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1

Integrated Mapping of Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiological Findings and Control Implications for Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post- conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish

Hugh J. W. Sturrock; Diana Picon; Anthony Sabasio; David Oguttu; Emily Robinson; Mounir Lado; John Rumunu; Simon Brooker; Jan H. Kolaczinski

2009-01-01

2

Integrated Mapping of Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiological Findings and Control Implications for Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post-conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish which communities

Hugh J. W. Sturrock; Diana Picon; Anthony Sabasio; David Oguttu; Emily Robinson; Mounir Lado; John Rumunu; Simon Brooker; Jan H. Kolaczinski

2009-01-01

3

Integrated Mapping of Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiological Findings and Control Implications for Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background There are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post-conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish which communities require mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapy (PCT), rather than to provide precise estimates of infection prevalence. Methods and Findings The integrated survey design used anecdotal reports of LF and proximity to water bodies (for schistosomiasis) to guide selection of survey sites. In total, 86 communities were surveyed for schistosomiasis and STH; 43 of these were also surveyed for LF and loiasis. From these, 4834 urine samples were tested for blood in urine using Hemastix reagent strips, 4438 stool samples were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique, and 5254 blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests (ICT). 4461 individuals were interviewed regarding a history of ‘eye worm’ (a proxy measure for loiasis) and 31 village chiefs were interviewed regarding the presence of clinical manifestations of LF in their community. At the village level, prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni ranged from 0 to 65.6% and from 0 to 9.3%, respectively. The main STH species was hookworm, ranging from 0 to 70% by village. Infection with LF and loiasis was extremely rare, with only four individuals testing positive or reporting symptoms, respectively. Questionnaire data on clinical signs of LF did not provide a reliable indication of endemicity. MDA intervention thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization were only exceeded for urinary schistosomiasis and hookworm in a few, yet distinct, communities. Conclusion This was the first attempt to use an integrated survey design for this group of infections and to generate detailed results to guide their control over a large area of Southern Sudan. The approach proved practical, but could be further simplified to reduce field work and costs. The results show that only a few areas need to be targeted with MDA of PCT, thus confirming the importance of detailed mapping for cost-effective control.

Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Oguttu, David; Robinson, Emily; Lado, Mounir; Rumunu, John; Brooker, Simon; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

2009-01-01

4

31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section...transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or...

2010-07-01

5

31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section...transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or...

2009-07-01

6

HIV-1 infection in Juba, southern Sudan.  

PubMed

Thirty years of civil war in the Sudan have resulted in the isolation of the southern provinces which border Central and East Africa. Consequently, little is known about the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in this region. To estimate the prevalence of HIV-1 infection in southern Sudan and the risk factors associated with disease transmission, a seroepidemiologic survey was conducted in the township of Juba. Study subjects invited to participate in this study included medical outpatients, inpatients hospitalized for active tuberculosis, and female prostitutes. A total of 401 subjects participated in the study. HIV-1 infection was confirmed in 25 subjects. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 19% (8/42) among tuberculosis patients, 16% (8/50) among prostitutes, and 3% (9/309) among outpatients. A significantly higher prevalence of HIV-1 infection was found among female prostitutes when compared to female outpatients: 16% (8/50) vs. 2% (4/178), P < 0.001. Correspondingly, the prevalence of seropositives was significantly higher among male outpatients reporting a history of sexual relations with prostitutes during the prior 10 years compared to male outpatients denying relations with prostitutes: 14% (5/37) vs. 0% (0/94), P = 0.0011. A history of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) was also associated with HIV-1 infection among male outpatients. The findings of this study indicate that HIV-1 infection is highly prevalent in southern Sudan and that prostitutes and their sexual partners represent a major reservoir of HIV infection in this population. This epidemiologic pattern resembles that seen in the African nations neighboring southern Sudan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7623001

McCarthy, M C; Khalid, I O; El Tigani, A

1995-05-01

7

Yellow Fever Outbreak, Imatong, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus–reactive primers and yellow fever virus–specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak.

Ofula, Victor O.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Konongoi, Samson L.; Sow, Abdourahmane; De Cock, Kevin M.; Tukei, Peter M.; Okoth, Fredrick A.; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.; Waters, Norman C.; Coldren, Rodney L.

2004-01-01

8

Yellow fever outbreak, Imatong, southern Sudan.  

PubMed

In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus-reactive primers and yellow fever virus-specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak. PMID:15207058

Onyango, Clayton O; Ofula, Victor O; Sang, Rosemary C; Konongoi, Sanson L; Sow, Abourahmane; De Cock, Kenin M; Tukei, Peter M; Okoth, Fredrick A; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J; Waters, Norman C; Coldren, Rodney L

2004-06-01

9

Southern Sudan on the road to independence and democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aftermath of Southern Sudan’s successful January referendum has been characterised by enthusiasm and a lack of violence.\\u000a Yet the scale of the tasks ahead is still daunting. Political pluralism, the question of citizenship, oil revenues, sharing\\u000a of debt, creating a Southern identity in an extremely ethnically diverse country are only some of the tremendous issues the\\u000a South has to

Mariya Nedelcheva

2011-01-01

10

Maternity care in the Sudd, southern Sudan.  

PubMed

Information about practices during childbirth and pregnancy has been obtained by interviewing a sample of 100 Dinka women in 7 villages in the Sudd, Southern Sudan. On an average, the women had 4 or 5 living children, and had lost another 4 in pregnancy, delivery on early childhood. Hard work during pregnancy combined with a low-calorie diet probably account for the frequent abortions. Enteritis, malaria, measles and whooping cough are responsible for high mortality before 5 years of age. Maternal mortality can only be estimated, because the traditional birth attendants, Dugems, are reluctant to admit failure. Cessation of menstruation and changes in the breasts are recognized as signs of pregnancy, but in the calculation of the duration of pregnancy the 1st month is excluded. The husband has intercourse frequently with his pregnant wife to help the child's growth. The fear of cephalopelvic disproportion shows itself in prenatal food taboos: fatty foods and sweets are forbidden during pregnancy to avoid dangerously difficult delivery. The Dugem is called in at the onset of labor, which is recognized by regular abdominal pains. No vaginal examinations are done, and the woman delivers in a squatting position. If delivery is delayed or the placenta is retained, a senior Dugem is called. Breastfeeding, which starts immediately after birth, is continued for between 1 to 3 years. Sexual relations are not resumed until the new baby is weaned. Compared with child birth practices reported from other African countries, the traditions of the Sudd have several good points. Setting up maternal and child health clinics with certified midwives will have to wait until literate women are available for training. Training the Dugems to the limit of their capacity should be done now. Sessions should be organized for the senior Dugems, with emphasis on hygiene and the avoidance of harmful customs. PMID:6729962

Bouchier, V A

1984-01-01

11

Tsetse and trypanosomiasis survey of southern darfur province, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a survey of Southern Darfur Province, Sudan blood samples from over 4,000 migratory cattle were analysed to determine levels of anaemia and trypanosome parasitaemia by buffy coat examination of microhaematocrit centrifuged samples. Levels of trypanosomal infections in the herds correlated well with their risk of exposure to tsetse being significantly lower at increasing distance from tsetse foci.Trypanosoma vivax infections

M. J. R. Hall; S. M. Kheir; A. H. A. Rahman; S. Noga

1983-01-01

12

Tsetse and trypanosomiasis survey of southern darfur province, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tsetse survey of Southern Darfur province, Sudan showed that the distribution of the only species present,Glossina morsitans submorsitans, had not appreciably altered over 10 years. Fly populations are most dense south of the Wadi Umbelasha but light infestations are found in the woodlands north of this riverine system to a latitude of about 10° 15? N. Data are given

M. J. R. Hall; S. M. Kheir; A. H. A. Rahman; S. Noga

1984-01-01

13

Viewing the Reconstruction of Primary Schooling in Southern Sudan through Education Data, 2006-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After one of the longest wars in the history of Africa, Southern Sudan accomplished one of the world's quickest education reconstruction programmes. Once the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005, the international donor community and the government and people of Southern Sudan united under a common goal: to increase access to…

Kim, HyeJin; Moses, Kurt D.; Jang, Bosun; Wils, Annababette

2011-01-01

14

Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Low Vision in Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Blindness and low vision are thought to be common in southern Sudan. However, the magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of blindness and low vision, identify the main causes of blindness and low vision, and estimate targets for blindness prevention programs in Mankien payam (district), southern Sudan.

Jeremiah Ngondi; Francis Ole-Sempele; Alice Onsarigo; Ibrahim Matende; Samson Baba; Mark Reacher; Fiona Matthews; Carol Brayne; Paul M. Emerson

2006-01-01

15

Ticks infesting animals in the Sudan and southern Sudan: Past and current status.  

PubMed

In this review, we collate information about ticks identified in different parts of the Sudan and South Sudan since 1956 in order to identify gaps in tick prevalence and create a map of tick distribution. This will avail basic data for further research on ticks and policies for the control of tick-borne diseases. In this review, we discuss the situation in the Republic of South Sudan as well as Sudan. For this purpose we have divided Sudan into four regions, namely northern Sudan (Northern and River Nile states), central Sudan (Khartoum, Gazera, White Nile, Blue Nile and Sennar states), western Sudan (North and South Kordofan and North, South and West Darfour states) and eastern Sudan (Red Sea, Kassala and Gadarif states). PMID:23327330

Elghali, Ahmed A; Hassan, Shawgi M

2012-12-06

16

Competing masculinities: Probing political disputes as acts of violence against women from Southern Sudan and Darfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies the major forces militating against the promotion of women's rights in the Sudan. These factors are\\u000a intimately linked to the country's multiple political disputes including Darfur and southern Sudan. The effects of political\\u000a violence is elaborated through a detailed examination of women’s political, economic and cultural rights. The article concludes\\u000a by identifying the promotion of good governance

Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf

2006-01-01

17

Aid and complicity: the case of war-displaced Southerners in the Northern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concerned with the unintended consequences of aid as a relation of governance. In this case, the failure of aid agencies to improve the lot of displaced Southerners living in North Sudan after more than a decade of engagement. It is argued that aid, as a governance relation, is complicit with wider forms of oppression to which Southerners

Mark Duffield

2002-01-01

18

Beyond Creole Nationalism? Language Policies, Education and the Challenge of State Building in Post-conflict Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to go beyond a focus on the role of elites in low-capacity states to consider the interaction of language policies and mass responses to these policies in southern Sudan. It reviews processes of elite formation in southern Sudan, the impact of the civil war and the current challenges facing state building there. In common with many post-colonial

Rob Kevlihan

2007-01-01

19

Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

2012-01-01

20

The making of stalled national movements: Evidence from Southern Sudan and Northern Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the strength of ethnonationalism among Iraq's Kurds and Sudan's southerners. The primary research question concerns whether the level of political development of these two militant minority groups enables them to achieve their stated national objectives. The following five criteria are included in the analysis: land and people, origins of the problem, nature of demands, extent of political

Hilal Khashan; Michel Nehme

1996-01-01

21

Aquatic snails of the Jonglei region, southern Sudan, and transmission of trematode parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the aquatic gastropod molluscs obtained in a survey made to assess future ecological effects of the Jonglei Canal now under construction in the Sudd region of southern Sudan. A total of about 23 species of aquatic snail lives in this region, of which a number are utilised as intermediate hosts by trematode parasites infecting man,

D. S. Brown; T. Fison; V. R. Southgate; C. A. Wright

1984-01-01

22

Training at the Grassroots: An Integrated Approach to Training Library Assistants in Southern Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of a library training program by the University of Juba Library in Southern Sudan, and describes three levels of courses offered to library staff. Details are given of the curriculum, training staff, selection of trainees, and teaching tools, as well as examples of problems encountered. (CLB)

Rosenberg, Diana; O'Connor, Brigid

1988-01-01

23

Literacy in the Southern Sudan: A Case Study of Variables Affecting Literacy Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Local Languages Literacy Project in the Southern Sudan; delineates the most important educational, socioeconomic, and linguistic variables affecting the success of large-scale literacy programs in Africa; and questions the widely held assumption that indigenous language literacy is essential to subsequent literacy in the prestige…

Cowan, J. Ronayne

1983-01-01

24

Evaluation of the Southern Sudan Local Languages Literacy Project: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an evaluation of the Local Languages Literacy Project in Southern Sudan, a project to develop literacy education and instructional materials in the various vernaculars of that region and to create a bridge to the more common English and Arabic usage. The first chapter gives background information about the project and the…

Cowan, J. Ronayne; Cziko, Gary A.

