joon; Baek, Sun Young; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite the high prevalence of hearing impairment in the elderly, the rate of hearing aid use is still low. The objectives of this study were to report the nation-wide prevalence of hearing aid use in the Korean population and to determine the associated factors with hearing aid use utilizing a nationally representative data set. We obtained data from the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which were cross-sectional surveys of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the Republic of Korea at age ≥40 years (N = 12,709). A field survey team performed interviews as well as physical examinations. Hearing aid use was assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and pure-tone audiometry was administered for all participants in a sound-attenuating booth. Prevalence of hearing aid acquisition and regular use were calculated in participants who reported perceived hearing loss and who have bilateral hearing thresholds exceeding the 40 dB hearing level. Multivariable analyses were used to examine the associated factors with hearing aid use. The prevalence of hearing aid acquisition and regular use was 17.4% and 12.6%, respectively, in South Korea. Increased hearing threshold (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.07), severe perceived hearing loss (OR 10.73, 95% CI 4.52–25.46), annoying tinnitus (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.61–6.74), balance problems (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18–0.86), and myopia (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12–0.76) were associated factors of regular use of hearing aids. The prevalence of hearing aid use in Korea is relatively low. Finding relevant factors of hearing aid use could provide further insight in setting up hearing-rehabilitation strategy for the elderly with significant hearing loss. PMID:26496259

  5. Cultural and Noncultural Factors as Determinants of Caregiver Burden for the Impaired Elderly in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Haekyung

    1993-01-01

    Investigated determining variables of caregiver burden in caring for impaired older relatives in South Korea. Economic factors, daily caregiving hours, and caregiver's health status emerged as most important determinants of caregiver burden among 169 primary family caregivers in South Korea. Caregivers' congruency with traditional caregiver…

  6. The Developmental History of Labor Education in South Korea from a Sociopolitical and Economic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Yangyi

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a considerable body of research regarding the relationships between the sociopolitical and economic transition and its implications for the education system in South Korea, there is little known about how sociopolitical and economic factors affect labor education practice in South Korea. The premise of the study is that the…

  7. Educational Administration as National Capacity Building: Towards South Korea Becoming a Creative Learning State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold; Sun Hyung, Park

    2015-01-01

    This philosophy paper proposes that a primary purpose of Educational Administration, as a field of study, research and practice in South Korea, becomes national capacity building. It does this by evaluating the current scope of Educational Administration against the need for a new national education policy to help South Korea make the transition…

  8. History, Current Status, and Future Prospects of Counseling in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Suh, Suhyun; Yang, Eunjoo; Jang, Yoo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Although the counseling profession was introduced to South Korea in the 1950s by American delegates of education, counseling has been only lately recognized as a specialized field that requires distinctive knowledge and skills. In this article, the authors describe the history and the current status of counseling in South Korea and then discuss…

  9. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  10. Nationwide Groundwater Surveillance of Noroviruses in South Korea, 2008▿

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Suh, Chang-Il; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Jeong, Yong-Seok; Ko, GwangPyo; Jang, Kyung Lib; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Paik, Soon-Young

    2011-01-01

    To inspect the norovirus contamination of groundwater in South Korea, a nationwide study was performed in the summer (June to August) and winter (October to December) of 2008. Three-hundred sites designated by the government ministry were inspected. Water samples were collected for analysis of water quality, microorganism content, and viral content. Water quality was assessed by temperature, pH, turbidity, residual chlorine, and nitrite nitrogen content. Microorganism contents were analyzed bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and bacteriophage. Virus analyses included panenterovirus and norovirus. Two primer sets were used for the detection of norovirus genotypes GI and GII, respectively. Of 300 samples, 65 (21.7%) were norovirus positive in the summer and in 52 (17.3%) were norovirus positive in the winter. The genogroup GI noroviruses that were identified were GI-1, GI-2, GI-3, GI-4, GI-5, GI-6, and GI-8 genotypes; those in the GII genogroup were GII-4 and GII-Yuri genotypes. The analytic data showed correlative relationships between the norovirus detection rate and the following parameters: water temperature and turbidity in physical-chemical parameters and somatic phage in microbial parameters. It is necessary to periodically monitor waterborne viruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea for better public health and sanitary conditions. PMID:21183642

  11. Public Health Challenges of Electronic Cigarettes in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungkyu; Kimm, Heejin; Yun, Ji Eun

    2011-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarrettes) were recently introduced and advertised as a smoking cession device in South Korea. As the social norm to quit smoking has gained hold in the country, the number of e-cigarette users is growing rapidly. This phenomenon should be urgently considered, because of the lack of research that has been conducted to examine the safety of e-cigarettes and its efficacy as a smoking cessation aid. This paper raises several public health concerns on e-cigarettes in South Korea. Uncertain regulations of the government on e-cigarettes are contributing to an increase of e-cigarette users and allowing the e-cigarette industry to circumvent existing regulations. The aggressive marketing activity of this industry is also a core factor that is responsible for the rapid increase of e-cigarette use, in particular among the youth. Following the enforcement of tobacco control, some cigarette smokers may be encouraged to purchase e-cigarettes in order to circumvent the regulations, even though the dual use of e-cigarette and cigarette may be more harmful. Until there is clear evidence of the e-cigarette's safety, it is recommended that the industry's marketing and promotional activities be banned and closely monitored, and public campaigns be initiated to educate the public regarding e-cigarettes. PMID:22143173

  12. Environmental Responses to a Land Reclamation Project in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, SeungHyun; Wang, Menghua

    2009-11-01

    In 1991, South Korea embarked on an ambitious project to reclaim nearly 401 square kilometers of land and tidal flats from the Yellow Sea by building a system of two dikes extending 33 kilometers across the mouths of the Dongjin and Mangyeong rivers, offshore of the Saemangeum district (see Figures 1a and 1b). Called the Saemangeum Reclamation Project, the endeavor will allot about 283 square kilometers of the reclaimed land for crop production (mostly rice) through irrigation of the rivers’ estuaries, which will be extended by about 23 kilometers when the bay fills up. The rest of the reclaimed land will be a water reservoir for agricultural use [Lie et al., 2008]. The construction of the Saemangeum Reclamation Project's northern dike was completed in June 2003; the southern dike was finished in April 2006. Two gaps in the southern dike allow water exchange, and two gates control the water level inside the dikes. The reclamation project, the biggest such endeavor in South Korea, is expected to be completed around 2030.

  13. Prevalence of vestibular dysfunction and associated factors in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ja-Won; Chang, Mun Young; Woo, Sook-young; Kim, Seonwoo; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the nationwide prevalence of dizziness and vestibular dysfunction in the Korean population and determine the associated factors. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a nationwide health survey. Methods We obtained data from the 2009 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which were cross-sectional surveys of the South Korean civilian, non-institutionalised population aged 40 years and older (N=3267). A field survey team performed interviews and physical examinations. Structured questionnaires were handed out and balance function tests using the modified Romberg test of standing balance on firm and compliant support surfaces were performed on participants. Failure on the modified Romberg test was regarded to indicate vestibular dysfunction. Results The prevalence of dizziness during the past year was 16.70% (95% CI 14.65% to 18.76%). The presence of vestibular dysfunction was noted in 1.84% (95% CI 1.18% to 2.51%). In addition, the prevalence of experiencing falls and positional dizziness were 1.46% (95% CI 0.87% to 2.06%) and 1.73% (95% CI 1.17% to 2.29%), respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that dizziness was associated with increased age, female gender, hearing loss and stress. Vestibular dysfunction was associated with increased age, history of dizziness and hearing loss. Conclusions Vertigo and dizziness are the greatest contributors to the burden of disability in the aged population. Screening for dizziness and vestibular dysfunction, and management of associated factors might be important for improving compromised quality of life due to postural imbalance caused by vestibular problems. PMID:26503384

  14. Exploration of the prevalence and correlates of substance use among sheltered adolescents in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

    2007-01-01

    Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored risk factors that predict substance abuse by sheltered adolescents. Through a questionnaire survey of sheltered adolescents, data on substance use and the risk factors were collected. The sample of the adolescents included 44 (33.3%) males and 88 (67.2%) females; their mean age was 15.8 years (SD = 1.62). The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol expectancy, physical abuse, and peer pressure were all statistically significantly associated with substance abuse. Findings on the critical issues are expected to lead to the development of urgently needed prevention programs for the high-risk adolescents in South Korea. PMID:18047242

  15. Effects of gravity data quality and spacing on the accuracy of the geoid in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, C.-K.; Kwon, J. H.; Lee, B. M.; Lee, J.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, S.-B.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of gravity data quality and spacing on the accuracy of the computed geoid are analyzed. The analysis is performed using simulated gravity data that accommodate the real gravity signal in South Korea. The reference geoid is generated using both simulated gravity data and digital terrain models (DTM), assuming that both data sets are errorless. By artificially controlling the gravity data quality and spacing, we are able to calculate and analyze the geoid errors. The results show that the current distribution of real gravity data in South Korea causes geoid errors, with the standard deviation being as much as 8 cm, and that these geoid errors are mainly caused by the distribution of gravity data rather than by the noise in the data. Areas showing large geoid errors are also clearly identified; these areas should be subjected to supplementary gravity surveying at data spacing smaller than 2 km to achieve a 5-cm level of geoid accuracy.

  16. Climate- and remote sensing-based tools for drought management application in North and South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, W.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Tadesse, T.; Svoboda, M.; Fuchs, B.; Wilhite, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    North and South Korea have experienced more frequent and extreme droughts since the late 1990s. In recent years, severe droughts in 2000-2001, 2012, and 2015 have led to widespread agricultural and environmental impacts, and resulted in water shortages and large reductions in crop yields. This has been particularly problematic in the agricultural sector of North Korea, which has a high-level of vulnerability due to variations of climate and this, in turn, results in food security issues. This vulnerability is exacerbated by North Korea's relatively small area of arable land, most of which is not very productive. The objective of this study was to develop a drought management application using climate- and remote sensing-based tools for North and South Korea. These tools are essential for improving drought planning and preparedness in this area. In this study, various drought indicators derived from climate and remote sensing data (SPI, SC-PDSI, SPEI, and VegDRI-Korea) were investigated to monitor the current drought condition and evaluate their ability to characterize agricultural and meteorological drought events and their potential impacts. Results from this study can be used to develop or improve the national-level drought management application for these countries. The goal is to provide improved and more timely information on both the spatial and temporal dimensions of drought conditions and provide a tool to identify both past and present drought events in order to make more informed management decisions and reduce the impacts of current droughts and reduce the risk to future events.

  17. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy

    2016-03-01

    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy. PMID:26179452

  18. Earthquake Observation through Groundwater Monitoring in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, J.; Woo, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    According to previous researches, the influence of the some earthquakes can be detected by groundwater monitoring. Even in some countries groundwater monitoring is being used as an important tool to identify earthquake precursors and prediction measures. Thus, in this study we attempt to catch the anomalous changes in groundwater produced by earthquakes occurred in Korea through the National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN). For observing the earthquake impacts on groundwater more effectively, from the National Groundwater Monitoring Network we selected 28 stations located in the five earthquake-prone zones in South Korea. And we searched the responses to eight earthquakes with M ≥2.5 which occurred in the vicinity of five earthquake-prone zones in 2012. So far, we tested the groundwater monitoring data (water-level, temperature and electrical conductivity). Those data have only been treated to remove barometric pressure changes. Then we found 29 anomalous changes, confirming that groundwater monitoring data can provide valuable information on earthquake effects. To identify the effect of the earthquake from mixture signals of water-level, other signals must be separated from the original data. Periodic signals will be separated from the original data using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). After that we will attempt to separate precipitation effect, and determine if the anomalies were generated by earthquake or not.

  19. The lesbian rights movement and feminism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park-Kim, Soo Jin; Lee-Kim, Soo Youn; Kwon-Lee, Eun Jung

    2006-01-01

    The lesbians' rights movement in South Korea has undertaken various projects for solidarity with feminist movement groups for over 10 years. In spite of these efforts, lesbian issues have been blatantly excluded from all the agendas of women's rights. The same thing has happened in Women's Studies. Some feminists express homophobic thoughts without understanding the reality of lesbians, and other young scholars take on a lesbian identity temporarily as a sign of being progressive and liberated; in neither situation are they committed to dealing with the oppression of lesbians or seeing lesbian rights as a feminist concern. In order to further lesbian rights there are two strategies possible: forming a movement only for lesbians or forming solidarity with feminists. In the latter case, a concern about lesbian rights will help achieve the goals of a true feminism as patriarchy is built upon heterosexism. doi:10.1300/J155v10n03_11. PMID:17210565

  20. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soils from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Smith, A

    2001-04-01

    Soil samples were collected from rice growing and industrial areas in South Korea and analysed for organochlorine pesticide content using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The soils were monitored for the presence of 18 organochlorine pesticides. The main pesticides found were gamma- and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin. The range of concentrations, for each compound, was respectively, 0.17-0.94, 0.77-2.97, 1.38-48.0 and 0.32-0.49 ng/g soil. The highest values were found in soil obtained from rice fields indicating that, although the use of organochlorine pesticides has been discontinued since 1980, substantial concentrations of residues particularly the oxidised form of heptachlor remain in the soil. PMID:11297392

  1. Trends in exposure to television food advertisements in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Given the increased concern about the impact of TV food advertisements (ads) on individual food choices, we provide important evidence on TV food ad exposure between 2004 and 2009 in South Korea. We used monthly targeted ratings data by age group as the number of ads seen daily from Korean Nielsen Media Research. We generated six food groups: beverages (milk, soda, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, water, coffee/tea products, and other); snacks/sweets (cookies/chips, candy, and chewing gum); fast food (Domino's pizza, Lotteria, McDonald's, Mr. Pizza, Pizza Hut, local chicken and pizza franchises, and other); instant noodle; full-service restaurants; and other. From 2004 to 2009, overall exposure to television food ads fell by 19.0% (from 6.8 to 5.5 ads daily), although exposure to full-service restaurant ads increased over that time period by 45.7%. While fast-food ad exposure fell overall, exposure to ads for local fried chicken franchises nearly doubled, making them the most commonly seen fast-food ads by 2009. Fast-food and instant noodle ads made up larger proportions of total ad exposure in 2009 than in 2004 in all age groups, with the largest increase among adolescents. Beverage ads continue to be the most prevalent food ads seen in South Korea. Differential trends found in exposure across and within food product categories and differences by age groups highlight the need for continued monitoring to help inform the regulatory policy debate on food advertising, particularly with regards to ads directed at children and adolescents. PMID:23108149

  2. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jaewon; Kim, Soojun; Kim, Gilho; Singh, Vijay P; Hong, Seungjin; Kim, Hung Soo

    2015-07-01

    Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered. PMID:26132479

  3. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jaewon; Kim, Soojun; Kim, Gilho; Singh, Vijay P.; Hong, Seungjin; Kim, Hung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered. PMID:26132479

  4. The Impact of Improving Suicide Death Classification in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan and Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chee Hon; Caine, Eric D.; Chang, Shu Sen; Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil; Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The suicide rate of South Korea has increased dramatically during the past decades, as opposed to steadily decreasing trends in Japan and Hong Kong. Although the recent increase of suicide in South Korea may be related to changing socioeconomic conditions and other contextual factors, it may also reflect, in part, a reduction of misidentified suicide cases due to improving classification of manner of death. Method We compared the annual proportional change of suicide, undetermined death, and accidental death from South Korea with those of Japan and Hong Kong from 1992 to 2011; a greater proportional change of the manner-of-death categories during the period is indicative of a relatively less stable registration and hence a greater potential for misclassification bias on reported suicide trends. Subgroup analyses stratifying the deaths by methods were also conducted. To estimate the impact, the age-standardized rates of these three death categories in each site were calculated. Results We found that, during the 20-year observation period, the proportional change of suicide, undetermined death, and accidental death in South Korea was significantly greater than Japan and Hong Kong. Similar observations were made in subgroup analyses. While death rates of the three manners in Japan and Hong Kong generally moved in a parallel fashion, the increase of suicide in South Korea occurred concomitantly with a significant reduction of its accidental death rate. 43% of the increase in suicides could be attributed to the decrease in accidental deaths, while 57% of the increase could be due to fundamental causes. Conclusion Our data suggest that, during the mid-1990s and after, the increasing burden of suicide in South Korea initially was masked, in part, by misclassification. Thus, the later apparently rapid increase of suicides reflected steadily improving classification of manner of death, as well as a more fundamental increase in the suicide rate. PMID:25992879

  5. The strategic targeting of females by transnational tobacco companies in South Korea following trade liberalisation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Carpenter, Carrie; Challa, Chaitanya; Lee, Sungkyu; Connolly, Gregory N; Koh, Howard K

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1988 South Korea opened its cigarette market to foreign companies under the threat of US trade sanctions. Despite strong social stigma against female smoking in South Korea, and restrictions on tobacco marketing to women and children, smoking rates among young Korean females increased from 1.6% in 1988 to 13% in 1998. Previous analyses describe how Asian countries have been targeted by transnational tobacco companies for new markets, with Asian females offering substantial future growth potential. An understanding of the strategies used by TTCs to increase smoking among Korean females is critical to public health efforts to adopt a stronger gender perspective in implementing the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods Internal documents of transnational tobacco corporations were systematically searched using keywords focused on the targeting of the female market since market liberalisation in 1988. Industry documents were analysed alongside primary and secondary data on the tobacco industry in South Korea. Results TTCs have targeted Korean females since the late 1980s, conducting market research to understand consumer preferences, cultural characteristics and social changes affecting women and girls. Brands designed to appeal to females have focused on "slim" and "superslim" cigarettes, "light" and "mild" claims, and marketing which appeals to the growing numbers of young women entering the labour force. Strategies for overcoming legal restrictions on marketing to women and children have included the use of company rather than brand names, retail distribution at venues frequented by females, trademark diversification and sponsorship. Conclusion Given the high male smoking rates in South Korea, tobacco control efforts have given limited attention to girls and women. The limited data available on female smoking behaviour suggests that, despite legal restrictions and social stigma, smoking among females has increased since market opening

  6. Historical Analysis of the Policy on the College Entrance System in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hee Jun; Park, Ji-Hye

    2013-01-01

    The national college admission system has quite frequently been altered in South Korea since Korea was liberated from Japanese colonial rule in 1945. Nonetheless, there are still many ways in which the national college entrance system can be improved. This article initially analysed and synthesized the issues associated with the Korean college…

  7. Multicultural Education and the Rights to Education of Migrant Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Soon-Won

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews the current state of multicultural education for migrant children in South Korea and calls for a critical reorientation of multicultural education for all. Racism was deepened during the colonial period in Korea, and continues to this day. Thus I argue that the ambivalent, dualistic ethnic prejudice distorted by colonialism can…

  8. Mixing versus Sorting in Schooling: Evidence from the Equalization Policy in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taejong; Lee, Ju-Ho; Lee, Young

    2008-01-01

    This paper employs the difference-in-differences empirical strategy and quantile regressions to analyze the effects of sorting and mixing on the academic performance of high school students in South Korea. In Korea, about half of high schools are subject to the equalization policy (EP), and must therefore passively accept students randomly…

  9. Ethnic Variations in Factors Contributing to the Life Satisfaction of Migrant Wives in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Miai; Chin, Meejung; Lee, Jaerim; Lee, Soyoung

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2009 National Survey on Multicultural Families, we examined the factors associated with the level of life satisfaction among migrant wives in South Korea. Separate analyses were conducted for the four major ethnic and national groups of migrant wives in Korea: Chosun-jok (Korean Chinese), Han Chinese, Vietnamese, and Filipinas.…

  10. Gender-specific differences in risk for intimate partner violence in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Various risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been found to vary by gender. South Korea has one of the highest prevalences of IPV in the world; however, little is known about potential risk factors of IPV and whether gender influences this relationship. Methods Using data from the 2006 Korea Welfare Panel Study, 8,877 married participants (4,545 men and 4,332 women) aged ≥30 years were included. Reported IPV was categorized as verbal or physical IPV and the association between IPV and related factors was assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Women were significantly more likely than men were to report IPV victimization (verbal 28.2% vs. 24.4%; physical 6.9% vs. 3.4%). Wor odds of physical perpetration than women satisfied with their family. Moreover, alcohol intake was significantly associated with IPV perpetration and victimization in both genders. Conclusion Significant gender-specific differences were found among factors related to perpetrating violence and being a victim of violence among adults in heterosexual relationships in South Korea. PMID:24885985

  11. Accuracy comparison of spatial interpolation methods for estimation of air temperatures in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Shim, K.; Jung, M.; Kim, S.

    2013-12-01

    Because of complex terrain, micro- as well as meso-climate variability is extreme by locations in Korea. In particular, air temperature of agricultural fields are influenced by topographic features of the surroundings making accurate interpolation of regional meteorological data from point-measured data. This study was conducted to compare accuracy of a spatial interpolation method to estimate air temperature in Korean Peninsula with the rugged terrains in South Korea. Four spatial interpolation methods including Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Spline, Kriging and Cokriging were tested to estimate monthly air temperature of unobserved stations. Monthly measured data sets (minimum and maximum air temperature) from 456 automatic weather station (AWS) locations in South Korea were used to generate the gridded air temperature surface. Result of cross validation showed that using Exponential theoretical model produced a lower root mean square error (RMSE) than using Gaussian theoretical model in case of Kriging and Cokriging and Spline produced the lowest RMSE of spatial interpolation methods in both maximum and minimum air temperature estimation. In conclusion, Spline showed the best accuracy among the methods, but further experiments which reflect topography effects such as temperature lapse rate are necessary to improve the prediction.

  12. Trends in Head and Neck Cancer in South Korea Between 1999 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jeffrey D.; Cho, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose is to provide detailed estimates of population-based incidences of head and neck cancers (HNCs) between 1999 and 2012 in South Korea and to evaluate trends. Methods. Data was reviewed from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database regarding the incidence of HNCs between 1999 and 2012. Locations that were surveyed included lip, oral tongue, oral cavity, major salivary gland, nasopharynx, nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, tonsil, hypopharynx, oropharynx, and larynx. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated and provided with 95% confidence intervals. The increase ratio of HNCs for and male-to-female ratios were also calculated. Results. The incidence of lip (0.07–0.10/100,000 people) and oropharyngeal cancer (0.09–0.12/100,000 people) remained low during the study period while laryngeal cancer (1.17–2.08/100,000 people) occurred most frequently. The incidence of oral tongue, major salivary gland, tonsil, and hypopharynx increased steeply compared to other HNCs between 1999 and 2012. Male-to-female ratio was over 1.0 for all HNCs, especially for those of tonsil, hypopharynx, oropharynx, and larynx cancer which were >5.0. Conclusion. The incidence of all the HNCs except for laryngeal cancer has increased yearly in men and women in South Korea since 1998. Rates of oral tongue, major salivary gland, and tonsil cancer have increased the most rapidly during this time period. PMID:27136364

  13. Hazardous waste characterization among various thermal processes in South Korea: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Woo-Il; Jeon, Tae-Wan; Kang, Young-Yeul; Jeong, Seong-Kyeong; Yeon, Jin-Mo; Somasundaram, Swarnalatha

    2013-09-15

    Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea (South Korea) is in progress of converting its current hazardous waste classification system to harmonize it with the international standard and to set-up the regulatory standards for toxic substances present in the hazardous waste. In the present work, the concentrations along with the trend of 13 heavy metals, F(-), CN(-) and 19 PAH present in the hazardous waste generated among various thermal processes (11 processes) in South Korea were analyzed along with their leaching characteristics. In all thermal processes, the median concentrations of Cu (3.58-209,000 mg/kg), Ni (BDL-1560 mg/kg), Pb (7.22-5132.25mg/kg) and Zn (83.02-31419 mg/kg) were comparatively higher than the other heavy metals. Iron & Steel thermal process showed the highest median value of the heavy metals Cd (14.76 mg/kg), Cr (166.15 mg/kg) and Hg (2.38 mg/kg). Low molecular weight PAH (BDL-37.59 mg/kg) was predominant in sludge & filter cake samples present in most of the thermal processes. Comparatively flue gas dust present in most of the thermal processing units resulted in the higher leaching of the heavy metals. PMID:23747474

  14. Urinary concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in elementary students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hye Mi; Ha, Mina; Lee, Won Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pyrethroid pesticides are among the most commonly using insecticides in South Korean households and have been the subject of considerable interest among public health professionals for their potential health effects. The objective of this study is to examine the level of urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) among elementary students in South Korea. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate pyrethroid pesticide exposure levels by measuring the urinary metabolites of 3-PBA using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in March 2011. Study participants were 70 Asan-area and Incheon-area elementary students. Results All respondents had values above the detection limit, and the geometric means of 3-PBA in all children were 1.85 μg/L and 1.46 μg/g creatinine. Children with the top 10% urinary levels of 3-PBA were more likely to be girls, under nine years of age, living in a rural area, and living in a residential type apartment. Conclusions South Korean children have a higher concentration of urinary 3-PBA compared with those of other countries. Further research identifying exposure pathways and intervention efforts to reduce environmental pesticide use are needed in South Korea. PMID:26602560

  15. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices of South Korean food companies since the scheduled enforcement date of January 2010. The total advertising budget, number of advertisement placements and gross rating points (GRPs) for advertisements on EDNP foods aired on the five representative TV channels in South Korea were compared and analyzed for the year before and after January 2010. After January 2010, the total adverting budget, number of advertisement placements and GRPs decreased during regulated hours. Even during non-regulated hours, a significant decline was noticed in the number of advertisement placements and GRPs. The total advertising budget for non-EDNP foods increased, whereas that for EDNP foods decreased at a higher rate in addition to a drop in its percentage share. These results suggest positive changes in TV advertising practices of food companies because of the regulation, thereby lowering children's exposure to TV advertising of EDNP foods and promoting a safer environment that may facilitate child health improvement in South Korea. PMID:22717614

  16. Empirical Relationship Between Leaf Biomass of Red Pine Forests and Enhanced Vegetation Index in South Korea Using LANDSAT-5 TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusso, A.; Lee, J.; Son, Y.; Son, Y. M.

    2016-06-01

    Research on forest carbon (C) dynamics has been undertaken due to the importance of forest ecosystems in national C inventories. Currently, the C sequestration of South Korean forests surpasses that of other countries. In South Korea, Pinus densiflora (red pine) is the most abundant tree species. Thus, understanding the growth rate and biomass evolution of red pine forest in South Korea is important for estimating the forest C dynamics. In this paper, we derived empirical relationship between foliage biomass and the no blue band enhanced vegetation index (EVI-2) profile using both field work and multi-temporal Landsat-5 TM remote sensing data to estimate the productivity of forest biomass in South Korea. Our analysis combined a set of 84 Landsat-5 TM images from 28 different dates between 1986 and 2008 to study red pine forest development over time. Field data were collected from 30 plots (0.04 ha) that were irregularly distributed over South Korea. Individual trees were harvested by destructive sampling, and the age of trees were determined by the number of tree rings. The results are realistic (R2&thinsp=&thinsp0.81, p < 0.01) and suggest that the EVI-2 index is able to adequately represent the development profile of foliage biomass in red pine forest growth.

  17. Netizenship Politics: Youth, Anti-Americanism, and Rhetorical Agency in South Korea's 2002 Candlelight Vigils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a rhetorical analysis of the 2002 South Korean Candlelight Vigils ["ch'otpul siwi"] with a focus on the role of the Internet in public opinion building, the rise in anti-American sentiment in South Korea, and rhetorical agency residing in the collective. In 2002, two South Korean schoolgirls walking along a rural road near Seoul…

  18. For Whom the Bell Tolls: Globalisation, Social Class and South Korea's International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how in South Korea, English-medium international schools, initially established to educate foreign residents, have recently transformed themselves into private providers of global education for South Koreans. The article explains the social, economic and political circumstances under which the South Korean government has…

  19. Spotlight on nano-theranostics in South Korea: applications in diagnostics and treatment of diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangwha; Kim, Jongsung; Bark, Chung Wung; Lee, Bonghee; Ju, Heongkyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, TaeYoung; Kim, Moon Il; Ko, Young Tag; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Yun, Kyu-Sik; Yoon, Young Soo; An, Seong Soo A; Hulme, John

    2015-01-01

    From the synergistic integration and the multidisciplinary strengths of the BioNano Sensor Research Center, Gachon Bionano Research Institute, and Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, researchers, students, and faculties at Gachon University in collaboration with other institutions in Korea, Australia, France, America, and Japan have come together to produce a special issue on the diverse applications of nano-theranostics in nanomedicine. This special issue will showcase new research conducted by various scientific groups in Gyonggi-do and Songdo/Incheon, South Korea. The objectives of this special issue are as follows: 1) to bring together and demonstrate some of the latest research results in the field, 2) to introduce new multifunctional nanomaterials and their applications in imaging and detection methods, and 3) to stimulate collaborative interdisciplinary research at both national and international levels in nanomedicine. PMID:26345737

  20. Whose History? An Analysis of the Korean War in History Textbooks from the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Zhao, Yali; Ogawa, Masato; Hoge, John; Kim, Bok Young

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent history textbooks from the United States, Japan, China, and South Korea present the Korean War. The comparative analysis focuses on four areas: the causes of the Korean War, American involvement in the war, Chinese involvement in the war, and the results of the war. Analysis of the central story lines reveals that…

  1. Preparing for the Future IT Era: Perceptions of Students with Disabilities about IT Training in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Son, Jiyoung; Vance, Mary Lee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the perceptions and needs of students with disabilities with respect to Information Technology (IT) training. Results emerged from a survey of 324 college students with disabilities from 17 universities in South Korea. Survey questions were divided into two sections: (a) perceptions about the relevance and…

  2. The dual Green Revolutions in South Korea: reforestation and agricultural revolution under the authoritarian regime.

    PubMed

    Moon, Manyong

    2012-01-01

    In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals. PMID:22834068

  3. The complete genomic sequence of a tentative new polerovirus identified in barley in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fumei; Lim, Seungmo; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Kim, Sang-Min; Kwak, Do Yeon; Kim, Sun Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a new barley polerovirus, tentatively named barley virus G (BVG), which was isolated in Gimje, South Korea, has been determined using an RNA sequencing technique combined with polymerase chain reaction methods. The viral genomic RNA of BVG is 5,620 nucleotides long and contains six typical open reading frames commonly observed in other poleroviruses. Sequence comparisons revealed that BVG is most closely related to maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV, with the highest amino acid identities being less than 90 % for all of the corresponding proteins. These results suggested that BVG is a member of a new species in the genus Polerovirus. PMID:27146139

  4. Taxonomic Study on the Lichen Genus Cetrelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Wei, Xin Li; Han, Keon Seon; Koh, Young Jin

    2007-01-01

    Seventy-two lichen specimens of Cetrelia collected in South Korea since 2003 were examined by both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The phenotypic analysis was based on morphological and chemical characters, and the phylogenetic analysis was based on nrDNA ITS sequences. The result suggested that the presence and absence of isidia, soredia, lobules and medullar reaction C+ or C- are the important characters in the taxonomy of this genus. Four species of Cetrelia, C. chicitae, C. braunsiana, C. japonica, and C. pseudolivetorum have been identified in this study. Description of each species is presented with morphological and chemical characters. A key to the Cetrelia species is also presented. PMID:24015081

  5. Risk assessment of watershed erosion at Naesung Stream, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ji, Un; Velleux, Mark; Julien, Pierre Y; Hwang, Manha

    2014-04-01

    A three-tiered approach was used to assess erosion risks within the Nakdong River Basin in South Korea and included: (1) a screening based on topography and land use; (2) a lumped parameter analysis using RUSLE; and (3) a detailed analysis using TREX, a fully distributed watershed model. These tiers span a range of spatial and temporal scales, with each tier providing increasing detail and resolution. The first two tiers were applied to the entire Nakdong River Basin and the Naesung Stream watershed was identified as having the highest soil erosion risk and potential for sedimentation problems. For the third tier, the TREX watershed model simulated runoff, channel flow, soil erosion, and stream sediment transport in the Naesung Stream watershed at very high resolution. TREX was calibrated for surface flows and sediment transport, and was used to simulate conditions for a large design storm. Highly erosive areas were identified along ridgelines in several headwater areas, with the northeast area of Songriwon having a particularly high erosion potential. Design storm simulations also indicated that sediment deposition of up to 55 cm could occur. PMID:24548823

  6. Evidence for two koi herpesvirus (KHV) genotypes in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Jun; Kwon, Se Ryun

    2013-06-13

    The geographic distribution of koi herpesvirus (KHV) has recently been analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, based on the alleles of 3 domains) and sequence analysis using 3 regions of KHV genomic DNA (SphI-5, 9/5, and the thymidine kinase gene). In this study, samples from 6 carp showing symptoms of KHV infection in 2008 were examined for the presence of KHV by using PCR and cell culture isolation methods. KHV was detected in 2 (Pyeongtaek and Buan) of the samples. Sequence analysis revealed that the genotype of the KHV PT-08 isolate was Asia genotype variant 1 (A1), and the genotype of the KHV BA-08 isolate was European genotype variant 4 (E4). In addition, PCR patterns and sequence analysis based on the alleles of 3 domains of an alternate KHV classification system confirmed that the genotype of the KHV PT-08 isolate was CyHV3-J, and the genotype of the KHV BA-08 isolate was CyHV3-third genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the presence of 2 genotypes of KHV (genotype A1/CyHV3-J; genotype E4/CyHV3-third genotype) in South Korea. PMID:23759557

  7. Effects of Kangaroo Care on Neonatal Pain in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Sun; Lee, Joohyun; Ahn, Hye Young

    2016-06-01

    Blood sampling for a newborn screening test is necessary for all neonates in South Korea. During the heel stick, an appropriate intervention should be implemented to reduce neonatal pain. This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of kangaroo care (KC), skin contact with the mother, on pain relief during the neonatal heel stick. Twenty-six neonates undergoing KC and 30 control neonates at a university hospital participated in this study. Physiological responses of neonates, including heart rate, oxygen saturation, duration of crying and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores were measured and compared before, during and 1 min and 2 min after heel sticks. The heart rate of KC neonates was lower at both 1 and 2 min after sampling than those of the control group. Also, PIPP scores of KC neonates were significantly lower both during and after sampling. The duration of crying for KC neonates was around 10% of the duration of the control group. In conclusion, KC might be an effective intervention in a full-term nursery for neonatal pain management. PMID:26867561

  8. Reproduction of surface air temperature over South Korea using dynamical downscaling and statistical correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.; Lee, J.; Shim, K.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In spite of dense meteorological observation conducting over South Korea (The average distance between stations: ~ 12.7km), the detailed topographical effect is not reflected properly due to its mountainous terrains and observation sites mostly situated on low altitudes. A model represents such a topographical effect well, but due to systematic biases in the model, the general temperature distribution is sometimes far different from actual observation. This study attempts to produce a detailed mean temperature distribution for South Korea through a method combining dynamical downscaling and statistical correction. For the dynamical downscaling, a multi-nesting technique is applied to obtain 3-km resolution data with a focus on the domain for the period of 10 years (1999-2008). For the correction of systematic biases, a perturbation method divided into the mean and the perturbation part was used with a different correction method being applied to each part. The mean was corrected by a weighting function while the perturbation was corrected by the self-organizing maps method. The results with correction agree well with the observed pattern compared to those without correction, improving the spatial and temporal correlations as well as the RMSE. In addition, they represented detailed spatial features of temperature including topographic signals, which cannot be expressed properly by gridded observation. Through comparison with in-situ observation with gridded values after objective analysis, it was found that the detailed structure correctly reflected topographically diverse signals that could not be derived from limited observation data. We expect that the correction method developed in this study can be effectively used for the analyses and projections of climate downscaled by using region climate models. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER 2012-3083 and

  9. Analysis of Hospital Disaster in South Korea from 1990 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Back, Min-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to systematically review and analyze disasters involving South Korean hospitals from 1990 and to introduce a newly developed implement to manage patients' evacuation. Materials and Methods We searched for studies reporting disaster preparedness and hospital injuries in South Korean hospitals from 1990 to 2008, by using the Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS, copyright Korean Studies Information Co, Ltd, Seoul, Korea) and, simultaneously, hospital injuries which were reported and regarded as a disaster. Then, each study and injury were analyzed. Results Five studies (3 on prevention and structure, 1 on implement of new device, and 1 on basic supplement to current methods) and 8 injuries were found within this period. During the evacuations, the mean gait speed of walking patients was 0.82 m/s and the mean time of evacuation of individual patients was 38.39 seconds. Regarding structure evaluation, almost all hospitals had no balconies in patient rooms; hospital elevators were placed peripherally and were insufficient in number. As a new device, Savingsun (evacuation elevator) was introduced and had some merits as a fast and easy tool, regardless of patient status or the height of hospital. Conclusion In South Korea, preparation for hospital disasters was noted to be insufficient but has involved various departments such as architectural, clinical, and building operations. In addition, Savignsun has been shown to effectively evacuate and save patients in a hospital disaster. PMID:20879068

  10. Eight-year experience of using HTA in drug reimbursement: South Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun-Young; Hong, Ji-Min; Kwon, Hye-Young; Jang, Suhyun; Lee, Hye-Jae; Bae, SeungJin; Yang, Bong-Min

    2016-06-01

    This study describes the process and results of drug reimbursement decision-making in South Korea and evaluates its performance from the perspectives of the various stakeholders involved. Data were retrieved from the evaluation report posted on the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) website. As of 2014, 253 new drugs had been submitted to the HIRA for appraisal. Of these, 175 (69.2%) were recommended in favor of listing and 78 (30.8%) were rejected. Furthermore, 68 of these drugs were deemed clinically improved relative to existing drugs. For those drugs that did not demonstrate clinical superiority (which was most of them), a simple price comparison to the existing drug was utilized as a gate toward listing. On top of the base-line analysis, 104 stakeholders from the industry, academia, public office, and civic society responded to a questionnaire designed to obtain their opinions on the South Korean positive list system (PLS). Stakeholders agreed that the consistency of reimbursement decision-making has improved since 2007, while accessibility to new drugs has apparently decreased. Respondents also indicated a preference toward improved public access to decision-making information. This examination of reimbursement decisions in South Korea will illuminate critical issues for countries that are considering the introduction of similar policies. PMID:27086557

  11. Differentiation and healthy family functioning of Koreans in South Korea, South Koreans in the United States, and White Americans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Prouty, Anne M; Smith, Douglas B; Ko, Mei-Ju; Wetchler, Joseph L; Oh, Jea-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent results have been found in prior research on the Bowen Family Systems Theory concept of differentiation of self and its application to individuals, couples, and families of different cultural backgrounds. In this regard, this study examined the impact of differentiation of self on healthy family functioning, family communication, and family satisfaction with 277 participants including South Koreans living in South Korea, South Korean-born citizens living in the United States, and White Americans living in the United States. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis identified the measurement invariance of a differentiation scale (DSI-R) used for the three study groups. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) found significant differences between White Americans and South Koreans with regard to the level of differentiation. Results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses found a significant association between differentiation of self and healthy family functioning across the three groups with the American group having significantly higher differentiation than the two South Korean groups." Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:24750125

  12. Characteristics of luminescence lifetimes in natural quartz from Brazil and South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogundare, F. O.; Chithambo, M. L.

