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  1. 75 FR 67346 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from South Korea: Correction to Final Results of the Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from South Korea: Correction to Final Results... Co., Ltd. (POSCO), as well as the ``all others'' rate for South Korea. Specifically, the weighted-average margin for POSCO and the ``all others'' rate for South Korea, listed as 16.26 percent, should...

  2. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century. PMID:15074497

  3. 75 FR 68324 - Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea and Taiwan; Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Fittings from Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan; Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders, 70 FR 61119 (October... Fittings From Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, 65 FR 5604 (February 4, 2000). On September 1, 2010, the... International Trade Administration Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea...

  4. Learners' Acceptance of E-Learning in South Korea: Theories and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Byoung-Chan; Yoon, Jeong-Ok; Lee, In

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant changes in the field of education in this information age is the paradigm shift from teacher-centered to learner-centered education. Along with this paradigm shift, understanding of students' e-learning adoption behavior among various countries is urgently needed. South Korea's dense student population and high

  5. Assessment results of the South Korea TRIGA SNF to be shipped to INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, C.M.; Dirk, W.J.; Cottam, R.E.; Paik, S.T.

    1997-10-09

    This paper describes the Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) examination at the Seoul and the Taejon Research Reactor Facilities in South Korea. The examination was required before the SNF would be accepted for transportation and storage at the INEEL. The results of the aluminum and stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel examination have been summarized. A description of the examination team training, the examination work plan and examination equipment is also included. This paper also explains the technical basis for the examination and physical condition criteria used to determine what, if any, additional packaging would be required for transportation and for the receipt and storage of the fuel at the INEEL. This paper delineates the preparation activities prior to the fuel examinations and includes (1) collecting spent fuel data; (2) preparatory work by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for fuel examination: (3) preparation of a radionuclide report, Radionuclide Mass Inventory, Activity, Decay Heat, and Dose Rate Parametric Data for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuels needed to provide input data for transportation and fuel acceptance at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL); (4) gathering FRR Facility data; and (5) coordination between the INEEL and KAERI. Included, are the unanticipated conditions encountered in the unloading of fuel from the dry storage casks in Taejon in preparation for examination, a description of the damaged condition of the fuel removed from the casks, and the apparent cause of the damages. Lessons learned from all the activities are also addressed. A brief description of the preparatory work for the shipment of the spent fuel from Korea to INEEL is included.

  6. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive

  7. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  8. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built

  9. Special Education in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jiyeon

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the current status of special education in South Korea in terms of legislation for special education, early intervention and early childhood special education, elementary and secondary education, and personnel preparation. It also discusses the need to move towards providing appropriate education in the least restrictive

  10. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  11. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal

  12. Employment Status and Predictors among People with Visual Impairments in South Korea: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ik Seop; Park, Soo Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the employment status and its predictors among people with visual impairments in South Korea. Factors affecting employment status were gender, education, area of residence, degree of disability, having a secondary disability, living with a partner, practical support, and the receipt of adjustment training. (Contains 4 tables.)

  13. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  14. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's

  15. Men's health in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae-Chul; Kim, Sang Wook; Chung, Yun Jae

    2011-01-01

    Over the last four decades, rapid industrialisation and a Westernized lifestyle have changed disease patterns in South Korea. This study was conducted to review the current state of men's health in South Korea. By reviewing reports of government authorities and domestic and foreign studies related to men's health, we found that in men ?65 years of age, 28.4% considered their health status good, whereas 38.3% considered their health status poor. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms was similar to that in Caucasians. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction was higher than the global average. The incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias showed a tendency towards increase. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continuously increased by 10.8% in 2008 and was the fifth leading cause of death in 2008. The prevalence of obesity increased from 26.0% in 1998 to 31.7% in 2007. The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease has continuously increased, with heart diseases causing one of every 12 deaths. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2005 was 17.2% among adults ?45 years of age. The top five prevalent cancers in men, in descending order, were cancers of the stomach, lung, liver, large bowel and prostate, among which the incidence of stomach, lung and liver cancers decreased by 0.7%, 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively, from 1999 to 2007, whereas the incidence of large bowel and prostate cancers increased by 7.0% and 13.2%, respectively. The prevalence of depression, dementia and sleep disorders was estimated as 17.3%, 4.21% and 20.2%, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that disease patterns in South Korean men are becoming Westernized. PMID:21478896

  16. Modeling Flood Risk for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Y.; Li, S.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophic flood events have caused significant losses for South Korea each year. It is very important to generate high resolution flood return period map for the government and insurance company to evaluate the flood risk. This research was initiated to achieve this goal. A 2000 year spatial distributed stochastical rainfall was generated by analyzing the historical rainfall of South Korea using principle component analysis. A rainfall-runoff model and a routing model were calibrated by driving the model with historical forcing and calibrated against gauge observations. The calibrated model was used to couple with the stochastical forcing to generate 2000 year discharge and runoff. The flood maps with different return periods were generated by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. The results of this research showed a reasonable flood map in South Korea, compared with the observed data. Further, this research could be used as an important reference for the government and insurance companies for risk management purpose.

  17. The impact of biomass burning in North Korea to the air quality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    South Korea is contiguous to China, Japan and North Koreas, so air pollutants transported from outside South Korea should be investigated. Nevertheless, few researches have dealt with the influences of air pollutants from North Korea to other areas. The objectives of this study are to understand the influences of air pollutants' emission from North Korea to South Korea, especially Seoul, using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model and the backward trajectory analysis. CMB model were applied to analyze the source apportionment of PAHs at Seoul between 2006 and 2007. To understand the transport of air pollutants emitted from North Korea, the backward trajectories in sampling days were classified to four cases depending on which area the trajectories predominantly passed through. Based on the contribution of biomass burning calculated by CMB and the trajectories, the influence of air pollutants from North Korea to Seoul is quantified. In order to strengthen the uncertainty of CMB result, the trend of levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-b-D-glucopyranose) concentration at Seoul is also discussed depending on the classification of trajectories.

  18. South Korea: A New Kind of Ally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Thomas

    1978-01-01

    Examines political relations between the United States and South Korea from 1945 to 1977 and notes that the United States-South Korean alliance is presently quite strong due to the belief of leaders in each country in some form of political democracy. Journal available from the American-Asian Educational Exchange, Inc., 88 Morningside Drive, New

  19. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  20. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Han

    2015-01-01

    After the Korean War (1950–1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea’s population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  1. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  2. Yahak Movement in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Sik

    2004-01-01

    "Yahak" means "night school" in Korean and its history can be traced back to the 1920s when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. This paper will focus on the yahak movement during the years from 1960 to the 1990s. Yahak played an important role in raising workers' consciousness during this democratic movement. Yahak started as a movement trying…

  3. The Cultural Politics of National Testing and Test Result Release Policy in South Korea: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youl-Kwan; Kang, Mi Ok

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the "test plus release" policy, the authors show how the

  4. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and

  5. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, South Korea, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kye-Hyung; Yi, Jongyoun; Oh, Won Sup; Kim, Nak-Hyun; Choi, Su Jin; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Kim, Nam-Joong; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Myoung-don

    2014-10-01

    We report a patient with human granulocytic anaplasmosis in South Korea. The patient had fever and thrombocytopenia. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis was confirmed by seroconversion, PCR, and sequence analysis for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Morulae were observed in the cultured HL-60 cells inoculated with blood from the patient. PMID:25271737

  6. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(2): 61-67] PMID:25441425

  7. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  8. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  9. Complaining Behavior of Academic Library Users in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Dong-Geun

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the influences of the antecedent factors on the complaints and resulting behaviors of 582 university library users in South Korea. There were statistically significant relationships between personal norms and negative word of mouth and indirect voice behaviors, between service importance and negative word-of-mouth behavior,

  10. Prophylaxis of Human Hydrophobia in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Domestic human hydrophobia has not been reported since the one case of 2004 in South Korea, but still a few animal rabies occur persistently since the reemerging stage of rabies from 1993. The government has made efforts to control animal rabies in many aspects, but whether prophylactic strategy for human hydrophobia is performed adequately is in question. The rate of proper post-exposure prophylaxis for animal bite case in 'high-risk region' of rabies is very low with 20% between 2011 and 2013. The National Animal Bite Patient Surveillance targeting 'high-risk region' is missing out animal bite cases who visit directly to hospitals in 'suspect-risk region' of rabies. Little data seems to exist for pre-exposure prophylaxis of domestic hydrophobia. Danger of reoccurrence of human hydrophobia always remain in South Korea. The medical personnel needs to have greater interest on the matter and the government strengthen the management system. PMID:25298903

  11. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's

  12. South Korea: An overlooked hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Sturt, D.C.; Quinton, N.A. )

    1993-11-01

    A forthcoming well about to spud off South Korea is planned to test the potential of an essentially unexplored rift basin. Should the well prove successful, it could open up a major new hydrocarbon producing province with substantial reserves. The well is being drilled in Block V which covers 7,000 sq km. is divided into two parts, and lies about 150 km south of the Korean peninsula close to Cheju Island. The larger Northern Block overlies the Fukue basin, which is a linear graben system oriented northeast-southwest. The Fukue basin is equivalent in size to the South Viking graben of the North Sea and the existence of a restricted marine source rock and play types at several stratigraphic levels helps to reinforce such a comparison Seismic mapping has revealed five prospects with combined most likely reserves of more than 1 billion bbl. The paper describes the basin evolution, source and migration of petroleum, reservoir and seals, and well location.

  13. Prospect for future South-Korea arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.

    1992-04-22

    This study deals with the Hot issues of the first five Prime Ministers (PM) meetings, which encompassed 15 months of negotiations and have resulted in the completion of the Agreement on South-North Reconciliation/Non-aggression and Cooperation after 46 years of division. After the signing of the agreement, detailed worker level progress has culminated in North Korea signing the nuclear safety treaty of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Acceptance of International Inspection of Nuclear Facilities South-North civil economic progress is on the way and at the 6th meeting, a head of state meeting was discussed. Taking all this into consideration, it is safe to say that an affirmative direction is being taken towards South-North relations. In this arena, a critical element for better South-North relations is arms control. If meetings on arms control between South-North make good progress, the solution for the Korean peninsula's reunification, as well as detente, will be achieved more quickly. Therefore, arms control on the Korean peninsula should be considered as an important point for improvement of the future South-North Korean relationship. The important fact that we should remember is that arms control is a common issue. Arms control should be solved by South-North Korea because a phased arms control can develop prior to conditions for reunification.

  14. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a

  15. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently

  16. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  17. Motivations and Experiences of Expatriate Educators in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Nicolette

    2009-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of native English instructors at the Gyeonggi-do Institute for Foreign Language Education (GIFLE) in South Korea. A literature review of issues regarding expatriate educators is included. The guiding questions for this study include why these instructors chose to become educators, move to South Korea, and…

  18. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a…

  19. Factors influencing computer literacy of Taiwan and South Korea nurses.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Hou, Ying-Hui; Chang, I-Chiu; Yen, David C

    2009-04-01

    Healthcare is experiencing a major transformation in its information technology base. Hospitals are adopting information technology (IT) to reduce costs and increase competitiveness. IT applications in healthcare are trending towards electronic patient records and even health records. Therefore, practices in nursing are also affected by IT. Many researchers have studied what computer literacy a nurse should possess, but have focused less on factors that actually impact computer literacy. The purposes of this study are to examine current computer literacy levels of nurses, and to indicate what variables influence their computer literacy. Taiwan and South Korea both implemented a national health insurance system, and used state-of-the art IT to provide higher volume and better quality of services. The data were collected from two case hospitals which are located in Taiwan and South Korea, respectively. By using a structured questionnaire, a total of 203 nurses responded; 104 from Taiwan and 99 from South Korea. The results revealed that personal innovativeness in IT, computer education, and age are significant factors that affected computer literacy levels. These factors serve as reference for administrators and executives in hospitals, or nursing educators seeking the data necessary to make decisions on curriculum. PMID:19397098

  20. Copycat Suicide Induced by Entertainment Celebrity Suicides in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Soo Ah; Sung, Ji Min; Park, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective Throughout the past several years, there have been a number of entertainment celebrity suicides in South Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the clustering of suicides following celebrities' suicides in South Korea from 2005 to 2008, particularly according to certain characteristics. Methods Seven celebrity suicides were examined and defined using the Korean Integrated Newspaper Database System (KINDS) and from these, we considered four affected periods occurring 28 days after each celebrity's suicide. A Poisson time-series autoregression model was used to estimate the relative risk of the total suicide number for each affected period from 2005 to 2008. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether there were specific increases in the numbers of suicides in subgroups matching each celebrity. Results There were significant increases in the risk of suicide during the affected periods. Remarkable increases were found in the subgroups matching each celebrity, especially in the group in which all factors (sex, age, and method) were similar. Conclusion This study provides confirmation that a significant copycat effect was induced by these celebrities' suicides, especially among people who identified more with the celebrities. This implies that countermeasures for upright media coverage of celebrity suicides should be discussed and practiced properly in South Korea. PMID:26766949

  1. Early results of pediatric appendicitis after adoption of diagnosis-related group-based payment system in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Suk-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose As an alternative to the existing fee-for-service (FFS) system, a diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based payment system has been suggested. The aim of this study was to investigate the early results of pediatric appendicitis treatment under the DRG system, focusing on health care expenditure and quality of health care services. Patients and methods The medical records of 60 patients, 30 patients before (FFS group), and 30 patients after adoption of the DRG system (DRG), were reviewed retrospectively. Results Mean hospital stay was shortened, but the complication and readmission rates did not worsen in the DRG. Overall health care expenditure and self-payment decreased from Korean Won (KRW) 2,499,935 and KRW 985,540, respectively, in the FFS group to KRW 2,386,552 and KRW 492,920, respectively, in the DRG. The insurer’s payment increased from KRW 1,514,395 in the FFS group to KRW 1,893,632 in the DRG. For patients in the DRG, calculation by the DRG system yielded greater overall expenditure (KRW 2,020,209 vs KRW 2,386,552) but lower self-payment (KRW 577,803 vs KRW 492,920) than calculation by the FFS system. Conclusion The DRG system worked well in pediatric patients with acute appendicitis in terms of cost-effectiveness over the short term. The gradual burden on the national health insurance fund should be taken into consideration. PMID:26648734

  2. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…

  3. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration

  4. Preliminary Report: Results of Computed Tracer Concentrations over Eastern China, South Korea, and Japan for 01 March to 30 May 2007 Daily Simulated Releases from Taiyuan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, P

    2007-08-07

    In order to prepare for a proposed long range tracer experiment in China for the spring of 2008 time period, NARAC computed hypothetical PMCH concentrations over Eastern China, South Korea and Japan for simulated releases from Taiyuan, China. Normalized 1 kg of PMCH source strength releases were made twice a day, with wind input from global forecast weather model. We used 6-hour analysis fields valid at the start of each model run, resulting in four wind fields per day. The selected domain encompassed the region of interest over eastern Asia and the Western Pacific. Screening runs were made for each day at 0000 and 1200 UTC from 01 April, 2007 through 29 May, 2007 for a total of 90 days and 180 cases. 24-hour average air concentrations were evaluated at 22 sample cities in the three regions of interest for each case. 15 sample cities were selected to help quantify modeling results for experiment objectives. Any case that resulted in model predicted air concentrations exceeding 2.0E-02 fL/L at a sample city in all three regions was then selected for a detailed model run with source times six hours before and after evaluated in addition to the case time. The detailed runs used the same wind fields and model domain, but 6-hour average air concentrations were generated and analyzed for the 15 sample cities. Each of the 180 cases were ranked subjectively, based on whether or not the model prediction indicated the possibility that a release on that date and time might achieve the long range experiment objectives. Ranks used are High, Good, Low, Poor, and Bad. Of the 180 cases run, NARAC dispersion models predicted 6 instances of High possibility, 8 cases of Good, 32 of Low, 74 of Poor, and 60 cases of Bad probability. Detailed model runs were made for all 14 High or Good probability cases, a total of only 7.8% of all analyzed. Based on the results of this study we have identified a few dates on which a release of a reasonable amount of PMCH tracer (on the order of 500 kg) might be detected in all three regions of interest. Weather patterns for the 15 cases which met experiment objectives should be studied to help identify future favorable times for the releases. Additionally, particularly bad weather patterns can also be evaluated as times for releases to be avoided.

  5. The use of complementary and alternative medicine in a general population in South Korea: results from a national survey in 2006.

    PubMed

    Ock, Sun Myeong; Choi, Jun Yeong; Cha, Young Soo; Lee, JungBok; Chun, Mi Son; Huh, Chang Hun; Lee, Soon Young; Lee, Sung Jae

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this survey was to obtain information on the prevalence, costs, and patterns of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a general population in the Republic of Korea. In 2006, we conducted nationwide and population-weighted personal interviews with 6,021 adults ranging from 30 to 69 yr of age; the final sample consisted of 3,000 people with a 49.8% response rate. In addition to their general socio-demographics, the respondents were asked about their use of CAM during the previous 12-month period, costs, sources of information, and reasons for use. The prevalence of use overall was 74.8%, while biologically based CAM therapies were the most likely type of use (65.4%). The median annual out-of-pocket expenditures for CAM therapies was about US$203. The primary reason for using CAM was for disease prevention and health promotion (78.8%). The main source of advice about CAM therapies use was most likely to be from family and friends (66.9%). Our study suggests that CAM use has been and continues to be very popular in South Korea. Conventional western medical doctors and governments should obtain more evidence and become more interested in CAM therapies. PMID:19270805

  6. Health Care Reform in South Korea: Success or Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2003-01-01

    South Korea is one of the world’s most rapidly industrializing countries. Along with industrialization has come universal health insurance. Within the span of 12 years, South Korea went from private voluntary health insurance to government-mandated universal coverage. Since 1997, with the intervention of the International Monetary Fund, Korean national health insurance (NHI) has experienced deficits and disruption. However, there are lessons to be drawn for the United States from the Korean NHI experience. PMID:12511383

  7. Optimal medical therapy for secondary prevention after an acute coronary syndrome: 18-month follow-up results at a tertiary teaching hospital in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Hee Ja; Yang, Young-Mo; Choi, Eun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a fatal cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerotic plaque erosion or rupture and formation of coronary thrombus. The latest guidelines for ACS recommend the combined drug regimen, comprising aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitor, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker, β-blocker, and statin, at discharge after ACS treatment to reduce recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events. This study aimed to examine prescription patterns of secondary prevention drugs in Korean patients with ACS after hospital discharge, to access the appropriateness of secondary prevention drug therapy for ACS, and to evaluate whether to persistently use discharge medications for 18 months. Methods This study was retrospectively conducted with the patients who were discharged from the tertiary hospital, located in South Korea, after ACS treatment between September 2009 and August 2013. Data were collected through electronic medical record. Results Among 3,676 patients during the study period, 494 were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The regimen of aspirin + clopidogrel + β-blocker + angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker + statin was prescribed to 374 (75.71%) patients with ACS at discharge. Specifically, this regimen was used in 177 (69.69%) unstable angina patients, 44 (70.97%) non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, and 153 (85.96%) ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients. Compared with the number of ACS patients with all five guideline-recommended drugs at discharge, the number of ACS patients using them 12 (n=169, 34.21%) and 18 (n=105, 21.26%) months after discharge tended to be gradually decreased. Conclusion The majority of ACS patients in this study received all five guideline-recommended medications at discharge from the hospital. However, the frequency of using all of them had been gradually decreased 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after discharge compared with that at discharge. Careful monitoring of adherence on ACS secondary prevention medications may help improve the outcomes of ACS patients in terms of recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events. PMID:26929629

  8. The characteristics of drought occurrence in North Korea and its comparison with drought in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea over a period of 56 years (1952-2007) were analyzed by region, compared with those of South Korea, and graphed as a drought map for easy detection of the drought's history. To assess them, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), which was calculated from the daily precipitation data for 109 grids of the Korean Peninsula, was used. The daily precipitation data were extracted from the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE). The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea were summed up in the following five points. First, North Korea was divided into four drought sub-regions: the Northeastern region (G1), the Northern region (G2), the Central region (G3), and the Southern region (G4). Second, droughts occurred most frequently in G1 (28) and G4 (28 events) and least frequently in G3 (15 events). Third, in all sub-regions, short-term droughts lasting less than 100 days were the most frequent (53 % or higher) and the longest drought lasted 2,911 days (June 30, 1973 to June 20, 1981), which occurred in G3. Fourth, short-term droughts occurred mainly in spring, mid-term droughts (100-500 days) in spring and summer, and long-term droughts (over 500 days) in summer. Fifth, a dry period (monthly mean EDI <0) appeared in all sub-regions between 1973 and 1981 and between 1990 and 1993, and a strong negative precipitation anomaly appeared during each of these periods. When compared to the droughts in South Korea, those in North Korea were less frequent, but the mean duration was longer. Until 1979, droughts occurred almost at the same time in North Korea as South Korea, but beginning in 1980, the time differences between two regions became larger. Thus, the characteristics of the drought occurrence in North and South Korea differ.

  9. Revisiting the Role of Cultural Capital in East Asian Educational Systems: The Case of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Soo-yong; Schofer, Evan; Kim, Kyung-keun

    2013-01-01

    The concept of cultural capital has proved invaluable in understanding educational systems in Western countries, and recent work seeks to extend those insights to the diverse educational systems of other geographic regions. We explored cultural capital in South Korea by investigating the relationships among family socioeconomic status (SES), cultural capital, and children's academic achievement using data from the 2000 Programme for International Student Assessment. South Korea was compared with Japan, France, and the United States to understand how institutional features of South Korean education shape the role of cultural capital in academic success. Results showed that family SES had a positive effect on both parental objectified cultural capital and children's embodied cultural capital in South Korea, consistent with evidence from the other countries. Moreover, parental objectified cultural capital had a positive effect on children's academic achievement in South Korea. In contrast to other countries, however, children's embodied cultural capital had a negative effect on academic achievement in South Korea controlling for the other variables. We highlighted several institutional features of South Korean education including a standardized curriculum, extreme focus on test preparation, and extensive shadow education, which may combine to suppress the effect of children's embodied cultural capital on academic achievement. PMID:24285909

  10. Paths toward hepatitis B immunization in South Korea and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    South Korea and Taiwan have had similar experiences of economic development in the post-war era. The two societies have also successfully overcome the threat of liver cancer by using mass hepatitis B vaccinations. However, to reach their current states, they followed different directions, and experienced differing effects on their national health governance systems. In South Korea, vaccine production occurred prior to effectively introducing immunization programs. In contrast, Taiwan established an effective immunization program first. However, industrialization of vaccines against hepatitis B has failed. Taiwan has to import vaccines for domestic use. This article provides a contextual overview on the different methods South Korea and Taiwan have used to arrive at their modern status of hepatitis B immunization. PMID:23858397

  11. Lichen Mycota in South Korea: The Genus Usnea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin; Cri?an, Florin

    2013-01-01

    Usnea Adans. is a somewhat rare lichen in South Korea, and, in nearly two decades, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study has been conducted. This study was based on the specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute, and the samples were identified using information obtained from recent literature. In this study, a total of eight species of Usnea, including one new record, Usnea hakonensis Asahina, are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics are provided. A key to all known Usnea species in South Korea is also presented. PMID:24198666

  12. Variations in Spike Glycoprotein Gene of MERS-CoV, South Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, You-Jin; Park, Sung Han; Yun, Mi-Ran; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kang, Hae Ji; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Han Saem; Man Kim, Heui; Kim, Hak; Kim, A-Reum; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Su Jin; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Deokbum; Kim, Joo Ae; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Kisoon

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of nosocomial infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus occurred in South Korea in May 2015. Spike glycoprotein genes of virus strains from South Korea were closely related to those of strains from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. However, virus strains from South Korea showed strain-specific variations. PMID:26691200

  13. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life

  14. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  15. High resolution mapping of flood hazard for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sourima; Nzerem, Kechi; Zovi, Francesco; Li, Shuangcai; Mei, Yi; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Hilberts, Arno; Tillmanns, Stephan; Mitas, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Floods are one of primary natural hazards that affect South Korea. During the past 15 years, catastrophic flood events which mainly have occurred during the rainy and typhoon seasons - especially under condition where soils are already saturated, have triggered substantial property damage with an average annual loss of around US1.2 billion (determined from WAter Management Information System's flood damage database for years 2002-2011) in South Korea. According to Seoul Metropolitan Government, over 16,000 households in the capital city Seoul were inundated during 2010 flood events. More than 10,000 households in Seoul were apparently flooded during one major flood event due to torrential rain in July 2011. Recently in August 2014, a serious flood event due to heavy rainfall hit the Busan region in the south east of South Korea. Addressing the growing needs, RMS has recently released country-wide high resolution combined flood return period maps for post-drainage local "pluvial" inundation and undefended large-scale "fluvial" inundation to aid the government and the insurance industry in the evaluation of comprehensive flood risk. RMS has developed a flood hazard model for South Korea to generate inundation depths and extents for a range of flood return periods. The model is initiated with 30 years of historical meteorological forcing data and calibrated to daily observations at over 100 river gauges across the country. Simulations of hydrologic processes are subsequently performed based on a 2000 year set of stochastic forcing. Floodplain inundation processes are modelled by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. Taking into account the existing stormwater drainage standards, economic exposure densities, etc., reasonable flood maps are created from inundation model output. Final hazard maps at one arcsec grid resolution can be the basis for both evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood losses in South Korea.

  16. Prevalence of Eye Diseases in South Korea: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyung-Chul; Mun, Gui-Hyeong; Kim, Sang-Duck; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, Ki Ho; Park, Young Jeung; Baek, Seung-Hee; Song, Su Jeong; Shin, Jae Pil; Yang, Suk-Woo; Yu, Seung-Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Lim, Key Hwan; Park, Hye-Jin; Pyo, Eun-Young; Yang, Ji-Eun; Kim, Young-Taek

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to report on preliminary data regarding the prevalence of major eye diseases in Korea. Methods We obtained data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey and examinations of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea (n = 14,606), conducted from July 2008 to December 2009. Field survey teams included an ophthalmologist, nurses, and interviewers, traveled with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and ophthalmologic examinations. Results The prevalence of visual impairment, myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism in participants over 5 years of age was 0.4 0.1%, 53.7 0.6%, 10.7 0.4%, and 58.0 0.6%, respectively. The prevalence of strabismus and blepharoptosis in participants over 3 years of age was 1.5 0.1% and 11.0 0.8%, respectively. In participants over 40 years of age, the prevalence of cataract, pterygium, early and late age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma was 40.2 1.3%, 8.9 0.5%, 5.1 0.3%, 0.5 0.1%, 13.4 1.5%, and 2.1 0.2%, respectively. Conclusions This is the first nation-wide epidemiologic study conducted in South Korea for assessment of the prevalence of eye diseases by both the Korean Ophthalmologic Society and the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. This study will provide preliminary information for use in further investigation, prevention, and management of eye diseases in Korea. PMID:22131780

  17. Stakeholders' Views of South Korea's Higher Education Internationalization Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Young Ha; Palmer, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the stakeholders' perceptions of South Korea's higher education internationalization policy. Based on the research framework that defines four policy values--propriety, effectiveness, diversity, and engagement, the convergence model was employed with a concurrent mixed method sampling strategy to analyze the stakeholders'

  18. School Choice and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Park, Hyunjoon

    2012-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of eleventh grade students in South Korea, we investigated how the residentially based school assignment policy called the High School Equalization Policy (HSEP) shaped the separation of low and high socioeconomic status (SES) students between schools. We found that there was a smaller between-school

  19. Reconceptualizing Kindergarten Education in South Korea: A Postcolonial Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the relevance of postcolonialism in early childhood education, with special reference to the kindergarten education system of South Korea. Most of the research on Korean kindergarten education has conceptualized it as preparing children for their later schooling and helping them learn the moral and social values most desired

  20. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 3 Persons, South Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jeong-Sun; Park, SungHan; Kim, You-Jin; Kang, Hae Ji; Kim, Hak; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Han Saem; Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, A-Reum; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Joo Ae; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Jung, Hee-Dong; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Kim, Kisoon; Lee, Joo-Shil

    2015-01-01

    In May 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection was laboratory confirmed in South Korea. Patients were a man who had visited the Middle East, his wife, and a man who shared a hospital room with the index patient. Rapid laboratory confirmation will facilitate subsequent prevention and control for imported cases. PMID:26488745

  1. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries

  2. International Physics Olympiad Competition 2004 in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawson, Robert; Lovett, David

    2005-02-01

    A British team attended the 35th International Physics Olympiad in South Korea. In the competition, a team of five, along with candidates from over 70 other nations, answered five-hour theoretical and experimental papers. In addition the candidates, together with their leaders and observers, were able to attend an extensive scientific, cultural and social programme.

  3. Issues in Early Childhood Teacher Preparation in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Eunhye Park

    1996-01-01

    Describes early childhood teacher preparation in South Korea, including types of available child care facilities; teacher training programs at two- and four-year colleges; three types of inservice education available (certificate renewal, supervisory, and general knowledge updates); and emerging issues in teacher education (problems with

  4. Molecular Diagnosis of Cause of Anisakiasis in Humans, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyemi; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Yooyen, Thanapon; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Anisakiasis in humans in South Korea has been considered to be caused exclusively by the larvae of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Pseudoterranova decipiens. Recently, however, DNA sequencing of larvae from 15 of 16 anisakiasis patients confirmed the cause to be Anisakis pegreffii infection. Molecular analysis should be performed for all extracted larvae. PMID:25625427

  5. Molecular diagnosis of cause of anisakiasis in humans, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyemi; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Yooyen, Thanapon; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-02-01

    Anisakiasis in humans in South Korea has been considered to be caused exclusively by the larvae of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Pseudoterranova decipiens. Recently, however, DNA sequencing of larvae from 15 of 16 anisakiasis patients confirmed the cause to be Anisakis pegreffii infection. Molecular analysis should be performed for all extracted larvae. PMID:25625427

  6. The Determinants of Demand for Private Tutoring in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Ha; Park, Daekwon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the determinants of the demand for private tutoring (PT) in South Korea, especially focusing on the effectiveness of governmental regulations regarding the operating hours of cram schools in decreasing expenditure on PT. Survey data from 3,605 parents of 12th grade students were collected from 45 proportionally stratified

  7. Shock: South Korea wins Battle of nuclear titans

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-15

    A South Korean consortium won the contract to build and operate four nuclear power plants in Abu Dhabi valued at $20.4 billion. The deal was significant since it is the first major nuclear contract of its kind awarded in the rapidly growing Persian Gulf region, and signals the rise of Korea as an exporter of nuclear know-how.

  8. Conflicting Discourses on Content Reduction in South Korea's National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Kyunghee; Kang, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the discourses on content reduction of South Korea's national curriculum shaped by policymakers and subject specialists, as well as compares the two discourses to uncover the differences between the two. For this purpose, the paper collected academic articles that discuss the issue of content reduction from the past thirty…

  9. School Choice and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Park, Hyunjoon

    2012-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of eleventh grade students in South Korea, we investigated how the residentially based school assignment policy called the High School Equalization Policy (HSEP) shaped the separation of low and high socioeconomic status (SES) students between schools. We found that there was a smaller between-school…

  10. Reconceptualizing Kindergarten Education in South Korea: A Postcolonial Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the relevance of postcolonialism in early childhood education, with special reference to the kindergarten education system of South Korea. Most of the research on Korean kindergarten education has conceptualized it as preparing children for their later schooling and helping them learn the moral and social values most desired…

  11. Profiles of School Administrators in South Korea: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Songmi; Kim, Eugene P.

    2005-01-01

    Research literature considering school administrators in South Korea is disappointingly sparse. A central focus of this article is to investigate vital descriptors of Korean school administrators, including demographic profiles, entry perspectives, pre-service and in-service training and career commitment. Secondarily, the findings are compared to

  12. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  13. Enterovirus 71 Infection with Central Nervous System Involvement, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kang, Byunghak; Hong, Jiyoung; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Ahyoun; Kim, Jonghyun

    2010-01-01

    We assessed neurologic sequelae associated with an enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreak in South Korea during 2009. Four of 94 patients had high signal intensities at brainstem or cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging. Two patients died of cardiopulmonary collapse; 2 had severe neurologic sequelae. Severity and case-fatality rates may differ by EV71 genotype or subgenotype. PMID:21029539

  14. Fluorine geochemistry in bedrock groundwater of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Seong-Yong; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kangjoo; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2007-10-15

    High fluoride concentrations (median=4.4 mg/L) in deep bedrock groundwater of South Korea prevent the usage of it as a drinking water source. The hydrogeochemistry of deep thermal groundwaters (N=377) in diverse bedrocks has been studied in order to evaluate the geologic and geochemical controls on fluoride concentrations in groundwater. The groundwater samples were clustered geologically, and the average and median concentrations of fluoride were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. The order of median fluoride concentration with respect to geology is as follows: metamorphic rocks> or =granitoids > or =complex rock>volcanic rocks> or =sedimentary rocks. This result indicates that the geological source of fluoride in groundwater is related to the mineral composition of metamorphic rocks and granitoids. With respect to groundwater chemistry, the fluoride concentration was highest in Na-HCO3 type groundwater and lowest in Ca-HCO3 type groundwater. Ionic relationships also imply that the geochemical behavior of fluoride in groundwater is related to the geochemical process releasing Na and removing Ca ions. The thermodynamic relationship between the activities of Ca and F indicates that fluoride concentration is controlled by the equilibrium of fluorite (CaF2). In other words, the upper limits of fluoride concentration are determined by the Ca ion; i.e., Ca concentrations play a crucial role in fluoride behavior in deep thermal groundwater. The result of this study suggests that the high fluoride in groundwater originates from geological sources and fluoride can be removed by fluorite precipitation when high Ca concentration is maintained. This provides a basis for a proper management plan to develop the deep thermal groundwater and for treatment of high fluoride groundwater frequently found in South Korea. PMID:17655916

  15. Urbanization of Scrub Typhus Disease in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Won; Ha, Na-Young; Ryu, Boyeong; Bang, Ji Hwan; Song, Hoyeon; Kim, Yuri; Kim, Gwanghun; Oh, Myoung-don; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Lee, Jong-koo

    2015-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is an endemic disease in Asia. It has been a rural disease, but indigenous urban cases have been observed in Seoul, South Korea. Urban scrub typhus may have a significant impact because of the large population. Methods Indigenous urban scrub typhus was epidemiologically identified in Seoul, the largest metropolitan city in South Korea, using national notifiable disease data from 2010 to 2013. For detailed analysis of clinical features, patients from one hospital that reported the majority of cases were selected and compared to a historic control group. Chigger mites were prospectively collected in the city using a direct chigger mite-collecting trap, and identified using both phenotypic and 18S rDNA sequencing analyses. Their infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi was confirmed by sequencing the 56-kDa antigen gene. Results Eighty-eight cases of urban scrub typhus were determined in Seoul. The possible sites of infection were mountainous areas (56.8%), city parks (20.5%), the vicinity of ones own residence (17.0%), and riversides (5.7%). Eighty-seven chigger mites were collected in Gwanak mountain, one of the suspected infection sites in southern Seoul, and seventy-six (87.4%) of them were identified as Helenicula miyagawai and eight (9.2%) as Leptotrombidium scutellare. Pooled DNA extracted from H. miyagawai mites yielded O. tsutsugamushi Boryong strain. Twenty-six patients from one hospital showed low APACHE II score (3.4 2.7), low complication rate (3.8%), and no hypokalemia. Conclusions We identified the presence of indigenous urban scrub typhus in Seoul, and a subgroup of them had mild clinical features. The chigger mite H. miyagawai infected with O. tsutsugamushi within the city was found. In endemic area, urban scrub typhus needs to be considered as one of the differential febrile diseases and a target for prevention. PMID:26000454

  16. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Myung, Woojae; Lee, Geung-Hee; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects. PMID:26035175

  17. Paraquat Prohibition and Change in the Suicide Rate and Methods in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects. PMID:26035175

  18. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea... orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and... from Allegheny Ludlum Corporation, North American Stainless and the United Steel, Paper and...

  19. South Korea's renewed focus on space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byung-Ho

    2011-10-01

    Nearly 1000 years before European scientists David Fabricius and Galileo Galilei made historic observations of sunspots, royal astronomers in Korea were recording their observations of blemishes on the Sun. Sunspot records appeared as early as 640 C.E. in Korea [Yang et al., 1998], and records with statistically significant populations of data have been available since 1105 C.E. during the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392). The records are quite meticulous. For example, one entry dated 1151 in the annals of the Goryeo dynasty says, "There is a black spot in the sun as large as an egg" (Goryeo-Sa, 1451). At that time, sunspots were categorized according to size: plum, egg, peach, or pear. In Goryeo-Sa, various celestial phenomena such as solar eclipses, comets, novae, meteors, etc., were also recorded. Along with sunspots, aurorae were carefully described in several Korean chronicles, including Goryeo-Sa. Descriptions of aurorae, commonly referred to as "red energy," include their color, shape, motion, and distribution. For example, a description written in 1770 reads, "It spread across the sky like a piece of silk cloth and then dispersed" [Chanjipcheong, 1908; Park, 2008]. Applying a power spectrum analysis technique to all sunspot and aurora records during the Goryeo dynasty, Yang et al. [1998] and Lee et al. [2005] have shown 10.5-year and 97-year cycles for the sunspot records and 10-year and 87-year cycles for the aurora records.

  20. Using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and Adjustment among Interethnic and Interracial Families in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Yoo, Joan P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a model of using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and adjustment among foreign brides and their interethnic and interracial families in South Korea based on the narratives of 10 foreign brides married to Korean men and 11 service providers who directly interact with these women and their families. The results

  1. The Economic Value of Career Counseling Services for College Students in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Bo Young; Lee, Ji Hee; Kim, Areum; Kim, Boram; Cho, Daeyeon; Lee, Sang Min

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated college students' perception of the monetary value of career counseling services by using the contingent valuation method. The results of a multivariate survival analysis based on interviews with a convenience sample of 291 undergraduate students in South Korea indicate that, on average, participants' expressed willingness…

  2. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the

  3. The Economic Value of Career Counseling Services for College Students in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Bo Young; Lee, Ji Hee; Kim, Areum; Kim, Boram; Cho, Daeyeon; Lee, Sang Min

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated college students' perception of the monetary value of career counseling services by using the contingent valuation method. The results of a multivariate survival analysis based on interviews with a convenience sample of 291 undergraduate students in South Korea indicate that, on average, participants' expressed willingness

  4. Detection of Aichi virus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Tae-Hee; Park, Sang Hun; Hwang, Eung-Soo; Reuter, Gabor; Chung, Ju-Young

    2014-07-01

    Aichi virus (AiV) is considered to be a possible etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis (GE). We analyzed 1,568 stool samples collected by the Seoul Metropolitan Health Research Center from patients with GE during outbreaks in Seoul, together with 378 archived common-enteric-virus-negative stool samples from children with GE hospitalized at a tertiary hospital in Seoul. AiV was detected in 1.7 % (27/1,568) of the first group but not found in the second group (0 %, 0/378). Genotypes A and B of AiV were both detected in this study. This is the first study confirming the circulation of AiV in Korea. PMID:24510169

  5. Prevalence of Otolaryngologic Diseases in South Korea: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yang-Sun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Park, Kyoung Ho; Park, Hong Ju; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Moon, Il Joon; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Sun, Dong-Il; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koo, Ja-Won; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Kun Hee; Lee, Seung Won; Oh, Kyung Won; Pyo, Eun Young; Lee, Ari

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases in Korea. Methods We obtained data from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which were cross-sectional surveys of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n=4,930). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist, nurses, and interviewers moved with a mobile examination unit and performed otolaryngologic interviews and physical examinations. Results The prevalence of subjective hearing loss, tinnitus, preauricular fistua, tympanic membrane perforation, and cholesteatoma were 11.97%, 20.27%, 2.08%, 1.60%, and 1.18%, respectively. Dizziness and vestibular dysfunction were common among Korean adults, since 23.33% of the participants reported symptoms of dizziness or imbalance, and the prevalence of vestibular dysfunction was 3.86%. The prevalence of nasal diseases was relatively high, as the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and a deviated nasal septum were 28.01%, 7.12%, and 42.94%, respectively. Subjective dysphonia was found in 6.60% of the participants, and the prevalence of subjective dysphonia increased with age. Conclusion This is the first nation-wide epidemiologic study to assess the prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases by both the Korean Otolaryngologic Society and the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Considering the high prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases in Korea, the results call for additional studies to better prevent and manage otolaryngologic diseases. PMID:21217958

  6. Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides. PMID:24959760

  7. Is precarious employment damaging to self-rated health? Results of propensity score matching methods, using longitudinal data in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Chang-Yup; Park, Jin-Kyung; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2008-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the health effects of precarious employment based on a counterfactual framework, using the Korea Labor and Income Panel Survey data. At the 4th wave (2001), information was obtained on 1991 male and 1378 female waged workers. Precarious work was defined on the basis of workers employed on a temporary or daily basis, part-time, or in a contingent (fixed short-term) job. The outcome was self-rated health with five response categories. Confounding factors included age, marital status, education, industry and occupation of current employment, household income, residential area, and prior health status. Propensity scores for each individual to be a precarious worker were calculated from logistic models including those covariates, and based on them, precarious workers were matched to non-precarious workers. Then, we examined the effects of precarious employment on health and explored the potential intermediary variables, using ordered logistic Generalized Estimating Equations models. All analyses were performed separately by gender. Precarious workers were found to be in a lower socioeconomic position and to have worse health status. Univariate matched analyses showed that precarious employment was associated with worse health in both men and women. By further controlling for socio-demographic covariates, the odds ratios were attenuated but remained significant. Job satisfaction, especially as related to job insecurity, and monthly wage further attenuated the effects. This suggests that to improve health status of precarious workers in Korea, policy strategies need to tackle the channeling of the socially disadvantaged into precarious jobs. Also, regulations to eliminate discrimination against precarious workers in working conditions or material reward should be introduced and enforced. There is no doubt that job insecurity, which is pervasive among workers in Korea, should be minimized by suspending market-oriented labor policies which rely on quantitative flexibility. PMID:18951671

  8. Complete genome sequence of a porcine astrovirus from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhee; Jang, Guehwan; Lee, Changhee

    2015-07-01

    Porcine astrovirus (PAstV) is broadly distributed in pigs in several countries worldwide. PAstVs belong to the genus Mamastrovirus and are divided into five genetically divergent types. This study presents a molecular characterization of PAstV identified in diarrheic piglets in South Korea. The complete genome of the Korean PAstV strain KOR/KNU14-07/2014 was sequenced and analyzed to characterize PAstV circulating in South Korea. The full-length genomic sequence of KNU14-07 was determined to be 6,337 nucleotides in length and consisted of three major open reading frames (5'-ORF1a-ORF1b-ORF2-3'). The overall degree of nucleotide sequence identity was 40.8 to 72.5% between KUN14-07 and other reported PAstVs, indicating high heterogeneity among PAstVs. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that the KNU14-07 strain was most closely related to the PAstV2 lineage, which is the second most common type in South Korea. PMID:25916612

  9. Economic burden of schizophrenia in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sung Man; Cho, Seong-Jin; Jeon, Hong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Hyo Jung; Park, Jong-Ik; Cho, Maeng Je

    2008-04-01

    This study estimates the treated prevalence of schizophrenia and the annual costs associated with the illness in Korea in 2005, from a societal perspective. Annual direct healthcare costs associated with schizophrenia were estimated from National Health Insurance and Medical Aid records. Annual direct non-healthcare costs were estimated for incarceration, transport, community mental health centers, and institutions related to schizophrenia. Annual indirect costs were estimated for the following components of productivity loss due to illness: unemployment, reduced productivity, premature mortality, and caregivers' productivity loss using a human capital approach based on market wages. All costs were adjusted to 2005 levels using the healthcare component of the Consumer Price Index. The treated prevalence of schizophrenia in 2005 was 0.4% of the Korean population. The overall cost of schizophrenia was estimated to be $ 3,174.8 million (3,251.0 billion Won), which included a direct healthcare cost of $ 418.7 million (428.6 billion Won). Total direct non-healthcare costs were estimated to be $ 121 million (123.9 billion Won), and total indirect costs were estimated at $ 2,635.1 million (2,698.3 billion Won). Unemployment was identified as the largest component of overall cost. These findings demonstrate that schizophrenia is not rare, and that represents a substantial economic burden. PMID:18436996

  10. Imported Melioidosis in South Korea: A Case Series with a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Woo; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Kim, Bongyoung; Kwon, Donghyok; Shin, Jaeseung; Bae, Geun-Ryang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Melioidosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the environmental anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is endemic to areas of northern Australia and Southeast Asia. With increasing international travel and migration, imported cases of melioidosis are being reported regularly. Here, we summarize the 11 cases of melioidosis reported in South Korea from 2003 to 2014. Methods Tracing epidemiological investigations were performed on every patient reported to the National Surveillance System since 2011. A systematic literature search was performed to identify melioidosis cases that occurred prior to 2011. Results The overall fatality rate was 36.4%. All the patients had visited Southeast Asia where melioidosis is endemic. The stay in the endemic region ranged from 4 days to 20 years. Of the seven patients who developed initial symptoms after returning to South Korea, the time interval between returning to South Korea and symptom onset ranged from 1 day to 3 years. The remaining four patients developed symptoms during their stay in the endemic region and were diagnosed with melioidosis in South Korea. Seven (63.6%) patients possessed at least one risk factor, all of whom were diabetic. Pneumonia was the most frequent clinical manifestation, but the patients showed a wide spectrum of clinical features, including internal organ abscesses, a mycotic aneurysm of the aorta, and coinfection with tuberculosis. Conclusion An early diagnosis and initiation of the appropriate antibiotics can reduce the mortality of melioidosis. Consequently, increased awareness of the risk factors and clinical features of melioidosis is required. PMID:26835246

  11. Estimating the burden of foodborne disease, South Korea, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Myoung Su; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Soon Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Park, Ki Hwan; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2015-03-01

    Estimating the actual occurrence of foodborne illness is challenging because only a small proportion of foodborne illnesses are confirmed and reported. Many studies have attempted to accurately estimate the overall number of cases of foodborne illness, but none have attempted to estimate the burden of foodborne disease in South Korea. This study used data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA), a public health surveillance system in South Korea, to calculate the number of cases and hospitalizations due to 18 specific pathogens and unspecified agents commonly transmitted through contaminated food between 2008 and 2012 in South Korea while accounting for uncertainty in the estimate. The estimated annual occurrences of foodborne illness were 336,138 (90% credible interval [CrI]: 258,379-430,740), with inpatient stays (hospitalizations), outpatient visits (foodborne disease infections), and patients' experiences (without visiting physicians) accounting for 2.3% (n=7809 [90% CrI: 7016-8616]), 14.4% (n=48,267 [90% CrI: 45,883-50,695]) and 83.3% (n=280,062 [90% CrI: 201,795-374,091]), respectively. Escherichia coli, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli, caused most illnesses, followed by nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, hepatitis A virus, and norovirus. These results will be useful to food safety policymakers for the prevention and control of foodborne pathogens in South Korea. PMID:25622301

  12. Acculturation and changes in dietary behavior and anthropometric measures among Chinese international students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jounghee; Gao, Ran-Ran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES International students face dissimilar food environments, which could lead to changes in dietary behaviors and anthropometric characteristics between before and after migration. We sought to examine the risk factors, including dietary behaviors, acculturation, and demographic characteristics, related to overweight subjects residing in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study, collecting data from 142 Chinese international students (63 males, 79 females) in 2013. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 25.4 years, and almost half of them immigrated to South Korea to earn a master's degree or doctoral degree (n = 70, 49.3%). Chinese international students showed an increase in skipping meals and eating speed, but a decrease in the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption in South Korea compared to when they lived in China. We found a statistically significant increase in weight (69.4 → 73.9 kg) and BMI (22.4 → 23.8 kg/m2) for male subjects (P < 0.001) but no change for female subjects. We also found that overweight subjects were more likely to be highly acculturated and male compared with normal-weight subjects. CONCLUSION Among Chinese international students living in South Korea, male and more highly acculturated subjects are more vulnerable to weight gain. This study provides useful information to design tailored nutrition intervention programs for Chinese international students. PMID:26060543

  13. Assessment of transboundary ozone contribution toward South Korea using multiple source-receptor modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Chul; Lee, Jong-Jae; Bae, Chang Han; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Soontae; Chang, Lim-Seok; Ban, Soo-Jin; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Jongchoon; Woo, Jung-Hun

    2014-08-01

    Ozone concentrations in East Asia were simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, and its source contributions were estimated by multiple source-receptor modeling techniques. To study relationships between ozone concentrations and precursor emission sources, three approaches were applied to four months (January, April, July, and October 2009) to represent seasonal characteristics and compare results, with a particular focus on South Korea. Brute force (BF) is a traditional sensitivity analysis method used to estimate model output response to an input change. The high-order decoupled direct method (HDDM), a computational method, is an efficient and accurate alternative to the BF method for sensitivity. The Ozone and Particulate Precursor Tagging Methodology (OPTM) provides contribution information quantified by tracking emissions from selected sources throughout the simulation period. The approaches generally show that most of the receptor regions were substantially influenced by emissions from central China, which is the largest anthropogenic emissions source region in East Asia. Local emissions were still major contributors, especially South Korea and Japan during July 2009. On the other hand, a case study of maximum 8-h ozone concentrations derived from CMAQ-OPTM on April 9 in South Korea shows that the NOx and VOCs emissions from China contributed approximately 82% and 91%, respectively, to maximum 8-h ozone in Region 4 (South Korea) without boundary inflow, which indicates that Chinese emissions are the dominant contributor in this episode. A comparison study of the three approaches shows that HDDM tends to estimate biogenic source contributions lower than that from OPTM in China but similar to OPTM in South Korea and Japan. When comparing the BF method and HDDM, the sensitivity results show a reasonably good agreement during a given period. The location- and time-dependent maximum 8-h ozone isopleths over South Korea as a receptor region created by HDDM suggest that most ozone was being transported from central China, whereas almost no ozone was formed locally during April 2009, and local conditions were heavily VOC limited. On the other hand, local emissions were the dominant contributor during July 2009, and every source region showed a NOx-limited regime, which indicates that ozone concentrations in South Korea strongly depend on NOx emissions during this month.