25

Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

2012-01-01

26

Participatory diagnosis of a chronic wasting disease in cattle in southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In southern Sudan, livestock keepers identified a chronic wasting disease in adult cattle as one of their most-serious animal-health problems. Participatory-appraisal (PA) methods and conventional veterinary-investigation methods were used to characterise the chronic wasting disease and identify linkages between indigenous knowledge and modern veterinary knowledge. The local characterisation of chronic wasting encompassed trypanosomosis, fasciolosis, parasitic gastroenteritis and schistosomosis (as both

A Catley; S Okoth; J Osman; T Fison; Z Njiru; J Mwangi; B. A Jones; T. J Leyland

2001-01-01

27

Epidemiological studies on tick-borne diseases of cattle in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A herd-based study was carried out in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan, to study epidemiological aspects of tick-borne\\u000a diseases. Six herds of cattle situated in three different locations were selected and investigated every 3 months during the\\u000a year 2005. Blood smears for Giemsa staining and blood spots on filter paper for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction were collected\\u000a from 600 apparently healthy indigenous

D. A. Salih; A. M. El Hussein; U. Seitzer; J. S. Ahmed

2007-01-01

28

Targeting Trachoma Control through Risk Mapping: The Example of Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTrachoma is a major cause of blindness in Southern Sudan. Its distribution has only been partially established and many communities in need of intervention have therefore not been identified or targeted. The present study aimed to develop a tool to improve targeting of survey and control activities.Methods\\/Principal FindingsA national trachoma risk map was developed using Bayesian geostatistics models, incorporating trachoma

Archie C. A. Clements; Lucia W. Kur; Gideon Gatpan; Jeremiah M. Ngondi; Paul M. Emerson; Mounir Lado; Anthony Sabasio; Jan H. Kolaczinski

2010-01-01

29

South Sudan urban development strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Sudan - the ten southern provinces of Sudan - has attained autonomy and may soon achieve total independence from Sudan. Yet decades of civil war not only prevented development but destroyed the infrastructure left over from the colonial period. While Southern Sudan is fortunate to have oil resources that can finance building up the new nation, the task is

Vittorio Emmanuel Pareto

2008-01-01

30

Drought and Famine Relationships in Sudan: Policy Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan experienced severe food shortages and famines during the 1970s and 1980s. The research report explores the basic factors that contributed to the recurrence of this phenomenon and identifies policies and actions for avoiding famines and achieving sou...

T. Teklu J. von Braun E. Zaki

1991-01-01

31

Studies on the livestock of southern Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made on egg production, egg hatchability and fertility, live-weight and growth characteristics of domestic fowls, Muscovy ducks and pigeons kept under simulated traditional conditions in Southern Darfur.

R. T. Wilson

1979-01-01

32

Policy and legal frameworks for sustainable management of communally used natural resources in post-war Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land is indisputably an important resource in post-war Southern Sudan. Ownership and rights to use land affect the sustainability of subsistence agriculture and natural resources which are intricately linked to land. Policy and legal frameworks that internalize the benefits and costs of sustainable management of land and embedded resources in rural communities are necessary for community-based biodiversity conservation. This recognition

S Watts; T. N. Holmes-Watts

33

The epidemiology of trachoma in Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile States, southern Sudan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Limited surveys and anecdotal data indicate that trachoma is endemic in the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile in southern Sudan. However, its magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We conducted surveys to ascertain the prevalence and geographical distribution of trachoma, and to identify targets for control interventions. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in nine sites in southern Sudan between September 2001 and June 2004. Two-stage random cluster sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. FINDINGS: A total of 17 016 persons were examined, a response rate of 86.1% of the enumerated population. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years was: TF=53.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=52.1-55.3); TI=42.7% (95% CI=41.2-44.2); TF and/or TI=64.1% (95% CI=62.5-65.5). Prevalence of trichiasis (TT) in children aged less than 15 years was 1.2% (95% CI=0.9-1.4), while TT prevalence in persons aged 15 years and above was 9.2% (95% CI=8.6-9.9). Women were more likely to have trichiasis compared to men (odds ratio (OR)=1.57; 95% CI=1.34-1.84). Tentative extrapolation to the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile estimates that there is a backlog of 178,250 (lower and upper bounds=156,027-205,995) persons requiring surgery and the entire population, estimated to be over 3.9 million, is in need of the SAFE strategy to control blinding trachoma. CONCLUSION: Trachoma is a public health problem in all nine of the study sites surveyed. The unusually high prevalence of active trachoma and TT in children points to the severity of the problem. There is urgent need to implement trachoma control interventions in trachoma endemic regions of southern Sudan.

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Onsarigo, Alice; Adamu, Liknaw; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Emerson, Paul; Zingeser, James

2005-01-01

34

Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Low Vision in Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Blindness and low vision are thought to be common in southern Sudan. However, the magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of blindness and low vision, identify the main causes of blindness and low vision, and estimate targets for blindness prevention programs in Mankien payam (district), southern Sudan. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey of the population aged 5 y and above was conducted in May 2005 using a two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size. The Snellen E chart was used to test visual acuity, and participants also underwent basic eye examination. Vision status was defined using World Health Organization categories of visual impairment based on presenting visual acuity (VA). A total of 2,954 persons were enumerated and 2,499 (84.6%) examined. Prevalence of blindness (presenting VA of less than 3/60 in the better eye) was 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4–4.8); prevalence of low vision (presenting VA of at least 3/60 but less than 18/60 in the better eye) was 7.7% (95% CI, 6.7–8.7); whereas prevalence of monocular visual impairment (presenting VA of at least 18/60 in better eye and VA of less than 18/60 in other eye) was 4.4% (95% CI, 3.6–5.3). The main causes of blindness were considered to be cataract (41.2%) and trachoma (35.3%), whereas low vision was mainly caused by trachoma (58.1%) and cataract (29.3%). It is estimated that in Mankien payam 1,154 persons aged 5 y and above (lower and upper bounds = 782–1,799) are blind, and 2,291 persons (lower and upper bounds = 1,820–2,898) have low vision. Conclusions Blindness is a serious public health problem in Mankien, and there is urgent need to implement comprehensive blindness prevention programs. Further surveys are essential to confirm these tragic findings and estimate prevalence of blindness and low vision in the entire region of southern Sudan in order to facilitate planning of VISION 2020 objectives.

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ole-Sempele, Francis; Onsarigo, Alice; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul M

2006-01-01

35

Lessons learned from translators and interpreters from the Dinka tribe of southern Sudan.  

PubMed

This article discusses the methodological challenges associated with working with translators and interpreters from the Dinka tribe of southern Sudan during an ethnographic study with refugee Dinka women who were resettled with their children in the United States. Navigating the cultural differences between the researcher, the translator, and the interpreters provided a deeper understanding about the culture of the study population. The lessons learned included the importance of cultural congruence between the interpreters and participants; the education, training, and experience of the interpreters; and the difficulties encountered in preparing interpreters according to university institutional review board requirements. Cultural differences such as time perception and communication and literacy styles were negotiated throughout each phase of the study. The most valuable lesson learned from this experience was the importance of the relationship between the researcher, the translator, and the interpreters as well as between the interpreters and participants to achieve credibility and trustworthiness of the study results. PMID:21317404

Baird, Martha B

2011-02-11

36

Wetland change detection in Nile swamps of southern Sudan using multitemporal satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the maximum likelihood supervised classification and the post-classification comparison change detection are applied in order to monitor the wetlands by assessing and quantifying the wetland cover changes in the Nile swamps of southern Sudan, called the Sudd, by using the ERDAS IMAGINE software. Three multispectral satellite imageries, acquired in the wet season from 1986 to 2006 by Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ images, are classified into five main land cover classes namely water, vegetation, urban, wetland-vegetation, and wetland-no vegetation, by using the maximum likelihood supervised classification. A pixel-by-pixel comparison was then performed over the classified thematic map images. The post-classification change detection results show a 3.69% decrease in the wetland-vegetation areas and a 2.68% decrease in the wetland-no vegetation areas within the period 1986 to 1999. In addition, a noticeable increase is observed in the wetland-vegetation areas within the period 1999 to 2006 in the Sudd area as 14.95% of the land cover classes' areas, excluding the wetland-vegetation areas are changed into wetland-vegetation areas while there was a decrease of 5.18% in the wetland-no vegetation areas within the period 1999 to 2006. The objective of this paper is to introduce precedence in studying the wetland cover changes over the Sudd area which can help the output planners develop water resources management projects leading to enhance the life conditions in the Sudd region.

Soliman, Ghada; Soussa, Hoda

2011-01-01

37

Integrated Surveys of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Southern Sudan: How Much Do They Cost and Can They Be Refined?  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing emphasis on integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires identification of co-endemic areas. Integrated surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection have been recommended for this purpose. Integrated survey designs inevitably involve balancing the costs of surveys against accuracy of classifying areas for treatment, so-called implementation units (IUs). This requires an understanding of the main cost drivers and of how operating procedures may affect both cost and accuracy of surveys. Here we report a detailed cost analysis of the first round of integrated NTD surveys in Southern Sudan. Methods and Findings Financial and economic costs were estimated from financial expenditure records and interviews with survey staff using an ingredients approach. The main outcome was cost per IU surveyed. Uncertain variables were subjected to univariate sensitivity analysis and the effects of modifying standard operating procedures were explored. The average economic cost per IU surveyed was USD 40,206 or USD 9,573, depending on the size of the IU. The major cost drivers were two key categories of recurrent costs: i) survey consumables, and ii) personnel. Conclusion The cost of integrated surveys in Southern Sudan could be reduced by surveying larger administrative areas for LF. If this approach was taken, the estimated economic cost of completing LF, schistosomiasis and STH mapping in Southern Sudan would amount to USD 1.6 million. The methodological detail and costing template provided here could be used to generate cost estimates in other settings and readily compare these to the present study, and may help budget for integrated and single NTDs surveys elsewhere.

Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Hanson, Kara; Robinson, Emily; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Mpakateni, Martin; Lado, Mounir; Moore, Stephen; Petty, Nora; Brooker, Simon

2010-01-01

38

Prevalence of livestock diseases and their impact on livelihoods in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan.  

PubMed

A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted in Kajo Keji and Yei Counties, Central Equatoria State, southern Sudan to assess the impact of livestock diseases on livelihoods. A serological survey of tick-borne diseases was conducted to supplement the PE study. PE data collection tools consisted primarily of focus group interviews and key informant interviews supplemented by observation. Information was collected on the social context, history and species of livestock kept. Constraints in livestock keeping were explored through description and probing. Proportional piling on the importance of different diseases and relative incidence scoring were also conducted. 243 sera were collected from cattle and tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Theileria mutans and T. parva by ELISA. Additionally, 173 blood samples were collected for a PCR assay of T. parva. Livestock diseases were ranked as the most important constraint to livestock keeping. While East Coast fever was ranked as the most important disease in Kajo Keji, diarrhoea in small ruminants was reported as the most important disease in Yei. Serological analyses of the sera indicated that A. marginale, B. bigemina, T. mutans and T. parva were most prevalent. Prevalence of B. bovis was found to be low (4.0% and 7.4% in Kajo Keji and Yei, respectively). 35% of the samples screened with the T. parva p104 gene nested PCR assay were positive. The study concludes that while ECF is the most important disease in Kajo Keji, it was not the case in Yei. Additional epidemiological studies are proposed before control strategies are recommended. PMID:22244519

Malak, A K; Mpoke, L; Banak, J; Muriuki, S; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D; Sunter, J; Kiara, H

2012-01-13

39

Trachoma Rapid Assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Methods and Principal Findings Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1–9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Conclusions Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time.

Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W.; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R. Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

2010-01-01

40

Contesting Miss South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As South Sudan prepares for a referendum on independence in 2011, heightened nationalist expression within popular and political discourse reveals a messier and more openly disputed conception of the ideal Southern Sudanese woman. In this article I examine one site for debate in the diaspora, the US based Miss South Sudan beauty pageant. Highlighting the perseverance and power of the

Caroline Faria

2010-01-01

41

Violence against refugees, non-refugees and host populations in southern Sudan and northern Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a cross-sectional household survey among Sudanese refugees and Ugandan nationals in Arua district Uganda, and Sudanese non-refugees in Yei county Sudan. The objective was to document and compare, across population groups, violent events experienced or witnessed, both to document the frequency and nature of violent events and to assess the potential burden of psychological trauma. The extensive

M. Nagai; U. Karunakara; E. Rowley; G. Burnham

2008-01-01

42

75 FR 75865 - Presidential Determination on Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2011-05 of November 19, 2010 Presidential Determination on Sudan Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and the] President...the United Nations to facilitate the referendum in Southern Sudan pursuant to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The...

2010-12-07

43

Post-conflict mental health needs: a cross-sectional survey of trauma, depression and associated factors in Juba, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005 marked the end of the civil conflict in Sudan lasting over 20 years. The conflict was characterised by widespread violence and large-scale forced migration. Mental health is recognised as a key public health issue for conflict-affected populations. Studies revealed high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst populations from Southern Sudan during the conflict. However, no studies have been conducted on mental health in post-war Southern Sudan. The objective of this study was to measure PTSD and depression in the population in the town of Juba in Southern Sudan; and to investigate the association ofdemographic, displacement, and past and recent trauma exposure variables, on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Methods A cross-sectional, random cluster survey with a sample of 1242 adults (aged over 18 years) was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version), and levels of depression measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association ofdemographic, displacement and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was also conducted to investigate which demographic and displacement variables were associated with exposure to traumatic events. Results Over one third (36%) of respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD and half (50%) of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed strong associations of gender, marital status, forced displacement, and trauma exposure with outcomes of PTSD and depression. Men, IDPs, and refugees and persons displaced more than once were all significantly more likely to have experienced eight or more traumatic events. Conclusion This study provides evidence of high levels of mental distress in the population of Juba Town, and associated risk-factors. Comprehensive social and psychological assistance is urgently required in Juba.

Roberts, Bayard; Damundu, Eliaba Yona; Lomoro, Olivia; Sondorp, Egbert

2009-01-01

44

Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths among an adult population in a war affected area, Southern Kordofan state, Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis remains a major health problem at global and national levels, contributing to the vulnerability of the poor people in Sudan. Southern Kordofan is affected by Schistosomiasis but the disease prevalence was unknown. Methods 1826 adults were recruited in a community-based survey. Each recruited subject submitted at least 10 ml urine and one stool sample; they were also interviewed and filled in a questionnaire. Results 1826 adults were recruited in a community-based survey. Each recruited subject submitted at least 10?ml urine and one stool sample; they were also interviewed and filled in a questionnaire. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 6.9?% among the adult population. We estimated S. mansoni prevalence as 0.0?%. S. haematobium infection was focally distributed at the village level. The infection was associated with non preference of latrine use – if available, use of open water source for household affairs such as cleaning and also with the history of schistosomiasis treatment. The prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH) was also reported as high at 7.8?%, and two species were identified; Hymenolepis nana and Giardia lamblia. Conclusion Schistosomiasis is a significant health problem among the adult population in Southern Kordofan. The estimated prevalence will serve as a guide in developing a Schistosomiasis Control Program and applying treatment plans.

2012-01-01

45

Qualitative rainfall prediction models for central and southern Sudan using El Niño-southern oscillation and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature Indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the influences of El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) on rainfall variability in the central and the southern regions of Sudan are investigated. The investigation is conducted using 49 years of data from 12 rainfall stations. The results show that the driest years are associated with warm ENSO and Indian Ocean SST conditions. In the two regions, the correlation of the annual rainfall with the Indian Ocean SST is found to be relatively higher than that with the ENSO SST, with the Indian Ocean SST having stronger influences in the central region. The multiple correlation results indicate that both of the ENSO and Indian Ocean SSTs explain about 34% of the annual rainfall variability in the central region and 21% in the southern region. Two types of qualitative rainfall prediction model are developed for each region. One type uses the ENSO SST as input and the other uses the Indian Ocean SST. The verification results show that the Indian Ocean SST model is better than the ENSO SST model.

Osman, Yassin Z.; Shamseldin, Asaad Y.

2002-12-01

46

Schistosomiasis infection among primary school students in a war zone, Southern Kordofan State, Sudan: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis is a major health problem adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations in Sudan. Methods We conducted a school-based survey to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in 36 villages in Southern Kordofan (SK) State. A total of 2,302 primary school students were recruited. Each student completed a questionnaire and submitted one urine and one stool sample. Results The prevalence of schistosomiasis haematobium was 23.7%, while schistosomiasis mansoni was not detected among the study participants. S. haematobium infection was identified in all areas, with the highest prevalence in the western locality of SK State. The infection was associated with the distance between home/school and open water sources. In addition, S. haematobium infection was associated with the existence of and distance to open water sources, higher frequency of contact with open water, absence of a health advocacy group in the school and history of schistosomiasis treatment. Conclusions This study highlights schistosomiasis as a public health problem in SK State. The findings will guide the schistosomiasis Control Program of the State Ministry of Health in developing and applying treatment plans for schistosomiasis in SK State.

2013-01-01

47

Participatory analysis of seasonal incidences of diseases of cattle, disease vectors and rainfall in southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an investigation into a chronic wasting disease in southern Sudanese cattle, a participatory appraisal method called a ‘seasonal calendar’ was used to understand local perceptions of seasonal variations in cattle diseases, disease vectors, intermediate hosts and rainfall. Repetition of a standardized seasonal calendar with Dinka informants demonstrated good reproducibility of the method. Comparison of rainfall data produced by seasonal

A. Catley; J. Osman; C. Mawien; B. A. Jones; T. J. Leyland

2002-01-01

48

31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains State, Blue Nile State, Abyei, Darfur, and marginalized areas in and around Khartoum. (b) The term marginalized areas in and around Khartoum means the...

2013-07-01

49

Soil moisture characteristics and implications for vegetation regeneration in Sudan during the period 1965-2005.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at better understanding the soil moisture (SM) characteristics as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in Sudan during the period 1965-2005. The Mann Kendall (MK) analysis was used to test the trend in the average monthly soil moisture (SM), rainfall and temperature data. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was selected to study the SM, rainfall and temperature relations because it accounts for the local spatial variability and non-stationarity of these variables. To further understand dry and wet variations in terms of regeneration demand, the aridity index (AI) was used. The results of (MK) test showed that there were decreasing trends of SM on an annual and seasonal level and that the trend was less dramatic or softer in the dry season (November-April) than the wet season (May- October). That soil moisture variability followed closely that of rainfall and temperature, although there was a hint that SM variability followed temperature changes more closely than rainfall. The (GWR) model gave optimal results in semi-arid central Sudan. In the north due to lack of rainfall and in the south due to plant heterogeneity, the model did not perform so well. The spatio-temporal variability of the (AI) showed that the long-term average of (AI) was affected by the reported decline in rainfall during 1965-1985. The decadal (AI) average of 1995-2005 gave evidence of increases in rainfall that are reported since the mid-nineties. (AI) performed well in reflecting the wet conditions in Sudan. Very rare are the studies of soil moisture in Sudan, especially in the through way that is presented here.

El Haj El Tahir, M.; Xu, C.; Zengxin, Z.

2012-04-01

50

The Birth of a New Nation: The Republic of South Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early July, the country of Sudan, wracked by civil war since the 1980s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan. Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or "Unity." For the…

Totten, Samuel

2011-01-01

51

The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan, and highlights the importance of addressing all these influences on overall health.

2010-01-01

52

Private Sector Review in Western Sudan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Private sector activities and potential further development in western Sudan's Southern Kordofan and Darfur regions are reviewed. For each region, the report presents a general economic overview and discusses the significance and contributions of the priv...

1985-01-01

53

The new state of South Sudan and the hydro-politics of the Nile Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the choice of the people of southern Sudan for secession during the January 2011 referendum, a number of difficult issues need to be addressed and resolved between the new state and the Sudan. Most of these issues are specified in the Southern Sudan Referendum Act 2009 and include water resources. The article identifies and discusses the

Salman M. A. Salman

2011-01-01

54

Seismotectonic implications of sand blows in the southern Mississippi Embayment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We explore seismically-induced sand blows from the southern Mississippi Embayment and their implications in resolving the question of near or distal epicentral source region. This was accomplished using aerial photography, field excavations, and cone penetration tests. Our analysis shows that three sand blow fields exhibit a distinct chronology of strong ground motion for the southern embayment: (1) The Ashley County, Arkansas sand blow field, near the Arkansas/Louisiana state border, experienced four Holocene sand venting episodes; (2) to the north, the Desha County field experienced at least three episodes of liquefaction; and (3) the Lincoln-Jefferson Counties field experienced at least one episode. Cone penetration tests (CPT) conducted in and between the sand blow fields suggest that the fields may not be distal liquefaction associated with New Madrid seismic zone earthquakes but rather are likely associated with strong earthquakes on local faults. This conclusion is consistent with the differences in timing of the southern embayment sand venting episodes and those in the New Madrid seismic zone. These results suggest that active tectonism and strong seismicity in intraplate North America may not be localized at isolated weak spots, but rather widespread on fault systems that are favorably oriented for slip in the contemporary stress field. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cox, R. T.; Hill, A. A.; Larsen, D.; Holzer, T.; Forman, S. L.; Noce, T.; Gardner, C.; Morat, J.

2007-01-01

55

Aspects of Women's Political Participation in Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western preconceptions about the nature of the political process, the division between public and private spheres, and participation in the political process give an incomplete picture of political activity in places like the Sudan. Cultural differences between the northern and southern region further complicate our understanding of the country.…

El-Bakri, Z. B.; Kameir, E. M.

1983-01-01

56

Post-conflict mental health needs: a cross-sectional survey of trauma, depression and associated factors in Juba, Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005 marked the end of the civil conflict in Sudan lasting over 20 years. The conflict was characterised by widespread violence and large-scale forced migration. Mental health is recognised as a key public health issue for conflict-affected populations. Studies revealed high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst populations from

Bayard Roberts; Eliaba Yona Damundu; Olivia Lomoro; Egbert Sondorp

2009-01-01

57

Paleomagnetism of the Permo/Carboniferous (280Ma) Jebel Nehoud Ring Complex, Kordofan, Central Sudan: Implications for Pangea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleogeographic reconstructions of Pangea during Permian times, based on paleomagnetic data, result in major overlaps between Gondwana and Laurasia when choosing a Wegener type configuration (Pangea A1 or A2). In order to reduce these overlaps, several alternative reconstructions for Pangea have been proposed whereby Gondwana is shifted towards the East with respect to Laurasia (Pangea B and Pangea C). Although these configurations are perfectly compatible with the paleomagnetic data set, they are not accepted by the majority of the Earth Science community. Gondwana's paleomagnetic data set is of rather low quality and often hampered by large uncertainties in rock age. The overlap between Laurasia and Gondwana, therefore, may be an artefact. Here we present new paleomagnetic data for the radiometrically dated (280+/-2 my, single mineral, K-Ar) Jebel Nehoud ring complex, Northern Kordofan, Sudan. The majority of the samples show rather simple directional behaviour. After removal of component A, pointing to the North with shallow inclinations and bearing great similarity to the direction of the present day Earth's magnetic field in the region, component B was identified at demagnetization temperatures above 380oC. Maximum unblocking temperatures for component B reach 580oC and only occasionally 650oC or higher, suggesting magnetite and occasionally haematite as the principal carriers of component B. Component B is of single polarity and points towards the southeast with intermediate inclinations. The resulting overall mean pole position based on 8 sites is 40.8oS and 71.3oE (k: 78.1; ? 95: 6.0o) and 46.5oS ; 68.0oE when transferred into northwest African coordinates. Combining this new pole position with the highest quality data from Australia, South America and Africa results in a mean pole position at 37.3oS; 63.8oE (N = 11, k = 84.5, ? 95 = 5^°$C) in northwest African coordinates and removes some of the ambiguities in the Gondwana data set for the early Permian. However, the paleogeographic reconstruction of Gondwana on the basis of the new data, results in a major overlap between Laurasia and the latter when a Pangea A2 configuration is chosen, whilst it is fully compatible with a Pangea B type configuration.