    2013-06-01

    Time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence has been used to investigate the influence of annealing temperature as well as irradiation dose on luminescence lifetimes in samples of sedimentary natural quartz from Brazil and South Korea. The luminescence was stimulated at a pulse width of 11 μ s using 470 nm blue light and detected in the wavelength region between 340 and 380 nm. Measurements were made on samples annealed between 500 and 900°C as well as on un-annealed subsets. The luminescence was excited by beta irradiation covering the dose range within 7 and 344 Gy. It was observed that in both samples, luminescence lifetimes increase with annealing temperature to a maximum at around 600°C and decrease again thereafter. As regards the effect of irradiation dose on luminescence lifetimes, it was found that the lifetimes are independent of irradiation in un-annealed samples from South Korea but decrease with irradiation in un-annealed samples from Brazil. When the quartz samples were then annealed at 800°C, that is, beyond the first phase inversion temperature (570°C) of quartz, it was found that lifetimes increased with dose in samples from South Korea but were independent of dose in the samples from Brazil. These effects of annealing temperature and irradiation dose on luminescence lifetimes have been explained using an energy band model for quartz. Results from the present work and those in the literature on natural quartz samples from some other origins showed that quartz samples have two regions of temperature, where lifetimes have distinct characteristics as a function of either annealing temperature or irradiation dose. Specifically, lifetimes go through either a peak or a minimum as a function of annealing temperature and the dependence of lifetimes on dose also depends on annealing temperature. This means that dependence luminescence lifetimes on irradiation dose or annealing temperature can be used as an indicator for the presence of phase

  13. Nationwide Surveillance for Pathogenic Microorganisms in Groundwater near Carcass Burials Constructed in South Korea in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Ha Kyung; Han, Sang Ha; Park, Su-Jung; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Ahn, Tae Seok; Lee, Joong-Bok; Jeong, Yong-Seok; Jang, Kyung Lib; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Paik, Soon Young

    2013-01-01

    Widespread outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza occurred in South Korea during 2010. In response to the culling of many animals to attenuate the spread of disease, South Korea used mass burial sites to dispose of the large number of carcasses; consequently, concerns about groundwater contamination by leachate from these burial sites are increasing. Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water, and its cleanliness is directly related to public health. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the safety of groundwater around the burial sites (total of 600 sites). A total of 1,200 groundwater samples were collected though the country, and microbial analysis was conducted during two time periods: during the spring (n = 600; April to June 2012) and after rainfall (n = 600; August to October, 2012; fall). Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were detected in 173 (14.4%) and 85 (7.1%) of the 1,200 samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. each were detected only once (0.083%). Clostridium perfringens was detected from 7 groundwater samples (0.583%), and E. coli O157:H7 was not detected. With respect to norovirus, only the GII type was detected from six groundwater samples (0.5%), and enterovirus was detected in 15 groundwater samples (1.25%). The frequency of E. coli that we detected was lower than that found in previous studies conducted in South Korea, but we detected higher frequency of fecal coliform than that observed in a previous report. The contamination frequencies of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were very low, but C. perfringens, which could be an indicator of fecal pollution, was detected in seven regions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate a low possibility of contamination from burial sites. However, consistent monitoring is required to prevent microbial contamination of groundwater near the burial sites. PMID:24351737

  14. Nationwide surveillance for pathogenic microorganisms in groundwater near carcass burials constructed in South Korea in 2010.

    PubMed

    Joung, Ha Kyung; Han, Sang Ha; Park, Su-Jung; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Ahn, Tae Seok; Lee, Joong-Bok; Jeong, Yong-Seok; Jang, Kyung Lib; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Paik, Soon Young

    2013-12-01

    Widespread outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza occurred in South Korea during 2010. In response to the culling of many animals to attenuate the spread of disease, South Korea used mass burial sites to dispose of the large number of carcasses; consequently, concerns about groundwater contamination by leachate from these burial sites are increasing. Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water, and its cleanliness is directly related to public health. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the safety of groundwater around the burial sites (total of 600 sites). A total of 1,200 groundwater samples were collected though the country, and microbial analysis was conducted during two time periods: during the spring (n = 600; April to June 2012) and after rainfall (n = 600; August to October, 2012; fall). Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were detected in 173 (14.4%) and 85 (7.1%) of the 1,200 samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. each were detected only once (0.083%). Clostridium perfringens was detected from 7 groundwater samples (0.583%), and E. coli O157:H7 was not detected. With respect to norovirus, only the GII type was detected from six groundwater samples (0.5%), and enterovirus was detected in 15 groundwater samples (1.25%). The frequency of E. coli that we detected was lower than that found in previous studies conducted in South Korea, but we detected higher frequency of fecal coliform than that observed in a previous report. The contamination frequencies of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were very low, but C. perfringens, which could be an indicator of fecal pollution, was detected in seven regions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate a low possibility of contamination from burial sites. However, consistent monitoring is required to prevent microbial contamination of groundwater near the burial sites. PMID:24351737

  15. Reassessing the high proportion of involuntary psychiatric hospital admissions in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Bola, John R; Park, Eon-Ha; Kim, Seong-Yeon

    2011-10-01

    The 2007 WHO-AIMS report on the mental health system of South Korea documented progress towards a national mental health plan, protection of human rights, and growth of community based services. Yet concern was expressed that the high proportion of involuntary to total psychiatric hospitalizations (92%) may indicate an excessively coercive system. Involuntary hospitalization in Korea rose from 117 to 132 (per 100,000) between 2000 and 2006. In 2000, the median rate in the European Union (EU) was 74 per 100,000 (Range: 6-218). While Korea's involuntary hospitalization rate is within the EU range, its proportion of involuntary hospitalizations is three times that of the highest EU country (30%, Sweden). Underdevelopment of voluntary psychiatric services and culturally mandated family referrals resulting in involuntary hospitalization are apparent reasons for the high proportion of involuntary hospitalizations. Population-based rates per 100,000 more accurately describe involuntary hospitalization than the proportion (ratio) measure used in the WHO-AIMS reports. PMID:21416122

  16. GPS ionospheric tomography: A comparison with the IRI-2001 model over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S.; Park, J.-U.

    2007-04-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere model 2001 (IRI-2001) is one of the most comprehensive empirical models of the ionosphere and has been widely used to estimate the electron density profiles in the altitude ranging from about 60 to 2000 km and the total electron content (TEC) at any given location, time and date, which reflect smooth-average global ionospheric behaviors. However, whether it provides normal actual estimations in the ionosphere over some regions should be tested with real observation data. In this paper, the three-dimensional ionospheric electron density profiles over South Korea in 2003 are obtained using the ionospheric tomography reconstruction technique with the permanent Korean GPS Network (KGN) data, and its validity is further verified by another independent ionosonde data. The GPS ionospheric reconstruction results are used to compare then results obtained with the IRI-2001 model in South Korea in terms of NmF2 and TEC. The monthly averaged diurnal values of these key parameters in January, April, July and October 2003 are considered to represent the winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons, respectively. Compared with the GPS reconstruction results, averaged monthly NmF2 medians from the IRI-2001 are overestimated in daytime and underestimated in nighttime for all seasons, but the deviation magnitudes in autumn and winter are smaller than in spring and summer. In addition, averaged monthly TEC medians from the IRI-2001 are overestimated in daytime in winter, but almost always underestimated in other seasons.

  17. Exploring Differential Science Performance in Korea and South Africa: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Mee-Ok; Scherman, Vanessa; Gaigher, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on secondary analysis of TIMSS 2003 data with the aim of explaining the difference in science achievement of Korean and South African learners. The question asked by this research, i.e. which factors at various educational levels influence science achievement in Korea and South Africa respectively, is addressed from the…

  18. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (75 FR 30434... Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty...

  19. Educating Citizens in a Multicultural Society: The Case of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jungsoon

    2010-01-01

    South Korean society is in transition toward a multicultural society. Integrating multicultural education into current citizenship education is challenging for the society. Historically, many national tragedies have created the unique characteristics of what being Korean means. South Korean social studies curriculum emphasized that Korea is a…

  20. Gender, Power and Emotion: Towards Holistic Understanding of Mature Women Students in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghoe

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the life experiences of six mature undergraduate women at a traditional 4-year university in South Korea. It explores women's construction of their university lives in the context of their wider socio-cultural experiences, both past and present, which are shaped by the socio-historical context of South Korean society.…

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Rehmannia Mosaic Virus Infecting Rehmannia glutinosa in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seungmo; Zhao, Fumei; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a South Korean isolate of Rehmannia mosaic virus (ReMV) infecting Rehmannia glutinosa was determined through next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a natural infection of R. glutinosa by ReMV in South Korea. PMID:26823577

  2. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

  3. The Diffusion of Disability Rights Policy: A Focus on Special Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Joan P.; Palley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the development of South Korean special education policy and suggests that different strategies of policy diffusion influenced the design of the policy at different times. Historically, South Korea relied on external pressures and influences, particularly US law and UN guidelines, to develop much of its human rights law,…

  4. English or Perish: How Contemporary South Korea Received, Accommodated, and Internalized English and American Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, JongHwa; Han, Min Wha; McKerrow, Raymie E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the positionality of English in South Korea as a form of symbolic capital that represents the discursive power of Americanism and East Asian Social Darwinism. By employing Bourdieu's and Foucault's theoretical orientations, this paper traces how South Korean linguistic policies to incorporate English loan words coincide with…

  5. Re-Conceptualization of Scientific Literacy in South Korea for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Hyunju; Shin, Namsoo; Kim, Sung-Won; Krajcik, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    As the context of human life expands from personal to global, a new vision of scientific literacy is needed. Based on a synthesis of the literature and the findings of an online survey of South Korean and US secondary science teachers, we developed a framework for scientific literacy for South Korea that includes five dimensions: content…

  6. Sex preferences and fertility in South Korea during the year of the Horse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin; Paik, Myungho

    2006-05-01

    Since antiquity, people in several East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, and South Korea, have believed that a person is destined to possess specific characteristics according to the sign of the zodiac under which he or she was born. South Koreans, in particular, have traditionally considered that the year of the Horse bears inauspicious implications for the birth of daughters. Using monthly longitudinal data at the region level in South Korea between 1970 and 2003, we found that in the year of the Horse, the sex ratio at birth significantly increased while fertility decreased. PMID:16889129

  7. Ambient seismic noise tomography of Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. J.; Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Kang, T. S.; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Jeju Island, formed by Cenozoic basaltic eruptions, is an island off the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. This volcanic island is far from the plate boundaries and the fundamental cause of the volcanic activity in this region is not understood well. To understand the origin of the island, resolving the detailed seismic velocity structures is crucial. Therefore, we applied ambient noise tomography to study the velocity structures of the island. Continuous waveform data recorded at 20 temporary and 3 permanent broad-band seismic stations are used. The group and phase velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves are extracted from cross-correlograms for 253 station pairs by adopting multiple filter technique. The fast marching method and the subspace method are jointly applied to construct 2-D group and phase velocity maps for periods ranging between 1 and 15 s. 1-D shear wave velocity models and their uncertainties are estimated by the Bayesian technique. The optimal number of the layers are determined at the end of the burn-in period based on the Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC). Final 3-D velocity model of the island is constructed by compiling 1-D models. In our 3-D model, a distinct low velocity anomaly appears beneath Mt. Halla from surface to about 6 km depth. The surficial extent of the anomaly is more or less consistent with the surface geologic feature of the third-stage basaltic eruption reported by previous studies but the vertical extension of the anomaly is not well constrained. To improve the velocity model, especially enhance the vertical resolution of the anomaly, we will apply joint analysis of the surface wave dispersions and teleseismic receiver functions. The improved model will provide more information to infer the tectonic or volcanic implications of the anomaly and unravel the origin of the strange volcanic island in South Korea.

  8. Forecasting international tourism demand from the US, Japan and South Korea to Malaysia: A SARIMA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhan, Nurbaizura; Arsad, Zainudin

    2014-07-01

    One of the major contributing sectors for Malaysia's economic growth is tourism. The number of international tourist arrivals to Malaysia has been showing an upward trend as a result of several programs and promotion introduced by the Malaysian government to attract international tourists to the country. This study attempts to model and to forecast tourism demand for Malaysia by three selected countries: the US, Japan and South Korea. This study utilized monthly time series data for the period from January 1999 to December 2012 and employed the well-known Box-Jenkins seasonal ARIMA modeling procedures. Not surprisingly the results show the number of tourist arrivals from the three countries contain strong seasonal component as the arrivals strongly dependent on the season in the country of origin. The findings of the study also show that the number of tourist arrivals from the US and South Korea will continue to increase in the near future. Meanwhile the arrivals from Japan is forecasted to show a drop in the near future and as such tourism authorities in Malaysia need to enhance the promotional effort to attract more tourists from Japan to visit Malaysia.

  9. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. SUBJECTS/METHODS Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. RESULTS The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. CONCLUSIONS Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake. PMID:25489413

  10. Correlation between National Influenza Surveillance Data and Google Trends in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Min Woo; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jae Ho; Ryoo, Seoung Mok; Kim, Won Young; Seo, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background In South Korea, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using internet search data, including Google Flu Trends. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between national influenza surveillance data and Google Trends in South Korea. Methods Our study was based on a publicly available search engine database, Google Trends, using 12 influenza-related queries, from September 9, 2007 to September 8, 2012. National surveillance data were obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) influenza-like illness (ILI) and virologic surveillance system. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the national surveillance and the Google Trends data for the overall period and for 5 influenza seasons. Results The correlation coefficient between the KCDC ILI and virologic surveillance data was 0.72 (p<0.05). The highest correlation was between the Google Trends query of H1N1 and the ILI data, with a correlation coefficient of 0.53 (p<0.05), for the overall study period. When compared with the KCDC virologic data, the Google Trends query of bird flu had the highest correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 (p<0.05) in the 2010-11 season. The following queries showed a statistically significant correlation coefficient compared with ILI data for three consecutive seasons: Tamiflu (r = 0.59, 0.86, 0.90, p<0.05), new flu (r = 0.64, 0.43, 0.70, p<0.05) and flu (r = 0.68, 0.43, 0.77, p<0.05). Conclusions In our study, we found that the Google Trends for certain queries using the survey on influenza correlated with national surveillance data in South Korea. The results of this study showed that Google Trends in the Korean language can be used as complementary data for influenza surveillance but was insufficient for the use of predictive models, such as Google Flu Trends. PMID:24339927

  11. Women's Unequal Access to Education in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Ji-Sun

    1994-01-01

    The subordination of South Korean women, both in general and as manifested in education and employment, results from traditional patriarchal ideology derived from Confucianism and from capitalist economic development and industrialization. Discusses sex roles in the family and workplace and sex differences in school enrollments, employment, wages,…

  12. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from Wild Rodents and Insectivores in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Juha; Kim, C-Yoon; Chang, Seo-Na; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Han, Juhee; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Hanseul; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Jong-Taek; Oh, Hong-Shik; Hur, Moonsuk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Park, Jae-Hak

    2015-12-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in wild rodents and insectivores of South Korea and to assess their potential role as a source of human cryptosporidiosis, a total of 199 wild rodents and insectivore specimens were collected from 10 regions of South Korea and screened for Cryptosporidium infection over a period of 2 years (2012-2013). A nested-PCR amplification of Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene fragment revealed an overall prevalence of 34.2% (68/199). The sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene locus of Cryptosporidium was performed from the fecal and cecum samples that tested positive by COWP amplification PCR. As a result, we identified 4 species/genotypes; chipmunk genotype I, cervine genotype I, C. muris, and a new genotype which is closely related to the bear genotype. The new genotype isolated from 12 Apodemus agrarius and 2 Apodemus chejuensis was not previously identified as known species or genotype, and therefore, it is supposed to be a novel genotype. In addition, the host spectrum of Cryptosporidium was extended to A. agrarius and Crosidura lasiura, which had not been reported before. In this study, we found that the Korean wild rodents and insectivores were infected with various Cryptosporidium spp. with large intra-genotypic variationa, indicating that they may function as potential reservoirs transmitting zoonotic Cryptosporidium to livestock and humans. PMID:26797442

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA SEROGROUPS ISOLATED FROM WATER SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC FACILITIES IN BUSAN, SOUTH KOREA.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Yeong; Park, Eun-Hee; Park, Yon-Koung; Park, Sun-Hee; Sung, Gyung-Hye; Park, Hye-Young; Lee, Young-Choon

    2016-05-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the major causes of legionellosis worldwide. The distribution of L. pneumophila was investigated in water systems of public facilities in Busan, South Korea during 2007 and 2013-2014. L. pneumophila was isolated from 8.3% of 3,055 samples, of which the highest isolation rate (49%) was from ships and the lowest 4% from fountains. Serogroups of L. pneumophila isolated in 2007 were distributed among serogroups (sgs) 1-7 with the exception of sg 4, while those of isolates during 2013 and 2014 included also 11 sgs ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15). L. pneumophila sg 1 was predominated among isolates from fountains (75%), hotels (60%), buildings (44%), hospitals (38%), and public baths (37%), whereas sg 3 and sg 7 was the most prevalent from ships (46%) and factories (40%), respectively. The predominated serogroup of L. pneumophila isolates from hot and cooling tower water was sg 1 (35% and 46%, respectively), while from cold water was sg 3 (29%). These results should be useful for epidemiological surveys to identify sources of outbreaks of legionellosis in Busan, South Korea. PMID:27405130

  14. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from Wild Rodents and Insectivores in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juha; Kim, C-Yoon; Chang, Seo-Na; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Han, Juhee; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Hanseul; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Jong-Taek; Oh, Hong-Shik; Hur, Moonsuk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Park, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in wild rodents and insectivores of South Korea and to assess their potential role as a source of human cryptosporidiosis, a total of 199 wild rodents and insectivore specimens were collected from 10 regions of South Korea and screened for Cryptosporidium infection over a period of 2 years (2012-2013). A nested-PCR amplification of Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene fragment revealed an overall prevalence of 34.2% (68/199). The sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene locus of Cryptosporidium was performed from the fecal and cecum samples that tested positive by COWP amplification PCR. As a result, we identified 4 species/genotypes; chipmunk genotype I, cervine genotype I, C. muris, and a new genotype which is closely related to the bear genotype. The new genotype isolated from 12 Apodemus agrarius and 2 Apodemus chejuensis was not previously identified as known species or genotype, and therefore, it is supposed to be a novel genotype. In addition, the host spectrum of Cryptosporidium was extended to A. agrarius and Crosidura lasiura, which had not been reported before. In this study, we found that the Korean wild rodents and insectivores were infected with various Cryptosporidium spp. with large intra-genotypic variationa, indicating that they may function as potential reservoirs transmitting zoonotic Cryptosporidium to livestock and humans. PMID:26797442

  15. Assessment of Coastal Ecosystem Services for Conservation Strategies in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Min Gon; Kang, Hojeong; Choi, Sung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that scientific and political consideration for ecosystem services has dramatically increased over the past decade, few studies have focused on marine and coastal ecosystem services for conservation strategies. We used an ecosystem services approach to assess spatial distributions of habitat risks and four ecosystem services (coastal protection, carbon storage, recreation, and aesthetic quality), and explored the tradeoffs among them in coastal areas of South Korea. Additionally, we analyzed how the social and ecological characteristics in coastal areas interact with conservation and development policies by using this approach. We found strong negative associations between the habitat risks and ecosystem services (aquaculture, carbon storage, recreation, and aesthetic quality) across the coastal counties. Our results showed that the intensity of the habitat risks and the provision of ecosystem services were significantly different between reclamation-dominated and conservation-dominated counties, except for coastal vulnerability. A generalized linear model suggested that reclamation projects were dependent on economic efficiency, whereas demographic pressures and habitat conditions influenced the designation of protected areas at a county level. The ecosystem services approach provided guidelines to achieve both sustainable development and environment conservation. By using the approach, we can select the priority areas for developments while we can minimize the degradation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. As cultural ecosystem services are evenly distributed throughout coastal areas of South Korea, decision makers may employ them to improve the conditions of coastal wetlands outside of protected areas. PMID:26221950

  16. Exploring sex disparity in sentencing outcomes: a focus on narcotics offenders in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Richard D; Kwak, Dae-Hoon; Park, Mirang; Lee, Min-Sik

    2011-04-01

    Most research on sentencing outcomes reveals that legally relevant factors such as the seriousness of the offense and prior criminal record are primary determinants. There is, however, a substantial body of research that finds that extralegal factors such as a defendant's sex also influence these outcomes. Most of these latter studies conclude that female defendants receive less severe outcomes compared to their male counterparts. Most of this research, however, is limited to Western societies. To extend this body of research, the current study examines sex differences in sentencing practices for a sample of narcotics offenders in South Korea. Results support previous research; female drug offenders in South Korea are generally treated more leniently than their male counterparts. Tests for interaction effects reveal that the defendant's sex also interacts with other constellations of factors to produce lenient treatment for certain female defendants. These tests, however, also reveal that lenient sentence outcomes are not extended to all female defendants; those with prior drug convictions do not fare better than their male counterparts at the incarceration decision. PMID:20142625

  17. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-02-01

    This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease. PMID:26951983

  18. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-01-01

    This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease. PMID:26951983

  19. Estimated Prevalence of Glaucoma in South Korea Using the National Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang Jin; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Sang Yeop; Bae, Hyoung Won; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma and costs associated with glaucoma care in South Korea between 2008 and 2013 using the Korean national claims database. Design. Retrospective cross-sectional study from a national claims database. Methods. Patients who were diagnosed with glaucoma between 2008 and 2013 were retrospectively identified in the national claims database using glaucoma diagnostic codes. For each year, the prevalence of glaucoma and direct medical costs associated with glaucoma care were estimated. Result. The prevalence of glaucoma in patients ≥40 years of age increased from 0.79% in 2008 to 1.05% in 2013. The number of patients with glaucoma increased by 54% between 2008 and 2013 (9% average annual increase). The prevalence of glaucoma increased with age and was higher in males than in females. The cost to care for glaucoma patients increased from $16.5 million in 2008 to $29.2 million in 2013, which translated into an 81% increase over the 6 years examined (12.7% average annual increase). Conclusion. The estimated prevalence and socioeconomic burden of glaucoma have steadily increased each year in South Korea. Nevertheless, many glaucoma patients remain undiagnosed in the present study using national claims database. PMID:27247797

  20. South Korea Builds a Global University, with Help from the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    Built on 1,500 acres of land reclaimed from the Yellow Sea off Incheon, about 35 miles from South Korea's capital, New Songdo City is billed as the largest private real-estate development in history. It is Korea's answer to Shanghai and Dubai. Estimates put the cost of the Songdo project, which is barely five years old, at up to $60-billion. The…

  1. The Change of First-flowering Date over South Korea Projected from Downscaled IPCC AR5 Simulation: Peach and Pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.

    2014-12-01

    The variations in the first-flowering date (FFD) of peach (Prunus persica) and pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) under future climate change in South Korea are investigated using simulations obtained from five models of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. For the study, daily temperature simulations with Historical (1986-2005), and RCP (2071-2090) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are statistically downscaled to 50 peach and pear FFD (FFDpeach and FFDpear, respectively) observation sites over South Korea. The number of days transformed to standard temperature (DTS) method is selected as the phenological model and applied to simulations for estimating FFDpeach and FFDpear over South Korea, due to its superior performance on the target plants and region compared to the growing degree days (GDD) and chill days (CD) methods. In the analysis, mean temperatures for early spring (February to April) over South Korea in 2090 under RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are expected to have increased by 1.9K and 3.3K, respectively. Among the early spring months of February to April, February shows the largest temperature increase of 2.1K and 3.7K for RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, respectively. The increased temperature during February and March accelerates the plant growth rate and thereby advances FFDpeach by 7.0 and 12.7 days and FFDpear by 6.1 and 10.7 days, respectively. These results imply that the present flowering of peach and pear in the middle of April will have advanced to late March or early April by the end of this century. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953, Republic of Korea.

  2. A novel overall approach for sediment-related disaster prevention in urban areas, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongyeob; Lee, Changwoo; Woo, Choongshik; Jeong, Seonhwan

    2015-04-01

    In South Korea, we had 140 landslides around Mt. Umyeon of Seoul city on July 27, 2011, which caused 16 deaths and more than 150 house damages. These landslides were triggered by a severe rainfall event with the total amount of 365 mm, equivalent to a 100-year-recurrence interval event. The landslide disaster in Mt. Umyeon is the first sediment-related disaster posing the significant serious damages to urban areas in South Korea which requires overall reconsideration about prevention, warning, countermeasure and rehabilitation to sediment-related disasters in urban areas. To meet such demands of society, the Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI), competent to the sediment-related disasters research, is committed to conducting on a research project of development of a prevention system for sediment-related disasters in urban areas including non-structural countermeasures such as construction of landslide early warning system and structural ones such as development of urban-typed debris flow barriers. Of these countermeasures, a proto-type of landslide early warning system consisting of a variety of sensors such as soil moisture content sensor and tensiometer has been tested in-situ in a point view of system performance maintenance. We have also tried to find the threshold of the sensors by slope failure experiments. Meanwhile, two types of debris flow barriers for urban areas were developed and their functioning abilities have been tested by both of flume test and computational structure analysis. We hope these research results would mitigate potential damages efficiently by sediment-related disasters in urban areas.

  3. Late Holocene flooding records from the floodplain deposits of the Yugu River, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jaesoo; Lee, Jin-Young; Hong, Sei-Sun; Kim, Ju-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Predicting responses of regional hydrological cycles to global warming requires an understanding of past hydrological events on various timescales. This study investigated the variability of flooding as recorded in fluvial floodplain deposits. The percentage of sand-sized material in two cores collected from the floodplain of the Yugu River, one of the tributaries of the Keum River, central South Korea, has been tested as a proxy for the occurrence and magnitude of past flooding. The sand fraction of the floodplain deposits in cores KL28 and KL29, which record deposition over the last 3500 years, varied on multicentury timescales and suggests several past episodes of higher frequency large floods. These clusters of large floods seem to correlate well with Northern Hemisphere temperature anomalies and suggest that more frequent large floods occurred during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) than during the Little Ice Age (LIA). The occurrence of more frequent large floods on the Keum River tributary may have been driven by intensified northerly winds over East Asia and resultant moisture convergence over Korea and/or a weakened thermal gradient between the tropical ocean and Asian continent. Furthermore, the centennial-scale changes in the sand fraction of the floodplain deposits were partly similar to remote El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity, implying a possible link between flooding in central South Korea and ENSO activity. This study has demonstrated that floodplain deposits have much potential for recording paleofloods though floodplains can be, and quite often are, very complex places in terms of their depositional history. In regions where natural lakes suitable for the study of paleohydrology and paleoclimate are lacking, well-controlled time-series data for the sand content at multiple sites in fluvial floodplains may be used to understand paleoflooding and extreme precipitation variability in the past.

  4. 3-D Structure of the Moho Interface beneath South Korea from Regional Seismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, R.; Siegel, J.; Chan, W. C.

    2007-12-01

    The current project is concerned with the collection and processing of seismic waveform data to perform 3-D tomographic inversions and produce high-resolution 3-D crustal P- and S-wave velocity models for the South Korean peninsula. At present, we have analyzed and archived Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) waveform data from 2001 through 2006 and mapped of the Moho discontinuity below South Korea. Phase arrival information from both, velocity and accelerometer sensors were collected. The analysis included 226 events throughout the region producing a total of 6,275 phase picks including Pg, Pn, Sg/Lg, and Sn phases. A total of 3,550 P-wave and 2,725 S-wave phases were identified. Using the combination of all available velocity and accelerometer data it was possible to estimate depth locations for 198 KMA events. The hypocenters were subsequently used to derive travel-time distance curves to appraise the quality of the travel-time picks. Static corrections were calculated for each seismic station within the KMA network to remove the effects of local inhomogeneities in the vicinity of each station. After applying static corrections to the observed travel-times, refracted P-wave phases along the Moho boundary were selected from the dataset to estimate the depth and topography of the Moho discontinuity beneath South Korea. In total, 526 Pn phases were collected from the KMA data with hypocentral distances from 130 km to over 650 km. The resulting Moho topography reveals a slightly undulating interface with a large-scale dip from north (31 km) to south (38 km) and a depth range from 32 km in the east to 39 km in the south-west. On a smaller scale, a more pronounced depression is evident in the south- central part of the mapped area, which opens to the south. The presented results are corroborated by other studies which mapped the Moho interface using surface-wave dispersion and receiver-function analysis. The present study is complementary to these earlier

  5. Characteristics of the E - and F -region field-aligned irregularities in middle latitudes: Initial results obtained from the Daejeon 40.8 MHz VHF radar in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Young-Sil; Yang, Tae-Yong; Kil, Hoysub; Phanikumar, D.; Heo, Bok-Haeng; Lee, Jae-Jin; Hwang, Junga; Choi, Seong-Hwan; Park, Young-Deuk; Choi, Ho-Seong

    2014-03-01

    We present preliminary observations of the field-aligned-irregularities (FAIs) in the E and F regions during the solar minimum (2009 - 2010) using the 40.8 MHz coherent backscatter radar at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, 26.7°N dip latitude) in South Korea. The radar, which consists of 24 Yagi antennas, observes the FAIs using a single beam with a peak power of 24 kW. The radar has been continuously operated since December 2009. Depending on the manner of occurrence of the backscatter echoes, the E-region echoes are largely divided into two types: quasi-periodic (QP) and continuous echoes. Our observations show that the QP echoes occur frequently above an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunset period and continuous echoes occur preferentially around an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunrise period. QP echoes appear as striated discrete echoes for a period of about 10 - 20 min. The QP-type echoes occur more frequently than the continuoustype echoes do and the echo intensity of the QP type is stronger than that of the continuous type. In the F region, the FAIs occur at night at an altitude interval of 250 - 450 km. As time proceeds, the occurrence height of the FAIs gradually increases until early in the morning and then decreases. The duration of the F-region FAIs is typically a few hours at night, although, in rare cases, FAIs persist throughout the night or appear even after sunrise. We discuss the similarities and differences of the FAIs observed by the Daejeon radar in comparison with other radar observations.

  6. Contributions of the pollutant emission in South Korea to the aerosol concentrations and depositions in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soon-Ung; Lee, In-Hye; Choe, Anna; Joo, Seung Jin

    2015-05-01

    The spatial distributions of annual mean concentrations and the annual total depositions of the Asian dust (AD) aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosol (AA) in 2010 are investigated with pollutant emissions over the whole model domain of Asia and without the pollutant emission from South Korea using the Aerosol Modeling System (AMS) that is modified from the Asian Dust Aerosol Model2 (ADAM2) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling System. The annual mean surface aerosol concentrations in Asia are found to affect a wide region as a complex mixture of AA and AD aerosols. However, the contribution of the pollutant emission from South Korea is found to be limited to the neighboring regions. The annual total aerosol deposition in Asia is 485.2 Tg. However, the contribution due to the pollutant emission from South Korea is about 1.9 Tg, suggesting of no significant contribution to the environment.

  7. Research on Korean Pharmacopuncture in South Korea since 2007

    PubMed Central

    Lim, ChungSan; Park, SangKyun; Sun, SeungHo; Lee, KwangHo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the current trends in research on pharmacopuncture in Korea since 2007. Methods: A literature review was performed by using the search engines ‘Science and Technology Society Village’, ‘Korean Studies Information Service System’, ‘National Discovery for Science Leaders’, and ‘Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System’ in Korea from January 2007 to December 2013. Searched key words were ‘pharmacopuncture’, ‘herbal acupuncture’, ‘aqua-acupuncture’, and ‘bee venom’. Finally, we selected 457 papers, including Korean experimental studies and clinical studies. Selected papers were classified according to year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease & topic, research type and the publishing journal. Results: One hundred fifty pharmacopunctures were studied in 457 papers. Single compound pharmacopuncture was the most studied pharmacopuncture in experimental studies while animal-based pharmacopuncture was the most studied pharmacopuncture in clinical studies. Bee venom placed first among the various pharmacopunctures, followed by placenta, sweet bee venom, mountain-ginseng, and anti-inflammatory pharmacopunctures. Experimental research on pharmacopuncture has fallen since 2007 when 55 papers were published. However, clinical research has been increasing steadily. In clinical studies, case reports were numerous than randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Musculoskeletal diseases were the most frequently-treated diseases in studies on pharmacopuncture; among the musculoskeletal diseases, rheumatoid arthritis was the most frequently-treated disease in experimental studies and low back pain was the most frequently-treated condition in clinical studies. Since 2007, 45 different journals have published studies on pharmacopuncture, with the Journal of the Korean Acupuncture and Moxibustion Medicine Society having the largest number of papers on pharmacopuncture and the

  8. A taxonomic review of the genus Dolichomitus Smith (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from South Korea with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Kyung; Kolarov, Janko; Jeong, Jong-Chul; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Nineteen species of the genus Dolichomitus Smith (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) are recognized from South Korea, including 15 newly recorded species as well as two species new to science, Dolichomitus koreanus sp. nov., and D. rufinus sp. nov., A key to the species of the genus Dolichomitus in South Korea is provided, together with diagnostic illustrations. PMID:27395664

  9. Relationship between Staff-Reported Culture Change and Occupancy Rate and Organizational Commitment among Nursing Homes in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung; Lim, Jinseop; Kim, Young Sun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine culture change in nursing homes in South Korea and to identify the outcomes of culture change implementation. Design and Methods: Data were taken from survey responses from 223 top- or mid-level staff among nursing homes in South Korea that were selected through a proportionate random-stratified sampling method…

  10. Ionospheric Signatures of the Earthquake in South Korea on 31 March 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, P. H.; Yoon, M.; Yang, Y. M.; Lee, J.; Komjathy, A.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies on interactions between the atmospheric waves and ionospheric perturbations concluded that the acoustic-gravity waves triggered by solid earth events such as earthquakes, tsunamis and underground nuclear tests may be used in detecting the ionospheric perturbations. Ionospheric perturbations have been observed using sounding radars and GPS remote sensing techniques since 1970s. As primary examples, ionospheric disturbances associated with the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 were observed and analyzed using GPS measurements. In this work, we processed GPS stations in South Korea and analyzed traveling ionospheric disturbances that were coincident with the 2014 South Korean earthquake. The 31 March 2014 earthquake occurred at 19:48 UTC and the magnitude of this event was registered to be 5.0 Mw. This earthquake is the fourth strongest in South Korea since records began. After analyzing GPS measurements from nearby stations, strong ionospheric perturbations were observed about 20 minutes after the reported event, and the disturbances were shown to have primarily a wave train with periods of 60-120 minutes. The maximum VTEC perturbations turned out to be between 0.6 to 1.3 TECU. In this research, we will analyze the characteristics of the detected ionospheric perturbations associated with the earthquake and compare these results with those from man-made earthquakes such as underground nuclear tests. These findings are expected to verify our modeling results. We also hope to get a better understanding of the influence of both natural hazards and man-made hazards on the temporal and spatial variability of the global ionosphere

  11. Environmental influences on youth eating habits: insights from parents and teachers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lawrence, Robert; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Youth obesity has increased over the past two decades in South Korea. Researchers employed in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with parents and teachers from 26 schools in metropolitan South Korea, to examine environmental factors affecting youth eating habits. Home environment and exposure to healthy foods were the most important factors influencing healthy eating habits. Families with working mothers eat out more than do families with stay-at-home mothers. Poor nutrition education is associated with low vegetable intake in elementary school lunches. A cultural emphasis on academic achievement adversely affects children's eating practices. Findings can guide future studies and inform program development. PMID:24884552

  12. Boryeong Thermal Power Complex, Boryeong-Si, Chungcheongnam-do Province, South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, J.D.

    2008-10-15

    From tall skyscrapers and flashing neon signs to Buddhist temples and pagodas, South Korea is a mixture of the new and old Asia. Doing its part to help modernise this country, the Boryeong thermal power complex operates six coal-fired 500-MW units that provide electricity to power South Korea's economic growth. One of the important reasons for this facility's overall success is its operational reliability. An example of this is Boryeong Unit 3's outstanding achievement of 3,000 days of trouble-free operation. The Complex also has a dozen 150 MW combined cycle units burning imported liquefied natural gas for electrical system peaking. 4 photos.

  13. Susceptibility of South Korea to Extremes Affecting the Global Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chon, So Young; Puma, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Food security in South Korea is tightly linked to the global food system. The country's production of major grains declined from 5.8 million metric tons (mmt) in 1998 to 4.8 mmt in 2014, which caused the country's grain self suciency to decline from 31.4% to 24%. This decline is a consequence of several factors including reductions in domestic agricultural land, governmental policies supporting industry over agriculture, and a push towards trade liberalization. South Korea's self suciency is now one of the lowest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, leaving it vulnerable to disruptions in the global food system.

  14. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) in Northeastern Asia and population substructure in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lissovsky, Andrey A; Park, Sun-Kyung; Obolenskaya, Ekaterina V; Dokuchaev, Nikolay E; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Li; Kim, Young-Jun; Voloshina, Inna; Myslenkov, Alexander; Choi, Tae-Young; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang

    2008-12-31

    Twenty-five chipmunk species occur in the world, of which only the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus, inhabits Asia. To investigate mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of the Siberian chipmunk in northeastern Asia, we examined mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (1140 bp) from 3 countries. Analyses of 41 individuals from South Korea and 33 individuals from Russia and northeast China resulted in 37 haplotypes and 27 haplotypes, respectively. There were no shared haplotypes between South Korea and Russia--northeast China. Phylogenetic trees and network analysis showed 2 major maternal lineages for haplotypes, referred to as the S and R lineages. Haplotype grouping in each cluster was nearly coincident with its geographic affinity. In particular, 3 distinct groups were found that mostly clustered in the northern, central and southern parts of South Korea. Nucleotide diversity of the S lineage was twice that of lineage R. The divergence between S and R lineages was estimated to be 2.98-0.98 Myr. During the ice age, there may have been at least 2 refuges in South Korea and Russia--northeast China. The sequence variation between the S and R lineages was 11.3% (K2P), which is indicative of specific recognition in rodents. These results suggest that T. sibiricus from South Korea could be considered a separate species. However, additional information, such as details of distribution, nuclear genes data or morphology, is required to strengthen this hypothesis. PMID:18852526

  15. Social integration and heath policy issues for international marriage migrant women in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, Korea was largely considered to be a homogenous, racially intolerant country that had little or no experience with large-scale immigration. However, this paradigm is in the process of changing. For the first time in the country's history, large numbers of foreigners are immigrating to work and live in Korea, and many are seeking to become Koreans. In particular, international marriage migrations, especially those of women entering the country through marriages to Korean men, have become common in South Korea. This has given rise to serious challenges within the country. Although conventional ideologies portray Korea as a country of a single race, culture, and language, the growing number of immigrants has disrupted this homogenous monoculture. Indeed, there are signs that Korea has reached a turning point, with an increasingly permanent and visible migrant population challenging the country's national identity. This article explores the statistics and trends related to international marriage migrant women in South Korea, particularly in terms of their social insecurities and health-related problems. In addition, some aspects of Korean governmental policies for the social integration and health promotion of these women are examined, and some suggestions are made for ways in which public health nursing and nursing education may be changed in response to the current trends. PMID:21087310

  16. Long-term care services expenditure projection in South Korea from 2015 to 2050.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    South Korea has been undergoing significant change in its population structure over the past three decades. Within 10 years, South Korean baby-boomers will reach the age of 65 years and accelerate this change. This trend in population structure is crucial, because an aging population may increase medical demand, especially that for long-term care (LTC) services, which would create a financial burden on society. This study estimates total LTC expenditure in South Korea from 2015 to 2050 by modifying the method proposed by the UK Personal Social Science Research Unit, the seminal study on projecting costs of LTC services. Using population data from the projections of the Korean Statistical Information Service, I stratify the projected population by gender and age, using the groups 65-69, 70-74, 75-79 and 80 or over and divide LTC services into two categories, namely facility and home care. South Korea's total LTC expenditure is predicted to continuously increase and then reach 4.2% of GDP in 2050. Expenditure on LTC services for women is higher than that for men. Moreover, the increase in total expenditure is dramatic after 2040 for home-based services but is constant for facility services. This study shows that the presence of baby-boomers heavily influences LTC expenditure in South Korea. PMID:23852940

  17. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...On June 2, 2010, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). The Department has conducted expedited (120-day) sunset reviews for these orders pursuant to 19 CFR......