  14. The Psychological Problems of North Korean Adolescent Refugees Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Mun; Shin, Ok Ja

    2012-01-01

    Objective As the number of North Korean adolescent refugees drastically increased in South Korea, there is a growing interest in them. Our study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods The subjects of this study were 102 North Korean adolescent refugees in Hangyeore middle and high School, the public educational institution for the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea, and 766 general adolescents in the same region. The Korean version of Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL) standardized in South Korea was employed as the mental health evaluation tool. Results The adolescent refugees group showed a significantly different score with that of the normal control group in the K-CBCL subscales for sociality (t=29.67, p=0.000), academic performance (t=17.79, p=0.000), total social function (t=35.52, p=0.000), social withdrawal (t=18.01, p=0.000), somatic symptoms (t=28.85, p=0.000), depression/anxiety (t=13.08, p=0.000), thought problems (t=6.24, p=0.013), attention problems (t=4.14, p=0.042), internalized problems (t=26.54, p=0.000) and total problems (t=5.23, p=0.022). Conclusion The mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees was severe particularly in internalized problems when compared with that of the general adolescents in South Korea. This result indicates the need for interest in not only the behavior of the North Korean adolescent refugees but also their emotional problem. PMID:22993519

  15. Learning through Working: A Case Study of Chinese College Students in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Minyoung; Chang, Wonsup

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to provide an understanding of the work experience of Chinese college students in South Korea. A growing number of Chinese students are coming to South Korea for college education, and their aspirations for better work materialize into work experiences in South Korean businesses. In-depth interviews were

  16. Learning through Working: A Case Study of Chinese College Students in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Minyoung; Chang, Wonsup

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to provide an understanding of the work experience of Chinese college students in South Korea. A growing number of Chinese students are coming to South Korea for college education, and their aspirations for better work materialize into work experiences in South Korean businesses. In-depth interviews were…

  17. Preliminary Results from the Measurement of Ozone(O3) and Carbon monoxide(CO) at Gosan, Jeju, South Korea for understanding emissions in Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, K.; Kim, J.; Park, M.; Li, S.; Kim, K.

    2010-12-01

    Ozone(O) and carbon monoxide(CO) are emitted from various anthropogenic activities including fossil fuel combustion, and are known to have harmful effects on human health and biological production in troposphere. Emissions of O and CO are of special interest, since large emissions of these compounds are expected from the industrial activities in this region. Along with the rapid urbanization and industrialization processes, the emissions of O and CO precursors have significantly increased in this region. consequently, serious regional-scale near-ground high O levels have been recorded in this region(Ding et al., 2008; Li et al., 2007). In this study we attempt to understand the various emission sources and strengths of O and CO in the Northeast Asia through near-continuous high precision measurements at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea. Gosan is an ideal location for monitoring emissions from China, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, due to its coastal background location and minimal effects from local pollution. One important topic of interests is in the O-CO ratios observed in the measurements. Various regions are expected to show different O-CO ratios, associated with their sources and emission strengths of O and CO. Combined with back-trajectory analys of air masses arriving at Gosan, the O-CO ratio could provide important clues to better understanding the emissions of these species in the Northeast Asia. Measurements in our study are performed using APMA-370(CO - Horiba, Japan), TEI(O - TEI, U.S.A), modified for increased precisions and automated operations. For the APMA-370, improvements such as precision pressure control of input sample and moisture removal helped meet the ±2ppb precisions recommended by WMO when 20-min averages are used.

  18. Real-time GPS Ionospheric TEC Estimation over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Kyu; Yoo, Sung-Moon; Roh, Kyoung-Min; Lee, Sang-Jeong

    2013-09-01

    Ionosphere is one of the largest error sources when the navigational signals produced by Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are transmitted. Therefore it is very important to estimate total electron contents (TEC) in ionosphere precisely for navigation, precise positioning and some other applications. When we provide ionospheric TEC values in real-time, its application can be expanded to other areas. In this study we have used data obtained from nine Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reference stations which have been operated by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) to detect ionospheric TEC over South Korea in real-time. We performed data processing that covers converting 1Hz raw data delivered from GNSS reference stations to Receiver INdependent Exchange (RINEX) format files at intervals of 5 minutes. We also analyzed the elevation angles of GPS satellites, vertical TEC (VTEC) values and their changes.

  19. Time for Change: The State of Emergency Medical Services in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Im, Mark; Suh, Gil-Joon

    2006-01-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death among people younger than 40 years of age in South Korea. This demographic represents the productive members of Korean society, yet little is being done to correct this growing problem. The preventable death rate in Korea is estimated to be approximately 60%, which is unacceptable given Korea's growing economy and available resources. PMID:16941753

  20. The impact of land surface condition and wind on Asian dust over the south Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Lee, S.; Lee, E.

    2013-12-01

    Dust storms frequently occur in northeast Asia during springtime. Soil wetness and wind are important controls on dust activities. Regional studies suggest that land-surface characteristics, such as the nature of the vegetation cover and soil moisture are important controls on dust emission (Wyatt and Nicking, 1997; Gillette, 1999). Vegetation is considered to be one of the main factors affecting dust emission and dust storm occurrence. Higher vegetation cover results in higher surface roughness length and less dust emission, thereby reducing dust storm occurrence. This study was investigated the occurrence day of the Asian dust in the South Korea and the relationship between climate factors and the Asian dust days in the South Korea. This study was used the monthly NDVI, PDSI, soil moisture, precipitation, ?-wind, u-wind, and v-wind. The source regions of the Asian dust over the South Korea are divided Gobi, Inner-Mongolia, and Loess plateau. The relationship between Asian dust days of Korea and land surface conditions of the source regions was no significant. The wind is more important than land surface conditions.

  1. Baseline study on essential and trace elements in polished rice from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Myung Chae; Yun, Seong-Taek; Lee, Jin-Soo; Lee, Jong-Un

    2005-09-01

    In 2000, 63 (polished) white rice samples were collected in eight administrative areas all over South Korea and analyzed for 16 elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Potassium had the highest content, next to Mg, Ca, Si, Zn, Na, Al and Fe. Most of the samples contained worldwide average concentrations of essential and trace elements in rice grains reported by various researches. For inter-area differences in those elements in the rice, the statistical analysis showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the eight administrative areas, suggesting that inter-area differences were not substantial in most cases. Thus, the present data can be used as national background levels of elements in rice produced in South Korea. Using the published data on daily consumption of rice in South Korea, it was possible to estimate the daily intake of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn via rice. The results showed that a regular consumption of rice produced in Korea plays an important role in accumulation of essential and trace elements in Korean, especially for farm-households consuming relatively large amounts of rice. PMID:16237601

  2. Stigma of Mental Illnesses as Perceived by North Korean Defectors Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Song, In-Gyu; Bae, Jae-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to provide the information of the stigmas of mental illness such as psychosis, alcoholism, attempt suicide, and depression among North Korean defectors. Methods We examined stigma for the mental illnesses of 639 North Korean defectors aged 19 to 65 years who live in the Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees. The stigmas of mental illnesses were assessed using the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale We directly compared the stigma level between North Korean defectors and the general population of South Korea. Results North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Perceived stigma associated with attempted suicide was similar for North Korean defectors and South Koreans. Only marital status in sociodemographic variables had associations with higher perceived stigma of psychosis, alcoholism, and depression in the North Korean defectors. North Korean defectors, who spent more than one year in transit country, had associations with lower perceived stigma of psychosis and alcoholism. North Korean defectors, who had the experience of compulsory repatriation to North Korea or North Korean family in South Korea, had an association with higher perceived stigma of depression. Conclusion North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Further studies are needed to document serial changes in stigmas for mental illnesses associated with the receipt of education at the Settlement Support Center for North Korean defectors. PMID:25670940

  3. A Study of Mental Health Literacy Among North Korean Refugees in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Methods: Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. Results: The North Korean refugees’ mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. Conclusions: This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees’ mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future. PMID:25652712

  4. Diversity and spatial distribution of surname structure in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Okyu; Son, Woo-Sik

    2015-11-01

    We studied the population structure of South Korea by using the distributions of surnames for all 246 administrative regions. Every 4,177 surnames are distinguished by their bon-gwan which indicates the place of their family clans. Using Fisher's Alpha, we found that the level of inbreeding increases as the distance from the capital Seoul increases. We introduced the Shannon index to measure the level of spatial diffusion for each surname population, and the geographical clusters based on similarities of the surname compositions among the regions show almost exact agreement with those at the administrative districts.

  5. Pharmaceutical reform in South Korea and the lessons it provides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Ju; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2008-01-01

    Through implementation of its 2000 pharmaceutical reform, the South Korean government expected to reduce the cost of medications and improve service levels, medical appropriateness of care, and drug effectiveness. However, despite the reform's lofty goals, unintended consequences have distorted the supply of medical services and spending. These consequences have included increasing the use of uninsured services, prescribing high-price drugs, and a growing market share for multinational drug companies. Further reforms are needed to reduce the measure's adverse effects. This paper examines the Korean mandatory prescription system and offers an analysis of Korea's reforms. PMID:18508813

  6. Wood Decay Fungi in South Korea: Polypores from Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hwanhwi; Lee, Hanbyul; Lee, Young Min; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Min, Mihee; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu

    2014-01-01

    In Seoul, a majority of plant communities have undergone significant changes over the last few decades; however, how wood decay fungi have responded and adapted to the changes in vegetation remains unknown. Through an ongoing investigation of Korean indigenous fungi, ca. 300 specimens with poroid basidiocarp were collected in Seoul during 2008~2012. Morphological examination and molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA region sequences helped identify 38 species belonging to 28 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders in this area. Among them, three polypores, Abundisporus pubertatis, Coriolopsis strumosa, and Perenniporia maackiae were found to be new to South Korea. PMID:25071382

  7. Two genetic lineages of sea slaters, Ligia (Crustacea: Isopoda) in South Korea: a population genetic approach.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jongwoo; Eo, Hae-Seok; Rho, Hyun Soo; Kim, Won

    2008-06-30

    In this study, the species composition and population genetic properties of the sea slater, Ligia, in South Korea were investigated using mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Two groups of sea slaters, genetically isolated from each other, a Western Group (WG) and an Eastern Group (EG) were identified. These groups exhibited considerable genetic divergence from Ligia exotica, previously recorded as a species inhabiting this country. These results indicate that there may be two species of Ligia in South Korea, but there is a small probability that both groups are L. exotica. A comparison of their genetic properties indicates that WG has a higher effective population size than EG, and that EG may have experienced a recent expansion, implying that it has a shorter history in South Korea than WG. These findings suggest that the South Korean sea slater populations may have been established as a result of several colonization events that can be traced on a continental scale by phylogeographic studies of sea slaters. PMID:18443407

  8. Hearing Aid Use and Associated Factors in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Il Joon; Baek, Sun Young; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite the high prevalence of hearing impairment in the elderly, the rate of hearing aid use is still low. The objectives of this study were to report the nation-wide prevalence of hearing aid use in the Korean population and to determine the associated factors with hearing aid use utilizing a nationally representative data set. We obtained data from the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which were cross-sectional surveys of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the Republic of Korea at age ?40 years (N?=?12,709). A field survey team performed interviews as well as physical examinations. Hearing aid use was assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and pure-tone audiometry was administered for all participants in a sound-attenuating booth. Prevalence of hearing aid acquisition and regular use were calculated in participants who reported perceived hearing loss and who have bilateral hearing thresholds exceeding the 40?dB hearing level. Multivariable analyses were used to examine the associated factors with hearing aid use. The prevalence of hearing aid acquisition and regular use was 17.4% and 12.6%, respectively, in South Korea. Increased hearing threshold (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.031.07), severe perceived hearing loss (OR 10.73, 95% CI 4.5225.46), annoying tinnitus (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.616.74), balance problems (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.180.86), and myopia (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.120.76) were associated factors of regular use of hearing aids. The prevalence of hearing aid use in Korea is relatively low. Finding relevant factors of hearing aid use could provide further insight in setting up hearing-rehabilitation strategy for the elderly with significant hearing loss. PMID:26496259

  9. Novel Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Variant with Large Genomic Deletion, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongjun; Kim, Sanghyun; Song, Daesub

    2014-01-01

    Since 1992, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been one of the most common porcine diarrheaassociated viruses in South Korea. We conducted a large-scale investigation of the incidence of PEDV in pigs with diarrhea in South Korea and consequently identified and characterized a novel PEDV variant with a large genomic deletion. PMID:25424875

  10. The Developmental History of Labor Education in South Korea from a Sociopolitical and Economic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Yangyi

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a considerable body of research regarding the relationships between the sociopolitical and economic transition and its implications for the education system in South Korea, there is little known about how sociopolitical and economic factors affect labor education practice in South Korea. The premise of the study is that the

  11. Educational Administration as National Capacity Building: Towards South Korea Becoming a Creative Learning State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold; Sun Hyung, Park

    2015-01-01

    This philosophy paper proposes that a primary purpose of Educational Administration, as a field of study, research and practice in South Korea, becomes national capacity building. It does this by evaluating the current scope of Educational Administration against the need for a new national education policy to help South Korea make the transition

  12. History, Current Status, and Future Prospects of Counseling in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Suh, Suhyun; Yang, Eunjoo; Jang, Yoo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Although the counseling profession was introduced to South Korea in the 1950s by American delegates of education, counseling has been only lately recognized as a specialized field that requires distinctive knowledge and skills. In this article, the authors describe the history and the current status of counseling in South Korea and then discuss

  13. Music Practices and Teachers' Needs for Teaching Music in Public Preschools of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngae

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the current music practices and teachers' needs for teaching music in public preschools of South Korea. The data were obtained from the public preschools in South Korea, where 66.7 percent (n = 606) of the total sample (N = 908) responded. The online survey consisted of 42 questions: Likert-type scales,

  14. History, Current Status, and Future Prospects of Counseling in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Suh, Suhyun; Yang, Eunjoo; Jang, Yoo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Although the counseling profession was introduced to South Korea in the 1950s by American delegates of education, counseling has been only lately recognized as a specialized field that requires distinctive knowledge and skills. In this article, the authors describe the history and the current status of counseling in South Korea and then discuss…

  15. The Developmental History of Labor Education in South Korea from a Sociopolitical and Economic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Yangyi

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a considerable body of research regarding the relationships between the sociopolitical and economic transition and its implications for the education system in South Korea, there is little known about how sociopolitical and economic factors affect labor education practice in South Korea. The premise of the study is that the…

  16. Educational Administration as National Capacity Building: Towards South Korea Becoming a Creative Learning State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold; Sun Hyung, Park

    2015-01-01

    This philosophy paper proposes that a primary purpose of Educational Administration, as a field of study, research and practice in South Korea, becomes national capacity building. It does this by evaluating the current scope of Educational Administration against the need for a new national education policy to help South Korea make the transition…

  17. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from South Africa and revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea,...

  18. Public Health Challenges of Electronic Cigarettes in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungkyu; Kimm, Heejin; Yun, Ji Eun

    2011-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarrettes) were recently introduced and advertised as a smoking cession device in South Korea. As the social norm to quit smoking has gained hold in the country, the number of e-cigarette users is growing rapidly. This phenomenon should be urgently considered, because of the lack of research that has been conducted to examine the safety of e-cigarettes and its efficacy as a smoking cessation aid. This paper raises several public health concerns on e-cigarettes in South Korea. Uncertain regulations of the government on e-cigarettes are contributing to an increase of e-cigarette users and allowing the e-cigarette industry to circumvent existing regulations. The aggressive marketing activity of this industry is also a core factor that is responsible for the rapid increase of e-cigarette use, in particular among the youth. Following the enforcement of tobacco control, some cigarette smokers may be encouraged to purchase e-cigarettes in order to circumvent the regulations, even though the dual use of e-cigarette and cigarette may be more harmful. Until there is clear evidence of the e-cigarette's safety, it is recommended that the industry's marketing and promotional activities be banned and closely monitored, and public campaigns be initiated to educate the public regarding e-cigarettes. PMID:22143173

  19. Public health challenges of electronic cigarettes in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Kimm, Heejin; Yun, Ji Eun; Jee, Sun Ha

    2011-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarrettes) were recently introduced and advertised as a smoking cession device in South Korea. As the social norm to quit smoking has gained hold in the country, the number of e-cigarette users is growing rapidly. This phenomenon should be urgently considered, because of the lack of research that has been conducted to examine the safety of e-cigarettes and its efficacy as a smoking cessation aid. This paper raises several public health concerns on e-cigarettes in South Korea. Uncertain regulations of the government on e-cigarettes are contributing to an increase of e-cigarette users and allowing the e-cigarette industry to circumvent existing regulations. The aggressive marketing activity of this industry is also a core factor that is responsible for the rapid increase of e-cigarette use, in particular among the youth. Following the enforcement of tobacco control, some cigarette smokers may be encouraged to purchase e-cigarettes in order to circumvent the regulations, even though the dual use of e-cigarette and cigarette may be more harmful. Until there is clear evidence of the e-cigarette's safety, it is recommended that the industry's marketing and promotional activities be banned and closely monitored, and public campaigns be initiated to educate the public regarding e-cigarettes. PMID:22143173

  20. Nationwide groundwater surveillance of noroviruses in South Korea, 2008.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Suh, Chang-Il; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Jeong, Yong-Seok; Ko, GwangPyo; Jang, Kyung Lib; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Paik, Soon-Young

    2011-02-01

    To inspect the norovirus contamination of groundwater in South Korea, a nationwide study was performed in the summer (June to August) and winter (October to December) of 2008. Three-hundred sites designated by the government ministry were inspected. Water samples were collected for analysis of water quality, microorganism content, and viral content. Water quality was assessed by temperature, pH, turbidity, residual chlorine, and nitrite nitrogen content. Microorganism contents were analyzed bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and bacteriophage. Virus analyses included panenterovirus and norovirus. Two primer sets were used for the detection of norovirus genotypes GI and GII, respectively. Of 300 samples, 65 (21.7%) were norovirus positive in the summer and in 52 (17.3%) were norovirus positive in the winter. The genogroup GI noroviruses that were identified were GI-1, GI-2, GI-3, GI-4, GI-5, GI-6, and GI-8 genotypes; those in the GII genogroup were GII-4 and GII-Yuri genotypes. The analytic data showed correlative relationships between the norovirus detection rate and the following parameters: water temperature and turbidity in physical-chemical parameters and somatic phage in microbial parameters. It is necessary to periodically monitor waterborne viruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea for better public health and sanitary conditions. PMID:21183642

  1. AB146. National sex survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Du Geon; Kim, Jong Wook; Park, Jong Jin; Kim, Je Jong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited data are available concerning sexual behavior of Korean men. This study aimed to perform the national sex survey and to collect the basic data for establishment of the prevention strategies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. Methods This is a national survey performed on a sample of 2,500 individuals (1,273 men and 1,227 women) aged 18-69 years old. The online surveys were carried out on a national scale in South Korea. Subjects were randomly selected from resident registration. A structured questionnaire was developed which elicited information concerning: demographic information, information on their sexual behavior, sexual identity, prostitution, experience of STIs, and experience of sex education. Results The majority of the subjects were either married or living with a partner. Mean number of sexual intercourse is 3.03.3 times a month. Mean sexual satisfaction score using visual analog scale is 63.224.6. Eighty-four percent had a fixed sex partner; 13.1% (22.6% of men; 2.5% of women) had experience through a speed dating or prostitution; 0.9% of men and 1.1% of women were sexually attracted to the same gender only, 1.5% of men and 2.0% of women were sexually attracted to both gender; 1.8% of participants had the experience of the STIs. Only 10.4% of the respondents had received sex education in the past year. Conclusions We performed the National Sex Survey according to the nationwide distribution of population. It would be useful for establishment of the prevention strategies of STIs and HIV/AIDS. To control STIs and HIV/AIDS, powerful policies containing sex education and medical services will be needed.

  2. Prevalence of vestibular dysfunction and associated factors in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ja-Won; Chang, Mun Young; Woo, Sook-young; Kim, Seonwoo; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the nationwide prevalence of dizziness and vestibular dysfunction in the Korean population and determine the associated factors. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a nationwide health survey. Methods We obtained data from the 2009 to 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, which were cross-sectional surveys of the South Korean civilian, non-institutionalised population aged 40?years and older (N=3267). A field survey team performed interviews and physical examinations. Structured questionnaires were handed out and balance function tests using the modified Romberg test of standing balance on firm and compliant support surfaces were performed on participants. Failure on the modified Romberg test was regarded to indicate vestibular dysfunction. Results The prevalence of dizziness during the past year was 16.70% (95% CI 14.65% to 18.76%). The presence of vestibular dysfunction was noted in 1.84% (95% CI 1.18% to 2.51%). In addition, the prevalence of experiencing falls and positional dizziness were 1.46% (95% CI 0.87% to 2.06%) and 1.73% (95% CI 1.17% to 2.29%), respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that dizziness was associated with increased age, female gender, hearing loss and stress. Vestibular dysfunction was associated with increased age, history of dizziness and hearing loss. Conclusions Vertigo and dizziness are the greatest contributors to the burden of disability in the aged population. Screening for dizziness and vestibular dysfunction, and management of associated factors might be important for improving compromised quality of life due to postural imbalance caused by vestibular problems. PMID:26503384

  3. Distribution of solar radiation including slope effect in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Shin Chul; Park, Jong-Hwa; Na, Sang Il; Park, Jin-Ki

    2012-10-01

    Agriculture and ecosystems are very solar radiation-sensitive making them useful for monitoring the impact on future food production. Accurate solar radiation data are necessary to evaluate major physiological reaction of crops and an impact of climate change. For most upland crops and orchard plants growing in sloping terrain, however the meteorological data are often limited. Considering the scarcity of detailed meteorological data around the country, there is a need for methods which can estimate reference solar radiation with limited data. This study describes a method to estimate monthly average daily solar radiation of considering the slope distribution. It was calculated using the 2010's meteorological data and KT method which is entered DEM and spatial interpolation data of both monthly average daily extraterrestrial radiation and monthly average daily radiation on land surface. Extracted slope from the DEM in South Korea include range between 0? to 77? and most of the land is mountainous. According to the slope, solar radiation characteristic show to have high value in spring season (April) relatively other season. Summer season interrupt to reach direct solar radiation, cause is unstable atmospheric and cloud. The distributions of monthly accumulated solar radiation indicated that differences caused by the topography effect are more important in winter than in other season because of the dependency on the solar altitude angle and duration of sunshine. Result of KT method is confirmed to overestimate monthly average 1.38MJ?m􀬶?day than solar radiation weather station measurement values. Solar radiation of slope error value will need continuous research and correction through both fields survey and topography factor.

  4. Effects of gravity data quality and spacing on the accuracy of the geoid in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, C.-K.; Kwon, J. H.; Lee, B. M.; Lee, J.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, S.-B.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of gravity data quality and spacing on the accuracy of the computed geoid are analyzed. The analysis is performed using simulated gravity data that accommodate the real gravity signal in South Korea. The reference geoid is generated using both simulated gravity data and digital terrain models (DTM), assuming that both data sets are errorless. By artificially controlling the gravity data quality and spacing, we are able to calculate and analyze the geoid errors. The results show that the current distribution of real gravity data in South Korea causes geoid errors, with the standard deviation being as much as 8 cm, and that these geoid errors are mainly caused by the distribution of gravity data rather than by the noise in the data. Areas showing large geoid errors are also clearly identified; these areas should be subjected to supplementary gravity surveying at data spacing smaller than 2 km to achieve a 5-cm level of geoid accuracy.

  5. Comparison of publication trends in dermatology among Japan, South Korea and Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously showed that the number of publications in dermatology is increasing year by year, and positively correlates with improved economic conditions in mainland China, a still developing Asian country. However, the characteristics of publications in dermatology departments in more developed Asian countries such as Japan and South Korea are unknown. Methods In the present study, publications from 2003 through 2012 in dermatology in Japan, South Korea and mainland China were characterized. All data were obtained from http://www.pubmed.com. Results Dermatology departments in Japan published 4,094 papers, while mainland China and South Korea published 1528 and 1,758 articles, respectively. 48% of articles from dermatology in Japan were original research and 36% were case reports; The number of publications in Japan remained stable over time, but the overall impact factors per paper increased linearly over the last 10 year period (p?South Korea, 65% of articles from dermatology were original research and 20% were case reports. The impact factors per paper remained unchanged, despite of the fact that the number of publications increased over the last 10 year period (r2?=?0.6820, p?=?0.0032). Only mainland China showed a positive correlation of the number of publications with gross domestic product per capita during this study period. Conclusions These results suggest that the total number of publications in dermatology correlates with economic conditions only in developing country, but not in more developed countries in Asia. The extent of economic development could determine both the publication quantity and quality. PMID:24405832

  6. Notes On Biting Midges Of The Genus Culicoides From South Korea: With Special Reference To Unrecorded Species And Distribution.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hu Cha; Chong, Chun Sik

    1974-06-01

    A survey of the biting midges of the Genus Culicoides was conducted by a joint effort of numerous U.S. and Korean personnel throughout South Korea for seven years from 1965 through 1973 (except 1968, 1971) using New Jersey light traps set up at fifty-nine (59) different locations, to find out the seasonal succession and geographical distribution of the said insects both on an individual species basis and as a whole, and to evaluate the medical significance and epidemiology of these insects. This provides some of the basic knowledge needed for prevention of filarial and virus transmission of diseases owing to these insects. As a result the following results were obtained: 1. Sixteen (16) species hitherto unrecorded were added to the fauna of biting midges known from South Korea. Together with the already recorded fourteen (14) species, this makes the total number of species of these insects in South Korea thirty (30). 2. Through the monthly tabulation of the collected specimens it was possible to find out the general seasonal succession of these insects as well as their sex ratio. 3. Based on the data obtained the geographical distributions of the biting midges of the Genus Culicoides so far recorded in Korea were classified into the following four (4) types: a. The species which are very widely spread throughout south Korea. b. The species which are spread in central South Korea and supposed to occur in North Korea. c. The species which were collected from coastal areas and southern island. d. The species which were collected from Cheju-do. PMID:12913484

  7. Current Trends of Stem Use in Hemiarthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fracture in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Byung-Ho; Ha, Yong-Chan; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemiarthroplasty is a common operation to treat femoral neck fracture in elderly patients. The choice of whether to use cemented stem or cementless stem in hemiarthroplasty has been controversial in clinical practice. However, recent trends regarding stem choice in South Korea are not known or documented. In this study, we assessed the trends of stem fixation in hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in South Korea. Methods Data of patients with femoral neck fractures, who were operated on between the years of 2007 and 2011 and were ? 50 years old at the time of operation, were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. All new visits or admissions to clinics or hospitals for femoral neck fractures were identified using the International Classification of Disease Tenth Revision diagnostic code (S720). The trends in the utilization of cemented and cementless hemiarthroplasty were then analyzed. Results The proportion of cementless hemiarthroplasty increased from 42.7% of all surgical procedures in 2007 to 61.4% of all surgical procedures in 2011 (p < 0.001), while the use of cemented hemiarthroplasty demonstrated a corresponding decrease. Conclusions There was a current trends towards using cementless stems in hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in South Korea. PMID:25177453

  8. Prevalence of fungal infections using National Health Insurance data from 2009-2013, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hee Jung; Choi, Hwa Young; Kim, Young Kwon; Song, Yeong Jun; Ki, Moran

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The symptoms of fungal infections vary from minor to severe. According to recent reports, fungal infection prevalence is increasing due to increases in the aging population and in patients with compromised immune systems. However, the total prevalence of fungal infections in South Korea is unknown. We investigated the recent 5-year prevalence of each type of fungal infection in South Korea across age, sex, and regional groups. METHODS Nationwide data from the National Health Insurance of South Korea were used. The target population included patients who had received treatment for a fungal infection that was listed as the main disease. For each patient, multiple treatments were counted as one case per year in the data analysis. RESULTS The annual prevalence of all-type mycoses increased from 6.9% in 2009 to 7.4% in 2013. Among the specific groups, the prevalence of dermatophytosis was highest (5.2%), followed by that of opportunistic mycoses (1.7%) and superficial mycoses (0.2%). The prevalence of subcutaneous mycoses and generalized mycoses was very low (8 cases per 100,000 persons and 3 cases per 1 million persons, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Every year, approximately 7.1% of the Korean population receives treatment for fungal diseases. Cases of opportunistic mycoses are assumed to increase each year. Therefore, further research is needed to understand and monitor the prevalence of mycoses to establish management policies to reduce the burden of fungal diseases. PMID:25358415

  9. Dietary patterns and the association with dietary quality among Mongolian immigrants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Haeryun; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Song, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Jounghee; Lee, Youngmi

    2015-04-01

    Mongolian immigration into South Korea has increased rapidly over the last decade. It is important to better understand dietary patterns of immigrants because these patterns are associated with health risk. This study aimed to characterize dietary patterns of Mongolian immigrants in South Korea. Dietary intakes of 500 Mongolian adults living in South Korea were assessed using the interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall method. By cluster analysis, three dietary patterns were identified: "Mongolian" (26%), "Transitional" (43%) and "Korean" (31%). The "Korean" pattern had a favorable food intake profile, with higher intakes of healthy foods, while the other patterns had features of an unhealthy diet. There were significant differences between the dietary patterns that were related to risk for chronic diseases. Overall, subjects following the "Korean" dietary pattern showed high adherence to World Health Organization recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases, whereas the "Mongolian" and "Transitional" patterns showed low compliance. The results suggest the need for education programs targeting Mongolian immigrants who retain traditional dietary habits, to enhance their healthy food choices. PMID:24894430

  10. Earthquake Observation through Groundwater Monitoring in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, J.; Woo, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    According to previous researches, the influence of the some earthquakes can be detected by groundwater monitoring. Even in some countries groundwater monitoring is being used as an important tool to identify earthquake precursors and prediction measures. Thus, in this study we attempt to catch the anomalous changes in groundwater produced by earthquakes occurred in Korea through the National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN). For observing the earthquake impacts on groundwater more effectively, from the National Groundwater Monitoring Network we selected 28 stations located in the five earthquake-prone zones in South Korea. And we searched the responses to eight earthquakes with M ?2.5 which occurred in the vicinity of five earthquake-prone zones in 2012. So far, we tested the groundwater monitoring data (water-level, temperature and electrical conductivity). Those data have only been treated to remove barometric pressure changes. Then we found 29 anomalous changes, confirming that groundwater monitoring data can provide valuable information on earthquake effects. To identify the effect of the earthquake from mixture signals of water-level, other signals must be separated from the original data. Periodic signals will be separated from the original data using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). After that we will attempt to separate precipitation effect, and determine if the anomalies were generated by earthquake or not.

  11. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy

    2016-03-01

    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy. PMID:26179452

  12. The lesbian rights movement and feminism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park-Kim, Soo Jin; Lee-Kim, Soo Youn; Kwon-Lee, Eun Jung

    2006-01-01

    The lesbians' rights movement in South Korea has undertaken various projects for solidarity with feminist movement groups for over 10 years. In spite of these efforts, lesbian issues have been blatantly excluded from all the agendas of women's rights. The same thing has happened in Women's Studies. Some feminists express homophobic thoughts without understanding the reality of lesbians, and other young scholars take on a lesbian identity temporarily as a sign of being progressive and liberated; in neither situation are they committed to dealing with the oppression of lesbians or seeing lesbian rights as a feminist concern. In order to further lesbian rights there are two strategies possible: forming a movement only for lesbians or forming solidarity with feminists. In the latter case, a concern about lesbian rights will help achieve the goals of a true feminism as patriarchy is built upon heterosexism. doi:10.1300/J155v10n03_11. PMID:17210565

  13. Varicella vaccination in Japan, South Korea, and Europe.

    PubMed

    Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine; Rentier, Bernard; Wutzler, Peter; Asano, Yoshizo; Suga, Sadao; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2008-03-01

    The most extensive use of varicella vaccine has been in the United States and Canada, where it is universally recommended. However, a number of other countries now have recommendations for use of the vaccine, which has been expanding in Europe and Latin America. In this article, we review information concerning varicella vaccination in Japan, where the vaccine was first developed, and in South Korea and parts of Europe. Despite the worldwide availability of an efficient vaccine, varicella vaccination policy is highly variable from country to country. The recent development of a tetravalent vaccine against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella could modify this variability in the future. It is evident that efforts to control varicella will spread gradually to all continents. PMID:18419395

  14. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jaewon; Kim, Soojun; Kim, Gilho; Singh, Vijay P; Hong, Seungjin; Kim, Hung Soo

    2015-07-01

    Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered. PMID:26132479

  15. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jaewon; Kim, Soojun; Kim, Gilho; Singh, Vijay P.; Hong, Seungjin; Kim, Hung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered. PMID:26132479

  16. Trends in exposure to television food advertisements in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Given the increased concern about the impact of TV food advertisements (ads) on individual food choices, we provide important evidence on TV food ad exposure between 2004 and 2009 in South Korea. We used monthly targeted ratings data by age group as the number of ads seen daily from Korean Nielsen Media Research. We generated six food groups: beverages (milk, soda, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, water, coffee/tea products, and other); snacks/sweets (cookies/chips, candy, and chewing gum); fast food (Domino's pizza, Lotteria, McDonald's, Mr. Pizza, Pizza Hut, local chicken and pizza franchises, and other); instant noodle; full-service restaurants; and other. From 2004 to 2009, overall exposure to television food ads fell by 19.0% (from 6.8 to 5.5 ads daily), although exposure to full-service restaurant ads increased over that time period by 45.7%. While fast-food ad exposure fell overall, exposure to ads for local fried chicken franchises nearly doubled, making them the most commonly seen fast-food ads by 2009. Fast-food and instant noodle ads made up larger proportions of total ad exposure in 2009 than in 2004 in all age groups, with the largest increase among adolescents. Beverage ads continue to be the most prevalent food ads seen in South Korea. Differential trends found in exposure across and within food product categories and differences by age groups highlight the need for continued monitoring to help inform the regulatory policy debate on food advertising, particularly with regards to ads directed at children and adolescents. PMID:23108149

  17. The Impact of Improving Suicide Death Classification in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan and Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chee Hon; Caine, Eric D.; Chang, Shu Sen; Lee, Won Jin; Cha, Eun Shil; Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The suicide rate of South Korea has increased dramatically during the past decades, as opposed to steadily decreasing trends in Japan and Hong Kong. Although the recent increase of suicide in South Korea may be related to changing socioeconomic conditions and other contextual factors, it may also reflect, in part, a reduction of misidentified suicide cases due to improving classification of manner of death. Method We compared the annual proportional change of suicide, undetermined death, and accidental death from South Korea with those of Japan and Hong Kong from 1992 to 2011; a greater proportional change of the manner-of-death categories during the period is indicative of a relatively less stable registration and hence a greater potential for misclassification bias on reported suicide trends. Subgroup analyses stratifying the deaths by methods were also conducted. To estimate the impact, the age-standardized rates of these three death categories in each site were calculated. Results We found that, during the 20-year observation period, the proportional change of suicide, undetermined death, and accidental death in South Korea was significantly greater than Japan and Hong Kong. Similar observations were made in subgroup analyses. While death rates of the three manners in Japan and Hong Kong generally moved in a parallel fashion, the increase of suicide in South Korea occurred concomitantly with a significant reduction of its accidental death rate. 43% of the increase in suicides could be attributed to the decrease in accidental deaths, while 57% of the increase could be due to fundamental causes. Conclusion Our data suggest that, during the mid-1990s and after, the increasing burden of suicide in South Korea initially was masked, in part, by misclassification. Thus, the later apparently rapid increase of suicides reflected steadily improving classification of manner of death, as well as a more fundamental increase in the suicide rate. PMID:25992879

  18. Recent progress in toxicogenomics research in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae-Hoon; Yoo, Jin-Ho; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Kim, Yang-Seok

    2009-01-01

    Background The importance of toxicogenomics was recognized early in Korea and a group of researchers was trying to build up a research infrastructure and educational system. However, since the scale of the Korean pharmaceutical industry, which was expected to play the key role in toxicogenomics was small compared to that of advanced countries, industry-sponsored large-scale research projects and supporting infrastructures have been lacking in Korea. Results To improve this situation, the Korean government has exerted special efforts to promote toxicogenomics research and development the last few years as an initiative to stimulate a premature drug development industry on par with global competition and launched several large scale research projects recently. Researchers are also trying to keep pace with government efforts by organizing local scientist groups, training young toxicogenomics scientists, and widening the toxicogenomic research efforts to environmental toxicity as well. Research and development from bioinformatics and genomics venture companies are also contributing to uplifting the competitiveness of the toxicogenomics industry. Conclusion Toxicogenomics in Korea is making steady progress in many directions. It is gaining ground by government and related industries as well, the research is diversified to embrace environmental genomics, and local research groups are making strategic links to international research groups such as the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) consortium. We expect the advancement of the Korean toxicogenomics research program will be beneficial not only to the local society alone, but also to international scientists as a whole. PMID:19278562

  19. The strategic targeting of females by transnational tobacco companies in South Korea following trade liberalisation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Carpenter, Carrie; Challa, Chaitanya; Lee, Sungkyu; Connolly, Gregory N; Koh, Howard K

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1988 South Korea opened its cigarette market to foreign companies under the threat of US trade sanctions. Despite strong social stigma against female smoking in South Korea, and restrictions on tobacco marketing to women and children, smoking rates among young Korean females increased from 1.6% in 1988 to 13% in 1998. Previous analyses describe how Asian countries have been targeted by transnational tobacco companies for new markets, with Asian females offering substantial future growth potential. An understanding of the strategies used by TTCs to increase smoking among Korean females is critical to public health efforts to adopt a stronger gender perspective in implementing the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods Internal documents of transnational tobacco corporations were systematically searched using keywords focused on the targeting of the female market since market liberalisation in 1988. Industry documents were analysed alongside primary and secondary data on the tobacco industry in South Korea. Results TTCs have targeted Korean females since the late 1980s, conducting market research to understand consumer preferences, cultural characteristics and social changes affecting women and girls. Brands designed to appeal to females have focused on "slim" and "superslim" cigarettes, "light" and "mild" claims, and marketing which appeals to the growing numbers of young women entering the labour force. Strategies for overcoming legal restrictions on marketing to women and children have included the use of company rather than brand names, retail distribution at venues frequented by females, trademark diversification and sponsorship. Conclusion Given the high male smoking rates in South Korea, tobacco control efforts have given limited attention to girls and women. The limited data available on female smoking behaviour suggests that, despite legal restrictions and social stigma, smoking among females has increased since market opening, notably within younger age groups. In addition to more detailed trend data, there is an urgent need for the development and implementation of gender-sensitive tobacco control measures. Part of South Korea's accession to the FCTC should include emphasis on measures to address the strategic targeting of Korean females by TTCs. PMID:19183443

  20. Multicultural Education and the Rights to Education of Migrant Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Soon-Won

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews the current state of multicultural education for migrant children in South Korea and calls for a critical reorientation of multicultural education for all. Racism was deepened during the colonial period in Korea, and continues to this day. Thus I argue that the ambivalent, dualistic ethnic prejudice distorted by colonialism can

  1. Ethnic Variations in Factors Contributing to the Life Satisfaction of Migrant Wives in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Miai; Chin, Meejung; Lee, Jaerim; Lee, Soyoung

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2009 National Survey on Multicultural Families, we examined the factors associated with the level of life satisfaction among migrant wives in South Korea. Separate analyses were conducted for the four major ethnic and national groups of migrant wives in Korea: Chosun-jok (Korean Chinese), Han Chinese, Vietnamese, and Filipinas.

  2. Mixing versus Sorting in Schooling: Evidence from the Equalization Policy in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taejong; Lee, Ju-Ho; Lee, Young

    2008-01-01

    This paper employs the difference-in-differences empirical strategy and quantile regressions to analyze the effects of sorting and mixing on the academic performance of high school students in South Korea. In Korea, about half of high schools are subject to the equalization policy (EP), and must therefore passively accept students randomly

  3. Ethnic Variations in Factors Contributing to the Life Satisfaction of Migrant Wives in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Miai; Chin, Meejung; Lee, Jaerim; Lee, Soyoung

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2009 National Survey on Multicultural Families, we examined the factors associated with the level of life satisfaction among migrant wives in South Korea. Separate analyses were conducted for the four major ethnic and national groups of migrant wives in Korea: Chosun-jok (Korean Chinese), Han Chinese, Vietnamese, and Filipinas.…

  4. Multicultural Education and the Rights to Education of Migrant Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Soon-Won

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews the current state of multicultural education for migrant children in South Korea and calls for a critical reorientation of multicultural education for all. Racism was deepened during the colonial period in Korea, and continues to this day. Thus I argue that the ambivalent, dualistic ethnic prejudice distorted by colonialism can…

  5. Press Freedom and Social and Economic Progress in the Far East: The Case of South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youm, Kyu Ho; Salwen, Michael B.