Bachtadse, V.; Tait, J. A.; Zänglein, R.; Soffel, H.

2001-05-01

58

The origins and culture of blacksmiths in Kuku society of the Sudan, 1797–1955  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kuku are a large ethnic group in the southern region of the Sudan. They belong to a cultural and linguistic group called the Eastern Nilotes. The Kuku are one of the last waves of the Eastern Nilotic group that occupied the territory now known as Kajo-Kaji. This land was originally inhabited by a Sudanic group of people called Moru-Madi.

Scopas Poggo

2006-01-01

59

A case of African histoplasmosis from Sudan.  

PubMed

The first authentic case of African histoplasmosis from the Sudan is reported. The patient came from Dindir, along the southern part of the Blue Nile River. He had cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis as well as the cutaneous form of African histoplasmosis. The latter was proved by culture and histopathology to be due to Histoplasma duboisii. The fungus was confined to the skin. H. duboisii may be more prevalent, and further studies in Dindir area are needed. PMID:3232196

Gumaa, S A; Ahmed, M A; Hassan, M E; Hassan, A M

1988-01-01

60

Nodding syndrome - South Sudan, 2011.  

PubMed

In November 2010, the Ministry of Health of the proposed nation of South Sudan requested CDC assistance in investigating a recent increase and geographic clustering of an illness resulting in head nodding and seizures. The outbreak was suspected to be nodding syndrome, an unexplained neurologic condition characterized by episodes of repetitive dropping forward of the head, often accompanied by other seizure-like activity, such as convulsions or staring spells. The condition predominantly affects children aged 5-15 years and has been reported in South Sudan from the states of Western and Central Equatoria and in Northern Uganda and southern Tanzania. Because of visa and security concerns, CDC investigators did not travel to South Sudan until May 2011. On arrival, a case-control study was conducted that included collecting exposure information and biologic specimens to assess the association of nodding syndrome with suspected risk factors. A total of 38 matched case-control pairs were enrolled from two different communities: Maridi and Witto. Overall, current infection with Onchocerca volvulus diagnosed by skin snip was more prevalent among the 38 case-patients (76.3%) than the controls (47.4%) (matched odds ratio [mOR] = 3.2). This difference was driven by the 25 pairs in Maridi (88.0% among case-patients, 44.0% among controls, mOR=9.3); among the 13 pairs in Witto, no significant association with onchocerciasis (known as river blindness) was observed. Although onchocerciasis was more prevalent among case-patients, whether infection preceded or followed nodding syndrome onset was unknown. Priorities for nodding syndrome investigations include improving surveillance to monitor the number of cases and their geographic distribution and continued work to determine the etiology of the syndrome. PMID:22278159

2012-01-27

61

The Heglig oil dispute between Sudan and South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The armed forces of Sudan and newly independent South Sudan recently clashed over the border area called Heglig by Khartoum and Panthou by Juba, in a dispute involving security, ownership of land, and control of oil production. The clash triggered swift condemnation of South Sudan for occupying Sudanese national territory. However, such pronouncements risk pre-judging a dispute that has not

Douglas H. Johnson

2012-01-01

62

Implications of global climate change for Southern forests: Can we ...  

Treesearch

Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern ... Uncertainties arise when the Earth's biological responses to climate change are to be ... Model outputs for the South show a fairly wide range of potential changes under ...

63

Biogas energy technology in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy in Sudan, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology in Sudan. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. Sudan is blessed with abundant solar, wind, hydro, and

A. M. Omer; Y. Fadalla

2003-01-01

64

Prevalence of Trachoma in Unity State, South Sudan: Results from a Large-Scale Population-Based Survey and Potential Implications for Further Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLarge parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions.Methods and FindingsThe survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across

Tansy Edwards; Jennifer Smith; Hugh J. W. Sturrock; Lucia W. Kur; Anthony Sabasio; Timothy P. Finn; Mounir Lado; Danny Haddad; Jan H. Kolaczinski

2012-01-01

65

Geology and geophysics of the West Nubian Paleolake and the Northern Darfur Megalake (WNPL–NDML): Implication for groundwater resources in Darfur, northwestern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent delineation of a vastly expanded Holocene paleo-lake (the Northern Darfur Megalake which was originally mapped as the West Nubian Paleolake and here will be referred to as WNPL–NDML) in Darfur in northwestern Sudan has renewed hopes for the presence of an appreciable groundwater resource in this hyper-arid region of Eastern Sahara. This paleolake which existed within a closed

Ahmed Elsheikh; Mohamed G. Abdelsalam; Kevin Mickus

2011-01-01

66

Atmospheric Teleconnections of Northern Hemisphere cooling to the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes, and implications for Southern Ocean ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent marine proxy studies, most notably by Anderson et al. (2009), show intensification of wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean during Heinrich events, and suggesting the possibility of robust atmospheric teleconnections from the Northern Hemisphere affecting the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude westerlies. We explore the latter hypothesis using simulations of an AGCM coupled to a reduced-gravity ocean, and with reference to current thinking regarding extratropical-tropical atmospheric dynamical linkages. When we simulate a Heinrich-like event in our model (by cooling the North Atlantic), we find a significant strengthening of the southern midlatitude westerlies, in particular during the austral winter (JJA), and in the South Pacific. The other pronounced climate change is a marked southward shift of the tropical rainbelt, indicating alteration of the Hadley circulation. Our analysis indicates that the teleconnection can be broken into two parts: first, the northern hemisphere cooling shifting the ITCZ southwards with a pronounced effect on the Hadley circulation (Lindzen and Hou 1988), and then the altered Hadley circulation in turn affecting the southern midlatitude westerlies through the former's control of the southern subtropical westerlies and subsequent effect on the eddy-driven midlatitude westerlies (Lee and Kim, 2003). The seasonal (JJA) and regional (South Pacific) preference of the teleconnection's effects can be explained in terms of the peculiarities of the regional atmospheric dynamics. As an aside, we also find that the growth or decay of the Laurentide ice sheet can also generate this type of north-south teleconnection, although the dynamics are somewhat different. With regards to possible implications for southern ocean ventilation and atmospheric CO2: we applied the wind changes we obtained in our AGCM 'Heinrich' simulation to a global biogeochemical model (the Minnesota Earth System Model for Ocean biogeochemistry), and found a ~20ppm increase to the equilibrated atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the increase is substantially higher (~60ppm) if feedbacks from biology are turned off in the model. In short, we find the scenario as hypothesized by Anderson et al. (2009) to be quite plausible. Our study elucidates and emphasizes the central role of atmospheric teleconnections in the story, in particular the importance of tropical circulation mediating the intimate coupling between the northern and southern high-latitude climate through atmospheric circulation. More broadly, it underscores the control that the northern hemisphere has on southern midlatitude winds, in contrast to past paleoclimate suggestions that the magnitude and/or position of the southern midlatitudes was controlled by global temperatures. References: Anderson et al., Science 323, 1443 (2009) Lee and Kim, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 60, 1490-1503 (2003) Lindzen and Hou, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 45, 2416-2427 (1988)

Chiang, John; Lee, Shih-Yu; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tokos, Kathy

2010-05-01

67

Sudan: between radical restructuring and deconstruction of state systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commonly perceived as the Sudan's ‘southern problem’, what is now the oldest conflict in Africa has developed dimensions that are concealed in that narrow formulation. Among these are a) a generalized confrontation between centre and periphery in a state marked by gross iniquities in access to power and resources, b) a conflict over the legitimacy of the current fundamentalist regime

Peter Kok

1996-01-01

68

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement. Updated October 8, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have be...

T. Dagne

2010-01-01

69

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement. Updated December 16, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have be...

T. Dagne

2010-01-01

70

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement. Updated April 8, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have be...

T. Dagne

2011-01-01

71

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement. Updated July 23, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have be...

T. Dagne

2008-01-01

72

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement, August 5, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have be...

T. Dagne

2010-01-01

73

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement (October 1, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have be...

T. Dagne

2008-01-01

74

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement. (May 12, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have be...

T. Dagne

2009-01-01

75

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement (July 16, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have be...

T. Dagne

2009-01-01

76

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement. Updated June 15, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have be...

T. Dagne

2011-01-01

77

Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement (October 8, 2010).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have be...

T. Dagne

2010-01-01

78

Operation Lifeline Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of aid in war zones can be fraught with political difficulties and may itself foster inequalities, as it is rare to be allowed access to civilians on both sides of a conflict. Over the past decade, a United Nations (UN) brokered agreement has allowed Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), a UN “umbrella” organisation, to provide the diplomatic cover and

S D Taylor-Robinson

2002-01-01

79

Demanding Divestment from Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard University in…

Asquith, Christina

2006-01-01

80

Earthquake distribution in southern Tibet and its tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A temporary 37-station seismic array was operated in southern Tibet from June 2004 to August 2005 close to Xigaze along a traverse from Tangra Yum Co rift in the west to Yadong-Gulu rift in the east. This lateral array of the international Hi-CLIMB project recorded a total of 885 local earthquakes during the 14-month deployment. Hypocenter locations of these events were obtained using HYPOINVERSE2000, and about half of them were relocated by the joint hypocenter determination method. Lateral variations in crustal seismic P and S wave velocities beneath the array were obtained simultaneously as part of the station corrections during the relocation procedure. While earthquakes were scattered in the region, more than 250 earthquakes were clustered within a small area at about 50 km north of the Indus-Yalu Suture and west of the Pumqu-Xianza rift. Crustal and uppermost mantle earthquakes are concentrated beneath the Himalayan crest. Projection of all earthquakes to a north-south profile shows that the subducting Indian plate passes the Indus-Yalu Suture below the Lhasa Terrane. While earthquakes are concentrated in the upper crust and upper mantle beneath the Himalayas, seismicity is mostly restricted to the upper crust to the north, which is consistent with a ductile middle/lower crust beneath southern Tibet. About 20 deep crustal and uppermost mantle events (at depths of 50-70 km) were observed to be associated with the subducting Indian lithosphere. Our relocation results of these local earthquakes in southern Tibet support the popular "jelly-sandwich" model for the rheology of continental lithosphere in which the strong seismogenic layers of upper curst and uppermost mantle are separated by a weak lower crust.

Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Shiyong; Chen, Y. John; Jin, Ge; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Pingjiang; Fu, Yuanyuan; Tang, Youcai; Lou, Xiaoting; Ning, Jieyuan

2008-12-01

81

South Sudan's infrastructure : a continental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly independent South Sudan faces a challenge in making its own way in infrastructure development. Despite earning $6 billion in oil revenues since 2005, South Sudan's spending has not been proportional to its income, but rather has lagged behind North Sudan's development of infrastructure and social support. South Sudan benefitted from strong donor support during 2004-10, the interim period defined

Rupa Ranganathan; Cecilia M. Briceno-Garmendia

2011-01-01

82

Prevalence of Trachoma in Unity State, South Sudan: Results from a Large-Scale Population-Based Survey and Potential Implications for Further Surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Large parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions. Methods and Findings The survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across the area, 40 clusters (villages) were randomly selected proportional to the county population size in a population-based prevalence survey. The simplified grading scheme was used to classify clinical signs of trachoma. The unadjusted prevalence of trachoma inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1–9 years was 70.5% (95% CI: 68.6–72.3). After adjusting for age, sex, county and clustering of cases at household and village level the prevalence was 71.0% (95% CI: 69.9–72.1). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in adults was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.4–17.0) and 13.5% (95% CI: 12.0–15.1) before and after adjustment, respectively. We estimate that 700,000 people (the entire population of Unity State) require antibiotic treatment and approximately 54,178 people require TT surgery. Risk factor analyses confirmed child-level associations with TF and highlighted that older adults living in poverty are at higher risk of TT. Conditional simulations, testing the alternatives of sampling 20 or 60 villages over the same area, indicated that sampling of only 20 villages would have provided an acceptable level of precision for state-level prevalence estimation to inform intervention decisions in this hyperendemic setting. Conclusion Trachoma poses an enormous burden on the population of Unity State. Comprehensive control is urgently required to avoid preventable blindness and should be initiated across the state now. In other parts of South Sudan suspected to be highly trachoma endemic, counties should be combined into larger survey areas to generate the baseline data required to initiate interventions.