  18. Suicidal ideation in gay men and lesbians in South Korea: a test of the interpersonal-psychological model.

    PubMed

    Kim, SungYeon; Yang, Eunjoo

    2015-02-01

    Gay men and lesbians in South Korea are alienated and stigmatized due to the country's low tolerance of social differences, resulting in distress and suicidal impulses. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation in a gay and lesbian group in South Korea based on the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide. Differences between the gay and lesbian group and the heterosexual group were found in the direct path between perceived burdensomeness and suicidal ideation. The relationship was significant for both groups, but the path coefficient was greater for lesbians and gay men than for heterosexuals. These findings imply that perceived burdensomeness may be a more critical factor in suicidal ideation of lesbians and gay men. PMID:25220014

  19. Interactive survey of consumer awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in consumer products in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Kwon, Hyo Jin; An, Seong Soo A; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Pie, Jae-Eun; Yoon, Myoung; Kim, Ja Hei; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to understand consumers’ risk awareness and need for relevant information about nanotechnology and nanoparticles contained in products currently being sold in Korea. Methods One thousand and seven adult consumers (aged 20–50 years) were randomly selected from all over South Korea between November 1 and 9, 2010. We surveyed the origin and degree of their concern and their need for information and education regarding nanomaterials. Results Analysis of the survey results showed no significant differences in responses by sex, age, and level of education, but significant differences were found in responses based on average monthly household income. Our research showed that consumers have vague expectations for and positive image of nanotechnology and nanoproducts but do not clearly understand what they are. In addition, we found that preparing and disseminating information to consumers is required in order to provide correct information about nanotechnology to the public. Conclusion A communication system should be established among the multiple stakeholders involved with nanomaterials to address consumer expectations and concerns. Further, a safety evaluation system must be set up, the results of which should be processed by a reliable expert group so they can be disseminated to the public. PMID:25565822

  20. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Type Distribution Among 968 Women in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyeong A; Hong, Jin Hwa; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geographic variation in the prevalence of carcinogenic types and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution is closely associated with the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccines. We determined the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among healthy women in Korea. Methods: This study included 968 healthy women who were examined at a health promotion center of the Korea University Guro Hospital between January and June 2013. Each participant had a Pap test and a HPV DNA test using the Anyplex™ II HPV 28 Detection system, which detects 19 high-risk HPVs (HR HPVs) and 9 low-risk HPVs (LR HPVs). Women with abnormal cytology and/or positivity for HR HPVs were referred to colposcopic biopsy. Results: Overall HR HPV prevalence based on the assay was 33.7%. Among them, 225 women had single infection and 101 women had multiple infection. The most frequently occurring HR HPV types were 53 (6.5%), 52 (6.1%), 58 (4.8%), 16 (4.5%), and 68 (4.2%). The most frequently occurring LR HPV types were 54 (5.4%), 70 (3.8%), 42 (3.6%), 61 (3.4%), and 44 (3.1%). The prevalence of HPV 16 was highest (17.6%) among women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and HPV 16 was strongly associated with a diagnosis of CIN2/3 (odds ratio = 20.5; 95% confidence interval: 3.9–107.1; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: HPV 53, 52, 58, 16, and 68 were common HR HPV types among healthy Korean women. HPV16 was the most common type in high-grade CIN lesions, as shown in most studies worldwide. The results might be useful information for cervical cancer prevention in South Korea. PMID:27390739

  1. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in agricultural products consumed in South Korea: an exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunkyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Kyeongyeol; Shim, Won-Bo; Kuzmina, Nina; Oh, Keum-Soon; Lee, Jong-Ok; Kim, Dong-Sul; Suh, Junghyuck; Lee, Soo-Hyung; Chung, Kee-Hey; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2009-02-01

    To survey fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2) in agricultural products consumed in South Korea and provide an exposure assessment, ground samples were extracted (80% MeOH), filtered (0.2 microm), and cleaned up. After evaporation, dry residues were reconstituted in 50% MeOH, and a 50-micro1 aliquot of this sample was mixed with 200 micro1 of o-phthaldialdehyde for derivatization. The derivatives were analyzed with a high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a fluorescence detector. For validation of the detection procedure, linearity, accuracy, precision, detection limit, and quantification limit were determined. The validated detection method was then used to survey fumonisins in white rice, brown rice, barley, barley tea, beer, wheat flour, millet, dried corn, corn flour, corn tea, canned corn, popcorn, and breakfast cereal. Retention times for FB1 and FB2 standards were 7 and 18 min, respectively. Linearity (R2 = 0.99995 to 0.99998), accuracy (81.47 to 108.83%), precision (2.35 to 5.77), detection limit (25 ng/g or ng/ml), and quantification limit (37 ng/g or ng/ml) indicated that this procedure is capable of quantifying fumonisins in agricultural products. Only FB1-positive samples (5.12%, three dried corn samples and five corn flour samples) were found at 90.89 to 439.67 ng/g. According the survey results, an estimated daily intake of FB1 and FB2 in Korea was 0.087 ng/kg of body weight per day. These results indicate that continuous monitoring of these mycotoxins is necessary to establish appropriate risk assessment, and the maximum tolerable daily intake of fumonisins in Korea is lower than the 2 microg/kg set by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization-World Health Organization Expert Committee. PMID:19350995

  2. The Psychometric Properties of the Clock Drawing Test in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Heon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of the present study were to analyze the validity and reliability of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) as a screening tool for cognitive impairments in both stroke patients and older adults in South Korea. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-three stroke patients and 42 elderly residents living in urban communities were recruited. They were divided into three groups according to K-MMSE scores. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA was used for construct validity, Friedman two-way ANOVA for discriminative validity, and Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient for inter-rater reliability. [Results] Regardless of groups, construct and discriminative validity tests showed statistically significant results, and Spearman’s rho was over 0.56. [Discussion] CDT demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. CDT using the productive methods and Freedman’s scoring systems may be suitable for cognitive decrease in stroke patients and the elderly. PMID:25140109

  3. Flood Inundation Analysis Considering Mega Floods in PyeonChang River Basin of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Han, D.; Choi, C.; Lee, J.; Kim, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, abnormal climate has frequently occurred around the world due to global warming. In South Korea, more than 90% of damage due to natural disasters has been caused by extreme events like strong wind and heavy rainfall. Most studies regarding the impact of extreme events on flood damage have focused on a single heavy rainfall event. But several heavy rainfall events can be occurred continuously and these events will affect occurring huge flood damage. This study explores the impact of the continuous extreme events on the flood damage. Here we call Mega flood for this type of flood which is caused by the continuous extreme events. Inter Event Time Definition (IETD) method is applied for making Mega flood scenarios depending on independent rainfall event scenarios. Flood inundations are estimated in each situation of the Mega flood scenarios and the flood damages are estimated using a Multi-Dimensional Flood Damage Analysis (MD-FDA) method. As a result, we expect that flood damage caused by Mega flood leads to much greater than damage driven by single rainfall event. The results of this study can be contributed for making a guideline and design criteria in order to reduce flood damage.This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) and grant funded by the Korean government (MEST; No. 2011-0028564).

  4. Mental health services and R&D in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Sang-Uk; Soh, Minah; Ryu, Vin; Kim, Hyunjin; Jang, Jung Won; Lim, Hee Young; Jeon, Mina; Park, Jong-Ik; Choi, SungKu; Ha, Kyooseob

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization has asserted that mental illness is the greatest overriding burden of disease in the majority of developed countries, and that the socioeconomic burden of mental disease will exceed that of cancer and cardiovascular disorders in the future. The life-time prevalence rate for mental disorders in Korea is reported at 27.6 %, which means three out of 10 adults experience mental disorders more than once throughout their lifetime. Korea's suicide rate has remained the highest among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations for 10 consecutive years, with 29.1 people out of every 100,000 having committed suicide. Nevertheless, a comprehensive study on the mental health services and the Research and Development (R&D) status in Korea is hard to find. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the mental health services and the R&D status in Korea, and examines their shortcomings and future direction. The paper discusses the mental health service system, budget and human resources, followed by the mental health R&D system and budget. And, by a comparison with other OECD countries, the areas for improvement are discussed and based on that, a future direction is suggested. This paper proposes three measures to realize mid and long-term mental health promotion services and to realize improvements in mental health R&D at the national level: first, establish a national mental health system; second, forecast demand for mental health; and third, secure and develop mental health professionals. PMID:27257434

  5. Adult Retraining and Reskilling in Australia and South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Katrina; Lee, Young-Hyun; Phan, Oanh; Ra, Young-Sun

    A study explored the mechanisms used by adults in Australia and Korea to keep their skills current or to enhance their range of skills. Data were gathered through recent research reports and unpublished unemployment and training data. The study identified areas of the vocational education and training systems in the two countries that are…

  6. Yonghuang Therm Power Plant Units 1 and 2, Inchon, South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2005-08-01

    Because South Korea depends heavily on imported fuels, its government continues to encourage energy diversification. Today Korea has about 60,000 MW of installed capacity that is fueled equally by coal, liquefied natural gas, and nuclear fission. Although the linchpins of the ongoing diversification program are more nukes and more plants powered by imported LNG, another piece of the plan is to make greater use of the country's domestic coal supplies. That is where Korea South-East Power Co. enters the picture, with two new supercritical units that showcase the technology's 40% efficiency. The plant has two 800-MW units and two identical units are under construction at the site. The plant has two-stage combustion and low NOx burners followed by selective catalytic reduction on each unit. SOx emissions are under 45 ppm. An integrated control and monitoring system helps keep down operating costs. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications in transplantation journals from Mainland China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan between 2006 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Qiu-Ju; Su, Huai-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to compare the quantity and quality of scientific publications in transplantation fields that were written by researchers from Mainland China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan in the East Asia region. Settings East Asia. Participants and outcome measures Articles except editorials, conference abstracts, letters, news and corrections published in 25 transplantation journals from 2006 to 2015 were screened with the Web of Science database. The number of total and annual articles, article types (study design and transplantation site), impact factor, citations and articles in the high-impact journals was determined to assess the quantity and quality of transplantation research from East Asia. The correlation of socioeconomic factors and annual publications was also analysed. Results From 2006 to 2015, there were 47 141 articles published in transplantation journals, of which researchers from Japan published 3694 articles, followed by Mainland China, South Korea and Taiwan with 2778, 1643 and 951 articles, respectively. Similar trends were observed in accumulated impact factor, accumulated citations, articles in the high-impact journals and articles on transplantation site. Publications from Japan had the highest average impact factor and citation, while those from Mainland China had the lowest. Additionally, in terms of study design, authors from Mainland China contributed to most clinical trials and randomised controlled trials, but authors from Japan contributed to most case reports. The annual numbers of articles from Mainland China and South Korea increased linearly (p<0.05), but those from Japan and Taiwan remained stable for the period studied. The annual numbers of articles from Mainland China and South Korea were positively correlated with gross domestic product (p<0.05). Conclusions Transplantation research productivity in East Asia is highly skewed, with gross domestic product having a significant positive correlation

  8. Possible influence of South Asian high on summer rainfall variability in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Kim, Baek-Jo; Zhang, Renhe; Nam, Jae-Cheol; Park, Ki-Jun; Kim, Jeoung-Yun; Kim, Do-Woo

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the correlation between the South Asian High (SAH) shift and the summer (June-August) rainfall variability in Korea over the course of 45 years (1958-2002). It is found that the shift in the west-east direction is closely related to the summer rainfall variability in Korea. The atmospheric circulations in the east shift years showed that at 850 hPa, an intensification of the western North Pacific subtropical high allowed a sufficient amount of warm and humid air to be supplied to the lower atmosphere near Korea. On the other hand at 200 hPa, the SAH expanded toward the east, near the southern part of Korea, causing the intensification of the northwesterlies, and this allowed the supply of cold and dry air to the upper atmosphere near Korea. Meanwhile, in the latitudinal zone in which Korea is located, there were anomalous upward flows with warm and humid characteristics in the lower atmosphere and anomalous downward flows with cold and dry characteristics in the upper atmosphere. As such, the cold and warm air masses present in the upper and lower atmosphere near Korea led to thermal instability, and this was analyzed to be a major factor that could potentially increase the amount rainfall in Korea in summer in the east shift years. Moreover, a warm SST anomaly was formed in the mid-latitude zones of East Asia, and it heated the lower troposphere, thereby intensifying the thermal instability even further. Furthermore, TCs frequently had an impact on Korea in the east shift years, and were another factor that caused the increased rainfall in summer.

  9. Physicians' Perceptions and Use of a Health Information Exchange: A Pilot Program in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-il; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Hwang, Hee; Cho, Eun-Young; Kim, Yoon; Ha, Kyooseob

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We examined physicians' perceived needs, benefits, and concerns regarding health information exchange (HIE) technology prior to experiencing it and their actual usage of exchanged information in care processes during an HIE pilot program in South Korea. Materials and Methods: We conducted a survey through a structured questionnaire to collect data on physician perceptions about an HIE prior to implementation. We analyzed responses using descriptive statistics and one-way analyses of variance. We also conducted a post-implementation survey through a computerized tool designed to collect data on physician assessment of HIE item usefulness. We defined two indices to measure the volume of information flow and usefulness for individual HIE items and analyzed the indices with Fisher's exact test. Results: Physicians' overall perceptions about the need for an HIE and benefits of the technology were positive despite their concerns about information safety and security, system costs, and disputes between care providers in cases of malpractice. We found that physician practice settings significantly influenced the details of their perceptions. In the both pre- and post-implementation studies, the most needed and valued information were pathology and lab results, diagnostic imaging, medication, and working diagnosis. Physicians most agreed with the benefit potentials in the quality domain, least agreed with those in time and cost savings of healthcare delivery, and least worried about the decrease in revenues resulting from the technology. Conclusions: The overall physician acceptance of the HIE technology in South Korea is promising, but the adoption and diffusion strategy needs to be tailored to the type of physician practice. Concerted efforts may be needed to realize the much-anticipated potential of healthcare cost savings. PMID:22352898

  10. Factors Contributing to Increases in Prescription Drug Expenditures Borne by National Health Insurance in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Young-Man; Paek, Kyung Won; Bea, Min Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Rapid growth of prescription drug expenditures is a problem in South Korea. The objective of this study was to assess the contributions of four variables (therapeutic choice, drug-mix, original use, and price changes) to increases in drug expenditures paid by the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Korea. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2012 utilizing data from the NHI Claims Database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The number of target drug types for final analysis was 13959. To analyze the growth rates of drug expenditures, this study used Fisher ideal index and the Laspeyres and Paasche indexes. Results With the exception of 2012, therapeutic choice contributed to about 40–60% of the increase in drug expenditures every year, while drug-mix contributed to another 30–40%. Conclusion The rapid growth in prescription drug expenditure was found to be largely due to drug-mix and therapeutic choice over time. Original use had little impact on drug spending. PMID:27189299

  11. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-01

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition. PMID:27371902

  12. Developing a Common Health Information Exchange Platform to Implement a Nationwide Health Information Network in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minho; Heo, Eunyoung; Lim, Heesook; Lee, Jun Young; Weon, Sangho; Chae, Hoseok; Hwang, Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to develop a common health information exchange (HIE) platform that can provide integrated services for implementing the HIE infrastructure in addition to guidelines for participating in an HIE network in South Korea. Methods By exploiting the Health Level 7 (HL7) Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Cross-enterprise Document Sharing-b (XDS.b) profile, we defined the architectural model, exchanging data items and their standardization, messaging standards, and privacy and security guidelines, for a secure, nationwide, interoperable HIE. We then developed a service-oriented common HIE platform to minimize the effort and difficulty of fulfilling the standard requirements for participating in the HIE network. The common platform supports open application program interfaces (APIs) for implementing a document registry, a document repository, a document consumer, and a master patient index. It could also be used for testing environments for the implementation of standard requirements. Results As the initial phase of implementing a nationwide HIE network in South Korea, we built a regional network for workers' compensation (WC) hospitals and their collaborating clinics to share referral and care record summaries to ensure the continuity of care for industrially injured workers, using the common HIE platform and verifying the feasibility of our technologies. Conclusions We expect to expand the HIE network on a national scale with rapid support for implementing HL7 and IHE standards in South Korea. PMID:25705554

  13. English Language Teaching Research in South Korea: A Review of Recent Studies (2009-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Ian; Nam, Hyun-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews recent studies on English language teaching (ELT) in South Korea, where a great deal of research has been produced in recent years in local journals. In this article we review 95 studies from a pool of some 1,200 published between 2009 and 2014 on English language teaching and learning, focusing on research within the public…

  14. Control of foot-and-mouth disease during 2010-2011 epidemic, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Ko, Young-Joon; Kim, Su-Mi; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Sohn, Hyun-Joo; Park, Jee-Yong; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Joo, Yi-Seok; Yoon, Hachung; Yoon, Soon-Seek; Cho, In-Soo; Kim, Byounghan

    2013-04-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease caused by serotype O virus occurred in cattle and pigs in South Korea during November 2010-April 2011. The highest rates of case and virus detection were observed 44 days after the first case was detected. Detection rates declined rapidly after culling and completion of a national vaccination program. PMID:23632094

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Ornithogalum Mosaic Virus Infecting Gladiolus spp. in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sang-Yun; Lim, Seungmo; Kim, Hongsup; Yi, Seung-In

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete genome sequence of Ornithogalum mosaic virus (OrMV) isolated from Taean, South Korea, in 2011, which was obtained by next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. The sequence information provided here may serve as a potential reference for other OrMV isolates. PMID:27516509

  16. Students' Beliefs about Mobile Devices vs. Desktop Computers in South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Eunmo; Mayer, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    College students in the United States and in South Korea completed a 28-item multidimensional scaling (MDS) questionnaire in which they rated the similarity of 28 pairs of multimedia learning materials on a 10-point scale (e.g., narrated animation on a mobile device Vs. movie clip on a desktop computer) and a 56-item semantic differential…

  17. Caregiver Burden and Social Support among Mothers Raising Children with Developmental Disabilities in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Heykyung; Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia

    2009-01-01

    This study examines caregiver burden and social supports perceived by mothers raising children with developmental disabilities in South Korea. Mothers residing in the metropolitan areas of Seoul (n = 181) responded to the mail survey with a 56.6% response rate. Respondents expressed a high level of overall burden, particularly in financial…

  18. Internationalisation of Higher Education in South Korea: Reality, Rhetoric, and Disparity in Academic Culture and Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2005-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is contradictions: the ways in which official agendas of internationalisation in higher education are disturbed by the principles of inclusion and exclusion in the local context of university academic culture. The case of South Korea shows how the national policies for the internationalisation of higher education…

  19. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 30434) and determined on September 7, 2010 that it would conduct full reviews (75 FR 59744... 27, 2010 (75 FR 81309). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on May 26, 2011, and all persons who... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On...

  20. Spatial Analysis of Air Quality Monitor Data in China, Japan, and South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, Berkeley Earth published a widely-reported study concluding that air pollution contributes to 1.6 million deaths per year in China. This presentation will provide an update on that work with additional data for China and new analysis for South Korea and Japan. In China, two years of data from more than 1500 monitoring stations allows local trends to be estimated. Preliminary review indicates a trend towards improving air quality across most of China with decreasing emissions at most major population centers. Such improvements are consistent with tightening emissions standards and the decreasing usage of coal. In addition, new spatial analysis has been applied to ~900 monitoring sites in Japan and ~120 sites in South Korea. This new analysis provides information on air quality, pollutant source distributions, and implied mortality in these countries. Finally, boundary crossing fluxes in South Korea and Japan have been used to estimate the fraction of air pollution in Japan and South Korea that has being imported from sources in China.

  1. Poverty Eradication: Lessons from China and South Korea in the 1950s and 1960s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wignaraja, Ponna

    1996-01-01

    Traces the search for economic development alternatives that go beyond conventional neo-classical and Marxist theory and practice. Outlines case studies of social and economic transformation in South Korea and China and delineates the differences between similar attempts in Latin America and Eastern Europe. (MJP)

  2. Multicultural Education in Social Studies Textbooks in South Korea and the United States: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Younghan

    2013-01-01

    Today, globalization has increased cross-border migration in many countries. The public school classroom in the United States has been getting more diverse, linguistically, culturally, racially, and ethnically. Classrooms in South Korea are also becoming linguistically, culturally, racially, and ethnically diverse because of the fast growth of…

  3. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Heum; Roh, Hanseong; Kim, Juhyeok; Cho, Sukhyeong; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Jinwon; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Chong, Hyonyong; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2015-03-20

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Klesiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea. The strain K. oxytoca M1 is able to produce either 2,3-butanediol or acetoin selectively by controlling the pH and temperature. PMID:25660421

  4. Offering English-Mediated Chemistry Classes in South Korea: A Note on This Nationwide Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    The importance of English as a means of communicating chemical information effectively cannot be overemphasized. Ironically, however, using English as a common language of chemistry might hinder nonnative English speakers from actively participating in major chemical communication. To address this problem, South Korea, where English is not an…

  5. Estimation of methylmercury intake doses in the South Korea population using a PBPK model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, South Korea has measured total mercury (Hg) in blood as part of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (koNEHS) in 6311 subjects representing Korean general population. About 25% of the biomarker measurements were above the Germany HBM1 of 5 µg Hg/L; and about...

  6. A new species of the genus Seticornuta Morley (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Metopiinae) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Kyung; Kolarov, Janko; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Old World species of the genus Seticornuta Morley are reviewed. Seven species of this genus were recorded worldwide, but only one species, Seticornuta albopilosa (Cameron), was known from the Old World. Here, we report one new species, Seticornuta koreana sp. n., from South Korea, and redescribe the other known Old World species, Seticornuta albopilosa, with photographs. PMID:25685012

  7. South Korea Seeks a New Role as a Higher-Education Hub

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2008-01-01

    In less than two generations, ambitious technocrats have transformed the southern half of the Korean peninsula from one of Asia's poorest nations into the 11th largest economy in the world. Now they want to turn South Korea into the East Asian capital of higher education. Several American colleges are in talks to set up academic and research…

  8. The Impact of the "Teaching English through English" Policy on Teachers and Teaching in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Tae-Hee

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Asian countries including South Korea have been trying to redefine the role of English in response to globalisation. The impact of this on English language teaching and on Korean society more generally has been well documented; however, the impact of this change on individual teachers and their teaching calls for further…

  9. Constructivist Teaching and Intra-School Collaboration among Teachers in South Korea: An Uncertainty Management Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Yun-Kyung; Ham, Seung-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to understand how collaborative teacher interaction is contingent upon teacher characteristics and school-organizational contexts, this study conducts a series of hierarchical generalized linear modeling analyses based on a nationally representative sample of about 2,500 teachers across 149 middle schools in South Korea. The data are…

  10. Successful IT Start-Ups' HRD Practices: Four Cases in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; McLean, Gary N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify South Korea's successful IT start-ups' HRD practices to determine whether there are steps that must be taken to maintain their HRD expertise for continued growth. Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach employing four fast-growing IT start-up cases was undertaken based on semi-structured…

  11. Brain Gain or Brain Circulation? U.S. Doctoral Recipients Returning to South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Kim, Dongbin

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the reasons for current reverse mobility patterns in South Korea and how the country benefits from returning U.S. doctoral recipients in the forms of brain gain and brain circulation. Based on interviews of Korean faculty who studied in the U.S., this study found that while the political economy might help to explain why Korean…

  12. Academic Differentiation, School Achievement and School Violence in the USA and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Han, Seunghee

    2007-01-01

    Whilst school violence is a major public concern and a focus of educational reforms both in the USA and South Korea, few studies have comparatively examined the rates of school violence and school factors associated with them. Analysing nationally-representative data from eighth graders, their mathematics teachers and principals in 150 South…

  13. The Impact of Prestige Orientation on Shadow Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soojeong; Shouse, Roger C.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread use of "shadow education" is a major policy issue in East Asia, especially South Korea, where officials view it as harmful to educational and fiscal equity. Although previous research emphasizes functional explanations, this study takes an institutional approach, exploring how students' desire for prestigious matriculation influences…

  14. Comparison of Social Studies Education in the United States, China, and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yali; Hoge, John D.; Choi, Jungsoon; Lee, Seung-Yun

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a brief picture of social studies education in the United States, China, and South Korea. It begins with a brief account of the K-12 curriculum structure and history of social studies education in each country in the 20th century. It then turns to a contemporary look at the social studies, the national curriculum standards…

  15. Outdoor Play in Preschools in England and South Korea: Learning from Polyvocal Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Kwi-Ok; Waller, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a cross-cultural and collaborative project, in preschools in England and South Korea. The aim of the project is to investigate the pedagogy of outdoor play and learning in two different cultural contexts, from the perspectives of the practitioners. Although there has been a growing academic interest in the use of outdoor…

  16. Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n" = 4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated…

  17. Transnational Corporations as Educational Institutions for National Development: The Contrasting Cases of Mexico and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Economic development in South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Ireland has accelerated dramatically since the 1960s, as it has in China more recently. These areas share a common element in their development strategies--the aggressive pursuit, acquisition, and incorporation of knowledge from industrialized nations. In this article, the…

  18. Using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and Adjustment among Interethnic and Interracial Families in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Yoo, Joan P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a model of using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and adjustment among foreign brides and their interethnic and interracial families in South Korea based on the narratives of 10 foreign brides married to Korean men and 11 service providers who directly interact with these women and their families. The results…

  19. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  20. Andragogical Methods for TESOL Trainers from Action Research in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Jesse Jones

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study uses action research methodology to investigate the thematic components of English language teacher training programs in the drive to develop a universal model framework. A two-part professional development in-service program in South Korea is used as a platform for the model. Similarities and differences between real and…

  1. Comparing the Experiences and Needs of Postsecondary International Students from China and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deters, Ping

    2015-01-01

    International students from China and South Korea are an increasingly important part of the international student body in many English-medium postsecondary institutions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences and needs of these two groups of students at a Canadian postsecondary institution. Data…

  2. Rethinking the Hermit Kingdom: US Social Studies Teachers' Cross-Cultural Professional Development in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonjung; Shin, Eui-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of 34 US social studies teachers who participated in a cross-cultural professional development in South Korea, and the impact of the programme on the participant teachers' perceptions and practices of global education. Drawing upon a postcolonial lens, this mixed-method study takes a critical look at (a) how…

  3. English Education for Young Children in South Korea: Not Just a Collective Neurosis of English Fever!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to rethink English education for young children in South Korea through exploring a great variety of complex, interrelated terrains in terms of its emergence and popularity in an era of globalisation. I critically examine the relevance of discursive and non-discursive conditions derived from social, political, economic,…

  4. The Reform of National Geography Standards in South Korea--Trends, Challenges and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Butt, Graham

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine recent changes in the geography national curriculum in South Korea through the lenses of three curriculum components that often find themselves in competition--subject content, educational processes and national/social purposes. In recent years, the prevailing national and social aims outlined for the…

  5. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  6. Enlightenment of Development of Higher Education in South Korea to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2012-01-01

    China and South Korea are two neighboring countries and are both developing countries. Furthermore, the modern and contemporary higher education of these two countries originates from the middle and late 19th Century, so there are a lot of similarities between the two countries. However, although the origination period of modern and contemporary…

  7. Exploration of the Prevalence and Correlates of Substance Use among Sheltered Adolescents in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

    2007-01-01

    Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored…

  8. Influence of Leader Behaviors on Creativity: A Comparative Study between South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Seog Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what are the relationships between different leader behaviors (i.e. supportive, participative, and controlling leader behaviors) and follower creativity, and whether the relationships differ between South Korea and the United States. Although creativity research suggests that supportive leader behaviors tend to enhance…

  9. Reforming School Governance in Taiwan and South Korea: Empowerment and Autonomization in School-Based Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Gu, Ja Oek

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The article aims to use the globalization theory and the implications of democratization for social policy to analyze the school governance reforms in Taiwan and South Korea. Design/methodology/approach: The article describes the main features of decentralization policy in the school sectors in the two societies with a historical review…

  10. Cross-Cultural Beliefs about Memory and Aging for Self and Others: South Korea and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Jin, Young-Sun; Anas, Ann P.

    2009-01-01

    Young adults in Canada (N = 161) and South Korea (N = 165) rated either themselves or typical others at target ages 25, 45, and 65 years. In both countries, poorer memory was anticipated with each increase in age on all 3 memory belief factors: capacity, change, and locus. Both groups demonstrated a self-protective bias about age-related decline,…

  11. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Moon-Woo; Kim, So Yeon; Corman, Victor Max; Kim, Taek Soo; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jee-Soo; Seo, Soo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Soo; Yu, Byeong Su; Park, Nare; Oh, Myoung-don; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Gayeon; Joh, Joon Sung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Eui Chong

    2016-01-01

    During the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in South Korea, we sequenced full viral genomes of strains isolated from 4 patients early and late during infection. Patients represented at least 4 generations of transmission. We found no evidence of changes in the evolutionary rate and no reason to suspect adaptive changes in viral proteins. PMID:26814649

  12. Prevalence of classical swine fever virus in domestic pigs in South Korea: 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Song, J-Y; Lim, S I; Jeoung, H Y; Choi, E-J; Hyun, B-H; Kim, B; Kim, J; Shin, Y-K; Dela Pena, R C; Kim, J B; Joo, H; An, D J

    2013-12-01

    The major policy for eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in South Korea has focused on the implementation of compulsory vaccination of the susceptible pig population. A vaccine strain of CSF virus, the LOM strain, is used to maintain high herd seroconversion, a practice complementary to the 'stamping-out policy' and restriction of animal movement during disease outbreaks. To survey for the prevalence of CSF in domestic pigs in South Korea over the past 13 years (1999-2011), we tested 4 193 782 and 1 162 645 samples for antibodies and antigens, respectively. Whereas seropositivity for CSF antibodies has been maintained at over 95% in the mainland, in Jeju Island, where no-vaccination has been administered since 1999, seroprevalence has been below 1% during the last 3 years of study (2009-2011). The highest number of outbreaks in South Korea occurred in 2002 and 2003; since then, outbreaks have decreased each year, with the last CSF outbreak recorded in 2009. No outbreaks have occurred during the past 3 years, and a high level of herd immunity has been maintained in the mainland pig population for 8 years; therefore, South Korea could now switch to a no-vaccination policy throughout the country. However, the constant threat of the re-emergence of the disease in the susceptible pig population should be the main consideration in planning and carrying out the last phase of the CSF eradication process. PMID:22925439

  13. The Evolution of South Korea's Broadband Convergence Network, 2004-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Siddhartha Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Broadband holds a critical position in the progress of economic and social indicators by connecting consumers, businesses and governments. South Korea has consistently been the global leader in broadband deployment since 1999. In the last ten years the Korean government has pursued several strategies for its broadband policy. The purpose of this…

  14. A Changed Context of Lifelong Learning under the Influence of Migration: South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jin-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how Korean society is being changed under the impact of migration and the kinds of learning domains that are evolving through participation in social interaction between migrant workers and local citizens in South Korea. Employing a qualitative case study, participants' changed learning areas were investigated.…

  15. Characteristics of Team-Based Organization Introduced to Academic Libraries in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hye-Young

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to analyze characteristics of a team-based organization introduced lately to many academic libraries in South Korea. The major areas of exploration included the introduction of the team approach, team empowerment, leadership of team leaders, open communication, and the director's commitment. The study used a survey design…

  16. A Study on the Horizontal Stratification of Higher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hwanbo

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed university and college graduates' income gap in South Korea to investigate factors influencing such disparities. Specifically, this study focused on types of higher education institutions and academic disciplines among the many factors affecting post-graduation income differences, using a hierarchical linear model.…

  17. Between "Homeland" and "Diaspora": Multicultural Education in Israel and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Devorah; Kang, SoYoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative case study was to explore multicultural education for "newcomers" in Israel and in South Korea. Despite their differences, the two countries face the same inflow of two types of newcomers--one group that is expected to fully integrate, and the other of newcomers considered temporary. The educational challenge…

  18. Glocalisation or Globalisation? Travelling Discourses of Child Poverty Policy in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between globalising and localising forces occurring in a child welfare reform project in South Korea. Focusing especially on care and education services for children and families provided by the Korean "Dream Start" programme, which provides comprehensive health, parental involvement and welfare services to…

  19. Eco-Early Childhood Education: A New Paradigm of Early Childhood Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Jaetack

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1990s, university faculty members, early childhood educators, and preschool teachers in South Korea created a new paradigm for education. Eco-early childhood education uses an ecological point of view to reform existing child-centered education. This perspective proposes moving from child- to life-centered, individual- to…

  20. Democratic Citizenship Education in the Information Age: A Comparative Study of South Korea and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roh, Young-Ran

    2004-01-01

    Democratic citizenship education in the information age must concern itself with the goal of nurturing future generations with the capacity to make appropriate use of the changes driven by the advances of ICTs so as to activate political and social democracy. Using Australia and South Korea as case studies, this paper discusses the role that…

  1. A new species of the genus Seticornuta Morley (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Metopiinae) from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Kyung; Kolarov, Janko; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Old World species of the genus Seticornuta Morley are reviewed. Seven species of this genus were recorded worldwide, but only one species, Seticornutaalbopilosa (Cameron), was known from the Old World. Here, we report one new species, Seticornutakoreana sp. n., from South Korea, and redescribe the other known Old World species, Seticornutaalbopilosa, with photographs. PMID:25685012

  2. The Meaning of Peace and the Role of Education in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sung-Sang; Kim, Hyo-Jung

    Most people in South Korea expressed deep sympathy for the innocent victims of the September 11th attacks, but, unlike their government's official position that supported U.S. military action, many were opposed to the war the United States began in Afghanistan. The president asked for emphasis on peace and anti-terrorism education. Since the role…

  3. 75 FR 30434 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...), and part 207, subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847... FR 25288). On May 21, 1999, Commerce issued antidumping duty orders on imports of certain stainless steel plate from Belgium, Canada, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan (64 FR 27756). On March...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Ornithogalum Mosaic Virus Infecting Gladiolus spp. in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Yun; Lim, Seungmo; Kim, Hongsup; Yi, Seung-In; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete genome sequence of Ornithogalum mosaic virus (OrMV) isolated from Taean, South Korea, in 2011, which was obtained by next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. The sequence information provided here may serve as a potential reference for other OrMV isolates. PMID:27516509

  5. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015.

    PubMed

    Seong, Moon-Woo; Kim, So Yeon; Corman, Victor Max; Kim, Taek Soo; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jee-Soo; Seo, Soo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Soo; Yu, Byeong Su; Park, Nare; Oh, Myoung-don; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Gayeon; Joh, Joon Sung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Eui Chong; Drosten, Christian; Park, Sung Sup

    2016-02-01

    During the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in South Korea, we sequenced full viral genomes of strains isolated from 4 patients early and late during infection. Patients represented at least 4 generations of transmission. We found no evidence of changes in the evolutionary rate and no reason to suspect adaptive changes in viral proteins. PMID:26814649

  6. Estimating Influenza Outbreaks Using Both Search Engine Query Data and Social Media Data in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hyekyung; Shim, Eunyoung; Lee, Jong-Koo; Lee, Chang-Gun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background As suggested as early as in 2006, logs of queries submitted to search engines seeking information could be a source for detection of emerging influenza epidemics if changes in the volume of search queries are monitored (infodemiology). However, selecting queries that are most likely to be associated with influenza epidemics is a particular challenge when it comes to generating better predictions. Objective In this study, we describe a methodological extension for detecting influenza outbreaks using search query data; we provide a new approach for query selection through the exploration of contextual information gleaned from social media data. Additionally, we evaluate whether it is possible to use these queries for monitoring and predicting influenza epidemics in South Korea. Methods Our study was based on freely available weekly influenza incidence data and query data originating from the search engine on the Korean website Daum between April 3, 2011 and April 5, 2014. To select queries related to influenza epidemics, several approaches were applied: (1) exploring influenza-related words in social media data, (2) identifying the chief concerns related to influenza, and (3) using Web query recommendations. Optimal feature selection by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) and support vector machine for regression (SVR) were used to construct a model predicting influenza epidemics. Results In total, 146 queries related to influenza were generated through our initial query selection approach. A considerable proportion of optimal features for final models were derived from queries with reference to the social media data. The SVR model performed well: the prediction values were highly correlated with the recent observed influenza-like illness (r=.956; P<.001) and virological incidence rate (r=.963; P<.001). Conclusions These results demonstrate the feasibility of using search queries to enhance influenza surveillance in South Korea. In

  7. Advance care planning in South Korea: Social work perspective.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sung Ae; Kolomer, Stacey

    2016-08-01

    As ethical issues arise concerning the continuation of futile medical treatment for dying patients in Korean society, advance directive planning initiatives have been put into place to guide practice. This article describes the awareness and attitudes of social workers in Korea regarding advance care planning and related factors. A total of 246 gerontological/geriatric social workers completed a mailed or in-person survey regarding awareness and attitudes toward advance care planning. Seventy-three percent (n = 180) of the participants reported no knowledge of advance directives. Social workers who emphasized self-determination as a professional value, professed a preference for hospice care, and who were comfortable discussing death were more likely to have a positive attitudes toward advance care planning. This study reinforces the need for the infusion of advance care planning and end-of-life training in social work education in Korea. PMID:27428654

  8. Observed trend in Asian dust days in South Korea and its geo-physiographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    South Korea has experienced significant socio-economic damages by Asian dust (also called Yellow sand or Yellow dust). Asian dust is a wind-driven natural phenomenon that carries fine sand particles along with surface pollutants from semi-arid areas in northern China, Inner Mongolia, the Gobi Desert, and the Taklimakan Desert to the East Asia. Its occurrence requires three necessary conditions: dry soil in source areas, strong ascending air current to lift sand particles up, and intense wind speed to transport the particles. Accordingly, the drier source areas are, the larger amount of source materials for Asian dust becomes. Further, regional wind speed and direction are key elements that determine the influencing boundary and level of damage. In this study, we investigate number of Asian dust days over South Korea. We utilize monthly data over 50 years (from 1961 to 2013) recorded at 12 stations, operated by the Korean Meteorological Administration, which are evenly distributed over the country. We find that annual number of Asian dust days in South Korea tends to increase until early 2000s and the increasing trend is ceased since then. Interestingly, this transition time (early 2000s) matches the time when the surface wind speed trend has reversed (Kim and Paik, 2015). Hence, we hypothesize that occurrence of Asian dust in South Korea can be largely captured by surface wind, instead of air circulation at high altitude. We also hypothesize that the transition in the trend around early 2000s is associated with expansion of cold air system during winter over the East Asia. Detailed analysis to support these findings will be presented. Reference Kim, JC., & Paik, K. (2015). Recent recovery of surface wind speed after decadal decrease: A focus on South Korea. Climate Dynamics, (Under review).

  9. Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in South Korea: A Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. Methods We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. Results For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87–1.29), 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96–1.55), 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19–2.14), and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26–2.51). Conclusion There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight social

  10. Pooled nucleic acid testing to identify antiretroviral treatment failure during HIV infection in Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    KIM, SUN BEAN; KIM, HYE WON; KIM, HYON-SUK; ANN, HEA WON; KIM, JAE KYOUNG; CHOI, HEUN; KIM, MIN HYUNG; SONG, JE EUN; AHN, JIN YOUNG; KU, NAM SU; OH, DONG HYUN; KIM, YONG CHAN; JEONG, SU JIN; HAN, SANG HOON; KIM, JUNE MYUNG; SMITH, DAVEY M.; CHOI, JUN YONG

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been various efforts to identify less costly but still accurate methods for monitoring the response to HIV treatment. We evaluated a pooling method to determine if this could improve screening efficiency and reduce costs while maintaining accuracy in Seoul, South Korea. Methods We conducted the first prospective study of pooled nucleic acid testing (NAT) using a 5 minipool + algorithm strategy versus individual viral load testing for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) between November 2011 and August 2012 at an urban hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The viral load assay used has a lower level of detection of 20 HIV RNA copies/ml, and the cost per assay is US$136. The 5 minipool + algorithm strategy was applied and 43 pooled samples were evaluated. The relative efficiency and accuracy of the pooled NAT were compared with those of individual testing. Results Using the individual viral load assay, 15 of 215 (7%) plasma samples had more than 200 HIV RNA copies/ml. The pooled NAT using the 5 minipool + algorithm strategy was applied to 43 pooled samples; 111 tests were needed to test all samples when virologic failure was defined at HIV RNA ≥ 200 copies/ml. Therefore, 104 tests were saved over individual testing, with a relative efficiency of 0.48. When evaluating costs, a total of US$ 14,144 was saved for 215 individual samples during 10 months. The negative predictive value was 99.5% for all samples with HIV RNA ≥ 200 copies/ml. Conclusions The pooled NAT with 5 minipool + algorithm strategy seems to be a very promising approach to effectively monitor patients receiving ART and to save resources. PMID:24228824

  11. Extreme Ionospheric Gradients Observed in South Korea during the Last Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S.; Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Lee, J.

    2012-12-01

    CONUS threat model. The other 12 dates are newly selected based on two space weather indices, planetary K (Kp) and disturbance, storm time (Dst). An ionospheric gradient of 90.97 mm/km was discovered at 0414UT on November 6, 2001 between stations NAWW and SONC, when PRN 21 was at 20.1° elevation. Most of severe gradients were observed from satellites at low elevation and traveling in a southerly direction of the Korean Peninsula. To locate enhanced-delay regions, we investigate both global ionospheric delay maps generated using the IONosphere MAP Exchange format (IONEX) data provided by International GNSS Service (IGS) and regional delay maps produced using the Korean GPS network stations. To validate observed ionospheric anomaly events, we examine whether similarly large ionospheric gradients are discovered at other nearby station pairs and other satellites whose Ionospheric Pierce Point (IPP) tracks take similar paths. The results from a series of checks support that the equatorial ionospheric anomaly caused severe ionospheric gradients observed from southern stations in South Korea. This study provides a better understanding of ionospheric behavior within the Korean Peninsula under ionospheric storm conditions, and helps investigate the operation and performance of GBAS. Ionospheric threat model developed in each region could be combined into a future global threat model for GBAS.