    In light of the political and economic transition currently facing the Republic of Korea (ROK), this paper investigates the history of press freedom in that country, in connection with economic growth and political history. The paper examines: (1) the development of newspapers in South Korea; (2) the role of the press in the early years of the

  6. Hazardous waste characterization among various thermal processes in South Korea: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Woo-Il; Jeon, Tae-Wan; Kang, Young-Yeul; Jeong, Seong-Kyeong; Yeon, Jin-Mo; Somasundaram, Swarnalatha

    2013-09-15

    Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea (South Korea) is in progress of converting its current hazardous waste classification system to harmonize it with the international standard and to set-up the regulatory standards for toxic substances present in the hazardous waste. In the present work, the concentrations along with the trend of 13 heavy metals, F(-), CN(-) and 19 PAH present in the hazardous waste generated among various thermal processes (11 processes) in South Korea were analyzed along with their leaching characteristics. In all thermal processes, the median concentrations of Cu (3.58-209,000 mg/kg), Ni (BDL-1560 mg/kg), Pb (7.22-5132.25mg/kg) and Zn (83.02-31419 mg/kg) were comparatively higher than the other heavy metals. Iron & Steel thermal process showed the highest median value of the heavy metals Cd (14.76 mg/kg), Cr (166.15 mg/kg) and Hg (2.38 mg/kg). Low molecular weight PAH (BDL-37.59 mg/kg) was predominant in sludge & filter cake samples present in most of the thermal processes. Comparatively flue gas dust present in most of the thermal processing units resulted in the higher leaching of the heavy metals. PMID:23747474

  7. Restriction of television food advertising in South Korea: impact on advertising of food companies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2013-03-01

    The association between exposure to television (TV) food advertising and children's dietary habits has been well established in previous studies. However, the efficacy of restrictions on TV food advertising in the prevention of childhood obesity remains controversial. The South Korean government has recently enforced a regulation, termed the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life, which restricts TV advertising of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods targeting children. This study aimed to determine the impact of this regulation by examining changes in the TV advertising practices of South Korean food companies since the scheduled enforcement date of January 2010. The total advertising budget, number of advertisement placements and gross rating points (GRPs) for advertisements on EDNP foods aired on the five representative TV channels in South Korea were compared and analyzed for the year before and after January 2010. After January 2010, the total adverting budget, number of advertisement placements and GRPs decreased during regulated hours. Even during non-regulated hours, a significant decline was noticed in the number of advertisement placements and GRPs. The total advertising budget for non-EDNP foods increased, whereas that for EDNP foods decreased at a higher rate in addition to a drop in its percentage share. These results suggest positive changes in TV advertising practices of food companies because of the regulation, thereby lowering children's exposure to TV advertising of EDNP foods and promoting a safer environment that may facilitate child health improvement in South Korea. PMID:22717614

  8. Urinary concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in elementary students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hye Mi; Ha, Mina; Lee, Won Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pyrethroid pesticides are among the most commonly using insecticides in South Korean households and have been the subject of considerable interest among public health professionals for their potential health effects. The objective of this study is to examine the level of urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) among elementary students in South Korea. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate pyrethroid pesticide exposure levels by measuring the urinary metabolites of 3-PBA using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in March 2011. Study participants were 70 Asan-area and Incheon-area elementary students. Results All respondents had values above the detection limit, and the geometric means of 3-PBA in all children were 1.85 μg/L and 1.46 μg/g creatinine. Children with the top 10% urinary levels of 3-PBA were more likely to be girls, under nine years of age, living in a rural area, and living in a residential type apartment. Conclusions South Korean children have a higher concentration of urinary 3-PBA compared with those of other countries. Further research identifying exposure pathways and intervention efforts to reduce environmental pesticide use are needed in South Korea. PMID:26602560

  9. Spotlight on nano-theranostics in South Korea: applications in diagnostics and treatment of diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangwha; Kim, Jongsung; Bark, Chung Wung; Lee, Bonghee; Ju, Heongkyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, TaeYoung; Kim, Moon Il; Ko, Young Tag; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Yun, Kyu-Sik; Yoon, Young Soo; An, Seong Soo A; Hulme, John

    2015-01-01

    From the synergistic integration and the multidisciplinary strengths of the BioNano Sensor Research Center, Gachon Bionano Research Institute, and Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, researchers, students, and faculties at Gachon University in collaboration with other institutions in Korea, Australia, France, America, and Japan have come together to produce a special issue on the diverse applications of nano-theranostics in nanomedicine. This special issue will showcase new research conducted by various scientific groups in Gyonggi-do and Songdo/Incheon, South Korea. The objectives of this special issue are as follows: 1) to bring together and demonstrate some of the latest research results in the field, 2) to introduce new multifunctional nanomaterials and their applications in imaging and detection methods, and 3) to stimulate collaborative interdisciplinary research at both national and international levels in nanomedicine. PMID:26345737

  10. Whose History? An Analysis of the Korean War in History Textbooks from the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Zhao, Yali; Ogawa, Masato; Hoge, John; Kim, Bok Young

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent history textbooks from the United States, Japan, China, and South Korea present the Korean War. The comparative analysis focuses on four areas: the causes of the Korean War, American involvement in the war, Chinese involvement in the war, and the results of the war. Analysis of the central story lines reveals that…

  11. Whose History? An Analysis of the Korean War in History Textbooks from the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Zhao, Yali; Ogawa, Masato; Hoge, John; Kim, Bok Young

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent history textbooks from the United States, Japan, China, and South Korea present the Korean War. The comparative analysis focuses on four areas: the causes of the Korean War, American involvement in the war, Chinese involvement in the war, and the results of the war. Analysis of the central story lines reveals that

  12. For Whom the Bell Tolls: Globalisation, Social Class and South Korea's International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how in South Korea, English-medium international schools, initially established to educate foreign residents, have recently transformed themselves into private providers of global education for South Koreans. The article explains the social, economic and political circumstances under which the South Korean government has

  13. For Whom the Bell Tolls: Globalisation, Social Class and South Korea's International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how in South Korea, English-medium international schools, initially established to educate foreign residents, have recently transformed themselves into private providers of global education for South Koreans. The article explains the social, economic and political circumstances under which the South Korean government has…

  14. Netizenship Politics: Youth, Anti-Americanism, and Rhetorical Agency in South Korea's 2002 Candlelight Vigils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a rhetorical analysis of the 2002 South Korean Candlelight Vigils ["ch'otpul siwi"] with a focus on the role of the Internet in public opinion building, the rise in anti-American sentiment in South Korea, and rhetorical agency residing in the collective. In 2002, two South Korean schoolgirls walking along a rural road near Seoul…

  15. Netizenship Politics: Youth, Anti-Americanism, and Rhetorical Agency in South Korea's 2002 Candlelight Vigils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a rhetorical analysis of the 2002 South Korean Candlelight Vigils ["ch'otpul siwi"] with a focus on the role of the Internet in public opinion building, the rise in anti-American sentiment in South Korea, and rhetorical agency residing in the collective. In 2002, two South Korean schoolgirls walking along a rural road near Seoul

  16. New Records of Lichen Genus Thelotrema Ach. (Thelotremoid Graphidaceae) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Santosh; Jayalal, Udeni; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study illustrates the status of thelotremoid Graphidaceae in South Korea. The taxonomy and systematics of thelotremoid lichens in the country have recently advanced greatly. Following the earlier known taxa from the group, four new records of the genus Thelotrema are reported and described briefly. An artificial key for all known species under thelotremoid group of Graphidaceae from South Korea is also provided. PMID:23323046

  17. Notes on the Existence of Leucodecton desquamescens (Thelotremoid Graphidaceae) in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yogesh; Wang, Xin Yu; Nguyen, Thi Thuy; Koh, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study describes a new record of a thelotremoid lichen (Leucodecton desquamescens) from South Korea. The taxon is characterized by thick, bulging thallus with many calcium oxalate crystal inclusions; an immersed, round to irregular ascomata with free exciple, ellipsoid to ± roundish submuriform, brown ascospores, and lack of secondary metabolites. A detailed taxonomic description and comments are presented for this taxon. The lichen genus Leucodecton is reported for the first time in South Korea. PMID:23956644

  18. A closer look at the increase in suicide rates in South Korea from 1986–2005

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jin-Won; Chun, Heeran; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-01-01

    Background Suicide rates have recently been decreasing on average among OECD countries, but increasing trends have been detected in South Korea, particularly since the 1997 economic crisis. There have been no detailed analyses about the changes of the suicide rates over time periods in Korea. We examined trends in both absolute and proportional suicide rates over the time period of economic development, crisis, and recovery (1986 – 2005) as well as in birth cohorts from 1924 to 1978. Methods We used data on total mortality and suicide rates from 1986 to 2005 published online by the Korean National Statistical Office (NSO) and extracted data for individuals under 80 years old. The analyses of the trends for 1) the sex-age-specific total mortality rate, 2) the sex-age-specific suicide rate, and 3) the sex-age-specific proportional suicide rate in 1986–2005 were conducted. To demonstrate the birth cohort effect on the proportional suicide rate, the synthetic birth cohort from 1924 to 1978 from the successive cross-sectional data was constructed. Results Age standardized suicide rates in South Korea increased by 98% in men (from 15.3 to 30.3 per 100,000) and by 124% in women (from 5.8 to 13.0 per 100,000). In both genders, the proportional increase in suicide rates was more prominent among the younger group aged under 45, despite the absolute increase being attributed to the older group. There were distinct cohort effects underlying increasing suicide rates particularly among younger age groups. Conclusion Increasing suicide rates in Korea was composed of a greater absolute increase in the older group and a greater proportional increase in the younger group. PMID:19250535

  19. Genetic status of Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) reintroduced into South Korea based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite loci analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yung-Kun; Hong, Yoon-Jee; Min, Mi-Sook; Kim, Kyung Seok; Kim, Young-Jun; Voloshina, Inna; Myslenkov, Alexander; Smith, Gavin J D; Cuong, Nguyen Dinh; Tho, Huynh Huu; Han, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Doo-Ha; Kim, Chang-Bae; Lee, Hang

    2011-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear is one of the most endangered mammals in South Korea owing to population declines resulting from human exploitation and habitat fragmentation. To restore the black bear population in South Korea, 27 bear cubs from North Korea and Russian Far East (Primorsky Krai) were imported and released into Jirisan National Park, a reservoir of the largest wild population in South Korea, in 2004. To monitor the success of this reintroduction, the genetic diversity and population structure of the reintroduced black bears were measured using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Mitochondrial D-loop region DNA sequences (615 bp) of 43 Japanese black bears from previous study and 14 Southeast Asian black bears in this study were employed to obtain phylogenetic inference of the reintroduced black bears. The mitochondrial phylogeny indicated Asiatic black bear populations from Russian Far East and North Korea form a single evolutionary unit distinct from populations from Japan and Southeast Asia. Mean expected heterozygosity (H(E)) across 16 microsatellite loci was 0.648 for Russian and 0.676 for North Korean populations. There was a moderate but significant level of microsatellite differentiation (F(ST) = 0.063) between black bears from the 2 source areas. In addition, genetic evidences revealed that 2 populations are represented as diverging groups, with lingering genetic admixture among individuals of 2 source populations. Relatedness analysis based on genetic markers indicated several discrepancies with the pedigree records. Implication of the phylogenetic and genetic evidences on long-term management of Asiatic black bears in South Korea is discussed. PMID:21325020

  20. Taxonomic Study on the Lichen Genus Cetrelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Wei, Xin Li; Han, Keon Seon; Koh, Young Jin

    2007-01-01

    Seventy-two lichen specimens of Cetrelia collected in South Korea since 2003 were examined by both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The phenotypic analysis was based on morphological and chemical characters, and the phylogenetic analysis was based on nrDNA ITS sequences. The result suggested that the presence and absence of isidia, soredia, lobules and medullar reaction C+ or C- are the important characters in the taxonomy of this genus. Four species of Cetrelia, C. chicitae, C. braunsiana, C. japonica, and C. pseudolivetorum have been identified in this study. Description of each species is presented with morphological and chemical characters. A key to the Cetrelia species is also presented. PMID:24015081

  1. The 1km estimation of Vegetation carbon budgets in South Korea using a terrestrial ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S.; Ito, A.; Lee, W.; Son, Y.; Kwak, D.; Oh, S.; Song, Y.; Lee, S.; Choi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem can store atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the major factors of global warming, in vegetation and soils through photosynthesis process. Human induced CO2 emission has been rapidly increased by industrialization. On the current situation, Terrestrial ecosystem could be regarded as one of the major sinks of CO2 for mitigating global warming. So it is very important to quantify carbon dynamics and budget for preparing adaptation measures to climate change. Terrestrial ecosystem models have been developed and used for investigating the terrestrial carbon dynamics and quantifying budget. In this study, we simulated biogeochemistry model, VISIT, in whole South Korea territory to quantify ecosystem carbon budgets. Before simulating this model, we modified model parameters such as maximum photosynthetic rate and phonological parameters with flux measurement data. And then, we prepared high resolution input variables for simulation from reliable national source. As a result, the model estimated the vegetation ecosystems in South Korea are a net carbon sink, with a value of 3.51 Tg C year-1 during the period 1999-2008. Compared with the anthropogenic emission of South Korea, vegetation ecosystems offset 3.3% of human emissions. Spatially, evident latitudinal and topographical gradients were found in all estimates over entire areas due to the environmental difference surrounding ecosystems. In addition, seasonal and inter-annual variability could be found in the estimates, especially biomass growth and carbon uptake, in consequence of the variation of annual weather conditions. However, to achieve a reliable estimate of a carbon budget, the result should be examined and validated carefully by the independent approaches. And also, to overcome the uncertainties in the simulation model, we need to develop a method for consideration of disturbances, such as land-use change, fertilizing, timber production, and air pollution. This modeling approach can give a better understanding of carbon budget, which urgently needed to devise ecosystem management strategies that may help to mitigate global climate change.

  2. Reproduction of surface air temperature over South Korea using dynamical downscaling and statistical correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.; Lee, J.; Shim, K.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In spite of dense meteorological observation conducting over South Korea (The average distance between stations: ~ 12.7km), the detailed topographical effect is not reflected properly due to its mountainous terrains and observation sites mostly situated on low altitudes. A model represents such a topographical effect well, but due to systematic biases in the model, the general temperature distribution is sometimes far different from actual observation. This study attempts to produce a detailed mean temperature distribution for South Korea through a method combining dynamical downscaling and statistical correction. For the dynamical downscaling, a multi-nesting technique is applied to obtain 3-km resolution data with a focus on the domain for the period of 10 years (1999-2008). For the correction of systematic biases, a perturbation method divided into the mean and the perturbation part was used with a different correction method being applied to each part. The mean was corrected by a weighting function while the perturbation was corrected by the self-organizing maps method. The results with correction agree well with the observed pattern compared to those without correction, improving the spatial and temporal correlations as well as the RMSE. In addition, they represented detailed spatial features of temperature including topographic signals, which cannot be expressed properly by gridded observation. Through comparison with in-situ observation with gridded values after objective analysis, it was found that the detailed structure correctly reflected topographically diverse signals that could not be derived from limited observation data. We expect that the correction method developed in this study can be effectively used for the analyses and projections of climate downscaled by using region climate models. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER 2012-3083 and Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009353, Republic of Korea. Reference Ahn, J.-B., Lee, J.-L., and Im, E.-S., 2012: The reproducibility of surface air temperature over South Korea using dynamical downscaling and statistical correction, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 90, 493-507, doi: 10.2151/jmsj.2012-404

  3. Analysis of Hospital Disaster in South Korea from 1990 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Back, Min-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to systematically review and analyze disasters involving South Korean hospitals from 1990 and to introduce a newly developed implement to manage patients' evacuation. Materials and Methods We searched for studies reporting disaster preparedness and hospital injuries in South Korean hospitals from 1990 to 2008, by using the Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS, copyright Korean Studies Information Co, Ltd, Seoul, Korea) and, simultaneously, hospital injuries which were reported and regarded as a disaster. Then, each study and injury were analyzed. Results Five studies (3 on prevention and structure, 1 on implement of new device, and 1 on basic supplement to current methods) and 8 injuries were found within this period. During the evacuations, the mean gait speed of walking patients was 0.82 m/s and the mean time of evacuation of individual patients was 38.39 seconds. Regarding structure evaluation, almost all hospitals had no balconies in patient rooms; hospital elevators were placed peripherally and were insufficient in number. As a new device, Savingsun (evacuation elevator) was introduced and had some merits as a fast and easy tool, regardless of patient status or the height of hospital. Conclusion In South Korea, preparation for hospital disasters was noted to be insufficient but has involved various departments such as architectural, clinical, and building operations. In addition, Savignsun has been shown to effectively evacuate and save patients in a hospital disaster. PMID:20879068

  4. Nationwide surveillance for pathogenic microorganisms in groundwater near carcass burials constructed in South Korea in 2010.

    PubMed

    Joung, Ha Kyung; Han, Sang Ha; Park, Su-Jung; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Ahn, Tae Seok; Lee, Joong-Bok; Jeong, Yong-Seok; Jang, Kyung Lib; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Paik, Soon Young

    2013-12-01

    Widespread outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza occurred in South Korea during 2010. In response to the culling of many animals to attenuate the spread of disease, South Korea used mass burial sites to dispose of the large number of carcasses; consequently, concerns about groundwater contamination by leachate from these burial sites are increasing. Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water, and its cleanliness is directly related to public health. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the safety of groundwater around the burial sites (total of 600 sites). A total of 1,200 groundwater samples were collected though the country, and microbial analysis was conducted during two time periods: during the spring (n = 600; April to June 2012) and after rainfall (n = 600; August to October, 2012; fall). Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were detected in 173 (14.4%) and 85 (7.1%) of the 1,200 samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. each were detected only once (0.083%). Clostridium perfringens was detected from 7 groundwater samples (0.583%), and E. coli O157:H7 was not detected. With respect to norovirus, only the GII type was detected from six groundwater samples (0.5%), and enterovirus was detected in 15 groundwater samples (1.25%). The frequency of E. coli that we detected was lower than that found in previous studies conducted in South Korea, but we detected higher frequency of fecal coliform than that observed in a previous report. The contamination frequencies of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were very low, but C. perfringens, which could be an indicator of fecal pollution, was detected in seven regions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate a low possibility of contamination from burial sites. However, consistent monitoring is required to prevent microbial contamination of groundwater near the burial sites. PMID:24351737

  5. A Survey on the Status of Hepatitis E Virus Infection Among Slaughterhouse Workers in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Seok; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Lee, Kwan; Min, Young-Sun; Yoon, Young-Sil; Jeong, Hye-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) among high-risk groups overseas is high, but studies in these groups are rare in South Korea. We conducted the present study from April to November 2012 to obtain data on the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for HEV among slaughterhouse workers in South Korea. Methods: Slaughterhouse workers from 80 workplaces nationwide were surveyed in South Korea in 2012. The subjects comprised 1848 cases: 1434 slaughter workers and 414 residual products handlers. By visiting 80 slaughterhouses, which were mixed with 75 of which also performed residual products handling, we conducted a questionnaire survey for risk factors and obtained blood samples in order to determine the seropositivity and seroprevalence of HEV. Anti-HEV IgG and IgM were measured using HEV IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunospecific assay kits and HEV antigen was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: The seropositivity of anti-HEV IgG was 33.5% (slaughter workers 32.8% and residual products handlers 36.2%), and among the seropositive individuals the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgM was 0.5% (slaughter workers 0.5%, residual products handlers 0.7%). The response rate of HEV-antigen as measured by RT-PCR was 0.2%. Risk factors significantly related to anti-HEV IgG seropositivity were age, sex , and working duration (slaughter workers only). Conclusions: There were significant risk factors (sex, age, and working duration) for HEV identified in our study. All three positive cases for HEV-antigen by RT-PCR were related to pig slaughter but without statistical significance. To prevent HEV, an educational program and working guidelines may be needed for high risk groups. PMID:25652711

  6. Nationwide Surveillance for Pathogenic Microorganisms in Groundwater near Carcass Burials Constructed in South Korea in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Ha Kyung; Han, Sang Ha; Park, Su-Jung; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Ahn, Tae Seok; Lee, Joong-Bok; Jeong, Yong-Seok; Jang, Kyung Lib; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Paik, Soon Young

    2013-01-01

    Widespread outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza occurred in South Korea during 2010. In response to the culling of many animals to attenuate the spread of disease, South Korea used mass burial sites to dispose of the large number of carcasses; consequently, concerns about groundwater contamination by leachate from these burial sites are increasing. Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water, and its cleanliness is directly related to public health. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the safety of groundwater around the burial sites (total of 600 sites). A total of 1,200 groundwater samples were collected though the country, and microbial analysis was conducted during two time periods: during the spring (n = 600; April to June 2012) and after rainfall (n = 600; August to October, 2012; fall). Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were detected in 173 (14.4%) and 85 (7.1%) of the 1,200 samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. each were detected only once (0.083%). Clostridium perfringens was detected from 7 groundwater samples (0.583%), and E. coli O157:H7 was not detected. With respect to norovirus, only the GII type was detected from six groundwater samples (0.5%), and enterovirus was detected in 15 groundwater samples (1.25%). The frequency of E. coli that we detected was lower than that found in previous studies conducted in South Korea, but we detected higher frequency of fecal coliform than that observed in a previous report. The contamination frequencies of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were very low, but C. perfringens, which could be an indicator of fecal pollution, was detected in seven regions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate a low possibility of contamination from burial sites. However, consistent monitoring is required to prevent microbial contamination of groundwater near the burial sites. PMID:24351737

  7. Applying policy and health effects of air pollution in South Korea: focus on ambient air quality standards

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jongsik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives South Koreas air quality standards are insufficient in terms of establishing a procedure for their management. The current system lacks a proper decision-making process and prior evidence is not considered. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure for establishing atmospheric environmental standards in South Korea that will take into consideration the health of its residents. Methods In this paper, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the US was examined in order to suggest ways, which consider health effects, to establish air quality standards in South Korea. Up-to-date research on the health effects of air pollution was then reviewed, and tools were proposed to utilize the key results. This was done in an effort to ensure the reliability of the standards with regard to public health. Results This study showed that scientific research on the health effects of air pollution and the methodology used in the research have contributed significantly to establishing air quality standards. However, as the standards are legally binding, the procedure should take into account the effects on other sectors. Realistically speaking, it is impossible to establish standards that protect an entire population from air pollution. Instead, it is necessary to find a balance between what should be done and what can be done. Conclusions Therefore, establishing air quality standards should be done as part of an evidence-based policy that identifies the health effects of air pollution and takes into consideration political, economic, and social contexts. PMID:25300297

  8. GPS ionospheric tomography: A comparison with the IRI-2001 model over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S.; Park, J.-U.

    2007-04-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere model 2001 (IRI-2001) is one of the most comprehensive empirical models of the ionosphere and has been widely used to estimate the electron density profiles in the altitude ranging from about 60 to 2000 km and the total electron content (TEC) at any given location, time and date, which reflect smooth-average global ionospheric behaviors. However, whether it provides normal actual estimations in the ionosphere over some regions should be tested with real observation data. In this paper, the three-dimensional ionospheric electron density profiles over South Korea in 2003 are obtained using the ionospheric tomography reconstruction technique with the permanent Korean GPS Network (KGN) data, and its validity is further verified by another independent ionosonde data. The GPS ionospheric reconstruction results are used to compare then results obtained with the IRI-2001 model in South Korea in terms of NmF2 and TEC. The monthly averaged diurnal values of these key parameters in January, April, July and October 2003 are considered to represent the winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons, respectively. Compared with the GPS reconstruction results, averaged monthly NmF2 medians from the IRI-2001 are overestimated in daytime and underestimated in nighttime for all seasons, but the deviation magnitudes in autumn and winter are smaller than in spring and summer. In addition, averaged monthly TEC medians from the IRI-2001 are overestimated in daytime in winter, but almost always underestimated in other seasons.

  9. Sex preferences and fertility in South Korea during the year of the Horse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin; Paik, Myungho

    2006-05-01

    Since antiquity, people in several East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, and South Korea, have believed that a person is destined to possess specific characteristics according to the sign of the zodiac under which he or she was born. South Koreans, in particular, have traditionally considered that the year of the Horse bears inauspicious implications for the birth of daughters. Using monthly longitudinal data at the region level in South Korea between 1970 and 2003, we found that in the year of the Horse, the sex ratio at birth significantly increased while fertility decreased. PMID:16889129

  10. English or Perish: How Contemporary South Korea Received, Accommodated, and Internalized English and American Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, JongHwa; Han, Min Wha; McKerrow, Raymie E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the positionality of English in South Korea as a form of symbolic capital that represents the discursive power of Americanism and East Asian Social Darwinism. By employing Bourdieu's and Foucault's theoretical orientations, this paper traces how South Korean linguistic policies to incorporate English loan words coincide with…

  11. Educating Citizens in a Multicultural Society: The Case of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jungsoon

    2010-01-01

    South Korean society is in transition toward a multicultural society. Integrating multicultural education into current citizenship education is challenging for the society. Historically, many national tragedies have created the unique characteristics of what being Korean means. South Korean social studies curriculum emphasized that Korea is a

  12. English or Perish: How Contemporary South Korea Received, Accommodated, and Internalized English and American Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, JongHwa; Han, Min Wha; McKerrow, Raymie E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the positionality of English in South Korea as a form of symbolic capital that represents the discursive power of Americanism and East Asian Social Darwinism. By employing Bourdieu's and Foucault's theoretical orientations, this paper traces how South Korean linguistic policies to incorporate English loan words coincide with

  13. Gender, Power and Emotion: Towards Holistic Understanding of Mature Women Students in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghoe

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the life experiences of six mature undergraduate women at a traditional 4-year university in South Korea. It explores women's construction of their university lives in the context of their wider socio-cultural experiences, both past and present, which are shaped by the socio-historical context of South Korean society.

  14. Public and Private in South Korea's Education Reform Vocabulary: An Evolving Statist Culture of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    2004-01-01

    Statism is a political economy that prevails in many East Asian countries. This paper explores its negative role in South Korea's education reform since the restoration of civilian democracy in 1993. It takes note of South Koreans' aberrant use of the terms "public education" and "private education" and the frame of reference for policy discourses

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Rehmannia Mosaic Virus Infecting Rehmannia glutinosa in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seungmo; Zhao, Fumei; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a South Korean isolate of Rehmannia mosaic virus (ReMV) infecting Rehmannia glutinosa was determined through next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a natural infection of R. glutinosa by ReMV in South Korea. PMID:26823577

  16. Re-Conceptualization of Scientific Literacy in South Korea for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Hyunju; Shin, Namsoo; Kim, Sung-Won; Krajcik, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    As the context of human life expands from personal to global, a new vision of scientific literacy is needed. Based on a synthesis of the literature and the findings of an online survey of South Korean and US secondary science teachers, we developed a framework for scientific literacy for South Korea that includes five dimensions: content…

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Rehmannia Mosaic Virus Infecting Rehmannia glutinosa in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seungmo; Zhao, Fumei; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a South Korean isolate of Rehmannia mosaic virus (ReMV) infecting Rehmannia glutinosa was determined through next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a natural infection of R. glutinosa by ReMV in South Korea. PMID:26823577

  18. Academic Differentiation, School Achievement and School Violence in the USA and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Han, Seunghee

    2007-01-01

    Whilst school violence is a major public concern and a focus of educational reforms both in the USA and South Korea, few studies have comparatively examined the rates of school violence and school factors associated with them. Analysing nationally-representative data from eighth graders, their mathematics teachers and principals in 150 South

  19. The Diffusion of Disability Rights Policy: A Focus on Special Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Joan P.; Palley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the development of South Korean special education policy and suggests that different strategies of policy diffusion influenced the design of the policy at different times. Historically, South Korea relied on external pressures and influences, particularly US law and UN guidelines, to develop much of its human rights law,

  20. Educating Citizens in a Multicultural Society: The Case of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jungsoon

    2010-01-01

    South Korean society is in transition toward a multicultural society. Integrating multicultural education into current citizenship education is challenging for the society. Historically, many national tragedies have created the unique characteristics of what being Korean means. South Korean social studies curriculum emphasized that Korea is a…

  1. Mortality Risk Factors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak, South Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kluberg, Sheryl A.; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    As of July 15, 2015, the South Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare had reported 186 case-patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome in South Korea. For 159 case-patients with known outcomes and complete case histories, we found that older age and preexisting concurrent health conditions were risk factors for death. PMID:26488869

  2. Exploring Differential Science Performance in Korea and South Africa: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Mee-Ok; Scherman, Vanessa; Gaigher, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on secondary analysis of TIMSS 2003 data with the aim of explaining the difference in science achievement of Korean and South African learners. The question asked by this research, i.e. which factors at various educational levels influence science achievement in Korea and South Africa respectively, is addressed from the…

  3. The Diffusion of Disability Rights Policy: A Focus on Special Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Joan P.; Palley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the development of South Korean special education policy and suggests that different strategies of policy diffusion influenced the design of the policy at different times. Historically, South Korea relied on external pressures and influences, particularly US law and UN guidelines, to develop much of its human rights law,…

  4. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY:...

  5. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

  6. Exploring Differential Science Performance in Korea and South Africa: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Mee-Ok; Scherman, Vanessa; Gaigher, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on secondary analysis of TIMSS 2003 data with the aim of explaining the difference in science achievement of Korean and South African learners. The question asked by this research, i.e. which factors at various educational levels influence science achievement in Korea and South Africa respectively, is addressed from the

  7. Re-Conceptualization of Scientific Literacy in South Korea for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Hyunju; Shin, Namsoo; Kim, Sung-Won; Krajcik, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    As the context of human life expands from personal to global, a new vision of scientific literacy is needed. Based on a synthesis of the literature and the findings of an online survey of South Korean and US secondary science teachers, we developed a framework for scientific literacy for South Korea that includes five dimensions: content

  8. Forecasting international tourism demand from the US, Japan and South Korea to Malaysia: A SARIMA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhan, Nurbaizura; Arsad, Zainudin

    2014-07-01

    One of the major contributing sectors for Malaysia's economic growth is tourism. The number of international tourist arrivals to Malaysia has been showing an upward trend as a result of several programs and promotion introduced by the Malaysian government to attract international tourists to the country. This study attempts to model and to forecast tourism demand for Malaysia by three selected countries: the US, Japan and South Korea. This study utilized monthly time series data for the period from January 1999 to December 2012 and employed the well-known Box-Jenkins seasonal ARIMA modeling procedures. Not surprisingly the results show the number of tourist arrivals from the three countries contain strong seasonal component as the arrivals strongly dependent on the season in the country of origin. The findings of the study also show that the number of tourist arrivals from the US and South Korea will continue to increase in the near future. Meanwhile the arrivals from Japan is forecasted to show a drop in the near future and as such tourism authorities in Malaysia need to enhance the promotional effort to attract more tourists from Japan to visit Malaysia.

  9. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. SUBJECTS/METHODS Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. RESULTS The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. CONCLUSIONS Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake. PMID:25489413

  10. Research on Korean Pharmacopuncture in South Korea since 2007

    PubMed Central

    Lim, ChungSan; Park, SangKyun; Sun, SeungHo; Lee, KwangHo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the current trends in research on pharmacopuncture in Korea since 2007. Methods: A literature review was performed by using the search engines Science and Technology Society Village, Korean Studies Information Service System, National Discovery for Science Leaders, and Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System in Korea from January 2007 to December 2013. Searched key words were pharmacopuncture, herbal acupuncture, aqua-acupuncture, and bee venom. Finally, we selected 457 papers, including Korean experimental studies and clinical studies. Selected papers were classified according to year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease & topic, research type and the publishing journal. Results: One hundred fifty pharmacopunctures were studied in 457 papers. Single compound pharmacopuncture was the most studied pharmacopuncture in experimental studies while animal-based pharmacopuncture was the most studied pharmacopuncture in clinical studies. Bee venom placed first among the various pharmacopunctures, followed by placenta, sweet bee venom, mountain-ginseng, and anti-inflammatory pharmacopunctures. Experimental research on pharmacopuncture has fallen since 2007 when 55 papers were published. However, clinical research has been increasing steadily. In clinical studies, case reports were numerous than randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Musculoskeletal diseases were the most frequently-treated diseases in studies on pharmacopuncture; among the musculoskeletal diseases, rheumatoid arthritis was the most frequently-treated disease in experimental studies and low back pain was the most frequently-treated condition in clinical studies. Since 2007, 45 different journals have published studies on pharmacopuncture, with the Journal of the Korean Acupuncture and Moxibustion Medicine Society having the largest number of papers on pharmacopuncture and the Journal of Pharmacopuncture the second largest number. Conclusion: The trends in research on pharmacopuncture published in studies from 2007 to 2013 were similar to those in studies published before 2006. Many studies on pharmacopuncture focused on bee venom and musculoskeletal diseases. Additional studies on diverse types of and indications for pharmacopuncture are needed. PMID:25780715

  11. Reverse brain drain in South Korea: state-led model.

    PubMed

    Yoon, B L

    1992-01-01

    Korea's reverse brain drain (RBD) has been an organized government effort, rather than a spontaneous social phenomenon, in that various policies and the political support of President Park, Chung-Hee were instrumental in laying the groundwork for its success. Particular features of Korea's RBD policies are the creation of a conducive domestic environment (i.e., government-sponsored strategic R & D institution-building, legal, and administrative reforms), and importantly, the empowerment of returnees (via, i.e., exceptionally good maternal benefits, guarantees of research autonomy). President Park played the cardinal role in empowering repatriates at the expense of his own civil bureaucracy, and his capacity for such patronage derived from Korea's bureaucratic-authoritarian political system. Returning scientists and engineers directly benefitted from this political system as well as Park's personal guardianship. For Park, empowerment of returning "brains" was necessary to accomplish his national industrialization plan, thereby enhancing his political legitimacy in domestic politics. An alliance with the R & D cadre was functionally necessary to successfully consolidate strong presidential power, and politically nonthreatening due to the particular form of "pact of domination" in Korea's power structure. RBD in Korea will continue in the near future given Korea's drive for high technology, and the remarkable expansion of local industrial and educational sectors. Korea's future RBD, however, needs to pay closer attention to the following 4 problems: research autonomy; equality issues; skill-based repatriation of technicians and engineers rather than Ph.Ds; and subsidies to small and medium industry for RBD. PMID:12285392

  12. Correlation between National Influenza Surveillance Data and Google Trends in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Min Woo; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jae Ho; Ryoo, Seoung Mok; Kim, Won Young; Seo, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background In South Korea, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using internet search data, including Google Flu Trends. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between national influenza surveillance data and Google Trends in South Korea. Methods Our study was based on a publicly available search engine database, Google Trends, using 12 influenza-related queries, from September 9, 2007 to September 8, 2012. National surveillance data were obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) influenza-like illness (ILI) and virologic surveillance system. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the national surveillance and the Google Trends data for the overall period and for 5 influenza seasons. Results The correlation coefficient between the KCDC ILI and virologic surveillance data was 0.72 (p<0.05). The highest correlation was between the Google Trends query of H1N1 and the ILI data, with a correlation coefficient of 0.53 (p<0.05), for the overall study period. When compared with the KCDC virologic data, the Google Trends query of bird flu had the highest correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 (p<0.05) in the 2010-11 season. The following queries showed a statistically significant correlation coefficient compared with ILI data for three consecutive seasons: Tamiflu (r?=?0.59, 0.86, 0.90, p<0.05), new flu (r?=?0.64, 0.43, 0.70, p<0.05) and flu (r?=?0.68, 0.43, 0.77, p<0.05). Conclusions In our study, we found that the Google Trends for certain queries using the survey on influenza correlated with national surveillance data in South Korea. The results of this study showed that Google Trends in the Korean language can be used as complementary data for influenza surveillance but was insufficient for the use of predictive models, such as Google Flu Trends. PMID:24339927

  13. South Korea Builds a Global University, with Help from the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    Built on 1,500 acres of land reclaimed from the Yellow Sea off Incheon, about 35 miles from South Korea's capital, New Songdo City is billed as the largest private real-estate development in history. It is Korea's answer to Shanghai and Dubai. Estimates put the cost of the Songdo project, which is barely five years old, at up to $60-billion. The

  14. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-01-01

    This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease. PMID:26951983

  15. Diversity of rhizobia associated with leguminous trees growing in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun Won; Song, Jaekyeong; Doty, Sharon L; Lee, Don Koo

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to examine the diversity of 34 isolates collected from 11 species of leguminous trees growing in South Korea. Phylogenetic relationships between these 34 isolates and reference strains of the Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Ensifer/Sinorhizobium were analysed by using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Twenty-one isolates were related to Mesorhizobium, four isolates to Rhizobium, and nine isolates to Bradyrhizobium. But none of isolates were related to Sinorhizobium/Ensifer and Azorhizobium. Robinia pseudoacacia and Amorpha fruticosa were nodulated by various genotypes of rhizobia out of them, most of the isolates belonged to the genus Mesorhizobium. The isolates from Lespedeza bicolar belonged to diverse genera of Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, and Bradyrhizobium. The isolates from Maackia amurensis and Lespedeza maximowiezii var. tomentella were phylogenetically related to the genera of Bradyrhizobium. PCR-based RAPD method and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA results revealed a high phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial strains nodulating leguminous trees in South Korea. Also, the relationships between host and bacterial phylogenies showed that only Robinia pseudoacacia, and Wisteria floribunda have significantly unique branch length than expected by chance based on phylogenetic tree. PMID:22733456

  16. Perchlorate in dairy milk and milk-based powdered infant formula in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Her, Namguk; Kim, Jongsung; Yoon, Yeomin

    2010-10-01

    Perchlorate has been detected in dairy milk and milk-based powdered infant formula samples from many different provinces of South Korea. A total of 37 dairy milk samples from 12 different brands and 26 milk-based powdered infant formula samples from four different brands were tested for the presence of perchlorate. These brands and their products, which are analyzed in this study, cover over 95% of the dairy milk and milk-based powdered infant formula market share in South Korea, which has a population of approximately 50 million inhabitants. Perchlorate was explicitly detected by ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; the limit of quantification (LOQ) for dairy milk and milk-based powdered infant formula was 0.12 μg L(-1) and 1.0 μg kg(-1), respectively. The perchlorate concentration in all the samples was above the LOQ. The perchlorate detection data is given as follows: 1.99-6.41 μg L(-1) (n = 37, mean concentration = 4.59 ± 0.17 μg L(-1)) for dairy milk and 1.49-33.3 μg kg(-1) (n = 26, mean concentration = 7.83 ± 0.22 μg kg(-1)) for milk-based infant formula. This study provides increasing evidence that perchlorate commonly occurs in dairy products, presumably as the result of perchlorate intake by dairy cattle from water and feed. PMID:20692011

  17. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-02-01

    This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease. PMID:26951983

  18. Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Medical Students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da Ho; Jo, Kyung-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among medical students in South Korea. Methods Students from one medical school, who were in second- or third-year classes before clerkship course, were enrolled for three consecutive years in the study. A standard questionnaire was given to each participant, and tuberculin skin test (TST), QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay, and chest radiography were performed. Results A total of 153 participants were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 21.90.9 years, 105 (68.6%) were male, and 132 (86.3%) had been vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Four students (2.6%) had a history of contact with tuberculosis (TB) patients during medical practice. No abnormal chest radiograph findings were found for any of the subjects. Of the 153 subjects, 23 (15.0%) tested positive for the TST, and 8 (5.2%) tested positive for the QFT-GIT. The agreement between the two tests was determined to be 0.34 using kappa coefficients. Of the four students who had a history of contact with TB patients, only one subject tested positive for both tests, and the other three students tested negative for both tests. Conclusion A low prevalence of LTBI was found among medical students before clerkship course in South Korea. PMID:23166557

  19. Assessment of Coastal Ecosystem Services for Conservation Strategies in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Min Gon; Kang, Hojeong; Choi, Sung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that scientific and political consideration for ecosystem services has dramatically increased over the past decade, few studies have focused on marine and coastal ecosystem services for conservation strategies. We used an ecosystem services approach to assess spatial distributions of habitat risks and four ecosystem services (coastal protection, carbon storage, recreation, and aesthetic quality), and explored the tradeoffs among them in coastal areas of South Korea. Additionally, we analyzed how the social and ecological characteristics in coastal areas interact with conservation and development policies by using this approach. We found strong negative associations between the habitat risks and ecosystem services (aquaculture, carbon storage, recreation, and aesthetic quality) across the coastal counties. Our results showed that the intensity of the habitat risks and the provision of ecosystem services were significantly different between reclamation-dominated and conservation-dominated counties, except for coastal vulnerability. A generalized linear model suggested that reclamation projects were dependent on economic efficiency, whereas demographic pressures and habitat conditions influenced the designation of protected areas at a county level. The ecosystem services approach provided guidelines to achieve both sustainable development and environment conservation. By using the approach, we can select the priority areas for developments while we can minimize the degradation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. As cultural ecosystem services are evenly distributed throughout coastal areas of South Korea, decision makers may employ them to improve the conditions of coastal wetlands outside of protected areas. PMID:26221950

  20. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from Wild Rodents and Insectivores in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juha; Kim, C-Yoon; Chang, Seo-Na; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Han, Juhee; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Hanseul; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Jong-Taek; Oh, Hong-Shik; Hur, Moonsuk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Park, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in wild rodents and insectivores of South Korea and to assess their potential role as a source of human cryptosporidiosis, a total of 199 wild rodents and insectivore specimens were collected from 10 regions of South Korea and screened for Cryptosporidium infection over a period of 2 years (2012-2013). A nested-PCR amplification of Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene fragment revealed an overall prevalence of 34.2% (68/199). The sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene locus of Cryptosporidium was performed from the fecal and cecum samples that tested positive by COWP amplification PCR. As a result, we identified 4 species/genotypes; chipmunk genotype I, cervine genotype I, C. muris, and a new genotype which is closely related to the bear genotype. The new genotype isolated from 12 Apodemus agrarius and 2 Apodemus chejuensis was not previously identified as known species or genotype, and therefore, it is supposed to be a novel genotype. In addition, the host spectrum of Cryptosporidium was extended to A. agrarius and Crosidura lasiura, which had not been reported before. In this study, we found that the Korean wild rodents and insectivores were infected with various Cryptosporidium spp. with large intra-genotypic variationa, indicating that they may function as potential reservoirs transmitting zoonotic Cryptosporidium to livestock and humans. PMID:26797442

  1. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from Wild Rodents and Insectivores in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Juha; Kim, C-Yoon; Chang, Seo-Na; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Han, Juhee; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Hanseul; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Jong-Taek; Oh, Hong-Shik; Hur, Moonsuk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Park, Jae-Hak

    2015-12-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in wild rodents and insectivores of South Korea and to assess their potential role as a source of human cryptosporidiosis, a total of 199 wild rodents and insectivore specimens were collected from 10 regions of South Korea and screened for Cryptosporidium infection over a period of 2 years (2012-2013). A nested-PCR amplification of Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene fragment revealed an overall prevalence of 34.2% (68/199). The sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene locus of Cryptosporidium was performed from the fecal and cecum samples that tested positive by COWP amplification PCR. As a result, we identified 4 species/genotypes; chipmunk genotype I, cervine genotype I, C. muris, and a new genotype which is closely related to the bear genotype. The new genotype isolated from 12 Apodemus agrarius and 2 Apodemus chejuensis was not previously identified as known species or genotype, and therefore, it is supposed to be a novel genotype. In addition, the host spectrum of Cryptosporidium was extended to A. agrarius and Crosidura lasiura, which had not been reported before. In this study, we found that the Korean wild rodents and insectivores were infected with various Cryptosporidium spp. with large intra-genotypic variationa, indicating that they may function as potential reservoirs transmitting zoonotic Cryptosporidium to livestock and humans. PMID:26797442

  2. The Change of First-flowering Date over South Korea Projected from Downscaled IPCC AR5 Simulation: Peach and Pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.

    2014-12-01

    The variations in the first-flowering date (FFD) of peach (Prunus persica) and pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) under future climate change in South Korea are investigated using simulations obtained from five models of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. For the study, daily temperature simulations with Historical (1986-2005), and RCP (2071-2090) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are statistically downscaled to 50 peach and pear FFD (FFDpeach and FFDpear, respectively) observation sites over South Korea. The number of days transformed to standard temperature (DTS) method is selected as the phenological model and applied to simulations for estimating FFDpeach and FFDpear over South Korea, due to its superior performance on the target plants and region compared to the growing degree days (GDD) and chill days (CD) methods. In the analysis, mean temperatures for early spring (February to April) over South Korea in 2090 under RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are expected to have increased by 1.9K and 3.3K, respectively. Among the early spring months of February to April, February shows the largest temperature increase of 2.1K and 3.7K for RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, respectively. The increased temperature during February and March accelerates the plant growth rate and thereby advances FFDpeach by 7.0 and 12.7 days and FFDpear by 6.1 and 10.7 days, respectively. These results imply that the present flowering of peach and pear in the middle of April will have advanced to late March or early April by the end of this century. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953, Republic of Korea.

  3. A novel overall approach for sediment-related disaster prevention in urban areas, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongyeob; Lee, Changwoo; Woo, Choongshik; Jeong, Seonhwan

    2015-04-01

    In South Korea, we had 140 landslides around Mt. Umyeon of Seoul city on July 27, 2011, which caused 16 deaths and more than 150 house damages. These landslides were triggered by a severe rainfall event with the total amount of 365 mm, equivalent to a 100-year-recurrence interval event. The landslide disaster in Mt. Umyeon is the first sediment-related disaster posing the significant serious damages to urban areas in South Korea which requires overall reconsideration about prevention, warning, countermeasure and rehabilitation to sediment-related disasters in urban areas. To meet such demands of society, the Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI), competent to the sediment-related disasters research, is committed to conducting on a research project of development of a prevention system for sediment-related disasters in urban areas including non-structural countermeasures such as construction of landslide early warning system and structural ones such as development of urban-typed debris flow barriers. Of these countermeasures, a proto-type of landslide early warning system consisting of a variety of sensors such as soil moisture content sensor and tensiometer has been tested in-situ in a point view of system performance maintenance. We have also tried to find the threshold of the sensors by slope failure experiments. Meanwhile, two types of debris flow barriers for urban areas were developed and their functioning abilities have been tested by both of flume test and computational structure analysis. We hope these research results would mitigate potential damages efficiently by sediment-related disasters in urban areas.

  4. Contributions of the pollutant emission in South Korea to the aerosol concentrations and depositions in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soon-Ung; Lee, In-Hye; Choe, Anna; Joo, Seung Jin

    2015-05-01

    The spatial distributions of annual mean concentrations and the annual total depositions of the Asian dust (AD) aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosol (AA) in 2010 are investigated with pollutant emissions over the whole model domain of Asia and without the pollutant emission from South Korea using the Aerosol Modeling System (AMS) that is modified from the Asian Dust Aerosol Model2 (ADAM2) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling System. The annual mean surface aerosol concentrations in Asia are found to affect a wide region as a complex mixture of AA and AD aerosols. However, the contribution of the pollutant emission from South Korea is found to be limited to the neighboring regions. The annual total aerosol deposition in Asia is 485.2 Tg. However, the contribution due to the pollutant emission from South Korea is about 1.9 Tg, suggesting of no significant contribution to the environment.

  5. Characteristics of the E - and F -region field-aligned irregularities in middle latitudes: Initial results obtained from the Daejeon 40.8 MHz VHF radar in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Young-Sil; Yang, Tae-Yong; Kil, Hoysub; Phanikumar, D.; Heo, Bok-Haeng; Lee, Jae-Jin; Hwang, Junga; Choi, Seong-Hwan; Park, Young-Deuk; Choi, Ho-Seong

    2014-03-01

    We present preliminary observations of the field-aligned-irregularities (FAIs) in the E and F regions during the solar minimum (2009 - 2010) using the 40.8 MHz coherent backscatter radar at Daejeon (36.18°N, 127.14°E, 26.7°N dip latitude) in South Korea. The radar, which consists of 24 Yagi antennas, observes the FAIs using a single beam with a peak power of 24 kW. The radar has been continuously operated since December 2009. Depending on the manner of occurrence of the backscatter echoes, the E-region echoes are largely divided into two types: quasi-periodic (QP) and continuous echoes. Our observations show that the QP echoes occur frequently above an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunset period and continuous echoes occur preferentially around an altitude of 105 km in the post-sunrise period. QP echoes appear as striated discrete echoes for a period of about 10 - 20 min. The QP-type echoes occur more frequently than the continuoustype echoes do and the echo intensity of the QP type is stronger than that of the continuous type. In the F region, the FAIs occur at night at an altitude interval of 250 - 450 km. As time proceeds, the occurrence height of the FAIs gradually increases until early in the morning and then decreases. The duration of the F-region FAIs is typically a few hours at night, although, in rare cases, FAIs persist throughout the night or appear even after sunrise. We discuss the similarities and differences of the FAIs observed by the Daejeon radar in comparison with other radar observations.

  6. Air pollution and unintentional injury deaths in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Cho, Jaelim; Cho, Seong-Kyung; Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between exposure to air pollution and unintentional injury deaths in South Korea. Data regarding all unintentional injury deaths (17,566) in seven metropolitan cities from 2002 to 2008 were collected. Using a time-stratified case-crossover study, conditional logistic regression and subgroup analyses were performed after stratification by age, gender, and season. To evaluate immediate and delayed effects of air pollutants, we used both single lag and distributed lag models. The risk was expressed as an odds ratio (OR) per one interquartile range (IQR) of each air pollutant. During the study period, the median (IQR) levels of air pollutants were 0.005 (0.004-0.007) ppm for sulfur dioxide (SO₂), 0.02 (0.02-0.03) ppm for nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), 0.03 (0.02-0.04) ppm for ozone (O₃), 48.3 (34.9-67.0) μg/m(3) for particulate matter ≤10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM₁₀), and 0.36 (0.1-0.6) ppm for carbon monoxide (CO). All air pollutants, with the exception of PM₁₀ and O₃, were significantly associated with an increased risk of unintentional injury deaths; the maximum risk was observed in the distributed lag 1 model for SO₂ (OR, 1.119; 95% confidence interval, 1.022-1.226), NO₂ (1.208; 1.043-1.400), and CO (1.012; 1.000-1.024). After stratification of the subjects by age, SO₂, NO₂, and CO were significantly associated with increased risk of unintentional injury deaths among subjects aged 60 years or older in the distributed lag 1 model, while O₃ and PM₁₀ were associated with increased risk among subjects aged 40 to 59 years. However, in subjects younger than 40 years of age, we found no significant associations for any of the air pollutants. Our study suggested evidence for a short-term association between air pollutants and unintentional injury deaths, even at low pollutants levels. PMID:25598159

  7. Relationship between Staff-Reported Culture Change and Occupancy Rate and Organizational Commitment among Nursing Homes in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung; Lim, Jinseop; Kim, Young Sun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine culture change in nursing homes in South Korea and to identify the outcomes of culture change implementation. Design and Methods: Data were taken from survey responses from 223 top- or mid-level staff among nursing homes in South Korea that were selected through a proportionate random-stratified sampling method

  8. Relationship between Staff-Reported Culture Change and Occupancy Rate and Organizational Commitment among Nursing Homes in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung; Lim, Jinseop; Kim, Young Sun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine culture change in nursing homes in South Korea and to identify the outcomes of culture change implementation. Design and Methods: Data were taken from survey responses from 223 top- or mid-level staff among nursing homes in South Korea that were selected through a proportionate random-stratified sampling method…

  9. Plasmid-mediated AmpC ?-lactamase (CMY-2) gene in Salmonella typhimurium isolated from diarrheic pigs in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Background Salmonella resistant to third-generation cephalosporin has been isolated from an increasing number of animals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine ESBL (extended-spectrum ?-lactamases)-producing and PABL (plasmid-mediated AmpC ?-lactamases)-producing Salmonella isolates from pigs in South Korea. Results Salmonella Typhimurium KVCC-BA1300259 was resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, cefoxithin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and ceftiofur. The results of a double-disk synergy test and PCR confirmed that the isolate produced CMY-2 (PABL). Analysis of plasmid incompatibility (Inc) groups revealed the presence of IncA/C and IncFIB, indicating antimicrobial resistance. This study is the first to identify S. Typhimurium isolates harboring CMY-2 in pigs in South Korea. Conclusions The presence of CMY-2 in pigs poses a significant threat of possible horizontal spread between animals and humans. PMID:24885386

  10. Boryeong Thermal Power Complex, Boryeong-Si, Chungcheongnam-do Province, South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, J.D.