Edwards, Tansy; Smith, Jennifer; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Kur, Lucia W.; Sabasio, Anthony; Finn, Timothy P.; Lado, Mounir; Haddad, Danny; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

2012-01-01

83

Victims of Discourse: Mobilizing Narratives of Fear and Insecurity in Post-Conflict South Sudan—The Case of Jonglei State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sign along the border to South Sudan that reads—“Our peace, our land, our oil, our liberty”—is a testament to the struggles recently fought by the South's Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) against the northern Khartoum Government. Such a seemingly apolitical expression of southern solidarity however obscures the often hostile relationships among the more than sixty ethnic groups in South

Ann Laudati

2011-01-01

84

Orbital Radar Response of Near Surface Materials in Southern Egypt and Implications for Cenozoic History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the existence of "trunk" and tributary drainage channels beneath the sand in the northeast Sahara has been known for two decades, data from the SIR-C mission continues to be useful in solving geologic problems and understanding the radar response from specific types of near surface materials. In the Kiseiba Oasis region of southwest Egypt, SIR-C data revealed a complex tributary pattern of varying brightness that indicated the presence of paleodrainage not noted in the field. The orbital imaging radar uniquely specified key areas for detailed field studies that were not apparent in visible wavelengths. Twenty-two trenches up to 3 m deep, hundreds of shallow pits, several auger holes, and ground penetrating radar reveal that this area has had a history of fluctuating climatic conditions responsible for excavation and enlargement of the local depression by fluvial erosion and preservation of relict surfaces by aeolian blanketing of sand sheet deposits. The resulting near-surface stratigraphy is a complex mixture of fluvial pebble lags in the subsurface and on the surface, where aeolian mixing and local transport have modified the original geometry. In L-band (23 cm wavelength) SIR-C data, a hierarchy of returned signal strength and geometric patterns enables us to predict the type of surface and near-surface materials, sequentially from shallow bedrock to subsurface and surficial lags to sand sheet-veneered weathered anhydrite. Integrating the pattern of sedimentary deposits with relict channels and interfluves enables a better understanding of the origin of the Kiseiba-Dungul depression and its Cenozoic history. What was once thought to be a continuous deposit of Eocene limestone from southern Egypt into northern Sudan is cast in doubt as even the most optimistic estimates of scarp retreat don't permit hundred's of kms of retreat to the present position. Instead, the E-W pattern of the depression, the relict hills, and fracture zones all suggest structural control and erosion patterns that started with N-S compression in the latest Cretaceous. A humid climate during the Tertiary aided fluvial dissection of the broken surface, with drainage leading to the north into the present Kharga depression. The drainage patterns of the Quaternary seen now in orbital radar result from remnants of large-scale structural patterns and Tertiary drainage, confused by alternating hyperarid and semiarid climatic cycles that inverted topography, protected former erosion surfaces, and reversed drainage.

Maxwell, T. A.; Grant, J. A.; Johnston, A. K.

2004-05-01

85

Geology and geophysics of the West Nubian Paleolake and the Northern Darfur Megalake (WNPL-NDML): Implication for groundwater resources in Darfur, northwestern Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent delineation of a vastly expanded Holocene paleo-lake (the Northern Darfur Megalake which was originally mapped as the West Nubian Paleolake and here will be referred to as WNPL-NDML) in Darfur in northwestern Sudan has renewed hopes for the presence of an appreciable groundwater resource in this hyper-arid region of Eastern Sahara. This paleolake which existed within a closed basin paleo-drainage system might have allowed for the collection of surface water which was subsequently infiltrated to recharge the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Nubian Aquifer. However, the presence of surface exposures of Precambrian crystalline rocks in the vicinity of the paleolake has been taken as indicating the absence of a thick Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary section capable of holding any meaningful quantity of groundwater. This work integrates surface geology and gravity data to show that WNPL-NDML is underlain by NE-trending grabens forming potential local Paleozoic-Mesozoic aquifers that can hold as much as 1120 km3 of groundwater if the sedimentary rocks are completely saturated. Nevertheless, it is advised here that recharge of the Nubian aquifer under WNPL-NDML is insignificant and that much of the groundwater is fossil water which was accumulated during different geological times much wetter than today's hyper-arid climate in Eastern Sahara. Excessive extraction will lead to quick depletion of this groundwater resource. This will result in lowering of the water table which in turn might lead to the drying out of the oases in the region which provide important habitats for humans, animals and plants in northern Darfur.

Elsheikh, Ahmed; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Mickus, Kevin

2011-08-01

86

Militarization and Gender Violence in South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses gender violence, domestic and beyond, in wartime South Sudan, particularly among the Dinka of southwestern Sudan. Furthermore, it discusses the efforts of rebel armies, fighting against the northern government of Sudan, to forge a women's role in the liberation struggle. The effort has focused on the women's reproductive roles as their contribution. This \\

Jok Madut Jok

1999-01-01

87

RESOURCE ACCESS: A MAJOR CAUSE OF ARMED CONFLICT IN THE SUDAN. THE CASE OF THE NUBA MOUNTAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The famine in southern Sudan is threatening the lives of more than half a million southerners, especially in Bahr El Ghazal province. The famine has provoked a debate into its causes. Most commentators in the United Kingdom accused the war of being the main culprit. A few days ago, in the House of Commons, a conservative MP stood up and

Mohamed Suliman

88

The Horn of Africa in the shadow of the cold war: understanding the partition of Sudan from a regional perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 9 July 2011, following over four decades of intermittent civil conflict, Southern Sudan officially declared independence from the North. The historic secession of the Southern provinces was a culmination of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the ruling National Congress Party and the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement in 2005. While conventional analysis has depicted the roots of the Sudanese

Khalid Mustafa Medani

2011-01-01

89

The Horn of Africa in the shadow of the cold war: understanding the partition of Sudan from a regional perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 9 July 2011, following over four decades of intermittent civil conflict, Southern Sudan officially declared independence from the North. The historic secession of the Southern provinces was a culmination of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the ruling National Congress Party and the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement in 2005. While conventional analysis has depicted the roots of the Sudanese

Khalid Mustafa Medani

2012-01-01

90

Post-War Development and the Land Question in South Sudan 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Question (LQ) was one of the core issues behind the protracted war between the Government of Sudan (GOS) and the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement\\/Army (SPLM\\/A) in the southern regions of the country. The positions of the two protagonists on the LQ seemed irreconcilable, as one was statist and the other communitarian. According to the GOS, all land in

N. Shanmugaratnam

91

Environmental justice and regional inequality in southern California: implications for future research.  

PubMed Central

Environmental justice offers researchers new insights into the juncture of social inequality and public health and provides a framework for policy discussions on the impact of discrimination on the environmental health of diverse communities in the United States. Yet, causally linking the presence of potentially hazardous facilities or environmental pollution with adverse health effects is difficult, particularly in situations in which diverse populations are exposed to complex chemical mixtures. A community-academic research collaborative in southern California sought to address some of these methodological challenges by conducting environmental justice research that makes use of recent advances in air emissions inventories and air exposure modeling data. Results from several of our studies indicate that communities of color bear a disproportionate burden in the location of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities and Toxic Release Inventory facilities. Longitudinal analysis further suggests that facility siting in communities of color, not market-based "minority move-in," accounts for these disparities. The collaborative also investigated the health risk implications of outdoor air toxics exposures from mobile and stationary sources and found that race plays an explanatory role in predicting cancer risk distributions among populations in the region, even after controlling for other socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Although it is unclear whether study results from southern California can be meaningfully generalized to other regions in the United States, they do have implications for approaching future research in the realm of environmental justice. The authors propose a political economy and social inequality framework to guide future research that could better elucidate the origins of environmental inequality and reasons for its persistence.

Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Porras, Carlos; Sadd, James

2002-01-01

92

Country Analysis Briefs: Sudan and South Sudan, March 19, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After decades of civil war, North and South Sudan signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005. The CPA set standards for sharing oil revenue (50:50 split) and a timetable toward a referendum on the Souths independence. As part of the CPA, a refer...

2012-01-01

93

75 FR 62069 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...9000-AL65 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of...conduct restricted business operations in Sudan, to add specific criteria that an agency...a contractor that conducts business in Sudan should be waived. DATES: Interested...

2010-10-07

94

76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...9000-AL65 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process AGENCIES: Department of...conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. This rule adds specific criteria including...conducts restricted business operations in Sudan. The rule also describes the...

2011-11-02

95

31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agency, or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Sudan; (b) Any entity owned or controlled by...the Government of the Republic of South Sudan or the central bank of the Republic of South Sudan. Note 2 to §...

2013-07-01

96

The Sudan Rural Television Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a rural education program, which was implemented in the Gezira Irrigated Area (as defined with a map) in Sudan. The aim of the project was the socioeconomic development of the Gezira tenant farmers through discussion of specifically designed educational programs in village viewing clubs. (JEG)

Low, John

1978-01-01

97

Strife and Secession in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2011, South Sudan voted to declare the independence. This article argues that the impending emergence of two new nation-states has been influenced by two developments: the rise of political Islam and the failure of democratization, and flaws with the implementation of the 2005 peace agreement. Drawing on the literature on secession and conflict resolution, the article focuses on

Khalid Mustafa Medani

2011-01-01

98

Strife and Secession in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In January 2011, South Sudan voted to declare the independence. This article argues that the impending emergence of two new nation-states has been influenced by two developments: the rise of political Islam and the failure of democratization, and flaws with the implementation of the 2005 peace agreement. Drawing on the literature on secession and conflict resolution, the article focuses on

Khalid Mustafa Medani

2011-01-01

99

31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

2010-07-01

100

31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

2009-07-01

101

Current situation of tropical theileriosis in the Sudan.  

PubMed

Tropical theileriosis has long been recognized as a hindrance to the development of sound dairy industry in the Sudan and is a cause of major economic losses. Serological surveys indicated that Theileria annulata infection is widespread in the country but the disease mostly affects exotic dairy breeds and their crosses with indigenous breeds. The disease has recently been identified in Darfur and southern parts of Blue Nile State in dairy farms around large urban areas where it has never been detected before. These new introductions were accompanied by the establishment of Hyalomma anatolicum tick which is the main vector of the parasite in the Sudan. The disease is routinely diagnosed using microscopic examination of stained blood and lymph node biopsy smears. More advanced techniques are mainly used for research purposes. Tropical theileriosis in the Sudan is mainly controlled by using anti-theilerial drugs and acaricide application. It is recommended that live attenuated schizont vaccines developed from locally isolated T. annulata strains be used to control the disease. In addition, every care should be taken to prevent introduction of the disease into new areas. PMID:22565402

El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Hassan, Shawgi M; Salih, Diaeldin A

2012-05-08

102

Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: implications for natural coastal resources and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) significantly influences marine ecosystems and the sustained exploitation of marine resources in the coastal zone of the Humboldt Current upwelling system. Both its warm (El Niño: EN) and cold (La Niña: LN) phase have drastic implications for the ecology, socio-economy and infrastructure along most of Pacific South America. Local artisanal fisheries, which especially suffer from the effects of EN, represent a major part for the domestic economy of Chile and Peru and in consequence a huge amount of published and unpublished studies exists aiming at identifying effects of EN and LN. However, most processes and underlying mechanisms fostering the ecology of organisms along Pacific South America have not been analyzed yet and for the marine realm most knowledge is traditionally based on rather descriptive approaches. We herein advocate that small-scale comparative and interdisciplinary process studies work as one possible solution to understand better the variability observed in EN/LN effects at local scale. We propose that differences in small-scale impacts of ENSO along the coast rather than the macro-ecological and oceanographic view are essential for the sustainable management of costal ecosystems and the livelihood of the people depending on it. Based on this, we summarize the conceptual approach from the EU-funded International Science and Technology Cooperation (INCO) project “Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: Implications for Natural Coastal Resources and Management (CENSOR)” that aims at enhancing the detection, compilation, and understanding of EN and LN effects on the coastal zone and its natural resources. We promote a multidisciplinary avenue within present international funding schemes, with the intention to bridge the traditional gap between basic and applied coastal research. The long-term aim is an increased mitigation of harm caused by EN as well as a better use of beneficial effects, with the possibility to improve the livelihood of human coastal populations along Pacific South America and taking differences between local socio-economic structures of the countries affected by EN into consideration. The success of such an approach however, does finally rely upon a willingness of the recourse users and the various political and economic stakeholders involved to taking on the message as part of sustainable management strategies.