  12. Reservoir property estimation in Pohang Basin, South Korea for the preliminary CO2 storage prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Keehm, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Geological CO2 storage draws a great attention globally and South Korea also look for proper storage sites to reduce CO2 emission. The Pohang Basin area, located at the southeastern part of Korea, is regarded as a good candidate for CO2 storage, since the basin is believed to have good sand intervals, and there are various CO2 sources, such as a steel mill and a car factory around the area. However, there are not many geophysical data (core, logs, seismic, etc.) available since the area is highly industrialized and the target site is located offshore. There are a few well logs sparsely located, and core data are not many either since the target formation is semi- to unconsolidated clastics. To overcome these difficulties, we firstly go back to regional geology and determine the regional 3D distribution of target formation. Then, we obtain onshore outcrop samples from the same target formation to compliment scarce core data. The core and outcrop samples are not well-consolidated, which makes lab measurements highly difficult. We adopt a computational rock physics method, which estimates porosity and permeability on 3D microstructures statistically reconstructed from thin section images. The average values of porosity and permeability of outcrop samples are 25% and 1,000mD, and those from one core data 17% and 100mD, respectively. Other cores from the same formation do not give any significant permeability values. Thus, we categorize the formation into two subgroups, good and bad. Next, we visit well-log data and categorize intervals into two subgroups, and apply the our computation results to the good group. Finally, we can give maps of reservoir properties for the target formation. Although we can give only approximate values/relations of reservoir properties for good interval, it helps evaluate overall prospect of the target formation. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Basic Research Project of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral

  13. Two new species of Leptobatopsis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Banchinae) from South Korea and gynandromorphy in L. nigricapitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Kyung; Kang, Gyu-Won; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Four species of Leptobatopsis Ashmead are recorded for the first time from South Korea. Among them, L. koreana sp. nov. and L. daedeokensis sp. nov. are newly described. We also report two newly recorded species, L. nigricapitis Chandra & Gupta and L. appendiculata Momoi, from South Korea. In addition, we describe a case of gynandromorphy of L. nigricapitis in a single specimen from South Korea. This specimen presents bilateral asymmetry, with the left half of its habitus displaying male characters and the right half displaying female characters. We also provide a key to Eastern Palaearctic species of Leptobatopsis. PMID:26249436

  14. 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) nosocomial outbreak in South Korea: insights from modeling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background. Since the emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, more than 1,300 laboratory confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infections have been reported in Asia, North Africa, and Europe by July 2015. The recent MERS-CoV nosocomial outbreak in South Korea quickly became the second largest such outbreak with 186 total cases and 36 deaths in a little more than one month, second only to Saudi Arabia in country-specific number of reported cases. Methods. We use a simple mathematical model, the Richards model, to trace the temporal course of the South Korea MERS-CoV outbreak. We pinpoint its outbreak turning point and its transmissibility via basic reproduction number R0 in order to ascertain the occurrence of this nosocomial outbreak and how it was quickly brought under control. Results. The estimated outbreak turning point of ti = 23.3 days (95% CI [22.6–24.0]), or 23–24 days after the onset date of the index case on May 11, pinpoints June 3–4 as the time of the turning point or the peak incidence for this outbreak by onset date. R0 is estimated to range between 7.0 and 19.3. Discussion and Conclusion. The turning point of the South Korea MERS-CoV outbreak occurred around May 27–29, when control measures were quickly implemented after laboratory confirmation of the first cluster of nosocomial infections by the index patient. Furthermore, transmissibility of MERS-CoV in the South Korea outbreak was significantly higher than those reported from past MERS-CoV outbreaks in the Middle East, which is attributable to the nosocomial nature of this outbreak. Our estimate of R0 for the South Korea MERS-CoV nosocomial outbreak further highlights the importance and the risk involved in cluster infections and superspreading events in crowded settings such as hospitals. Similar to the 2003 SARS epidemic, outbreaks of infectious diseases with low community transmissibility like MERS-CoV could still occur initially with large clusters of

  15. Evaluating the spatial and temporal solar energy potential in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Si-Young; Park, Jin-Ki; Park, Jong-Hwa

    2012-11-01

    Recent issues of climate changes and natural disasters have brought many changes in world energy utilization. Especially due to the Japan's earthquake and tsunami, potential of nuclear power have made negative. And thus many countries are looking for a new renewable energy that can replace. Of which solar energy has emerged as a useful alternative. Under these circumstances, it is highly desirable that detailed information about the availability of solar radiation on the surface is essential for the optimum design and study of solar energy systems. And its components at a given location are very essential. Hence the solar radiation data is one of the key parameters required to be monitored at any meteorological station. But solar radiation measurements are not easily available due to the cost and maintenance requirements of the measuring equipment. Therefore, solar resource modeling or mapping is one of the essential tools for proper design, planning, maintenance and pricing of solar energy system. In this study, the feasibility of a regression model using image fusion for the prediction of solar energy potential in Republic of Korea was investigated. Meteorological and geographical data of 22 cities in South Korea for period of 10 years (2001-2011) were used. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, sunshine duration, temperature, and relative humidity) were used as inputs to the model, while the regional solar radiation was used as the output of the model. The model for evaluating the spatial and temporal solar radiation was executed for South Korea. The annual mean solar radiation estimates in South Korea vary from a minimum of 5.48 MJ/m2/day to a maximum of 19.51 MJ/m2/day. Our proposed annual mean solar radiation is 13.5 MJ/m2/day. These compare favorably with the observed data as expected. This study has shown that a simple method can accurately predict solar radiation potential in South Korea.

  16. Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

  17. [The moderating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between public self-consciousness, social anxiety and exhibitionism in Japan and South Korea].

    PubMed

    Cho, Sunyoung; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between public self-consciousness and social anxiety, and on the relationship between public self-consciousness and exhibitionism in Japan and South Korea. The participants were 213 university students in Japan and 234 university students in Korea. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that self-esteem was a moderator of the relationship between public self-consciousness and social anxiety and of the relationship between public self-consciousness and exhibitionism in Korea, but not in Japan. In Korea, public self-consciousness was related to social anxiety for people with low self-esteem, while for people with high self-esteem, public self-consciousness was related to exhibitionism. PMID:19938656

  18. Environment and Its Influence on Health and Demographics in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santisteban, Ramiro D; Kim, Young L; Farooq, Umar; Kim, Tae-Seong; Youm, Sekyoung; Park, Seung-Hun

    2016-02-01

    As the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing in South Korea, it is critical to better understand possible associations between environmental surroundings and general health status. We characterize key health test readings and basic demographic information from 10,816 South Koreans, obtained from two Ubiquitous Healthcare (U-Healthcare) centers that have distinct surrounding neighborhood characteristics. One is located in a rural area in Busan, the other is located in an urban area in Daegu surrounded by a highly crowded residential and commercial business area. We analyze comprehensive health data sets, including blood pressure, body mass index, pulse rate, and body fat percentage from December 2013 to December 2014 to study differences in overall health test measurements between users of rural and urban U-Healthcare centers. We conduct multiple regression analyses to evaluate differences in general health status between the two centers, adjusting for confounding factors. We report statistical evidence of differences in blood pressure at the two locations. As local residents are major users, the result indicates that the environmental surroundings of the centers can influence the demographics of the users, the type of health tests in demand, and the users' health status. We further envision that U-Healthcare centers will provide public users with an opportunity for enhancing their current health, which could potentially be used to prevent them from developing chronic diseases, while providing surveillance healthcare data. PMID:26861360

  19. Environment and Its Influence on Health and Demographics in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Santisteban, Ramiro D.; Kim, Young L.; Farooq, Umar; Kim, Tae-Seong; Youm, Sekyoung; Park, Seung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    As the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing in South Korea, it is critical to better understand possible associations between environmental surroundings and general health status. We characterize key health test readings and basic demographic information from 10,816 South Koreans, obtained from two Ubiquitous Healthcare (U-Healthcare) centers that have distinct surrounding neighborhood characteristics. One is located in a rural area in Busan, the other is located in an urban area in Daegu surrounded by a highly crowded residential and commercial business area. We analyze comprehensive health data sets, including blood pressure, body mass index, pulse rate, and body fat percentage from December 2013 to December 2014 to study differences in overall health test measurements between users of rural and urban U-Healthcare centers. We conduct multiple regression analyses to evaluate differences in general health status between the two centers, adjusting for confounding factors. We report statistical evidence of differences in blood pressure at the two locations. As local residents are major users, the result indicates that the environmental surroundings of the centers can influence the demographics of the users, the type of health tests in demand, and the users’ health status. We further envision that U-Healthcare centers will provide public users with an opportunity for enhancing their current health, which could potentially be used to prevent them from developing chronic diseases, while providing surveillance healthcare data. PMID:26861360

  20. Sexual dimorphism of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in South Korea: Craniodental geometric morphometry

    PubMed Central

    LAU, Alice Ching Ching; ASAHARA, Masakazu; HAN, Sung Yong; KIMURA, Junpei

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism of the craniodental morphology of the Eurasian otter in South Korea was studied with geometric morphometrics. 29 adult skulls (15 males and 14 females) were used. Images of the dorsal and ventral view of the cranium and right lateral view of the mandible were taken and then digitized, and measurements were taken on the right side. Results showed that size difference between males and females was significant. Correlations between the size and shape variations have not been observed in this study. The bivariate plots with centroid size showed size dimorphism between males and females with some overlapping. Most relative warp (RW) scores were not significantly different between males and females. We observed only RW2 for dorsal and ventral view of the skull, and only RW1 for mandible was significantly different between the sexes. Shape dimorphisms were revealed at the postorbital constriction, temporal-mandibular joint, coronoid process, mandibular condyle and angular process of the skull. Based on our study, sexual dimorphism exists in Eurasian otter from the South Korean population in terms of both the size and shape. Furthermore, the degree of size dimorphism is greater than shape dimorphism. PMID:26983684

  1. The good, the bad and the confusing: the political economy of social care expansion in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ito

    2011-01-01

    Recent social policy reforms in South Korea indicate a progressive shift by a conservative government to modify the familialistic male breadwinner model that informs its welfare regime. The Korean government has demonstrated support for women through an increase in the provision, regulation and coordination of childcare and workplace support programmes for working parents. At the same time, labour market reforms have also created more pressures on women to seek and maintain paid work outside the home. Conflicting social and economic policy objectives have resulted in a confusing mix of policies, advancing and impeding gender equality at the same time. This contribution examines the recent family–work reconciliation policy reforms in Korea and discusses why these reforms may be good politics but a bad deal for women. PMID:22164879

  2. Seasonal variability of temperature, salinity, and geostrophic currents obtained from CTD and satellite observations around South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, EunAe; Kim, Sung Yong

    2016-04-01

    The annual variability of temperature, salinity, and geostrophic circulation around South Korea (East/Japan Sea, southern coast, and Yellow Sea) is studied by analyzing conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiles for recent 10 years (2001 to 2010). In the estimates of seasonal amplitudes using harmonic analysis, we examine their accuracy by evaluating how well the seasonal fit reconstructs the known pure seasonal signals with noise. Over the shelf (within 70km of the coast) in the East Sea, the seasonal amplitudes, means, and root-mean-squares of subsurface temperature and salinity are smaller than those offshore about 20-50%, which may be due to southward North Korea cold currents along the shelf nearly all year. Conversely, in the Yellow Sea, the seasonal amplitudes of subsurface temperature onshore waters (within 40 km) become larger than offshore about 40% as a result of enhanced onshore tidal mixing.

  3. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  4. First Isolation of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae from a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kichan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo; Her, Moon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus species are emerging potential pathogens in marine mammals. We report the isolation and identification of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea. PMID:26555114

  5. Analyzing the success of the volume-based waste fee system in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Seejeen; Lah, T J

    2015-09-01

    For more than a decade, South Korea has been ranked first among the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) members in their municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling rate. One of the major contributing factors for its outstanding MSW recycling performance is the volume-based waste fee (VWF) system implemented in 1995. Despite the perceived success of VWF, there has been few research conducted that has sought to demonstrate the success of the policy in an empirical manner. Research conducted currently on VWF in South Korea tends to have limitations in empirical approaches and identifying the intervention effect of VWF on recycling performance. This study attempts to empirically test whether the adoption of VWF positively affected recycling performance in Korea over time. The findings suggest that although there was a dramatic increase of the recycling rate with the introduction of VWF in 1995, Korea's MSW recycling performance settled back again and showed the constant pace after the intervention. No significant differences in recycling rate were found between before and after 1995 period. In conclusion, implications and suggestions for both research and practice are proposed. PMID:26141278

  6. Rapid Emergence and Clonal Dissemination of CTX-M-15-Producing Salmonella enterica Serotype Virchow, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yun, Young-Sun; Kim, Soo Jin; Jeon, Se-Eun; Lee, Deog-yong; Chung, Gyung Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Kim, Junyoung

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow has dramatically increased in South Korea since the first isolation in 2011. Of 68 isolates collected over 10 years, 28 cefotaxime-resistant isolates harbored the bla(CTX-M-15) extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene and were closely related genetically, demonstrating the clonal dissemination of CTX-M-15-producing Salmonella Virchow in South Korea. PMID:26674083

  7. Serological surveillance studies confirm the Rift Valley fever virus free status in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Jee-Yong; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Cho, Yun-Sang; Choi, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Ji-Youn; Cho, In-Soo; Yoo, Han-Sang

    2015-10-01

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease of domestic ruminants. This disease causes abortions in pregnant animals, and it has a high mortality rate in newborn animals. Recently, a Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) outbreak in the Arabian Peninsula increased its potential spread to new regions worldwide. In non-endemic or disease-free countries, early detection and surveillance are important for preventing the introduction of RVFV. In this study, a serological surveillance was conducted to detect antibodies against RVFV. A total of 2382 serum samples from goats and cattle were randomly collected from nine areas in South Korea from 2011 to 2013. These samples were tested for antibodies against RVFV, using commercial ELISA kits. None of the goats and cattle were positive for antibodies against RVFV. This finding suggests that this disease is not present in South Korea, and furthermore presents the evidence of the RVFV-free status of this country. PMID:26024956

  8. Overview of the Epidemiology of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This review assessed the epidemiology of voiding dysfunctions in South Korea. Comprehensive understanding of this epidemiology is crucial because the senior population and the social burden are increasing because of voiding dysfunctions is growing. We searched the medical records using several terms related to voiding dysfunction: benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, and nocturia. We then estimated the prevalence of voiding dysfunctions in South Korea; our data were comparable with those from other countries, with slight differences. The ranges of incidences varied widely between studies, mostly because investigators defined disorders differently. Voiding dysfunction greatly affects healthcare costs and individual quality of life; therefore, more proper and valuable epidemiologic data are needed. In addition, efforts to unify the definitions of various voiding dysfunctions and progress in investigational methodologies using multimedia are warranted. PMID:27377940

  9. Statistical guidance on seasonal forecast of Korean dust days over South Korea in the springtime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Keon Tae

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to develop the seasonal forecast models of Korean dust days over South Korea in the springtime. Forecast mode was a ternary forecast (below normal, normal, above normal) which was classified based on the mean and the standard deviation of Korean dust days for a period of 30 years (1981-2010). In this study, we used three kinds of monthly data: the Korean dust days observed in South Korea, the National Center for Environmental Prediction in National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data for meteorological factors over source regions of Asian dust, and the large-scale climate indices offered from the Climate Diagnostic Center and Climate Prediction Center in NOAA. Forecast guidance consisted of two components; ordinal logistic regression model to generate trinomial distributions, and conversion algorithm to generate ternary forecast by two thresholds. Forecast guidance was proposed for each month separately and its predictability was evaluated based on skill scores.

  10. Overview of the Epidemiology of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun

    2016-06-01

    This review assessed the epidemiology of voiding dysfunctions in South Korea. Comprehensive understanding of this epidemiology is crucial because the senior population and the social burden are increasing because of voiding dysfunctions is growing. We searched the medical records using several terms related to voiding dysfunction: benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, and nocturia. We then estimated the prevalence of voiding dysfunctions in South Korea; our data were comparable with those from other countries, with slight differences. The ranges of incidences varied widely between studies, mostly because investigators defined disorders differently. Voiding dysfunction greatly affects healthcare costs and individual quality of life; therefore, more proper and valuable epidemiologic data are needed. In addition, efforts to unify the definitions of various voiding dysfunctions and progress in investigational methodologies using multimedia are warranted. PMID:27377940

  11. Acculturation stress and mental health among the marriage migrant women in Busan, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyuk; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Hyo Young

    2014-05-01

    Our study investigated mental health and associated factors, especially acculturation stress and coping resources, among "marriage migrant" women. Cross-sectional data were collected for 501 marriage migrant women, about 10 % of those living in Busan, South Korea. Acculturation stress, coping resources, sociodemographic factors were examined using structured questionnaires, and the General Health Questionnaire-28 was administered as a measure of mental health. Many factors were related to mental health, especially marital satisfaction. Core cultural shock and self-rated economic status, interpersonal stress, and social support were also significantly related to mental health status. This study highlights the importance of marriage migrant women's mental health in South Korea. To improve their mental health, increased marital satisfaction, social support, resettlement funds, and/or educational programs that foster coping are needed. Additionally, we should encourage establishment of and participation in marriage migrant self-help groups, which can facilitate adaptation to marriage and to Korean culture. PMID:24292496

  12. Surveillance of classical swine fever in wild boar in South Korea from 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kwan; Lim, Seong-In; Kim, Jae-Jo; Cho, Yoon-Young; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Choi, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hoe; Park, Eun-Hye; An, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious systemic hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs. Wild boar plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of CSF. Between 2010 and 2014, samples were collected nationwide from 6,654 wild boars hunted in South Korea. Anti-CSF antibodies were identified in 0.59% (39 of 6,654) of the wild boar samples using a virus neutralization test and were primarily detected in wild boars living close to the demilitarized zone and the area of the Taebaek Mountains surroundings. The CSF virus (subgroup 2.1b) was isolated from two wild boars captured in a nearby border area. The criteria used to define high-risk areas for targeted CSF surveillance in South Korea should be further expanded to include other regions nationwide. PMID:26178821

  13. Impacts of typhoon and heavy rain disasters on mortality and infectious diarrhea hospitalization in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunduk; Shin, Yongseung; Kim, Ho; Pak, Haeoyong; Ha, Jongsik

    2013-01-01

    Several studies for health impacts of natural disasters have not been comprehensive with respect to disaster type and areas, nor quantitative. The aim of our study is to quantitatively examine the associations between disasters and human health in South Korea. This study considered "special disasters" that occurred from 2003 to 2009 in seven metropolitan cities and nine provinces in South Korea. First, we completed health impact counts in both disaster periods and reference periods. We then calculated the rate ratios between health impact counts in these two periods. Mortality is estimated to be higher in the case of typhoons, whereas morbidity is estimated to be higher in heavy rain disasters. The difference in health impacts of typhoons and heavy rain may be explained by the difference in meteorological exposure patterns. Consequentially, we suggest the development of properly adaptive plans against the influence of future natural disasters on human health. PMID:23075392

  14. Gender differences in predictors of mental health among older adults in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and social activities contribute to life satisfaction and mental health among older adults in South Korea. Life satisfaction is mainly determined by sociodemographic factors for both women and men. Compared to women, men's levels of depression and life satisfaction appear to be more influenced by their health, cognitive functioning, and social activity participation. Implications for practice and policy are discussed. PMID:21834388

  15. Urban Development from the Perspective of Geodivesity in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Y.; Lee, D. K.; Han Kyul, H.

    2015-12-01

    In regard to ensuring a sustainable Earth, geodiversity (which is the variety of non-living nature) has been recognized as being equivalent to biodiversity in terms of importance. Geodiversity, as a platform, provides diverse habitats; however when a city is developed, threatened and vulnerable species are seen as important components of conservation but geodiversity is not. This study analyzes the components of geodiversity in cities that developed rapidly, and identifies which characteristics of geodiversity were related to this development. We estimated the components of geodiversity through the use of land cover maps and digital elevation maps (DEMs) in South Korean cities that developed rapidly between the 1980s and early-2010s, such as Yong-in and Namyangju. The relationships between land use changes and geodiversity components were analyzed and a factor analysis for land use changes was conducted using geodiversity components. Results show that even though adjacent rivers and streams, low elevation, and flat surfaces have high geodiversity, these areas were mainly converted into built-up areas and agricultural areas. As such, it can be stated that urban development in these cities has lowered geodiversity. Other geodiversity components related to urban development, such as slope, upslope contributing areas, streams, and lithology, were also identified. To conclude, this study showed how geodiversity components related to urban development has been affected by this growth and how they are intimately connected to each other. Identifying geodiversity in future development sites could help to estimate the most sensitive areas regarding the planned development; therefore, we need to view urban development from a geodiversity perspective.

  16. School Violence, Depressive Symptoms, and Help-seeking Behavior: A Gender-stratified Analysis of Biethnic Adolescents in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In South Korea (hereafter Korea), the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim’s help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: ‘seeking help’ group; ‘feeling nothing’ group; ‘not seeking help’ group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately. Results: In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the ‘not seeking help’ (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23) and the ‘seeking help’ group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44) among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the ‘feeling nothing’ group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69), but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28). Conclusions: This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims’ help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea. PMID:26841886

  17. The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. Methods The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Results Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population. PMID:24641983

  18. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  19. Shocked cobbles in Lower Cretaceous Duwon Formation, South Korea: their classification and possible formation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Chae, Yong-Un; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Cheng-Bin; Huh, Min

    2016-04-01

    Shocked cobbles are the cobbles having shock-induced deformation structures on the surfaces. The most distinctive macroscopic features are the subparallel fractures and the pervasive surface craters, with or without radial fractures. Until now, these shocked cobbles have been reported mainly in Europe, America, and Africa, but never been found or reported in Korea. Shocked cobbles have recently found in the Lower Cretaceous Duwon Formation in South Korea, which was the second report in Asia. The Duwon Formation consists mainly of conglomerates, gravelly sandstones and intercalated mudstone and shale layers. The shocked cobbles are commonly found in the lowermost clast-supported conglomerate layers, and they show various deformation features, such as pockmarked (circular or elliptical) cobbles, cratered (Hertzian or bowl-shaped) cobbles with or without radial fractures, cobbles showing subparallel fractures, and strongly squashed or heavily dissected cobbles. In general, these deformation structures are considered to have resulted from pressure dissolution by overburden, tectonic compression, and seismic or meteorite impacts. However, the exact formation mechanism is not clearly understood, and still in debate. The shocked cobbles found in the Duwon Formation have similar features to those of previously reported shocked cobbles, especially to Triassic Buntsandstein conglomerates in northeastern Spain. Based on the degree of deformation, the Duwon shocked cobbles can be divided into four types, which are (1) faint contact marks, (2) pitted marks without any fractures, (3) pitted marks with radial or sub-parallel fractures affected by pits, and (4) intensive fractures and heavily dissected fragments. The possible mechanisms for the Duwon shocked cobbles are thought to be crushing process by shear stress and pressure solution.

  20. Catastrophic health expenditure according to employment status in South Korea: a population-based panel study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Woo; Kim, Tae Hyun; Jang, Sung In; Jang, Suk Yong; Kim, Woo-Rim; Park, Eun Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) means that the medical spending of a household exceeds a certain level of capacity to pay. Previous studies of CHE have focused on benefits supported by the public sector or high medical cost incurred by treating diseases in South Korea. This study examines variance of CHE in these households according to changes in employment status. We also determine whether a relationship exists according to income level. Design A longitudinal study. Setting We used the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS) conducted by the Korea Institute. Participants The data came from 5335 households during 2009–2012. Outcome measure CHE, defined as health expenditures that were 40% greater than the ability of the household to pay. Results Households with people who experienced changes in job status from employed to unemployed (OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.06 to 3.78) or were unemployed with no status change (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.92) were more likely to incur CHE than those containing people who were consistently employed. In addition, low-income families with members who had either lost a job (OR 3.52, 95% CI 2.44 to 5.10) or were already unemployed (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.16) were more likely to incur CHE than those with family members with a consistent job. Conclusions Given the insecure employment status of people with low income, they are more likely to face barriers in obtaining needed health services. Meeting their healthcare needs is an important consideration. PMID:27456329

  1. Why is high-risk drinking more prevalent among men than women? evidence from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is important to identify and quantify the factors that affect gender differences in high-risk drinking (HRD), from both an academic and a policy perspective. However, little is currently known about them. This study examines these factors and estimates the percentage contribution each makes to gender differences in HRD. Methods This study analyzed information on 23,587 adults obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 1998, 2001, and 2005. It found that the prevalence of HRD was about 5 times higher among men (0.37) than women (0.08). Using a decomposition approach extended from the Oaxaca-Blinder method, we decomposed the gender difference in HRD to an "overall composition effect" (contributions due to gender differences in the distribution of observed socio-economic characteristics), and an "overall HRD-tendency effect" (contributions due to gender differences in tendencies in HRD for individuals who share socio-economic characteristics). Results The HRD-tendency effect accounted for 96% of the gender difference in HRD in South Korea, whereas gender differences in observed socio-economic characteristics explained just 4% of the difference. Notably, the gender-specific HRD-tendency effect accounts for 90% of the gender difference in HRD. Conclusion We came to a finding that gender-specific HRD tendency is the greatest contributor to gender differences in HRD. Therefore, to effective reduce HRD, it will be necessary to understand gender differences in socioeconomic characteristics between men and women but also take notice of such differences in sociocultural settings as they experience. And it will be also required to prepare any gender-differentiated intervention strategy for men and women. PMID:22304965

  2. Acute gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with ground-waterborne norovirus in South Korea during 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Cho, H G; Lee, S G; Kim, W H; Lee, J S; Park, P H; Cheon, D S; Jheong, W H; Jho, E H; Lee, J B; Paik, S Y

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological and virological studies indicate that noroviruses-contaminated groundwater was the primary source of four acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in South Korea between 2008 and 2012. Furthermore, cabbage kimchi was first identified as the vehicle of transmission between groundwater and infected patients in an outbreak in 2011. The proper treatment of groundwater sources prior to use for drinking or in food preparation is necessary to prevent further outbreaks. PMID:24534556

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Isolated from an Olive Flounder in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a seriously problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in South Korea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of VHSV which was isolated from spleen and kidney tissues of dead fish at an aquaculture farm in 2005. This genome sequence will be useful for virus diagnostics and in comparative analyses with other virus genotypes. PMID:24009117

  4. Legislation on Genetic Diagnosis: Comparison of South Korea and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the questions regarding PND and PID, especially the concrete legal conditions for the justification of PND and PID. As such, the German law stipulating PND and PID in a very concrete and detailed manner is introduced and explained in comparison with the corresponding South Korean law. The South Korean Bioethics and Biosafety Act (BBA) stipulates various types of gene testing and does not demonstrate a delicate sense of each type of gene testing. In contrast to the South Korean regulation, in Germany, there exist specific regulations for genetic counseling. Especially in the case of PND, GEKO stipulates the process of genetic counseling very concretely, based on GenDG. In the case of PND and PID, it is important that the people concerned understand the meaning of testing in various angles, and restructuralize it by combining it with their own values as the diagnosis is directly combined with pregnancy/abortion, which influences the whole life of a woman (and her partner). In this context, the South Korean BBA needs to be amended as soon as possible. The sections on informed consent also need to be amended to make them more concrete. Furthermore, guidelines for concretizing the regulation of BBA need to be continuously formulated and developed. PMID:27004267

  5. The "Foreign English Teacher": A Necessary "Danger" in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2010-01-01

    Although South Korean schools and language institutes are eager to invite the foreign teacher to teach English, Korean Immigration as well as the schools and institutes themselves are hesitant to improve the qualification requirements by which they grant work visas and offer employment to foreigners respectively. Nevertheless, Korean officials are…

  6. Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis Study Using Single Earthquake in the South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachman, A. N.; Chung, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Single earthquake data was used to separate Qi-1 and Qs-1 for South Korea (S. Korea) with the Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA). The MLTWA method have been used numerous earthquake data at once to simulate the energy of observed seismic envelopes with theoretical values obtained by a single source assumption. The theoretical values of MLTWA method is normally obtained by numerical method such as Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method due to availability for various source depth. One of the major concerns with the MLTWA method is that, it normally shows a large observational scatter caused by the multiple use of earthquakes which have different radiation pattern and focal depth, and the regional alteration of local structure. Recently our study of MLTWA using single event showed realistic results when the number of recorded station was more than 8, without consideration of radiation pattern in DSMC method (Asep et al., 2015). In particular, Asep et al. (2015) found the significant effect of source depth which had been neglected by the previous MLTWA studies (Asep et al. (2015). This study, therefore, focused on the depth effect of MLTWA by relocation of 53 earthquakes occurred in S. Korea from March 2003 to December 2014. To obtain reliable depths of these events, seven crustal models (Fig. 1) were constructed based on two refraction profiles across the Korean Peninsula. The Vp/Vs ratio and the preliminary origin time (POT) was obtained by the Wadati plot. Since focal depth and origin time is a coupled data, a series of inversions using HYPO71 were performed for only three parameters (latitude, longitude, and origin time) of earthquakes while keeping its depth fixed each time. The residuals were calculated for varied focal depth from 0 to 30 km with an increment of 0.5 km, and depth range of minimum rms residual (minimum rms residual plus 0.05) was selected. For the minimum depth range of seven models, the closest range with the POT was selected as

  7. Multicriteria decision analysis to assess options for managing contaminated sediments: Application to Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongbum; Kim, Suk Hyun; Hong, Gi Hoon; Suedel, Burton C; Clarke, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Many years of untreated effluent discharge from residential areas, a shipyard, a marina, and a large fish market resulted in substantial contamination of bottom sediment in Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea. Contaminants in these sediments include heavy metals and organic compounds. Newly introduced regulations for ocean disposal of dredged material in South Korea pose significant challenges, because the previous practice of offshore disposal of contaminated dredged material was no longer possible after August 2008. The South Korean government has mandated that such sediments be assessed in a way that identifies the most appropriate dredged material management alternative, addressing environmental, social, and cost objectives. An approach using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) in combination with comparative risk assessment was used as a systematic and transparent framework for prioritizing several dredged sediment management alternatives. We illustrate how MCDA can recognize the multiple goals of contaminated sediment management. Values used in weighting decision criteria were derived from surveys of stakeholders who were sediment management professionals, business owners, or government decision makers. The results of the analysis showed that land reclamation was the preferred alternative among cement-lock, sediment washing, 3 contained aquatic disposal alternatives (one in combination with a hopper dredge), geotextile tubes, solidification, and land reclamation after solidification treatment. Land reclamation was the preferred alternative, which performed well across all MCDA objectives, because of the availability of a near-shore confined disposal facility within a reasonable distance from the dredging area. PMID:20821674

  8. Applying policy and health effects of air pollution in South Korea: focus on ambient air quality standards

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jongsik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives South Korea’s air quality standards are insufficient in terms of establishing a procedure for their management. The current system lacks a proper decision-making process and prior evidence is not considered. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure for establishing atmospheric environmental standards in South Korea that will take into consideration the health of its residents. Methods In this paper, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the US was examined in order to suggest ways, which consider health effects, to establish air quality standards in South Korea. Up-to-date research on the health effects of air pollution was then reviewed, and tools were proposed to utilize the key results. This was done in an effort to ensure the reliability of the standards with regard to public health. Results This study showed that scientific research on the health effects of air pollution and the methodology used in the research have contributed significantly to establishing air quality standards. However, as the standards are legally binding, the procedure should take into account the effects on other sectors. Realistically speaking, it is impossible to establish standards that protect an entire population from air pollution. Instead, it is necessary to find a balance between what should be done and what can be done. Conclusions Therefore, establishing air quality standards should be done as part of an evidence-based policy that identifies the health effects of air pollution and takes into consideration political, economic, and social contexts. PMID:25300297

  9. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis of Sapovirus Detected in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Lim; Suh, Chang-Il; Park, Seung-Won; Jin, Ji-Young; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Sapovirus (SaV), a virus residing in the intestines, is one of the important causes of gastroenteritis in human beings. Human SaV genomes are classified into various genogroups and genotypes. Whole-genome analysis and phylogenetic analysis of ROK62, the SaV isolated in South Korea, were carried out. The ROK62 genome of 7429 nucleotides contains 3 open-reading frames (ORF). The genotype of ROK62 is SaV GI-1, and 94% of its nucleotide sequence is identical with other SaVs, namely Manchester and Mc114. Recently, SaV infection has been on the rise throughout the world, particularly in countries neighboring South Korea; however, very few academic studies have been done nationally. As the first whole-genome sequence analysis of SaV in South Korea, this research will help provide reference for the detection of recombination, tracking of epidemic spread, and development of diagnosis methods for SaV. PMID:26161646

  10. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seohyun; Kim, Jong Guk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA) for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors. PMID:25384388

  11. Variations in Label Information and Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids in South Korea: Regulation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungroul; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Yu, Sol; Kim, Bokyeong; Gupta, Ribhav

    2015-01-01

    Background: In South Korea, the consumption of liquid nicotine used in electronic cigarettes has dramatically increased from 4310 L in 2012 to 7220 L in 2013. This study aimed to examine the level of heterogeneity of contents of the labels and discrepancy of the nicotine content between that indicated on the label and the actual values for electronic cigarette liquid refill products in South Korea. Methods: We purchased 32 electronic cigarette liquid refill products (17 Korean domestic, 15 imported ones) and one pure nicotine product at six different electronic cigarette retail stores in Seoul between May and June 2014. The actual nicotine concentrations of each product were measured by a blinded analyst at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. Results: Three out of 15 imported liquid refill products provided manufacturing dates, while expiration dates were available on eight products. The range of nicotine concentration was from “not detected” to 17.5 mg/mL. Labeling discrepancies of the concentrations ranged from −32.2% to 3.3% among electronic cigarette liquid refill products. The highest concentration (150.3 ± 7.9 mg/mL) was found in a sample labeled as “pure nicotine”. Conclusions: There is no standardization of labelling among electronic cigarette liquids sampled from retail stores and the labels did not accurately reflect the content. One product labeled “pure nicotine” raises concerns, since it may be poisonous to consumers, especially to children. This study revealed the urgent need for the development of product regulations in South Korea. PMID:25950652

  12. Numerical Simulation and Analysis of the Localized Heavy Precipitation Event in South Korea based on diagnostic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Joon-Woo; Choi, Young-Jean

    2016-04-01

    Accurate prediction of precipitation is one of the most difficult and significant tasks in weather forecasting. Heavy precipitations in the Korean Peninsula are caused by various physical mechanisms, which are affected by shortwave trough, quasi-stationary moisture convergence zone among varying air masses, and a direct/indirect effect of tropical cyclone. Many previous studies have used observations, numerical modeling, and statistics to investigate the potential causes of warm-season heavy precipitation in South Korea. Especially, the frequency of warm-season torrential rainfall events more than 30 mm/h precipitation has increased threefold in Seoul, a metropolitan city in South Korea, in recent 30 years. Localized heavy rainfall events in South Korea generally arise from mesoscale convective systems embedded in these synoptic scale disturbances along the Changma front, or from convective instabilities resulting from unstable air masses. In order to investigate localized heavy precipitation system in Seoul metropolitan area, analysis and numerical experiment were performed for a typical event in 20 June 2014. This case is described to a structure of baroclinic instability associated with a short-wave trough from the northwest and high moist and warm air by a thermal low from the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. We investigated localized heavy precipitation in narrow zone of the Seoul urban area using numerical simulations based on the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model with convective scale. The topography and land use data of the revised U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data and the appropriate set of physical scheme options for WRF model simulation were deliberated. Simulation experiments showed patches of primary physical structures related to the localized heavy precipitation using the diagnostic fields, which are storm relative helicity (SRH), updraft helicity (UH), and instantaneous contraction rates (ICON). SRH and UH are dominantly related to

  13. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of deformed wing viruses isolated from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kim, Young-Ha; Kim, Nam-Hee; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Jung, Suk-Chan; Van Quyen, Dong; Kang, Seung-Won

    2013-12-27

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is one of the most common viral infection in honeybees. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for 16 partial nucleotide sequences of the structural polyprotein region and the RNA helicase region of South Korean DWVs. The sequences were compared with 10 previously reported DWV sequences from different countries and the sequences of two closely related viruses, Kakugo virus (KGV) and Varroa destructor virus-1 (VDV-1). The phylogeny based on these two regions, the Korean DWV genomes were highly conserved with 95-100% identity, while they also shared 93-97% similarity with genotypes from other countries, although they formed a separate cluster. To investigate this phenomenon in more detail, the complete DWV genome sequences of Korea-1 and Korea-2 were determined and aligned with six previously reported complete DWV genome sequences from different countries, as well as KGV and VDV-1, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The two Korean DWVs shared 96.4% similarity. Interestingly, the Korea-2 genome was more similar to the USA (96.5%) genome than the Korea-1. The Korean genotypes highly conserved with USA (96%) but low similarity with the United Kingdom3 (UK3) genome (89%). The end of the 5' untranslated region (UTR), the start of the open reading frame (ORF) region, and the 3' UTR were variable and contained several substitutions/transitions. This phenomenon may be explained by intramolecular recombination between the Korean and other DWV genotypes. PMID:24035266

  14. Anisotropic measurements in South Korea and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Tae-Seob

    2010-05-01

    Seismic anisotropy beneath the southern Korean Peninsula was investigated. The most striking feature of the observed splitting patterns is the preference of the fast directions (NW-SE) that are nearly parallel to the direction of the absolute plate motion in the region. However, the splitting patterns over the region show significant variation in splitting parameters indicating a complex anisotropic structure. Variations of the splitting directions and dissimilarity in the source domains of basaltic volcanisms suggest that the asthenospheric mantle flow since at least the late Cenozoic cannot explain the seismic anisotropy beneath the region. Comparison to shear-wave splitting measurements from eastern China revealed that the NW-SE fast direction of splitting measurements in the the southern Korean Peninsula is close to that in the North China Block while the NE-SW fast direction might be related to that in the South China Block. The shallow mantle lithosphere beneath the southern Korean Peninsula retains the fossil anisotropy amalgamated prior to the late Paleozoic before the collision between the North China Block and South China Block, and the anisotropic structure was not completely realigned by the major orogenic events during the late Paleozoic to Mesozoic eras.