    2008-10-15

    From tall skyscrapers and flashing neon signs to Buddhist temples and pagodas, South Korea is a mixture of the new and old Asia. Doing its part to help modernise this country, the Boryeong thermal power complex operates six coal-fired 500-MW units that provide electricity to power South Korea's economic growth. One of the important reasons for this facility's overall success is its operational reliability. An example of this is Boryeong Unit 3's outstanding achievement of 3,000 days of trouble-free operation. The Complex also has a dozen 150 MW combined cycle units burning imported liquefied natural gas for electrical system peaking. 4 photos.

  11. Environmental influences on youth eating habits: insights from parents and teachers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lawrence, Robert; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Youth obesity has increased over the past two decades in South Korea. Researchers employed in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with parents and teachers from 26 schools in metropolitan South Korea, to examine environmental factors affecting youth eating habits. Home environment and exposure to healthy foods were the most important factors influencing healthy eating habits. Families with working mothers eat out more than do families with stay-at-home mothers. Poor nutrition education is associated with low vegetable intake in elementary school lunches. A cultural emphasis on academic achievement adversely affects children's eating practices. Findings can guide future studies and inform program development. PMID:24884552

  12. Emergence of GII.4 Sydney norovirus in South Korea during the winter of 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Hyun, Jeongwon; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Jae-Seok; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2013-11-28

    Norovirus is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Between November 2012 and June 2013, 1718 stool samples were requested for norovirus antigen testing in the metropolitan areas of South Korea, and 91 samples were genotyped. The norovirus antigen-positive rate peaked at 52.8% in December 2012. [corrected]. A novel norovirus GII.4 variant, GII.4 Sydney 2012, was the most frequently found genotype (60.4%) during this period. This study demonstrates that norovirus activity increased during the winter of 2012-2013 in South Korea and that norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012 was the cause of the norovirus epidemic during this period. PMID:24043126

  13. Susceptibility of South Korea to Extremes Affecting the Global Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chon, So Young; Puma, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Food security in South Korea is tightly linked to the global food system. The country's production of major grains declined from 5.8 million metric tons (mmt) in 1998 to 4.8 mmt in 2014, which caused the country's grain self suciency to decline from 31.4% to 24%. This decline is a consequence of several factors including reductions in domestic agricultural land, governmental policies supporting industry over agriculture, and a push towards trade liberalization. South Korea's self suciency is now one of the lowest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, leaving it vulnerable to disruptions in the global food system.

  14. Taxonomic Study on the Lichen Genus Coccocarpia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin Yu; Wei, Xin Li; Han, Keon Seon; Koh, Young Jin

    2007-01-01

    Three species of Coccocarpia have been reported from Korean Peninsular. However, there was no revisional study on this genus before. After careful examination of the specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) and collected from main mountain areas of Korea, two species of Coccocarpia, C. palmicola and C. erythroxyli, have been revealed to occur and confirmed in South Korea. The presence and absence of isidia and apothecia are the most important characters for the South Korean species. We provide the detailed description and illustration of the available two species. A key to the species is also provided. PMID:24015093

  15. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) in Northeastern Asia and population substructure in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lissovsky, Andrey A; Park, Sun-Kyung; Obolenskaya, Ekaterina V; Dokuchaev, Nikolay E; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Li; Kim, Young-Jun; Voloshina, Inna; Myslenkov, Alexander; Choi, Tae-Young; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang

    2008-12-31

    Twenty-five chipmunk species occur in the world, of which only the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus, inhabits Asia. To investigate mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of the Siberian chipmunk in northeastern Asia, we examined mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (1140 bp) from 3 countries. Analyses of 41 individuals from South Korea and 33 individuals from Russia and northeast China resulted in 37 haplotypes and 27 haplotypes, respectively. There were no shared haplotypes between South Korea and Russia--northeast China. Phylogenetic trees and network analysis showed 2 major maternal lineages for haplotypes, referred to as the S and R lineages. Haplotype grouping in each cluster was nearly coincident with its geographic affinity. In particular, 3 distinct groups were found that mostly clustered in the northern, central and southern parts of South Korea. Nucleotide diversity of the S lineage was twice that of lineage R. The divergence between S and R lineages was estimated to be 2.98-0.98 Myr. During the ice age, there may have been at least 2 refuges in South Korea and Russia--northeast China. The sequence variation between the S and R lineages was 11.3% (K2P), which is indicative of specific recognition in rodents. These results suggest that T. sibiricus from South Korea could be considered a separate species. However, additional information, such as details of distribution, nuclear genes data or morphology, is required to strengthen this hypothesis. PMID:18852526

  16. Observational analysis of the impact on local thermal environment by the development of a river in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Park, Y.-S.; Kwon, T.; Kahng, K.; Kim, G.-H.; Choi, Y.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Observational analysis of the impact on local thermal environment by the development of a river in South Korea MinSik Kim, Young-San Park, Taeheon Kwon, Keumah Kahng, Geun-Hoi Kim, Young-Jean Choi National Institute of Meteorological Research, Korea Meteorological Administration, Korea A big project for land development in 4 major rivers is progressing in South Korea. The most influencing change in the rivers due to the project which would affect on the local meteorology is the increase of river width, which results in the increase of water surface area. To assess the impact of water surface area change, ten automatic weather stations and two stations for flux observation were installed and aligned cross a river located in west of Taegu city in South Korea. The observed meteorological elements are air temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, radiation, sensible and latent heat flux, ground heat flux, and water surface temperature. West side of the river is agricultural area and east side of the river is occupied by industrial complex. The spatial variations and differences of air temperature and water vapor contents across the river are compared for westerlies and easterlies in wind condition. The energy budgets are also compared for the cases of opposite wind directions. The variations of air temperatures and moisture are evident with distances from the riverfront. The highly influenced area by the river is quantitatively estimated depending on the atmospheric conditions. The differences of temperatures between from air, ground, and water surface are compared when the visibility is low due to the causes such as the fog.

  17. Social integration and heath policy issues for international marriage migrant women in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, Korea was largely considered to be a homogenous, racially intolerant country that had little or no experience with large-scale immigration. However, this paradigm is in the process of changing. For the first time in the country's history, large numbers of foreigners are immigrating to work and live in Korea, and many are seeking to become Koreans. In particular, international marriage migrations, especially those of women entering the country through marriages to Korean men, have become common in South Korea. This has given rise to serious challenges within the country. Although conventional ideologies portray Korea as a country of a single race, culture, and language, the growing number of immigrants has disrupted this homogenous monoculture. Indeed, there are signs that Korea has reached a turning point, with an increasingly permanent and visible migrant population challenging the country's national identity. This article explores the statistics and trends related to international marriage migrant women in South Korea, particularly in terms of their social insecurities and health-related problems. In addition, some aspects of Korean governmental policies for the social integration and health promotion of these women are examined, and some suggestions are made for ways in which public health nursing and nursing education may be changed in response to the current trends. PMID:21087310

  18. Interactive survey of consumer awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in consumer products in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Kwon, Hyo Jin; An, Seong Soo A; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Pie, Jae-Eun; Yoon, Myoung; Kim, Ja Hei; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to understand consumers risk awareness and need for relevant information about nanotechnology and nanoparticles contained in products currently being sold in Korea. Methods One thousand and seven adult consumers (aged 2050 years) were randomly selected from all over South Korea between November 1 and 9, 2010. We surveyed the origin and degree of their concern and their need for information and education regarding nanomaterials. Results Analysis of the survey results showed no significant differences in responses by sex, age, and level of education, but significant differences were found in responses based on average monthly household income. Our research showed that consumers have vague expectations for and positive image of nanotechnology and nanoproducts but do not clearly understand what they are. In addition, we found that preparing and disseminating information to consumers is required in order to provide correct information about nanotechnology to the public. Conclusion A communication system should be established among the multiple stakeholders involved with nanomaterials to address consumer expectations and concerns. Further, a safety evaluation system must be set up, the results of which should be processed by a reliable expert group so they can be disseminated to the public. PMID:25565822

  19. Yonghuang Therm Power Plant Units 1 and 2, Inchon, South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2005-08-01

    Because South Korea depends heavily on imported fuels, its government continues to encourage energy diversification. Today Korea has about 60,000 MW of installed capacity that is fueled equally by coal, liquefied natural gas, and nuclear fission. Although the linchpins of the ongoing diversification program are more nukes and more plants powered by imported LNG, another piece of the plan is to make greater use of the country's domestic coal supplies. That is where Korea South-East Power Co. enters the picture, with two new supercritical units that showcase the technology's 40% efficiency. The plant has two 800-MW units and two identical units are under construction at the site. The plant has two-stage combustion and low NOx burners followed by selective catalytic reduction on each unit. SOx emissions are under 45 ppm. An integrated control and monitoring system helps keep down operating costs. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Possible influence of South Asian high on summer rainfall variability in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Kim, Baek-Jo; Zhang, Renhe; Nam, Jae-Cheol; Park, Ki-Jun; Kim, Jeoung-Yun; Kim, Do-Woo

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the correlation between the South Asian High (SAH) shift and the summer (June-August) rainfall variability in Korea over the course of 45 years (1958-2002). It is found that the shift in the west-east direction is closely related to the summer rainfall variability in Korea. The atmospheric circulations in the east shift years showed that at 850 hPa, an intensification of the western North Pacific subtropical high allowed a sufficient amount of warm and humid air to be supplied to the lower atmosphere near Korea. On the other hand at 200 hPa, the SAH expanded toward the east, near the southern part of Korea, causing the intensification of the northwesterlies, and this allowed the supply of cold and dry air to the upper atmosphere near Korea. Meanwhile, in the latitudinal zone in which Korea is located, there were anomalous upward flows with warm and humid characteristics in the lower atmosphere and anomalous downward flows with cold and dry characteristics in the upper atmosphere. As such, the cold and warm air masses present in the upper and lower atmosphere near Korea led to thermal instability, and this was analyzed to be a major factor that could potentially increase the amount rainfall in Korea in summer in the east shift years. Moreover, a warm SST anomaly was formed in the mid-latitude zones of East Asia, and it heated the lower troposphere, thereby intensifying the thermal instability even further. Furthermore, TCs frequently had an impact on Korea in the east shift years, and were another factor that caused the increased rainfall in summer.

  1. Vitamin D status and associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong Jin; Kim, Yoon Jung; Kim, Sun Hwa; An, Jee Hyun; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Hee Young; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Nam Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D deficiency is now recognised as a common health problem associated with various chronic diseases; however, it has not been fully elucidated among the minority groups. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees living in South Korea. Design Cross-sectional analysis from the longitudinal cohort, the North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study. Participants A total of 386 North Korean refugees aged ≥30 years, who measured serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level. Results The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) was 87% and no participants had an adequate vitamin D level (25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL). Underweight participants (body mass index (BMI) <18 kg/m2) had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than individuals with normal BMI (≥18.5 and<23 kg/m2). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lowest 25(OH)D level (<10 ng/mL) was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (OR, 6.37, 95% CI 1.34 to 30.3), high triglyceride (OR, 6.71, 95% CI 1.75 to 25.7), and low high-density lipoprotein (OR, 5.98, 95% CI 1.54 to 23.2) compared with 25(OH)D levels ≥20 ng/mL after adjusting for age, sex, season, length of residence in South Korea, physical activity and BMI. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is very common among North Korean refugees in South Korea. Despite their lower BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with metabolic syndrome in this population. PMID:26621518

  2. Heterophyid trematodes recovered from people residing along the Boseong River, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Kim, Jae-Lip; Lim, Hyemi; Shin, Eun-Hee; Lee, Keon Hoon; Kim, Mok Ryeon; Han, Sun Jin; Yeom, Jae Hyun; Park, Sun Mi; Hwang, Jae-Sun

    2015-08-01

    We conducted an epidemiological survey to determine the status of heterophyid fluke infections among people residing along the Boseong River, Gokseong-gun, South Korea (= Korea) from October 2011 to February 2012. Fecal specimens were collected from 115 (male 51, female 64) people and examined for intestinal helminth eggs using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The eggs of Metagonimus yokogawai together with other Metagonimus spp. were detected in 28 (24.3%) cases. Eleven egg positive people were treated with 10mg/kg praziquantel followed by MgSO4 purging in order to recover the adult flukes. Whole consecutive diarrheic stools were collected individually 4-5 times. Adult flukes recovered were 66,499 specimens (6045.4/positive case) of M. yokogawai, 343 (38.1) of Metagonimus miyatai, 3293 (299.4) of Metagonimus takahashii, 81 (20.3) of Heterophyes nocens, 6 (3.0) of Heterophyopsis continua, and 1 (1.0) of Stictodora fuscata. The results indicated that the surveyed area is a highly endemic area of metagonimiasis (three Metagonimus species) with low-grade mixed infections of 3 other heterophyid flukes. The infected people experienced variable degrees of gastrointestinal discomfort and indigestion. They consumed raw freshwater and brackish water fish, including sweetfish and mullets. It is strongly recommended that people residing in the survey area avoid eating raw fish to prevent M. yokogawai and other heterophyid infections. PMID:25944352

  3. Developing a Common Health Information Exchange Platform to Implement a Nationwide Health Information Network in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minho; Heo, Eunyoung; Lim, Heesook; Lee, Jun Young; Weon, Sangho; Chae, Hoseok; Hwang, Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to develop a common health information exchange (HIE) platform that can provide integrated services for implementing the HIE infrastructure in addition to guidelines for participating in an HIE network in South Korea. Methods By exploiting the Health Level 7 (HL7) Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Cross-enterprise Document Sharing-b (XDS.b) profile, we defined the architectural model, exchanging data items and their standardization, messaging standards, and privacy and security guidelines, for a secure, nationwide, interoperable HIE. We then developed a service-oriented common HIE platform to minimize the effort and difficulty of fulfilling the standard requirements for participating in the HIE network. The common platform supports open application program interfaces (APIs) for implementing a document registry, a document repository, a document consumer, and a master patient index. It could also be used for testing environments for the implementation of standard requirements. Results As the initial phase of implementing a nationwide HIE network in South Korea, we built a regional network for workers' compensation (WC) hospitals and their collaborating clinics to share referral and care record summaries to ensure the continuity of care for industrially injured workers, using the common HIE platform and verifying the feasibility of our technologies. Conclusions We expect to expand the HIE network on a national scale with rapid support for implementing HL7 and IHE standards in South Korea. PMID:25705554

  4. Asia vs. Europe: Conceptual Framework of the High School World History Curriculum in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sunjoo

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the conceptual framework of South Korea's high school world history curriculum, and the problems it has faced related to Eurocentrism and Sinocentrism. Through a description of the development of current and past curriculua, the author intends to make clear that in the traditional conceptual framework of Asia

  5. A Changed Context of Lifelong Learning under the Influence of Migration: South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jin-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how Korean society is being changed under the impact of migration and the kinds of learning domains that are evolving through participation in social interaction between migrant workers and local citizens in South Korea. Employing a qualitative case study, participants' changed learning areas were investigated.…

  6. Multicultural Education in Social Studies Textbooks in South Korea and the United States: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Younghan

    2013-01-01

    Today, globalization has increased cross-border migration in many countries. The public school classroom in the United States has been getting more diverse, linguistically, culturally, racially, and ethnically. Classrooms in South Korea are also becoming linguistically, culturally, racially, and ethnically diverse because of the fast growth of…

  7. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dead Wild Birds, South Korea, 20052008

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Nah, Jin-Ju; Lee, Hang; Kim, Young-Jun; Moon, Jin-San; Cho, In-Soo; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of West Nile virus (WNV) introduction into South Korea, the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service has conducted nationwide surveillance of WNV activity in dead wild birds since 2005. Surveillance conducted during 20052008 found no evidence of WNV activity. PMID:21291611

  8. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015.

    PubMed

    Seong, Moon-Woo; Kim, So Yeon; Corman, Victor Max; Kim, Taek Soo; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jee-Soo; Seo, Soo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Soo; Yu, Byeong Su; Park, Nare; Oh, Myoung-Don; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Gayeon; Joh, Joon Sung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Eui Chong; Drosten, Christian; Park, Sung Sup

    2016-02-01

    During the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in South Korea, we sequenced full viral genomes of strains isolated from 4 patients early and late during infection. Patients represented at least 4 generations of transmission. We found no evidence of changes in the evolutionary rate and no reason to suspect adaptive changes in viral proteins. PMID:26814649

  9. Peer Relationships: Comparison of homeless youth in the U.S. and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sanna J; Kim, Jihye; McManus, Holly; Flynn, Patrick; Kim, Hyangcho

    2007-01-01

    Youth homelessness is a growing global concern; thus, homeless youth peer relationships in the U.S. and South Korea were examined. Although some aspects of street life transcended culture; individual and group behaviors varied according to perspectives related to individualism versus collectivism. Service delivery approaches are needed to develop culturally-specific interventions. PMID:19920883

  10. Peer Relationships: Comparison of homeless youth in the U.S. and South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Kim, Jihye; McManus, Holly; Flynn, Patrick; Kim, Hyangcho

    2009-01-01

    Youth homelessness is a growing global concern; thus, homeless youth peer relationships in the U.S. and South Korea were examined. Although some aspects of street life transcended culture; individual and group behaviors varied according to perspectives related to individualism versus collectivism. Service delivery approaches are needed to develop culturally-specific interventions. PMID:19920883

  11. The Evolution of South Korea's Broadband Convergence Network, 2004-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Siddhartha Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Broadband holds a critical position in the progress of economic and social indicators by connecting consumers, businesses and governments. South Korea has consistently been the global leader in broadband deployment since 1999. In the last ten years the Korean government has pursued several strategies for its broadband policy. The purpose of this

  12. The Reform of National Geography Standards in South Korea--Trends, Challenges and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Butt, Graham

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine recent changes in the geography national curriculum in South Korea through the lenses of three curriculum components that often find themselves in competition--subject content, educational processes and national/social purposes. In recent years, the prevailing national and social aims outlined for the

  13. English Education for Young Children in South Korea: Not Just a Collective Neurosis of English Fever!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to rethink English education for young children in South Korea through exploring a great variety of complex, interrelated terrains in terms of its emergence and popularity in an era of globalisation. I critically examine the relevance of discursive and non-discursive conditions derived from social, political, economic,

  14. Revisiting the Role of Cultural Capital in East Asian Educational Systems: The Case of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Schofer, Evan; Kim, Kyung-keun

    2012-01-01

    The concept of cultural capital has proved invaluable in understanding educational systems in Western countries, and recent work seeks to extend those insights to the diverse educational systems of other geographic regions. Using data from the 2000 Programme for International Student Assessment, the authors explored cultural capital in South Korea

  15. Andragogical Methods for TESOL Trainers from Action Research in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Jesse Jones

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study uses action research methodology to investigate the thematic components of English language teacher training programs in the drive to develop a universal model framework. A two-part professional development in-service program in South Korea is used as a platform for the model. Similarities and differences between real and

  16. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and

  17. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region.Based on findings, this

  18. Rethinking the Hermit Kingdom: US Social Studies Teachers' Cross-Cultural Professional Development in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonjung; Shin, Eui-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of 34 US social studies teachers who participated in a cross-cultural professional development in South Korea, and the impact of the programme on the participant teachers' perceptions and practices of global education. Drawing upon a postcolonial lens, this mixed-method study takes a critical look at (a) how

  19. Reforming School Governance in Taiwan and South Korea: Empowerment and Autonomization in School-Based Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Gu, Ja Oek

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The article aims to use the globalization theory and the implications of democratization for social policy to analyze the school governance reforms in Taiwan and South Korea. Design/methodology/approach: The article describes the main features of decentralization policy in the school sectors in the two societies with a historical review

  20. The Impact of Prestige Orientation on Shadow Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soojeong; Shouse, Roger C.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread use of "shadow education" is a major policy issue in East Asia, especially South Korea, where officials view it as harmful to educational and fiscal equity. Although previous research emphasizes functional explanations, this study takes an institutional approach, exploring how students' desire for prestigious matriculation influences

  1. Students' Beliefs about Mobile Devices vs. Desktop Computers in South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Eunmo; Mayer, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    College students in the United States and in South Korea completed a 28-item multidimensional scaling (MDS) questionnaire in which they rated the similarity of 28 pairs of multimedia learning materials on a 10-point scale (e.g., narrated animation on a mobile device Vs. movie clip on a desktop computer) and a 56-item semantic differential

  2. South Korea Seeks a New Role as a Higher-Education Hub

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2008-01-01

    In less than two generations, ambitious technocrats have transformed the southern half of the Korean peninsula from one of Asia's poorest nations into the 11th largest economy in the world. Now they want to turn South Korea into the East Asian capital of higher education. Several American colleges are in talks to set up academic and research

  3. Exploration of the Prevalence and Correlates of Substance Use among Sheltered Adolescents in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

    2007-01-01

    Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored…

  4. Brain Gain or Brain Circulation? U.S. Doctoral Recipients Returning to South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Kim, Dongbin

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the reasons for current reverse mobility patterns in South Korea and how the country benefits from returning U.S. doctoral recipients in the forms of brain gain and brain circulation. Based on interviews of Korean faculty who studied in the U.S., this study found that while the political economy might help to explain why Korean

  5. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Moon-Woo; Kim, So Yeon; Corman, Victor Max; Kim, Taek Soo; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jee-Soo; Seo, Soo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Soo; Yu, Byeong Su; Park, Nare; Oh, Myoung-don; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Gayeon; Joh, Joon Sung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Eui Chong

    2016-01-01

    During the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in South Korea, we sequenced full viral genomes of strains isolated from 4 patients early and late during infection. Patients represented at least 4 generations of transmission. We found no evidence of changes in the evolutionary rate and no reason to suspect adaptive changes in viral proteins. PMID:26814649

  6. Exploration of the Prevalence and Correlates of Substance Use among Sheltered Adolescents in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Hae Sung; Kim, Haeryun; Sung, Kgu-taik

    2007-01-01

    Substance use among sheltered adolescents is very serious in South Korea--a nation in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, few studies have investigated substance use among the adolescents which is a growing concern of the changing society of this nation. This study examined the prevalence of substance use and explored

  7. Brain Gain or Brain Circulation? U.S. Doctoral Recipients Returning to South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Kim, Dongbin

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the reasons for current reverse mobility patterns in South Korea and how the country benefits from returning U.S. doctoral recipients in the forms of brain gain and brain circulation. Based on interviews of Korean faculty who studied in the U.S., this study found that while the political economy might help to explain why Korean…

  8. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) Outbreaks in Wild Birds and Poultry, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Park, Choi-Kyu; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, O-Soo; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Choi, Jun-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) among wild birds emerged simultaneously with outbreaks in domestic poultry in South Korea during November 2010May 2011. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2, as did viruses found in Mongolia, the Peoples Republic of China, and Russia in 2009 and 2010. PMID:22377052

  9. Multicultural Education in Social Studies Textbooks in South Korea and the United States: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Younghan

    2013-01-01

    Today, globalization has increased cross-border migration in many countries. The public school classroom in the United States has been getting more diverse, linguistically, culturally, racially, and ethnically. Classrooms in South Korea are also becoming linguistically, culturally, racially, and ethnically diverse because of the fast growth of

  10. Caregiver Burden and Social Support among Mothers Raising Children with Developmental Disabilities in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Heykyung; Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia

    2009-01-01

    This study examines caregiver burden and social supports perceived by mothers raising children with developmental disabilities in South Korea. Mothers residing in the metropolitan areas of Seoul (n = 181) responded to the mail survey with a 56.6% response rate. Respondents expressed a high level of overall burden, particularly in financial…

  11. A Changed Context of Lifelong Learning under the Influence of Migration: South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jin-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how Korean society is being changed under the impact of migration and the kinds of learning domains that are evolving through participation in social interaction between migrant workers and local citizens in South Korea. Employing a qualitative case study, participants' changed learning areas were investigated.

  12. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Ticks Collected from Humans, South Korea, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seok-Min; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Ryou, Jungsang; Yang, Sung-Chan; Park, Sun-Whan; Roh, Jong Yeol; Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Chan

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the infection rate for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) among ticks collected from humans during MayOctober 2013 in South Korea. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks have been considered the SFTSV vector. However, we detected the virus in H. longicornis, Amblyomma testudinarium, and Ixodes nipponensis ticks, indicating additional potential SFTSV vectors. PMID:25061851

  13. Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n"=4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated

  14. Estimation of methylmercury intake doses in the South Korea population using a PBPK model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, South Korea has measured total mercury (Hg) in blood as part of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (koNEHS) in 6311 subjects representing Korean general population. About 25% of the biomarker measurements were above the Germany HBM1 of 5 µg Hg/L; and about...

  15. School Liability for Student Injury from School Violence: Comparison between South Korea and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Seunghee; Akiba, Motoko

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines school liability for school violence-related student injury in South Korea and the US. The study found that the US courts considered only violence-related behaviors of the perpetrator when judging whether violence can be foreseen; thus drug abuse or verbal abuse by the perpetrator were not considered as a part of his/her

  16. Successful IT Start-Ups' HRD Practices: Four Cases in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; McLean, Gary N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify South Korea's successful IT start-ups' HRD practices to determine whether there are steps that must be taken to maintain their HRD expertise for continued growth. Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach employing four fast-growing IT start-up cases was undertaken based on semi-structured…

  17. Transnational Corporations as Educational Institutions for National Development: The Contrasting Cases of Mexico and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Economic development in South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Ireland has accelerated dramatically since the 1960s, as it has in China more recently. These areas share a common element in their development strategies--the aggressive pursuit, acquisition, and incorporation of knowledge from industrialized nations. In this article, the

  18. Influence of Leader Behaviors on Creativity: A Comparative Study between South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Seog Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what are the relationships between different leader behaviors (i.e. supportive, participative, and controlling leader behaviors) and follower creativity, and whether the relationships differ between South Korea and the United States. Although creativity research suggests that supportive leader behaviors tend to enhance

  19. Academic Differentiation, School Achievement and School Violence in the USA and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Han, Seunghee

    2007-01-01

    Whilst school violence is a major public concern and a focus of educational reforms both in the USA and South Korea, few studies have comparatively examined the rates of school violence and school factors associated with them. Analysing nationally-representative data from eighth graders, their mathematics teachers and principals in 150 South…

  20. The Reform of National Geography Standards in South Korea--Trends, Challenges and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jongwon; Butt, Graham

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine recent changes in the geography national curriculum in South Korea through the lenses of three curriculum components that often find themselves in competition--subject content, educational processes and national/social purposes. In recent years, the prevailing national and social aims outlined for the…

  1. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  2. Enlightenment of Development of Higher Education in South Korea to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2012-01-01

    China and South Korea are two neighboring countries and are both developing countries. Furthermore, the modern and contemporary higher education of these two countries originates from the middle and late 19th Century, so there are a lot of similarities between the two countries. However, although the origination period of modern and contemporary…

  3. Using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and Adjustment among Interethnic and Interracial Families in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Yoo, Joan P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a model of using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and adjustment among foreign brides and their interethnic and interracial families in South Korea based on the narratives of 10 foreign brides married to Korean men and 11 service providers who directly interact with these women and their families. The results…

  4. Comparing the Experiences and Needs of Postsecondary International Students from China and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deters, Ping

    2015-01-01

    International students from China and South Korea are an increasingly important part of the international student body in many English-medium postsecondary institutions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences and needs of these two groups of students at a Canadian postsecondary institution. Data…

  5. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  6. Rethinking the Hermit Kingdom: US Social Studies Teachers' Cross-Cultural Professional Development in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonjung; Shin, Eui-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of 34 US social studies teachers who participated in a cross-cultural professional development in South Korea, and the impact of the programme on the participant teachers' perceptions and practices of global education. Drawing upon a postcolonial lens, this mixed-method study takes a critical look at (a) how…

  7. Andragogical Methods for TESOL Trainers from Action Research in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Jesse Jones

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study uses action research methodology to investigate the thematic components of English language teacher training programs in the drive to develop a universal model framework. A two-part professional development in-service program in South Korea is used as a platform for the model. Similarities and differences between real and…

  8. English Education for Young Children in South Korea: Not Just a Collective Neurosis of English Fever!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to rethink English education for young children in South Korea through exploring a great variety of complex, interrelated terrains in terms of its emergence and popularity in an era of globalisation. I critically examine the relevance of discursive and non-discursive conditions derived from social, political, economic,…

  9. The Impact of Prestige Orientation on Shadow Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soojeong; Shouse, Roger C.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread use of "shadow education" is a major policy issue in East Asia, especially South Korea, where officials view it as harmful to educational and fiscal equity. Although previous research emphasizes functional explanations, this study takes an institutional approach, exploring how students' desire for prestigious matriculation influences…

  10. Reforming School Governance in Taiwan and South Korea: Empowerment and Autonomization in School-Based Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Gu, Ja Oek

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The article aims to use the globalization theory and the implications of democratization for social policy to analyze the school governance reforms in Taiwan and South Korea. Design/methodology/approach: The article describes the main features of decentralization policy in the school sectors in the two societies with a historical review…

  11. Students' Beliefs about Mobile Devices vs. Desktop Computers in South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Eunmo; Mayer, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    College students in the United States and in South Korea completed a 28-item multidimensional scaling (MDS) questionnaire in which they rated the similarity of 28 pairs of multimedia learning materials on a 10-point scale (e.g., narrated animation on a mobile device Vs. movie clip on a desktop computer) and a 56-item semantic differential…

  12. South Korea Seeks a New Role as a Higher-Education Hub

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2008-01-01

    In less than two generations, ambitious technocrats have transformed the southern half of the Korean peninsula from one of Asia's poorest nations into the 11th largest economy in the world. Now they want to turn South Korea into the East Asian capital of higher education. Several American colleges are in talks to set up academic and research…

  13. Estimation of methylmercury intake doses in the South Korea population using a PBPK model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, South Korea has measured total mercury (Hg) in blood as part of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (koNEHS) in 6311 subjects representing Korean general population. About 25% of the biomarker measurements were above the Germany HBM1 of 5 g Hg/L; and about...

  14. Successful IT Start-Ups' HRD Practices: Four Cases in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; McLean, Gary N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify South Korea's successful IT start-ups' HRD practices to determine whether there are steps that must be taken to maintain their HRD expertise for continued growth. Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach employing four fast-growing IT start-up cases was undertaken based on semi-structured

  15. Eco-Early Childhood Education: A New Paradigm of Early Childhood Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Jaetack

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1990s, university faculty members, early childhood educators, and preschool teachers in South Korea created a new paradigm for education. Eco-early childhood education uses an ecological point of view to reform existing child-centered education. This perspective proposes moving from child- to life-centered, individual- to…

  16. The Impact of the "Teaching English through English" Policy on Teachers and Teaching in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Tae-Hee

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Asian countries including South Korea have been trying to redefine the role of English in response to globalisation. The impact of this on English language teaching and on Korean society more generally has been well documented; however, the impact of this change on individual teachers and their teaching calls for further

  17. Glocalisation or Globalisation? Travelling Discourses of Child Poverty Policy in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between globalising and localising forces occurring in a child welfare reform project in South Korea. Focusing especially on care and education services for children and families provided by the Korean "Dream Start" programme, which provides comprehensive health, parental involvement and welfare services to

  18. Poverty Eradication: Lessons from China and South Korea in the 1950s and 1960s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wignaraja, Ponna

    1996-01-01

    Traces the search for economic development alternatives that go beyond conventional neo-classical and Marxist theory and practice. Outlines case studies of social and economic transformation in South Korea and China and delineates the differences between similar attempts in Latin America and Eastern Europe. (MJP)

  19. Outdoor Play in Preschools in England and South Korea: Learning from Polyvocal Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Kwi-Ok; Waller, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a cross-cultural and collaborative project, in preschools in England and South Korea. The aim of the project is to investigate the pedagogy of outdoor play and learning in two different cultural contexts, from the perspectives of the practitioners. Although there has been a growing academic interest in the use of outdoor…

  20. Eco-Early Childhood Education: A New Paradigm of Early Childhood Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Jaetack

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1990s, university faculty members, early childhood educators, and preschool teachers in South Korea created a new paradigm for education. Eco-early childhood education uses an ecological point of view to reform existing child-centered education. This perspective proposes moving from child- to life-centered, individual- to

  1. The Evolution of South Korea's Broadband Convergence Network, 2004-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Siddhartha Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Broadband holds a critical position in the progress of economic and social indicators by connecting consumers, businesses and governments. South Korea has consistently been the global leader in broadband deployment since 1999. In the last ten years the Korean government has pursued several strategies for its broadband policy. The purpose of this…

  2. A Study on the Horizontal Stratification of Higher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hwanbo

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed university and college graduates' income gap in South Korea to investigate factors influencing such disparities. Specifically, this study focused on types of higher education institutions and academic disciplines among the many factors affecting post-graduation income differences, using a hierarchical linear model.

  3. Outdoor Play in Preschools in England and South Korea: Learning from Polyvocal Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nah, Kwi-Ok; Waller, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a cross-cultural and collaborative project, in preschools in England and South Korea. The aim of the project is to investigate the pedagogy of outdoor play and learning in two different cultural contexts, from the perspectives of the practitioners. Although there has been a growing academic interest in the use of outdoor

  4. Glocalisation or Globalisation? Travelling Discourses of Child Poverty Policy in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between globalising and localising forces occurring in a child welfare reform project in South Korea. Focusing especially on care and education services for children and families provided by the Korean "Dream Start" programme, which provides comprehensive health, parental involvement and welfare services to…

  5. Complete Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of the Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Variant in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Sun; Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4) was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558?bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF) composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100?bp), ORF2 (1,623?bp), and ORF3 (807?bp). Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines. PMID:25688356

  6. Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n" = 4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated…

  7. The Meaning of Peace and the Role of Education in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sung-Sang; Kim, Hyo-Jung

    Most people in South Korea expressed deep sympathy for the innocent victims of the September 11th attacks, but, unlike their government's official position that supported U.S. military action, many were opposed to the war the United States began in Afghanistan. The president asked for emphasis on peace and anti-terrorism education. Since the role

  8. 75 FR 30434 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would be likely......

  9. Organic and inorganic matter increase related to eutrophication in Gamak Bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Kang, Chang Keun; Kwon, Kee Young; Kim, Sook Yang

    2009-05-01

    Water quality the carbon isotope ratio of suspended particulate organic matter (POM), and limiting nutrients were investigated at seven surface and bottom seawater stations in Gamak Bay South Korea, to evaluate the effectiveness of counter-measures to organic matter increase. The increase in surface water COD in Gamak Bay appear to be the result of phytoplankton growth, which is consistently limited by nitrogen (N) or phosphorous (P), but not by silicon (Si). High chlorophyll a concentrations seem to be caused by freshwater inputs of N and P associated with wastewaterin the northern and northeastern portions of the Bay, and by the inflow of NH4-N and P associated with the digestion of organic matter from the bottom layer in western areas. To regulate the increase of organic matter in Gamak Bay, controlling phytoplankton growth, particularly by regulating the input of N or P, may be more important than controlling the input of terrestrial organic matter. PMID:20120461

  10. National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually. PMID:25420951

  11. Observed trend in Asian dust days in South Korea and its geo-physiographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    South Korea has experienced significant socio-economic damages by Asian dust (also called Yellow sand or Yellow dust). Asian dust is a wind-driven natural phenomenon that carries fine sand particles along with surface pollutants from semi-arid areas in northern China, Inner Mongolia, the Gobi Desert, and the Taklimakan Desert to the East Asia. Its occurrence requires three necessary conditions: dry soil in source areas, strong ascending air current to lift sand particles up, and intense wind speed to transport the particles. Accordingly, the drier source areas are, the larger amount of source materials for Asian dust becomes. Further, regional wind speed and direction are key elements that determine the influencing boundary and level of damage. In this study, we investigate number of Asian dust days over South Korea. We utilize monthly data over 50 years (from 1961 to 2013) recorded at 12 stations, operated by the Korean Meteorological Administration, which are evenly distributed over the country. We find that annual number of Asian dust days in South Korea tends to increase until early 2000s and the increasing trend is ceased since then. Interestingly, this transition time (early 2000s) matches the time when the surface wind speed trend has reversed (Kim and Paik, 2015). Hence, we hypothesize that occurrence of Asian dust in South Korea can be largely captured by surface wind, instead of air circulation at high altitude. We also hypothesize that the transition in the trend around early 2000s is associated with expansion of cold air system during winter over the East Asia. Detailed analysis to support these findings will be presented. Reference Kim, JC., & Paik, K. (2015). Recent recovery of surface wind speed after decadal decrease: A focus on South Korea. Climate Dynamics, (Under review).

  12. Correlation between traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder among North Korean defectors in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, WooTaek; Hong, ChangHyung; Lee, ChangHo; Kim, Dong Kee; Han, Mooyoung; Min, SungKil

    2005-04-01

    The number of North Korean defectors entering South Korea has been increasing rapidly since 1994. Two hundred North Korean defectors in South Korea were studied to identify their experiences of traumatic events in North Korea and during defection, and the correlation with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Researchers conducted face-to-face interviews and assisted defectors in performing a self-report assessment of this survey. The study questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, the Traumatic Experiences Scale for North Korean Defectors, and the PTSD part of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Korean version. Prevalence rate of PTSD in defectors was 29.5%, with a higher rate for women. In factor analysis, the 25 items of traumatic events experienced in North Korea were divided into three factors: Physical Trauma, Political-Ideological Trauma, and Family-Related Trauma. In addition, the 19 items of traumatic events during defection were grouped into four factors: Physical Trauma, Detection and Capture-Related Trauma, Family-Related Trauma, and Betrayal-Related Trauma. In multifactorial logistic regression analysis, Family-Related Trauma in North Korea had a significant odds ratio. PMID:16281207

  13. Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in South Korea: A Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. Methods We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. Results For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.871.29), 1.15 (95% CI : 0.961.55), 1.59 (95% CI : 1.192.14), and 1.78 (95% CI :1.262.51). Conclusion There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight social situations in South Korea. PMID:22272357

  14. 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) nosocomial outbreak in South Korea: insights from modeling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background. Since the emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, more than 1,300 laboratory confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infections have been reported in Asia, North Africa, and Europe by July 2015. The recent MERS-CoV nosocomial outbreak in South Korea quickly became the second largest such outbreak with 186 total cases and 36 deaths in a little more than one month, second only to Saudi Arabia in country-specific number of reported cases. Methods. We use a simple mathematical model, the Richards model, to trace the temporal course of the South Korea MERS-CoV outbreak. We pinpoint its outbreak turning point and its transmissibility via basic reproduction number R0 in order to ascertain the occurrence of this nosocomial outbreak and how it was quickly brought under control. Results. The estimated outbreak turning point of ti = 23.3 days (95% CI [22.624.0]), or 2324 days after the onset date of the index case on May 11, pinpoints June 34 as the time of the turning point or the peak incidence for this outbreak by onset date. R0 is estimated to range between 7.0 and 19.3. Discussion and Conclusion. The turning point of the South Korea MERS-CoV outbreak occurred around May 2729, when control measures were quickly implemented after laboratory confirmation of the first cluster of nosocomial infections by the index patient. Furthermore, transmissibility of MERS-CoV in the South Korea outbreak was significantly higher than those reported from past MERS-CoV outbreaks in the Middle East, which is attributable to the nosocomial nature of this outbreak. Our estimate of R0 for the South Korea MERS-CoV nosocomial outbreak further highlights the importance and the risk involved in cluster infections and superspreading events in crowded settings such as hospitals. Similar to the 2003 SARS epidemic, outbreaks of infectious diseases with low community transmissibility like MERS-CoV could still occur initially with large clusters of nosocomial infections, but can be quickly and effectively controlled with timely intervention measures. PMID:26713252

  15. Evaluating the spatial and temporal solar energy potential in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Si-Young; Park, Jin-Ki; Park, Jong-Hwa

    2012-11-01

    Recent issues of climate changes and natural disasters have brought many changes in world energy utilization. Especially due to the Japan's earthquake and tsunami, potential of nuclear power have made negative. And thus many countries are looking for a new renewable energy that can replace. Of which solar energy has emerged as a useful alternative. Under these circumstances, it is highly desirable that detailed information about the availability of solar radiation on the surface is essential for the optimum design and study of solar energy systems. And its components at a given location are very essential. Hence the solar radiation data is one of the key parameters required to be monitored at any meteorological station. But solar radiation measurements are not easily available due to the cost and maintenance requirements of the measuring equipment. Therefore, solar resource modeling or mapping is one of the essential tools for proper design, planning, maintenance and pricing of solar energy system. In this study, the feasibility of a regression model using image fusion for the prediction of solar energy potential in Republic of Korea was investigated. Meteorological and geographical data of 22 cities in South Korea for period of 10 years (2001-2011) were used. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, sunshine duration, temperature, and relative humidity) were used as inputs to the model, while the regional solar radiation was used as the output of the model. The model for evaluating the spatial and temporal solar radiation was executed for South Korea. The annual mean solar radiation estimates in South Korea vary from a minimum of 5.48 MJ/m2/day to a maximum of 19.51 MJ/m2/day. Our proposed annual mean solar radiation is 13.5 MJ/m2/day. These compare favorably with the observed data as expected. This study has shown that a simple method can accurately predict solar radiation potential in South Korea.

  16. Detection of buried objects using ultra-wideband radar: newly launched mine detection project in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Kyungryul; Kim, Kangwook

    2008-04-01

    Korea is one of the heavily mined countries in the world. The demand for mine detection and clearance techniques has always been high in South Korea. In support of this, a new project on ground penetrating radar (GPR) for landmine detection has been launched in South Korea. The GPR under development is an ultra wideband sensor system that requires high-resolution imaging of buried targets and database construction based on target signals in various ground conditions. For initial experiments, a simple GPR has been built using a resistive vee dipole antenna and a vector network analyzer. The GPR is scanned over a sand tank with an area of 2.5m 2.5m and a depth of 1.5m, which is used for target burial. During the first stage of the project, the data obtained by scanning the GPR antenna over a target are processed to evaluate various radar signal waveforms, performance of various antennas, and other system configurations. Based on the evaluation, an advanced GPR system will be built and used to construct the database during the second stage of the project. A description for motivation for the GPR project, overview of the GPR project, experiment setup, and initial experiment results are presented in this paper.