Thatje, Sven; Heilmayer, Olaf; Laudien, Jürgen

2008-03-01

103

Declining sand dune activity in the southern Canadian prairies: Historical context, controls and ecosystem implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandhills are islands of biodiversity in the southern Canadian prairies that sustain habitat for many rare and endangered species. These unique areas consist of large expanses of dune fields now mostly stabilized by grassland vegetation. Historically, the number of active dunes has decreased significantly due to vegetation stabilization, resulting in a dramatic decline of open-sand habitat for a variety of dune-dependent species. Without a certain level of wind erosion, opportunities for establishment of early-stage, species-rich vegetation types are diminished and open-sand habitat decreases by encroachment of the surrounding grassland vegetation. The current trend of dune stabilization, however, implies that wind erosion is decreasing, thereby threatening the continued existence of a variety of dune-dependent plants, arthropods and vertebrates, as well as other less-specialized species that benefit indirectly from these habitats. By reviewing factors contributing to the historical decline of active dunes, as well as the ecological implications of dune stabilization, the aim of this paper is to establish the biophysical context for new land management strategies that conserve valued landscape components, such as active dunes, and the processes therein. As dune stabilization continues management interventions will be required to sustain or re-establish open sand and the species that rely on these habitats.

Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Bender, Darren; Wolfe, Stephen A.

2010-11-01

104

The Birth of South Sudan and the Challenges of Statebuilding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some key statebuilding challenges confronting South Sudan in the aftermath of the January 2011 referendum that separated this region from the Republic of Sudan. Following the referendum, the two states—the Republic of Sudan and South Sudan—face the immediate challenge of negotiating the terms of their relationship over a number of critical issues, including: the future of the

Roberto Belloni

2011-01-01

105

Tribe and religion in the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to depict a process of ‘tribal’ reproduction and to describe the manifestation of this phenomenon in the current political system of Sudan. It focuses on ‘tribal’ structures, rather than other ‘traditional’ structures in Sudanese society. A ‘tribal’ logic pervades political practice in Sudan since the Turkish invasion in 1821, and politics in this country

Mahmud El Zain

1996-01-01

106

Human Resources for Information Development in Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the state of human resources development in Sudan's information industry. Training problems and the emigration of high level personnel are discussed, guidelines for human resource development are suggested, and national strategies to develop and retain Sudan's human resources are suggested. (EA)

Wesley, Cecile

1992-01-01

107

Improvements in the Sudan Black Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The author's Sudan black technique has been improved by changes in fixation. One may fix as for the acid haematein test, or else in a modified Flemming's fluid. The former fixation allows very strong colouring by Sudan black, while the latter gives particularly faithful preservation of the form of the cells and their lipid inclusions. D URING the past

JOHN R. BAKER

1956-01-01

108

Peace impact on health: population access to iodized salt in south Sudan in post-conflict period  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine the population access to salt/iodized salt during and after the armed conflict in south Sudan and to illustrate geographical variations in population consumption of iodized salt in south Sudan after the armed conflict. Methods The sources of data for the conflict period were the 2004 Toward a Baseline: Best Estimates of Social Indicators for Southern Sudan study report and the 2000 Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey, and for the post-conflict period the 2005 Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) data set. Results After peace agreement, population access to salt increased by 6.8% (Z?=?5.488, P?Sudan. Public health authorities in south Sudan need to establish quality monitoring and surveillance systems to track progress toward Universal Salt Iodization goal defined by the World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

2011-01-01

109

Soviet catches of southern right whales Eubalaena australis, 1951–1971. Biological data and conservation implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1951\\/1952 and 1970\\/1971, a total of at least 3368 southern right whales Eubalaena australis were taken by Soviet whaling expeditions in the Southern Hemisphere, despite the species being internationally protected since 1935. These catches and the associated biological data (presented here for the first time) represent a unique source of information on the distribution, movements, size composition, reproduction and

D. D Tormosov; Y. A Mikhaliev; P. B Best; V. A Zemsky; K Sekiguchi; R. L Brownell

1998-01-01

110

IT developments in Eastern and Southern Africa: implications for university libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Libraries in the university environment in Eastern and Southern Africa are making efforts to join and participate effectively in the information revolution. However, these efforts continue to be hampered by many problems both internal and external. This paper reviews information technology (IT) developments in the university environment in Eastern and Southern Africa, and illustrates what university libraries can do to

Stephen M. Mutula

2000-01-01

111

Average Pleistocene Climatic Patterns in the Southern Central Andes: Controls on Mountain Glaciation and Paleoclimate Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite elevations of 5000-6800 m, modern glaciers occur along the southern Puna Plateau and the northern Sierras Pampeanas in the southern central Andes. The modern snowline rises from 5100 m in Sierra Aconquija to 5800 m in the Puna as a result of a westward decrease in precipitation from 450 to less than 100 mm\\/yr. During the Pleistocene these arid

Kirk Haselton; George Hilley; Manfred R. Strecker

2002-01-01

112

The New South as Curriculum: Implications for Understanding Southern Race Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The culture of the southern United States is examined in the context of its effects on race relations and how it is portrayed in curriculum. Many of the southern racial tragedies of the past are still unresolved and this is reflected in schools as they teach about the South. Since schools are dependent on published materials to teach classes, and…

Castenell, Louis A.

113

The New South as Curriculum: Implications for Understanding Southern Race Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The culture of the southern United States is examined in the context of its effects on race relations and how it is portrayed in curriculum. Many of the southern racial tragedies of the past are still unresolved and this is reflected in schools as they teach about the South. Since schools are dependent on published materials to teach classes, and…

Castenell, Louis A.

114

Balancing the Direct and Indirect Approaches: Implications for Ending the Violence in Southern Thailand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The instability in the Southern Border Provinces of Thailand resurged on January 4, 2004. The current conflict is more complicated because the government, the insurgency and the population all need to be recognized as players. Of these, the population is ...

C. Rodthong

2009-01-01

115

Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010  

PubMed Central

To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006–2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas.

Aradaib, Imadeldin E.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Elageb, Rehab M.; Khristova, Marina L.; Carroll, Serena A.; Elkhidir, Isam M.; Karsany, Mubarak E.; Karrar, AbdelRahim E.; Elbashir, Mustafa I.

2013-01-01

116

Dissertation Citations in Organismal Biology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Implications for Collection Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We report on a citation analysis of Ph.D. dissertations in plant biology and zoology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, undertaken to test the common assumption that scientists favor current research to such an extent that journal backfiles can be de-emphasized in academic library collections. Results demonstrate otherwise. The study is…

Nabe, Jonathan; Imre, Andrea

2008-01-01

117

Dissertation Citations in Organismal Biology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Implications for Collection Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a citation analysis of Ph.D. dissertations in plant biology and zoology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, undertaken to test the common assumption that scientists favor current research to such an extent that journal backfiles can be de-emphasized in academic library collections. Results demonstrate otherwise. The study is…

Nabe, Jonathan; Imre, Andrea

2008-01-01

118

Lithospheric thickness beneath the southern Kenya Rift: implications from basalt geochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical data are reported for samples from the flanks and floor of the southern Kenya Rift Valley in the Lake Magadi area, and from two central volcanoes located within the rift valley. Rift lavas include samples of Singaraini and Ol Tepesi basalts on the eastern flank, Kirikiti basalts from the western flank, and plateau trachytes from the rift valley floor.

Anton P. Roex; Andreas Späth; Robert E. Zartman

2001-01-01

119

Drivers of land abandonment in Southern Chile and implications for landscape planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, land abandonment has become one of the most important trends in land use and cover change. This study identifies drivers of land abandonment in Southern Chile through a spatially explicit statistical model, based on an economic theoretical framework. A logistic regression was used to model the probability of land abandonment, observed as the land cover change from

G. Ignacio Díaz; Laura Nahuelhual; Cristian Echeverría; Sandra Marín

2011-01-01

120

The majority legal status of women in Southern Africa: Implications for women and families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women in many countries of southern Africa do not have majority status or have only recently gained this right. Majority status grants individuals adult legal status and the right to bring matters to court, own and administer property, have legal custody of children, and contract for marriage. This article summarizes the legal status of women in Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa,

Mary P. Van Hook; Barbara N. Ngwenya

1996-01-01

121

PHENOLOGY AND DEMOGRAPHY OF HOMALODISCA COAGULATA IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CITRUS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Populations of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) were sampled from citrus orchards in southern California to characterize and quantify seasonal occurrences of nymphs and adults with the goal of identifying management opportunities. Higher densities of H. coagulata in 2001 contributed to a complete season...

122

Oceanside and Thirtymile Bank blind thrusts: Implications for earthquake hazards in coastal southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define an active blind thrust system in offshore southern California that extends from Los Angeles south to the United States Mexico international border. These blind thrusts formed by tectonic inversion of Miocene extensional detachments. We attribute the 1986 Oceanside (ML 5.3) earthquake, local uplift of marine terraces, seafloor fold scarps, and observed geodetic convergence to motion on these faults.

Carlos Rivero; John H. Shaw; Karl Mueller

2000-01-01

123

Impacts and management implications of ice storms on forests in the southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review explores the ecological and silvicultural impacts of ice storms on forests in the southern United States. Different environmental factors like weather conditions, topography, vegetation, stand density, and management practices influence the degree of glaze damage a particular forest may experience. Additionally, the frequent contradictions in the relationships between these factors and the resulting damage suggests a complexity that

Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton; Boris Zeide

2003-01-01

124

British Southern Campaign in the Revolutionary War: Implications for Contemporary Counter Insurgency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The British effort in the Southern Campaign (1780-1782) of the Revolutionary War failed because of flawed national strategy and a failure to focus sufficient elements of national power against a background of competing global threats. In the American colo...

J. P. Clover

2006-01-01

125

Oceanic pollution and the Southern Ocean: rethinking the international legal implications for Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author makes a critical examination of the nature of maritime pollution and the threat it poses to common space resource regimes, especially that of the Southern Ocean. Accepting the premise that international law must operate to prevent further degradation of the earth's common spaces, especially the oceans and Antarctica. This article examines the political, economic, and legal nuances associated

1984-01-01

126

Subsidence and thermal history of Southern Oklahoma aulacogen: implications for petroleum exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstructed subsidence curves and the thermal history of the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen support the concept of thermally controlled isostatic subsidence for the formation of the basin and indicate the significance of this concept for petroleum exploration. Two mechanisms - initial elastic flexure, followed by detachment and differential subsidence of the aulacogen - are inferred from the subsidence curves. Two methods

Feinstein

1981-01-01

127

The maxillary sinus of Paradolichopithecus sushkini (late Pliocene, southern Tajikistan) and its phyletic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paradolichopithecus sushkini is a large fossil cercopithecine from the late Pliocene discovered at Kuruk-Say, southern Tajikistan. Despite its rather long face and large size, many authorities regard Paradolichopithecus not as a baboon, but as a large macaque, mainly based on the cranial morphology of European specimens. Among Old World monkeys, macaques are the only species that possess a maxillary sinus.