  15. Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui

    2014-09-15

    The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies. PMID:25038983

  16. An analysis of coastal topography and land cover changes at Haeundae Beach, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiyeon; Seo, Doochun; Lim, Hyosuk; Choi, Chuluong

    2010-11-01

    Environmental changes and increased development have led to sharp rises in coastal erosion. To understand and address this important social, environmental, and economic problem, a long-term data collection and monitoring system is necessary. This study analyzed changes in coastal topography and land cover for the past 60 years at Haeundae Beach, the most well-known beach in South Korea. First, aerial photographs were used to analyze the coastal topography. The coastline was extracted from digitized images, and tide levels were corrected using sounding and global positioning system (GPS) survey data. The beach area was then calculated and analyzed in terms of change in area over the 60-year study period. Second, land-cover changes were analyzed using detailed land-cover maps created by on-screen digitizing techniques and soil loss in the area near Haeundae Beach was estimated and compared with land use. Results showed that the coastline has moved farther inland and that in general the beach area has decreased. The beach area in 2005 was 35% less than that in 1947. The interception of the sand supply by artificial developments is thought to be a major cause of the coastal erosion. The study results can be applied to long-term coastal monitoring and environmental change projects and are expected to be available as part of a coastal information system.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of self-reported student maltreatment by teachers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2015-08-01

    This study first investigated the prevalence of emotional and physical maltreatment by teachers in South Korea and then identified factors that predict student maltreatment by teachers. Specific areas of interest were the associations between student demographic characteristics (gender and grade level), family (economic status), and school experience (academic performance and student-teacher relationships) and how these characteristics were related to student maltreatment. Data were obtained by questionnaire from a random sample of 1,777 students in middle schools in Seoul, the largest metropolitan area, and its surrounding province, Gyeonggi-Do. Questionnaires were completed during school time. All information was collected anonymously. Of those surveyed, 18.2% reported emotional maltreatment by teachers and 24.3% physical maltreatment. Overall, 30.7% reported being either emotionally or physically mistreated by teachers at least once in the previous year. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that gender, family economic status, academic performance, and student-teacher relationships were predictors of student maltreatment by teachers. The results have practical and policy implications for the design of programs that will results in altering abusive teacher classroom behavior. PMID:25828860

  18. Ecological assessment of coal mine and metal mine drainage in South Korea using Daphnia magna bioassay.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Injeong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Lee, Byung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the ecological effect of acid mine drainage, metal mine (Dalsung) and coal mine (Samtan) drainage in South Korea were collected. The each mine drainage then investigated by whole effluent toxicity test (WET) and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE). WET results demonstrated that DS leachate and ST mine water is more toxic than other mine drainage due to the presence of cationic metals and acidic pH. TIE results revealed that the acidic pH and copper (Cu) could be the main toxicants in both mine drainage. The strong acidic pH (pH < 3.5) enhanced the metal toxicity by increase of metal activity and bioavailability. The toxicity of most mine drainage revealed that the positive correlation between metal concentration and toxicity unit (TU). The regression data between TU and sum of cumulative criterion unit (CCU) demonstrated the reasonable statistical significance (R = 0.89; p < 0.01), however the excessive iron concentration in mine drainage could be an inhibition factor to estimate the toxicity by the effect of amorphous iron precipitate. PMID:26405638

  19. Measuring the Environmental Burden of Disease in South Korea: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Hyeong-Su; Ha, Jongsik; Kim, Eun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study attempted to measure the environmental burden of disease by examining mortality and disability rates in South Korea, permitting international comparisons. Methods: Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) was used to analyze data from public records. Years of life lost (YLL) and years lost to disability (YLD) were measured in terms of incidence rate and number of deaths. Attributable risks were based on those for WHO Western Pacific Regions. For air pollution, attributable risk was calculated using local PM10 levels and relative risk. Results: The total Korean environmental burden of disease was 17.98 per 1000 persons and the most serious risk factor was air pollution, at 6.89per1000 persons. Occupation was the second highest contributing factor, at 3.29 per 1000 persons, followed by indoor air pollution at 2.91 per 1000 persons. The DALY of air-pollution (indoor and outdoor) was 9.80 per 1000 persons, accounting for more than half of the total environmental burden of disease. The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and asthma were 4.07, 3.16, and 1.96 per 1000 persons, respectively. Conclusions: Respiratory illnesses comprised most of the disease burden, the majority of which was linked to air pollution. The present results are important as they could be used to make evidence-based decisions regarding the management of diseases and environmental-risk factors. PMID:26184265

  20. Determination of toxic heavy metals and speciation of arsenic in seaweeds from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naeem; Ryu, Keun Yeoung; Choi, Ji Yeon; Nho, Eun Yeong; Habte, Girum; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mee Hye; Park, Kyung Su; Kim, Kyong Su

    2015-02-15

    This study aimed at determining the levels of toxic heavy metals including As, Pb, Cd, Al, Hg and As species, such as, As-III, As-V, MMA, DMA, AsB, and AsC in various edible species of seaweeds from South Korea. ICP-MS was used for determination of As, Pb and Cd, ICP-OES was used for Al, DMA was used for Hg, and LC-ICP-MS was used for As speciation. The analytical methods were validated by linearity, detection limits, precision, accuracy and recovery experiments, obtaining satisfactory results in all cases. From the results toxic heavy metals were found in the decreasing order of: Al>As>Pb-Cd>Hg. Generally concentrations of all analysed heavy metals and both organic and inorganic species of As were very low compared to PTWIs specified by JECFA and EC. Their contribution to the overall intake by the subject seafoods was found very low and thus would not pose any threat to consumers. PMID:25236252

  1. Changes of precipitation extremes over South Korea projected by the 5 RCMs under RCP scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jo, Sera; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Hong, Song-You; Min, Seung-Ki; Park, Seong-Chan; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Shim, Kyo-Moon

    2016-05-01

    The change of extreme precipitation is assessed with the HadGEM2-AO - 5 Regional Climate Models (RCMs) chain, which is a national downscaling project undertaken cooperatively by several South Korean institutes aimed at producing regional climate change projection with fine resolution (12.5 km) around the Korean Peninsula. The downscaling domain, resolution and lateral boundary conditions are held the same among the 5 RCMs to minimize the uncertainties from model configuration. Climatological changes reveal a statistically significant increase in the mid-21st century (2046- 2070; Fut1) and the late-21st century (2076-2100; Fut2) precipitation properties related to extreme precipitation, such as precipitation intensity and average of upper 5 percentile daily precipitation, with respect to the reference period (1981-2005). Changes depending on the intensity categories also present a clear trend of decreasing light rain and increasing heavy rain. In accordance with these results, the change of 1-in-50 year maximum precipitation intensity over South Korea is estimated by the GEV method. The result suggests that the 50-year return value (RV50) will change from -32.69% to 72.7% and from -31.6% to 96.32% in Fut1 and from -31.97% to 86.25% and from -19.45% to 134.88% in Fut2 under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, respectively, at the 90% confidence level. This study suggests that multi-RCMs can be used to reduce uncertainties and assess the future change of extreme precipitation more reliably. Moreover, future projection of the regional climate change contains uncertainties evoked from not only driving GCM but also RCM. Therefore, multi-GCM and multi-RCM studies are expected to provide more robust projection.

  2. Physical Property Changes During CO2 Injection into Sandstone from Pukpyeong Formation, South Korea: Pore-scale Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Keehm, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is believed to be responsible for global warming and climate change, and Korea government puts a great effort in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage). The geological sequestration is regarded as one viable option and we are looking for prospecting formations for carbon storage. In this paper, we present a new approach to determine physical property changes during CO2 injection and preliminary results from applying the method to one of prospective Tertiary formation in South Korea. The so-called computational rock physics method is composed of three steps: 1) acquisition of high-resolution pore microstructures by X-ray micro-tomography; 2) CO2 injection simulation using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) two-phase flow simulation; and 3) FEM property simulations (electrical and elastic) at different CO2 saturations during the injection. We have been shown the viability of the method last year. This year we applied this method to one of CS (carbon storage) target area, Pukpyeong formation located in north-eastern part of South Korea. From thin section analysis, we found that the formation is composed of mudstone, sandstone and conglomerate, and most of them are poorly consolidated. The mudstone and poorly-sorted conglomerate are believed to have very low permeability, and the effect of CO2 injection would be significant. Thus we focus on sandstone units and get pore microstructure of those units. We then performed the computational rock physics analysis, and present the relations of Vp - CO2 saturation, and electrical conductivity - CO2 saturation for a few sand units. We also present the preliminary upscaling results by putting combined sandstone and mudstone units into FEM modeling. The modeling results implies that the new computational approach can be very useful to characterizing the CS sites especially in early stage. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP

  3. Changes in the association between summer temperature and mortality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jongsik; Kim, Ho

    2013-07-01

    The health impact of climate change depends on various conditions at any given time and place, as well as on the person. Temporal variations in the relationship between high temperature and mortality need to be explored in depth to explain how changes in the level of exposure and public health interventions modify the temperature-mortality relationship. We examined changes in the relationship between human mortality and temperature in Seoul, which has the highest population in South Korea, considering the change in population structure from 1993-2009. Poisson regression models were used to estimate short-term temperature-related mortality impacts. Temperature-related risks were divided into two "time periods" of approximately equal length (1993 and 1995-2000, and 2001-2009), and were also examined according to early summer and late summer. Temperature-related mortality in summer over the past 17 years has declined. These decreasing patterns were stronger for cardiovascular disease-related mortality than for all non-accidental deaths. The novel finding is that declines in temperature-related mortality were particularly noteworthy in late summer. Our results indicate that temperature-related mortality is decreasing in Seoul, particularly during late summer and, to a lesser extent, during early summer. This information would be useful for detailed public health preparedness for hot weather.

  4. Suicidal Ideation and its Correlates among Juvenile Delinquents in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suyoung; Kim, Hyekyeong; Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Dong Hwan; Cho, Han-Ik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated suicidal ideation and its correlates among juvenile delinquents in South Korea. Methods Suicidal ideation, psychological health status, and health-related behaviors were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire in 1682 juvenile offenders aged between 15 and 18 years in 2012. Results The prevalence of suicidal ideation in juvenile delinquents was 15.2%. Girls were more likely to report suicidal thoughts than boys (30.3% vs. 12.7%). Suicidal ideation was more common among adolescents who were not living with their family prior to entering detention centers (22.6% vs. 13.2%) than their counterparts. The likelihood of suicidal ideation was significantly associated with problem drinking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.84], psychedelic drug use (OR = 2.04), feeling unhappy (OR = 3.05), feeling sad or depressed (OR = 13.37) after controlling for sociodemographic factors, other health behaviors and perceptions. Conclusion The present study provides evidence for an association between suicidal ideation and psychological health and health risk behaviors among juvenile delinquents. It also highlights the importance of mental health and behavioral interventions for this population to prevent suicidality. PMID:25389511

  5. Characteristics of mesoscale-convective-system-produced extreme rainfall over southeastern South Korea: 7 July 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Dong-In; Wang, Chung-Chieh; Han, In-Seong

    2016-04-01

    An extreme-rainfall-producing mesoscale convective system (MCS) associated with the Changma front in southeastern South Korea was investigated using observational data. This event recorded historic rainfall and led to devastating flash floods and landslides in the Busan metropolitan area on 7 July 2009. The aim of the present study is to analyse the influences for the synoptic and mesoscale environment, and the reasons that the quasi-stationary MCS causes extreme rainfall. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses indicate that the MCS and heavy rainfall occurred in association with a stationary front which resembled a warm front in structure. A strong southwesterly low-level jet (LLJ) transported warm and humid air and supplied the moisture toward the front, and the air rose upwards above the frontal surface. As the moist air was conditionally unstable, repeated upstream initiation of deep convection by back-building occurred at the coastline, while old cells moved downstream parallel to the convective line with training effect. Because the motion of convective cells nearly opposed the backward propagation, the system as a whole moved slowly. The back-building behaviour was linked to the convectively generated cold pool and its outflow boundary, which played a role in the propagation and maintenance of the rainfall system. As a result, the quasi-stationary MCS caused a prolonged duration of heavy rainfall, leading to extreme rainfall over the Busan metropolitan area.

  6. Applicability Analysis of Ultra-Light Uav for Flooding Site Survey in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.; Kang, J.; Seo, G.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is used in a variety of fields such as the military service, fire prevention, traffic supervision, mapping, and etc. The increased demand for UAVs is typically attributed to the low manufacturing and operational costs, flexibility of the platforms to accommodate the consumer's particular needs and the elimination of the risk to pilots' lives in difficult missions. But, in South Korea, UAV might be first introduced to military service, and is still in its infancy, just being available for construction site monitoring, landscape photographing, spraying agricultural chemicals, broadcasting fields. This study presents the background and the aim of flood mapping, and presents the possibility analysis of how to use UAV effectively for flooding area. And author tries to overlap UAV image with the flooding area trace surveyed by ground surveys. As a result, it is expected that UAV photogrammetry will contributes to investigating the flooded area by providing images, which is describing the flooded area in near real-time and also making a decision like paying compensation.

  7. Estimation of available global solar radiation using sunshine duration over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Amrita; Park, Jin-ki; Park, Jong-hwa

    2015-11-01

    Besides designing a solar energy system, accurate insolation data is also a key component for many biological and atmospheric studies. But solar radiation stations are not widely available due to financial and technical limitations; this insufficient number affects the spatial resolution whenever an attempt is made to construct a solar radiation map. There are several models in literature for estimating incoming solar radiation using sunshine fraction. Seventeen of such models among which 6 are linear and 11 non-linear, have been chosen for studying and estimating solar radiation on a horizontal surface over South Korea. The better performance of a non-linear model signifies the fact that the relationship between sunshine duration and clearness index does not follow a straight line. With such a model solar radiation over 79 stations measuring sunshine duration is computed and used as input for spatial interpolation. Finally monthly solar radiation maps are constructed using the Ordinary Kriging method. The cross validation results show good agreement between observed and predicted data.

  8. A strategy for enhancing financial performance: a study of general acute care hospitals in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mankyu; Lee, Keon-Hyung

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the determinants of hospital profitability were evaluated using a sample of 142 hospitals that had undergone hospital standardization inspections by the South Korea Hospital Association over the 4-year period from 1998 to 2001. The measures of profitability used as dependent variables in this study were pretax return on assets, after-tax return on assets, basic earning power, pretax operating margin, and after-tax operating margin. Among those determinants, it was found that ownership type, teaching status, inventory turnover, and the average charge per adjusted inpatient day positively and statistically significantly affected all 5 of these profitability measures. However, the labor expenses per adjusted inpatient day and administrative expenses per adjusted inpatient day negatively and statistically significantly affected all 5 profitability measures. The debt ratio negatively and statistically significantly affected all 5 profitability measures, with the exception of basic earning power. None of the market factors assessed were shown to significantly affect profitability. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the profitability of hospitals can be improved despite deteriorating external environmental conditions by facilitating the formation of sound financial structures with optimal capital supplies, optimizing the management of total assets with special emphasis placed on inventory management, and introducing efficient control of fixed costs including labor and administrative expenses. PMID:19011410

  9. Bioaccumulation characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in coastal organisms from the west coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Naile, Jonathan E; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Song, Sung Joon; Ryu, Jongseong; Codling, Garry; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Year-round monitoring for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along the west coast of South Korea targeting long-term changes in water and coastal organisms has been conducted since 2008. In this study, we present the most recent 5-years of accumulated data and scrutinize the relationship between concentrations in water and biota highlighting bioaccumulation characteristics. Twelve individual PFAAs in samples of water (n=43) and biota (n=59) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. In recent years, concentrations of PFAAs in water have been generally decreasing, but profiles of relative concentrations of individual PFAAs vary among location and year. Bioaccumulation of PFAAs in various organisms including fishes, bivalves, crabs, gastropods, shrimps, starfish, and polychaetes varied among species. However, overall bioaccumulation of PFAAs was dependent on corresponding concentrations of PFAAs in water within an area. In organ-specific distributions of PFAAs, greater concentrations of PFAAs were found in intestine of fish (green eel goby). This result suggests that PFAAs are mainly accumulated via dietary exposure, while greater concentrations were found in gill and intestine of bivalve (oyster) which suggests both waterborne and dietary exposures to these organisms. Concentrations of PFAAs in biota did not decrease over time (2008-2010), indicating that continuing bioaccumulation followed by slow degradation or excretion of PFAAs accumulated in biota. Overall, spatio-temporal distributions of PFAAs in water and bioaccumulation characteristics seemed to be associated with recent restrictions of PFOS-based products and uses of PFBS-based substitutes. PMID:25015225

  10. Distribution and long-term trends in various fog types over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belorid, Miloslav; Lee, Chong Bum; Kim, Jea-Chul; Cheon, Tae-Hun

    2015-11-01

    This study analyzed the spatial and temporal distributions of various fog types over South Korea. Six types of fogs were identified using a classification algorithm based on simple conceptual models of fog formation. The algorithm was applied to a 25-year record of meteorological observations. The most common fog types were radiation fog, prevailing at inland stations, and precipitation fog at coastal and island stations. Declining temporal trends in the frequency of fog events ranging between 2.1 and 10.9 fog events per decade were found at eight inland and two coastal stations. Long-term trends for each fog type show that the decrease in the frequency of fog events is mainly due to a decrease in the frequency of radiation fogs ranging between 1.1 and 8.5 fog events per decade. To identify the potential factors related to the decrease in radiation fog events, the temporal trends in annual mean nocturnal maximal cooling rates and annual mean nocturnal specific humidity during nights with clear sky and clam winds were examined. The results show that the decrease in the frequency of radiation fog events is associated mainly with the pattern of urbanization occurring during the past two decades.

  11. The political economy of energy-corporate-urban integration in South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.

    1991-01-01

    This study seeks to explain the institutional basis of the political economy of South Korea and its integration into the global order. Through an investigation of the rise of technological (especially energy), corporate and urban networks under military/state direction, the analysis documents and explains why and how the contemporary South Korean political economy was formed and demonstrates that recent material progress actually leaves the country in a state of dependent development with environmental degradation and social inequality as necessary, even functional, characteristics of this progress. The central thesis of this study is that the rise to power of what I term a centralized, technicized regime (or CTR) has placed the civil society of South Korea in fundamental conflict with the prevailing institutional conditions of national political and economic order. The interconnected network of energy, corporate and urban systems that have formed since the late 19th century serves as the institutional foundation for South Korea's political economy. This network arranges the society and its resources in a definite political-economic structure that at once gives rise to certain social problems such as inequality, environmental degradation and alienation, the society's search for answers to these problems. Building new energy, industrial and spatial structures compatible with political and economic democracy, cannot be driven by technocratic considerations and the rationalizing norms of conformity and compliance, but by the politically creative energies of a people who place social ends before instrumental means in deciding the shape and structure of the society. A crucial failure of mainstream social thought and practice has been the diversion of creative energies from the development of a critical evaluation of the society's energy-corporate-urban integration. Political conflict will continue because the aims of the CTR and civic society are opposed.

  12. Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

    2006-10-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

  13. Is South Korea a Case of High-Stakes Testing Gone Too Far? Information Capsule. Volume 1107

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    South Korea's students consistently outperform their counterparts in almost every country in reading and math. Experts have concluded, however, that the South Korean education system has produced students who score well on tests, but fall short on creativity and innovative thinking. They blame these shortcomings on schools' emphasis on rote…

  14. Who Cares about One Blood in This Global Society? A Qualitative Study of South Korea's Reunification Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yoo Jin

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined South Korean teenagers' views on North Korea and possible reunification. In-depth interviews conducted with fourteen (14) South Korean high school students reported that these teenagers were torn about whether or not they should support reunification. While students acknowledged the lack of dialogue and discussion…

  15. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison.

    PubMed

    Ock, Minsu; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein 'full health' and 'being dead' were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study). With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS), and standard gamble (SG) were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE) were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with 'full health' and 'being dead' designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-values<0.001). The discrimination of values according to health state severity was most suitable in Model 1. Based on these results, the paired comparison-only model was selected as the best model for estimating disability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with 'full health' and 'being dead' as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights. PMID:27606626

  16. DEEP-South: Network Construction, Test Runs and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Myung-Jin; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Bae, Young-Ho; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Jintae; Moon, Bora

    2016-01-01

    Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) which consists of three identical 1.6 m wide-field telescopes with 18k × 18k CCDs, is the first optical survey system of its kind. The combination of fast optics and the mosaic CCD delivers seeing limited images over a 4 square degrees field of view. The main science goal of KMTNet is the discovery and characterization of exoplanets, yet it also offers various other science applications including DEep Ecliptic Patrol of SOUTHern sky (DEEP-South). The aim of DEEP-South is to discover and characterize asteroids and comets, including Near Earth Objects (NEOs). We started test runs last February after commissioning, and will return to normal operations in October 2015. A summary of early results from the test runs will be presented.

  17. Status, Alert System, and Prediction of Cyanobacterial Bloom in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ankita; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Asthana, Ravi Kumar; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2015-01-01

    Bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterial genera pose a major ecological problem due to their ability to produce toxins and other bioactive compounds, which can have important implications in illnesses of humans and livestock. Cyanobacteria such as Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Aphanizomenon species producing microcystins and anatoxin-a have been predominantly documented from most South Korean lakes and reservoirs. With the increase in frequency of such blooms, various monitoring approaches, treatment processes, and prediction models have been developed in due course. In this paper we review the field studies and current knowledge on toxin producing cyanobacterial species and ecological variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation in major rivers (Han, Geum, Nakdong, and Yeongsan) and reservoirs in South Korea. In addition, development of new, fast, and high-throughput techniques for effective monitoring is also discussed with cyanobacterial bloom advisory practices, current management strategies, and their implications in South Korean freshwater bodies. PMID:25705675

  18. Sodium and potassium intake patterns and trends in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Duffey, K J; Popkin, B M

    2013-05-01

    We examined major trends and patterns regarding sodium and potassium intake and the ratio of sodium and potassium in the diets of South Koreans. We used data from 24-h dietary recall data from 10,267, 8819 and 9264 subjects ages > or =2 years in the 1998, 2005 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, respectively. Mean sodium intake did not change significantly between 1998 and 2009 (4.6 vs. 4.7 g per day), while potassium intake increased significantly (2.6 vs. 2.9 g per day (P<0.001)). The major dietary sodium sources were kimchi, salt, soy sauce and soybean paste, and most potassium came from unprocessed foods (white rice, vegetables, kimchi and fruits). About 50% of the participants consumed > or =4 g of sodium per capita per day. The proportion of respondents consuming four to six grams of potassium per capita per day increased from 10.3% in 1998 to 14.3% in 2009 (P<0.001), and the sodium-potassium ratio decreased from 1.88 to 1.71 (P<0.001). One major implication is that efforts to reduce sodium in processed foods will be ineffective and future efforts must focus on both education to reduce use of sodium in food preparation and sodium replacement in salt, possibly with potassium. PMID:23151751

  19. The Characterization of Microearthquakes in Offshore Area of Northeastern South Korea from Multidisciplinary Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. M.; Che, I. Y.; Kim, G.

    2015-12-01

    A number of small earthquakes in offshore Gangneung-Sokcho-Goseong area of northeastern South Korea has been identified and the hypocenters of these events are relocated by double-difference algorithm using multidisciplinary data set. Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) lists 845 events for the period Jan. 2010 - Jun. 2015 with local magnitude up to 3.3. Peer review shows that the offshore events can be grouped into a number of small clusters, whereas onshore events are relatively few and unevenly distributed. It appears to have little relationship between the location of offshore event clusters and the direction of main onshore faults running NNE - SSW. In this study, we focus on the small events occurred in the area of N37°45´-38°35´ and E128°30´ - 129°20´. The Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) network operated by KIGAM and 5 temporary stations with Guralp CMG-40T short-period seismometers placed along the east coast of South Korea record the seismic energy generated from small events. The 137 events recorded from May to October 2014, ranging in local magnitude from 0.4 to 2.3, are already relocated using 1849 direct P-wave traveltimes identified from 29 stations. Relocation produced two major clusters in offshore Goseong (cluster 1) and Yangyang (cluster 2) province. The waveforms of relocated events in cluster 1 and 2 are similar to those from explosion in waters rather than earthquake, and spectrum analysis shows energy concentration on low frequencies below 10 Hz. We are combining the multidisciplinary data set from land based broadband and short-period seismometers, Guralp OBS system deployed in July this year, accelerometer and hydrophone array mounted on the offshore platforms of the underwater seismic observatory in the north of the study area. The integration of seismic and hydro-acoustic data in offshore supplements uneven azimuthal coverage and gives improved characterization of offshore seismic activity.

  20. Long-lead station-scale prediction of hydrological droughts in South Korea based on bivariate pattern-based downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Soo-Jin; Tam, Chi-Yung

    2016-05-01

    Capturing climatic variations in boreal winter to spring (December-May) is essential for properly predicting droughts in South Korea. This study investigates the variability and predictability of the South Korean climate during this extended season, based on observations from 60 station locations and multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast experiments (1983/1984-2005/2006) archived at the APEC Climate Center (APCC). Multivariate empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis results based on observations show that the first two leading modes of winter-to-spring precipitation and temperature variability, which together account for ~80 % of the total variance, are characterized by regional-scale anomalies covering the whole South Korean territory. These modes were also closely related to some of the recurrent large-scale circulation changes in the northern hemisphere during the same season. Consistent with the above, examination of the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) indicates that drought conditions in South Korea tend to be accompanied by regional-to-continental-scale circulation anomalies over East Asia to the western north Pacific. Motivated by the aforementioned findings on the spatial-temporal coherence among station-scale precipitation and temperature anomalies, a new bivariate and pattern-based downscaling method was developed. The novelty of this method is that precipitation and temperature data were first filtered using multivariate EOFs to enhance their spatial-temporal coherence, before being linked to large-scale circulation variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). To test its applicability and to investigate its related potential predictability, a perfect empirical model was first constructed with observed datasets as predictors. Next, a model output statistics (MOS)-type hybrid dynamical-statistical model was developed, using products from nine one-tier climate models as inputs. It was found that, with model sea

  1. Long-lead station-scale prediction of hydrological droughts in South Korea based on bivariate pattern-based downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Soo-Jin; Tam, Chi-Yung

    2015-07-01

    Capturing climatic variations in boreal winter to spring (December-May) is essential for properly predicting droughts in South Korea. This study investigates the variability and predictability of the South Korean climate during this extended season, based on observations from 60 station locations and multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast experiments (1983/1984-2005/2006) archived at the APEC Climate Center (APCC). Multivariate empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis results based on observations show that the first two leading modes of winter-to-spring precipitation and temperature variability, which together account for ~80 % of the total variance, are characterized by regional-scale anomalies covering the whole South Korean territory. These modes were also closely related to some of the recurrent large-scale circulation changes in the northern hemisphere during the same season. Consistent with the above, examination of the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) indicates that drought conditions in South Korea tend to be accompanied by regional-to-continental-scale circulation anomalies over East Asia to the western north Pacific. Motivated by the aforementioned findings on the spatial-temporal coherence among station-scale precipitation and temperature anomalies, a new bivariate and pattern-based downscaling method was developed. The novelty of this method is that precipitation and temperature data were first filtered using multivariate EOFs to enhance their spatial-temporal coherence, before being linked to large-scale circulation variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). To test its applicability and to investigate its related potential predictability, a perfect empirical model was first constructed with observed datasets as predictors. Next, a model output statistics (MOS)-type hybrid dynamical-statistical model was developed, using products from nine one-tier climate models as inputs. It was found that, with model sea

  2. Seasonal Prediction of Regional Surface Air Temperature and First-flowering Date in South Korea using Dynamical Downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal prediction of both the surface air temperature and the first-flowering date (FFD) over South Korea are produced using dynamical downscaling (Hur and Ahn, 2015). Dynamical downscaling is performed using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) v3.0 with the lateral forcing from hourly outputs of Pusan National University (PNU) coupled general circulation model (CGCM) v1.1. Gridded surface air temperature data with high spatial (3km) and temporal (daily) resolution are obtained using the physically-based dynamical models. To reduce systematic bias, simple statistical correction method is then applied to the model output. The FFDs of cherry, peach and pear in South Korea are predicted for the decade of 1999-2008 by applying the corrected daily temperature predictions to the phenological thermal-time model. The WRF v3.0 results reflect the detailed topographical effect, despite having cold and warm biases for warm and cold seasons, respectively. After applying the correction, the mean temperature for early spring (February to April) well represents the general pattern of observation, while preserving the advantages of dynamical downscaling. The FFD predictabilities for the three species of trees are evaluated in terms of qualitative, quantitative and categorical estimations. Although FFDs derived from the corrected WRF results well predict the spatial distribution and the variation of observation, the prediction performance has no statistical significance or appropriate predictability. The approach used in the study may be helpful in obtaining detailed and useful information about FFD and regional temperature by accounting for physically-based atmospheric dynamics, although the seasonal predictability of flowering phenology is not high enough. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953 and

  3. Quiescence of Asian dust events in South Korea and Japan during 2012 spring: Dust outbreaks and transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yun Gon; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Joo-Hong; Kim, Jhoon

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the quiescence of Asian dust events in South Korea and Japan during the spring of 2012, presenting a synoptic characterization and suggesting possible causes. Synoptic observation reports from the two countries confirmed that spring 2012 had the lowest number of dust events in 2000-2012. The monthly dust frequency (DF) in March 2012 over the dust source regions, i.e., deserts in northern China and Mongolia, indicated a significant decrease compared to the 12 year (2000-2011) March climatology. The DF in April 2012 was comparable to the 12 year climatology values, but in May 2012 it was slightly lower. The daily Ozone Monitoring Instrument Aerosol Index and the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System simulations revealed stagnant dust movement in March and May 2012. Anomalous anticyclones north of the source regions decreased the dust outbreaks and enhanced the southeasterly winds, resulting in few dust events over the downwind countries (i.e., South Korea and Japan). By contrast, in April 2012, a strong anomalous cyclone east of Lake Baikal slightly increased the dust outbreaks over northeastern China. However, the major dust outbreaks were not transported downwind because of exceptional dust pathways, i.e., the southeastward pathway of dust transport was unusually blocked by the expansion of an anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the Sea of Okhotsk, with dust being transported northeast.

  4. Application of the Prague C and M criteria for endoscopic description of columnar-lined esophagus in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jung Wan; Kim, Young Choon; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To ascertain whether the Prague circumferential (C) length and maximal (M) length criteria for grading the extent of Barrett’s esophagus can be applied prior to its widespread application in South Korea. METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen consecutive cases with endoscopic columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) were included and classified according to the Prague C and M criteria. RESULTS: Of 213 cases with CLE, the distribution of maximum CLE lengths was: 0.5-0.9 cm in 99 cases (46.5%); 1.0-1.4 cm in 63 cases (29.6%); 1.5-1.9 cm in 15 cases (7.0%); 2.0-2.4 cm in 14 cases (6.6%); 2.5-2.9 cm in 1 case (0.5%); and 7.0 cm in 1 case (0.5%). Twenty cases (9.4%) had columnar islands alone. Two hundred and eight cases (97.7%) lacked the circumferential CLE component (C0Mx). Columnar islands were found in 70 cases (32.9%), of which 20 cases (9.4%) had columnar islands alone. CONCLUSION: In regions where most CLE patients display short or ultrashort tongue-like appearance, more detailed descriptions of CLE’s in < 1.0 cm lengths and columnar islands, as well as avoidance of repeating the prefix “C0” need to be considered in parallel with the widespread application of the Prague system in South Korea. PMID:27114749

  5. Rare earth element compositions of core sediments from the shelf of the South Sea, Korea: Their controls and origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hoi-Soo; Lim, Dhongil; Choi, Jin-Yong; Yoo, Hae-Soo; Rho, Kyung-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Bok

    2012-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) of bulk sediments and heavy mineral samples of core sediments from the South Sea shelf, Korea, were analyzed to determine the constraints on REE concentrations and distribution patterns as well as to investigate their potential applicability for discriminating sediment provenance. Bulk sediment REEs showed large variation in concentrations and distribution patterns primarily due to grain size and carbonate dilution effects, as well as due to an abundance of heavy minerals. In the fine sandy sediments (cores EZ02-15 and 19), in particular, heavy minerals (primarily monazite and titanite/sphene) largely influenced REE compositions. Upper continental crust-normalized REE patterns of these sand-dominated sediments are characterized by enriched light REEs (LREEs), because of inclusion of heavy minerals with very high concentrations in LREEs. Notably, such a strong LREE enrichment is also observed in Korean river sediments. So, a great care must be taken when using the REE concentrations and distribution patterns of sandy and coarse silty shelf sediments as a proxy for discriminating sediment provenance. In the fine-grained muddy sediments with low heavy mineral abundance, in contrast, REE fractionation ratios and their UCC-normalized patterns seem to be reliable proxies for assessing sediment provenance. The resultant sediment origin suggested a long lateral transportation of some fine-grained Chinese river sediments (probably the Changjiang River) to the South Sea of Korea across the shelf of the northern East China Sea.

  6. Clay minerals and gravels of late Pleistocene interstadial coastal sediments above the current sea level, south coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D. Y.; Kim, J. C.; Lim, J.; Yi, S.; Nahm, W. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Han, M.

    2015-12-01

    At nowadays, the severe greenhouse effect causes rapid sea level rise around the Korea Peninsula. Paleo-climate researches have been concentrating on hydrological activities during the mid-Holocene optimum and the last interglacial period to use the paleo-analogues data in predicting the future hydrological environments. The previous studies on the late Pleistocene interstadial coastal sediments have primarily been biased towards the terraces of the east coast in the Korean Peninsula. According to the results, the last interglacial marine terraces of the east coast were existed at 18 m in elevation. Uplift rate of them was presumed to be 0.1mm/year (Choi, 2006). Also, the stratigraphy of the Quaternary coastal deposits of the Yellow Sea has been suggested by Park et al. (1998) and Lim et al. (2003). In recent, Jang et al. (2014) reported the OSL dated Eemian marine deposit along the southwest coast of Korea. However, the age-equivalent outcrops of the south coast are not discovered yet. The first outcrops of the late Pleistocene interstadial coastal sediment above the present sea level were discovered at IJin-ri site of Haenam, south coast of Korea. It would be very useful for calculating the rates of Eemian sea level rise and uplift of south coast of Korea. 62 cubic samples were collected at 6 cm intervals from the section (4.8-8.83m in elevation). Four sedimentary units, from Unit 1 to 4 in ascending order, are distinguished based on sedimentary textures and grain size distribution as follows: Unit 1 (sand, 4.8 m-5.32 m in elevation), Unit 2 (silty clay, 5.32 m-6.8 m in elevation), Unit 3 (gravelly sand, 6.8m-7.8m in elevation) and, Unit 4(sandy gravel, 7.8m-8.83m in elevation). The sediments which included rounded or semi-rounded gravels are thought to be transported from marine. Also, the assemblages of clay minerals from the sections are similar to those of Yellow Sea. It shows the possibility that the sediments originated from marine during high sea level

  7. Developing Index for Sustainable Water Use with Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators: an Application for Hydrologic Units in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kong, I.

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to develop index for sustainable water use over hydrologic units in South Korea. We identified major indicators for sustainable water use with considering multiple aspects of water use: not only physical, biological and chemical aspects but also social and environmental aspects. Furthermore, stressors for sustainable water use were of major interests because they were straightforward and easy to measure in comparison to indicators representing the state- and impact-related indictors. As a result, sustainability index was constructed with a theme-based hierarchical approach. It is comprised of two components of stress and response to sustainable water use and each component includes five sub-components of human water requirements, water quality requirements, 4) h, equitable water use and others. Then for each sub-component, multiple indicators, i.e., proxy variables were identified. For drainage basins in South Korea, standard hydrologic units with their total number of about 100 across the country, total 19 indicators were identified and their data from the various sources such as remote-sensing based datasets and survey-based national datasets were collected for current times. Then they were integrated to estimate the sustainability index with a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach. At last, we evaluated sustainability index with focusing on the spatial variability of indices and indicators and the sensitivity of indices to individual indicators to better understand the sustainability of water use in Korea. In addition, we derived the indices with different MCDM methods to evaluate the sensitivity of index to various mathematical techniques.

  8. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Youngseob; Song, Insang; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside sites. This study

  9. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Eum, Youngseob; Song, Insang; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside sites. This study

  10. NASA Child Fitness Promotion Program in Young Children in South Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, Jungwon; Kim, Gilsook; Lim, Hyunjung; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious global public health concern (WHO, 2015; Wang Y & Lobstein T, 2006). Low self-esteem and related mental health problems are common in obese children (Strauss RS, 2000) as well as poor academic performance and career development (Gurley-Calvez T, 2010).Westernized dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles are identified as the major risk factors of current alarming rate of obesity along with genetic susceptibility (Popkin BM, 1999). Children in many countries, including South Korea, have become increasingly sedentary due to urbanization changes in their respective societies (Ng SW, et al. 2009, Salmon J et al. 2011). In particular, South Korea had abundant dissemination of mobile technology, such as tablet and smart phone devices. Children have become reliant on mobile devices and are less likely to perform physical activities (Do, et al, 2013). Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed to fight the global obesity epidemic (IOM, 2012; Wang Y et al, 2013; Wang Y et al, 2015). Previous studies suggested focus on prevention strategies that begin in early childhood, a period when children establish their life habits. (Salmon J et al. 2011). Recent systematic reviews and meta-analysis including ours found that obesity prevention programs for young children have a greater intervention effect (Waters E, et al, 2011; Wang Y et al, 2013; Wang Y et al, 2015). The NASA Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut (MX) program was developed to promote children's exercise and healthy eating with excitement for training like an astronaut (Lloyd C, 2012).At present, the NASA MX Program covered 28 countries, enrolled children through their teachers in school setting (MX report 2014, 2015). This pilot study adapted the NASA MX intervention program for young children in South Korea. We assessed its feasibility and effectiveness in promoting physical activity (PA) in children and in improving parents' perspectives. We also examined the status of PA

  11. Preliminary epidemiologic assessment of MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea, May–June 2015

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Benjamin J; Park, Minah; Fang, Vicky J; Wu, Peng; Leung, Gabriel M; Wu, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    South Korea is experiencing the largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections outside the Arabian Peninsula, with 166 laboratory-confirmed cases, including 24 deaths as of 19 June 2015. We estimated that the mean incubation period was 6.7 days and the mean serial interval 12.6 days. We found it unlikely that infectiousness precedes symptom onset. Based on currently available data, we predict an overall case fatality risk of 21.3% (95% credible interval: 14%–31%). PMID:26132767

  12. The 2008 US beef scare episode in South Korea: analysis of an unusual public reaction.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyun J

    2014-11-01

    We investigated major factors underlying an unusual 2008 public 'candlelight protest' in South Korea about US beef imports related to concerns about bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Using a survey we explored determinants of consumer responses to negative publicity in mass media. Respondents (80.7 per cent) reduced consumption of imported beef during the scare; of those 62.5 per cent decreased consumption of US beef only. We explain the determinants in order of their importance and define the relevant terms from a theory of consumer behavior in economics. Our findings suggest that several effects worked jointly in their influence on most respondents who reduced beef consumption. PMID:25164598

  13. Cataract surgery in the management of the late complications of lepromatous leprosy in South Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Ffytche, T J

    1981-01-01

    Clinical examination of 113 patients in South Korea with lepromatous leprosy and severe visual impairment showed that the main cause of visual loss was the combined effect of corneal and lens opacities associated with small nonreacting pupils and iris atrophy. Cataract surgery with broad iridectomy and inferior sphincterotomy offers these patients with chronic lepromatous complications the best chance of preserving vision. Eighty-one cataract operations were performed under local anaesthesia, and in 90% vision improved; in 60% this improvement was 2 Snellen's lines or more. Images PMID:7236567

  14. Behavior of Eupcheon fault Using Fault Monitoring Data in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S.; Hwang, J.; Park, D.; Choi, W.; Chang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1960s, the Fault Monitoring System(FMS) was adopted in several countries including U.S., Japan and Taiwan, where fault movement related with tectonics have occurred frequently. In Korea, only the Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. - Central Research Institute (KHNP-CRI) has been managing FMS. The first FMS of South Korea had been installed to monitor the Eupcheon fault located in Gyeoungju city from 2009. The system is equipped with in-situ measuring units including strainmeter, creepmeter, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), seismometer, and groundwater level meter. This paper presents the behavior of the Eupcheon fault based on the monitored data from EFMS in 2012. These data reveal that the earthquakes near Eupcheon fault did not lead to considerable changes in underground stress and displacement as the data in 2011. The creepmeter is sensitive to the temperature so that the data from the creepmeter showed the seasonal variation. The GNSS and strainmeter data have influenced by the tides. For this reason, it is required to employ a calibration system considering the external parameters such as tides and temperature variations. The KHNP-CRI is currently developing technical systems for data correction and analysis to predict the long-term behavior characteristics of Eupcheon fault. It is expected that the enhanced monitoring system contributes significantly in geo-tectonic safety assessment of nuclear plants and other critical facilities related to the national security.

  15. Radioactive impact in South Korea from the damaged nuclear reactors in Fukushima: evidence of long and short range transport.

    PubMed

    Hong, G H; Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Lozano, R L; Kim, Y I; Lee, H M; Kim, S H; Yeh, S-W; Bolívar, J P; Baskaran, M

    2012-12-01

    Traces of long-lived fallout-derived radioisotopes ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were found in wet and dry deposition samples collected from the west and east coasts of South Korea from March to May 2011 following the release of radionuclides from the damaged nuclear power plants in Fukushima, Japan. The analysis of air mass back trajectory and atmospheric pressure systems indicated that the Fukushima-derived radiocaesium had predominantly reached South Korea from the west by surface westerlies from 11 March to 5 April; however, after 6 April, air masses arrived from Japan directly due to a high pressure system that developed to the east of Japan. Spatial variation of deposition fluxes of radiocaesium in South Korea was partly attributed to the presence of local longitudinal orography. PMID:23006667

  16. Trend Analysis of GPS Precipitable Water Vapor Above South Korea Over the Last 10 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Dong-Hyo; Cho, Jungho

    2010-09-01

    We analyzed global positioning system (GPS)-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV) trends of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 5 stations (Seoul, Daejeon, Mokpo, Milyang, Sokcho) where Korea Meteorological Administration meteorological data can be obtained at the same place. In the least squares analysis, the GPS PWV time series showed consistent positive trends (0.11 mm/year) over South Korea from 2000 to 2009. The annual increase of GPS PWV was comparable with the 0.17 mm/year and 0.02 mm/year from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory and Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder, respectively. For seasonal analysis, the increasing tendency was found by 0.05 mm/year, 0.16 mm/year, 0.04 mm/year in spring (March-May), summer (June-August) and winter (December-February), respectively. However, a negative trend (-0.14 mm/year) was seen in autumn (September-November). We examined the relationship between GPS PWV and temperature which is the one of the climatic elements. Two elements trends increased during the same period and the correlation coefficient was about 0.8. Also, we found the temperature rise has increased more GPS PWV and observed a stronger positive trend in summer than in winter. This is characterized by hot humid summer and cold dry winter of Korea climate and depending on the amount of water vapor the air contains at a certain temperature. In addition, it is assumed that GPS PWV positive trend is caused by increasing amount of saturated water vapor due to temperature rise in the Korean Peninsula. In the future, we plan to verify GPS PWV effectiveness as a tool to monitor changes in precipitable water through cause analysis of seasonal trends and indepth/ long-term comparative analysis between GPS PWV and other climatic elements.