  17. Factors influencing consumer demand for U.S. pork exported to the Republic of Korea (South Korea).

    PubMed

    Vonada, M L; Bidner, B S; Belk, K E; McKeith, F K; Lloyd, W R; O'Connor, M E; Smith, G C

    2001-04-01

    The potential market for single-ribbed bellies and Boston butts in South Korea was characterized and quantitative selection criteria were identified for use by U.S. packers when selecting pork for export. South Korean retail meat market managers and traders/wholesalers in Seoul and Pusan were interviewed and asked to identify the quality attributes that are considered when making pork-purchasing decisions. In addition, pork labeling characteristics and meat display case measurements and space allocations were recorded in each retail store. Data from box labels were recorded in retail storage coolers to characterize pork products currently being merchandized in South Korea. Sample retail packages of belly and butt slices were collected and sent to a commercial laboratory for analysis of iodine values, ether-extractable fat content, total aerobic plate count (APC), total coliform count (TCC), and generic Escherichia coli count (ECC). No quality attributes of U.S. products exceeded the expectations of retailers. Quality attributes of U.S. pork products that exceeded the expectations of traders included presence of foreign material, marbling, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall eating satisfaction. Traders/wholesalers assigned negative ratings for overall workmanship and adherence to purchase criteria for U.S. pork products. Retail APC for South Korean belly samples were higher (P < 0.05) than APC for U.S. belly samples. Retail TCC and ECC for butts and belly samples and APC for butt samples did not differ by country of origin. Retail prices for South Korean bellies were higher (P < 0.05) than prices for retail U.S. and Danish bellies. Pork butt prices did not differ (P > 0.05) by country of origin. Beef, pork, and poultry products comprised 66.8, 27.8, and 5.4%, respectively, of the total meat display case frontage. U.S. beef products occupied, on average, 18% of the total beef display area, whereas U.S. pork products comprised 2.6% of the total pork display case area. PMID:11325196

  18. Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

  19. Effective policy initiatives to constrain lipid-lowering drug expenditure growth in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid growth of prescription drug expenditures is a major problem in South Korea. Accordingly, the South Korean government introduced a positive listing system in 2006. They also adopted various price reduction policies. Nevertheless, the total expenditure for lipid-lowering drugs have steadily increased throughout South Korea. The present study explores the factors that have influenced the increased expenditures of lipid-lowering drugs with a particular focus on the effects of statins in this process. Methods This paper investigates the National Health Insurance claims data for prescribed lipid-lowering drugs collected between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. We specifically focused on statins and assessed the yearly variation of statin expenditure by calculating the increased rate of paired pharmaceutical expenditures over a 2 year period. Our study classified statins into three categories: new entrants, core medicines and exiting medicines. For core medicines, we further examined influencing factors such as price, amount of drugs consumed by volume, and prescription changes (substitutes for other drug). Results Statin expenditure showed an average annual increase of 25.7% between 2005 and 2009. Among the different statins, the expenditure of atorvastatin showed a 36.6% annual increase rate, which was the most dramatic among all statins. Also we divided expenditure for core medicines by the price factor, volume factor, and prescription change. The result showed that annual weighted average prices of individual drug decreased each year, which clearly showed that price influenced statin expenditure in a negative direction. The use of generic drugs containing the same active ingredient as name-brand drugs increased and negatively affected statin expenditure (Generic Mix effect). However, the use of relatively expensive ingredients within statin increase, Ingredient Mix effect contributed to increased statin expenditure (Ingredient Mix effect). In particular, the volume effect was found to be critical for increasing statin expenditure as the amount of statin consumed increased steadily throughout the study period. Conclusions The recent rapid increase in statin expenditure can largely be attributed to an increase in consumption volume. In order to check drug expenditures effectively in our current situation, in which chronic diseases remain steadily on the rise, it is necessary to not only have supply-side initiatives such as price reduction, but also demand-side initiatives that could control drug consumption volume, for example: educational programs for rational prescription, generic drug promotional policies, and policies providing prescription targets. PMID:24589172

  20. The good, the bad and the confusing: the political economy of social care expansion in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ito

    2011-01-01

    Recent social policy reforms in South Korea indicate a progressive shift by a conservative government to modify the familialistic male breadwinner model that informs its welfare regime. The Korean government has demonstrated support for women through an increase in the provision, regulation and coordination of childcare and workplace support programmes for working parents. At the same time, labour market reforms have also created more pressures on women to seek and maintain paid work outside the home. Conflicting social and economic policy objectives have resulted in a confusing mix of policies, advancing and impeding gender equality at the same time. This contribution examines the recent familywork reconciliation policy reforms in Korea and discusses why these reforms may be good politics but a bad deal for women. PMID:22164879

  1. Environment and Its Influence on Health and Demographics in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Bravo Santisteban, Ramiro D; Kim, Young L; Farooq, Umar; Kim, Tae-Seong; Youm, Sekyoung; Park, Seung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    As the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing in South Korea, it is critical to better understand possible associations between environmental surroundings and general health status. We characterize key health test readings and basic demographic information from 10,816 South Koreans, obtained from two Ubiquitous Healthcare (U-Healthcare) centers that have distinct surrounding neighborhood characteristics. One is located in a rural area in Busan, the other is located in an urban area in Daegu surrounded by a highly crowded residential and commercial business area. We analyze comprehensive health data sets, including blood pressure, body mass index, pulse rate, and body fat percentage from December 2013 to December 2014 to study differences in overall health test measurements between users of rural and urban U-Healthcare centers. We conduct multiple regression analyses to evaluate differences in general health status between the two centers, adjusting for confounding factors. We report statistical evidence of differences in blood pressure at the two locations. As local residents are major users, the result indicates that the environmental surroundings of the centers can influence the demographics of the users, the type of health tests in demand, and the users' health status. We further envision that U-Healthcare centers will provide public users with an opportunity for enhancing their current health, which could potentially be used to prevent them from developing chronic diseases, while providing surveillance healthcare data. PMID:26861360

  2. Environment and Its Influence on Health and Demographics in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Santisteban, Ramiro D.; Kim, Young L.; Farooq, Umar; Kim, Tae-Seong; Youm, Sekyoung; Park, Seung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    As the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing in South Korea, it is critical to better understand possible associations between environmental surroundings and general health status. We characterize key health test readings and basic demographic information from 10,816 South Koreans, obtained from two Ubiquitous Healthcare (U-Healthcare) centers that have distinct surrounding neighborhood characteristics. One is located in a rural area in Busan, the other is located in an urban area in Daegu surrounded by a highly crowded residential and commercial business area. We analyze comprehensive health data sets, including blood pressure, body mass index, pulse rate, and body fat percentage from December 2013 to December 2014 to study differences in overall health test measurements between users of rural and urban U-Healthcare centers. We conduct multiple regression analyses to evaluate differences in general health status between the two centers, adjusting for confounding factors. We report statistical evidence of differences in blood pressure at the two locations. As local residents are major users, the result indicates that the environmental surroundings of the centers can influence the demographics of the users, the type of health tests in demand, and the users’ health status. We further envision that U-Healthcare centers will provide public users with an opportunity for enhancing their current health, which could potentially be used to prevent them from developing chronic diseases, while providing surveillance healthcare data. PMID:26861360

  3. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,

  4. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  5. First Isolation of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae from a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kichan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo; Her, Moon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus species are emerging potential pathogens in marine mammals. Wereport the isolation and identification of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea. PMID:26555114

  6. Rapid Emergence and Clonal Dissemination of CTX-M-15–Producing Salmonella enterica Serotype Virchow, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yun, Young-Sun; Kim, Soo Jin; Jeon, Se-Eun; Lee, Deog-yong; Chung, Gyung Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow has dramatically increased in South Korea since the first isolation in 2011. Of 68 isolates collected over 10 years, 28 cefotaxime-resistant isolates harbored the blaCTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene and were closely related genetically, demonstrating the clonal dissemination of CTX-M-15–producing Salmonella Virchow in South Korea. PMID:26674083

  7. Rapid Emergence and Clonal Dissemination of CTX-M-15-Producing Salmonella enterica Serotype Virchow, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yun, Young-Sun; Kim, Soo Jin; Jeon, Se-Eun; Lee, Deog-Yong; Chung, Gyung Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Kim, Junyoung

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow has dramatically increased in South Korea since the first isolation in 2011. Of 68 isolates collected over 10 years, 28 cefotaxime-resistant isolates harbored the blaCTX-M-15 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase gene and were closely related genetically, demonstrating the clonal dissemination of CTX-M-15-producing Salmonella Virchow in South Korea. PMID:26674083

  8. School Violence, Depressive Symptoms, and Help-seeking Behavior: A Gender-stratified Analysis of Biethnic Adolescents in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In South Korea (hereafter Korea), the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim’s help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: ‘seeking help’ group; ‘feeling nothing’ group; ‘not seeking help’ group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately. Results: In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the ‘not seeking help’ (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23) and the ‘seeking help’ group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44) among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the ‘feeling nothing’ group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69), but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28). Conclusions: This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims’ help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea. PMID:26841886

  9. Surveillance of classical swine fever in wild boar in South Korea from 20102014

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Yong Kwan; LIM, Seong-In; KIM, Jae-Jo; CHO, Yoon-Young; SONG, Jae-Young; CHO, In-Soo; HYUN, Bang-Hun; CHOI, Sung-Hyun; KIM, Seung-Hoe; PARK, Eun-Hye; AN, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious systemic hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs. Wild boar plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of CSF. Between 2010 and 2014, samples were collected nationwide from 6,654 wild boars hunted in South Korea. Anti-CSF antibodies were identified in 0.59% (39 of 6,654) of the wild boar samples using a virus neutralization test and were primarily detected in wild boars living close to the demilitarized zone and the area of the Taebaek Mountains surroundings. The CSF virus (subgroup 2.1b) was isolated from two wild boars captured in a nearby border area. The criteria used to define high-risk areas for targeted CSF surveillance in South Korea should be further expanded to include other regions nationwide. PMID:26178821

  10. Serological surveillance studies confirm the Rift Valley fever virus free status in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Jee-Yong; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Cho, Yun-Sang; Choi, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Ji-Youn; Cho, In-Soo; Yoo, Han-Sang

    2015-10-01

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease of domestic ruminants. This disease causes abortions in pregnant animals, and it has a high mortality rate in newborn animals. Recently, a Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) outbreak in the Arabian Peninsula increased its potential spread to new regions worldwide. In non-endemic or disease-free countries, early detection and surveillance are important for preventing the introduction of RVFV. In this study, a serological surveillance was conducted to detect antibodies against RVFV. A total of 2382 serum samples from goats and cattle were randomly collected from nine areas in South Korea from 2011 to 2013. These samples were tested for antibodies against RVFV, using commercial ELISA kits. None of the goats and cattle were positive for antibodies against RVFV. This finding suggests that this disease is not present in South Korea, and furthermore presents the evidence of the RVFV-free status of this country. PMID:26024956

  11. Acculturation stress and mental health among the marriage migrant women in Busan, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyuk; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Hyo Young

    2014-05-01

    Our study investigated mental health and associated factors, especially acculturation stress and coping resources, among "marriage migrant" women. Cross-sectional data were collected for 501 marriage migrant women, about 10 % of those living in Busan, South Korea. Acculturation stress, coping resources, sociodemographic factors were examined using structured questionnaires, and the General Health Questionnaire-28 was administered as a measure of mental health. Many factors were related to mental health, especially marital satisfaction. Core cultural shock and self-rated economic status, interpersonal stress, and social support were also significantly related to mental health status. This study highlights the importance of marriage migrant women's mental health in South Korea. To improve their mental health, increased marital satisfaction, social support, resettlement funds, and/or educational programs that foster coping are needed. Additionally, we should encourage establishment of and participation in marriage migrant self-help groups, which can facilitate adaptation to marriage and to Korean culture. PMID:24292496

  12. Surveillance of classical swine fever in wild boar in South Korea from 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kwan; Lim, Seong-In; Kim, Jae-Jo; Cho, Yoon-Young; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Choi, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hoe; Park, Eun-Hye; An, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious systemic hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs. Wild boar plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of CSF. Between 2010 and 2014, samples were collected nationwide from 6,654 wild boars hunted in South Korea. Anti-CSF antibodies were identified in 0.59% (39 of 6,654) of the wild boar samples using a virus neutralization test and were primarily detected in wild boars living close to the demilitarized zone and the area of the Taebaek Mountains surroundings. The CSF virus (subgroup 2.1b) was isolated from two wild boars captured in a nearby border area. The criteria used to define high-risk areas for targeted CSF surveillance in South Korea should be further expanded to include other regions nationwide. PMID:26178821

  13. Characteristics of pork belly consumption in South Korea and their health implication.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Yang, Han-Sul; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Go, Gwang-Woong

    2015-01-01

    Fresh pork belly is a highly popular meat in South Korea, accounting for 59% of the approximately 100g of meat per capita that is consumed daily. Fresh pork belly offers not only high-quality protein from the lean cuts but also substantial micronutrients including fat-soluble vitamins and minerals. However, fresh pork belly generally consists of about 30% fat, with saturated fatty acids representing half of this value. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids increases total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides while decreasing high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, raising concerns about an increased risk of hyperlipidemia, followed by cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the consumption and production trends in South Korea, the general characteristics, and health issues related to fresh pork belly to delineate the features of pork production and consumer welfare. PMID:26290742

  14. Impacts of typhoon and heavy rain disasters on mortality and infectious diarrhea hospitalization in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunduk; Shin, Yongseung; Kim, Ho; Pak, Haeoyong; Ha, Jongsik

    2013-01-01

    Several studies for health impacts of natural disasters have not been comprehensive with respect to disaster type and areas, nor quantitative. The aim of our study is to quantitatively examine the associations between disasters and human health in South Korea. This study considered "special disasters" that occurred from 2003 to 2009 in seven metropolitan cities and nine provinces in South Korea. First, we completed health impact counts in both disaster periods and reference periods. We then calculated the rate ratios between health impact counts in these two periods. Mortality is estimated to be higher in the case of typhoons, whereas morbidity is estimated to be higher in heavy rain disasters. The difference in health impacts of typhoons and heavy rain may be explained by the difference in meteorological exposure patterns. Consequentially, we suggest the development of properly adaptive plans against the influence of future natural disasters on human health. PMID:23075392

  15. The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. Methods The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Results Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population. PMID:24641983

  16. Mammalian pathogenesis of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus isolated in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Donghyok; Shin, Kyeongcheol; Kim, Su-Jin; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Kang, Chun

    2014-06-24

    Oseltamivir, a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor, has been widely used for the treatment of patients infected with the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus. With the increasing use of oseltamivir, drug-resistant mutants emerged rapidly and 11 cases of resistant viruses were detected during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in South Korea. To better understand the differences between oseltamivir-susceptible and oseltamivir-resistant virus, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of the NA H275Y mutant virus, A/Gyeongnam/1820/2009, in ferrets and mice with those of oseltamivir-susceptible A/Korea/01/2009 virus. Oseltamivir-resistant virus infected ferrets showed mild clinical signs and the virus replicated well in the upper respiratory tract and slightly in the lower respiratory tract. No virus was detected in the extrapulmonary organs. Severe bronchopneumonia and thickening of alveolar walls were detected in the lungs. Viral antigens were detected mainly in the bronchiolar epithelial cells, cells present in the interstitial septa, pneumocytes and peribronchial glands with severe peribronchitis. A/Gyeongnam/1820/2009 virus-infected mice showed weight loss and the virus replicated in lungs with high titer. Histopathologically, the mice showed mild to moderate alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia and perivascular lymphoid tissue hyperplasia. In lungs, bronchiolar epithelial cells, pneumocytes and interstitial inflammatory cells were infected by influenza virus and trachea epithelial cells were the sites of infection. When compared with the results of A/Korea/01/2009 oseltamivir-susceptible pandemic influenza virus, an oseltamivir-resistant virus isolated in South Korea showed fewer pathogenic properties in ferrets and similar fitness in mice. PMID:24657788

  17. Acute gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with ground-waterborne norovirus in South Korea during 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Cho, H G; Lee, S G; Kim, W H; Lee, J S; Park, P H; Cheon, D S; Jheong, W H; Jho, E H; Lee, J B; Paik, S Y

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological and virological studies indicate that noroviruses-contaminated groundwater was the primary source of four acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in South Korea between 2008 and 2012. Furthermore, cabbage kimchi was first identified as the vehicle of transmission between groundwater and infected patients in an outbreak in 2011. The proper treatment of groundwater sources prior to use for drinking or in food preparation is necessary to prevent further outbreaks. PMID:24534556

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Nervous Necrosis Virus Isolated from Sevenband Grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Kim, Kyong-Min; Son, Maeng-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of the nervous necrosis virus (NNV) SGYeosu08, isolated from sevenband grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus) in Yeosu, South Korea, was cloned and analyzed. The full-length RNA1 was a 3,103-nucleotide-encoding region of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the RNA2 encoding a coat protein was 1,433 nucleotides in length. This genome sequence might be useful in the development of an accurate diagnostic tool. PMID:25502666

  19. Legislation on Genetic Diagnosis: Comparison of South Korea and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the questions regarding PND and PID, especially the concrete legal conditions for the justification of PND and PID. As such, the German law stipulating PND and PID in a very concrete and detailed manner is introduced and explained in comparison with the corresponding South Korean law. The South Korean Bioethics and Biosafety Act (BBA) stipulates various types of gene testing and does not demonstrate a delicate sense of each type of gene testing. In contrast to the South Korean regulation, in Germany, there exist specific regulations for genetic counseling. Especially in the case of PND, GEKO stipulates the process of genetic counseling very concretely, based on GenDG. In the case of PND and PID, it is important that the people concerned understand the meaning of testing in various angles, and restructuralize it by combining it with their own values as the diagnosis is directly combined with pregnancy/abortion, which influences the whole life of a woman (and her partner). In this context, the South Korean BBA needs to be amended as soon as possible. The sections on informed consent also need to be amended to make them more concrete. Furthermore, guidelines for concretizing the regulation of BBA need to be continuously formulated and developed. PMID:27004267

  20. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis of Sapovirus Detected in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Lim; Suh, Chang-Il; Park, Seung-Won; Jin, Ji-Young; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Sapovirus (SaV), a virus residing in the intestines, is one of the important causes of gastroenteritis in human beings. Human SaV genomes are classified into various genogroups and genotypes. Whole-genome analysis and phylogenetic analysis of ROK62, the SaV isolated in South Korea, were carried out. The ROK62 genome of 7429 nucleotides contains 3 open-reading frames (ORF). The genotype of ROK62 is SaV GI-1, and 94% of its nucleotide sequence is identical with other SaVs, namely Manchester and Mc114. Recently, SaV infection has been on the rise throughout the world, particularly in countries neighboring South Korea; however, very few academic studies have been done nationally. As the first whole-genome sequence analysis of SaV in South Korea, this research will help provide reference for the detection of recombination, tracking of epidemic spread, and development of diagnosis methods for SaV. PMID:26161646

  1. Population Structure of and Mycotoxin Production by Fusarium graminearum from Maize in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungkwan; Kim, Hun; Jeon, Jae-Jin; Kim, Hye-Seon; Zeller, Kurt A.; Carter, Laurel L. A.; Leslie, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum (Gibberella zeae) is an important pathogen of wheat, maize, barley, and rice in South Korea, and harvested grain often is contaminated with trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. In this study, we examined 568 isolates of F. graminearum collected from maize at eight locations in South Korea. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to identify four lineages (2, 3, 6, and 7); lineage 7 was the most common (75%), followed by lineage 6 (12%), lineage 3 (12%), and lineage 2 (1%). The genetic identity among populations was high (>0.98), and the effective migration rate between locations was higher than that between lineages. Female fertility varied by lineage: all lineage 7 isolates were fertile, while 70%, 26%, and 14% of the isolates in lineages 6, 3, and 2, respectively, were fertile. All lineage 3 and lineage 7 isolates produced deoxynivalenol, whereas most lineage 2 and 6 isolates produced nivalenol. Genotypic diversity in lineage 3 and lineage 6 populations is similar to that found in previously described Korean rice populations, but genotypic diversity in lineage 7 is much lower, even though similar levels of gene flow occur between lineage 7 populations. We conclude that lineage 7 was relatively recently introduced into South Korea, perhaps accompanying imported maize seeds. PMID:22287004

  2. Multicriteria decision analysis to assess options for managing contaminated sediments: Application to Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongbum; Kim, Suk Hyun; Hong, Gi Hoon; Suedel, Burton C; Clarke, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Many years of untreated effluent discharge from residential areas, a shipyard, a marina, and a large fish market resulted in substantial contamination of bottom sediment in Southern Busan Harbor, South Korea. Contaminants in these sediments include heavy metals and organic compounds. Newly introduced regulations for ocean disposal of dredged material in South Korea pose significant challenges, because the previous practice of offshore disposal of contaminated dredged material was no longer possible after August 2008. The South Korean government has mandated that such sediments be assessed in a way that identifies the most appropriate dredged material management alternative, addressing environmental, social, and cost objectives. An approach using multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) in combination with comparative risk assessment was used as a systematic and transparent framework for prioritizing several dredged sediment management alternatives. We illustrate how MCDA can recognize the multiple goals of contaminated sediment management. Values used in weighting decision criteria were derived from surveys of stakeholders who were sediment management professionals, business owners, or government decision makers. The results of the analysis showed that land reclamation was the preferred alternative among cement-lock, sediment washing, 3 contained aquatic disposal alternatives (one in combination with a hopper dredge), geotextile tubes, solidification, and land reclamation after solidification treatment. Land reclamation was the preferred alternative, which performed well across all MCDA objectives, because of the availability of a near-shore confined disposal facility within a reasonable distance from the dredging area. PMID:20821674

  3. AbaR-Type Genomic Islands in Non-baumannii Acinetobacter Species Isolates from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the presence and structure of AbaR-type genomic islands (GIs) in non-Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, a total of 155 non-baumannii Acinetobacter isolates from a South Korean hospital were analyzed. GIs were found in three Acinetobacter nosocomialis and two Acinetobacter seifertii isolates. Their structures were similar to those in A. baumannii isolates from Asian countries, including South Korea. The existence of AbaR-type GIs in non-baumannii Acinetobacter isolates is believed to be due to interspecies transfer of GI. PMID:26100696

  4. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seohyun; Kim, Jong Guk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA) for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors. PMID:25384388

  5. 76 FR 2336 - Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 55764... Access Memory Semiconductors from the Republic of Korea, 68 FR 47546 (August 11, 2003) (``CVD Order..., 73 FR 57594 (October 3, 2008). As a result, CBP is no longer suspending liquidation for entries...

  6. Nationwide monitoring of atmospheric PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Kyoung; Jin, Guang Zhu; Kim, Woo Il; Kim, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Seung Man; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Jin Soo

    2011-05-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were measured in ambient air samples collected from different parts of South Korea in 2008, and the measured levels were used for assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of atmospheric PCDDFs and DL-PCBs in South Korea. The average concentrations of atmospheric PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs among the 37 sites were 28 fg I-TEQ m(-3) (ND~617) and 1 fg WHO-TEQ m(-3) (ND~0.016). Elevated atmospheric levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs observed at residential/industrial sites and in the north-west of Korea, indicated a potential contribution and impacts of anthropogenic sources of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. These levels were similar or lower than those previously reported in other ambient air surveys. Average concentrations of PCDD/Fs showed small seasonal variations (ANOVA analysis, p=0.144). The highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs were observed during winter, followed by spring, autumn and summer. Atmospheric PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in South Korea rapidly decreased during the last 10 years (1998-2008), demonstrating the efficiency of stricter regulations and the application of best available technologies/best environmental practices at emission sources. Comparison of the congener profiles and principal component analysis showed that current atmospheric PCDD/Fs are mostly influenced by industrial sources and PCBs from old commercial PCB uses. Nationwide POPs monitoring will continue and allows an effective evaluation of the implementation of the Stockholm Convention on POPs. PMID:21481911

  7. Variations in Label Information and Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids in South Korea: Regulation Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungroul; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Yu, Sol; Kim, Bokyeong; Gupta, Ribhav

    2015-01-01

    Background: In South Korea, the consumption of liquid nicotine used in electronic cigarettes has dramatically increased from 4310 L in 2012 to 7220 L in 2013. This study aimed to examine the level of heterogeneity of contents of the labels and discrepancy of the nicotine content between that indicated on the label and the actual values for electronic cigarette liquid refill products in South Korea. Methods: We purchased 32 electronic cigarette liquid refill products (17 Korean domestic, 15 imported ones) and one pure nicotine product at six different electronic cigarette retail stores in Seoul between May and June 2014. The actual nicotine concentrations of each product were measured by a blinded analyst at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. Results: Three out of 15 imported liquid refill products provided manufacturing dates, while expiration dates were available on eight products. The range of nicotine concentration was from not detected to 17.5 mg/mL. Labeling discrepancies of the concentrations ranged from ?32.2% to 3.3% among electronic cigarette liquid refill products. The highest concentration (150.3 7.9 mg/mL) was found in a sample labeled as pure nicotine. Conclusions: There is no standardization of labelling among electronic cigarette liquids sampled from retail stores and the labels did not accurately reflect the content. One product labeled pure nicotine raises concerns, since it may be poisonous to consumers, especially to children. This study revealed the urgent need for the development of product regulations in South Korea. PMID:25950652

  8. Measuring the Environmental Burden of Disease in South Korea: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Hyeong-Su; Ha, Jongsik; Kim, Eun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study attempted to measure the environmental burden of disease by examining mortality and disability rates in South Korea, permitting international comparisons. Methods: Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) was used to analyze data from public records. Years of life lost (YLL) and years lost to disability (YLD) were measured in terms of incidence rate and number of deaths. Attributable risks were based on those for WHO Western Pacific Regions. For air pollution, attributable risk was calculated using local PM10 levels and relative risk. Results: The total Korean environmental burden of disease was 17.98 per 1000 persons and the most serious risk factor was air pollution, at 6.89per1000 persons. Occupation was the second highest contributing factor, at 3.29 per 1000 persons, followed by indoor air pollution at 2.91 per 1000 persons. The DALY of air-pollution (indoor and outdoor) was 9.80 per 1000 persons, accounting for more than half of the total environmental burden of disease. The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and asthma were 4.07, 3.16, and 1.96 per 1000 persons, respectively. Conclusions: Respiratory illnesses comprised most of the disease burden, the majority of which was linked to air pollution. The present results are important as they could be used to make evidence-based decisions regarding the management of diseases and environmental-risk factors. PMID:26184265

  9. Prevalence and predictors of self-reported student maltreatment by teachers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2015-08-01

    This study first investigated the prevalence of emotional and physical maltreatment by teachers in South Korea and then identified factors that predict student maltreatment by teachers. Specific areas of interest were the associations between student demographic characteristics (gender and grade level), family (economic status), and school experience (academic performance and student-teacher relationships) and how these characteristics were related to student maltreatment. Data were obtained by questionnaire from a random sample of 1,777 students in middle schools in Seoul, the largest metropolitan area, and its surrounding province, Gyeonggi-Do. Questionnaires were completed during school time. All information was collected anonymously. Of those surveyed, 18.2% reported emotional maltreatment by teachers and 24.3% physical maltreatment. Overall, 30.7% reported being either emotionally or physically mistreated by teachers at least once in the previous year. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that gender, family economic status, academic performance, and student-teacher relationships were predictors of student maltreatment by teachers. The results have practical and policy implications for the design of programs that will results in altering abusive teacher classroom behavior. PMID:25828860

  10. The Characteristics of Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission Dynamics in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunhwan; Lee, Sunmi; Chu, Chaeshin; Choe, Seoyun; Hong, Saeme; Shin, Youngseo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The outbreak of Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was one of the major events in South Korea in 2015. In particular, this study pays attention to formulating a mathematical model for MERS transmission dynamics and estimating transmission rates. Methods Incidence data of MERS-CoV from the government authority was analyzed for the first aim and a mathematical model was built and analyzed for the second aim of the study. A mathematical model for MERS-CoV transmission dynamics is used to estimate the transmission rates in two periods due to the implementation of intensive interventions. Results Using the estimates of the transmission rates, the basic reproduction number was estimated in two periods. Due to the superspreader, the basic reproduction number was very large in the first period; however, the basic reproduction number of the second period has reduced significantly after intensive interventions. Conclusion It turned out to be the intensive isolation and quarantine interventions that were the most critical factors that prevented the spread of the MERS outbreak. The results are expected to be useful to devise more efficient intervention strategies in the future. PMID:26981343

  11. Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui

    2014-09-15

    The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies. PMID:25038983

  12. Anisotropic measurements in South Korea and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Tae-Seob

    2010-05-01

    Seismic anisotropy beneath the southern Korean Peninsula was investigated. The most striking feature of the observed splitting patterns is the preference of the fast directions (NW-SE) that are nearly parallel to the direction of the absolute plate motion in the region. However, the splitting patterns over the region show significant variation in splitting parameters indicating a complex anisotropic structure. Variations of the splitting directions and dissimilarity in the source domains of basaltic volcanisms suggest that the asthenospheric mantle flow since at least the late Cenozoic cannot explain the seismic anisotropy beneath the region. Comparison to shear-wave splitting measurements from eastern China revealed that the NW-SE fast direction of splitting measurements in the the southern Korean Peninsula is close to that in the North China Block while the NE-SW fast direction might be related to that in the South China Block. The shallow mantle lithosphere beneath the southern Korean Peninsula retains the fossil anisotropy amalgamated prior to the late Paleozoic before the collision between the North China Block and South China Block, and the anisotropic structure was not completely realigned by the major orogenic events during the late Paleozoic to Mesozoic eras.

  13. Regional distribution of perceived temperatures estimated by the human heat budget model (the Klima-Michel model) in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Kyu Rang; Choi, Byoung-Cheol; Lee, Dae-Geun; Kim, Jeong-Sik

    2009-03-01

    The regional distribution of perceived temperatures (PT) for 28 major weather stations in South Korea during the past 22 years (1983-2004) was investigated by employing a human heat budget model, the Klima-Michel model. The frequencies of a cold stress and a heat load by each region were compared. The sensitivity of PT in terms of the input of synoptic meteorological variables were successfully tested. Seogwipo in Jeju Island appears to be the most comfortable city in Korea. Busan also shows a high frequency in the comfortable PT range. The frequency of the thermal comfort in Seoul is similar to that of Daejeon with a relatively low frequency. In this study, inland cities like Daegu and Daejeon had very hot thermal sensations. Low frequencies of hot thermal sensations appeared in coastal cities (e.g., Busan, Incheon, and Seogwipo). Most of the 28 stations in Korea exhibited a comfort thermal sensation over 40% in its frequency, except for the mountainous regions. The frequency of a heat load is more frequent than that of a cold stress. There are no cities with very cold thermal sensations. In this study, we found the decreasing trend of mortality with an increasing PT. If the PT is over any critical temperature point, however, the mortality rate increases again. The mortality variation with the PT of a station seems to be associated with the latitudinal location of the station, implying that it results from a regional acclimation effect of inhabitants.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of porcine astrovirus in domestic pigs and wild boars in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meong-Hun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Park, Hye-Ran; Lim, Ji-Ae; Song, Jae-Young; An, Dong-Jun

    2013-02-01

    Porcine astrovirus (PAstV) belongs to genetically divergent lineages within the genus Mamastrovirus. In this study, 25/129 (19.4%) domestic pig and 1/146 (0.7%) wild boar fecal samples tested in South Korea were positive for PAstV. Positive samples were mainly from pigs under 6weeks old. Bayesian inference (BI) tree analysis for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and capsid (ORF2) gene sequences, including Mamastrovirus and Avastrovirus, revealed a relatively geographically divergent lineage. The PAstVs of Hungary and America belong to lineage PAstV 4; those of Japan belong to PAstV 1; and those of Canada belong to PAstV 1, 2, 3, and 5, but not to 4. This study revealed that the PAstVs of Korea belong predominantly to lineage PAstV 4 and secondarily to PAstV 2. It was also observed that PAstV infections are widespread in South Korea regardless of the disease state in domestic pigs and in wild boars as well. PMID:22965450

  15. Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

    2006-10-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

  16. Applicability Analysis of Ultra-Light Uav for Flooding Site Survey in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.; Kang, J.; Seo, G.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is used in a variety of fields such as the military service, fire prevention, traffic supervision, mapping, and etc. The increased demand for UAVs is typically attributed to the low manufacturing and operational costs, flexibility of the platforms to accommodate the consumer's particular needs and the elimination of the risk to pilots' lives in difficult missions. But, in South Korea, UAV might be first introduced to military service, and is still in its infancy, just being available for construction site monitoring, landscape photographing, spraying agricultural chemicals, broadcasting fields. This study presents the background and the aim of flood mapping, and presents the possibility analysis of how to use UAV effectively for flooding area. And author tries to overlap UAV image with the flooding area trace surveyed by ground surveys. As a result, it is expected that UAV photogrammetry will contributes to investigating the flooded area by providing images, which is describing the flooded area in near real-time and also making a decision like paying compensation.

  17. F+ RNA coliphage-based microbial source tracking in water resources of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Heetae; Cho, You-Hee; Hur, Hor-Gil; Ko, GwangPyo

    2011-12-15

    We previously demonstrated that genotyping followed by proper statistical analyses of F plus (F+)-specific RNA coliphages can effectively represent fecal origins of either humans or animals. Here, we performed microbial source tracking (MST) using F+ RNA coliphages as a target MST microorganism for identifying fecal sources contaminating ground and surface water in metropolitan Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in South Korea. In total, 71 groundwater and 5 surface water samples were collected and screened for the presence of F+ RNA coliphages. More than 124 F+ coliphages were isolated from six groundwater and five surface water samples by the single agar layer method. F+ RNA coliphages were predominant in both waters (100% and 91%, respectively). Genotyping of 118 F+ RNA coliphages revealed that most (51/60) of the groundwater F+ RNA coliphages belonged to group I, whereas both groups I (25/58) and IV (31/58) were predominantly observed in surface water. Further comparison of phage isolates from human and animal (pig, cow, goose, and chicken) fecal sources using nucleic acid sequencing and principal coordinate analysis showed that groundwater samples formed clusters associated with cow feces, whereas surface waters formed clusters related to chicken and human feces. These results indicate the potential of the F+ RNA coliphage-based MST for identifying fecal contamination sources, which may be further exploited and validated in different geographical regions of the world. PMID:22035571

  18. Seasonal Dynamics of Marine Microbial Community in the South Sea of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Park, Mirye; Hwang, Jinik; Kil, Eui-Joon; Jung, Seung Won; Lee, Sukchan; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution 16S rRNA tag pyrosequencing was used to obtain seasonal snapshots of the bacterial diversity and community structure at two locations in Gosung Bay (South Sea, Korea) over a one year period. Seasonal sampling from the water column at each site revealed highly diverse bacterial communities containing up to 900 estimated Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). The Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant groups, and the most frequently recorded OTUs were members of Pelagibacter and Glaciecola. In particular, it was observed that Arcobacter, a genus of the Epsilonproteobacteria, dominated during summer. In addition, Psedoalteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae and SAR11-1 were predominant members of the OTUs found in all sampling seasons. Environmental factors significantly influenced the bacterial community structure among season, with the phosphate and nitrate concentrations contributing strongly to the spatial distribution of the Alphaproteobacteria; the Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Actinobacteria all showed marked negative correlations with all measured nutrients, particularly silicon dioxide and chlorophyll-a. The results suggest that seasonal changes in environmental variables contribute to the dynamic structure of the bacterial community in the study area. PMID:26121668

  19. Bioaccumulation characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in coastal organisms from the west coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Naile, Jonathan E; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Song, Sung Joon; Ryu, Jongseong; Codling, Garry; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Year-round monitoring for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along the west coast of South Korea targeting long-term changes in water and coastal organisms has been conducted since 2008. In this study, we present the most recent 5-years of accumulated data and scrutinize the relationship between concentrations in water and biota highlighting bioaccumulation characteristics. Twelve individual PFAAs in samples of water (n=43) and biota (n=59) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. In recent years, concentrations of PFAAs in water have been generally decreasing, but profiles of relative concentrations of individual PFAAs vary among location and year. Bioaccumulation of PFAAs in various organisms including fishes, bivalves, crabs, gastropods, shrimps, starfish, and polychaetes varied among species. However, overall bioaccumulation of PFAAs was dependent on corresponding concentrations of PFAAs in water within an area. In organ-specific distributions of PFAAs, greater concentrations of PFAAs were found in intestine of fish (green eel goby). This result suggests that PFAAs are mainly accumulated via dietary exposure, while greater concentrations were found in gill and intestine of bivalve (oyster) which suggests both waterborne and dietary exposures to these organisms. Concentrations of PFAAs in biota did not decrease over time (2008-2010), indicating that continuing bioaccumulation followed by slow degradation or excretion of PFAAs accumulated in biota. Overall, spatio-temporal distributions of PFAAs in water and bioaccumulation characteristics seemed to be associated with recent restrictions of PFOS-based products and uses of PFBS-based substitutes. PMID:25015225

  20. Distribution and long-term trends in various fog types over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belorid, Miloslav; Lee, Chong Bum; Kim, Jea-Chul; Cheon, Tae-Hun

    2015-11-01

    This study analyzed the spatial and temporal distributions of various fog types over South Korea. Six types of fogs were identified using a classification algorithm based on simple conceptual models of fog formation. The algorithm was applied to a 25-year record of meteorological observations. The most common fog types were radiation fog, prevailing at inland stations, and precipitation fog at coastal and island stations. Declining temporal trends in the frequency of fog events ranging between 2.1 and 10.9 fog events per decade were found at eight inland and two coastal stations. Long-term trends for each fog type show that the decrease in the frequency of fog events is mainly due to a decrease in the frequency of radiation fogs ranging between 1.1 and 8.5 fog events per decade. To identify the potential factors related to the decrease in radiation fog events, the temporal trends in annual mean nocturnal maximal cooling rates and annual mean nocturnal specific humidity during nights with clear sky and clam winds were examined. The results show that the decrease in the frequency of radiation fog events is associated mainly with the pattern of urbanization occurring during the past two decades.

  1. Epidemiology of egg drop syndrome virus in ducks from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, S-Y; Kang, M; Park, C-K; Choi, K-S; Jang, H-K

    2013-07-01

    Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) is an important pathogen of poultry that decreases egg production in chickens and causes respiratory disease in goslings. In 2011, we obtained serum samples from 139 domestic Pekin ducks, 416 one-day-old Pekin ducklings, and 75 wild ducks (67 mallards and 8 pintails) to survey their exposure to EDSV. A total of 123 of 139 sera (88.5%) from Pekin ducks, 396 of the ducklings (95.2%), and 16 of 67 mallards (23.9%) were positive. Field cases of EDSV in wild and domestic ducks were investigated. Six cases from domestic Pekin ducks were identified by PCR detection and were used for virus isolation and molecular analysis. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial hexon and full fiber genes showed that the D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017 strains among 6 isolates belonged to different clusters compared with other known strains including the 127 strain. We assessed cell growth efficiency by hemagglutination (HA) titers and cytopathic effects in duck embryo liver cells and chicken embryo liver (CEL) cells to investigate host adaptation. The D11-JW-017 strain propagated more in chicken embryo liver than the D11-JW-012 strain and the field isolate from chickens. Our results demonstrate the high prevalence of EDSV in wild and domestic ducks in South Korea and provide information on EDSV from ducks that showed variable adaptability in chickens. PMID:23776265

  2. Factors That Influence Employment After Spinal Cord Injury in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun-Na; Shin, Hyung-Ik

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate employment status after spinal cord injury (SCI) and identify personal, family, and injury characteristics those affect their employment in South Korea. Methods Participants were 334 community-dwelling persons 20-64 years of age who had sustained SCI for more than one year. Investigators visited each participant's home to carry out the survey. Bivariate and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify personal, family, and injury characteristics that influenced employment after SCI. Results Employment rate decreased significantly from 82.5% to 27.5% after SCI. Logistic regression showed that the probability of employment was higher in men than women, and in individuals older than 45 years at the time of injury than those aged 31-45 years of age. Moreover, employment was higher in individuals injured for longer than 20 years than those injured for 1-5 years and in individuals with incomplete tetraplegia than those with complete paraplegia. Employment was lower in individuals with SCI caused by industrial accidents than those injured in non-industrial accidents. Conclusion Injury characteristics are the most important predictors of employment in persons with SCI. For persons with lower employment rate, individualized vocational rehabilitation and employment-support systems are required. PMID:24639924

  3. Estimation of available global solar radiation using sunshine duration over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Amrita; Park, Jin-ki; Park, Jong-hwa

    2015-11-01

    Besides designing a solar energy system, accurate insolation data is also a key component for many biological and atmospheric studies. But solar radiation stations are not widely available due to financial and technical limitations; this insufficient number affects the spatial resolution whenever an attempt is made to construct a solar radiation map. There are several models in literature for estimating incoming solar radiation using sunshine fraction. Seventeen of such models among which 6 are linear and 11 non-linear, have been chosen for studying and estimating solar radiation on a horizontal surface over South Korea. The better performance of a non-linear model signifies the fact that the relationship between sunshine duration and clearness index does not follow a straight line. With such a model solar radiation over 79 stations measuring sunshine duration is computed and used as input for spatial interpolation. Finally monthly solar radiation maps are constructed using the Ordinary Kriging method. The cross validation results show good agreement between observed and predicted data.

  4. Suicidal Ideation and its Correlates among Juvenile Delinquents in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suyoung; Kim, Hyekyeong; Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Dong Hwan; Cho, Han-Ik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated suicidal ideation and its correlates among juvenile delinquents in South Korea. Methods Suicidal ideation, psychological health status, and health-related behaviors were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire in 1682 juvenile offenders aged between 15 and 18 years in 2012. Results The prevalence of suicidal ideation in juvenile delinquents was 15.2%. Girls were more likely to report suicidal thoughts than boys (30.3% vs. 12.7%). Suicidal ideation was more common among adolescents who were not living with their family prior to entering detention centers (22.6% vs. 13.2%) than their counterparts. The likelihood of suicidal ideation was significantly associated with problem drinking [odds ratio (OR)=1.84], psychedelic drug use (OR=2.04), feeling unhappy (OR=3.05), feeling sad or depressed (OR=13.37) after controlling for sociodemographic factors, other health behaviors and perceptions. Conclusion The present study provides evidence for an association between suicidal ideation and psychological health and health risk behaviors among juvenile delinquents. It also highlights the importance of mental health and behavioral interventions for this population to prevent suicidality. PMID:25389511

  5. Who Cares about One Blood in This Global Society? A Qualitative Study of South Korea's Reunification Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yoo Jin

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined South Korean teenagers' views on North Korea and possible reunification. In-depth interviews conducted with fourteen (14) South Korean high school students reported that these teenagers were torn about whether or not they should support reunification. While students acknowledged the lack of dialogue and discussion

  6. Who Cares about One Blood in This Global Society? A Qualitative Study of South Korea's Reunification Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yoo Jin

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined South Korean teenagers' views on North Korea and possible reunification. In-depth interviews conducted with fourteen (14) South Korean high school students reported that these teenagers were torn about whether or not they should support reunification. While students acknowledged the lack of dialogue and discussion…

  7. Is South Korea a Case of High-Stakes Testing Gone Too Far? Information Capsule. Volume 1107

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    South Korea's students consistently outperform their counterparts in almost every country in reading and math. Experts have concluded, however, that the South Korean education system has produced students who score well on tests, but fall short on creativity and innovative thinking. They blame these shortcomings on schools' emphasis on rote…

  8. First Outbreak of KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 258 in a Hospital in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung Kwan; Yong, Dongeun; Kim, Kyeongmi; Hong, Sang Sook; Khosbayar, Tulgaa; Song, Wonkeun; Roh, Kyoung Ho; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the first outbreak of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from three patients admitted to a neurosurgery department in a South Korean teaching hospital. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the isolates were identical to the previous KPC producers in South Korea and other countries, suggesting clonal spread. PMID:24006005

  9. Bees of the Lasioglossum series (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in South Korea, with an illustrated keys to species.

    PubMed

    Murao, Ryuki; Lee, Heung-Sik; Tadauchi, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The South Korean fauna of the bee genus Lasioglossum Curtis (Halictidae: Halictini) belonging to the Lasioglossum series (i.e., those with the second submarginal crossvein strong) are reviewed. A total of 12 species are recognized for the country. Lasioglossum circularum Fan & Ebmer is recorded for the first time from the Korean Peninsula and the following species are newly recorded from South Korea: L. denticolle (Morawitz), L. formosae (Strand), L. kansuense (Blthgen), L. occidens (Smith), L. sutshanicum Pesenko, and L. upinense (Morawitz). Bionomical data as well as illustrated keys to females and males of South Korean species are provided. DNA sequences including a part of barcode region are given for L. kansuense and L. occidens. PMID:26624723

  10. Status, alert system, and prediction of cyanobacterial bloom in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankita; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Asthana, Ravi Kumar; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2015-01-01

    Bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterial genera pose a major ecological problem due to their ability to produce toxins and other bioactive compounds, which can have important implications in illnesses of humans and livestock. Cyanobacteria such as Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Aphanizomenon species producing microcystins and anatoxin-a have been predominantly documented from most South Korean lakes and reservoirs. With the increase in frequency of such blooms, various monitoring approaches, treatment processes, and prediction models have been developed in due course. In this paper we review the field studies and current knowledge on toxin producing cyanobacterial species and ecological variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation in major rivers (Han, Geum, Nakdong, and Yeongsan) and reservoirs in South Korea. In addition, development of new, fast, and high-throughput techniques for effective monitoring is also discussed with cyanobacterial bloom advisory practices, current management strategies, and their implications in South Korean freshwater bodies. PMID:25705675

  11. Status, Alert System, and Prediction of Cyanobacterial Bloom in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ankita; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Asthana, Ravi Kumar; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2015-01-01

    Bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterial genera pose a major ecological problem due to their ability to produce toxins and other bioactive compounds, which can have important implications in illnesses of humans and livestock. Cyanobacteria such as Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Aphanizomenon species producing microcystins and anatoxin-a have been predominantly documented from most South Korean lakes and reservoirs. With the increase in frequency of such blooms, various monitoring approaches, treatment processes, and prediction models have been developed in due course. In this paper we review the field studies and current knowledge on toxin producing cyanobacterial species and ecological variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation in major rivers (Han, Geum, Nakdong, and Yeongsan) and reservoirs in South Korea. In addition, development of new, fast, and high-throughput techniques for effective monitoring is also discussed with cyanobacterial bloom advisory practices, current management strategies, and their implications in South Korean freshwater bodies. PMID:25705675

  12. New anti-rebate legislation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yu, Su-Yeon; Yang, Bong-Min; Kim, Jin-Hyun

    2013-08-01

    The South Korean Government recently announced a reform in the drug anti-rebate law, with the purpose of eradicating pervasive, unethical, and illegal rebate practices in pharmaceutical marketing. The main objective of this reform is to have the ability to bring criminal charges against doctors and pharmacists for receiving illegal kickbacks from drug companies. Previously, provision of illegal kickbacks by drug companies led to criminal punishment of the drug companies alone, leaving doctors and pharmacists unpunished as the recipients. With the introduction of the "Dual Punishment System (DPS)" reform, criminal punishment for illegal rebates is extended to those receiving illegal kickbacks. Although bitter controversy erupted among stakeholders when the reform was first drafted, a civic group participated in the reform process and effectively influenced the legislative process to a successful end. Some interim outcomes from the DPS in terms of bringing illegal practices to account have already been reported since the policy's implementation in November 2010. The reform background, goals, potential issues, and policy implications are explored in this study with the objective of providing further insight into drug policy for other countries that face similar challenges in the area of drug marketing. PMID:23645520

  13. Long-lead station-scale prediction of hydrological droughts in South Korea based on bivariate pattern-based downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Soo-Jin; Tam, Chi-Yung

    2015-07-01

    Capturing climatic variations in boreal winter to spring (December-May) is essential for properly predicting droughts in South Korea. This study investigates the variability and predictability of the South Korean climate during this extended season, based on observations from 60 station locations and multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast experiments (1983/1984-2005/2006) archived at the APEC Climate Center (APCC). Multivariate empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis results based on observations show that the first two leading modes of winter-to-spring precipitation and temperature variability, which together account for ~80 % of the total variance, are characterized by regional-scale anomalies covering the whole South Korean territory. These modes were also closely related to some of the recurrent large-scale circulation changes in the northern hemisphere during the same season. Consistent with the above, examination of the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) indicates that drought conditions in South Korea tend to be accompanied by regional-to-continental-scale circulation anomalies over East Asia to the western north Pacific. Motivated by the aforementioned findings on the spatial-temporal coherence among station-scale precipitation and temperature anomalies, a new bivariate and pattern-based downscaling method was developed. The novelty of this method is that precipitation and temperature data were first filtered using multivariate EOFs to enhance their spatial-temporal coherence, before being linked to large-scale circulation variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). To test its applicability and to investigate its related potential predictability, a perfect empirical model was first constructed with observed datasets as predictors. Next, a model output statistics (MOS)-type hybrid dynamical-statistical model was developed, using products from nine one-tier climate models as inputs. It was found that, with model sea-level pressure (SLP) and 500 hPa geopotential height (Z500) as predictors, statistically downscaled MME (DMME) precipitation and temperature predictions were substantially improved compared to those based on raw MME outputs. Limitations and possible causes of error of such a dynamical-statistical model, in the current framework of dynamical seasonal climate predictions, were also discussed. Finally, the method was used to construct a dynamical-statistical system for 6 month-lead drought predictions for 60 stations in South Korea. DMME was found to give reasonably skillful long-lead forecasts of SPEI for winter to spring. Moreover, DMME-based products clearly outperform the raw MME predictions, especially during extreme wet years. Our results could lead to more reliable climatic extreme predictions for policymakers and stakeholders in the water management sector, and for better mitigation and climate adaptations.

  14. Isolation of a reassortant H13N2 virus from a mallard fecal sample in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Virus subtype H13N2, A/mallard/Kr/SH38-45/2010 (H13N2), was first isolated from a mallard fecal sample in South Korea. Results Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes revealed that this virus emerged by genetic mixing between Eurasian and North American gene pools, and possibly between wild ducks and gulls. The H13 and N2 surface genes clustered together in a group with Eurasian isolates from gulls and wild birds, respectively. The PB2, PA, NP, M and NS segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage, whereas the PB1 gene clustered in the North American lineage. Furthermore, they showed a bird-dependent pattern in phylogenetic analysis: the M gene was similar to subtype H13 viruses within gulls, whereas other segments were similar to avian influenza viruses of other subtypes from wild ducks. Conclusions The data suggests that the novel reassortant H13N2 virus isolated in South Korea might have emerged by genetic reassortment between intercontinental and interspecies transmission in wild birds. PMID:22824586

  15. Healthcare utilisation by pregnant patients with asthma in South Korea: a cohort study using nationwide claims data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Jimin; Jang, Eun Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Choi, Seongmi; Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoon, Ho Il

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Few nationwide population-based studies have examined the burden of asthma during pregnancy. Here, we investigated the burden and medical treatment of asthma during pregnancy requiring healthcare utilisation in South Korea. Design Cohort study. Setting Nationwide insurance claims database. Participants A total of 1?306?281 pregnant women who delivered in South Korea in 20092011. Outcomes The prevalence and exacerbation rates of asthma requiring healthcare utilisation, and the prescription of antiasthmatic drugs during pregnancy. Results The prevalence of asthma requiring healthcare utilisation was 0.43% among pregnant women. Among those with asthma requiring healthcare utilisation, 6.9% were hospitalised and treated with systemic steroids and short-acting ?2-agonists during pregnancy. Oral drugs were prescribed less during the third trimester than during the first trimester (all p values for trends were <0.001). A significant number of patients with asthma were likely to stop taking antiasthmatic drugs after becoming pregnant. Conclusions The prevalence of asthma requiring healthcare utilisation during pregnancy was not very high. However, a significant number of women were likely to stop taking antiasthmatic drugs, and those who did tended to experience exacerbations. PMID:26546138

  16. Human and riverine impacts on the dynamics of seawater nutrient and carbon parameters in Kwangyang Bay, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Dongseon; Baek, Seung Ho; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-04-01

    We investigated seawater nutrient and carbon parameters in Kwangyang Bay, South Korea, which has been exposed to significant human influences, in each core month of four seasons for between 2010 and 2012. The survey data were analyzed using multivariate statistics analysis (cluster and factor analysis). As a result, we found that the Seomjin River (the fifth largest river in South Korea) and biological activity, including phytoplankton photosynthesis and bacterial decomposition, were the main factors determining the overall water quality of the bay. However, the impacts of these factors varied both spatially and seasonally, because the factors were linked with the geographical environments and seasonal variations in freshwater discharge. In particular, the Seomjin River was primarily responsible for nitrate, silicate, total alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon, and exhibited a significant impact in the summer. During the past 10 years, nutrient loads from the river and industrial complexes to the bay have decreased. The impacts of this decrease are visible in the phosphate concentration, which has fallen to a third of its initial value. We also examined the potential role of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in nitrogen cycling in the study area.