Takeshi D. Nishimura; Masanaru Takai; Evgeny N. Maschenko

2007-01-01

128

The electric field in northern England and southern Scotland: implications for geomagnetically induced currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetotelluric (MT) data, in the form of MT tensors, are used to estimate directly the size and spatial distribution of the electric field in northern England and southern Scotland with the aim of predicting the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in power networks in the region. MT and Geomagnetic Deep Sounding data from a number of different field campaigns,

A. J. McKay; K. A. Whaler

2006-01-01

129

The electric field in northern England and southern Scotland: implications for geomagnetically induced currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Magnetotelluric (MT) data, in the form of MT tensors, are used to estimate directly the size and spatial distribution of the electric field in northern England and southern Scotland with the aim of predicting the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in power networks in the region. MT and Geomagnetic Deep Sounding data from a number of different field

A. J. McKay; K. A. Whaler

2006-01-01

130

Southern limit of mantle-derived geothermal helium emissions in Tibet: implications for lithospheric structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic composition of helium emitted from geothermal springs in the southern Tibetan plateau, reported as Rc/ RA ( Rc=air corrected sample 3He/ 4He, RA=air 3He/ 4He), ranges from 0.013 to 0.38, and defines two principal domains. In southernmost central Tibet, helium isotope ratios are typical of radiogenic helium production in the crust ( Rc/ RA<0.05, crustal helium domain). Further north, there is a resolvable 3He anomaly consistent with a mantle contribution ( R/ RA>0.1, mantle helium domain). The highest values of 0.27-0.38 RA occur at the southern end of the Karakoram fault. The boundary between the two domains lies 50-100 km north of the Indus-Zangpo suture zone. There seems to be no association between the 3He anomaly and zones of active normal faulting and litho-tectonic crustal units, such as the ultramafic rocks of the Indus-Zangpo suture zone and the Gangdese intrusive belt. Although scavenging of mantle-derived helium, stored in large ultrabasic and basic intrusions in the crust, cannot be ruled out entirely, we argue that the 3He anomaly most plausibly reflects degassing of volatiles from young (Quaternary) mantle-derived melts intruded into the crust. As such, it defines the southern limit of recent mantle melting and mantle melt extraction beneath the Tibetan plateau. The southern limit of the 3He anomaly coincides with the junction between the Indian and Asian plates, in the region where the Indian lithospheric slab steepens and is subducted beneath Tibet as suggested by seismic studies. Recent mantle melting and melt extraction is confined to the Asian mantle, but the southern limit of the melt zone may have migrated northwards during the last 10 Ma as the Indian lithosphere has progressively underthrust the Himalayas and Tibet.

Hoke, Leonore; Lamb, Simon; Hilton, David R.; Poreda, Robert J.

2000-08-01

131

Serosurvey of Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus amongst High Risk Groups in Port Sudan, Sudan. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During October, 1987, 593 sera were collected from risk groups in Sudan's only major deepwater port, Port Sudan. The risk groups included prostitutes, lorry drivers and prisoners. A large proportion of the study participants practiced high risk behavior w...

J. P. Burans M. McCarthy S. M. El Tayeb A. EL Tigani J. George

1990-01-01

132

Oil and Agriculture in the Post-Separation Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which was signed by the government of Sudan and the Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) ended more than 20 years of civil war. According to the CPA, the Sudan’s government has 50% of the oil exploited from the wells existing in the south in addition to the oil produced from the northern wells. The latter

Khalid H. A. Siddig

2012-01-01

133

15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section 742.10 Commerce...CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1...ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1...

2009-01-01

134

15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section 742.10 Commerce...CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1...ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1...

2010-01-01

135

15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section 742...BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements...required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1...

2013-01-01

136

Shape of the subducted Rivera and Cocos plates in southern Mexico: Seismic and tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometry of the subducted Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North American plate in southern Mexico was determined based on the accurately located hypocenters of local and teleseismic earthquakes. The hypocenters of the teleseisms were relocated, and the focal depths of 21 events were constrained using a body wave inversion scheme. The suduction in southern Mexico may be approximated as a subhorizontal slab bounded at the edges by the steep subduction geometry of the Cocos plate beneath the Caribbean plate to the east and of the Rivera plate beneath North America to the west. The dip of the interplate contact geometry is constant to a depth of 30 km, and lateral changes in the dip of the subducted plate are only observed once it is decoupled from the overriding plate. On the basis of the seismicity, the focal mechanisms, and the geometry of the downgoing slab, southern Mexico may be segmented into four regions: (1) the Jalisco region to the west, where the Rivera plate subducts at a steep angle that resembles the geometry of the Cocos plate beneath the Caribbean plate in Central America; (2) the Michoacan region, where the dip angle of the Cocos plate decreases gradually toward the southeast, (3) the Guerrero-Oaxaca region, bounded approximately by the onshore projection of the Orozco and O'Gorman fracture zones, where the subducted slab is almost subhorizontal and underplates the upper continental plate for about 250 km, and (4) the southern Oaxaca and Chiapas region, in southeastern Mexico, where the dip of the subduction gradually increases to a steeper subduction in Central America. These drastic changes in dip do not appear to take place on tear faults, suggesting that smooth contortions accommodate these changes in geometry. The inferred 80 and 100 km depth contours of the subducted slab lie beneath the southern front of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, suggesting it is directly related to the subduction. Thus the observed nonparallelism with the Middle American Trench is apparently due to the changing geometry of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North American plate in southern Mexico, and not to zones of weakness in the crust of the North American plate as some authors have suggested.

Pardo, Mario; SuáRez, Gerardo

1995-07-01

137

Upper Crustal Structure of the Southern Rio Grande Rift: Implications for Mesozoic to Recent Structural Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A velocity model and related gravity model derived from analysis of data from a seismic refraction\\/reflection survey provides the first regional-scale view of the subsurface structure of the upper crust of the southern Rio Grande Rift. The seismic survey was conducted along a 205 km long east-west transect that crosses a portion of the Basin and Range province and the

Matthew G. Averill; Kate C. Miller

138

Three Late Quaternary pollen diagrams from Southern Patagonia and their palaeoecological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagrams of fossil pollen in three deposits postdating glacial recession of the last ice age provide an account of late-glacial and Holocene vegetation and palaeoclimate in Southern Patagonia. Sites are mires, located along the Estrecho de Magallanes at Punta Arenas (53°09?S, 70°57?W) and Puerto del Hambre (53°36?S, 70°55?W), and an intermittent lake, some 300 km to the north, at Torres

C. J. Heusser

1995-01-01

139

Implications of the Species-Area Relationship on Sampling Effort for Marsh Birds in Southern Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal wetlands of southern Ontario are highly fragmented and exist as islands within a primarily urbanized and agricultural\\u000a matrix. Given the large variation in size of remaining fragments, it is important to determine if species-area relationships\\u000a exist for wetland birds, so that sampling effort can be adjusted for different sizes of wetlands and to develop appropriate\\u000a size criteria for conservation.

Lyndsay A. Smith; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2010-01-01

140

Environmental and Archaeological Implications of a Late Quaternary Palynological Sequence, Poyang Lake, Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoecological data from Poyang Lake, southern China, indicate that significant natural and human-induced vegetational changes have occurred during the Late Quaternary in the Middle Yangtze River valley, the likely location of rice (Oryza sativa L.) domestication. During the late Pleistocene (from ca. 12,830 to ca. 10,500 yr B.P.), the climate was cooler and drier than today's. The subtropical, mixed deciduous–evergreen

Qinhua Jiang; Dolores R. Piperno

1999-01-01

141

Remote sensing of Southern Ocean sea surface temperature: implications for marine biophysical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen years of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR MCSST) data were used to calculate monthly averages of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for a large region of the Southern Ocean centred on Macquarie Island. Between October and February, the MCSST data were a reliable source of SSTs north of 60°S, but their quality (i.e. spatial and

Michael D. Sumner; Kelvin J. Michael; Corey J. A. Bradshaw; Mark A. Hindell

2003-01-01

142

Process-form relationships in Southern Italian badlands: erosion rates and implications for landform evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristic badlands are incised into Plio-Pleistocene clays in Basilicata, southern Italy, creating steep, scarp slopes with knife-edge ridges (calanchi) and small dome-shaped forms (biancane). Erosion pin data for the period 1997-2003 give mean annual erosion rates for dome-shaped biancane in the range 9-19 mm a ? ? ? ? ?1 , while rates for the calanchi scarps are lower, at

Michèle L. Clarke; Helen M. Rendell

2006-01-01

143

Tectonic Implications of Alternative Cenozoic Reconstructions for Southern Mexico and the Chortis Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current Eocene reconstructions juxtapose the Chortis block of northern Central America against southern Mexico, and invoke ˜1100 km Cenozoic sinistral displacement on the Acapulco-Motagua-Cayman fault zone, the inferred northern margin of the Caribbean plate. Such a hypothesis is incompatible with the presence of undeformed Upper Cretaceous—Recent sediments that cross the projected trace of the Motagua fault zone in the

J. Duncan Keppie; Dante J. Morán-Zenteno

2005-01-01

144

Stratigraphy and tectonic development of the southern Ouachita thrust belt - implications of new subsurface data, Arkansas  

SciTech Connect

Recent drilling in southwest Arkansas has provided new constraints on the age, facies and tectonics of the buried Southern Ouachita thrust belt. Results are consistent with Pennsylvanian collision of the North American craton with an island arc/continental fragment via a south-dipping subduction zone. Reprocessing of the Ouachita COCORP seismic line further supports this geometry. Ouachita facies rocks south of the Benton Uplift consist of deformed Mississippian and Lower Morrowan clastics deposited in a forearc basin setting. Early to middle Ordovician flora found in core and cuttings suggest reworking and sourcing from an older terrane. A transgressive sequence up to 4500' thick that ranges from marginal marine clastics to open marine carbonates overlies the thrust belt. This sequence is significantly different from time-equivalent rocks of the Frontal Ouachitas where the Atoka consists of 15-20,000' of turbidites that have been involved in thrusting. This indicates that the Ouachita orogeny terminated much earlier to the south than to the north. Palynological analysis from this post-orogenic section identified marine acritarchs and scolecodonts with South American affinities. Their presence suggests deposition south of the North American craton on an exotic basement complex with both a northern and southern provenance. A remnant of this exotic southern terrane apparently remained attached to the North American craton following Triassic rifting and the opening of the Gulf of Mexico.

Kaygi, P.B.; O'Donnell, G.P.; Welland, M.J.

1985-01-01

145

Learning from Southern California: a typology of neighborhood?scale projects, the emerging metropolitan form and the implications for public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a typology of neighborhood?scale projects in Southern California, examines their impact on the emerging metropolitan form and discusses policy implications. This region is growing fast and is facing several problems. It is also the focus of inquiry of municipal control of land use regulations that support Tiebout sorting and contribute to social and spatial segregation. Given this,

Ajay Garde

2010-01-01

146

Paleomagnetism, rock magnetism and opaque mineralogy of iron ore deposits from southern Mexico and their implications for quantitative modelling of magnetometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleomagnetism, Rock Magnetism and Opaque Mineralogy of Iron Ore Deposits from Southern Mexico and Their Implications for Quantitative Modelling of Magnetometric Data. The tectonic history of the Pacific continental margin is critical for understanding their mineral deposits. The margin presents intrusive and volcanic activity characteristic of magmatic arcs of subduction zones, which are genetically related with deposits of Cu, Fe,

L. M. Alva-Valdivia; Fucugauchi; J. Urrutia; H. Bohnel; D. J. Moran Zenteno

1990-01-01

147

Fore-arc Counterclockwise Rotation In Southern Mexico: Implications For The NA-CA-CO Triple Junction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies, mainly based on structural and paleomagnetic data, consider the Southern Mexico as a crustal block (Southern Mexico Block, SMB) uncoupled from the North American plate with a southeast motion with respect to North America accommodated by extension through the central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). On the other hand, the accommodation of this motion on the southeastward boundary, especially at the Cocos/Caribbean/North American triple junction is still debated. The boundary between the SMB and the North American plate is constituted by three connected zones of deformation: (1) left-lateral transtension across the central TMVB, (2) left-lateral strike-slip faulting along the eastern TMVB and Veracruz area and (3) reverse and left- lateral strike-slip faulting in the Chiapas area. We show that these three active deformation zones accommodate a couterclockwise rotation of the SMB with respect to the North American plate. We specially discuss the Quaternary motion of the SMB with respect to the surrounding plates near the Cocos/Caribbean/North American triple junction. The model we propose predicts a Quaternary couterclockwise rotation of 0.45 deg/Ma with a pole located at 24.2N and 91.8W. Finally we discuss the geodynamic implications of this counterclockwise rotation. The Southern Mexico Block motion is generally assumed to be the result of slip partitioning at the trench. However the obliquity of the subduction is too small to explain slip partitioning. The motion could be facilitated by the high thermal gradient and gravitational collapse that affects central Mexico or by partial coupling with the eastward motion of the Caribbean plate.