  17. DNA Barcoding of Metazoan Zooplankton Copepods from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Kim, Sang Ki; Lee, Jin Hee; Lim, Young Jin; Lee, Jimin; Jun, Jumin; Kwak, Myounghai; Lee, Young-Sup; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar; Chang, Cheon Young; Kim, Il-Hoi; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-01-01

    Copepods, small aquatic crustaceans, are the most abundant metazoan zooplankton and outnumber every other group of multicellular animals on earth. In spite of ecological and biological importance in aquatic environment, their morphological plasticity, originated from their various lifestyles and their incomparable capacity to adapt to a variety of environments, has made the identification of species challenging, even for expert taxonomists. Molecular approaches to species identification have allowed rapid detection, discrimination, and identification of cryptic or sibling species based on DNA sequence data. We examined sequence variation of a partial mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene (COI) from 133 copepod individuals collected from the Korean Peninsula, in order to identify and discriminate 94 copepod species covering six copepod orders of Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida, Monstrilloida, Poecilostomatoida and Siphonostomatoida. The results showed that there exists a clear gap with ca. 20 fold difference between the averages of within-specific sequence divergence (2.42%) and that of between-specific sequence divergence (42.79%) in COI, suggesting the plausible utility of this gene in delimitating copepod species. The results showed, with the COI barcoding data among 94 copepod species, that a copepod species could be distinguished from the others very clearly, only with four exceptions as followings: Mesocyclops dissimilis–Mesocyclops pehpeiensis (0.26% K2P distance in percent) and Oithona davisae–Oithona similis (1.1%) in Cyclopoida, Ostrincola japonica–Pseudomyicola spinosus (1.5%) in Poecilostomatoida, and Hatschekia japonica–Caligus quadratus (5.2%) in Siphonostomatoida. Thus, it strongly indicated that COI may be a useful tool in identifying various copepod species and make an initial progress toward the construction of a comprehensive DNA barcode database for copepods inhabiting the Korean Peninsula. PMID:27383475

  18. Geomorphological Responses to Anthropogenic Alterations within the Nakdong and Yeongsan Estuaries, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Joshua; Dellapenna, Timothy; Lee, guan-hong

    2016-04-01

    On the Korean Peninsula, significant anthropogenic alterations have occurred to drainage basins and estuaries due to river diversion for agricultural practices, coastal construction of estuarine barrages, and extensive seawalls in land reclamation projects. Over the past century these practices have considerably modified the shoreline and altered both net transport of sediment and freshwater from these systems and modulated the timing and intensity of the discharge. As a result, the sediment dynamics and ecosystems within the estuaries have been significantly altered. Considering drainage basins >500 km2, 56% of rivers reaching the coast in South Korea have been occluded by an estuarine dam, restricting delivery of sediments and altering/preventing natural tidal exchange of fresh and saltwater. The Nakdong and Yeongsan Estuaries are prime examples and are respectively representative of micro and macro-tidal estuaries found in the region. The impacts of the modifications include a substantial decrease in the tidal prism, reduction of accommodation space in intertidal zones, and changes in the dispersal mechanisms and accumulation of sediments. In order to assess these alterations, a series of gravity and vibracores were analyzed using 210Pb and 137Cs radioisotope geochronology, laser diffraction particle analyses, and X-radiography. Additionally, side scan sonar and CHIRP seismic data were collected. Our observations have found a shift in depositional environments as a natural response to an extensive array of anthropogenic alterations. The changes in sediment trapping efficiency that have ensued resulting from extensive coastal construction provides the basis for reevaluating traditional facies models for estuaries in the Anthropocene

  19. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses Reintroduced into South Korea by Migratory Waterfowl, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Swayne, David E.; Noh, Jin-Yong; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses were isolated from migratory waterfowl in South Korea during fall 2014–winter 2015, a recurrence after initial introduction in winter 2014. These reappeared viruses were phylogenetically distinct from isolates circulating in poultry farms in South Korea. PMID:26890406

  20. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  1. Perceptions of Student Misconduct, Perceived Respect for Teachers, and Support for Corporal Punishment among School Teachers in South Korea: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of survey data on perceptions of student misconduct, perceived respect for teachers, and support for corporal punishment among school teachers in South Korea. The data were gathered from a survey of 110 middle and high school teachers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Descriptive, chi square, logistic regression,…

  2. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease Caused by Mycobacterium simiae: The First Reported Case in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Suk Hyeon; Kim, Su-Young; Lee, Hyun; Ham, Jun Soo; Hwang, Keum Bit; Hwang, Subin; Shin, Sun Hye; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Seung Heon; Shin, Sung Jae

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of the first South Korean case of a lung disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae. The patient was a previously healthy 52-year-old female. All serial isolates were identified as M. simiae by multi-locus sequencing analysis, based on hsp65, rpoB, 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer, and 16S rRNA fragments. A chest radiography revealed deterioration, and the follow-up sputum cultures were persistently positive, despite combination antibiotic treatment, including azithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of a lung disease caused by M. simiae in South Korea. PMID:26508940

  3. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Adolescents in South Korea: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eunok

    2006-01-01

    The number of research papers evaluating programs designed to prevent adolescent smoking have increased in the last 13 years in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these programs, to review the features of the studies and to systemically assess the results on the knowledge about, and attitude to, smoking and smoking behavior. Database…

  4. Whitening Effect of Watersoluble Royal Jelly from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwan Kyu; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly has been widely used as a health supplement worldwide. However, royal jelly has been implicated in allergic reactions, and we developed a water-soluble royal jelly (WSRJ) without the allergy inducing protein. In this study, we aimed to identify the anti-melanogenic efficacy of WSRJ. B16F1 melanoma cells were first treated with 10 nM α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and then with various doses of WSRJ. In addition, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. WSRJ directly inhibited tyrosinase and cellular tyrosinase activity, which decreased melanin synthesis in α-MSH stimulated B16F1 melanoma cells a level comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2, which was comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ has strong anti-melanogenic activity, which invoice direct inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and suppression of expression of melanogenesis related genes. Results from this study suggests that WSRJ is a potential candidate for the treatment of skin pigmentation. PMID:26761901

  5. Whitening Effect of Watersoluble Royal Jelly from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Mi; Kim, Jung Min; Hong, In Phyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Kim, Se Gun; Jang, Hye Ri; Park, Kwan Kyu; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly has been widely used as a health supplement worldwide. However, royal jelly has been implicated in allergic reactions, and we developed a water-soluble royal jelly (WSRJ) without the allergy inducing protein. In this study, we aimed to identify the anti-melanogenic efficacy of WSRJ. B16F1 melanoma cells were first treated with 10 nM α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and then with various doses of WSRJ. In addition, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. WSRJ directly inhibited tyrosinase and cellular tyrosinase activity, which decreased melanin synthesis in α-MSH stimulated B16F1 melanoma cells a level comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2, which was comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ has strong anti-melanogenic activity, which invoice direct inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and suppression of expression of melanogenesis related genes. Results from this study suggests that WSRJ is a potential candidate for the treatment of skin pigmentation. PMID:26761901

  6. Analysis of college students' online life-styles and their psychological profiles in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sujin

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationships between the online life-styles of South Korean students as Internet users and Internet use, their tendency toward Internet addiction, and the level of cyber ethics. A sample of 324 students, aged between 18 and 23 years, from a medium-sized university in South Korea was asked to complete a survey. They were categorized into three groups depending on their online life-styles: a Social group (SG), an Individual group (IG), and a Loner group (LG). In the following analyses, no group difference was found in hours of Internet use on either weekdays or weekends, but the SG reported higher engagement in interaction-oriented activities (e.g. blogging, games, and instant messenger services) than the LG. As for tendency toward Internet addiction, all three groups belonged to the first phase of the "at-risk" classification in Korea. Interestingly, the IG characteristics of sensation seeking and independence reported the lowest scores in cyber ethics, while the LG characteristics of apathetic attitude toward the Internet reported the highest scores in cyber ethics. This preliminary study showed that Internet users impose different meanings and values on their Internet experiences, which contribute to their use of Internet services, their tendency toward Internet addiction, and their level of cyber ethics. PMID:21142996

  7. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang

    2016-03-01

    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM. PMID:26754615

  8. Estimation of anthropogenic heat emission over South Korea using a statistical regression method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Tae

    2015-05-01

    Anthropogenic heating by human activity is one of the key contributing factors in forming urban heat islands, thus inclusion of the heat source plays an important role in urban meteorological and environmental modeling. In this study, gridded anthropogenic heat flux (AHF) with high spatial (1-km) and temporal (1-hr) resolution is estimated for the whole South Korea region in year 2010 using a statistical regression method which derives based on similarity of anthropogenic air pollutant emissions and AHF in their emission inventories. The bottom-up anthropogenic pollutant emissions required for the regression method are produced using the intensive Korean air pollutants emission inventories. The calculated regression-based AHF compares well with the inventory-based AHF estimation for the Gyeong-In region, demonstrating that the statistical regression method can reasonably represent spatio-temporal variation of the AHF within the region. The estimated AHF shows that for major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Gwangju, Daejeon, and Ulsan) the annual mean AHF range 10-50 Wm-2 on a grid scale and 20-30W m-2 on a city-scale. The winter AHF are larger by about 22% than that in summer, while the weekday AHF are larger by 4-5% than the weekend AHF in the major Korean cities. The gridded AHF data estimated in this study can be used in mesoscale meteorological and environmental modeling for the South Korea region.

  9. Elemental composition of different air masses over Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Choi, Man-Sik; Yi, Hi-Il; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Chae, Jung-Sun; Cheong, Chang-Sik

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the characteristics (concentrations and compositional changes) of atmospheric elements in total suspended particulates through source-receptor relationships using cluster analyses to classify air mass back-trajectories arriving at Gosan, Jeju Island, South Korea, from October 2003 to December 2008. Five trajectory clusters were chosen to explain the transport regimes. Continental outflows of natural and anthropogenic aerosols from Asian dust source regions and eastern China during the colder period could increase element concentrations at Gosan. Elemental levels at Gosan decreased in air masses that passed over marine regions (East China Sea, Pacific Ocean/southern side of Kyushu Island in Japan, and East Sea/southern side of South Korea) during the warmer rainy period due to lower source intensity and dilution by the marine air mass. Anthropogenic pollutants were often major components in air masses passing over marine regions. Air mass characterization by elemental concentration and composition revealed that enrichment by non-sea-salt sulfur in the air mass originated from eastern China, indicative of the main sulfur emitter in northeast Asia. The apportionment of V and Ni by principal component analysis as a marker of heavy oil combustion suggested different residence times and deposition rates from other anthropogenic components in the air. Regionally intermediate concentrations of pollutants were found in the atmosphere over the Korean peninsula.

  10. Genetic characterization and evolutionary analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolated from domestic duck in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Satish; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Suk Chan; Choi, Kang-Seuk

    2016-03-15

    Domestic ducks are considered a potential reservoir of Newcastle disease virus. In the study, a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a domestic duck during surveillance in South Korea was characterized. The complete genome of the NDV isolate was sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship to reference strains was studied. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered in genotype I of Class II ND viruses, has highly phylogenetic similarity to NDV strains isolated from waterfowl in China, but was distant from the viruses isolated in chickens and vaccine strains used in South Korea. Pathogenicity experiment in chickens revealed it to be a lentogenic virus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the avirulent motif (112)GKQGRL(117) at the cleavage site and caused no apparent disease in chickens and ducks. With phylogeographic analysis based on fusion gene, we estimate the origin of an ancestral virus of the isolate and its sister strain located in China around 1998. It highlights the need of continuous surveillance to enhance current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of the pathogenic strains. PMID:26721461

  11. Features and ethical considerations associated with living kidney and liver transplantations in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H

    2014-12-01

    When the Organ Transplantation Act came into effect in 2000 in South Korea, living organ donations were legalized and the Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) had a duty to approve the application of donation. The number of living organ donors has increased and the waiting time of recipients has been steady or decreased. The Organ Transplantation Act mainly focuses on the informed consent process of donations, so unrelated directed donations are permitted unless there is a suspicion of organ trafficking. But the annual reports show that directed donations of unrelated and related donors may have an ethical concern about organ sales. The donations of family members show another ethical concern. The numbers of ABO-incompatible transplantations have steadily increased since 2008, and lineal descendants, including minors, comprised 61% of living liver donors in 2012. Addressing the unethical practices without inhibiting living organ donations is the current task in South Korea. Private agencies have actively operated the living organ donations programs. The web-based computerized organ exchange program has been cooperatively run by hospital-based organizations. The strict legal regulations that could decrease living organ donations are hard to adopt. In the current situation, the functions of the official system need to be more developed. A national organ exchange program run by KONOS could be an option which could reduce ABO-incompatible transplantations and relieve the ethical concern of organ sales in unrelated directed donations. PMID:25498104

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults living alone in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhong; Kim, Kyeongmo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults who live alone. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview responses of 1,023 older adults living alone in a metropolitan area in South Korea, selected via stratified random sampling, which considered the population variables gender, age group, and district. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the prevalence of self-neglect, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant risk factors of self-neglect. At least 22.8% of the participants could be considered to have one form of elder self-neglect. Consistent with previous research, self-neglect was more prevalent in the older people living alone who had higher levels of depressive symptoms or a lack of family social support. Unexpectedly, self-neglect was more prevalent among respondents with higher levels of education and cognitive abilities, lower levels of medical comorbidities, and more children. Additionally, social networks of friends and use of social services (formal social support) did not affect the frequency of self-neglect. The findings have implications for gerontological practice and policy, especially for older people living alone in South Korea. PMID:24956921

  13. Efficient Use of Terrestrial Economic Services: A Case Study in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Tenhunen, J.; Hoang, V. N.; Koellner, T.; Shin, H.; Pham, V. D.; Seo, B.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the linkages between social and ecological systems is crucial for managing potential responses to global change. Agricultural production requires resources, is determined by ecological processes, and results in economic goods and services for society. However, production leads at the same time to both positive and negative externalities. The externalities can be enhanced or mitigated by human behavior in management, which is mainly driven by expectations related to economic gains and losses. Ecological and economic processes are interrelated, and continuously interact in a complex manner. Therefore, understanding potential economic gains and losses in response to global change is a fundamental consideration in order to carry out well-informed decision-making. The International Research and Training Group TERRECO at the University of Bayreuth has intensively investigated ecological systems and processes in forested and agricultural landscapes as well as at regional scale in South Korea. These ongoing efforts provide a unique opportunity to examine the economic gains, losses and trade-offs that may occur with future climate and land-use change. Within this framework, we first investigated the environmental and economic efficiency of rice farms in Kangwon Province of South Korea, since rice is the most important food crop in this country. We then expanded our analysis to include dry farm highland vegetable crops in an intensively farmed region of the country, Haean Catchment. Our main objectives are (1) to categorize different types of farms, (2) determine their economic and environmental efficiency, and (3) to determine the trade-offs that occur in economic and environmental efficiencies under alternative management schemes and alternative climate regimes. Our preliminary analysis for rice farms yielded several important findings. First, both the production cost and environmental pollution by rice farms could be reduced significantly. Improvements in

  14. Effect of abalone farming on sediment geochemistry in the Shallow Sea near Wando, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Yang Ho; Shin, Yun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Wando County has grown up to 93% of the total abalone produced in South Korea since the late 1990s; however, this production has been decreasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to understand the potential contamination risks of abalone farming and to examine the influence of intensive abalone farming on sediment quality by analyzing grain-size composition, organic matter (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS)) and heavy metal content, pH, and 210Pb geochronology. The results of organic matter analysis from surface and core sediment (length: 64 cm) showed that the area around the abalone farm had oxic marine-to-brackish conditions, but that the area directly below an abalone cage (location 7) had reductive conditions, with a C/S ratio of ~2. The average TN levels in the surface and core sediments were 0.25% and 0.29%, respectively, and this was predominantly due to the use of seaweed for feed. The low sediment pH (surface, 7.23; core, 7.04), indicates that acidification of the bottom sediment has gradually increased since the initiation of abalone farming and is likely due to the continuous accumulation of uneaten feed and feces. Heavy metal pollution was not apparent based on the examination of EF and Igeo, although the excess metal flux of Ni, Pb, Cu, Co, As, and Cd increased toward surface of the sediment core. These sediment changes may be caused by the rapid accumulation (sedimentation rate: 1.45 cm/year) of sludge discharged from the abalone farm and may be controlled by tidal currents, physiography, water depth, and tidal ranges.

  15. Effect of Climatic Factors on Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in South Korea, 2010-2013

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bryan Inho; Ki, Hyunok; Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhi

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) causes characteristic blisters and sores mainly in infants and children, and has been monitored in South Korea through sentinel surveillance since 2009. We described the patterns of HFMD occurrence and analyzed the effect of climatic factors on national HFMD incidence. Weekly clinically diagnosed HFMD case rates (per 1,000 outpatients) in sentinel sites and weekly climatic factors, such as average temperature, relative humidity, duration of sunshine, precipitation, and wind speed from 2010 to 2013, were used in this study. A generalized additive model with smoothing splines and climatic variables with time lags of up to 2 weeks were considered in the modeling process. To account for long-term trends and seasonality, we controlled for each year and their corresponding weeks. The autocorrelation issue was also adjusted by using autocorrelation variables. At an average temperature below 18°C, the HFMD rate increased by 10.3% for every 1°C rise in average temperature (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4, 12.3%). We also saw a 6.6% increase in HFMD rate (95% CI: 3.6, 9.7%) with every 1% increase in relative humidity under 65%, with a 1.5% decrease in HFMD rate observed (95% CI: 0.4, 2.7%) with each 1% humidity increase above 65%. Modeling results have shown that average temperature and relative humidity are related to HFMD rate. Additional research on the environmental risk factors of HFMD transmission is required to understand the underlying mechanism between climatic factors and HFMD incidence. PMID:27285850

  16. Effect of Climatic Factors on Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in South Korea, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bryan Inho; Ki, Hyunok; Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhi; Chun, Byung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) causes characteristic blisters and sores mainly in infants and children, and has been monitored in South Korea through sentinel surveillance since 2009. We described the patterns of HFMD occurrence and analyzed the effect of climatic factors on national HFMD incidence. Weekly clinically diagnosed HFMD case rates (per 1,000 outpatients) in sentinel sites and weekly climatic factors, such as average temperature, relative humidity, duration of sunshine, precipitation, and wind speed from 2010 to 2013, were used in this study. A generalized additive model with smoothing splines and climatic variables with time lags of up to 2 weeks were considered in the modeling process. To account for long-term trends and seasonality, we controlled for each year and their corresponding weeks. The autocorrelation issue was also adjusted by using autocorrelation variables. At an average temperature below 18°C, the HFMD rate increased by 10.3% for every 1°C rise in average temperature (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4, 12.3%). We also saw a 6.6% increase in HFMD rate (95% CI: 3.6, 9.7%) with every 1% increase in relative humidity under 65%, with a 1.5% decrease in HFMD rate observed (95% CI: 0.4, 2.7%) with each 1% humidity increase above 65%. Modeling results have shown that average temperature and relative humidity are related to HFMD rate. Additional research on the environmental risk factors of HFMD transmission is required to understand the underlying mechanism between climatic factors and HFMD incidence. PMID:27285850

  17. Survival to admission after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Hue; Uhm, Tai-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) data derived according to the Utstein Style guidelines was used to try to determine factors influencing survival to admission (STA) and epidemiological rates of OHCA. Patients and methods This was an observational study of all age groups based on data from prehospital care reports in Seoul, South Korea. The collected data were reported according to the Utstein Style template for OHCA and analyzed in order to compare STA with non-STA. Univariate analysis was conducted using a binomial logistic regression model to identify predictors associated with trauma patients. Results Eighty-three (4.8%) OHCA survivors were admitted to the emergency department with carotid pulse. The median time from arrest to emergency medical personnel defibrillation was statistically significantly shorter in STA cases (8.0 minutes) than in non-STA cases (12.0 minutes; P<0.001). Factors independently associated with better prognosis in terms of trauma patients were female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.50–0.91; P=0.01), arrest at home (OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27–0.49; P<0.001), and witnessed arrest (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.94–3.39; P<0.001). Conclusion Early basic life support, performed by either a layperson or emergency medical personnel, had a positive effect on STA. Male sex, arrest outside of the home, and witnessed arrest are significantly associated with trauma. PMID:27147881

  18. Ages and Loads of Riverine Carbon of the Five Largest Rivers in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. J.; Shin, Y.; Oh, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the quantity and quality of riverine carbon is crucial to predict the changes of the regional carbon cycle and to efficiently manage drinking water quality. We investigated both the loads and ages of carbon exported by the five largest rivers in South Korea using seasonal sampling and dual carbon isotope analysis for 2012 - 2013. Annually a total of 581 Gg of carbon (DIC, DOC, and POC combined) was transported to the ocean through the five rivers, releasing 7.6, 1.7, and 0.8 g-C m-2 yr-1 of DIC, DOC, and POC, respectively, which accounted for 80%, 14%, and 6% of the annual loads of riverine carbon, respectively. About 37-45% of annual riverine DIC loads, 37-51% of DOC loads, and 33-47% of POC loads were released from the basins during the summer monsoon (June - August) indicating strong effects of precipitation in the riverine carbon export. Modern to ~1,020 years old carbon was released from the five river basins. The δDI13C and ΔDI14C showed a negative correlation in each river whereas no consistent correlation was observed between δDO13C and ΔDO14C, suggesting a large variation in DOC sources. Riverine POC load increased sharply after a typhoon and ΔPO14C was higher in summer than winter in the five rivers. The results suggested that both quantity and quality of riverine carbon released from the five largest basins could be strongly influenced by the Asian monsoon climates and that relatively young dissolved carbon could be predominantly released as the intensity and frequency of storms increase.

  19. Service Design Attributes Affecting Diabetic Patient Preferences of Telemedicine in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chon, YuCheong; Lee, Jongsu; Choi, Ie-Jung; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Attempts to introduce telemedicine in South Korea have failed mostly, leaving critical questions for service developers and providers about whether patients would be willing to pay for the service and how the service should be designed to encourage patient buy-in. In this study, we explore patients' valuations and preferences for each attribute of telemedicine service for diabetes management and evaluate patient willingness to pay for specific service attributes. Materials and Methods We conducted a conjoint survey to collect data on patients' stated preferences among telemedicine service alternatives. The alternatives for diabetes-related service differed in 10 attributes, including those related to price, type of service provider, and service scope. To estimate the relative importance of attributes, patients' willingness to pay for each attribute, and their probable choice of specific alternatives, we used a rank-ordered logit model. A total of 118 respondents participated in the survey. Results All 10 attributes significantly affected patients' valuations and preferences, and demographic and disease characteristics, such as existence of complications and comorbidities, significantly affected patients' valuations of the attributes. Price was the most important attribute, followed by comprehensive scope of service, the availability of mobile phone-based delivery, and large general-hospital provided services. Conclusions The study findings have significant implications for adoption policy and strategy of telemedicine in diabetes management care. Further, the methodology presented in this study can be used to draw knowledge needed to formulate effective policy for adoption of the necessary technology and for the design of services that attract potential beneficiaries. PMID:21631382

  20. Spectral-induced polarization characteristics of rocks from Shinyemi deposit in Northeastern South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Samgyu; Shin, Seung Wook; Son, Jeong-Sul; Kim, Changryol

    2016-04-01

    Contact metasomatism between carbonate and igneous rocks leads to the formation of skarn deposits, and ore minerals are abundant. Geophysical methods that visualize the distributions of physical properties have been utilized to determine lithological boundaries in ore deposits. In particular, spectral-induced polarization (SIP) is the most effective of those methods for mineral exploration because it can obtain not only the boundaries but also the abundance and grain size of ore minerals. It is crucial to characterize the SIP responses of in situ rocks for a more realistic interpretation. Thus, typical rocks composed of igneous rock, skarn rock, skarn ore, and carbonate rock were sampled from drilling cores in the Shinyemi deposit, which is one of the well-known skarn deposits in Northeastern South Korea. The purpose of this study was to characterize the SIP responses of rocks by laboratory measurements. The characterization was performed by evaluating spectra and IP parameters. The IP properties were acquired from equivalent circuit analysis using a circuit model based on the electrochemical theory, and the analysis results of this circuit model were relatively well fit compared with those of the traditional Dias and Cole-Cole models. The frequency responses below 100 Hz in the spectra and the chargeability values of the skarn rocks and ores containing magnetite were relatively strong and high, respectively, compared with those of non-mineralized igneous and carbonate rocks. Therefore, it is considered that these characteristics are dependent on the abundance of magnetite. In case of the skarn ores with high magnetite content, the resistivity values were significantly low and the relaxation time values were influenced by the grain size of magnetite. On the other hand, it is considered that the DC resistivity and the relaxation time values of the igneous and carbonate rocks are slightly related to the porosity and the grade of hydrothermal alteration, respectively.

  1. Satellite data-based phenological evaluation of the nationwide reforestation of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kim, Jinwon; Lee, Eun-Ju; Gim, Hyeon-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Through the past 60 years, forests, now of various age classes, have been established in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula through nationwide efforts to reestablish forests since the Korean War (1950-53), during which more than 65% of the nation's forest was destroyed. Careful evaluation of long-term changes in vegetation growth after reforestation is one of the essential steps to ensuring sustainable forest management. This study investigated nationwide variations in vegetation phenology using satellite-based growing season estimates for 1982-2008. The start of the growing season calculated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) agrees reasonably with the ground-observed first flowering date both temporally (correlation coefficient, r = 0.54) and spatially (r = 0.64) at the 95% confidence level. Over the entire 27-year period, South Korea, on average, experienced a lengthening of the growing season of 4.5 days decade(-1), perhaps due to recent global warming. The lengthening of the growing season is attributed mostly to delays in the end of the growing season. The retrieved nationwide growing season data were used to compare the spatial variations in forest biomass carbon density with the time-averaged growing season length for 61 forests. Relatively higher forest biomass carbon density was observed over the regions having a longer growing season, especially for the regions dominated by young (<30 year) forests. These results imply that a lengthening of the growing season related to the ongoing global warming may have positive impacts on carbon sequestration, an important aspect of large-scale forest management for sustainable development. PMID:23520541

  2. Factors contributing to quality of life in COPD patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hye-Young; Kim, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease, and the burden of COPD is expected to increase in the rapidly aging nation of South Korea. This study aims to examine the factors contributing to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in COPD patients. Patients and methods This study was based on 6-year-data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012. COPD was diagnosed in 2,734 survey participants and the severity was graded according to the criteria set by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) index was used to assess the quality of life. Results The EQ-5D index scores for COPD patients and the general population were 0.915±0.003 and 0.943±0.001, respectively. Males, younger people, and patients with higher education attainment and income levels had a higher utility score. In addition, the adjusted EQ-5D index scores for severity level IV significantly decreased by 0.100 (P=0.041), compared to the severity group I scores. No significant differences were found in stage II and III patients. Comorbidities (excluding cancer and hypertension) appeared to negatively influence HRQOL among COPD patients. In particular, depression (EQ-5D index score =−0.089, P=0.0003) and osteoporosis (EQ-5D index score=−0.062, P=0.0039) had a significant influence, while smoking status did not appear to influence patient HRQOL. Conclusion In this study, we found that the higher the severity of COPD, the lower the quality of life. In particular, patients with depression and osteoporosis had a relatively low utility score. Therefore, these comorbidities should be carefully monitored in order to improve quality of life. PMID:26834467

  3. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Hamm, S.; An, J.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.

    2008-12-01

    The study area, Sacheon-Hadong area, is located in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, which is bounded by the South Sea and surrounded by the Seomjin River in the west. The study area utilized for agricultural work for a long time. That resulted in vulnerable situation of groundwater due to contamination by fertilizer, insecticide and other human activities. In addition, groundwater is in the risk of seawater intrusion because of the study area's location nearby the South Sea. In Sacheon and Hadong area, the EC values were higher in alluvial aquifer than bedrock aquifer. The higher EC values in the alluvial groundwater than the bedrock groundwater were influenced by agricultural activity in near-surface. Water types of two groundwaters belong to Ca-Cl and Na-Cl types due to saline-water influence. EC values are raised, becoming close to the coast. The correlation analysis showed that EC had positive relationship with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, SO42-, and Cl-, indicating mixing with seawater. In Sacheon area, nitrogen isotope ratios in the alluvial groundwater ranged between -0.40 and 12.80‰, with 0.05~2.49 mg/l of NO3-N concentration; the range of nitrogen isotopes in the bedrock groundwater was between 3.30 and 17.60‰, with 0.12~2.14 mg/l of NO3-N concentration. Nitrogen was originated from organic source in soils, manures, and domestic wastes (Mueller and Helsel, 1996; Kim and Woo, 2003). In Hadong area, the nitrogen isotopes in the alluvial groundwater ranged from -0.50 to 19.10‰, and NO3-N concentration was between 0.63 and 6.68 mg/l. And these may be originated from anthropogenic pollutants (Mueller and Helsel, 1996). In Sacheon area, average δ18O and δD in alluvial groundwater were analyzed as - 6.77‰ and -47.50‰; average isotope ratios in bedrock groundwater were -7.73‰ and - 53.46‰. In Hadong area, average δ18O and δD in the alluvial groundwater were - 7.32‰ and -49.80‰; average isotope ratios in the bedrock groundwater

  4. N cycle and retention of croplands in complex terrain, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettering, J.; Arnhold, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.; Lee, B.; Lindner, S.; Ok, Y.; Ruidisch, M.; Tenhunen, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    of this research are primarily based on application of isotopes (13C, 14C, 15N). The approaches aim both on monitoring (natural abundance) as well as on experiments (tracer application). Isotope studies with 15N in the field sites allow examination of N uptake by aboveground plants, movement by percolation to deeper soil layers, surface run-off and overall retention within the farmland ecosystem. Isotope studies using 14C will be conducted under stable conditions in the laboratories of the University of Bayreuth this winter. 14C as a tracer provides insights about carbon fluxes in soil plant systems, such as total CO2 efflux dynamics of soils as well as C sequestration. 14C labeled maize and rice residues will be used for differentiating and quantifying the contribution of plant residues-derived C and native soil organic C. Fieldwork in South Korea started in summer 2009. Therefore, at the most partial results can be presented at the AGU Fall Meeting.

  5. Interannual Variability of Heat Wave in South Korea and theirs Connection with Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woo-Seop; Lee, Myong-In

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the interannual variation of heat wave frequency (HWF) in South Korea during the past 42 years (1973-2014) and examines its connection with large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. Korean heat waves tend to develop most frequently in late summer during July and August. The leading Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) accounting for 50% of the total variance shows a mono-signed pattern over South Korea, suggesting that the dominant mechanisms responsible for the heat wave are linked in a spatial scale much larger than the nation. It also exhibits a regional variation with more occurrences in the southeastern inland area. The regression of the leading principal component (PC) time series of HWF with large-scale atmospheric circulation identifies a north-south dipole pattern between the South China Sea and Northeast Asia. When this large-scale circulation mode facilitates deep convection in South China Sea, it tends to weaken moisture transport from the South China Sea to Northeast Asia. Enhanced deep convection in the South China Sea triggers a source of Rossby wave train along southerly wind that generates positive geopotential height anomalies around Korea. The anomalous high pressure pattern is accompanied by large-scale subsidence in Korea, thereby providing a favorable condition for extreme hot and dry days in Korea. This study highlights that there is a decadal change of the relationship between Korean heat waves and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. The tropical forcing tends to be weakened in the recent decade, with more influences from the Arctic variability from the mid-1990s.

  6. A questionnaire survey exploring healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards teamwork and safety in acute care areas in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Chan Woong; Lee, Sang Jin; Oh, Je Hyeok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lim, Tae Ho; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Chung, Hyun Soo; Ryu, Ji Yeong; Jang, Hye Young; Choi, Yoon Hee; Kim, Su Jin; Jung, Jin Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although human factors are important in terms of patient safety, there have been very few reports on the attitudes of healthcare professionals working in acute care settings in South Korea. In the present study, we investigated the attitudes of such professionals, their cultures and their management systems. Design A questionnaire survey with 65 items covering nine themes affecting patient safety. Nine themes were compared via a three-or-more-way analysis of variance, with interaction, followed by multiple comparisons among several groups. Setting Intensive care units, emergency departments and surgical units of nine urban hospitals. Participants 592 nurses and 160 physicians. Intervention None. Outcome measures Mean scores using a five-point scale and combined response scores for each of the nine themes. Results The mean score for information-sharing was the highest (3.78±0.49) and that for confidence/assertion was the lowest (2.97±0.34). The mean scores for teamwork, error management, work value, organisational climate, leadership, stress and fatigue level, and error/procedural compliance were intermediate. Physicians showed lower scores in leadership and higher scores in information-sharing than nurses. Respondents with 24 months or less of a clinical career showed higher scores in leadership, stress and fatigue, and error scores and lower scores in work value than more experienced respondents. Conclusions Our results suggest that medical personnel in Korea are relatively reluctant to disclose error or assert their different opinions with others. Many did not adequately recognise the negative effects of fatigue and stress, attributed errors to personal incompetence, and error-management systems were inadequate. Discrepancies in leadership and information-sharing were evident between professional groups, and leadership, stress, fatigue level, work value and error scores varied with the length of work experience. These can be used as baseline data

  7. Predictors of job satisfaction among individuals with disabilities: An analysis of South Korea's National Survey of employment for the disabled.

    PubMed

    Park, Yujeong; Seo, Dong Gi; Park, Jaekook; Bettini, Elizabeth; Smith, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influences of personal, vocational, and job environment related factors that are associated with job satisfaction of individuals with disabilities in South Korea. Data for wage-based working employees from a nationwide survey were obtained, which resulted in a total number of 417 participants. The six hypotheses and mediation effects of personal and work related environmental factors were tested using the structural equation modeling drawn from existing research evidence. Results revealed that (a) life satisfaction and job related environments directly influenced job satisfaction; (b) the relationship between personal experience and job satisfaction was mediated by life satisfaction for both mild/moderate and severe/profound disabilities group; and (c) the mediating role of job environment between vocational preparedness and job satisfaction was only observed for individuals with mild/moderate disabilities. Summary of findings and implications for future research and practices are discussed. PMID:26921527

  8. Improvement of Surface Temperature Prediction Using SVR with MOGREPS Data for Short and Medium range over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. J.; Choi, R. K.; Ahn, K. D.; Ha, J. C.; Cho, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    As the Korea Meteorology Administration (KMA) has operated Met Office Global and Regional Ensemble Prediction System (MOGREPS) with introduction of Unified Model (UM), many attempts have been made to improve predictability in temperature forecast in last years. In this study, post-processing method of MOGREPS for surface temperature prediction is developed with machine learning over 52 locations in South Korea. Past 60-day lag time was used as a training phase of Support Vector Regression (SVR) method for surface temperature forecast model. The selected inputs for SVR are followings: date and surface temperatures from Numerical Weather prediction (NWP), such as GDAPS, individual 24 ensemble members, mean and median of ensemble members for every 3hours for 12 days.To verify the reliability of SVR-based ensemble prediction (SVR-EP), 93 days are used (from March 1 to May 31, 2014). The result yielded improvement of SVR-EP by RMSE value of 16 % throughout entire prediction period against conventional ensemble prediction (EP). In particular, short range predictability of SVR-EP resulted in 18.7% better RMSE for 1~3 day forecast. The mean temperature bias between SVR-EP and EP at all test locations showed around 0.36°C and 1.36°C, respectively. SVR-EP is currently extending for more vigorous sensitivity test, such as increasing training phase and optimizing machine learning model.

  9. Permo-Triassic and Paleoproterozoic metamorphism related to continental collision in Yangpyeong, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chang Whan; Imayama, Takeshi; Lee, Seung Yeol; Yi, Sang-Bong; Yi, Keewook; Lee, Byung Choon

    2015-02-01

    Gneisses and migmatites exposed in the Yangpyeong area in the northern Gyeonggi Massif provide insight into the Paleoproterozoic and Triassic metamorphic events in South Korea. Garnet-biotite gneiss and sillimanite-garnet-biotite gneiss in the western part of the area reveal Paleoproterozoic metamorphism (1888-1871 Ma) at P-T conditions of 760-820 °C and 8-10 kbar and 710-750 °C and 5-7 kbar, respectively. These rocks were overprinted by low-P/T type metamorphism (590-650 °C, 3-4 kbar) during the Triassic (ca. 237 Ma). In contrast, a cordierite-rich migmatite near the post-collisional Triassic igneous complex in the eastern part of the area was strongly metamorphosed during the Triassic (ca. 235 Ma) at 750-790 °C and 7-8 kbar. The similar Triassic ages in the western and eastern areas suggest that low-P/T type metamorphism occurred as a second stage of regional metamorphism, which is characterized by the production of cordierite with an irregularly shaped garnet. The metamorphic grade of the Triassic metamorphism decreases spatially towards the west from granulite facies to amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions, and the Paleoproterozoic metamorphism is well preserved in the western part with low grade Triassic metamorphism. The new discovery of the Triassic metamorphic event in the Yangpyeong area, in addition to the previously reported Triassic post-collision igneous event, supports the idea that the continental collision belt between the North and South China blocks extends from the Hongseong area into the Odesan area through the Yangpyeong area in South Korea.

  10. Brief report: Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin

    2015-04-01

    Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods was compared among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the United States. This study analyzed suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 15-19 years in four countries, using the World Health Organization mortality database. Among both male and female adolescents, the most common method of suicide was jumping from heights in South Korea and hanging in Japan. In Finland, jumping in front of moving objects and firearms were frequently used by males, but not by females. In the United States, males were more likely to use firearms, and females were more likely to use poison. The male to female ratio of suicide rates was higher in the United States (3.8) and Finland (3.6) than in Korea (1.3) and Japan (1.9). Sex differences in suicide methods may contribute to differences in the suicide rates among males and female adolescents in different countries. PMID:25660214

  11. Characterizing distributions of surface ozone and its impact on grain production in China, Japan and South Korea: 1990 and 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Using an integrated assessment approach, we evaluate the impact that surface O 3 in East Asia had on agricultural production in 1990 and is projected to have in 2020. We also examine the effect that emission controls and the enforcement of environmental standards could have in increasing grain production in China. We find that given projected increases in O 3 concentrations in the region, East Asian countries are presently on the cusp of substantial reductions in grain production. Our conservative estimates, based on 7- and 12-h mean (M7 or M12) exposure indices, show that due to O 3 concentrations in 1990 China, Japan and South Korea lost 1-9% of their yield of wheat, rice and corn and 23-27% of their yield of soybeans, with an associated value of 1990US 3.5, 1.2 and 0.24 billion, respectively. In 2020, assuming no change in agricultural production practices and again using M7 and M12 exposure indices, grain loss due to increased levels of O 3 pollution is projected to increase to 2-16% for wheat, rice and corn and 28-35% for soybeans; the associated economic costs are expected to increase by 82%, 33%, and 67% in 2020 over 1990 for China, Japan and South Korea, respectively. For most crops, the yield losses in 1990 based on SUM06 or W126 exposure indices are lower than yield losses estimated using M7 or M12 exposure indices in China and Japan but higher in South Korea; in 2020, the yield losses based on SUM06 or W126 exposure indices are substantially higher for all crops in all three countries. This is primarily due to the nature of the cumulative indices which weight elevated values of O 3 more heavily than lower values. Chinese compliance with its ambient O 3 standard in 1990 would have had a limited effect in reducing the grain yield loss caused by O 3 exposure, resulting in only US 0.2 billion of additional grain revenues, but in 2020 compliance could reduce the yield loss by one third and lead to an increase of US$ 2.6 (M7 or M12) -27 (SUM06) billion in

  12. A nationwide study of children and adolescents with pneumonia who visited Emergency Department in South Korea in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hyu; Won, Youn Kyoung; Roh, Eui-Jung; Suh, Dong In

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acute respiratory infection, particularly pneumonia, is the most common cause of hospitalization and death among children in developing nations. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of children and adolescents with pneumonia who visited Emergency Department (ED) in South Korea in 2012. Methods We analyzed National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) records from 146 EDs in South Korea for all pediatric patients aged ≤18 years who were diagnosed with pneumonia between January and December 2012. Results Among 38,415 subjects, the male-to-female ratio was 1:0.8. Patients aged <12 months comprised 18.0% of the study population; those aged 1 to 3 years, 54.4%; those aged 4 to 6 years, 16.8%; those aged 7 to 12 years, 7.4%; and those aged 13 to 18 years, 3.4%. Presentation rates were highest in April, followed by January, March, and May. The hospital admission rate was 43.5%, of which 2.6% were in intensive care units. The mortality rate was 0.02%. Based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, diagnostic codes, the types of pneumonia according to cause were viral pneumonia (29.0%), bacterial pneumonia (5.3%), Mycoplasmal pneumonia (4.5%), aspiration pneumonia (1.3%), and pneumonia of unknown origin (59.3%). Conclusion Despite the limited data due to the ED data from the NEDIS lacking laboratory results and treatment information, this study reflects well the outbreak patterns among children and adolescents with pneumonia. Our results provide a basis for future studies regarding ED treatment for children and adolescents with pneumonia. PMID:27186220

  13. Dissolved organic phosphorus utilization and alkaline phosphatase activity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium impudicum isolated from the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seok Jin; Kwon, Hyeong Kyu; Noh, Il Hyeon; Yang, Han-Soeb

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity and dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus utilization by the harmful dinoflagellate Gymnodinium impudicum (Fraga et Bravo) Hansen et Moestrup isolated from the South Sea of Korea. Under conditions of limited phosphorus, observation of growth kinetics in batch culture yielded a maximum growth rate (μmax) of 0.41 /day and a half saturation constant (Ks) of 0.71 μM. In time-course experiments, APase was induced as dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations fell below 0.83 μM, a threshold near the estimated Ks; APase activity increased with further DIP depletion to a maximum of 0.70 pmol/cell/h in the senescent phase. Thus, Ks may be an important index of the threshold DIP concentration for APase induction. G. impudicum utilizes a wide variety of dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in addition to DIP. These results suggest that DIP limitation in the Southern Sea of Korea may have led to the spread of G. impudicum along with the harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in recent years.