  17. Rare earth element compositions of core sediments from the shelf of the South Sea, Korea: Their controls and origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hoi-Soo; Lim, Dhongil; Choi, Jin-Yong; Yoo, Hae-Soo; Rho, Kyung-Chan; Lee, Hyun-Bok

    2012-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) of bulk sediments and heavy mineral samples of core sediments from the South Sea shelf, Korea, were analyzed to determine the constraints on REE concentrations and distribution patterns as well as to investigate their potential applicability for discriminating sediment provenance. Bulk sediment REEs showed large variation in concentrations and distribution patterns primarily due to grain size and carbonate dilution effects, as well as due to an abundance of heavy minerals. In the fine sandy sediments (cores EZ02-15 and 19), in particular, heavy minerals (primarily monazite and titanite/sphene) largely influenced REE compositions. Upper continental crust-normalized REE patterns of these sand-dominated sediments are characterized by enriched light REEs (LREEs), because of inclusion of heavy minerals with very high concentrations in LREEs. Notably, such a strong LREE enrichment is also observed in Korean river sediments. So, a great care must be taken when using the REE concentrations and distribution patterns of sandy and coarse silty shelf sediments as a proxy for discriminating sediment provenance. In the fine-grained muddy sediments with low heavy mineral abundance, in contrast, REE fractionation ratios and their UCC-normalized patterns seem to be reliable proxies for assessing sediment provenance. The resultant sediment origin suggested a long lateral transportation of some fine-grained Chinese river sediments (probably the Changjiang River) to the South Sea of Korea across the shelf of the northern East China Sea.

  18. Developing Index for Sustainable Water Use with Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators: an Application for Hydrologic Units in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kong, I.

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to develop index for sustainable water use over hydrologic units in South Korea. We identified major indicators for sustainable water use with considering multiple aspects of water use: not only physical, biological and chemical aspects but also social and environmental aspects. Furthermore, stressors for sustainable water use were of major interests because they were straightforward and easy to measure in comparison to indicators representing the state- and impact-related indictors. As a result, sustainability index was constructed with a theme-based hierarchical approach. It is comprised of two components of stress and response to sustainable water use and each component includes five sub-components of human water requirements, water quality requirements, 4) h, equitable water use and others. Then for each sub-component, multiple indicators, i.e., proxy variables were identified. For drainage basins in South Korea, standard hydrologic units with their total number of about 100 across the country, total 19 indicators were identified and their data from the various sources such as remote-sensing based datasets and survey-based national datasets were collected for current times. Then they were integrated to estimate the sustainability index with a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach. At last, we evaluated sustainability index with focusing on the spatial variability of indices and indicators and the sensitivity of indices to individual indicators to better understand the sustainability of water use in Korea. In addition, we derived the indices with different MCDM methods to evaluate the sensitivity of index to various mathematical techniques.

  19. Development of magnitude scaling relationship for earthquake early warning system in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.

    2011-12-01

    Seismicity in South Korea is low and magnitudes of recent earthquakes are mostly less than 4.0. However, historical earthquakes of South Korea reveal that many damaging earthquakes had occurred in the Korean Peninsula. To mitigate potential seismic hazard in the Korean Peninsula, earthquake early warning (EEW) system is being installed and will be operated in South Korea in the near future. In order to deliver early warnings successfully, it is very important to develop stable magnitude scaling relationships. In this study, two empirical magnitude relationships are developed from 350 events ranging in magnitude from 2.0 to 5.0 recorded by the KMA and the KIGAM. 1606 vertical component seismograms whose epicentral distances are within 100 km are chosen. The peak amplitude and the maximum predominant period of the initial P wave are used for finding magnitude relationships. The peak displacement of seismogram recorded at a broadband seismometer shows less scatter than the peak velocity of that. The scatters of the peak displacement and the peak velocity of accelerogram are similar to each other. The peak displacement of seismogram differs from that of accelerogram, which means that two different magnitude relationships for each type of data should be developed. The maximum predominant period of the initial P wave is estimated after using two low-pass filters, 3 Hz and 10 Hz, and 10 Hz low-pass filter yields better estimate than 3 Hz. It is found that most of the peak amplitude and the maximum predominant period are estimated within 1 sec after triggering.

  20. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Eum, Youngseob; Song, Insang; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside sites. This study provided practical knowledge on the computation process of geographic variables in South Korea, which will improve air pollution prediction models and contribute to subsequent health analyses. PMID:26602561

  1. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Youngseob; Song, Insang; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside sites. This study provided practical knowledge on the computation process of geographic variables in South Korea, which will improve air pollution prediction models and contribute to subsequent health analyses. PMID:26602561

  2. Cataract surgery in the management of the late complications of lepromatous leprosy in South Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Ffytche, T J

    1981-01-01

    Clinical examination of 113 patients in South Korea with lepromatous leprosy and severe visual impairment showed that the main cause of visual loss was the combined effect of corneal and lens opacities associated with small nonreacting pupils and iris atrophy. Cataract surgery with broad iridectomy and inferior sphincterotomy offers these patients with chronic lepromatous complications the best chance of preserving vision. Eighty-one cataract operations were performed under local anaesthesia, and in 90% vision improved; in 60% this improvement was 2 Snellen's lines or more. Images PMID:7236567

  3. Is family-friendly policy (FFP) working in the private sector of South Korea?

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Using the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), I investigated the impact of family-friendly policies (FFPs) on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the private sector of South Korea. Paid leave, childcare leave, and support for housing are positively related to both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Sick leave is positively related to organizational commitment. However, subsidized family event cost is a marginally significant predictor of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition, the relationships between subsidized childcare cost and employee attitudes were not supported. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24255855

  4. Preliminary epidemiologic assessment of MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea, MayJune 2015

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Benjamin J; Park, Minah; Fang, Vicky J; Wu, Peng; Leung, Gabriel M; Wu, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    South Korea is experiencing the largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections outside the Arabian Peninsula, with 166 laboratory-confirmed cases, including 24 deaths as of 19 June 2015. We estimated that the mean incubation period was 6.7 days and the mean serial interval 12.6 days. We found it unlikely that infectiousness precedes symptom onset. Based on currently available data, we predict an overall case fatality risk of 21.3% (95% credible interval: 14%31%). PMID:26132767

  5. NASA Child Fitness Promotion Program in Young Children in South Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, Jungwon; Kim, Gilsook; Lim, Hyunjung; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious global public health concern (WHO, 2015; Wang Y & Lobstein T, 2006). Low self-esteem and related mental health problems are common in obese children (Strauss RS, 2000) as well as poor academic performance and career development (Gurley-Calvez T, 2010).Westernized dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles are identified as the major risk factors of current alarming rate of obesity along with genetic susceptibility (Popkin BM, 1999). Children in many countries, including South Korea, have become increasingly sedentary due to urbanization changes in their respective societies (Ng SW, et al. 2009, Salmon J et al. 2011). In particular, South Korea had abundant dissemination of mobile technology, such as tablet and smart phone devices. Children have become reliant on mobile devices and are less likely to perform physical activities (Do, et al, 2013). Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed to fight the global obesity epidemic (IOM, 2012; Wang Y et al, 2013; Wang Y et al, 2015). Previous studies suggested focus on prevention strategies that begin in early childhood, a period when children establish their life habits. (Salmon J et al. 2011). Recent systematic reviews and meta-analysis including ours found that obesity prevention programs for young children have a greater intervention effect (Waters E, et al, 2011; Wang Y et al, 2013; Wang Y et al, 2015). The NASA Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut (MX) program was developed to promote children's exercise and healthy eating with excitement for training like an astronaut (Lloyd C, 2012).At present, the NASA MX Program covered 28 countries, enrolled children through their teachers in school setting (MX report 2014, 2015). This pilot study adapted the NASA MX intervention program for young children in South Korea. We assessed its feasibility and effectiveness in promoting physical activity (PA) in children and in improving parents' perspectives. We also examined the status of PA in young children. More than 80% of five-year-old children go to a Kindergarten or day care center in South Korea (MH Suh et al, 2013).Thus, reaching young children through child care and education settings could be a good approach for early childhood obesity prevention.

  6. The 2008 US beef scare episode in South Korea: analysis of an unusual public reaction.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyun J

    2014-11-01

    We investigated major factors underlying an unusual 2008 public 'candlelight protest' in South Korea about US beef imports related to concerns about bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Using a survey we explored determinants of consumer responses to negative publicity in mass media. Respondents (80.7 per cent) reduced consumption of imported beef during the scare; of those 62.5 per cent decreased consumption of US beef only. We explain the determinants in order of their importance and define the relevant terms from a theory of consumer behavior in economics. Our findings suggest that several effects worked jointly in their influence on most respondents who reduced beef consumption. PMID:25164598

  7. Behavior of Eupcheon fault Using Fault Monitoring Data in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S.; Hwang, J.; Park, D.; Choi, W.; Chang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1960s, the Fault Monitoring System(FMS) was adopted in several countries including U.S., Japan and Taiwan, where fault movement related with tectonics have occurred frequently. In Korea, only the Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. - Central Research Institute (KHNP-CRI) has been managing FMS. The first FMS of South Korea had been installed to monitor the Eupcheon fault located in Gyeoungju city from 2009. The system is equipped with in-situ measuring units including strainmeter, creepmeter, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), seismometer, and groundwater level meter. This paper presents the behavior of the Eupcheon fault based on the monitored data from EFMS in 2012. These data reveal that the earthquakes near Eupcheon fault did not lead to considerable changes in underground stress and displacement as the data in 2011. The creepmeter is sensitive to the temperature so that the data from the creepmeter showed the seasonal variation. The GNSS and strainmeter data have influenced by the tides. For this reason, it is required to employ a calibration system considering the external parameters such as tides and temperature variations. The KHNP-CRI is currently developing technical systems for data correction and analysis to predict the long-term behavior characteristics of Eupcheon fault. It is expected that the enhanced monitoring system contributes significantly in geo-tectonic safety assessment of nuclear plants and other critical facilities related to the national security.

  8. Characteristics and Factors Associated with Death among Patients Hospitalized for Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, South Korea, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeseung; Kwon, Donghyok; Youn, Seung-Ki

    2015-01-01

    In South Korea, nationwide surveillance for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) began during 2013. Among 301 surveillance cases, 35 hospitalized case-patients in 25 areas were confirmed by using virologic testing, and 16 (46%) case-patients subsequently died. The SFTS cases occurred during MayNovember and peaked during June (9 cases, 26%). The incidence of SFTS was higher in the southern regions of South Korea. Age and neurologic symptoms, including decreased level of consciousness and slurred speech, were heavily associated with death; neurologic symptoms during the first week after disease onset were also associated with death. Although melena was common among patients who died, no other hemorrhagic manifestations were substantively more common among those who died. No effective treatments, including ribavirin, were identified. Expansion of SFTS surveillance to include the outpatient sector and development of an antibody test would enhance completeness of SFTS detection in South Korea. PMID:26402575

  9. Characteristics and Factors Associated with Death among Patients Hospitalized for Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, South Korea, 2013.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeseung; Kwon, Donghyok; Youn, Seung-Ki; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2015-10-01

    In South Korea, nationwide surveillance for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) began during 2013. Among 301 surveillance cases, 35 hospitalized case-patients in 25 areas were confirmed by using virologic testing, and 16 (46%) case-patients subsequently died. The SFTS cases occurred during May-November and peaked during June (9 cases, 26%). The incidence of SFTS was higher in the southern regions of South Korea. Age and neurologic symptoms, including decreased level of consciousness and slurred speech, were heavily associated with death; neurologic symptoms during the first week after disease onset were also associated with death. Although melena was common among patients who died, no other hemorrhagic manifestations were substantively more common among those who died. No effective treatments, including ribavirin, were identified. Expansion of SFTS surveillance to include the outpatient sector and development of an antibody test would enhance completeness of SFTS detection in South Korea. PMID:26402575

  10. DEEP-South: Network Construction, Test Runs and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Myung-Jin; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Bae, Young-Ho; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Jintae; Moon, Bora

    2016-01-01

    Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) which consists of three identical 1.6 m wide-field telescopes with 18k × 18k CCDs, is the first optical survey system of its kind. The combination of fast optics and the mosaic CCD delivers seeing limited images over a 4 square degrees field of view. The main science goal of KMTNet is the discovery and characterization of exoplanets, yet it also offers various other science applications including DEep Ecliptic Patrol of SOUTHern sky (DEEP-South). The aim of DEEP-South is to discover and characterize asteroids and comets, including Near Earth Objects (NEOs). We started test runs last February after commissioning, and will return to normal operations in October 2015. A summary of early results from the test runs will be presented.

  11. Source identification and trends in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate principal species in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Choong-Min; Kang, Byung-Wook; Lee, Hak Sung

    2006-07-01

    Ambient measurements were made using two sets of annular denuder system during the four seasons (April 2001 to February 2002) and were then compared with the results during the period of 1996-1997 to estimate the trends and seasonal variations in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) principal species. Annual averages of gaseous HNO3 and NH3 increased by 11% and 6%, respectively, compared with those of the previous study, whereas HONO and SO2 decreased by 11% and 136%, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by -17%, 35% for SO4(2-), and 29% for NH4+, whereas NO3- increased by 21%. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 12.8 and 5.98 microg/m(-3), accounting for -26 and 12% of PM2.5 concentration, respectively. The species studied accounted for 84% of PM2.5 concentration, ranging from 76% in winter to 97% in summer. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was used to identify possible source areas affecting air pollution levels at a receptor site in Seoul. High possible source areas in concentrations of PM2.5, NO3-, SO4(2-), NH4+, and K+ were coastal cities of Liaoning province (possibly emissions from oil-fired boilers on ocean liners and fishing vessels and industrial emissions), inland areas of Heibei/Shandong provinces (the highest density areas of agricultural production and population) in China, and typical port cities (Mokpo, Yeosu, and Busan) of South Korea. In the PSCF map for OC, high possible source areas were also coastal cities of Liaoning province and inland areas of Heibei/Shandong provinces in China. In contrast, high possible source areas of EC were highlighted in the south of the Yellow Sea, indicating possible emissions from oil-fired boilers on large ships between South Korea and Southeast Asia. In summary, the PSCF results may suggest that air pollution levels in Seoul are affected considerably by long-range transport from external areas, such as the coastal zone in China and other cities in South Korea, as well as Seoul itself. PMID:16878584

  12. Trend Analysis of GPS Precipitable Water Vapor Above South Korea Over the Last 10 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Dong-Hyo; Cho, Jungho

    2010-09-01

    We analyzed global positioning system (GPS)-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV) trends of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 5 stations (Seoul, Daejeon, Mokpo, Milyang, Sokcho) where Korea Meteorological Administration meteorological data can be obtained at the same place. In the least squares analysis, the GPS PWV time series showed consistent positive trends (0.11 mm/year) over South Korea from 2000 to 2009. The annual increase of GPS PWV was comparable with the 0.17 mm/year and 0.02 mm/year from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory and Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder, respectively. For seasonal analysis, the increasing tendency was found by 0.05 mm/year, 0.16 mm/year, 0.04 mm/year in spring (March-May), summer (June-August) and winter (December-February), respectively. However, a negative trend (-0.14 mm/year) was seen in autumn (September-November). We examined the relationship between GPS PWV and temperature which is the one of the climatic elements. Two elements trends increased during the same period and the correlation coefficient was about 0.8. Also, we found the temperature rise has increased more GPS PWV and observed a stronger positive trend in summer than in winter. This is characterized by hot humid summer and cold dry winter of Korea climate and depending on the amount of water vapor the air contains at a certain temperature. In addition, it is assumed that GPS PWV positive trend is caused by increasing amount of saturated water vapor due to temperature rise in the Korean Peninsula. In the future, we plan to verify GPS PWV effectiveness as a tool to monitor changes in precipitable water through cause analysis of seasonal trends and indepth/ long-term comparative analysis between GPS PWV and other climatic elements.

  13. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses Reintroduced into South Korea by Migratory Waterfowl, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Swayne, David E.; Noh, Jin-Yong; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses were isolated from migratory waterfowl in South Korea during fall 2014–winter 2015, a recurrence after initial introduction in winter 2014. These reappeared viruses were phylogenetically distinct from isolates circulating in poultry farms in South Korea. PMID:26890406

  14. Perceptions of Student Misconduct, Perceived Respect for Teachers, and Support for Corporal Punishment among School Teachers in South Korea: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of survey data on perceptions of student misconduct, perceived respect for teachers, and support for corporal punishment among school teachers in South Korea. The data were gathered from a survey of 110 middle and high school teachers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Descriptive, chi square, logistic regression,

  15. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses Reintroduced into South Korea by Migratory Waterfowl, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Swayne, David E; Noh, Jin-Yong; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-03-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses were isolated from migratory waterfowl in South Korea during fall 2014-winter 2015, a recurrence after initial introduction in winter 2014. These reappeared viruses were phylogenetically distinct from isolates circulating in poultry farms in South Korea. PMID:26890406

  16. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease Caused by Mycobacterium simiae: The First Reported Case in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Suk Hyeon; Kim, Su-Young; Lee, Hyun; Ham, Jun Soo; Hwang, Keum Bit; Hwang, Subin; Shin, Sun Hye; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Seung Heon; Shin, Sung Jae

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of the first South Korean case of a lung disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae. The patient was a previously healthy 52-year-old female. All serial isolates were identified as M. simiae by multi-locus sequencing analysis, based on hsp65, rpoB, 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer, and 16S rRNA fragments. A chest radiography revealed deterioration, and the follow-up sputum cultures were persistently positive, despite combination antibiotic treatment, including azithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of a lung disease caused by M. simiae in South Korea. PMID:26508940

  17. Whitening Effect of Watersoluble Royal Jelly from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwan Kyu; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly has been widely used as a health supplement worldwide. However, royal jelly has been implicated in allergic reactions, and we developed a water-soluble royal jelly (WSRJ) without the allergy inducing protein. In this study, we aimed to identify the anti-melanogenic efficacy of WSRJ. B16F1 melanoma cells were first treated with 10 nM α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and then with various doses of WSRJ. In addition, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. WSRJ directly inhibited tyrosinase and cellular tyrosinase activity, which decreased melanin synthesis in α-MSH stimulated B16F1 melanoma cells a level comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2, which was comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ has strong anti-melanogenic activity, which invoice direct inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and suppression of expression of melanogenesis related genes. Results from this study suggests that WSRJ is a potential candidate for the treatment of skin pigmentation. PMID:26761901

  18. Whitening Effect of Watersoluble Royal Jelly from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Mi; Kim, Jung Min; Hong, In Phyo; Woo, Soon Ok; Kim, Se Gun; Jang, Hye Ri; Park, Kwan Kyu; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly has been widely used as a health supplement worldwide. However, royal jelly has been implicated in allergic reactions, and we developed a water-soluble royal jelly (WSRJ) without the allergy inducing protein. In this study, we aimed to identify the anti-melanogenic efficacy of WSRJ. B16F1 melanoma cells were first treated with 10 nM ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) and then with various doses of WSRJ. In addition, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. WSRJ directly inhibited tyrosinase and cellular tyrosinase activity, which decreased melanin synthesis in ?-MSH stimulated B16F1 melanoma cells a level comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2, which was comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ has strong anti-melanogenic activity, which invoice direct inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and suppression of expression of melanogenesis related genes. Results from this study suggests that WSRJ is a potential candidate for the treatment of skin pigmentation. PMID:26761901

  19. HIV Antiretroviral Resistance Mutations Among Antiretroviral Treatment-Naive and -Experienced Patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Kim, Yong Chan; Oh, Dong Hyun; Choi, Heun; Ann, Hea Won; Kim, Jae Kyoung; Kim, Sun Bean; Jeong, Su Jin; Ku, Nam Su; Han, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of HIV drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and ART-experienced patients in South Korea. A total of 50 ART-naive and 34 ART-experienced Korean HIV-1-infected patients who visited an urban hospital from February 2007 to March 2011 were included. Most patients (86.9%) were infected with clade B HIV-1. Six (12%) ART-naive and 22 (64.7%) ART-experienced patients had HIV strains with resistance mutations. Among ART-naive patients, V179D was the most common mutation, being found in five ART-naive patients. Among ART-experienced patients, M184V was the most common mutation. Eight of 34 ART-experienced patients had thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs). The prevalence of drug-resistant HIV-1 in ART-naive patients was higher than in previous reports, and 50% of patients with virologic failure harbored strains with multiple resistance mutations. HIV drug resistance testing should be recommended to guide therapy of ART-naive patients in South Korea. PMID:23952717

  20. Genetic characterization and evolutionary analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolated from domestic duck in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Satish; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Suk Chan; Choi, Kang-Seuk

    2016-03-15

    Domestic ducks are considered a potential reservoir of Newcastle disease virus. In the study, a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a domestic duck during surveillance in South Korea was characterized. The complete genome of the NDV isolate was sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship to reference strains was studied. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered in genotype I of Class II ND viruses, has highly phylogenetic similarity to NDV strains isolated from waterfowl in China, but was distant from the viruses isolated in chickens and vaccine strains used in South Korea. Pathogenicity experiment in chickens revealed it to be a lentogenic virus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the avirulent motif (112)GKQGRL(117) at the cleavage site and caused no apparent disease in chickens and ducks. With phylogeographic analysis based on fusion gene, we estimate the origin of an ancestral virus of the isolate and its sister strain located in China around 1998. It highlights the need of continuous surveillance to enhance current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of the pathogenic strains. PMID:26721461

  1. Elemental composition of different air masses over Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Choi, Man-Sik; Yi, Hi-Il; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Chae, Jung-Sun; Cheong, Chang-Sik

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the characteristics (concentrations and compositional changes) of atmospheric elements in total suspended particulates through source-receptor relationships using cluster analyses to classify air mass back-trajectories arriving at Gosan, Jeju Island, South Korea, from October 2003 to December 2008. Five trajectory clusters were chosen to explain the transport regimes. Continental outflows of natural and anthropogenic aerosols from Asian dust source regions and eastern China during the colder period could increase element concentrations at Gosan. Elemental levels at Gosan decreased in air masses that passed over marine regions (East China Sea, Pacific Ocean/southern side of Kyushu Island in Japan, and East Sea/southern side of South Korea) during the warmer rainy period due to lower source intensity and dilution by the marine air mass. Anthropogenic pollutants were often major components in air masses passing over marine regions. Air mass characterization by elemental concentration and composition revealed that enrichment by non-sea-salt sulfur in the air mass originated from eastern China, indicative of the main sulfur emitter in northeast Asia. The apportionment of V and Ni by principal component analysis as a marker of heavy oil combustion suggested different residence times and deposition rates from other anthropogenic components in the air. Regionally intermediate concentrations of pollutants were found in the atmosphere over the Korean peninsula.

  2. Estimation of anthropogenic heat emission over South Korea using a statistical regression method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Tae

    2015-05-01

    Anthropogenic heating by human activity is one of the key contributing factors in forming urban heat islands, thus inclusion of the heat source plays an important role in urban meteorological and environmental modeling. In this study, gridded anthropogenic heat flux (AHF) with high spatial (1-km) and temporal (1-hr) resolution is estimated for the whole South Korea region in year 2010 using a statistical regression method which derives based on similarity of anthropogenic air pollutant emissions and AHF in their emission inventories. The bottom-up anthropogenic pollutant emissions required for the regression method are produced using the intensive Korean air pollutants emission inventories. The calculated regression-based AHF compares well with the inventory-based AHF estimation for the Gyeong-In region, demonstrating that the statistical regression method can reasonably represent spatio-temporal variation of the AHF within the region. The estimated AHF shows that for major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Gwangju, Daejeon, and Ulsan) the annual mean AHF range 10-50 Wm-2 on a grid scale and 20-30W m-2 on a city-scale. The winter AHF are larger by about 22% than that in summer, while the weekday AHF are larger by 4-5% than the weekend AHF in the major Korean cities. The gridded AHF data estimated in this study can be used in mesoscale meteorological and environmental modeling for the South Korea region.

  3. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang

    2016-03-01

    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM. PMID:26754615

  4. Revisiting the extended producer responsibility program for metal packaging in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Mori, Akihisa

    2015-05-01

    Recently, developed and emerging countries have increasingly adopted the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR) to reduce waste. In 2003, South Korea replaced the waste deposit recycling (WDR) program with the EPR program. Previous comparative analyses between the WDR and EPR programs have been qualitative evaluations and have not yet quantitatively shown whether the change has increased benefits. The aim of this paper is to explore which program brings larger net benefits. Because of limited data availability, here we focus on metal packaging exclusively. We find that the recycling rate dropped from 59% in 2000 to 40% in 2011 and recycling volume dropped accordingly. Cost-benefit incidence analysis shows that net social benefits decreased by 2.8 billion won (2.5 million US dollars), while the net benefits to producers increased by 1.9 billion won (1.7 million US dollars) under the EPR program compared with the WDR program. The government of South Korea should set an ambitious recycling target and narrow the scope of the exemption from the mandatory recycling requirement. PMID:25736581

  5. Efficient Use of Terrestrial Economic Services: A Case Study in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Tenhunen, J.; Hoang, V. N.; Koellner, T.; Shin, H.; Pham, V. D.; Seo, B.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the linkages between social and ecological systems is crucial for managing potential responses to global change. Agricultural production requires resources, is determined by ecological processes, and results in economic goods and services for society. However, production leads at the same time to both positive and negative externalities. The externalities can be enhanced or mitigated by human behavior in management, which is mainly driven by expectations related to economic gains and losses. Ecological and economic processes are interrelated, and continuously interact in a complex manner. Therefore, understanding potential economic gains and losses in response to global change is a fundamental consideration in order to carry out well-informed decision-making. The International Research and Training Group TERRECO at the University of Bayreuth has intensively investigated ecological systems and processes in forested and agricultural landscapes as well as at regional scale in South Korea. These ongoing efforts provide a unique opportunity to examine the economic gains, losses and trade-offs that may occur with future climate and land-use change. Within this framework, we first investigated the environmental and economic efficiency of rice farms in Kangwon Province of South Korea, since rice is the most important food crop in this country. We then expanded our analysis to include dry farm highland vegetable crops in an intensively farmed region of the country, Haean Catchment. Our main objectives are (1) to categorize different types of farms, (2) determine their economic and environmental efficiency, and (3) to determine the trade-offs that occur in economic and environmental efficiencies under alternative management schemes and alternative climate regimes. Our preliminary analysis for rice farms yielded several important findings. First, both the production cost and environmental pollution by rice farms could be reduced significantly. Improvements in technical efficiency would result in both lower production costs and better environmental performance. Secondly, it is not without cost for farms to move from their current operation to an environmentally efficient operation. On average, this shift would increase production costs by 119%, but benefit water resources by a 69% reduction in eutrophication. It was estimated that the average cost of each kg of aggregate nutrient reduction would cost approximately 1.2 thousand won. These findings have several important policy implications. First, without major policy intervention, rice farms could still improve their economic and environmental performance by being more technically efficient. Training programs for rice farmers that focus on how to manage inputs and how to use the nutrients more efficiently would help farms to consume fewer inputs and cause less eutrophication problems. Second, opportunities exist for policy makers to intervene into the markets to adjust the prices of inputs so that farms, by minimizing their production costs, also improve their environmental performance. Further investigation into such policy options (such as introduction of taxes on fertilizer use, removal of subsidies or provision of incentive schemes) is being conducted.

  6. Effect of abalone farming on sediment geochemistry in the Shallow Sea near Wando, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeongwon; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Yang Ho; Shin, Yun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Wando County has grown up to 93% of the total abalone produced in South Korea since the late 1990s; however, this production has been decreasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to understand the potential contamination risks of abalone farming and to examine the influence of intensive abalone farming on sediment quality by analyzing grain-size composition, organic matter (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS)) and heavy metal content, pH, and 210Pb geochronology. The results of organic matter analysis from surface and core sediment (length: 64 cm) showed that the area around the abalone farm had oxic marine-to-brackish conditions, but that the area directly below an abalone cage (location 7) had reductive conditions, with a C/S ratio of ~2. The average TN levels in the surface and core sediments were 0.25% and 0.29%, respectively, and this was predominantly due to the use of seaweed for feed. The low sediment pH (surface, 7.23; core, 7.04), indicates that acidification of the bottom sediment has gradually increased since the initiation of abalone farming and is likely due to the continuous accumulation of uneaten feed and feces. Heavy metal pollution was not apparent based on the examination of EF and Igeo, although the excess metal flux of Ni, Pb, Cu, Co, As, and Cd increased toward surface of the sediment core. These sediment changes may be caused by the rapid accumulation (sedimentation rate: 1.45 cm/year) of sludge discharged from the abalone farm and may be controlled by tidal currents, physiography, water depth, and tidal ranges.

  7. Clinical and Electroretinographic Findings of Progressive Retinal Atrophy in Miniature Schnauzer Dogs of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    JEONG, Man Bok; PARK, Shin Ae; KIM, Se Eun; PARK, Young Woo; NARFSTRÖM, Kristina; SEO, Kangmoon

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to describe the clinical and electroretinographic features of clinical cases of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in miniature schnauzer (MS) of South Korea. Sixty-six MS (14 normal and 52 affected) were included. All animals underwent routine ocular examinations. Electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded in the 14 normal and 15 affected dogs. For normal dogs, the mean age ± SD was 4.1 ± 2.4 years (1 to 9 years), and there were no ocular abnormalities on the basis of ocular examinations and ERG results. For the PRA-affected dogs, it was shown that the mean age ± SD was 4.3 ± 1.1 years (2 to 7 years), and 44 dogs (84.6%) were 3 to 5 years old. Most of the PRA-affected dogs had abnormal menace responses (98.1%) and pupillary light reflexes (PLRs, 88.5%); some dogs showed normal menace response (1.9%) and PLRs (11.5%). Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities in the affected group included one or more of the following changes: hyperreflectivity and discoloration of the tapetal area, attenuation of retinal vessels, depigmentation in non-tapetal area and optic disc atrophy. ERG in the affected dogs showed non-recordable responses in all cases tested with clinical signs of PRA. The present study showed that PRA in MS was mainly observed between the age of 3 to 5 years. ERG revealed abnormal rod and cone responses in affected dogs at the ages studied. PMID:23719750

  8. Factors contributing to quality of life in COPD patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hye-Young; Kim, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease, and the burden of COPD is expected to increase in the rapidly aging nation of South Korea. This study aims to examine the factors contributing to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in COPD patients. Patients and methods This study was based on 6-year-data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012. COPD was diagnosed in 2,734 survey participants and the severity was graded according to the criteria set by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) index was used to assess the quality of life. Results The EQ-5D index scores for COPD patients and the general population were 0.915±0.003 and 0.943±0.001, respectively. Males, younger people, and patients with higher education attainment and income levels had a higher utility score. In addition, the adjusted EQ-5D index scores for severity level IV significantly decreased by 0.100 (P=0.041), compared to the severity group I scores. No significant differences were found in stage II and III patients. Comorbidities (excluding cancer and hypertension) appeared to negatively influence HRQOL among COPD patients. In particular, depression (EQ-5D index score =−0.089, P=0.0003) and osteoporosis (EQ-5D index score=−0.062, P=0.0039) had a significant influence, while smoking status did not appear to influence patient HRQOL. Conclusion In this study, we found that the higher the severity of COPD, the lower the quality of life. In particular, patients with depression and osteoporosis had a relatively low utility score. Therefore, these comorbidities should be carefully monitored in order to improve quality of life. PMID:26834467

  9. Gender modifies the relationship between social networks and smoking among adults in Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, Yoon Ju; Irvin, Veronica; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the interaction of gender with social network mechanisms and smoking behaviors in Seoul, South Korea, where smoking is common among men but not women. Methods During 2002, telephone surveys were completed with 500 adults drawn from a probability sample in Seoul. Respondents described their smoking status, smoking rate (number of cigarettes smoked per day) and social networks by assessing who discouraged or encouraged smoking (smoking support) or smoked (smoking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Results Women encountered significantly less smoking support than men, 88% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 8591) versus 70% (95% CI 6673) net discouragement of smoking in their network. A difference in smoking support from 25 to 75% net discouragement was associated with a 27% (95% CI 949) lower probability of smoking among women, significantly stronger (z=3.18, p<0.01) than among men who had a 19% (95% CI 827) lower probability of smoking. A similar difference in smoking support was associated with male smokers smoking 6.38 (95% CI 0.8612.30) fewer cigarettes per day, or 2,329 (95% CI 3144,490) fewer cigarettes per year. The later association could not be observed among women due to the small proportion of female smokers. Smoking models were not significantly associated with any smoking behaviors across genders. Conclusions Social network mechanisms were differentially associated with the high smoking prevalence among men and low prevalence among women and should be targeted by interventions tailored to these differences. PMID:20217178

  10. Heat-Attributable Deaths between 1992 and 2009 in Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Clara T.; Lim, Youn-Hee; Woodward, Alistair; Kim, Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Climate change may significantly affect human health. The possible effects of high ambient temperature must be better understood, particularly in terms of certain diseases sensitivity to heat (as reflected in relative risks [RR]) and the consequent disease burden (number or fraction of cases attributable to high temperatures), in order to manage the threat. Purpose This study investigated the number of deaths attributable to abnormally high ambient temperatures in Seoul, South Korea, for a wide range of diseases. Method The relationship between mortality and daily maximum temperature using a generalized linear model was analyzed. The threshold temperature was defined as the 90th percentile of maximum daily temperatures. Deaths were classified according to ICD-10 codes, and for each disease, the RR and attributable fractions were determined. Using these fractions, the total number of deaths attributable to daily maximum temperatures above the threshold value, from 1992 to 2009, was calculated. Data analyses were conducted in 20122013. Results Heat-attributable deaths accounted for 3,177 of the 271,633 deaths from all causes. Neurological (RR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.041.11) and mental and behavioral disorders (RR 1.04; 95% CI, 1.011.07) had relatively high increases in the RR of mortality. The most heat-sensitive diseases (those with the highest RRs) were not the diseases that caused the largest number of deaths attributable to high temperatures. Conclusion This study estimated RRs and deaths attributable to high ambient temperature for a wide variety of diseases. Prevention-related policies must account for both particular vulnerabilities (heat-sensitive diseases with high RRs) and the major causes of the heat mortality burden (common conditions less sensitive to high temperatures). PMID:25692296

  11. Service Design Attributes Affecting Diabetic Patient Preferences of Telemedicine in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chon, YuCheong; Lee, Jongsu; Choi, Ie-Jung; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective Attempts to introduce telemedicine in South Korea have failed mostly, leaving critical questions for service developers and providers about whether patients would be willing to pay for the service and how the service should be designed to encourage patient buy-in. In this study, we explore patients' valuations and preferences for each attribute of telemedicine service for diabetes management and evaluate patient willingness to pay for specific service attributes. Materials and Methods We conducted a conjoint survey to collect data on patients' stated preferences among telemedicine service alternatives. The alternatives for diabetes-related service differed in 10 attributes, including those related to price, type of service provider, and service scope. To estimate the relative importance of attributes, patients' willingness to pay for each attribute, and their probable choice of specific alternatives, we used a rank-ordered logit model. A total of 118 respondents participated in the survey. Results All 10 attributes significantly affected patients' valuations and preferences, and demographic and disease characteristics, such as existence of complications and comorbidities, significantly affected patients' valuations of the attributes. Price was the most important attribute, followed by comprehensive scope of service, the availability of mobile phone-based delivery, and large general-hospital provided services. Conclusions The study findings have significant implications for adoption policy and strategy of telemedicine in diabetes management care. Further, the methodology presented in this study can be used to draw knowledge needed to formulate effective policy for adoption of the necessary technology and for the design of services that attract potential beneficiaries. PMID:21631382

  12. Satellite Data-Based Phenological Evaluation of the Nationwide Reforestation of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kim, Jinwon; Lee, Eun-Ju; Gim, Hyeon-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Through the past 60 years, forests, now of various age classes, have been established in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula through nationwide efforts to reestablish forests since the Korean War (1950–53), during which more than 65% of the nation's forest was destroyed. Careful evaluation of long-term changes in vegetation growth after reforestation is one of the essential steps to ensuring sustainable forest management. This study investigated nationwide variations in vegetation phenology using satellite-based growing season estimates for 1982–2008. The start of the growing season calculated from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) agrees reasonably with the ground-observed first flowering date both temporally (correlation coefficient, r = 0.54) and spatially (r = 0.64) at the 95% confidence level. Over the entire 27-year period, South Korea, on average, experienced a lengthening of the growing season of 4.5 days decade−1, perhaps due to recent global warming. The lengthening of the growing season is attributed mostly to delays in the end of the growing season. The retrieved nationwide growing season data were used to compare the spatial variations in forest biomass carbon density with the time-averaged growing season length for 61 forests. Relatively higher forest biomass carbon density was observed over the regions having a longer growing season, especially for the regions dominated by young (<30 year) forests. These results imply that a lengthening of the growing season related to the ongoing global warming may have positive impacts on carbon sequestration, an important aspect of large-scale forest management for sustainable development. PMID:23520541

  13. 76 FR 36089 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube From Brazil, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, and Venezuela, 61 FR... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Korea, 57 FR 49453 (November 2, 1992). These deposit requirements shall... Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative ] Review, 75 FR...

  14. 75 FR 55745 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... From Korea 2007), 74 FR 46100; 46106 (September 8, 2009) unchanged in Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel... (Preliminary Results of CORE from Korea 2007), 74 FR 46100; 46102 (September 8, 2010) unchanged in Corrosion... Countervailing Duty Determinations: Certain Steel Products from Korea, 58 FR 43752 (August 17, 1993). On August...

  15. Associations of volume and other hospital characteristics on mortality within 30?days of acute myocardial infarction in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Kim, Woorim; Jang, Sung-In; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective The mortality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has declined worldwide. However, improvements in care for AMI in South Korea have lagged slightly behind those in other countries. Therefore, it is important to investigate how factors such as hospital volume, structural characteristics of hospital and hospital staffing level affect 30-day mortality due to AMI in South Korea. Setting We used health insurance claim data from 114 hospitals to analyse 30-day mortality for AMI. Participants These data consisted of 19?638 hospitalisations during 20102013. Interventions No interventions were made. Outcome measure Multilevel models were analysed to examine the association between the 30-day mortality and inpatient and hospital level variables. Results In the 30?days after hospitalisation, 10.5% of patients with AMI died. Hospitalisation cases at hospitals with a higher AMI volume had generally inverse associations with 30-day mortality (1st quartile=ref; 2nd quartile=OR 0.811, 95% CI 0.658 to 0.998, 3rd quartile=OR 0.648, 95% CI 0.500 to 0.840, 4th quartile=OR 0.807, 95% CI 0.573 to 1.138). In addition, hospitals with a greater proportion of specialists were associated with better outcomes (above median=OR 0.789, 95% CI 0.663 to 0.940). Conclusions Health policymakers need to include volume and staffing when defining the framework for treatment of AMI in South Korean hospitals. Otherwise, they must consider increasing the proportion of specialists or regulating the hiring of emergency medicine specialists. In conclusion, they must make an effort to reduce 30-day mortality following AMI based on such considerations. PMID:26546143

  16. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in an Agricultural Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, N.; Hamm, S.; An, J.; Lee, J.; Jang, S.

    2008-12-01

    The study area, Sacheon-Hadong area, is located in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, which is bounded by the South Sea and surrounded by the Seomjin River in the west. The study area utilized for agricultural work for a long time. That resulted in vulnerable situation of groundwater due to contamination by fertilizer, insecticide and other human activities. In addition, groundwater is in the risk of seawater intrusion because of the study area's location nearby the South Sea. In Sacheon and Hadong area, the EC values were higher in alluvial aquifer than bedrock aquifer. The higher EC values in the alluvial groundwater than the bedrock groundwater were influenced by agricultural activity in near-surface. Water types of two groundwaters belong to Ca-Cl and Na-Cl types due to saline-water influence. EC values are raised, becoming close to the coast. The correlation analysis showed that EC had positive relationship with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, SO42-, and Cl-, indicating mixing with seawater. In Sacheon area, nitrogen isotope ratios in the alluvial groundwater ranged between -0.40 and 12.80‰, with 0.05~2.49 mg/l of NO3-N concentration; the range of nitrogen isotopes in the bedrock groundwater was between 3.30 and 17.60‰, with 0.12~2.14 mg/l of NO3-N concentration. Nitrogen was originated from organic source in soils, manures, and domestic wastes (Mueller and Helsel, 1996; Kim and Woo, 2003). In Hadong area, the nitrogen isotopes in the alluvial groundwater ranged from -0.50 to 19.10‰, and NO3-N concentration was between 0.63 and 6.68 mg/l. And these may be originated from anthropogenic pollutants (Mueller and Helsel, 1996). In Sacheon area, average δ18O and δD in alluvial groundwater were analyzed as - 6.77‰ and -47.50‰; average isotope ratios in bedrock groundwater were -7.73‰ and - 53.46‰. In Hadong area, average δ18O and δD in the alluvial groundwater were - 7.32‰ and -49.80‰; average isotope ratios in the bedrock groundwater exhibited - 7.35‰ and -49.40‰. The δ18O in function of δD was plotted parallel with and slightly lower than the meteoric water line (Dansgaard, 1964). In general, deep groundwater displays higher δ18O ratios than shallow groundwater does (Freeze and Cherry, 1979), since deep groundwater reacts with bedrock which commonly emits more 18O than 16O. However, δ18O ratios in the bedrock groundwater in this area opposed to general trend, indicating not enough time to react with bedrock and diffusion effect probably (Hoefs, 1997). Keywords: alluvial groundwater, bedrock groundwater, nitrogen isotope, hydrogen isotope, agricultural area Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by the 21st Century Frontier R&D Program (project no. 3~4~3 of the Sustainable Water Resources Research Center), and also supported by the agricultural groundwater management project, Korea Rural Community & Agriculture Corporation and Ministry of agriculture & Forestry, Republic of Korea.

  17. N cycle and retention of croplands in complex terrain, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettering, J.; Arnhold, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.; Lee, B.; Lindner, S.; Ok, Y.; Ruidisch, M.; Tenhunen, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    The aims of our research are to gain a deeper understanding of processes and interactions in agricultural ecosystems as well as to make a contribution to sustainable agricultural production in changing environments. While crop production is highly desirable, negative effects include high input of nutrients, greater erosion rates, removal of nutrients and carbon in harvests, and decreases in the quality of soil organic matter. The field sites of this project are located in Haean basin in the central part of Korea, just south of the demilitarized zone. Intensive land use with high levels of fertilization together with distinctive erosion during the summer monsoon can be found on site. One part of this study focuses on general fertilizer budgets at catchment scale as well as on detailed information about the dynamics and pathways of nitrogen in soil-plant systems on upland slopes. These balances of elements and their fluxes are the main background information in soil-plant studies. The integrative approach of a general budget is based on a large spatial allocation of the field sites, different management types (conventional, organic), and on several typical crops of the Haean basin. In this project, various perspectives are combined (i.e. insects, weed, crops, nutrients). This allows representative conclusions for the entire catchment as well as for the modeling. The approach of a detailed N cycle uses an integrated experimental strategy within run-off plots. Charred biomass and synthetic polymers were additionally applied in these run-off plots to determine whether these additives can contribute significantly to sustainable farming methods in such complex terrain. Within this integrative approach, each treatment was tested for erosion prevention, soil hydrological parameters and flow systems, nutrient balances, as well as plant growth and yields. Finally, best agricultural management practices for sustainable land use of sloping uplands will be suggested. The methods of this research are primarily based on application of isotopes (13C, 14C, 15N). The approaches aim both on monitoring (natural abundance) as well as on experiments (tracer application). Isotope studies with 15N in the field sites allow examination of N uptake by aboveground plants, movement by percolation to deeper soil layers, surface run-off and overall retention within the farmland ecosystem. Isotope studies using 14C will be conducted under stable conditions in the laboratories of the University of Bayreuth this winter. 14C as a tracer provides insights about carbon fluxes in soil plant systems, such as total CO2 efflux dynamics of soils as well as C sequestration. 14C labeled maize and rice residues will be used for differentiating and quantifying the contribution of plant residues-derived C and native soil organic C. Fieldwork in South Korea started in summer 2009. Therefore, at the most partial results can be presented at the AGU Fall Meeting.

  18. Factors related to condom use behavior among club-working women in South Korea: importance of subjective norms and customer-related attitudes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heon-Jae; Jo, Heui-Sug; Jung, Su-Mi; Lee, Ja-young

    2014-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to understand factors associated with condom use behavior among club-working women and identify the most influential factors to be addressed in future health programs. A total of 158 club-working women were surveyed from 3 midsize cities in South Korea from July to September 2004. Survey questionnaires were developed based on the theory of planned behavior. A total of 7 distinct themes emerged: Health aspects, Customer related, Pleasure related, Finance related, Societal norm, Occupational norm, and Perceived control. The results indicated that the Customer-related theme, Societal norm, and Occupational norm were statistically significant factors affecting condom use. On the other hand, self-related factors such as health, pleasure, and finance are not significantly related to the condom use behavior of club-working women in South Korea, suggesting that the currently used knowledge-focused education programs may not be sufficient for this population. PMID:22345303

  19. A questionnaire survey exploring healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards teamwork and safety in acute care areas in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Chan Woong; Lee, Sang Jin; Oh, Je Hyeok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lim, Tae Ho; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Chung, Hyun Soo; Ryu, Ji Yeong; Jang, Hye Young; Choi, Yoon Hee; Kim, Su Jin; Jung, Jin Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although human factors are important in terms of patient safety, there have been very few reports on the attitudes of healthcare professionals working in acute care settings in South Korea. In the present study, we investigated the attitudes of such professionals, their cultures and their management systems. Design A questionnaire survey with 65 items covering nine themes affecting patient safety. Nine themes were compared via a three-or-more-way analysis of variance, with interaction, followed by multiple comparisons among several groups. Setting Intensive care units, emergency departments and surgical units of nine urban hospitals. Participants 592 nurses and 160 physicians. Intervention None. Outcome measures Mean scores using a five-point scale and combined response scores for each of the nine themes. Results The mean score for information-sharing was the highest (3.78±0.49) and that for confidence/assertion was the lowest (2.97±0.34). The mean scores for teamwork, error management, work value, organisational climate, leadership, stress and fatigue level, and error/procedural compliance were intermediate. Physicians showed lower scores in leadership and higher scores in information-sharing than nurses. Respondents with 24 months or less of a clinical career showed higher scores in leadership, stress and fatigue, and error scores and lower scores in work value than more experienced respondents. Conclusions Our results suggest that medical personnel in Korea are relatively reluctant to disclose error or assert their different opinions with others. Many did not adequately recognise the negative effects of fatigue and stress, attributed errors to personal incompetence, and error-management systems were inadequate. Discrepancies in leadership and information-sharing were evident between professional groups, and leadership, stress, fatigue level, work value and error scores varied with the length of work experience. These can be used as baseline data to establish training programmes for patient safety in Korea. PMID:26209120

  20. Characterizing distributions of surface ozone and its impact on grain production in China, Japan and South Korea: 1990 and 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Using an integrated assessment approach, we evaluate the impact that surface O 3 in East Asia had on agricultural production in 1990 and is projected to have in 2020. We also examine the effect that emission controls and the enforcement of environmental standards could have in increasing grain production in China. We find that given projected increases in O 3 concentrations in the region, East Asian countries are presently on the cusp of substantial reductions in grain production. Our conservative estimates, based on 7- and 12-h mean (M7 or M12) exposure indices, show that due to O 3 concentrations in 1990 China, Japan and South Korea lost 1-9% of their yield of wheat, rice and corn and 23-27% of their yield of soybeans, with an associated value of 1990US 3.5, 1.2 and 0.24 billion, respectively. In 2020, assuming no change in agricultural production practices and again using M7 and M12 exposure indices, grain loss due to increased levels of O 3 pollution is projected to increase to 2-16% for wheat, rice and corn and 28-35% for soybeans; the associated economic costs are expected to increase by 82%, 33%, and 67% in 2020 over 1990 for China, Japan and South Korea, respectively. For most crops, the yield losses in 1990 based on SUM06 or W126 exposure indices are lower than yield losses estimated using M7 or M12 exposure indices in China and Japan but higher in South Korea; in 2020, the yield losses based on SUM06 or W126 exposure indices are substantially higher for all crops in all three countries. This is primarily due to the nature of the cumulative indices which weight elevated values of O 3 more heavily than lower values. Chinese compliance with its ambient O 3 standard in 1990 would have had a limited effect in reducing the grain yield loss caused by O 3 exposure, resulting in only US 0.2 billion of additional grain revenues, but in 2020 compliance could reduce the yield loss by one third and lead to an increase of US$ 2.6 (M7 or M12) -27 (SUM06) billion in grain revenues. We conclude that East Asian countries may have tremendous losses of crop yields in the near future due to projected increases in O 3 concentrations. They likely could achieve substantial increases in future agricultural production through reduction of surface O 3 concentrations and/or use of O 3 resistant crop cultivars.

  1. Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in South Korea in 2006 : A Nationwide Multicenter Survey from the Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Eun; Lim, Dong-Jun; Hong, Chang-Ki; Joo, Sung-Pil; Yoon, Seok-Mann

    2010-01-01

    Objective There have been no clinical studies regarding the epidemiology and treatment outcome for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) in South Korea yet. Thus, The Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgery (KSCVS) decided to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, and outcome of the treatment of UIA in 2006, using the nationwide multicenter survey in South Korea. Methods A total of 1,696 cases were enrolled retrospectively over one year at 48 hospitals. The following data were obtained from all patients : age, sex, presence of symptoms, location and size of the aneurysm, treatment modality, presence of risk factors for stroke, and the postoperative 30-day morbidity and mortality. Results The demographic data showed female predominance and peak age of seventh and sixth decades. Supraclinoid internal carotid artery was the most common site of aneurysms with a mean size of 5.6 mm. Eight-hundred-forty-six patients (49.9%) were treated with clipping, 824 (48.6%) with coiling, and 26 with combined method. The choice of the treatment modalities was related to hospital (p = 0.000), age (p = 0.000), presence of symptom (p = 0.003), and location of aneurysm (p = 0.000). The overall 30-day morbidity and mortality were 7.4% and 0.3%, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 0.4% for clipping and 0.2% for coiling, and morbidity was 8.4% for clipping and 6.3% for coiling. Age (p = 0.010), presence of symptoms (p = 0.034), size (p = 0.000) of aneurysm, and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.000) were significant prognostic factors, while treatment modality was not. Conclusion This first nation-wide multicenter survey on UIAs demonstrates the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, outcome and the prognostic factors of the treatment of UIAs in South Korea. The 30-day postoperative outcome for UIAs seems to be reasonable morbidity and mortality in South Korea. PMID:20224709

  2. Dissolved organic phosphorus utilization and alkaline phosphatase activity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium impudicum isolated from the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seok Jin; Kwon, Hyeong Kyu; Noh, Il Hyeon; Yang, Han-Soeb

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity and dissolved organic and inorganic phosphorus utilization by the harmful dinoflagellate Gymnodinium impudicum (Fraga et Bravo) Hansen et Moestrup isolated from the South Sea of Korea. Under conditions of limited phosphorus, observation of growth kinetics in batch culture yielded a maximum growth rate (?max) of 0.41 /day and a half saturation constant (Ks) of 0.71 ?M. In time-course experiments, APase was induced as dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations fell below 0.83 ?M, a threshold near the estimated Ks; APase activity increased with further DIP depletion to a maximum of 0.70 pmol/cell/h in the senescent phase. Thus, Ks may be an important index of the threshold DIP concentration for APase induction. G. impudicum utilizes a wide variety of dissolved organic phosphorus compounds in addition to DIP. These results suggest that DIP limitation in the Southern Sea of Korea may have led to the spread of G. impudicum along with the harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in recent years.

  3. Linking health information seeking to behavioral outcomes: antecedents and outcomes of childhood vaccination information seeking in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ou; Kim, Soyoon

    2015-01-01

    Although research on health information has made significant progress in identifying the antecedents of individuals' information-seeking behavior in the context of the United States, the results have not been generalizable to the contexts of many other countries. Moreover, little is known about how one's information-seeking behavior is connected to actual behavioral outcomes relevant to the search action. The authors conducted an online survey with a stratified random sample of 1,004 mothers to examine the applicability of the comprehensive model of health information seeking in predicting the use of diverse childhood vaccination information sources in South Korea, and to investigate associations between the mothers' engagement with specific vaccine information sources and behavioral intention to immunize their children. Findings indicated that the hierarchical structure and the role of predictors within the comprehensive model of health information seeking provided a valid framework in the context of vaccine information seeking in Korea. In addition, the authors found negative associations between the use of certain types of information sources and mothers' intention to vaccinate. This suggests that the dissemination of critical health information through a variety of available sources does not automatically lead to prudent behavioral decisions when the specific characteristics of the different sources are not considered. PMID:25539018

  4. Full-genome sequences of severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, isolated from South Korea in 2014.

    PubMed

    Yun, Mi-Ran; Park, Sun-Whan; Kwon, TaeSoo; Lee, SangHyun; Yoo, Won Gi; Choi, WooYoung; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Dae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the full-length genome sequencing of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus, isolated from South Korea in 2014. The five Korean strains were compared by phylogenetic analysis with full SFTS genome sequences of two neighboring nations, China and Japan. PMID:25883276

  5. Learning, Engagement, and Technology: Middle School Students' Three-Year Experience in Pervasive Technology Environments in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jung Won; Oh, Jaekyeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an initiative that created a pervasive learning environment in a middle school in South Korea and examined its impact on student academic achievement and learning engagement. Forty students received a laptop to use for class projects, online collaboration, and lesson reviews over a 3-year period. To measure the effect of laptop…

  6. Education through Art after the Second World War: A Critical Review of Art Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyungsook

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how progressive education was introduced to South Korea after the Second World War and takes a closer look at critical studies of this history. It argues that the America-led progressive education policies, which focused on art education, were an uncritical adaptation of the superpower's educational ideology and did not

  7. Higher Education Research as a Field of Study in South Korea: Inward but Starting to Look Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the development of higher education research in South Korea based on historical and scientometric perspectives. After the evolution of the country's higher education research community is presented, articles focusing on higher education from 1995 to 2012 are analysed. In total, 145 articles in international journals and

  8. PreK-6 Teachers' Beliefs about Inclusive Practices in the United States and South Korea: Cross Cultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hyunjeong

    2013-01-01

    The educational practice known as inclusion, which is based on values of equal opportunity and diversity, enables students with disabilities to attend the same general education classes as typically developing peers. Inclusion is a legal requirement in the United States and South Korea, but factors facilitating inclusion likely differ across

  9. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Career Satisfaction of Employees in the Public Sector of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational justice and career satisfaction of employees in the public sector of South Korea. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate the impact of three different dimensions (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of organizational justice on career

  10. Exploring Students at Risk for Reading Comprehension Difficulties in South Korea: The RTI Approach Applying Latent Class Growth Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Kim, Woori; Koh, Hyejung; Lee, Jaeho; Shin, Jaehyun; Kim, Heeju

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify students at risk of reading comprehension difficulties by using the responsiveness to intervention (RTI) approach. The participants were 177 students in Grades 1-3 in three elementary schools in South Korea. The students received Tier 1 instruction of RTI from March to May 2011, and their performance was

  11. Learning, Engagement, and Technology: Middle School Students' Three-Year Experience in Pervasive Technology Environments in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jung Won; Oh, Jaekyeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an initiative that created a pervasive learning environment in a middle school in South Korea and examined its impact on student academic achievement and learning engagement. Forty students received a laptop to use for class projects, online collaboration, and lesson reviews over a 3-year period. To measure the effect of laptop

  12. Private Tutoring and Mass Schooling in East Asia: Reflections of Inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines private tutoring systems in three East Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia) with the purpose of examining the relationship between those systems and formal education systems. The study of private tutoring systems in each nation can be used to reveal the inadequacies of the formal education system in meeting the

  13. The History of Policy Responses to Shadow Education in South Korea: Implications for the next Cycle of Policy Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Jae; Lee, Heesook; Jang, Hyo-Min

    2010-01-01

    Shadow education has been a challenge to public education in South Korea since the 1960s. Government has responded to shadow education with various types of policy responses. The assumption on the possibility of reducing the demand mechanism led the policy to eliminate competitive high stakes examinations and even prohibit participating in shadow

  14. Education through Art after the Second World War: A Critical Review of Art Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyungsook

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how progressive education was introduced to South Korea after the Second World War and takes a closer look at critical studies of this history. It argues that the America-led progressive education policies, which focused on art education, were an uncritical adaptation of the superpower's educational ideology and did not…

  15. PreK-6 Teachers' Beliefs about Inclusive Practices in the United States and South Korea: Cross Cultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hyunjeong

    2013-01-01

    The educational practice known as inclusion, which is based on values of equal opportunity and diversity, enables students with disabilities to attend the same general education classes as typically developing peers. Inclusion is a legal requirement in the United States and South Korea, but factors facilitating inclusion likely differ across…

  16. Higher Education Research as a Field of Study in South Korea: Inward but Starting to Look Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the development of higher education research in South Korea based on historical and scientometric perspectives. After the evolution of the country's higher education research community is presented, articles focusing on higher education from 1995 to 2012 are analysed. In total, 145 articles in international journals and…

  17. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Career Satisfaction of Employees in the Public Sector of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organizational justice and career satisfaction of employees in the public sector of South Korea. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate the impact of three different dimensions (distributive, procedural, and interactional justice) of organizational justice on career…

  18. Exploring Students at Risk for Reading Comprehension Difficulties in South Korea: The RTI Approach Applying Latent Class Growth Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Kim, Woori; Koh, Hyejung; Lee, Jaeho; Shin, Jaehyun; Kim, Heeju

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify students at risk of reading comprehension difficulties by using the responsiveness to intervention (RTI) approach. The participants were 177 students in Grades 1-3 in three elementary schools in South Korea. The students received Tier 1 instruction of RTI from March to May 2011, and their performance was…

  19. A Comparative Cross-Cultural Examination of Community Art Education Programs in South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Ryan; Kim, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted comparative cross-cultural research to examine a select group of the available and more noteworthy art education organizations and their programs after observing significant differences in the community art education programs offered in Tucson, Arizona, and Anyang, South Korea. The study reports several major differences…

  20. A Comparative Cross-Cultural Examination of Community Art Education Programs in South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Ryan; Kim, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted comparative cross-cultural research to examine a select group of the available and more noteworthy art education organizations and their programs after observing significant differences in the community art education programs offered in Tucson, Arizona, and Anyang, South Korea. The study reports several major differences

  1. Improving Scientific Inquiry for Social Work in South Korea: The Center for Social Welfare Research at Yonsei University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Choi, Soochan; Kim, Yujin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines current social issues and welfare needs in South Korea and discusses societal efforts to respond to these needs through social welfare systems nationwide. It also reviews how social work scholars, major contributors to the creation of a Korean welfare state, have contributed to the conditions of social work practice by…

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain SNU.Lp177 from Pig Feces in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Jun-Yeong; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2015-01-01

    Herein we report a draft genome sequence for Lactobacillus plantarum SNU.Lp177, which was isolated from animal gut pig feces in South Korea. The draft genome of L.plantarum SNU.Lp177 contains 3,204,772bp with a G+C content of 44.98% in 101 contigs (N50 = 116,595bp). PMID:26450744

  3. The Effects of High School Track Choice on Students' Postsecondary Enrollment and Majors in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Woo-jeong; Paik, Sunhee

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, college-bound students are divided into two tracks: "Munka" (??) and "Yika" (??), and this tracking ("Munka-Yika" tracking; MY tracking) considerably influences students' choice of college majors and future careers. This study aims to examine how MY tracking and other factors influence…

  4. Improving Scientific Inquiry for Social Work in South Korea: The Center for Social Welfare Research at Yonsei University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Choi, Soochan; Kim, Yujin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines current social issues and welfare needs in South Korea and discusses societal efforts to respond to these needs through social welfare systems nationwide. It also reviews how social work scholars, major contributors to the creation of a Korean welfare state, have contributed to the conditions of social work practice by

  5. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group

  6. The Perception of Good Death among Human Service Students in South Korea: A Q-Methodological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Jo, Kae Hwa; Chee, Kyong Hee; Lee, Yun Ju

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective opinions of Korean college students about good death. Q methodology was used to analyze 34 Q-statements from 37 respondents who majored in social work, nursing, or education at a university in South Korea. With the use of a PC-QUANL software package, 4 types of perceptions about good death

  7. Determinants of public phobia about infectious diseases in South Korea: effect of health communication and gender difference.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu; Lee, Tae-Ro

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the individual and social determinants of the public's phobia of infectious diseases in South Korea, where collective action was recently fueled by the public phobia over mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]). Gender-specific multivariate regression was used to compare the public perception of BSE and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The analysis results differentiated between the determinants of the phobia for the 2 diseases, BSE and HPAI (N = 1002). As with HIV/AIDS and leprosy, the public fear of HPAI was expressed as a disease phobia that seeks to ensure the social exclusion of infection sources, whereas the fear of BSE was influenced by social and communication factors. Therefore, BSE, unlike previous HPAI, can be rapidly amplified amid the growing distrust in health communication, in which case the social determinants of disease phobia are associated with communicator trust, social values, and political attitude toward diseases rather than disease perception. PMID:23430887

  8. Water quality improvement by natural plant-mineral composites and field temperatures of a eutrophic lake in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung-Hwan, Byung; Kim, Ha-Kyung; Mun, Sun-Ki; Kim, Baik-Ho

    2014-09-01

    To improve the water quality of Shingal Reservoir, a eutrophic lake in South Korea, field tests were performed to assess the influence of water temperature on water quality improvement (WQI) ability of domestic plant-mineral composites (PMCs). Interestingly, Cyanobacterium was found to be dominant even in low-temperature seasons, especially winter leading to more effective for diatom growth. Factors such as phytoplankton, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphorous showed high WQI over 70% at 20 degrees C, but declined to 40% at temperatures above 25 degrees C. WQI for Cyanobacteria decreased with increasing water temperature, whereas for diatoms WQI was 90% regardless of water temperature. Additionally, bacterial density and total nitrogen showed very low WQI without water temperature. Collectively, the results indicate that high water temperature decreased WQI ability of a PMC to control phytoplankton (Microcystis aeruginosa) and increased their ability to control diatoms. PMID:25204051

  9. Vulnerabilities to Temperature Effects on Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admissions in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Bo Yeon; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Suji; Heo, Seulkee; Jo, Kyunghee; Kim, Jinsun; Park, Man Sik

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies have focused on the association between acute myocardial function (AMI) and temperature by gender and age. Recently, however, concern has also arisen about those most susceptible to the effects of temperature according to socioeconomic status (SES). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI by subpopulations (gender, age, living area, and individual SES) in South Korea. The Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) database was used to examine the effect of heat and cold on hospital admissions for AMI during 2004–2012. We analyzed the increase in AMI hospital admissions both above and below a threshold temperature using Poisson generalized additive models (GAMs) for hot, cold, and warm weather. The Medicaid group, the lowest SES group, had a significantly higher RR of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07–1.76) for heat and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.04–1.20) for cold among subgroups, while also showing distinctly higher risk curves than NHI for both hot and cold weather. In additions, females, older age group, and those living in urban areas had higher risks from hot and cold temperatures than males, younger age group, and those living in rural areas. PMID:26580643

  10. Prevalence of Salmonella isolates and antimicrobial resistance in poultry meat from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ran-Hee; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Wei, Bai; Roh, Jae-Hee; Seo, Hye-Suk; Oh, Jae-Young; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of Salmonella was assessed in duck and chicken meat collected from supermarkets, traditional markets, internet shopping malls, and wholesale markets in Jeonlado, South Korea, in 2013. Salmonella contamination was found in 51.3% of duck meat samples and 3.7% of chicken meat samples. Salmonella contamination of duck meat samples differed by meat type, i.e., 69.8% of samples of whole ducks and 33.9% of samples of duck pieces. Six serotypes were identified from 64 Salmonella isolates in duck meat: Salmonella Typhimurium (37.5%), Salmonella Enteritidis (21.8%), Salmonella Stanley (3.1%), Salmonella Regent (1.6%), Salmonella Winterthur (3.1%), and Salmonella Westhampton (1.6%). All isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Resistance to sulfisoxazole was most common (93.8% of isolates), followed by resistance to nalidixic acid (59.4%), ceftazidime (26.6%), and ampicillin (26.6%). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report Salmonella contamination in duck meat from Korea. Duck meat should be considered an important source of foodborne pathogens. PMID:25198850

  11. Association between Electronic Cigarette Use and Asthma among High School Students in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jun Ho; Paik, Samuel Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about health outcomes related to electronic cigarette (EC) use, despite its growing popularity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between EC use and asthma. Methods The study design is a cross-sectional study. A total of 35,904 high school students were included as the final study population. The presence of asthma was based on a student’s self-reported doctor diagnosis of asthma in the past 12 months. Results Prevalence rates of asthmatics in ‘current EC users’ (n = 2,513), ‘former EC users’ (n = 2,078), and ‘never EC users’ (n = 31,313), were 3.9% (n = 98), 2.2% (n = 46) and 1.7% (n = 530), respectively. Comparing ‘current EC’ users with ‘never EC’ users, the unadjusted OR for asthma was 2.36 (95% CI: 1.89–2.94). In order to control for the effect of conventional cigarette (CC) smoking, after stratifying the subjects by the three CC smoking categories (never CC, former CC, and current CC), within the ‘never CC’ category, the unadjusted OR for asthma for ‘current EC’ users was 3.41 (95% CI: 1.79–6.49), and the adjusted OR was 2.74 (95% CI: 1.30–5.78). Severe asthma was reflected by the number of days absent from school due to asthma symptoms; current EC users had the highest adjusted OR for severe asthma compared to ‘never EC’ users. Conclusions When compared to a reference population of high school students in South Korea, EC users have an increased association with asthma and are more likely to have had days absent from school due to severe asthma symptoms. In conclusion, the results indicate that EC use may be a risk factor for asthma. The results may be useful in developing a scientific basis for the evaluation of a potential health hazard by EC. PMID:26942764

  12. Current Status of Atopic Dermatitis-Related Information Available on the Internet in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Jun; Kim, Hyun Jee; Yu, Dong Soo; Lee, Young Bok; Hahn, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) often resort to the internet for disease-related information. We believe that dermatologists be informed about the current accessibility of information to patients and the potential for misleading patients into making poor treatment decisions. Objective The study was carried out in order to determine the nature of AD-related information available on the internet in Korea, and to identify any changes since our last survey in 2005. The quality of information offered and the involvement of medical doctors in certain websites were also investigated. Methods Taking into account the current search engine market share in Korea, we gathered all search results obtained from the three major search engines using the keyword 'atopy', and investigated the nature of the information retrieved. Results The search results showed less commercial sites than our previous study in 2005. There is a dramatic increase in the number of public bodies offering information about AD. In addition, the quality of information available online has improved since our last survey. Conclusion The phenomenon of 'commercial overcrowding' seems to have stabilized. As AD becomes a more social phenomenon, patients are better informed than ever before. However, the information available on the internet still requires to be accompanied by consultation by dermatologists. We believe that self-regulation using a format such as the Health on the Net Foundation's code of conduct (HONcode) may improve the quality of online information accessible to patients with AD in Korea. PMID:26848212

  13. Continental origin of the Bibong eclogite, southwestern Gyeonggi massif, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung-Ik; Kwon, Sanghoon; Kim, Sung Won; Yi, Keewook; Santosh, M.

    2014-12-01

    Eclogite is a high-pressure (HP) metamorphic rock that provides important information about the subduction of both continental and oceanic crusts. In this study we present SHRIMP zircon U-Pb isotopic data for a suite of the basement gneisses to investigate the origin of the Proterozoic Bibong eclogite in the Hongseong area, South Korea. Zircon grains from the basement felsic gneisses yielded Paleoproterozoic protolith ages ranging from ca. 2197 to 1880 Ma, and were intruded by syenite at ca. 750 Ma. A HP regional metamorphic event of Triassic age (ca. 255-227 Ma) is recorded in the zircon rims of the country rocks, which is also observed in the zircons from the eclogite. The contacts between the Bibong eclogite and its host rocks support an origin for the Proterozoic protoliths, indicating continental intrusions. The Hongseong area thus preserves evidence for the Triassic collision, indicating a tectonic linkage among the northeast Asian continents.

  14. Deladenus valveus n. sp. (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) in Dunnage Wood from South Korea Intercepted in Ningbo, China

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Vanja; Gu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Deladenus valveus n. sp., isolated from packaging wood originated from South Korea and intercepted in Ningbo, P.R. China, is described and illustrated. Both mycetophagous and infective forms were recovered and are described. The new species D. valveus n. sp. resembles other Deladenus species in which the excretory pore is situated anterior to the hemizonid: in mycetophagous females, the excretory pore is 59 to 74 ?m from the anterior end and 37 to 54 ?m anterior to the hemizonid. The new species is characterized by the presence of a distinct valve at the esophago-intestinal junction in mycetophagous females and by a degenerate esophagus in mycetophagous males, both of which characters are reported for the first time in a species of Deladenus. PMID:24987163

  15. Anomalous ionospheric disturbances over South Korea prior to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Kyu; Lee, Sang Jeong

    2016-01-01

    An anomalous disturbance in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) variations was observed by a GPS network in South Korea and three GPS stations in Japan before the 2011 great Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011. We investigate the standard deviation time series of the vertical TEC variations for all ground receivers and two satellite pairs. Ionospheric disturbances occurred approximately 40-50 min prior to the earthquake and lasted for over one hour. We also investigate the STD time series of the TEC variations on 1-15 March 2011. A pattern of ionospheric disturbance starting ∼45 min (05:00 UT) before the earthquake was relatively different from those of other days. It is noted that there were precursory features in the near-field close to the epicenter. However, no significant disturbance was observed in the regions that were relatively far from the epicenter. These precursory features may be associated with an anomalous electric field generated by complex processes.

  16. Genetic evidence of illegal trade in protected whales links Japan with the US and South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C. Scott; Steel, Debbie; Choi, Yeyong; Lee, Hang; Kim, Kyung Seok; Choi, Sung Kyoung; Ma, Yong-Un; Hambleton, Charles; Psihoyos, Louie; Brownell, R. L.; Funahashi, Naoko

    2010-01-01

    We report on genetic identification of whale meat purchased in sushi restaurants in Los Angeles, CA (USA) in October 2009 and in Seoul, South Korea in June and September 2009. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA cytochrome b sequences confirmed that the products included three species of whale currently killed in the controversial scientific whaling programme of Japan, but which are protected from international trade: the fin, sei and Antarctic minke. The DNA profile of the fin whale sold in Seoul established a match to products purchased previously in Japan in September 2007, confirming unauthorized trade between these two countries. Following species identification, these products were handed over to the appropriate national or local authorities for further investigation. The illegal trade of products from protected species of whales, presumably taken under a national permit for scientific research, is a timely reminder of the need for independent, transparent and robust monitoring of any future whaling. PMID:20392716

  17. Nursing education on women's health care in Australia, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Vickie A; Lambert, Clinton E; Daly, John; Davidson, Patricia M; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Shin, Kyung Rim

    2004-01-01

    Only within the last 3 decades have a select number of countries addressed issues surrounding the all-inclusive health and well-being of women. This factor has had a major influence on nursing education within these countries and the subsequent development of curricula. Because the preparation of nurses is pivotal in shaping a society's health care agenda, this article compares and contrasts demographic characteristics, curricular frameworks, the role of the nurse, quality control of nursing curricula, and the focus of nursing courses related to women's health care among the countries of Australia, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand. Recommendations based on infant mortality rates, life expectancy, leading causes of death, and country-based health care issues are provided to inform and guide the future focus of nursing education courses on women's health care within these countries. PMID:14768415

  18. The solar eclipse and associated atmospheric variations observed in South Korea on 22 July 2009.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yong Seung; Kim, Hak Sung; Choo, Seung Ho

    2010-09-01

    A partial solar eclipse occurred in South Korea on 22 July 2009. It started at 09:30 a.m. and lasted until 12:14 LST with coverage of between 76.8% and 93.1% of the sun. The observed atmospheric effects of the eclipse are presented. It was found that from the onset of the eclipse, solar radiation was reduced by as much as 88.1 approximately 89.9% at the present research centre. Also, during the eclipse, air temperature decreased slightly or remained almost unchanged. After the eclipse, however, it rose by 2.5 to 4.5 degrees C at observed stations. Meanwhile, relative humidity increased and wind speeds were lowered by the eclipse. Ground-level ozone was observed to decrease during the event. PMID:20700380

  19. Stress and health related quality of life of Nepalese students studying in South Korea: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing trend among students to travel for educational purposes to other countries where there is the possibility of experiencing considerable amounts of stress affecting their physical and mental functioning. The aims of the current study were to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of Nepalese students studying in South Korea to explore the relationship between HRQOL and perceived and acculturative stress, and to identify the determinants of HRQOL. Methods One hundred and thirty students were enrolled in this study. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12) questionnaire. Perceived stress and acculturative stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and Acculturative Stress Scale for international students, respectively. Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Perceived stress and acculturative stress were negatively correlated with HRQOL. The highest value in the HRQOL was reported for the vitality subscale and the lowest value was reported for the role-emotional. In the regression model, perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status accounted for a significant (p < .001) portion of the variance (49%) in the mental component summary of the HRQOL. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that Nepalese students studying in South Korea experience a considerable amount of perceived and acculturative stress, which is negatively related with their HRQOL. Provision of culture specific counseling and orientation programs may benefit the students. The determinants of HRQOL identified in this study were perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status. PMID:22410138

  20. Sleep Quality, Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Human Errors in Train Drivers: A Population-Based Nationwide Study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Kim, Ji-Hae; Kim, Bin-Na; Park, Seung Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Choi, Hong; Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Dongsoo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Human error is defined as an unintended error that is attributable to humans rather than machines, and that is important to avoid to prevent accidents. We aimed to investigate the association between sleep quality and human errors among train drivers. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Population-based. Participants: A sample of 5,480 subjects who were actively working as train drivers were recruited in South Korea. The participants were 4,634 drivers who completed all questionnaires (response rate 84.6%). Interventions: None Measurements: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS). Results: Of 4,634 train drivers, 349 (7.5%) showed more than one human error per 5 y. Human errors were associated with poor sleep quality, higher PSQI total scores, short sleep duration at night, and longer sleep latency. Among train drivers with poor sleep quality, those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress showed a significantly higher number of human errors than those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that human errors were significantly associated with poor sleep quality and posttraumatic stress, whereas there were no significant associations with depression, trait and state anxiety, and work stress after adjusting for age, sex, education years, marital status, and career duration. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality was found to be associated with more human errors in train drivers, especially in those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress. Citation: Jeon HJ, Kim JH, Kim BN, Park SJ, Fava M, Mischoulon D, Choi H, Roh S, Lee D. Sleep quality, posttraumatic stress, depression, and human errors in train drivers: a population-based nationwide study in South Korea. SLEEP 2014;37(12):1969-1975. PMID:25325495

  1. Study Of Attenuation Structure Based On The Dense Networks Around South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, T.; Matsumoto, S.

    2004-12-01

    There are few seismic studies of South Korea because this region has relatively quiet seismicity as a typical intraplate environment and lack of seismic stations (e.g. Lee et al., 2003). Recently, however, the densification of regional seismic network has been proceeded in S. Korea since 1999. Based on the dense network data, we first reported not only focal mechanisms of nationwide microseismicity (Chung et al., 2004) but also body wave attenuation structure for several regions (Chung and Sato, 2001; Kim et al., 2004) in S. Korea. These attenuation studies using the coda normalization method (CNM) showed very low QP-1 and QS-1 values comparable to those of seismically stable regions. By using the CNM, we also studied QLg-1 value (Chung and Lee, 2003), which is similarly low value with QS-1. To compensate the lack of data, the source pair/receiver pair method (SPRP) was applied to 71 earthquakes for further QLg-1 attenuation study (Chung et al., 2004). The SPRP provided nearly 1500 source-receiver pairs and reproduced QLg-1 for all frequencies less than 0.002, which is a reasonable value for a seismically inactive region. Lately, we have continued to analyze Lg attenuation structure by adding dense Japanese network located in Kyushu, near southeast of S. Korea. In this analysis, we used the reversed two-station method for collinearly aligned event and receiver pairs to correct azimuthal effect of Lg in the previous SPRP study. Refernces Chung, T.W. and, H. Sato, 2001, BSSA, v.91, 1867-1874. Chung, T.W. and, K. Lee, 2003, BSSA, v.93, 1401-1406. Lee, K., N.S. Chung, and, T.W. Chung, 2003, BSSA, v.93, 2131-2145. Kim, K.D., T.W.Chung, J.B. Kyung, 2004, BSSA, v.94, 1070-1078. Chung, T.W., J.C. Park, and W. Kim, 2004, PEPI, in submitted. Chung, T.W., Y.K. Park, I.B.Kang, and K. Lee, 2004, BSSA, in submitted.

  2. Detection and molecular characterization of porcine type 3 orthoreoviruses circulating in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ha-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Jun-Gyu; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Jung, Juyeon; Lee, Woo Song; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Park, Su-Jin; Kang, Mun-Il

    2012-06-15

    Orthoreoviruses infect virtually all mammalian species, causing systemic infections including mild gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses. However, little is known about the prevalence or genetic diversity of porcine orthoreoviruses in South Korea. We examined 237 diarrheic fecal samples collected from 78 pig farms around the country. RT-PCR utilizing primers specific for the L1 gene of mammalian orthoreoviruses showed that 45 (19.0%) samples were positive. The 10 strains isolated from orthoreovirus-positive samples formed typical perinuclear cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and had an atypical hemagglutination pattern; these are characteristics of type 3 orthoreovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene in these 10 Korean and other strains showed that type 3 orthoreoviruses could be divided into four lineages; the 10 Korean strains were included in porcine lineage IV, along with T3/porcine/Sichuan/2006. Sequence analysis showed that strains in lineage IV had nucleotide identities of 97.0-98.1% and deduced amino acid identities of 96.4-98.2%. Sequence analysis of the ?1 protein, a viral attachment protein, revealed that the amino acid sequences associated with neurotropism (amino acids 198-204, 249I, 350D, and 419E) were highly conserved among the Korean strains, confirming that neural tropism was present. In conclusion, our findings suggest that porcine orthoreovirus infections are endemic in pig farms in South Korea and that the 10 novel Korean porcine orthoreoviruses belong to porcine lineage IV of type 3 orthoreovirus. In addition, sequence analysis of S1 genes encoding the ?1 protein showed that the 9 of 10 Korean porcine orthoreoviruses exhibited neural tropism. PMID:22265235

  3. Trace element analysis of three tissues from Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sukmo; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Soohee; Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Seungwoo; Yu, Hee Jeong; Oh, Su-Jun; Park, Jung-Duck; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Han, Sung Yong; Lim, Jong-Deock; Ryu, Doug-Young

    2015-07-01

    Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) are endangered worldwide, but the specific cause of their decline has not been determined. This study analyzed the concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Se, Cu, Mn, and Zn, in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of Eurasian otters in South Korea. There were high individual variations in the tissue concentrations of all the elements analyzed. The kidneys had the highest concentrations of Cd and Se among the three tissue groups, and the livers had the highest concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, and Hg. The Pb and As concentrations in the livers were not significantly different from those in the kidneys, and the lungs had the lowest concentrations of all the elements analyzed. The age-related bioaccumulation of Cd and Hg was evident in the three tissue groups, and of Se in the kidneys. The Pb concentration was higher in the livers of juveniles compared with those of adults and the Zn concentration was higher in the lungs of juveniles. There were no apparent gender differences in the concentrations of the elements analyzed among the tissue groups. The Se concentration correlated with the Hg concentration in the livers and kidneys, and with the Cd concentration in the kidneys. The Hg and Cd levels correlated in the three tissue groups. The Cu and Zn levels also correlated in the livers and kidneys. In general, the element concentrations were within the ranges reported by previous studies of this species from European countries, except for Cd and Hg, the levels of which were mostly lower than those reported previously. These findings may provide baseline information to facilitate the conservation of the Eurasian otter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first available study of trace element concentrations in the tissues of Eurasian otters from South Korea or Asian countries. PMID:25762104

  4. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Epidemiology of Female Urinary Tract Infections in South Korea, 2010-2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Sup; Choe, Hyun-Sop; Lee, Sung Jong; Bae, Woong Jin; Cho, Hyeong Jun; Yoon, Byung Il; Cho, Yong-Hyun; Han, Chang Hee; Jang, Hoon; Park, Su Bum; Cho, Won Jin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) investigate the antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria that cause urinary tract infections (UTIs) in outpatient and inpatient settings and (ii) evaluate the risk factors for emerging antimicrobial drug resistance in UTIs in South Korea. In total, 3,023 samples without duplication were collected from females between 25 and 65 years of age who had been diagnosed with a urinary tract infection. Multicenter patient data were collected using a Web-based electronic system and then evaluated. The isolation rates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecium in the outpatient setting were 78.1, 4.7, and 1.3%, respectively; in the inpatient setting, the isolation rates of these microorganisms were 37.8, 9.9, and 14.8%, respectively. The susceptibilities of E. coli to amikacin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem in the outpatient setting were 99.4, 79.8, 89.4, 92.8, 69.8, 96.9, and 100.0%, respectively; in the inpatient setting, the susceptibilities to these antibiotics were 97.8, 73.9, 73.7, 82.1, 53.6, 93.2, and 100.0%, respectively. The most unique and common risk factor for emerging antimicrobial-resistant E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and E. faecium was previous exposure to antimicrobials. On the basis of these data, the use of fluoroquinolones should be reserved until culture data are available for the treatment of UTIs in South Korea. The present study will serve as a useful reference for Far Eastern Asia. PMID:23959315

  6. Epidemiology of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in Korea: results from the Korean registry

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Young; Lee, Sang Min; Shin, Jong Wook; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Hojoong; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang Do; Park, Sung Soo; Moon, Hwa Sik; Park, Yong Bum

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is difficult for numerous reasons and is related with a poor prognosis. In Korea, the incidence of CTEPH and its clinical features are unknown. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of CTEPH in a Korean cohort. Methods: This study included South Korean patients diagnosed with CTEPH between September 2008 and October 2011. Baseline characteristics, treatments and outcomes were analyzed. Results: A total of 134 patients were included in this study with 76 females (56.7%). Their median age was 58.3 ± 15.9 years and dyspnea (112 patients, 83.5%) was the most common presenting symptom. Sixty-three patients (47%) had a history of acute pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis, and six (4.5%) had pulmonary tuberculosis. In total, 28 patients (21%) underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE), and 99 patients had medical therapy. During the study period, 18 patients (13.4%) died. In a multivariate analysis, higher hemoglobin (relative risk [RR], 1.516; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.053 to 2.184; p = 0.025) and lower total cholesterol levels (RR, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.965 to 0.999; p = 0.037) were associated with increased mortality. Conclusions: This was the first national cohort study of Korean patients with CTEPH. Accurate diagnosis, characterization and distributions of CTEPH are imperative for prompt treatment in patients, particularly those undergoing PTE. PMID:26689916

  7. The Assessment of Vulnerability of Industrial Parks to Climate Change in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, J. E.; Lee, D. K.; Jung, T. Y.; Choi, K. L.; Lee, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Many countries are developing policy and measures to adapt to climate changes at the national and local levels, but the assessment of vulnerability to climate change and the establishment of countermeasures in the industries considering industrial factors such as worker, infrastructure are insufficient due to the characteristics of diverse processes and fields. In South Korea, the national government provides infrastructures for industrial parks where various companies in manufacturing and other industries are concentrated . Because of their concentration, damages can aggravate in case of natural disasters such as typhoons. In this study, vulnerability indices for climate change were developed and evaluated using climate scenarios for the climate exposure of localized terrential downpour for eight industrial parks. The vulnerability indices were selected and reviewed through literature review and two in-depth interviews with experts in various industries, and the assessment of vulnerability to climate change was conducted by collecting relevant information including the Directory of Industrial Complexes. The vulnerability of each industrial park to climate change was assessed for four time serious such as the base line, 2020s, 2050s, and 2100s . As a result, even though the possibility of localized heavy rain was the highest in Yeosu(Southeast coast) at present, but it was predicted that Gwangyang(Southwest coast) will be higher in the future. For the influences of climate including sensitivity, Ulsan Mipo(Southeast coast) is currently under the highest influence of climate, but the Gumi(Inland area) was forecasted to be under the highest influence of climate in the future. As a result of the assessment of vulnerability to climate change including adaptive capacity, Gumi and Myongji Noksan(Southeast coast) were most vulnerable to localized heavy rain. The degree of vulnerability of all the industrial parks except Ulsan and Yeosu was forecasted to increase in the future, albeit slightly. Policy suggestions for the management of industrial parks were derived based on these findings by considering the regions and industries that are vulnerable to localized heavy rain if existing industrial parks are renovated or new industrial parks are planning.

  8. Impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from North Korea to the air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In Sun; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2013-05-01

    Due to its proximity to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) (40 km from Seoul proper to North Korea) and the characteristics of energy consumption (coal and biomass burning as major primary energy sources), air pollutants emitted from North Korea are likely to influence the air quality in the SMA. To understand the transport of air pollutants emitted from North Korea, backward trajectories arriving in Seoul were estimated and classified into four cases depending on which area the trajectories predominantly passed through for the sampling days between 2002 and 2003. The ambient data of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for the samples. Then, based on the contribution of biomass burning calculated by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model applied and the influence of air pollutants' emissions from North Korea to SMA is semi-quantified. The result was verified by the spatial and seasonal variations of the PAH emission in China based on the previous works. It is estimated that the influence from North Korea on the particulate PAHs concentration in Seoul was up to 20% of the observed values. Further study directions are discussed to make more quantitative and reliable estimation.

  9. “Communities” in Community Engagement: Lessons Learned from Autism Research in South Africa and South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Grinker, Roy Richard; Chambers, Nola; Njongwe, Nono; Lagman, Adrienne E.; Guthrie, Whitney; Stronach, Sheri; Richard, Bonnie O.; Kauchali, Shuaib; Killian, Beverley; Chhagan, Meera; Yucel, Fikri; Kudumu, Mwenda; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Grether, Judith; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Little research has been conducted on behavioral characteristics of children with ASD from diverse cultures within the US or from countries outside of the US or Europe, with little reliable information yet reported from developing countries. We describe the process used to engage diverse communities in ASD research in two community-based research projects—an epidemiological investigation of 7–12 year olds in South Korea and the Early Autism Project, an ASD detection program for 18–36 month old Zulu-speaking children in South Africa. Despite the differences in wealth between these communities, ASD is under-diagnosed in both settings, generally not reported in clinical or educational records. Moreover, in both countries there is low availability of services. In both cases, local knowledge helped researchers to address both ethnographic as well as practical problems. Researchers identified the ways in which these communities generate and negotiate the cultural meanings of developmental disorders. Researchers incorporated that knowledge as they engaged communities in a research protocol, adapted and translated screening and diagnostic tools, and developed methods for screening, evaluating, and diagnosing children with ASD. PMID:22566396

  10. Estrogenic chemicals and estrogenicity in river waters of South Korea and seven Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Duong, Cuong N; Ra, Jin Sung; Cho, Jaeweon; Kim, Sang D; Choi, Hoon K; Park, Ji-Hyung; Kim, Kyoung W; Inam, Edu; Kim, Sang Don

    2010-01-01

    The effects of treatment processes on estrogenicity were evaluated by examining estradiol equivalent (EEQ) concentrations in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) located along Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers in Korea. The occurrence and distribution of estrogenic chemicals were also estimated for surface water in Korea and compared with seven other Asian countries including Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Target compounds were nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and genistein (Gen). Water samples were pretreated and analyzed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the treatment processes of Korean STPs were sufficient to reduce the estrogenic activity of municipal wastewater. The concentrations of phenolic xenoestrogens (i.e., NP, OP and BPA) in samples of Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers were smaller than those reported by previous studies in Korea. In most samples taken from the seven Asian countries, the presence of E2 and EE2 was a major contributor toward estrogenic activity. The EEQ concentrations in surface water samples of the seven Asian countries were at a higher level in comparison to that reported in European countries, America and Japan. However, further studies with more sampling frequencies and sampling areas should be carried out for better evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of estrogenic compounds in these Asian countries. PMID:19931116

  11. Historical reconstruction of anthropogenic mercury input from sedimentary records: Yeongsan Estuary, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Joshua; Dellapenna, Timothy; Louchouarn, Patrick; Lee, Guan-hong

    2015-12-01

    The rapid economic growth of the Republic of Korea (S. Korea) within the last half-century has resulted in a pronounced increase in anthropogenic Hg emission from coal combustion, oil refining, cement production, and waste incineration. The record of increasing atmospheric sources have been investigated with a historical reconstruction of Hg accumulation in 30 sediment cores collected from the Yeongsan Estuary. Within the last several decades, this region has undergone severe anthropogenic alteration, including the construction of an estuarine dam forming the Yeongsan Lake, and installation of numerous seawalls that eliminated vast tidal flats and restricted estuarine circulation. Total mercury concentrations (T-Hg) measured in sediments deposited after 1980 (23.2 ± 9.6 ng g-1; n = 273), were significantly higher than those reported for pre-industrial sediments (i.e. background values: 8.6 ± 2.7 ng g-1; n = 274). An extensive survey of surface samples show that T-Hg concentrations are highest above the dam, with a gradient to lower values further offshore. The concomitant timing of enrichment of T-Hg within the sedimentary record and increased National emissions in Korea suggests that regional sources dominate the input to the Yeongsan Estuary. This indicates that with sufficient regional historic emission data, T-Hg might be utilized as a geochronologic tool to aid in corroborating traditional radioisotopic methods.

  12. Feasibility of implementing a surgical student internship program in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Roh, HyeRin; Kim, Ku Sang; Kim, Kee Hwan; Choi, In Seok; Lee, Kyu Eun; Kim, Hyun-Young; Yi, Nam-Joon; Kim, Min Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite recommendations for introducing student internships (SI) in undergraduate medical education in Korea, the feasibility of surgical SIs has not been demonstrated in the Korean context. We thus identified tasks that could be performed by surgical student interns in a Korean education hospital. Methods The opinions of surgery clerkship directors of medical schools nationwide, regarding the tasks, symptoms and signs, disease entities, and procedures that student interns could perform in their hospitals, were subjected to descriptive analysis. Results Out of the 41 medical schools in Korea, 32 responded. Five implemented an optimal-quality SI program. Two schools considered third-year clerkship as SI. The respondents replied that student interns could be involved in basic nonspecific tasks such as history taking, physical examination, medial recording, reporting patients' status, and assisting during surgery. However, more surgery-specific tasks such as perioperative management or caring for a patient with acute abdominal pain were considered difficult for student interns to encounter in the Korean context. Conclusion Surgical educators should determine a specific role for student interns and encourage them to perform surgery-specific tasks. We recommend societal and system support, and curriculum renovation to establish an SI program in Korea. PMID:25844351

  13. Analysis of Land Surface Temperature Retrieved from High Resolution Satellites in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, Joon-Bum; Choi, Young-Jean

    2015-04-01

    In order to analyze the land surface properties in Seoul and its surrounding metropolitan area in the South Korea, several indices and LST were calculated by the Landsat 8 and TERRA and AQUA MODIS satellites. The land surface properties used are the indices that represented Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Modified Normalized Difference Wetness Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Wetness Index (NDWI), Tasseled cap Brightness, Tasseled cap Greenness, Tasseled cap Wetness Index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) and the LST of the area in and around Seoul. Most indices distinguish very well between urban, rural, mountain, building, river and road. In particular, most of the urbanization is represented in the new cities around Seoul. According to NDVI, NDBI and LST, urban expansion is displayed in the surrounding area of Seoul. The LST and surface elevation have a strong relationship with the distribution and structure of the vegetation/built-up indices such as NDVI and NDBI. While the NDVI is positively correlated with the LST and is also negatively correlated with the surface elevation, the NDBI have just the opposite correlations, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the thermal properties in metropolitan, Landsat and MODIS land surface temperature, AWS (Automatic Weather Station) temperature, digital elevation model and landuse are used. Analysis method among the Landsat and MODIS LST and AWS temperature is basic statistics using by correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error (RMSE) and linear regression function etc. As a result, statistics of Landsat and MODIS LST are a correlation coefficient of 0.32 and RMSE of 4.61K, respectively. And statistics of Landsat and MODIS LST and AWS temperature have the correlations of 0.83 and 0.96 and the RMSE of 3.28K and 2.25K, respectively. Landsat and MODIS LST have relatively high correlation with AWS temperature, and the slope of the linear regression function have 0.45(Landsat) and 1.02(MODIS), respectively. Especially, Landsat 5 has lower correlation about 0.5 or less in entire station, but Landsat 8 has a higher correlation of 0.5 or more despite of lower match point than other satellites. Landsat 8 has highly correlation of more than 0.8 in the center of Seoul.