  14. Linking health information seeking to behavioral outcomes: antecedents and outcomes of childhood vaccination information seeking in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ou; Kim, Soyoon

    2015-01-01

    Although research on health information has made significant progress in identifying the antecedents of individuals' information-seeking behavior in the context of the United States, the results have not been generalizable to the contexts of many other countries. Moreover, little is known about how one's information-seeking behavior is connected to actual behavioral outcomes relevant to the search action. The authors conducted an online survey with a stratified random sample of 1,004 mothers to examine the applicability of the comprehensive model of health information seeking in predicting the use of diverse childhood vaccination information sources in South Korea, and to investigate associations between the mothers' engagement with specific vaccine information sources and behavioral intention to immunize their children. Findings indicated that the hierarchical structure and the role of predictors within the comprehensive model of health information seeking provided a valid framework in the context of vaccine information seeking in Korea. In addition, the authors found negative associations between the use of certain types of information sources and mothers' intention to vaccinate. This suggests that the dissemination of critical health information through a variety of available sources does not automatically lead to prudent behavioral decisions when the specific characteristics of the different sources are not considered. PMID:25539018

  15. Private Tutoring and Mass Schooling in East Asia: Reflections of Inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines private tutoring systems in three East Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia) with the purpose of examining the relationship between those systems and formal education systems. The study of private tutoring systems in each nation can be used to reveal the inadequacies of the formal education system in meeting the…

  16. Improving Scientific Inquiry for Social Work in South Korea: The Center for Social Welfare Research at Yonsei University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Choi, Soochan; Kim, Yujin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines current social issues and welfare needs in South Korea and discusses societal efforts to respond to these needs through social welfare systems nationwide. It also reviews how social work scholars, major contributors to the creation of a Korean welfare state, have contributed to the conditions of social work practice by…

  17. The Effects of High School Track Choice on Students' Postsecondary Enrollment and Majors in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Woo-jeong; Paik, Sunhee

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, college-bound students are divided into two tracks: "Munka" (??) and "Yika" (??), and this tracking ("Munka-Yika" tracking; MY tracking) considerably influences students' choice of college majors and future careers. This study aims to examine how MY tracking and other factors influence…

  18. The History of Policy Responses to Shadow Education in South Korea: Implications for the next Cycle of Policy Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Jae; Lee, Heesook; Jang, Hyo-Min

    2010-01-01

    Shadow education has been a challenge to public education in South Korea since the 1960s. Government has responded to shadow education with various types of policy responses. The assumption on the possibility of reducing the demand mechanism led the policy to eliminate competitive high stakes examinations and even prohibit participating in shadow…

  19. Learning, Engagement, and Technology: Middle School Students' Three-Year Experience in Pervasive Technology Environments in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jung Won; Oh, Jaekyeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an initiative that created a pervasive learning environment in a middle school in South Korea and examined its impact on student academic achievement and learning engagement. Forty students received a laptop to use for class projects, online collaboration, and lesson reviews over a 3-year period. To measure the effect of laptop…

  20. A Comparative Cross-Cultural Examination of Community Art Education Programs in South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Ryan; Kim, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted comparative cross-cultural research to examine a select group of the available and more noteworthy art education organizations and their programs after observing significant differences in the community art education programs offered in Tucson, Arizona, and Anyang, South Korea. The study reports several major differences…

  1. Higher Education Research as a Field of Study in South Korea: Inward but Starting to Look Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the development of higher education research in South Korea based on historical and scientometric perspectives. After the evolution of the country's higher education research community is presented, articles focusing on higher education from 1995 to 2012 are analysed. In total, 145 articles in international journals and…

  2. Why Are Teachers Afraid of Curricular Autonomy? Contradictory Effects of the New National Curriculum in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Won-Pyo; Youngs, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Using interview data from secondary teachers, this study examines conflicting perspectives on the effects of the new national curriculum in South Korea, which was intended to grant more autonomy to individual schools and teachers. Contrary to the general belief that teachers want more autonomy to customize their curricula to meet students' needs,…

  3. PreK-6 Teachers' Beliefs about Inclusive Practices in the United States and South Korea: Cross Cultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hyunjeong

    2013-01-01

    The educational practice known as inclusion, which is based on values of equal opportunity and diversity, enables students with disabilities to attend the same general education classes as typically developing peers. Inclusion is a legal requirement in the United States and South Korea, but factors facilitating inclusion likely differ across…

  4. Education through Art after the Second World War: A Critical Review of Art Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyungsook

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how progressive education was introduced to South Korea after the Second World War and takes a closer look at critical studies of this history. It argues that the America-led progressive education policies, which focused on art education, were an uncritical adaptation of the superpower's educational ideology and did not…

  5. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  6. In the Midst of ELT Curricular Reform: An Activity Theory Analysis of Teachers' and Students' Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun-Ju

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the communicative language teaching (CLT)-based English curriculum reform in South Korea is being experienced at the local level after a decade long effort of Ministry of Education. The study specifically focuses on the extent to which teachers understand the curriculum and implement it in their own…

  7. Exploring Students at Risk for Reading Comprehension Difficulties in South Korea: The RTI Approach Applying Latent Class Growth Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Kim, Woori; Koh, Hyejung; Lee, Jaeho; Shin, Jaehyun; Kim, Heeju

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify students at risk of reading comprehension difficulties by using the responsiveness to intervention (RTI) approach. The participants were 177 students in Grades 1-3 in three elementary schools in South Korea. The students received Tier 1 instruction of RTI from March to May 2011, and their performance was…

  8. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

  9. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Career Satisfaction of Employees in the Public Sector of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational justice and career satisfaction of employees in the public sector of South Korea. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate the impact of three different dimensions (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of organizational justice on career…

  10. Determinants of public phobia about infectious diseases in South Korea: effect of health communication and gender difference.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu; Lee, Tae-Ro

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the individual and social determinants of the public's phobia of infectious diseases in South Korea, where collective action was recently fueled by the public phobia over mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]). Gender-specific multivariate regression was used to compare the public perception of BSE and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The analysis results differentiated between the determinants of the phobia for the 2 diseases, BSE and HPAI (N = 1002). As with HIV/AIDS and leprosy, the public fear of HPAI was expressed as a disease phobia that seeks to ensure the social exclusion of infection sources, whereas the fear of BSE was influenced by social and communication factors. Therefore, BSE, unlike previous HPAI, can be rapidly amplified amid the growing distrust in health communication, in which case the social determinants of disease phobia are associated with communicator trust, social values, and political attitude toward diseases rather than disease perception. PMID:23430887

  11. Aerosol effects on the enhancement of cloud-to-ground lightning over major urban areas of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, S. K.; Liou, Y.-A.; Ha, K.-J.

    2009-03-01

    A long term (1989-1999) investigation has been made using the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash data collected to study the aerosol effect on lightning activity over five major urban areas of South Korea. The cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) of South Korea. The results reveal that an enhancement of around 40-64% in the negative flash density and 26-49% in the positive flash density is observed over the urban areas compared to their surroundings. On the other hand a percentage decrease of around 7-19% in positive flashes occurs over the urban area. The results are in good agreement with those available in the literature. The enhancement of lightning is examined in relation to the PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and SO 2 concentrations. The PM10 and SO 2 concentrations exhibit a positive linear correlation with the number of cloud-to-ground flashes, while a negative correlation is observed between those concentrations and the percentage of positive flashes. Positive correlations of 0.795 and 0.801 are found for the PM10 and SO 2 concentrations, respectively, when compared separately with the number of CG flashes, establishing the effect of aerosols on urban CG lightning enhancement. However, negative correlations of - 0.577 and - 0.548 are obtained for the PM10 and SO 2 concentrations, respectively, when compared separately with the percentage of positive flashes.

  12. Measurements and Observations of 134Cs and 137Cs around a Nuclear Power Plant in Busan, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, H. Y.; Park, J. N.; Kim, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the change of representative species 134Cs and 137Cs of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power station nearby for the last five years(2010~2014). The Kori Nuclear Power Plant, nuclear power facility located near Busan, is located in the south-east coast of Korea and about 21km north-east away from the Haeundae and about 25km south away from the Ulsan. An administrative district is Jangan-eup, Gijang-gun, Busan, Korea. A point was selected on the basis of the "Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan around Nuclear Power Plants" and periodically samples were collected and analyzed. The samples were collected from the soils of the surface in the Wolnae area (NW, 1.7km). The soil samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer with High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) of 40% relative efficiency and were measured for 80,000 sec. As a results of soil analysis, 137Cs were detected in samples only selected in March 2013. The activity concentration of 137Cs founded in the soil sample was 0.513±0.052Bq/kg-dry. In the other hands, the concentration of 137Cs in the year 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2014 were below the minimum detectable activity (MDA). 40K, natural radionuclides which is widely present, was detected in the soil samples and other artificial radionuclides were not detected. The result of overall comparison of the environmental radioactivity survey around Kori Nuclear Power Plant for the last five years is that radioactivity levels are within average range. However, it is necessary to continue to carefully observe a fine change in regional or the monthly radiation concentration.

  13. Vulnerabilities to Temperature Effects on Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admissions in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Bo Yeon; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Suji; Heo, Seulkee; Jo, Kyunghee; Kim, Jinsun; Park, Man Sik

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies have focused on the association between acute myocardial function (AMI) and temperature by gender and age. Recently, however, concern has also arisen about those most susceptible to the effects of temperature according to socioeconomic status (SES). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI by subpopulations (gender, age, living area, and individual SES) in South Korea. The Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) database was used to examine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI during 2004–2012. We analyzed the increase in AMI hospital admissions both above and below a threshold temperature using Poisson generalized additive models (GAMs) for hot, cold, and warm weather. The Medicaid group, the lowest SES group, had a significantly higher RR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07–1.76) for heat and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04–1.20) for cold among subgroups, while also showing distinctly higher risk curves than NHI for both hot and cold weather. In additions, females, older age group, and those living in urban areas had higher risks from hot and cold temperatures than males, younger age group, and those living in rural areas. PMID:26580643

  14. Vulnerabilities to Temperature Effects on Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admissions in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bo Yeon; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Suji; Heo, Seulkee; Jo, Kyunghee; Kim, Jinsun; Park, Man Sik

    2015-11-01

    Most previous studies have focused on the association between acute myocardial function (AMI) and temperature by gender and age. Recently, however, concern has also arisen about those most susceptible to the effects of temperature according to socioeconomic status (SES). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI by subpopulations (gender, age, living area, and individual SES) in South Korea. The Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) database was used to examine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI during 2004-2012. We analyzed the increase in AMI hospital admissions both above and below a threshold temperature using Poisson generalized additive models (GAMs) for hot, cold, and warm weather. The Medicaid group, the lowest SES group, had a significantly higher RR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07-1.76) for heat and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04-1.20) for cold among subgroups, while also showing distinctly higher risk curves than NHI for both hot and cold weather. In additions, females, older age group, and those living in urban areas had higher risks from hot and cold temperatures than males, younger age group, and those living in rural areas. PMID:26580643

  15. Assessment of the daily intake of 62 polychlorinated biphenyls from dietary exposure in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jun-Tae; Park, Hyokeun; Kim, Meehye; Paek, Ock-Jin; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-11-01

    The dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was estimated using the sum of 62 PCB congeners (∑(62)PCBs), including seven indicator PCBs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs, in the South Korea. In this study, 200 individual food samples belonging to 40 different foodstuffs were investigated to estimate the distribution of PCB congeners in five sampling cities. PCB exposure was estimated using Korean dietary habits as established by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The PCB concentrations in rice, the most frequently consumed food in Korea, was relatively low in whole food samples. The mean PCB levels measured in fish were the highest in this study, but each fish is consumed in relatively small amounts by the general population. Therefore, the daily dietary intake should also be considered with regard to human exposure to PCBs, especially with the consumption of contaminated foods. Dioxin-like PCB levels were also calculated using TEF values that were established in 2005. The average levels (pg TEQ/g) were 0.0002 for rice and 0.0098 for fish. The dioxin-like PCBs accounted for a relatively small percentage of the total PCBs, compared to previous studies. According to our research, the health risks associated with exposure to PCBs could be estimated using the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the general population. PMID:22874429

  16. The weather watch/warning system for stroke and asthma in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaiyong; Ha, Jong-Sik; Jun, Sangil; Park, Tae-Sun; Kim, Ho

    2008-04-01

    Weather watch/warning systems have been established for human health outcomes. Our study aims to develop and demonstrate a weather watch/warning system for asthma and stroke within the whole of South Korea, using a stratified regression approach. We converted claim-based health insurance data covering almost all medical claims for the only health insurance system in Korea for asthma and stroke from 1996-2003 into personalized disease episode data, and combined them with meteorological data. We utilized a step-wise regression method using factors extracted from the meteorological data to develop stratified models for six (stroke) and nine (asthma) regional and day-of-week strata. Validation studies showed that the actual number of hospitalizations in 2003 increased according to the three-leveled predictions (levels I, II, and III) from the model based on the 1996-2002 data. This system is accessible via the internet (http://industry.kma.go.kr/APP/sub_APP15_H01.htm) at the Korean Meteorological Administration website. PMID:18365801

  17. Understanding women, health, and social change: the case of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chun, Heeran; Doyal, Lesley; Payne, Sarah; Il-Cho, Sung; Kim, Il-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1960s, South Korea has experienced rapid economic development and an improvement in the health of its population. During this period there have been marked increases in women's educational and occupational opportunities. But despite these improvements, women still suffer higher levels of gender discrimination than their counterparts in many other countries at similar stages of development. Most dramatically, there are still high levels of sex-selective abortion. Women have lower socioeconomic status than men, and their lives are markedly restricted by the cultural values associated with Confucianism. This article explores the effects of these factors on women's health. Despite their greater longevity, South Korean women still report higher rates of morbidity and distress than men. This can be compared with the "gender paradox" in health reported in many developed countries during the 1970s and 1980s. More detailed research is needed on the factors influencing the health of South Korean women and on related trends in other newly industrializing Asian societies. PMID:16981632

  18. Association between Electronic Cigarette Use and Asthma among High School Students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jun Ho; Paik, Samuel Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about health outcomes related to electronic cigarette (EC) use, despite its growing popularity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between EC use and asthma. Methods The study design is a cross-sectional study. A total of 35,904 high school students were included as the final study population. The presence of asthma was based on a student’s self-reported doctor diagnosis of asthma in the past 12 months. Results Prevalence rates of asthmatics in ‘current EC users’ (n = 2,513), ‘former EC users’ (n = 2,078), and ‘never EC users’ (n = 31,313), were 3.9% (n = 98), 2.2% (n = 46) and 1.7% (n = 530), respectively. Comparing ‘current EC’ users with ‘never EC’ users, the unadjusted OR for asthma was 2.36 (95% CI: 1.89–2.94). In order to control for the effect of conventional cigarette (CC) smoking, after stratifying the subjects by the three CC smoking categories (never CC, former CC, and current CC), within the ‘never CC’ category, the unadjusted OR for asthma for ‘current EC’ users was 3.41 (95% CI: 1.79–6.49), and the adjusted OR was 2.74 (95% CI: 1.30–5.78). Severe asthma was reflected by the number of days absent from school due to asthma symptoms; current EC users had the highest adjusted OR for severe asthma compared to ‘never EC’ users. Conclusions When compared to a reference population of high school students in South Korea, EC users have an increased association with asthma and are more likely to have had days absent from school due to severe asthma symptoms. In conclusion, the results indicate that EC use may be a risk factor for asthma. The results may be useful in developing a scientific basis for the evaluation of a potential health hazard by EC. PMID:26942764

  19. Association between Electronic Cigarette Use and Asthma among High School Students in South Korea

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cho, Jun Ho; Paik, Samuel Y.

    2016-03-04

    Little is known about health outcomes related to electronic cigarette (EC) use, despite its growing popularity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between EC use and asthma. The study design is a cross-sectional study. A total of 35,904 high school students were included as the final study population. The presence of asthma was based on a student’s self-reported doctor diagnosis of asthma in the past 12 months. Results showed prevalence rates of asthmatics in ‘current EC users’ (n = 2,513), ‘former EC users’ (n = 2,078), and ‘never EC users’ (n = 31,313), were 3.9% (nmore » = 98), 2.2% (n = 46) and 1.7% (n = 530), respectively. Comparing ‘current EC’ users with ‘never EC’ users, the unadjusted OR for asthma was 2.36 (95% CI: 1.89–2.94). In order to control for the effect of conventional cigarette (CC) smoking, after stratifying the subjects by the three CC smoking categories (never CC, former CC, and current CC), within the ‘never CC’ category, the unadjusted OR for asthma for ‘current EC’ users was 3.41 (95% CI: 1.79–6.49), and the adjusted OR was 2.74 (95% CI: 1.30–5.78). Severe asthma was reflected by the number of days absent from school due to asthma symptoms; current EC users had the highest adjusted OR for severe asthma compared to ‘never EC’ users. In conclusion, when compared to a reference population of high school students in South Korea, EC users have an increased association with asthma and are more likely to have had days absent from school due to severe asthma symptoms. In conclusion, the results indicate that EC use may be a risk factor for asthma. The results may be useful in developing a scientific basis for the evaluation of a potential health hazard by EC.« less

  20. The solar eclipse and associated atmospheric variations observed in South Korea on 22 July 2009

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yong Seung; Choo, Seung Ho

    2010-01-01

    A partial solar eclipse occurred in South Korea on 22 July 2009. It started at 09:30 a.m. and lasted until 12:14 LST with coverage of between 76.8% and 93.1% of the sun. The observed atmospheric effects of the eclipse are presented. It was found that from the onset of the eclipse, solar radiation was reduced by as much as 88.1 ∼ 89.9% at the present research centre. Also, during the eclipse, air temperature decreased slightly or remained almost unchanged. After the eclipse, however, it rose by 2.5 to 4.5°C at observed stations. Meanwhile, relative humidity increased and wind speeds were lowered by the eclipse. Ground-level ozone was observed to decrease during the event. PMID:20700380

  1. Relationships among the abundances of plastic debris in different size classes on beaches in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Song, Young Kyung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Yong Chang; Jang, Mi; Heo, Nak Won; Han, Gi Myung; Lee, Mi Jeong; Kang, Daeseok; Shim, Won Joon

    2013-12-15

    Plastic debris on six beaches near the Nakdong River Estuary, South Korea, was sampled in May and September 2012 and classified into three size classes, large microplastics (1-5 mm), mesoplastics (5-25 mm), and macroplastics (>25 mm). The relationships among the abundances of the size classes were then examined. The abundances of each size category in May (before rainy season) and in September (after rainy season) were 8205 and 27,606 particles/m(2) for large microplastics, 238 and 237 particles/m(2) for mesoplastics, and 0.97 and 1.03 particles/m(2) for macroplastics, respectively. Styrofoam was the most abundant item both in microplastic and mesoplastic debris, while intact plastics were most common in macroplastic debris. The abundances of meso- and micro-plastics were the most strongly correlated. There was a higher correlation between the abundances of macro- and meso-plastics than between macro- and micro-plastics. PMID:24054782

  2. Genotype-4 hepatitis E in a human after ingesting roe deer meat in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ja Yoon; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Jo, Yun Won; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Yun, Haesun; Yoon, Yeong-Sil

    2013-01-01

    The recent increase in the number of cases of indigenous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection highlights the importance of identifying the transmission routes for the prevention of such infections. Presented herein is the first case of acute HEV infection after ingesting wild roe deer meat in South Korea. A 43-year-old male presented with abdominal discomfort and jaundice. He had not recently traveled abroad, but had eaten raw roe-deer meat 6-8 weeks before the presentation. On the 7th day of hospitalization the patient was diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis E. Phylogenetic analysis of his serum revealed genotype-4 HEV. This case supports the possibility of zoonotic transmission of HEV because the patient appears to have been infected with genotype-4 HEV after ingesting raw deer meat. PMID:24133670

  3. Continental origin of the Bibong eclogite, southwestern Gyeonggi massif, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung-Ik; Kwon, Sanghoon; Kim, Sung Won; Yi, Keewook; Santosh, M.

    2014-12-01

    Eclogite is a high-pressure (HP) metamorphic rock that provides important information about the subduction of both continental and oceanic crusts. In this study we present SHRIMP zircon U-Pb isotopic data for a suite of the basement gneisses to investigate the origin of the Proterozoic Bibong eclogite in the Hongseong area, South Korea. Zircon grains from the basement felsic gneisses yielded Paleoproterozoic protolith ages ranging from ca. 2197 to 1880 Ma, and were intruded by syenite at ca. 750 Ma. A HP regional metamorphic event of Triassic age (ca. 255-227 Ma) is recorded in the zircon rims of the country rocks, which is also observed in the zircons from the eclogite. The contacts between the Bibong eclogite and its host rocks support an origin for the Proterozoic protoliths, indicating continental intrusions. The Hongseong area thus preserves evidence for the Triassic collision, indicating a tectonic linkage among the northeast Asian continents.

  4. Deladenus valveus n. sp. (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) in Dunnage Wood from South Korea Intercepted in Ningbo, China

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Vanja; Gu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Deladenus valveus n. sp., isolated from packaging wood originated from South Korea and intercepted in Ningbo, P.R. China, is described and illustrated. Both mycetophagous and infective forms were recovered and are described. The new species D. valveus n. sp. resembles other Deladenus species in which the excretory pore is situated anterior to the hemizonid: in mycetophagous females, the excretory pore is 59 to 74 μm from the anterior end and 37 to 54 μm anterior to the hemizonid. The new species is characterized by the presence of a distinct valve at the esophago-intestinal junction in mycetophagous females and by a degenerate esophagus in mycetophagous males, both of which characters are reported for the first time in a species of Deladenus. PMID:24987163

  5. Lessons to learn from MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan; Farooqui, Amber; Guan, Yi; Kelvin, David J

    2015-06-01

    Since the first identification of Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 the virus has infected 1289 humans with approximately 40% mortalities. Currently South Korea is experiencing the hospital-associated outbreak of MER-CoV that has infected 126 human cases and 13 deaths, as of 12 June 2015, following the return of a MERS infected patient from Middle East. The episode is characterized unique being the largest cluster of patients linked to the single introduction of virus that involves three generations of virus transmission. Human-to-human transmission though was observed on several occasions in past, it is documented as non-sustainable event. The recent outbreak including the healthcare workers, index case's roommates and their caregivers, raises several concerns about the infection control practices and timely diagnosis of MERS. PMID:26142661

  6. Anomalous ionospheric disturbances over South Korea prior to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Kyu; Lee, Sang Jeong

    2016-01-01

    An anomalous disturbance in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) variations was observed by a GPS network in South Korea and three GPS stations in Japan before the 2011 great Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011. We investigate the standard deviation time series of the vertical TEC variations for all ground receivers and two satellite pairs. Ionospheric disturbances occurred approximately 40-50 min prior to the earthquake and lasted for over one hour. We also investigate the STD time series of the TEC variations on 1-15 March 2011. A pattern of ionospheric disturbance starting ∼45 min (05:00 UT) before the earthquake was relatively different from those of other days. It is noted that there were precursory features in the near-field close to the epicenter. However, no significant disturbance was observed in the regions that were relatively far from the epicenter. These precursory features may be associated with an anomalous electric field generated by complex processes.

  7. The solar eclipse and associated atmospheric variations observed in South Korea on 22 July 2009.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yong Seung; Kim, Hak Sung; Choo, Seung Ho

    2010-09-01

    A partial solar eclipse occurred in South Korea on 22 July 2009. It started at 09:30 a.m. and lasted until 12:14 LST with coverage of between 76.8% and 93.1% of the sun. The observed atmospheric effects of the eclipse are presented. It was found that from the onset of the eclipse, solar radiation was reduced by as much as 88.1 approximately 89.9% at the present research centre. Also, during the eclipse, air temperature decreased slightly or remained almost unchanged. After the eclipse, however, it rose by 2.5 to 4.5 degrees C at observed stations. Meanwhile, relative humidity increased and wind speeds were lowered by the eclipse. Ground-level ozone was observed to decrease during the event. PMID:20700380

  8. Stress and health related quality of life of Nepalese students studying in South Korea: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing trend among students to travel for educational purposes to other countries where there is the possibility of experiencing considerable amounts of stress affecting their physical and mental functioning. The aims of the current study were to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of Nepalese students studying in South Korea to explore the relationship between HRQOL and perceived and acculturative stress, and to identify the determinants of HRQOL. Methods One hundred and thirty students were enrolled in this study. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12) questionnaire. Perceived stress and acculturative stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and Acculturative Stress Scale for international students, respectively. Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Perceived stress and acculturative stress were negatively correlated with HRQOL. The highest value in the HRQOL was reported for the vitality subscale and the lowest value was reported for the role-emotional. In the regression model, perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status accounted for a significant (p < .001) portion of the variance (49%) in the mental component summary of the HRQOL. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that Nepalese students studying in South Korea experience a considerable amount of perceived and acculturative stress, which is negatively related with their HRQOL. Provision of culture specific counseling and orientation programs may benefit the students. The determinants of HRQOL identified in this study were perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status. PMID:22410138

  9. Sleep Quality, Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Human Errors in Train Drivers: A Population-Based Nationwide Study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Kim, Ji-Hae; Kim, Bin-Na; Park, Seung Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Choi, Hong; Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Dongsoo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Human error is defined as an unintended error that is attributable to humans rather than machines, and that is important to avoid to prevent accidents. We aimed to investigate the association between sleep quality and human errors among train drivers. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Population-based. Participants: A sample of 5,480 subjects who were actively working as train drivers were recruited in South Korea. The participants were 4,634 drivers who completed all questionnaires (response rate 84.6%). Interventions: None Measurements: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS). Results: Of 4,634 train drivers, 349 (7.5%) showed more than one human error per 5 y. Human errors were associated with poor sleep quality, higher PSQI total scores, short sleep duration at night, and longer sleep latency. Among train drivers with poor sleep quality, those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress showed a significantly higher number of human errors than those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that human errors were significantly associated with poor sleep quality and posttraumatic stress, whereas there were no significant associations with depression, trait and state anxiety, and work stress after adjusting for age, sex, education years, marital status, and career duration. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality was found to be associated with more human errors in train drivers, especially in those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress. Citation: Jeon HJ, Kim JH, Kim BN, Park SJ, Fava M, Mischoulon D, Choi H, Roh S, Lee D. Sleep quality, posttraumatic stress, depression, and human errors in train drivers: a population-based nationwide study in South Korea. SLEEP 2014;37(12):1969-1975. PMID:25325495

  10. Current Status of Atopic Dermatitis-Related Information Available on the Internet in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Jun; Kim, Hyun Jee; Yu, Dong Soo; Lee, Young Bok; Hahn, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) often resort to the internet for disease-related information. We believe that dermatologists be informed about the current accessibility of information to patients and the potential for misleading patients into making poor treatment decisions. Objective The study was carried out in order to determine the nature of AD-related information available on the internet in Korea, and to identify any changes since our last survey in 2005. The quality of information offered and the involvement of medical doctors in certain websites were also investigated. Methods Taking into account the current search engine market share in Korea, we gathered all search results obtained from the three major search engines using the keyword 'atopy', and investigated the nature of the information retrieved. Results The search results showed less commercial sites than our previous study in 2005. There is a dramatic increase in the number of public bodies offering information about AD. In addition, the quality of information available online has improved since our last survey. Conclusion The phenomenon of 'commercial overcrowding' seems to have stabilized. As AD becomes a more social phenomenon, patients are better informed than ever before. However, the information available on the internet still requires to be accompanied by consultation by dermatologists. We believe that self-regulation using a format such as the Health on the Net Foundation's code of conduct (HONcode) may improve the quality of online information accessible to patients with AD in Korea. PMID:26848212

  11. Trace element analysis of three tissues from Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sukmo; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Soohee; Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Seungwoo; Yu, Hee Jeong; Oh, Su-Jun; Park, Jung-Duck; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Han, Sung Yong; Lim, Jong-Deock; Ryu, Doug-Young

    2015-07-01

    Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) are endangered worldwide, but the specific cause of their decline has not been determined. This study analyzed the concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Se, Cu, Mn, and Zn, in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of Eurasian otters in South Korea. There were high individual variations in the tissue concentrations of all the elements analyzed. The kidneys had the highest concentrations of Cd and Se among the three tissue groups, and the livers had the highest concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, and Hg. The Pb and As concentrations in the livers were not significantly different from those in the kidneys, and the lungs had the lowest concentrations of all the elements analyzed. The age-related bioaccumulation of Cd and Hg was evident in the three tissue groups, and of Se in the kidneys. The Pb concentration was higher in the livers of juveniles compared with those of adults and the Zn concentration was higher in the lungs of juveniles. There were no apparent gender differences in the concentrations of the elements analyzed among the tissue groups. The Se concentration correlated with the Hg concentration in the livers and kidneys, and with the Cd concentration in the kidneys. The Hg and Cd levels correlated in the three tissue groups. The Cu and Zn levels also correlated in the livers and kidneys. In general, the element concentrations were within the ranges reported by previous studies of this species from European countries, except for Cd and Hg, the levels of which were mostly lower than those reported previously. These findings may provide baseline information to facilitate the conservation of the Eurasian otter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first available study of trace element concentrations in the tissues of Eurasian otters from South Korea or Asian countries. PMID:25762104

  12. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  13. The Assessment of Vulnerability of Industrial Parks to Climate Change in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, J. E.; Lee, D. K.; Jung, T. Y.; Choi, K. L.; Lee, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Many countries are developing policy and measures to adapt to climate changes at the national and local levels, but the assessment of vulnerability to climate change and the establishment of countermeasures in the industries considering industrial factors such as worker, infrastructure are insufficient due to the characteristics of diverse processes and fields. In South Korea, the national government provides infrastructures for industrial parks where various companies in manufacturing and other industries are concentrated . Because of their concentration, damages can aggravate in case of natural disasters such as typhoons. In this study, vulnerability indices for climate change were developed and evaluated using climate scenarios for the climate exposure of localized terrential downpour for eight industrial parks. The vulnerability indices were selected and reviewed through literature review and two in-depth interviews with experts in various industries, and the assessment of vulnerability to climate change was conducted by collecting relevant information including the Directory of Industrial Complexes. The vulnerability of each industrial park to climate change was assessed for four time serious such as the base line, 2020s, 2050s, and 2100s . As a result, even though the possibility of localized heavy rain was the highest in Yeosu(Southeast coast) at present, but it was predicted that Gwangyang(Southwest coast) will be higher in the future. For the influences of climate including sensitivity, Ulsan Mipo(Southeast coast) is currently under the highest influence of climate, but the Gumi(Inland area) was forecasted to be under the highest influence of climate in the future. As a result of the assessment of vulnerability to climate change including adaptive capacity, Gumi and Myongji Noksan(Southeast coast) were most vulnerable to localized heavy rain. The degree of vulnerability of all the industrial parks except Ulsan and Yeosu was forecasted to increase in the

  14. “Communities” in Community Engagement: Lessons Learned from Autism Research in South Africa and South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Grinker, Roy Richard; Chambers, Nola; Njongwe, Nono; Lagman, Adrienne E.; Guthrie, Whitney; Stronach, Sheri; Richard, Bonnie O.; Kauchali, Shuaib; Killian, Beverley; Chhagan, Meera; Yucel, Fikri; Kudumu, Mwenda; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Grether, Judith; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Little research has been conducted on behavioral characteristics of children with ASD from diverse cultures within the US or from countries outside of the US or Europe, with little reliable information yet reported from developing countries. We describe the process used to engage diverse communities in ASD research in two community-based research projects—an epidemiological investigation of 7–12 year olds in South Korea and the Early Autism Project, an ASD detection program for 18–36 month old Zulu-speaking children in South Africa. Despite the differences in wealth between these communities, ASD is under-diagnosed in both settings, generally not reported in clinical or educational records. Moreover, in both countries there is low availability of services. In both cases, local knowledge helped researchers to address both ethnographic as well as practical problems. Researchers identified the ways in which these communities generate and negotiate the cultural meanings of developmental disorders. Researchers incorporated that knowledge as they engaged communities in a research protocol, adapted and translated screening and diagnostic tools, and developed methods for screening, evaluating, and diagnosing children with ASD. PMID:22566396

  15. The impact of a celebrity's suicide on the introduction and establishment of a new method of suicide in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Chee Hon; Fu, King-Wa; Chang, Shu-Sen; Lee, Won Jin; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other East Asian countries, South Korea has until recently experienced relatively few charcoal burning suicides. We investigated trends in charcoal burning suicide immediately following the suicide by charcoal burning of the South Korean celebrity-Ahn Jae-Hwan-in September 2008. In the study, we compared the weekly number charcoal burning suicides 1 year before and after the celebrity's death. Before Ahn Jae-Hwan's suicide, charcoal burning accounted for <1% of suicides; his death was followed by an immediate and sustained increase in the use of this method-it accounted for nearly 5% of suicides (n = 772 suicides) in the subsequent 12 months. The demographic patterning (young male predominance) and location (inside cars) of the charcoal burning suicides further supported a copy-cat effect. Ahn Jae-Hwan's death appears to have triggered a rapid and sustained adoption of charcoal burning as a method of suicide in South Korea. PMID:24620837

  16. Analysis of Land Surface Temperature Retrieved from High Resolution Satellites in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, Joon-Bum; Choi, Young-Jean

    2015-04-01

    In order to analyze the land surface properties in Seoul and its surrounding metropolitan area in the South Korea, several indices and LST were calculated by the Landsat 8 and TERRA and AQUA MODIS satellites. The land surface properties used are the indices that represented Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Modified Normalized Difference Wetness Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Wetness Index (NDWI), Tasseled cap Brightness, Tasseled cap Greenness, Tasseled cap Wetness Index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) and the LST of the area in and around Seoul. Most indices distinguish very well between urban, rural, mountain, building, river and road. In particular, most of the urbanization is represented in the new cities around Seoul. According to NDVI, NDBI and LST, urban expansion is displayed in the surrounding area of Seoul. The LST and surface elevation have a strong relationship with the distribution and structure of the vegetation/built-up indices such as NDVI and NDBI. While the NDVI is positively correlated with the LST and is also negatively correlated with the surface elevation, the NDBI have just the opposite correlations, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the thermal properties in metropolitan, Landsat and MODIS land surface temperature, AWS (Automatic Weather Station) temperature, digital elevation model and landuse are used. Analysis method among the Landsat and MODIS LST and AWS temperature is basic statistics using by correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error (RMSE) and linear regression function etc. As a result, statistics of Landsat and MODIS LST are a correlation coefficient of 0.32 and RMSE of 4.61K, respectively. And statistics of Landsat and MODIS LST and AWS temperature have the correlations of 0.83 and 0.96 and the RMSE of 3.28K and 2.25K, respectively. Landsat and MODIS LST have relatively high correlation with AWS temperature, and the slope of the

  17. A multilevel analysis of social capital and self-reported health: evidence from Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to resolve two limitations of previous studies. First, as only a few studies examining social capital have been conducted in non-western countries, it is inconclusive that the concept, which has been developed in Western societies, applies similarly to an Asian context. Second, this study considers social capital at the individual-level, area-level and cross-levels of interaction and examines its associations with health while simultaneously controlling for various confounders at both the individual-level and area-level, whereas previous studies only considered one of the two levels. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the associations between social capital and health by using multilevel analysis after controlling for various confounders both at the individual and area-levels (i.e., concentrated disadvantage) in non-western countries. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey from December 2010 to April 2011 in Seoul, South Korea. The target population included respondents aged 25 years and older who have resided in the same administrative area since 2008. The final sample for this study consisted of 4,730 respondents within all 25 of Seoul's administrative areas. Results In our final model, individual-level social capital, including network sources (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.11-1.37) and organizational participation (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 2.11-3.08) was positively associated with good/very good health. Interestingly, the individual × area organizational participation cross-level interaction was negatively associated with good/very good health (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.32-0.50), indicating that in areas with higher organizational participation, individuals with high organizational participation were less likely to report good/very good health when compared to low organizational participation individuals. Conclusion Our study provides evidence that individual-level social capital is associated with self-reported health, even

  18. Impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from North Korea to the air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In Sun; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2013-05-01

    Due to its proximity to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) (40 km from Seoul proper to North Korea) and the characteristics of energy consumption (coal and biomass burning as major primary energy sources), air pollutants emitted from North Korea are likely to influence the air quality in the SMA. To understand the transport of air pollutants emitted from North Korea, backward trajectories arriving in Seoul were estimated and classified into four cases depending on which area the trajectories predominantly passed through for the sampling days between 2002 and 2003. The ambient data of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for the samples. Then, based on the contribution of biomass burning calculated by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model applied and the influence of air pollutants' emissions from North Korea to SMA is semi-quantified. The result was verified by the spatial and seasonal variations of the PAH emission in China based on the previous works. It is estimated that the influence from North Korea on the particulate PAHs concentration in Seoul was up to 20% of the observed values. Further study directions are discussed to make more quantitative and reliable estimation.

  19. Historical reconstruction of anthropogenic mercury input from sedimentary records: Yeongsan Estuary, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Joshua; Dellapenna, Timothy; Louchouarn, Patrick; Lee, Guan-hong

    2015-12-01

    The rapid economic growth of the Republic of Korea (S. Korea) within the last half-century has resulted in a pronounced increase in anthropogenic Hg emission from coal combustion, oil refining, cement production, and waste incineration. The record of increasing atmospheric sources have been investigated with a historical reconstruction of Hg accumulation in 30 sediment cores collected from the Yeongsan Estuary. Within the last several decades, this region has undergone severe anthropogenic alteration, including the construction of an estuarine dam forming the Yeongsan Lake, and installation of numerous seawalls that eliminated vast tidal flats and restricted estuarine circulation. Total mercury concentrations (T-Hg) measured in sediments deposited after 1980 (23.2 ± 9.6 ng g-1; n = 273), were significantly higher than those reported for pre-industrial sediments (i.e. background values: 8.6 ± 2.7 ng g-1; n = 274). An extensive survey of surface samples show that T-Hg concentrations are highest above the dam, with a gradient to lower values further offshore. The concomitant timing of enrichment of T-Hg within the sedimentary record and increased National emissions in Korea suggests that regional sources dominate the input to the Yeongsan Estuary. This indicates that with sufficient regional historic emission data, T-Hg might be utilized as a geochronologic tool to aid in corroborating traditional radioisotopic methods.