  14. Differences in the process of earnings determination and inequality between women and men in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, S

    1993-12-01

    Women have increasingly participated in the labor force in South Korea over the past thirty years. Making up 30% of the labor force in 1960, they grew to comprise 47% by 1990. The economic status of female workers has also improved relative to men; the percentage of female wages to male wages increased from 44.1 in 1971 to 53.5 in 1990. Against this historical backdrop, the author examines the process of earnings determination of workers and assesses the explanatory power of human capital and sex segregation theory on earnings inequality between women and men in the South Korean labor market. This is done by analyzing the 1977-90 waves of the Occupational Wage Survey, a pooled cross-section and time series data set for all non-agricultural occupations. Two separate regressions for men and women are estimated using two-stage weighted least squares methods. It is found after analysis that education and tenure have positive effects on logged earnings. Employment in occupations with greater numbers of women tends to lower workers' earnings regardless of their sex, but women are penalized to a four times greater extent than men for working with other women in occupations. Sex segregation becomes insignificant in lowering women's earnings level when occupational groups are controlled. Finally, the inequality in earnings between genders decreased over the period 1977-90 during which women's earnings increased more than those of men. PMID:12287628

  15. Distribution and Size Relationships of Plastic Marine Debris on Beaches in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongmyoung; Lee, Jong Su; Jang, Yong Chang; Hong, Su Yeon; Shim, Won Joon; Song, Young Kyung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Kang, Daeseok; Hong, Sunwook

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of the distribution of plastic marine debris were determined on 12 beaches in South Korea in 2013 and 2014. The abundances of large micro- (1-5mm), meso- (5-25mm), and macroplastics (>25mm) were 880.4, 37.7, and 1.0particles/m(2), respectively. Styrofoam was the most abundant debris type for large microplastics and mesoplastics (99.1 and 90.9%, respectively). Fiber (including fabric) was the most abundant of the macroplastics (54.7%). There were no statistical differences in the mean numbers and weights of plastic debris among three beach groups from west, south, and east coasts. No significant differences were detected between the abundances of beached plastics in high strandline and backshore for all three size groups. Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine the relationships between the three debris size classes. The abundance of large microplastics was strongly correlated with that of mesoplastics for most material types, which suggests that the contamination level of large microplastics can be estimated from that of mesoplastics. As surveying of smaller particles is more labor intensive, the surveying of mesoplastics with a 5-mm sieve is an efficient and useful way to determine "hot-spots" on beaches contaminated with large microplastics. PMID:26285904

  16. Telerehabilitation Needs: A Bidirectional Survey of Health Professionals and Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongbae; Yun, Jayeon; Kim, Da-hye

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess multiple facets of awareness, understanding, value, needs, and desirability to resolve issues regarding unmet medical needs of individuals with a disability by adopting telerehabilitation. The survey included collection and analysis of current services as well as of supplementary and future services of rehabilitative interventions in South Korea. Study Design and Participants: Thirty-six health professionals who were members of the Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine and 57 individuals with spinal cord injury responded to a survey of those belonging to two non-profit professional groups, one group belonging to the Korean Spinal Cord Injury Association and joining the National Spinal Cord Injury Wheelchair Games and the other group belonging to the Jeong-Sang-Hye (High Quad Spinal Cord Injury Association) and having joined one of the focus groups of the Korea National Rehabilitation Research Institute. The two surveys were designed specifically for investigating each group's perspectives of awareness, understanding, value, needs, and desirability of telerehabilitation. Results: The survey responses indicated that there is great interest in the possibility of telerehabilitative services among individuals with spinal cord injury. In particular, there was a strong interest expressed in services that can be used to resolve issues on unmet medical needs of individuals with a disability related to health monitoring, sustaining health, rehabilitation interventions, and independence of activities of daily living. Conclusions: Telerehabilitation holds great promise as a bridge to traditional face-to-face clinical service delivery. From the results, there are a few categories in the survey that indicate notable differences between the two groups regarding the awareness, desirability, order of preference in rehabilitation service, and telerehabilitation expenses. PMID:22545769

  17. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport(MOLIT) of Korea government and Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement(KAIA).

  18. Assessment of solar power potential at abandoned mine promotion districts in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinyoung; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the solar power potential at 7 abandoned mine promotion districts in Korea such as Taebaek, Samcheok, Jeongseon, Yeongwol, Mungyeong, Hwasun and Boryeong. The photovoltaic system with a capacity of 99 kW was considered at each abandoned mine promotion district. The estimated electric power productions and economic effects of photovoltaic systems were analyzed using RETScreen software developed by Natural Resources Canada(NRC). The results showed that the Boryeong district is the highest photovoltaic potential where the estimated electric power production is about 83.43 MWh/year, the net present value is 69.2 million KRW, and the payback period is about 13 years.

  19. 77 FR 73420 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Thereof From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR... Proceedings: Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). We will instruct CBP to assess antidumping... Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (``Assessment...

  20. Continuous rice cropping has been sequestering carbon in soils in Java and South Korea for the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex B.; Hong, Suk Young; Sulaeman, Yiyi; Kim, Myung Sook; Zhang, Yong Seon; Kim, Yi Hyun; Han, Kyung Hwa

    2012-09-01

    The soil system represents the dominant terrestrial reservoir of carbon in the biosphere. Deforestation, poor land management, and excessive cropping lead to a decrease in soil carbon stocks, but intensive cropping can reverse this trend. We discuss long-term soil organic carbon data from two major rice-growing areas: Java (Indonesia) and South Korea. Soil organic carbon content in the top 15 cm for both countries has increased in recent decades. In South Korea, the top 15 cm of soils store about 31 Tg (1012 g) of carbon (C) with a sequestration rate of 0.3 Tg C per year. In Java, the agricultural topsoils accumulated more than 1.7 Tg C per year over the period 1990-2010. We attribute the increase in measured SOC mainly to increases in above- and below- ground biomass due to fertilization. Good agronomic practices can maintain and increase soil carbon, which ensures soil security to produce food and fiber.

  1. Identifying the role of typhoons as drought busters in South Korea based on hidden Markov chain models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jiyoung; Kwon, Hyun-Han; So, Byung-Jin; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2015-04-01

    This study proposed a hidden Markov chain model-based drought analysis (HMM-DA) tool to understand the beginning and ending of meteorological drought and to further characterize typhoon-induced drought busters (TDB) by exploring spatiotemporal drought patterns in South Korea. It was found that typhoons have played a dominant role in ending drought events (EDE) during the typhoon season (July-September) over the last four decades (1974-2013). The percentage of EDEs terminated by TDBs was about 43-90% mainly along coastal regions in South Korea. Furthermore, the TDBs, mainly during summer, have a positive role in managing extreme droughts during the subsequent autumn and spring seasons. The HMM-DA models the temporal dependencies between drought states using Markov chain, consequently capturing the dependencies between droughts and typhoons well, thus, enabling a better performance in modeling spatiotemporal drought attributes compared to traditional methods.

  2. Strontium isotope geochemistry and its geochemical implication from hot spring waters in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Gu; Kim, Tong-Kwon; Lee, Tae Jong

    2011-11-01

    Despite being a non-volcanic area, the southern Korean Peninsula has a number of hot water springs with temperatures more than 40 °C, most of which are commercially used for spa. The hot springs are located at the fringes of the granite body rather than the center of the Mesozoic granite. Here we report on the geochemical characteristics of the hot water springs. The hot springs in the Jurassic granite area are mainly of Na( sbnd Ca) sbnd HCO 3 type, whereas those in the Cretaceous granite area are of Na sbnd Cl ( sbnd SO 4) type. The stable isotope composition of O and H suggests a meteoric origin of the hot spring water. Further, the chemical components of the hot spring waters indicate that they were all derived from hot spring water-rock interaction rather than through anthropogenic input. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of the hot spring waters in the Jurassic granite area ranges from 0.711088 to 0.729034 and that in the Cretaceous granite area ranges from 0.705652 to 0.707912. Such 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio distribution of hot spring waters corresponds with the distribution of the initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios for the emplacement age of the Jurassic and Cretaceous granites in the hot spring occurrence area. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios in the hot spring waters were also divided into three groups according to their geographical location: eastern, western, and southern groups. The constant 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of hot spring water from one hot spring area during the last 6 years strongly suggests that the hot-spring-bearing aquifer system in South Korea should be separated from the upper cold shallow groundwater system. This indicates that the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of the hot spring waters in the granite area of South Korea originates from an equilibrium because of long-term water-rock interaction rather than short-term water-rock interaction due to the input of recent meteoric water. Hence, it may be concluded that hot spring water in the granite area may be a limited deep groundwater resource that might deplete with overuse.

  3. History of pneumonia is a strong risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation in South Korea: the Epidemiologic review and Prospective Observation of COPD and Health in Korea (EPOCH) study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yong Il; Lee, Sang Haak; Yoo, Jee Hong; Jung, Bock Hyun; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Na, Moon Jun; Lee, Jong Deog; Park, Myung Jae; Jung, Chi Young; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kim, Kyung Chan; Kim, Yeon Jae; Choi, Hye Sook; Choi, Ik Su; Lee, Choon-Taek; Lee, Sang Do; Kim, Do Jin; Uh, Soo-Taek; Lee, Ho Sung; Kim, Young Sam; Lee, Kwan Ho; Ra, Seung Won; Kim, Hak Ryul; Choi, Soo Jeon; Park, In Won; Park, Yong Bum; Park, So Young; Lee, Jaehee

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Korea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the ten leading causes of death. COPD exacerbations are significantly associated with mortality in COPD patients. This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology of COPD in South Korea, specifically the clinical characteristics of South Korean COPD patients, the COPD exacerbation rate and the risk factors associated with COPD exacerbations. Methods This study covers a 2-year interval. One year was data collected retrospectively and the second year was prospectively obtained data. Results A total of 1,114 subjects were enrolled in the study. These subjects were observed for a period of 1 year from the enrollment, and a total of 920 subjects completed the study. A total of 1,357 COPD exacerbations occurred in 711 subjects (63.8%) out of the total of 1,114 subjects during the study period of 2 years. Multivariate logistic regression results showed that if patients had had a pneumonia before the retrospective year of analysis, they had a 18 times greater chance of having an exacerbation during the prospective year when other variables were controlled. Also, the subjects who had a history of two or more exacerbations during the retrospective year were approximately 6 times more likely to experience the COPD exacerbation compared to those who did not. Conclusions This study examined the demographic and clinical characteristics of South Korean COPD patients and found that a history of pneumonia and two or more occurrences of exacerbation within 1 year was significantly associated with a higher rate of COPD exacerbation. PMID:26793342

  4. Summary of government sponsored foreign electronics: European union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom, France, and Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garian, Robert

    1994-10-01

    This report provides basic information and statistical data on foreign electronics research and development sponsored by the governments of the European Union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, France, and Singapore. Industrial R&D funding was found to be highly significant in all of the countries studied. Government and industry typically collaborate closely in the planning of economic strategies for capturing new or larger shares of targeted segments of the electronics market.

  5. Pathways to support genetically modified (GM) foods in South Korea: Deliberate reasoning, information shortcuts, and the role of formal education.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sei-Hill; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Besley, John C

    2013-02-01

    Analyzing survey data on the issue of GM foods in South Korea, this study examines two competing routes - deliberate reasoning versus information shortcuts - to forming opinions on controversial science. Findings indicated that both deliberate reasoning and information shortcuts were in play; but the process was moderated by a person's education level. The well educated were more likely than the less educated to engage in deliberate reasoning when shaping their support for GM foods. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail. PMID:23833023

  6. Evidence for Recent Acquisition and Successful Transmission of blaCTX-M-15 in Salmonella enterica in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Oh, Jae-Young; Kim, Mi-Jin; Call, Douglas R.; An, Byung-Ki; Shin, Eun-Gyeong; Song, Eun-A; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2013-01-01

    We identified two distinct blaCTX-M-bearing and five distinct blaCMY-2-bearing genetic structures located on plasmids from Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolates (n = 35) collected from chickens in South Korea. All Salmonella plasmids shared a common replicon, blaCTX-M-15 transposon, and core resistance phenotype, while E. coli blaCTX-M-15 plasmids included four distinct replicons. PMID:23439639

  7. Whole-Genome Sequence of Borrelia garinii Strain 935T Isolated from Ixodes persulcatus in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Yoontae; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Yeong Seon; Kim, Dae-Won; Kwon, Taesoo

    2014-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of Borrelia garinii strain 935T isolated from Ixodes persulcatus in South Korea. The 1,176,739bp (G+C content, 27.73%) genome consists of 1,194 coding regions, 4 rRNA genes, and 33 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes. This is the first whole-genome report of a Korean Borrelia species isolate. PMID:25540341

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in suicidal ideation, parasuicides, and completed suicides in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Jun, Hee-Jin; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-04-01

    As a result of unprecedented increase in suicides over the last decade, Korea now ranks at the top of OECD countries in suicide statistics (26.1 deaths per 100,000 population in 2005). Our study sought to document socioeconomic inequalities in self-destructive behaviors including suicidal ideation, parasuicide, and completed suicide. For prevalence of suicidal ideation and parasuicide, we used four waves of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1995, 1998, 2001, and 2005). For suicide mortality, we abstracted suicide cases from the National Death Registration records, and linked them with population denominators from the national census in 1995, 2000, and 2005. We examined variation in self-destructive behaviors according to level of educational attainment (at the individual level), as well as area-level characteristics including level of deprivation and degree of urbanicity. Age-standardized rates were calculated through direct standardization using the 2005 census population as the standard. Inequalities were measured by the relative index of inequality and the slope index of inequality. The age-standardized prevalence of suicidal ideation decreased across consecutive surveys in both genders (18.0-13.5% for men, 27.5-22.9% for women). Parasuicides similarly decreased over time. By contrast, completed suicides increased over time (20.9-42.8 per 100,000 for men and 8.9-20.9 for women). The most prominent increases in completed suicides were observed among the elderly in both genders. Lower education, rural residence, and area deprivation was each associated with higher suicide rates. Both absolute as well as relative inequalities in suicide by socioeconomic position widened over time. Our findings suggest that the current suicide epidemic in Korea has social origins. In addition to clinical approaches targeted to the prevention of suicides in high risk individuals, social policies are needed to protect disadvantaged populations at risk of self-destructive behaviors. PMID:20163900

  9. 75 FR 34980 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Korea: Preliminary Results and Rescission in Part of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR... Review, 75 FR 13729 (March 23, 2010). We invited parties to comment on the Preliminary Results. We... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube From Brazil, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, and Venezuela, 61...

  10. 78 FR 36524 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...On December 10, 2012, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on diamond sawblades and parts thereof (diamond sawblades) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2010, through October 23, 2011. For the final results, we continue to find that certain companies......

  11. Relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion: a cross-sectional survey of working women in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bokim; Jung, Hye-Sun

    2012-01-01

    The researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion among working women in South Korea. One thousand working women were selected from a database of those eligible for maternity benefits under the National Employment Insurance Plan. Study results showed that handling heavy items during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion after adjusting for general characteristics of the participants and their work environment. A collective effort is needed on the parts of employers, employees, occupational health nurses, and the government to protect working women from lifting heavy items while pregnant. PMID:22233596

  12. Structural characteristics of the central Ogcheon Belt, South Korea: orogen-parallel tectonic transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, You Hong; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    The rocks in the central Ogcheon Belt, South Korea, underwent three deformational phases (D 1, D 2 and D 3) during the Mesozoic Era. In the study area, NW- and NE-trending geological structures such as thrusts and folds are juxtaposed. The NW- and NE-trending folds deform isoclinal folds (F 1) with axial planar slaty cleavage (S 1), and have axial planar crenulation cleavage. All of these folds are overprinted by brittle faults (D 3). It is inferred from field data that the NW- and NE-trending structures are products of a single deformational phase (D 2). A very large-scale inclined NE-vergent isoclinal fold (F 1) produced an irregular boundary of Precambrian basement and a basement promontory, which acted as a structural obstacle against subsequent deformational phases. During the E-vergent phase (D 2), deformation partitioning occurred due to the irregular block boundary, and orogen-parallel and -orthogonal structures were produced. The D 3 phase is recognized as large-scale E-W trending structures including folds and faults. Thus, the structural evolution of the central Ogcheon Belt is related to the clockwise rotation of the maximum compressive stress axis from NE-SW to N-S during the Mesozoic Era. This study shows that the shape of colliding boundary is a very important factor in controlling the structural pattern and evolution in the study area.

  13. The status of the passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Sangwoo; Kim, Sunjoon; Ko, Juin

    2008-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the operating status, evaluate the problems, and discuss possible improvement methods of passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage (AMD) in South Korea. Thirty-five passive treatment systems in 29 mines have been constructed from 1996 to 2002 using successive alkalinity producing systems (SAPS) as the main treatment process. We investigated 29 systems (two for metal mines), 19 of which revealed various problems. Overflows of drainage from SAPS, wetland, or oxidation ponds were caused by the flow rate exceeding the capacities of the facilities or by the reduced permeability of the organic substance layer. Leakages occurred at various parts of the systems. In some cases, clogged and broken pipes at the mouths of the mine adits made the whole system unusable. Some systems showed very low efficiencies without apparent leakage or overflow. Even though the systems showed fairly good efficiencies in metal removal ratios (mainly iron) and pH control; sulfate removal rates were very poor except in three systems, which may indicate very poor sulfate reductions with sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) as a means.

  14. Hydraulic Fracturing In Situ Stress Estimations in a Potential Geothermal Site, Seokmo Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chandong; Jo, Yeonguk; Oh, Yangkyun; Lee, Tae Jong; Kim, Kwang-Yeom

    2014-09-01

    We conducted hydraulic fracturing (HF) in situ stress measurements in Seokmo Island, South Korea, to understand the stress state necessary to characterize a potential geothermal reservoir. The minimum horizontal principal stress was determined from shut-in pressures. In order to calculate the maximum horizontal principal stress ( S Hmax) using the classical Hubbert-Willis equation, we carried out hollow cylinder tensile strength tests and Brazilian tests in recovered cores at depths of HF tests. Both tests show a strong pressure rate dependency in tensile strengths, from which we derived a general empirical equation that can be used to convert laboratory determined tensile strength to that suitable for in situ. The determined stress regime (reverse-faulting) and S Hmax direction (ENE-WSW) at depths below ~300 m agrees with the first order tectonic stress. However the stress direction above ~300 m (NE-SW) appears to be interfered by topography effect due to a nearby ridge. The state of stress in Seokmo Island is in frictional equilibrium constrained by optimally oriented natural fractures and faults. However, a severe fluctuation in determined S Hmax values suggests that natural fractures with different frictional coefficients seem to control stress condition quite locally, such that S Hmax is relatively low at depths where natural fractures with low frictional coefficients are abundant, while S Hmax is relatively high at depths where natural fractures with low frictional coefficients are scarce.

  15. Characteristic variation of PM10 in Seoul, South Korea during 2000-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Lee, M.; Ghim, Y.

    2007-12-01

    PM10 along with O3, CO, SO2 and NO2 has been monitored at 13 stations in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. During 2000-2005, annual PM10 mean concentrations were increased until 2002 and then decreased. While Asian dust events were the most frequent in 2001, in 2002, the highest concentrations of PM10 were recorded nationwide. The effect of Asian dust on PM10 is evident in monthly variations, in which PM10 concentrations were the highest in March and April. Except these two months, the second maximum PM10 was found in June, when O3 levels in exceedance of National Air Quality Standards were the most frequently observed. PM10 concentration was the lowest in August, which is mainly due to heavy rains during summer monsoon. Particularly, monthly PM10 concentrations were very well correlated with the frequency of westerly wind. On the other hand, the percentage of easterly wind was negatively correlated with PM10, leading to the lowest concentration in August and September. These temporal distributions of PM10 will be fully understand to implement policy for PM10 abatement in Seoul.

  16. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection. PMID:26159562

  17. Biopharmaceutical innovation and industrial developments in South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chee-Ruey; Lfgren, Hans

    2009-05-01

    South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan are well known as export-oriented developmental states which for decades employed industrial policy to target particular industries for government support. In the past fifteen years, these three countries all identified the biopharmaceutical industry as a strategic sector. This article explores, through economic analysis, the rationale for this decision and the strategies chosen for linking into the global bio-economy with the objective of catching up in biopharmaceuticals. The paper identifies three comparative advantages enjoyed by these countries in the biopharma sector: (1) public investments in basic research; (2) private investments in phase 1 clinical trials; and (3) a potentially significant contract research industry managing latter-stage clinical trials. Governments employ a range of industrial policies, consistent with these comparative advantages, to promote the biopharmaceutical industry, including public investment in biomedical hubs, research funding and research and development (R&D) tax credits. We argue that the most important feature of the biopharmaceutical industry in these countries is the dominant role of the public sector. That these countries have made progress in innovative capabilities is illustrated by input measures such as R&D expenditure as share of gross domestic product, number of patents granted and clinical trials, and volume of foreign direct investment. In contrast, output indicators such as approval of new chemical entities suggest that the process of catching up has only just commenced. Pharmaceutical innovation is at the stage of mainly generating inputs to integrated processes controlled by the globally incumbent firms. PMID:19563313

  18. Realtime Monitoring of the Extreme Oceanic Conditions in the Kangjin Bay, South Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Y.; Jung, K.

    2006-05-01

    Realtime(RT) monitoring system for the oceanic state variables was developed and has been operating since April, 2004 in the Kangjin Bay, South Sea, Korea shown. The RT production of data stream and display on the Internet web page are made possible in continuous functions of various system elements. Detailed technical information for the RT monitoring system can be referred to Ro et al. (2004). The water quality parameters, current and meteorological conditions are continuously monitored with very high sampling resolution (10 min.) throughout the year and are being published on the Internet web pages (http://oceaninfo.co.kr/kangjin). The research project encompass several important subjects focusing on the extreme oceanic conditions such as very cold water mass formation during the wintertime cold outbreak, highly diluted sea water during the dam water discharge in the summertime monsoon and the subsequent formation of the hypoxia in the shallow Kangjin Bay. These are the typical extreme events captured possibly by the RT monitoring system, without which could never have been observed and understood. These extreme conditions would exert dramatic ecological impact to the local aqua-culture ecology. This study would elucidate the series of physico-chemical processes and its implication of the local eco-system. To understand the complicated processes, various research tools have been employed such as numerical modeling of tidal circulation, density-driven current, water-quality and formation of hypoxia, time series analyses of various water quality properties including multi-variate correlation.

  19. Position Statement: Drug Holiday in Osteoporosis Treatment with Bisphosphonates in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hun; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Si Young; Shin, Jung-Ho; Cho, Sun Wook; Byun, Dong-Won

    2015-11-01

    Bisphosphonates have been widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis with robust data from many placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy in fracture risk reduction over 3 to 5 years of treatment. Although bisphosphonates are generally safe and well tolerated, concerns have emerged about the adverse effects related to its long-term use, including osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures. Because bisphosphonates are incorporated into the skeleton and continue to exert an anti-resorptive effect for a period of time after the discontinuation of drugs, the concept of a "drug holiday" has emerged, whereby the risk of adverse effects might be decreased while the patient still benefits from anti-fracture efficacy. As randomized clinical trial evidence is not yet available on who may qualify for a drug holiday, there is considerable controversy regarding the selection of candidates for the drug holiday and monitoring during a drug holiday, both of which should be based on individual assessments of risk and benefit. This statement will provide suggestions for clinicians in South Korea on the identification of possible candidates and monitoring during a bisphosphonate drug holiday. PMID:26713307

  20. Position Statement: Drug Holiday in Osteoporosis Treatment with Bisphosphonates in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hun; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Si Young; Shin, Jung-Ho; Cho, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have been widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis with robust data from many placebo-controlled trials demonstrating its efficacy in fracture risk reduction over 3 to 5 years of treatment. Although bisphosphonates are generally safe and well tolerated, concerns have emerged about the adverse effects related to its long-term use, including osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures. Because bisphosphonates are incorporated into the skeleton and continue to exert an anti-resorptive effect for a period of time after the discontinuation of drugs, the concept of a "drug holiday" has emerged, whereby the risk of adverse effects might be decreased while the patient still benefits from anti-fracture efficacy. As randomized clinical trial evidence is not yet available on who may qualify for a drug holiday, there is considerable controversy regarding the selection of candidates for the drug holiday and monitoring during a drug holiday, both of which should be based on individual assessments of risk and benefit. This statement will provide suggestions for clinicians in South Korea on the identification of possible candidates and monitoring during a bisphosphonate drug holiday. PMID:26713307

  1. Monitoring of PCBs at facilities related with PCB-containing products and wastes in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang-Zhu; Fang, Ming-Liang; Kang, Jung-Ho; Park, Hyokeun; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-11-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contents were analyzed in samples collected from facilities related to PCB-containing products or wastes in South Korea. Average concentrations of the atmospheric ?(209) PCBs were 7420 (37.0-104,048)pgm(-3) and 16.8 (ND-34.2 )fg WHO-TEQ m(-3) in indoor air samples; and 1670 (106-13,382)pgm(-3) and 5.64 (ND-36.0) fg WHO-TEQ m(-3) in outdoor air samples. The highest levels were observed in indoor air samples from disposal facilities (7336-104,048 pg m(-3)), followed by production (330-25,057 pg m(-3)), recycling, and storage facilities, indicating that PCB emissions from PCB-containing products and wastes remains very high and the facilities related with those may be an important source to atmospheric PCBs. Principal component analysis of PCB profiles showed that the homologue patterns of PCBs in outdoor and indoor air samples collected from the facilities were similar to those of boundary air samples and PCB commercial products, e.g. Aroclor 1016, 1221, 1232 and 1242. Evaluation of the PCB mass balance in a facility, dismantling and solvent-washing PCB-contaminated transformers, showed that of the total PCBs treated in this facility, approximately 0.0022% was emitted to the atmosphere, and most was transferred to waste oil for disposal by incineration or chemical methods. PMID:22014439

  2. Investigation of the Water Quality of Six Major Rivers in South Korea: Statistical and Isotopic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, W.; Ryu, J.; Lee, K.; Park, Y.; Chung, G.

    2008-12-01

    Seasonal and spatial variation in water quality and contaminant sources were investigated in six major rivers in South Korea that vary widely in drainage area and length. The contents of dissolved loads in the rivers varied seasonally, and some dissolved ions such as Cl- and NO3- showed large spatial differences in all of the rivers. The water type changed from Ca-HCO3 in the upper reaches to Na-HCO3-SO4 in the lower reaches, probably because of anthropogenic contamination. Compared with the Sumjin and Mankyung rivers, which flow mainly through forested areas with limited agricultural activity, the other four rivers, which flow through agricultural and urban areas, registered much higher Cl- and NO3- concentrations. Statistical analyses showed that this seasonal and spatial variation occurs in all of the rivers and that Cl- and NO3- originate from different sources. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of dissolved nitrate indicated that the rivers are significantly affected by manure, sewage, or both.

  3. Hydraulic analysis of a radial collector well for riverbank filtration near Nakdong River, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunhee; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Kang-Kun; Shin, Jiyoun

    2012-05-01

    A radial collector well is used for the extraction of a large amount of groundwater without causing a deep drawdown at the well's center, and it is appropriate for the supply of municipal water through riverbank filtration (RBF). Flow path changes caused by water extraction through a radial collector well were simulated to estimate the amount of river water induction at a RBF site associated with Nakdong River in South Korea. The structure of the screened horizontal arms of a radial collector well was examined with respect to effective riverbank filtration. The relative ratio of the river water induced to the radial collector well compared to the total groundwater extraction was estimated to be 27-52%. The amount of induced river water varies with the distance of a horizontal arm from the river, indicating that the location and structure of the collector well is significant for RBF. In all simulation cases, the maximum drawdown of the groundwater level near the collector well was 2.1 m, which is not significant considering the substantial pumping rate at the study site. It was concluded that RBF radial collector wells can be used at the study site for a sustainable water supply.

  4. Predicting impacts of climate change on habitat connectivity of Kalopanax septemlobus in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wanmo; Minor, Emily S.; Lee, Dowon; Park, Chan-Ryul

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the drivers of habitat distribution patterns and assessing habitat connectivity are crucial for conservation in the face of climate change. In this study, we examined a sparsely distributed tree species, Kalopanax septemlobus (Araliaceae), which has been heavily disturbed by human use in temperate forests of South Korea. We used maximum entropy distribution modeling (MaxEnt) to identify the climatic and topographic factors driving the distribution of the species. Then, we constructed habitat models under current and projected climate conditions for the year 2050 and evaluated changes in the extent and connectivity of the K. septemlobus habitat. Annual mean temperature and terrain slope were the two most important predictors of species distribution. Our models predicted the range shift of K. septemlobus toward higher elevations under medium-low and high emissions scenarios for 2050, with dramatic reductions in suitable habitat (51% and 85%, respectively). In addition, connectivity analysis indicated that climate change is expected to reduce future levels of habitat connectivity. Even under the Representative Construction Pathway (RCP) 4.5 medium-low warming scenario, the projected climate conditions will decrease habitat connectivity by 78%. Overall, suitable habitats for K. septemlobus populations will likely become more isolated depending on the severity of global warming. The approach presented here can be used to efficiently assess species and habitat vulnerability to climate change.

  5. Jejuia marina nov., isolated from gravel adjacent to Geommeolle beach on Udo Island, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyangmi; Yang, Jae-Hyung; Cha, Hyung-Kee; Lee, Jae-Bong; Suh, Seok-Jong; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Doo-Sang

    2015-11-01

    A bacterial strain, JH03(T), was isolated from gravel adjacent to Geommeolle beach on Udo Island, South Korea. The cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod shaped. The ranges of temperature, pH and NaCl concentration for growth of the bacterium were 10-45 C, pH 6.0-9.5 and 0.5-5.0 % (w/v), respectively. The major fatty acids of the bacterium were iso-C(15:0) (15.4 %), iso-C(15:1) G (14.1 %), iso-C(16:0) 3-OH (14.1 %), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH (11.5 %) and anteiso-C(15:0) (11.3 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified amino lipids and three unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JH03(T) was most closely related to Jejuia pallidilutea EM39(T) (96.5 % sequence similarity). Based on the polyphasic analysis, strain JH03(T) is a novel species of the genus Jejuia, for which the name Jejuia marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JH03(T) (= KCTC 42342(T) = JCM 30601(T)). PMID:26362038

  6. Symbiodinium spp. associated with high-latitude scleractinian corals from Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Palmas, S.; Denis, V.; Ribas-Deulofeu, L.; Loubeyres, M.; Woo, S.; Hwang, S. J.; Song, J. I.; Chen, C. A.

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium) associated with scleractinian corals focus on tropical and sub-tropical reefs. Their diversity in outlying, non-reef coral communities at high latitudes is still not fully documented. In this study, we analyzed the Symbiodinium diversity associated with five scleractinian species collected at eight sites around Jeju Island (South Korea, 33.4N) between 5 and 15 m depth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified internal transcribed spacer region 2 distinguished five Symbiodinium types. We observed a high level of specificity between host genera and Symbiodinium spp. despite existing in an environment with large seasonal oscillations in temperature and light. Psammocora albopicta and Psammocora profundacella were associated with C1 and Montipora millepora with C17. Alveopora japonica was associated exclusively with an unusual F-type, the only known clade F representative functionally important to a scleractinian coral. Oulastrea crispata was associated with Symbiodinium boreum (type D15), occasionally co-occurring with type C3 (in 4 % of specimens). In addition to increasing the knowledge of Symbiodinium diversity in high-latitude coral communities, this study constitutes an important baseline upon which the effects of projected environmental change in the near future can be assessed. A better understanding of high-latitude coral communities is critical for understanding how a warming planet will affect the tempo and mode of shifts in the composition of temperate marine communities.

  7. Recent recovery of surface wind speed after decadal decrease: a focus on South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, JongChun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the multi-decadal variability of observed surface wind speed around South Korea. It is found that surface wind speed exhibits decreasing trend from mid-1950s until 2003, which is similar with the trends reported for other parts of the world. However, the decreasing trend ceases and becomes unclear since then. It is revealed that decreasing wind speed until 2003 is strongly associated with the decreasing trend of the spatial variance in both atmospheric pressure and air temperature across the East Asia for the same period. On the contrary, break of decreasing trend in surface wind speed since 2003 is associated with increasing spatial variance in surface temperature over the East Asia. Ground observation shows that surface wind speed and air temperature exhibit highly negative correlations for both summer and winter prior to 2003. However, since 2003, the correlations differ between seasons. We suggest that mechanisms behind the recent wind speed trend are different between summer and winter. This is on the basis of an interesting finding that air temperature has decreased while surface temperature has increased during winter months since 2003. We hypothesize that such contrasting temperature trends indicate more frequent movement of external cold air mass into the region since 2003. We also hypothesize that increasing summer wind speed is driven by intrusion of warm air mass into the region which is witnessed via increasing spatial variance in surface temperature across East Asia and the fact that both air and surface temperature rise together.

  8. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyeyeong; Thorne, James H.; Seo, Changwan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) multi-response species distribution model to overcome species’ data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species’ ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species’ presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD) calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the threshold and scale criteria, which should be assessed on a per-project basis. PMID:26930289

  9. Geological structures and geochronology of the Gonam Complex in the Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, You Hong; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-04-01

    Geological structures and geochronology of the Gonam Complex in the Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea You Hong Kihm and Sung Won Kim The Gonam complex is exposed in the westernmost part of the Gyeonggi Massif, which is recently thought be related with Triassic collision of China. This complex consists of various lithologies such as quartz schist, mica schist, quartzite, marble, leucocratic granite, mafic dyke and alkali granite. The Gonam complex can be divided into three units from south to north. The first is dominated by alternation of quartz schist and mica schist, which are intruded by leucocratic granites and mafic dykes. The second unit is highly sheared and folded quartzite. The last unit is composed of schists and marble intruded by acidic dykes, mafic dykes and foliated syenite. The deformation of the Gonam complex is characterized by one ductile shearing, two generations of folding, and four generations of faulting. The most prominent geological structures developed in the Gonam Complex are ductile structures, such as mylonitic foliations, mineral stretching lineations, sheath folds and oblique folds. At most outcrops the Gonam Complex was strongly sheared and intruded by amphibolitic dykes and leucocratic granites, which are also sheared. Widely developed mylonite indicates the ductile shearing occurred in high temperature metamorphic condition. SHRIMP zircon ages of detrital zircons obtained from schist and quartzite range from 3313 to 1819 Ma indicating the Gonam Complex deposited after Paleoproterozoic. Intrusion ages of foliated leucocratic granite, mafic dyke and foliated syenite are 821 Ma, 812 Ma and 751 Ma, respectively. And massive mafic dyke, syenite and two-mica granite (232~228 Ma) are interpreted as post-collisional igneous activity. These events are similar to those of Qinling-Dabie Belt and suggest that the Gyeonggi Massif is probably correlated to the Qinling-Dabie Belt.

  10. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model.

    PubMed

    Choe, Hyeyeong; Thorne, James H; Seo, Changwan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) multi-response species distribution model to overcome species' data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species' ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species' presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD) calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the threshold and scale criteria, which should be assessed on a per-project basis. PMID:26930289

  11. Mafic/Intermediate Paired Magmatism Associated with Triassic Collision Belt in the Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Oh, C. W.; Kim, T.; Lee, S. Y.; Yi, K.

    2013-12-01

    The present study shows SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock chemical and isotopic (Sr-Nd) data of gabbroic and intermediate plutonic rock pairs from the Yangpyong, Odesan and Yangyang area in the Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea. These rocks intruded the surrounding para-gneiss metamorphosed both at Paleoproterozoic and Triassic. The hornblende gabbro and syenite in the Yangpyong area, are alkaline and shoshonitic series. SHRIMP zircon ages of hornblende gabbro and syenite are 225.5 3.8 Ma and 232.6 2.8 Ma, respectively, representing coeval magmatism. The initial 87Sr/86Sr and ?Nd(t) of hornblende gabbros are 0.7111-0.7119 and -19.03 to -19.75, respectively, indicating highly enriched source materials. Syenites have similar values (0.7125, -18.48 to -18.56) with those of hornblende gabbros. The high-K calc-alkaline gabbro and alkaline mangerite in the Odesan area, give SHRIMP zircon ages of 232.3 1.3 Ma and 234.2 1.2 Ma, respectively, representing coeval magmatism. The initial 87Sr/86Sr and ?Nd(t) of gabbros are 0.7128-0.7136 and -16.71 to -17.34, respectively, indicating highly enriched source materials. Mangerite has same values (0.7132, -17.58) with those of gabbros. The hornblende gabbro and syenite in the Yangyang area, are alkaline and shoshonitic series. SHRIMP zircon ages of hornblende gabbro and syenite are 226.0 1.6 Ma and 230.9 1.0 Ma, respectively, indicating coeval magmatism. The initial 87Sr/86Sr and ?Nd(t) of hornblende gabbro are 0.7099 and -13.06 , respectively, indicating highly enriched source materials. Syenites have similar values (0.7098-0.7100, -10.80 to -11.78) with those of hornblende gabbro. SHRIMP age dating and Sr-Nd isotopic ratios of mafic and intermediate igneous rocks in three areas, indicate that they intruded almost simultaneously and the source materials of them are highly enriched mantle. Gabbroic rocks from the Yangpyong, Odesan and Yangyang areas, are strongly LREE enriched relative to chondrites and show high LIL/HFS pattern and negative Ta-Nb-Ti trough in primitive mantle normalized spider diagram. Coeval intermediate plutonic rocks also show same geochemical characters. These mean mafic/intermediate igneous pairs in the study areas, are related to arc magmatism. On a Y+Nb vs. Rb tectonic diagram, the intermediate rocks plot in post-collisional granitoid fields while on a Rb/30-Hf-Ta*3 diagram they plot in volanic arc, post-collisional or within plate tectonic settings. These data indicate that mafic/intermediate paired magmatism in the study areas occurred during Triassic post-collisional relaxation period by partial melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that was enriched in subduction environment before collision. The result of this study supports the eastern extension of Triassic Dabie-Sulu collision belt into Korean Peninsular, and also supports that the collision belt may be close to the line connecting the Yangpyong, Odesan and Yangyang areas.

  12. Assessment of air quality in the coastal area of South Korea using principal component analysis combined with cluster analysis and enrichment factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H.; Kwack, W.; Ha, H.; Choe, C.; Kim, Y.; Zoh, K.; Yi, S.

    2009-12-01

    The interpretation of ambiet air pollution in relation with meteorological parameters is a topic of great interest to maintain and manage ambient air quality in the coastal region of South Korea. The objectives of this study were: (i) to locate emission sources qualitatitively and quantitatively, (ii) to identify air quality by day with similar air pollution behaviors; and (iii) to evaluate the effect of sea salt on the aerosols. Two statistical techniques, principal components analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA) were applied to the concentrations of five pollutants(PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3). The enrichment factor(EF) representing the ratio of Cl/Na in aerosol to Cl/Na in sea water was calculated with 2 soluble ions(Na+ and Cl-) in PM10 analyzed by ion chromatograph in coastal urban area of Incheon city, South Korea from January to December 2008. PCA results show three emission sources; (i) high PM10, NO2 and CO with low temperature, radiation and wind speed(35.9%), (ii) high O3 with high radiation and wind speed, and low humidity(18.2%), (iii) high NO2 and O3 with high temperature and radiation, and low wind speed(11.2%), respectively. CA results show three groups; (i) Friday (high PM10 and NO2, low O3), (ii) Sunday (low PM10 and NO2, high O3), (iii) Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday/Saturday (medium PM10, NO2 and O3). EF was 1.02 implying contribution of sea salt on the aerosol level with various anthropogenic sources. In conclusion, PCA and CA are suitable for idenfying and estimating the sources of air pollution. EF allows for investigating the effect of sea salt on the PM10 in the region where sea-land breezes. It was conclueded that the sea wind had an important contribution towards the variation of air pollutants. Key words : air pollutants, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, enrichment factor Fig. 1. Dendrogram using average linkage of cluster analysis for PM10 at coastal urban area of Incheon, South Korea. Table 1 Main results of PCA application for PM10 at coastal urban area of Incheon, South Korea

  13. 76 FR 15941 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR... the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Accordingly, the deadline for... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension...

  14. 77 FR 8808 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of... antidumping duty administrative review of circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of...

  15. Clinical Practice in the Use of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients with Colon Cancer in South Korea: a Multi-Center, Prospective, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Han; Baek, Moo Jun; Ahn, Byung-Kwon; Kim, Dae Dong; Kim, Ik Yong; Kim, Jin Soo; Bae, Byung-Noe; Seo, Bong-Gun; Jung, Sang Hun; Hong, Kwan Hee; Kim, Hungdai; Park, Dong Guk; Lee, Ji Hye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adjuvant chemotherapy is a crucial part of treatment for patients with locally advanced colon cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the actual practice in the use of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with high-risk stage II or stage III colon cancer in South Korea. Methods: This was a 24-month open-label, prospective, observational study conducted at 12 centers across South Korea. Patients with high-risk stage II and stage III colon cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy after curative surgery were included, and data were collected at baseline, third, and sixth month. Results: A total of 246 patients were included in the analyses. Of five available regimens (FOLFOX, CAPOX, 5-FU/LV, capecitabine, and UFT/LV), FOLFOX was most commonly used (82.5%). Investigators indicated the efficacy as the major cause for selecting FOLFOX or CAPOX. For 5-FU/LV, capecitabine, or UFT/LV, the safety or patient's characteristics (age, comorbidity, and stage) was one of the most important selecting factors. Patients receiving 5-FU/LV, capecitabine, or UFT/LV had older age, worse PS and lower disease stage (stage II) than patients receiving FOLFOX or CAPOX. Hematologic toxicities were the most common cause of dose adjustment and treatment delay. Conclusions: In South Korea, FOLFOX was the most commonly used regimen for adjuvant chemotherapy and its efficacy was the main cause for selecting this regimen. Patients receiving 5-FU/LV, capecitabine, or UFT/LV had older age, worse PS and lower disease stage (stage II) than patients receiving FOLFOX or CAPOX. PMID:26819636

  16. The measurement of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the regional background marine boundary air, Baengyeong Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Choi, H.; Lee, T.; Lee, D.; Park, J.; Jang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Concurrent measurements of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), other photochemically reactive species including O3, CO, NO, NOy, selected species of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and aerosol chemical (water soluble ionic species, OC/EC, trace metals) compositions were made in an atmospheric monitoring station in Baengyeong Island from Aug. 2nd to 14th of 2010. This island is located at the far western part of Korea in the middle of Yellow Sea between China and Korea. PAN was determined every 3 minutes by a fast chromatograph with luminol-based chemiluminescence detection. Mixing ratios of PAN ranged from the below the detection limit of 0.005 to 1.04 ppb with an average of 0.09 ppb. Over the same period, hourly averaged O3 ranged from 0 to 63 ppb (average of 32 ppb). Although our measurements were made over the relatively clean marine boundary air, significant and rapid increases of PAN were frequently observed. These increases of PAN were coincided with increases of its precursors and wind pattern changes. After detailed analysis of aerosol compositions using local wind variation, back-trajectory and synoptic analysis of air masses, the degree of influences and chemistry related with PAN from surrounding land areas, China, South Korea and North Korea will be identified. Also, the role of PAN and other reactive nitrogen species to ozone formation and its transport over the Yellow Sea are planned to be addressed.

  17. Measurements of radioxenon in ground level air in South Korea following the claimed nuclear test in North Korea on October 9, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ringbom, Anders; Elmgren, K.; Lindh, Karin; Peterson, Jenny; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Panisko, Mark E.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-12-03

    Abstract Following the claimed nuclear test in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) on October 9, 2006, and a reported seismic event, a mobile system for sampling of atmospheric xenon was transported to the Republic of South Korea (ROK) in an attempt to detect possible emissions of radioxenon in the region from a presumed test. Five samples were collected in the ROK during October 1114, 2006 near the ROKDPRK border, and thereafter transported to the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) in Stockholm, Sweden, for analysis. Following the initial measurements, an automatic radioxenon sampling and analysis system was installed at the same location in the ROK, and measurements on the ambient atmospheric radioxenon background in the region were performed during November 2006 to February 2007. The measured radioxenon concentrations strongly indicate that the explosion in October 9, 2006 was a nuclear test. The conclusion is further strengthened by atmospheric transport models. Radioactive xenon measurement was the only independent confirmation that the supposed test was in fact a nuclear explosion and not a conventional (chemical) explosive.

  18. Source process and tectonic implication of the January 20, 2007 Odaesan earthquake, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ali K.; Kim, K. Y.; Fnais, M. S.; Al-Amri, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    The source process for the 20th of January 2007, Mw 4.5 Odaesan earthquake in South Korea is investigated in the low- and high-frequency bands, using velocity and acceleration waveform data recorded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Seismographic Network at distances less than 70 km from the epicenter. Synthetic Green functions are adopted for the low-frequency band of 0.1-0.3 Hz by using the wave-number integration technique and the one dimensional velocity model beneath the epicentral area. An iterative technique was performed by a grid search across the strike, dip, rake, and focal depth of rupture nucleation parameters to find the best-fit double-couple mechanism. To resolve the nodal plane ambiguity, the spatiotemporal slip distribution on the fault surface was recovered using a non-negative least-square algorithm for each set of the grid-searched parameters. The focal depth of 10 km was determined through the grid search for depths in the range of 6-14 km. The best-fit double-couple mechanism obtained from the finite-source model indicates a vertical strike-slip faulting mechanism. The NW faulting plane gives comparatively smaller root-mean-squares (RMS) error than its auxiliary plane. Slip pattern event provides simple source process due to the effect of Low-frequency that acted as a point source model. Three empirical Green functions are adopted to investigate the source process in the high-frequency band. A set of slip models was recovered on both nodal planes of the focal mechanism with various rupture velocities in the range of 2.0-4.0 km/s. Although there is a small difference between the RMS errors produced by the two orthogonal nodal planes, the SW dipping plane gives a smaller RMS error than its auxiliary plane. The slip distribution is relatively assessable by the oblique pattern recovered around the hypocenter in the high-frequency analysis; indicating a complex rupture scenario for such moderate-sized earthquake, similar to those reported for large earthquakes.

  19. Genotypic and phenotypic trends in antibiotic resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from humans and farm animals in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Unno, Tatsuya; Han, Dukki; Jang, Jeonghwan; Widmer, Kenneth; Ko, Gwangpyo; Sadowsky, Michael J; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2011-01-01

    South Korea uses more antibiotics for animal production than any other member of the OECD. The excessive use could potentially lead to a greater incidence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms, some of which may be pathogenic. In this study, we examined potential diarrheagenic and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates using virulence gene profiling (eaeA, est, elt, ipaH, stx1 and stx2 as diarrheagenic and afa/dra, iutA, kpsMT II, papA/C, and sfa/foc as extraintestinal pathogenic virulence genes). A cluster analysis of DNA fingerprint data indicated that certain genotypes of chicken E. coli isolates are likely ExPEC. Moreover, our results showed 38 of the 60 potential diarrheagenic and ExPEC isolates obtained from animals and humans were also resistant to antibiotics, mostly to tetracycline groups, penicillin groups, and folate pathway inhibitors. Our results suggest that the use of antibiotics in agriculture should be controlled due to potential impacts on human health. PMID:21558676

  20. Association between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health: a multilevel study in Seoul, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Choi, Jaesung; Park, Kisoo; Chung, Yeonseung; Park, Sangjo; Heo, Jongho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several studies have reported the relationship between residents perceived neighbourhood safety and their health outcomes. However, those studies suffered from unreliability of neighbourhood safety measure and potential residual confounding related to crime rates. In this study, using multilevel analysis to account for the hierarchical structure of the data, we examined associations between district-level perceived safety and self-rated health after adjusting for potential confounders including the district-level crime rate. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting We used the first wave of Seoul Welfare Panel Study, which has 7761 individuals from 3665 households in 25 administrative districts in Seoul, South Korea. District-level perceived safety was obtained by aggregating responses from the residents that are representative samples for each administrative district in Seoul. To examine an association between district-level safety and residents self-rated health, we used mixed effect logistic regression. Results Our results showed that higher district-level perceived safety, an aggregated measure of district residents responses towards neighbourhood safety, was significantly associated with poor self-rated health after controlling for sex, age, education level, job status, marital status and household income (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.97). Furthermore, this association was still robust when we additionally adjusted for the district-level crime rate (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.95). Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of improving neighbourhood perceived safety to enhance residents health. PMID:25079921