  20. Family function of the families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Joh, Ju-Youn; Shin, Il-Seon

    2015-03-01

    Marriages between Korean men and immigrant women from elsewhere in Asia have increased rapidly during recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship within families consisting of immigrant women and to identify the relevant factors. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a baseline study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and family APGAR (adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve) scores were measured. Family APGAR has been widely used to study the relationship of family function and health problems in the busy clinician's office. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the baseline study results. Family APGAR scores were higher at the 3-year follow-up than those at baseline. Changes in family APGAR scores were found to be influenced by the birthplace, reported subjective ability to read Korean, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale score. PMID:22652245

  1. Distribution and Size Relationships of Plastic Marine Debris on Beaches in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Jong Su; Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Su Yeon; Shim, Won Joon; Song, Young Kyung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Kang, Daeseok; Hong, Sunwook

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of the distribution of plastic marine debris were determined on 12 beaches in South Korea in 2013 and 2014. The abundances of large micro- (1-5 mm), meso- (5-25 mm), and macroplastics (>25 mm) were 880.4, 37.7, and 1.0 particles/m(2), respectively. Styrofoam was the most abundant debris type for large microplastics and mesoplastics (99.1 and 90.9 %, respectively). Fiber (including fabric) was the most abundant of the macroplastics (54.7 %). There were no statistical differences in the mean numbers and weights of plastic debris among three beach groups from west, south, and east coasts. No significant differences were detected between the abundances of beached plastics in high strandline and backshore for all three size groups. Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine the relationships between the three debris size classes. The abundance of large microplastics was strongly correlated with that of mesoplastics for most material types, which suggests that the contamination level of large microplastics can be estimated from that of mesoplastics. As surveying of smaller particles is more labor intensive, the surveying of mesoplastics with a 5-mm sieve is an efficient and useful way to determine "hot-spots" on beaches contaminated with large microplastics. PMID:26285904

  2. 76 FR 2336 - Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...On September 14, 2010, the Department of Commerce published in the Federal Register its preliminary results of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on dynamic random access memory semiconductors from the Republic of Korea for the period January 1, 2008, through August 10, 2008. We provided interested parties with an opportunity to comment on the preliminary results. Our......

  3. Analysis of food irradiation education for elementary, middle, and high school students for three years in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonseok; Kim, Jaerok

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The current South Korean government policy on food irradiation technology should be reformed based on an in-depth investigation of the communications aspect, because the issue is no longer of a technological nature, given the proven safety and efficacy of the processes. SUBJECTS/METHODS The target population of the education program consisted of elementary, middle, and high school students attending 310 schools in South Korea (2013: 63 schools, 2014: 104 schools, 2015: 143 schools). Data subjected to analysis were 13,327 pre-education and 12,641 post-education questionnaires received from 7,582 elementary, 2,671 middle, and 3,249 high school students who participated in the education program from May 2012 to April 2015 (n = 12,831), after the exclusion of inadequately filled-in questionnaires. RESULTS Analysis of the three-year educational effect trend was conducted by comparing levels of variables before and after food radiation education. The analysis yielded the finding that the post-education levels were significantly higher for all variables. That is, for interest in education, perception (necessity, safety, subjective knowledge, and information acquisition), objective knowledge, and attitude, with the sole exception of objective knowledge in 2013. CONCLUSIONS Given that post-education levels of perception, knowledge, and attitude concerning irradiated foods increased considerably compared to pre-education levels, behavior change should be induced by providing continuous education to enhance, these primary variables. PMID:27087909

  4. The characteristics of emergency department presentations related to acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in South Korea between 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo; Cho, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine epidemiologic data regarding acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in adults from 2011 to 2014 at the national level in South Korea. Further, the association between governmental regulations involving pesticides and changes in pesticide poisoning occurrences over time was determined. Data were obtained from the emergency department (ED)-based Injury In-depth Surveillance system conducted by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). Governmental regulations on pesticides were downloaded from the homepage of the Korea Rural Development Administration. Pesticides were classified according to guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the respective Resistance Action Committee (RAC). Trends in the number of ED presentations and case fatality rate (CFR) due to pesticide poisoning were investigated. The overall CFR due to poisoning from herbicides or insecticides in adults in South Korea was 16.8% during 2011-2014. However, CFR significantly decreased over the 4-year period. The ED presentations of paraquat (PQ) poisoning fell significantly, whereas poisoning due to glyphosate, glufosinate, or combined herbicides increased markedly over the 4 years. Between 2011 and 2013, PQ was the most common pesticide poisoning, whereas glyphosate became the most frequent in 2014. PQ produced the highest rate of fatality followed by endosulfan. Although the frequency of PQ poisoning decreased, which may be attributed to governmental regulations, the CFR and incidence of pesticide poisoning in adults remain a public health concern that needs to be addressed. PMID:27267557

  5. Telerehabilitation Needs: A Bidirectional Survey of Health Professionals and Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongbae; Yun, Jayeon; Kim, Da-hye

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess multiple facets of awareness, understanding, value, needs, and desirability to resolve issues regarding unmet medical needs of individuals with a disability by adopting telerehabilitation. The survey included collection and analysis of current services as well as of supplementary and future services of rehabilitative interventions in South Korea. Study Design and Participants: Thirty-six health professionals who were members of the Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine and 57 individuals with spinal cord injury responded to a survey of those belonging to two non-profit professional groups, one group belonging to the Korean Spinal Cord Injury Association and joining the National Spinal Cord Injury Wheelchair Games and the other group belonging to the Jeong-Sang-Hye (High Quad Spinal Cord Injury Association) and having joined one of the focus groups of the Korea National Rehabilitation Research Institute. The two surveys were designed specifically for investigating each group's perspectives of awareness, understanding, value, needs, and desirability of telerehabilitation. Results: The survey responses indicated that there is great interest in the possibility of telerehabilitative services among individuals with spinal cord injury. In particular, there was a strong interest expressed in services that can be used to resolve issues on unmet medical needs of individuals with a disability related to health monitoring, sustaining health, rehabilitation interventions, and independence of activities of daily living. Conclusions: Telerehabilitation holds great promise as a bridge to traditional face-to-face clinical service delivery. From the results, there are a few categories in the survey that indicate notable differences between the two groups regarding the awareness, desirability, order of preference in rehabilitation service, and telerehabilitation expenses. PMID:22545769

  6. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land

  7. Assessment of solar power potential at abandoned mine promotion districts in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinyoung; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the solar power potential at 7 abandoned mine promotion districts in Korea such as Taebaek, Samcheok, Jeongseon, Yeongwol, Mungyeong, Hwasun and Boryeong. The photovoltaic system with a capacity of 99 kW was considered at each abandoned mine promotion district. The estimated electric power productions and economic effects of photovoltaic systems were analyzed using RETScreen software developed by Natural Resources Canada(NRC). The results showed that the Boryeong district is the highest photovoltaic potential where the estimated electric power production is about 83.43 MWh/year, the net present value is 69.2 million KRW, and the payback period is about 13 years.

  8. Identifying the role of typhoons as drought busters in South Korea based on hidden Markov chain models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jiyoung; Kwon, Hyun-Han; So, Byung-Jin; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2015-04-01

    This study proposed a hidden Markov chain model-based drought analysis (HMM-DA) tool to understand the beginning and ending of meteorological drought and to further characterize typhoon-induced drought busters (TDB) by exploring spatiotemporal drought patterns in South Korea. It was found that typhoons have played a dominant role in ending drought events (EDE) during the typhoon season (July-September) over the last four decades (1974-2013). The percentage of EDEs terminated by TDBs was about 43-90% mainly along coastal regions in South Korea. Furthermore, the TDBs, mainly during summer, have a positive role in managing extreme droughts during the subsequent autumn and spring seasons. The HMM-DA models the temporal dependencies between drought states using Markov chain, consequently capturing the dependencies between droughts and typhoons well, thus, enabling a better performance in modeling spatiotemporal drought attributes compared to traditional methods.

  9. Continuous rice cropping has been sequestering carbon in soils in Java and South Korea for the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex B.; Hong, Suk Young; Sulaeman, Yiyi; Kim, Myung Sook; Zhang, Yong Seon; Kim, Yi Hyun; Han, Kyung Hwa

    2012-09-01

    The soil system represents the dominant terrestrial reservoir of carbon in the biosphere. Deforestation, poor land management, and excessive cropping lead to a decrease in soil carbon stocks, but intensive cropping can reverse this trend. We discuss long-term soil organic carbon data from two major rice-growing areas: Java (Indonesia) and South Korea. Soil organic carbon content in the top 15 cm for both countries has increased in recent decades. In South Korea, the top 15 cm of soils store about 31 Tg (1012 g) of carbon (C) with a sequestration rate of 0.3 Tg C per year. In Java, the agricultural topsoils accumulated more than 1.7 Tg C per year over the period 1990-2010. We attribute the increase in measured SOC mainly to increases in above- and below- ground biomass due to fertilization. Good agronomic practices can maintain and increase soil carbon, which ensures soil security to produce food and fiber.

  10. 77 FR 73420 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Thereof From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR... Proceedings: Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). We will instruct CBP to assess antidumping... Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (``Assessment...

  11. Rain rate modeling of 1-min from various integration times in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sujan; Park, Jung-Jin; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    Rain plays a major impairment factor for propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere for systems operating at frequencies above 10 GHz. Several effects are noted such as depolarization, scintillation, interference due to scattering and extra attenuation which seems to increase with frequency. To mitigate its effect in satellite communication, knowledge of local rainfall statistics is necessary which act as milestone for design of radio link. Rain attenuation is best visualize by the 1-min rainfall rate statistic but the measurement of this rain rate distribution is rare on a worldwide basis and observation of rain rate are done with longer integration times typically 30 min or more. In this paper, efforts have been made to develop model that can convert rain rate complementary cumulative distribution function to shorter integration times. The average relative error margin of about 5, 14, 43, 71 and 115 % are noted for 5 to 1-, 10 to 1-, 20 to 1, 30 to 1- and 60 to 1-min respectively from ITU-R P.837-6 method which have been analyzed in further section of this article. The empirical natures of conversion methods as such Segal method, Burgueno's method, Chebil and Rahman method and Logarithmic model are studied along with the proposed new model that seems to be applicable in derivation of 1-min rain rate of the South Korea rain rate statistics. International Telecommunication Union-Radio communication Sector (ITU-R) has developed a recommendation ITU-R P.837-6 that enables the user to estimate the local 1-min rainfall rate statistical distribution which is compared with calculated 1-min rain rate distribution from experimental 1-min rainfall accumulation. Unfortunately, ITU-R P.837-6 estimated 1-min values show greater error percentages. In order to get better approximation of local 1-min rain rate estimation, a novel method is proposed and it's efficiency have been compared with rainfall rate statistics obtained from nine different locations in the South

  12. Strong-wind and heavy-rainfall extents induced by tropical cyclones over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dasol; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Park, Doo-Sun R.

    2016-04-01

    Strong-wind and heavy-rainfall accompanied with tropical cyclone (TC) landfall can make enormous socio-economic losses. This study investigated the areal extents of strong-wind and heavy-rainfall induced by TC for its landfall period over South Korea. Utilizing a high-resolution reanalysis data, the strong-wind and heavy-rainfall extents are defined as the number of grids in which wind speed and rainfall exceed their threshold values (11.2 m s-1 and 1.38 mm hr-1, respectively). Note that the threshold values of wind and rainfall are derived from the top 99th percentiles of weather-station record. In this study, 126 TCs are examined for the period of 1979-2014. Both the strong-wind and heavy-rainfall extents increase with TC intensity, which means intense TC has large size. However, areal fractions of strong-wind and heavy-rainfall extent to total-influence extent, which is union of strong-wind and heavy-rainfall extents, present significant negative-correlation (r=-0.87) between them. Based on this negative relation, rainfall-dominant TCs which possess large heavy-rainfall fraction but small high-wind fraction are defined, and vice versa for wind-dominant TCs. Thus, the rainfall-dominant TCs generally present heavier rainfall but weaker winds than wind-dominant TCs since the rainfall-dominant TC has much stronger divergence in upper-level and asymmetric convection than wind-dominant TC. An anomalous upper tropospheric trough located over the west of South Korea is found to be a possible reason for the different structure of the both TC types by causing following three effects: (1) rising motion associated with enhanced upper-level divergence ahead of TC propagation, (2) enhancement of secondary circulation induced by strong vertical wind shear, and (3) asymmetric convection related with faster TC movements. All of these factors are favorable to the rainfall-dominant TCs, but unfavorable to the wind-dominant TCs. The present study highlights importance of

  13. Summary of government sponsored foreign electronics: European union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom, France, and Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garian, Robert

    1994-10-01

    This report provides basic information and statistical data on foreign electronics research and development sponsored by the governments of the European Union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, France, and Singapore. Industrial R&D funding was found to be highly significant in all of the countries studied. Government and industry typically collaborate closely in the planning of economic strategies for capturing new or larger shares of targeted segments of the electronics market.

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in suicidal ideation, parasuicides, and completed suicides in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Jun, Hee-Jin; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-04-01

    As a result of unprecedented increase in suicides over the last decade, Korea now ranks at the top of OECD countries in suicide statistics (26.1 deaths per 100,000 population in 2005). Our study sought to document socioeconomic inequalities in self-destructive behaviors including suicidal ideation, parasuicide, and completed suicide. For prevalence of suicidal ideation and parasuicide, we used four waves of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1995, 1998, 2001, and 2005). For suicide mortality, we abstracted suicide cases from the National Death Registration records, and linked them with population denominators from the national census in 1995, 2000, and 2005. We examined variation in self-destructive behaviors according to level of educational attainment (at the individual level), as well as area-level characteristics including level of deprivation and degree of urbanicity. Age-standardized rates were calculated through direct standardization using the 2005 census population as the standard. Inequalities were measured by the relative index of inequality and the slope index of inequality. The age-standardized prevalence of suicidal ideation decreased across consecutive surveys in both genders (18.0-13.5% for men, 27.5-22.9% for women). Parasuicides similarly decreased over time. By contrast, completed suicides increased over time (20.9-42.8 per 100,000 for men and 8.9-20.9 for women). The most prominent increases in completed suicides were observed among the elderly in both genders. Lower education, rural residence, and area deprivation was each associated with higher suicide rates. Both absolute as well as relative inequalities in suicide by socioeconomic position widened over time. Our findings suggest that the current suicide epidemic in Korea has social origins. In addition to clinical approaches targeted to the prevention of suicides in high risk individuals, social policies are needed to protect disadvantaged populations at

  15. 75 FR 34980 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Korea: Preliminary Results and Rescission in Part of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR... Review, 75 FR 13729 (March 23, 2010). We invited parties to comment on the Preliminary Results. We... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube From Brazil, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, and Venezuela, 61...

  16. The Effects of Mind Subtraction Meditation on Depression, Social Anxiety, Aggression, and Salivary Cortisol Levels of Elementary School Children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yang-Gyeong; Lee, Duck-Joo; Lee, In-Soo; Shin, Namin; Park, Ju-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Ra; Yu, Boas

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of a school-based mind subtraction meditation program on depression, social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels of 42 elementary school children in South Korea. The research design was a nonequivalent group comparison with pretest and post-test. The experimental group was given 8weeks of the meditation program. The results showed social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels were significantly lowered in the experimental group. This demonstrated that the school-based mind subtraction meditation program could be effective in improving psychosocial and behavioral aspects of mental health in elementary school children. PMID:26790919

  17. Geological structures and geochronology of the Gonam Complex in the Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, You Hong; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-04-01

    Geological structures and geochronology of the Gonam Complex in the Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea You Hong Kihm and Sung Won Kim The Gonam complex is exposed in the westernmost part of the Gyeonggi Massif, which is recently thought be related with Triassic collision of China. This complex consists of various lithologies such as quartz schist, mica schist, quartzite, marble, leucocratic granite, mafic dyke and alkali granite. The Gonam complex can be divided into three units from south to north. The first is dominated by alternation of quartz schist and mica schist, which are intruded by leucocratic granites and mafic dykes. The second unit is highly sheared and folded quartzite. The last unit is composed of schists and marble intruded by acidic dykes, mafic dykes and foliated syenite. The deformation of the Gonam complex is characterized by one ductile shearing, two generations of folding, and four generations of faulting. The most prominent geological structures developed in the Gonam Complex are ductile structures, such as mylonitic foliations, mineral stretching lineations, sheath folds and oblique folds. At most outcrops the Gonam Complex was strongly sheared and intruded by amphibolitic dykes and leucocratic granites, which are also sheared. Widely developed mylonite indicates the ductile shearing occurred in high temperature metamorphic condition. SHRIMP zircon ages of detrital zircons obtained from schist and quartzite range from 3313 to 1819 Ma indicating the Gonam Complex deposited after Paleoproterozoic. Intrusion ages of foliated leucocratic granite, mafic dyke and foliated syenite are 821 Ma, 812 Ma and 751 Ma, respectively. And massive mafic dyke, syenite and two-mica granite (232~228 Ma) are interpreted as post-collisional igneous activity. These events are similar to those of Qinling-Dabie Belt and suggest that the Gyeonggi Massif is probably correlated to the Qinling-Dabie Belt.

  18. Recent trends in economic burden of acute myocardial infarction in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyeyoung; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Yoon, Jihyun; Kim, Dongwoo; Gong, Younghoon; Kim, A Rim; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yo-Han

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. More specially, the prevalence of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) is increasing in the aged population as mortality decreases; South Korea is no exception. This study aims to examine the economic burden of AMI in the Korean population between 2007 and 2012. AMI-related costs were assessed from a societal perspective. A prevalence-based cost-of-illness framework was used for this analysis. The subjects included all South Koreans with AMI-related ICD-10 codes (I21, I22, I23, I25.0, and I25.1). Data on direct (medical and non-medical) costs and indirect (productivity loss due to AMI-associated morbidity and mortality) costs were collected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service's claims data. The human capital approach was used to calculate indirect costs. The total estimated cost of AMI in 2012 was $1,177,649,323 USD. The majority (52%) of this amount was made up of medical costs, followed by productivity losses due to mortality and morbidity (42% of annual cost). Although the total cost declined by approximately 18% compared to 2007 ($1,427,643,854 USD), the cost of AMI in the over 60 age group amounted to 47% of the total cost of AMI in 2012. AMI led to a high economic burden in 2012. This study, which identified not only the size, but also the trends of AMI-related costs, will provide information to evaluate effects of governmental health projects and the effective allocation of public research funds. PMID:25658119

  19. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model.

    PubMed

    Choe, Hyeyeong; Thorne, James H; Seo, Changwan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) multi-response species distribution model to overcome species' data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species' ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species' presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD) calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the threshold and scale

  20. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyeyeong; Thorne, James H.; Seo, Changwan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) multi-response species distribution model to overcome species’ data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species’ ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species’ presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD) calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the threshold and scale

  1. Dynamic freshwater-saline water interaction in the coastal zone of Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kue-Young; Park, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Gee-Pyo; Park, Ki-Hwa

    2009-05-01

    Freshwater-saline water interactions were evaluated in a coastal region influenced by external forces including tidal fluctuations and seasonal rainfall variations. Five different coastal zones were considered on Jeju Island, South Korea, and electrical conductivity (EC) profiles from the monitoring wells were examined to identify the configuration of the freshwater-saline water interface. There appeared to be discrepancies among EC profiles measured at different points in time. To analyze the dynamic behavior of freshwater-saline water interactions, groundwater level measurements and multi-depth EC and temperature probes were used to obtain time-series data; the data showed that water level, EC and temperature were influenced by both tidal fluctuations and heavy rainfall. The effects of oceanic tide on EC and temperature differed with depth due to hydraulic properties of geologic formations. A spectral filter was used to eliminate the effects of tidal forces and provide information on the influence of heavy rainfall on water level, EC and temperature. Heavy rainfall events caused different patterns and degrees of variation in EC and temperature with depth. The time-series data of EC and temperature in the subsurface at various depths enable greater understanding of the interaction processes between fresh and saline water.

  2. Cancer control and the communication innovation in South Korea: implications for cancer disparities.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the number of cancer survivors in South Korea has reached nearly one million with a survival rate of 49.4%. However, integrated supportive care for cancer survivors is lagging. One area in which the current cancer control policy needs updating is in the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT). The remarkable progress in the field of ICT over the past 10 years presents exciting new opportunities for health promotion. Recent communication innovations are conducive to the exchange of meta-information, giving rise to a new service area and transforming patients into active medical consumers. Consequently, such innovations encourage active participation in the mutual utilization and sharing of high-quality information. However, these benefits from new ICTs will almost certainly not be equally available to all, leading to so-called communication inequalities where cancer survivors from lower socioeconomic classes will likely have more limited access to the best means of making use of the health information. Therefore, most essentially, emphasis must be placed on helping cancer survivors and their caregivers utilize such advances in ICT to create a more efficient flow of health information, thereby reducing communication inequalities and expanding social support. Once we enhance access to health information and better manage the quality of information, as a matter of fact, we can expect an alleviation of the health inequalities faced by cancer survivors. PMID:23886120

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in starfish body and bottom sediments in Mohang Harbor (Taean), South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Joon; Hong, Gi Hoon; Kim, Hye Eun; Yang, Dong Beom

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of 27 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in bottom sediments and starfish from Mohang Harbor (MH) in Taean peninsula, South Korea. In December 2007, crude oil washed ashore from the M/V Hebei Spirit and was subsequently cleaned up within a few months of the incident. The ecological risk, bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and composition of the 27 PAHs were examined. The PAH concentrations in the bottom sediment ranged from 24 to 366 μg/kg dried weight, and the ecological risk was determined as minimal (mERL-Q < 1). Total PAH concentrations in Asterina pectinifera (inside seawall) and Asterias amurensis (outside seawall) were 1,226 and 1,477 μg/kg dry weight (d.w.), respectively. The total BAFs (∑BAF) for A. amurensis was 3.8 times higher than that of A. pectinifera, and the PAH concentrations of 5-6 log K OW were highest in the two starfish species. Further, PAH fingerprint analysis (nine alkyl-substituted PAHs fraction, low molecular weight (LMW)/high molecular weight (HMW), Phe/Ant, and Flu/Pyr), and principal component analysis (PCA) based on three crude oil samples from the M/V Hebei Spirit showed no remaining influence of crude oil. PMID:24682639

  4. Cranes, Crops and Conservation: Understanding Human Perceptions of Biodiversity Conservation in South Korea's Civilian Control Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Oh; Steiner, Frederick; Mueller, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    South Korea's Civilian Control Zone (CCZ), a relatively untouched area due to tight military oversight since the end of Korean War, has received considerable attention nationally and internationally for its rich biodiversity. However, the exclusion of local communities from the process of defining problems and goals and of setting priorities for biodiversity conservation has halted a series of biodiversity conservation efforts. Through qualitative research, we explored CCZ farmers' views of key problems and issues and also the sources of their opposition to the government-initiated conservation approaches. Key findings include the farmers' concerns about the impact of conservation restrictions on their access to necessary resources needed to farm, wildlife impacts on the value of rice and other agricultural goods they produce, and farmers' strong distrust of government, the military, and planners, based on their experiences with past conservation processes. The findings regarding farmers' perceptions should prove useful for the design of future participatory planning processes for biodiversity conservation in the CCZ. This case highlights how conservative measures, perceived to be imposed from above—however scientifically valuable—can be undermined and suggests the value that must be placed on communication among planners and stakeholders.

  5. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection. PMID:26159562

  6. Massilia humi sp. nov. isolated from soil in Incheon, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Yin, Chang Shik

    2016-05-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated THG-S6.8(T), was isolated from soil in Incheon, South Korea. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain THG-S6.8(T) was moderately related to Massilia plicata 76(T) (97.3 %), Massilia dura 16(T) (97.2 %) and Massilia albidiflava 45(T) (96.9 %). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain THG-S6.8(T) possesses ubiquinone-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone, and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-S6.8(T) and Massilia plicata KCTC 12344(T) and Massilia dura KACC 12342(T) was 38.7 and 40.5 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 66.8 %. These data, together with phenotypic characterization, suggest the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Massilia humi sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-S6.8(T) as the type strain (=KCTC 42737(T) = CCTCC AB 2015296(T)). PMID:26846918

  7. Impacts of agricultural expansion on sedimentary organic matter composition in Lake Soyang (South Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sujin; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Gal, Jong-Ku; Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Bomchul; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural area has been expanded since the 19th century and agricultural activities such as eroded soils, nutrient, and organic matters may impact aquatic environments. The Lake Soyang is the deepest and largest artificial dam reservoir constructed in South Korea in 1973. Lake Soyang has been experienced an expansion of agricultural area since the 1990s. In this study, we investigated the impact of agricultural expansion on sedimentary organic matter in Lake Soyang. We collected soils (n=7), lake surface sediments (n=9) and a 50-cm sediment core at near the dam for the analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents, stable isotopic composition of TOC and TN (δ13CTOC and δ15N), and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). The age model of the sediment core is based on 210Pb analysis. In lake surface sediments, bulk and GDGT-derived geochemical data indicate that C3-derived soil OM was the major source in the upper part of the lake while an aquatic contribution increased in the lower part of the lake. The sediment core showed a distinctive shift in all parameters considered at 15 cm core depth. However, it was difficult to constrain the exact age of this depth due to the dating uncertainties. Nonetheless, our study implies the potential influence of agricultural expansion on changes in sedimentary OM composition in Lake Soyang.

  8. The status of the passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Sangwoo; Kim, Sunjoon; Ko, Juin

    2008-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the operating status, evaluate the problems, and discuss possible improvement methods of passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage (AMD) in South Korea. Thirty-five passive treatment systems in 29 mines have been constructed from 1996 to 2002 using successive alkalinity producing systems (SAPS) as the main treatment process. We investigated 29 systems (two for metal mines), 19 of which revealed various problems. Overflows of drainage from SAPS, wetland, or oxidation ponds were caused by the flow rate exceeding the capacities of the facilities or by the reduced permeability of the organic substance layer. Leakages occurred at various parts of the systems. In some cases, clogged and broken pipes at the mouths of the mine adits made the whole system unusable. Some systems showed very low efficiencies without apparent leakage or overflow. Even though the systems showed fairly good efficiencies in metal removal ratios (mainly iron) and pH control; sulfate removal rates were very poor except in three systems, which may indicate very poor sulfate reductions with sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) as a means.

  9. Realtime Monitoring of the Extreme Oceanic Conditions in the Kangjin Bay, South Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Y.; Jung, K.

    2006-05-01

    Realtime(RT) monitoring system for the oceanic state variables was developed and has been operating since April, 2004 in the Kangjin Bay, South Sea, Korea shown. The RT production of data stream and display on the Internet web page are made possible in continuous functions of various system elements. Detailed technical information for the RT monitoring system can be referred to Ro et al. (2004). The water quality parameters, current and meteorological conditions are continuously monitored with very high sampling resolution (10 min.) throughout the year and are being published on the Internet web pages (http://oceaninfo.co.kr/kangjin). The research project encompass several important subjects focusing on the extreme oceanic conditions such as very cold water mass formation during the wintertime cold outbreak, highly diluted sea water during the dam water discharge in the summertime monsoon and the subsequent formation of the hypoxia in the shallow Kangjin Bay. These are the typical extreme events captured possibly by the RT monitoring system, without which could never have been observed and understood. These extreme conditions would exert dramatic ecological impact to the local aqua-culture ecology. This study would elucidate the series of physico-chemical processes and its implication of the local eco-system. To understand the complicated processes, various research tools have been employed such as numerical modeling of tidal circulation, density-driven current, water-quality and formation of hypoxia, time series analyses of various water quality properties including multi-variate correlation.

  10. Position Statement: Drug Holiday in Osteoporosis Treatment with Bisphosphonates in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hun; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Si Young; Shin, Jung-Ho; Cho, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have been widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis with robust data from many placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy in fracture risk reduction over 3 to 5 years of treatment. Although bisphosphonates are generally safe and well tolerated, concerns have emerged about the adverse effects related to its long-term use, including osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures. Because bisphosphonates are incorporated into the skeleton and continue to exert an anti-resorptive effect for a period of time after the discontinuation of drugs, the concept of a "drug holiday" has emerged, whereby the risk of adverse effects might be decreased while the patient still benefits from anti-fracture efficacy. As randomized clinical trial evidence is not yet available on who may qualify for a drug holiday, there is considerable controversy regarding the selection of candidates for the drug holiday and monitoring during a drug holiday, both of which should be based on individual assessments of risk and benefit. This statement will provide suggestions for clinicians in South Korea on the identification of possible candidates and monitoring during a bisphosphonate drug holiday. PMID:26713307

  11. Symbiodinium spp. associated with high-latitude scleractinian corals from Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Palmas, S.; Denis, V.; Ribas-Deulofeu, L.; Loubeyres, M.; Woo, S.; Hwang, S. J.; Song, J. I.; Chen, C. A.

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium) associated with scleractinian corals focus on tropical and sub-tropical reefs. Their diversity in outlying, non-reef coral communities at high latitudes is still not fully documented. In this study, we analyzed the Symbiodinium diversity associated with five scleractinian species collected at eight sites around Jeju Island (South Korea, 33.4°N) between 5 and 15 m depth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified internal transcribed spacer region 2 distinguished five Symbiodinium types. We observed a high level of specificity between host genera and Symbiodinium spp. despite existing in an environment with large seasonal oscillations in temperature and light. Psammocora albopicta and Psammocora profundacella were associated with C1 and Montipora millepora with C17. Alveopora japonica was associated exclusively with an unusual F-type, the only known clade F representative functionally important to a scleractinian coral. Oulastrea crispata was associated with Symbiodinium boreum (type D15), occasionally co-occurring with type C3 (in 4 % of specimens). In addition to increasing the knowledge of Symbiodinium diversity in high-latitude coral communities, this study constitutes an important baseline upon which the effects of projected environmental change in the near future can be assessed. A better understanding of high-latitude coral communities is critical for understanding how a warming planet will affect the tempo and mode of shifts in the composition of temperate marine communities.

  12. Predicting impacts of climate change on habitat connectivity of Kalopanax septemlobus in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wanmo; Minor, Emily S.; Lee, Dowon; Park, Chan-Ryul

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the drivers of habitat distribution patterns and assessing habitat connectivity are crucial for conservation in the face of climate change. In this study, we examined a sparsely distributed tree species, Kalopanax septemlobus (Araliaceae), which has been heavily disturbed by human use in temperate forests of South Korea. We used maximum entropy distribution modeling (MaxEnt) to identify the climatic and topographic factors driving the distribution of the species. Then, we constructed habitat models under current and projected climate conditions for the year 2050 and evaluated changes in the extent and connectivity of the K. septemlobus habitat. Annual mean temperature and terrain slope were the two most important predictors of species distribution. Our models predicted the range shift of K. septemlobus toward higher elevations under medium-low and high emissions scenarios for 2050, with dramatic reductions in suitable habitat (51% and 85%, respectively). In addition, connectivity analysis indicated that climate change is expected to reduce future levels of habitat connectivity. Even under the Representative Construction Pathway (RCP) 4.5 medium-low warming scenario, the projected climate conditions will decrease habitat connectivity by 78%. Overall, suitable habitats for K. septemlobus populations will likely become more isolated depending on the severity of global warming. The approach presented here can be used to efficiently assess species and habitat vulnerability to climate change.

  13. Detection and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii and Coxiella-Like Bacteria in Horses in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Goo; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Ouh, In-Ohk; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Jong Wan; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii and Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB) are genetically and ecologically distinct despite some genetic similarities. Furthermore, CLB are exceptionally diverse and widespread in ticks, but rarely detected in domestic animals. Since Coxiella bacteria can be transmitted from infected horses by inhalation or by coming in contact with ticks during activities such as horseback riding, it is necessary to study their prevalence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale nationwide investigation of the prevalence of C. burnetii and CLB among horses reared in South Korea. Of 816 blood samples collected between 2007 and 2013, 11 (1.3%) were identified as C. burnetii by ELISA, and six (0.7%) as CLB by 16S rRNA sequencing. While a sequence from Jeju Island was similar (97.9-100%) to those within clade B, five sequences obtained from the northern region were categorized into a new clade, indicating the sequence diversity of the genus Coxiella. Studies until date had detected CLB only in ticks; here, we describe their detection in mammals. Given their zoonotic potential, strategic monitoring and appropriate control programs for Coxiella species need to be established. PMID:27244230

  14. Structural characteristics of the central Ogcheon Belt, South Korea: orogen-parallel tectonic transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, You Hong; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    The rocks in the central Ogcheon Belt, South Korea, underwent three deformational phases (D 1, D 2 and D 3) during the Mesozoic Era. In the study area, NW- and NE-trending geological structures such as thrusts and folds are juxtaposed. The NW- and NE-trending folds deform isoclinal folds (F 1) with axial planar slaty cleavage (S 1), and have axial planar crenulation cleavage. All of these folds are overprinted by brittle faults (D 3). It is inferred from field data that the NW- and NE-trending structures are products of a single deformational phase (D 2). A very large-scale inclined NE-vergent isoclinal fold (F 1) produced an irregular boundary of Precambrian basement and a basement promontory, which acted as a structural obstacle against subsequent deformational phases. During the E-vergent phase (D 2), deformation partitioning occurred due to the irregular block boundary, and orogen-parallel and -orthogonal structures were produced. The D 3 phase is recognized as large-scale E-W trending structures including folds and faults. Thus, the structural evolution of the central Ogcheon Belt is related to the clockwise rotation of the maximum compressive stress axis from NE-SW to N-S during the Mesozoic Era. This study shows that the shape of colliding boundary is a very important factor in controlling the structural pattern and evolution in the study area.

  15. Recent recovery of surface wind speed after decadal decrease: a focus on South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, JongChun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the multi-decadal variability of observed surface wind speed around South Korea. It is found that surface wind speed exhibits decreasing trend from mid-1950s until 2003, which is similar with the trends reported for other parts of the world. However, the decreasing trend ceases and becomes unclear since then. It is revealed that decreasing wind speed until 2003 is strongly associated with the decreasing trend of the spatial variance in both atmospheric pressure and air temperature across the East Asia for the same period. On the contrary, break of decreasing trend in surface wind speed since 2003 is associated with increasing spatial variance in surface temperature over the East Asia. Ground observation shows that surface wind speed and air temperature exhibit highly negative correlations for both summer and winter prior to 2003. However, since 2003, the correlations differ between seasons. We suggest that mechanisms behind the recent wind speed trend are different between summer and winter. This is on the basis of an interesting finding that air temperature has decreased while surface temperature has increased during winter months since 2003. We hypothesize that such contrasting temperature trends indicate more frequent movement of external cold air mass into the region since 2003. We also hypothesize that increasing summer wind speed is driven by intrusion of warm air mass into the region which is witnessed via increasing spatial variance in surface temperature across East Asia and the fact that both air and surface temperature rise together.

  16. Cranes, crops and conservation: understanding human perceptions of biodiversity conservation in South Korea's Civilian Control Zone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Oh; Steiner, Frederick; Mueller, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    South Korea's Civilian Control Zone (CCZ), a relatively untouched area due to tight military oversight since the end of Korean War, has received considerable attention nationally and internationally for its rich biodiversity. However, the exclusion of local communities from the process of defining problems and goals and of setting priorities for biodiversity conservation has halted a series of biodiversity conservation efforts. Through qualitative research, we explored CCZ farmers' views of key problems and issues and also the sources of their opposition to the government-initiated conservation approaches. Key findings include the farmers' concerns about the impact of conservation restrictions on their access to necessary resources needed to farm, wildlife impacts on the value of rice and other agricultural goods they produce, and farmers' strong distrust of government, the military, and planners, based on their experiences with past conservation processes. The findings regarding farmers' perceptions should prove useful for the design of future participatory planning processes for biodiversity conservation in the CCZ. This case highlights how conservative measures, perceived to be imposed from above--however scientifically valuable--can be undermined and suggests the value that must be placed on communication among planners and stakeholders. PMID:20924581

  17. Detection and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii and Coxiella-Like Bacteria in Horses in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Min-Goo; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Ouh, In-Ohk; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Jong Wan; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii and Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB) are genetically and ecologically distinct despite some genetic similarities. Furthermore, CLB are exceptionally diverse and widespread in ticks, but rarely detected in domestic animals. Since Coxiella bacteria can be transmitted from infected horses by inhalation or by coming in contact with ticks during activities such as horseback riding, it is necessary to study their prevalence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale nationwide investigation of the prevalence of C. burnetii and CLB among horses reared in South Korea. Of 816 blood samples collected between 2007 and 2013, 11 (1.3%) were identified as C. burnetii by ELISA, and six (0.7%) as CLB by 16S rRNA sequencing. While a sequence from Jeju Island was similar (97.9–100%) to those within clade B, five sequences obtained from the northern region were categorized into a new clade, indicating the sequence diversity of the genus Coxiella. Studies until date had detected CLB only in ticks; here, we describe their detection in mammals. Given their zoonotic potential, strategic monitoring and appropriate control programs for Coxiella species need to be established. PMID:27244230

  18. Position Statement: Drug Holiday in Osteoporosis Treatment with Bisphosphonates in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hun; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Si Young; Shin, Jung-Ho; Cho, Sun Wook; Byun, Dong-Won

    2015-11-01

    Bisphosphonates have been widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis with robust data from many placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy in fracture risk reduction over 3 to 5 years of treatment. Although bisphosphonates are generally safe and well tolerated, concerns have emerged about the adverse effects related to its long-term use, including osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures. Because bisphosphonates are incorporated into the skeleton and continue to exert an anti-resorptive effect for a period of time after the discontinuation of drugs, the concept of a "drug holiday" has emerged, whereby the risk of adverse effects might be decreased while the patient still benefits from anti-fracture efficacy. As randomized clinical trial evidence is not yet available on who may qualify for a drug holiday, there is considerable controversy regarding the selection of candidates for the drug holiday and monitoring during a drug holiday, both of which should be based on individual assessments of risk and benefit. This statement will provide suggestions for clinicians in South Korea on the identification of possible candidates and monitoring during a bisphosphonate drug holiday. PMID:26713307

  19. Source identification and trends in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate principal species in Seoul, South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Choong-Min Kang; Byung-Wook Kang; Hak Sung Lee

    2006-07-15

    Ambient measurements were made using two sets of annular denuder system during the four seasons and were then compared with the results during the period of 1996-1997 to estimate the trends and seasonal variations in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) principal species. Annual averages of gaseous HNO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} increased by 11% and 6%, respectively, compared with those of the previous study, whereas HONO and SO{sub 2} decreased by 11% and 136%, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by {approximately} 17%, 35% for SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and 29% for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, whereas NO{sub 3}{sup -} increased by 21%. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 12.8 and 5.98 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, accounting for {approximately} 26 and 12% of PM2.5 concentration, respectively. The species studied accounted for 84% of PM2.5 concentration, ranging from 76% in winter to 97% in summer. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was used to identify possible source areas affecting air pollution levels at a receptor site in Seoul. High possible source areas in concentrations of PM2.5, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}2, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and K{sup +} were coastal cities of Liaoning province, inland areas of Heibei/Shandong provinces in China, and typical port cities of South Korea. The PSCF results may suggest that air pollution levels in Seoul are affected considerably by long-range transport from external areas, such as the coastal zone in China and other cities in South Korea, as well as Seoul itself. It appears that the NO{sub 3} contribution to PM2.5 increased by {approximately} 4%, whereas the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} contribution decreased by {approximately} 2%. This trend may be explained by a shift of fuel patterns from fossil fuel to LNG, according to the governmental policies. 44 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Application of the nested grid STEM to an early summer acid rain in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungtae; Cho, SeogYeon

    The nested grid Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model (STEM) was developed and used to simulate the acid rain in Korea that occurred on 10 June 1996. The present nested grid system consists of three-grid systems. The coarsest grid system includes China, Korean Peninsula and Japan with the horizontal grid size of 80 km and the finest grid system includes only Korea with the horizontal grid size of 8.9 km. The calculated gas-phase SO 2 and O 3 concentrations agree relatively well with the field measurements. In addition, the model successfully reproduces the measured sulfate and nitrate concentrations in the rain water and futhermore identified the high concentration regions of liquid-phase sulfate and nitrate. In the present simulation conditions, most of the gas-phase of SO 2 and HNO 3 were washed out. A close relationship between wet deposition fluxes and precipitation rates were found for sulfate and nitrate. Finally, the model results also showed that a fine grid size is required to accurately calculate gas-phase concentrations as well as acid deposition fluxes.