Andreani, L.; Le Pichon, X.; Rangin, C.; Martinez-Reyes, J.

2007-12-01

148

An ultrasensitive and selective fluorescence assay for Sudan I and III against the influence of Sudan II and IV.  

PubMed

We report on an ultrasensitive and selective fluorescence assay for Sudan I and III against the influence of Sudan II and IV based on ligand exchange mechanism. Calcein as a fluorescence indicator and Sudan I-IV as model analytes were employed to investigate the analytical feature of this assay platform. Results show that the fluorescence of calcein can be efficiently quenched by Cu(II). When the ligand exchange reaction proceeds, calcein is deprived of Cu(II) by Sudan I and III, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of calcein. However, the ligand exchange reaction does not happen in the presence of Sudan II or IV due to the 2-methyl steric effects, which is favorable for selective determination of Sudan I and III against the influence of Sudan II and IV. It was found that the fluorescence enhancement efficiency (FEE) against the concentration of Sudan (c(Sudan), nmol L?¹) shows a linear relationship. The calibration equations are FEE(Sudan I)=0.0032 c(Sudan I)-0.02613, and FEE(Sudan III)=0.0033 c(Sudan III)-0.02467 over the corresponding linear range of 11.25-2078.29 and 9.44-1035.78 nmol L?¹ with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9984 and 0.9955, respectively. And the detection limits (3?/slope) are calculated to be 211.3 and 208.5 pmol L?¹ for Sudan I and III, respectively, showing ultralow detection limit. The Sudan dye in a commercial chilli powder sample was assayed with satisfactory results. PMID:23202343

Huang, Sheng Tian; Yang, Ling Feng; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

2012-11-05

149

3D Body Wave Velocity Tomography in Southern Peru: Seismotectonic Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studied region corresponds to the southern segment of the 1868 rupture area, that did not break with the last Mw=8.4 Arequipa earthquake in southern Peru. A temporary network of 19 short period, continuous recording seismic stations was deployed (16.5° -18.5° S; 69.5° -72° W) between December 2002-March 2003 in this region. The 1093 select events were used for a joint hypocentral and velocity structure inversion. The first obtained 1D velocity model was used as the initial model for the 3D inversion, consisting in 231 blocks distributed along layers separated by 10 km for depths lower than 80 km, and by 20 km for depths between 80 and 160 km. North of the Arica Bend, between the Coast and Andean Range the high Vp velocity and Vp/Vs ratio observed at depths lower than 10 km could represent the Precambrian basement uplifted by the Incapuquio sinistral fault system, which develops a positive flower structure typical for transpressional zones, that raised the basement. This behavior is in good agreement with the uplift of the Cambrian metamorphic complex, in the Precordillera south of the Arica Bend (northern Chile), by the west-vergent thrust system. Beneath the anomalous high velocities (between 20 and 30 km depth), a low velocity zone (Vp<4.5 km/s, and Vp/Vs<1.5) can be observed; this LVZ can be associated with a zone of continuous metamorphism and/or partial melting that the decouples the upper-crustal imbrication from a thickening lower-crust. The Wadati-Benioff zone exhibits a dip angle of about 20° between 10 to 60 km depth, and about 45° for depths higher than 80 km. The double seismic zone known for northern Chile is not present in southern Peru. Cross sections perpendicular to the trench, define a very active seismic zone which dips about 45° trenchward, and is almost perpendicular to the subducting slab between 0 and 60 km depths, similar to the one existing in northern Chile, but with a lower rate of seismicity; the higher activity of this zone in southern Peru can be associated with the 2001 earthquake post-seismic period.

Gallego, A.; Perez, J.; David, C.; Comte, D.; Charrier, R.; Dorbath, L.

2004-12-01

150

Evidence for genetic differentiation at the microgeographic scale in Phlebotomus papatasi populations from Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Sudan. It is caused by Leishmania major parasites and transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi sandflies. Recently, uncommon clinical manifestations of CL have been reported. Moreover, L. donovani parasites that cause Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) have been isolated from CL lesions of some patients who contracted the disease in Khartoum State, Central Sudan with no history of travelling to VL endemic sites on south-eastern Sudan. Because different clinical manifestations and the parasite behaviour could be related to genetic differentiation, or even sub-structuring within sandfly vector populations, a population genetic study was conducted on P. papatasi populations collected from different localities in Khartoum State known for their uncommon CL cases and characterized by contrasting environmental conditions. Methods A set of seven microsatellite loci was used to investigate the population structure of P. papatasi samples collected from different localities in Khartoum State, Central Sudan. Populations from Kassala State, Eastern Sudan and Egypt were also included in the analyses as outgroups. The level of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among natural populations of P. papatasi was determined using FST statistics and Bayesian assignments. Results Genetic analyses revealed significant genetic differentiation (FST) between the Sudanese and the Egyptian populations. Within the Sudanese P. papatasi populations, one population from Gerif West, Khartoum State, exhibited significant genetic differentiation from all other populations including those collected as near as 22 km. Conclusion The significant genetic differentiation of Gerif West P. papatasi population from other Sudanese populations may have important implication for the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Khartoum State and needs to be further investigated. Primarily, it could be linked to the unique location of Gerif West which is confined by the River Nile and its tributaries that may act as a natural barrier for gene flow between this site and the other rural sites. The observed high migration rates and lack of genetic differentiation among the other P. papatasi populations could be attributed to the continuous human and cattle movement between these localities.

2012-01-01

151

Spatial genetic structure and regional demography in the southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders.

Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R. S.

2006-01-01

152

Lower Tertiary Remagnetization in Mesozoic Rocks from Southern Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Tectonic Implications.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

32 Mesozoic sedimentary sites (about 350 samples) have been sampled in southern Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO), México. Stepwise demagnetization analyses have been carried out in Jurassic to Cretaceous carbonates and Late Triassic to Early Jurassic mudstones and sandstones. Both groups of lithologies showed a common Characteristic Remanence Magnetization (ChRM), always of reversed polarity despite the different lithologies and ages, which is considered a synchronous remagnetization. These 32 sites were grouped in 10 localities in order to perform statistical fold tests with their paleomagnetic directions for tectonic purposes. Fold tests results show pre-, syn- and mostly post-tectonic ChRM acquisition, implying that the remagnetization is simultaneous with the Early Tertiary shortening period of the southern SMO Laramide Orogeny. In some Cretaceous limestone sites, a pre-folding high temperature component with mixed polarities has been also observed showing directions close to the post-folding remagnetization. Very similar ChRM paleolatitudes were found in between localities, and they are also in agreement with the expected paleoinclination obtained from the 50 Ma paleomagnetic poles of North America's Apparent Polar Wander Path (Besse & Courtillot, 2002). Paleomagnetic poles of the studied localities lies in an equal paleolatitud minor circle evidencing the existence of great post-Paleocene anticlockwise differential vertical axis rotations, which increases eastwardly up to 40°. In addition, rock magnetic analyses have been performed in order to study the origin of the remagnetization.

Villalain, J. J.; Ruiz, V. C.; Rey, D.; Caballero, C.; Soler, A. M.; Osete, M. L.; Urrutia, J.

2007-05-01

153

Recurrence, Rates, and Paleogeodetic Implications: Southern Cascadia Subduction Zone, Northern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake and tsunami hazard for northern California and southern Oregon is dominated by estimates of recurrence for earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and upper plate thrust faults. Recurrence interval (RI)estimates derived from site based terrestrial data (270-1,370 years) are inconsistent with the regional marine record of great earthquakes (RI = ~240 years). Reconciling these differences reveals information regarding different sources or magnitudes of coseismic or interseismic deformation in the southern CSZ. Early paleoseismic investigations utilized bulk peat for 14C age determinations and lack vertical elevation control. All terrestrial data sets are compiled, evaluated, ranked, and excluded according to their paleoseismic relevance. We construct an OxCal age model to evaluate the discriminated 14C based space-time relations graphically and statistically. We interpret a regional timing of tectonic deformation that is consistent with the timing of the marine record. Not all events are observed in each region and not all events have age control. Some regions lack cores representing the complete modern tidal elevation range (biasing the paleoseismic record). For example, when individual sites in the same region are combined, a more complete record of coseismic subsidence can be assumed, reducing the terrestrial RI to 360+-40, yet still longer than the marine RI. We consider relative sea-level (RSL), as the relation between land-level and sea-level and we find that chronologically distinct buried soils are found in settings segregated by elevation. Subsidence in southern Humboldt Bay occurred in positions of higher RSL at ~1,500, 2,200, and ~3,500 cal yrs BP. We pose that the RSL position does not relate to the time preceding the earthquake, but may relate to the accumulated strain at the time of the earthquake. RSL with a higher position would correspond with more accumulated strain in the upper plate. We evaluate the various factors that may confound this relation. We also compare the estimates of subsidence for cores in locations that share the sea-level / land-level relations as today as these may be a modern analogue to what subsidence we might expect if the CSZ earthquake were to occur tomorrow. Some unknowns that are priorities to complete this analysis include down-core diatom paleoecologic interpretations based upon correlations (transfer function) with modern biogeochemical transects, neither of which currently exist, developing a reliable vertical tidal elevation network tied to distal benchmarks, and there are also several buried soils that lack 14C age determinations. Lastly, additional cores collected in regions that are under sampled with respect to various elevation ranges.

Leroy, T. H.; Patton, J. R.

2010-12-01

154

Southern dispersal and Palaeoecological implications of woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis): review of the Iberian occurrences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-adapted large mammal populations spread southward during the coldest and driest phases of the Late Pleistocene reaching the Iberian Peninsula. Presence of woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) can be identified from 23 Iberian sites, which is compiled and analyzed herein, and the fossil specimens from seven of these sites are described here for first time.Morphological and biometrical analyses demonstrate that the Iberian woolly rhinoceros did not significantly differ from individuals of other European populations, but represent the westernmost part of a continuous Eurasian belt of distribution.The first presence of woolly rhino in the Iberian Peninsula has been identified during the late Middle Pleistocene and early Late Pleistocene. However, the highest abundance of this species is recorded during MIS 3 and 2. The latest Iberian occurrences can be dated around 20 ka BP. The presence of woolly rhinoceros in the Iberian Peninsula correlates with periods of extreme dry and cold climatic conditions documented in Iberian terrestrial and marine sediment sequences.From a palaeobiogeographic point of view, the maximum southern spread of C. antiquitatis on the Iberian Peninsula was registered during the late Middle Pleistocene or early Late Pleistocene, reaching the latitude of Madrid (about 40°N). Subsequently, during MIS 3 and 2, all Iberian finds were restricted to the Northern regions of Iberia (Cantabrian area and Catalonia). The southern expansion of C. antiquitatis during the Late Pleistocene in the Iberian Peninsula reached similar latitudes to other Eurasian regions.The ecological composition of fossil assemblages with presence of woolly rhinoceros was statistically analyzed. Results show that temperate ungulate species are predominant at Iberian assemblages, resulting in a particular mixture of temperate and cold elements different of the typical Eurasian cold-adapted faunal associations. This particular situation suggests two possible explanations: a) Eventual migrations during the coldest time spans, resulting in a mixing of cold and temperate faunas, instead a faunal replacing; b) Persistence of woolly rhinoceros populations in the Iberian Peninsula during interglacial episodes confined at cryptic southern refugia.

Álvarez-Lao, Diego J.; García, Nuria

2011-07-01

155

Sudan dyes: are they dangerous for human health?  

PubMed

Azo and diazo compounds include Sudan dyes, which were widely used in industry. Although they are not permitted in food, they had been found contaminating different food products and their presence is investigated regularly (since 2003) in these products. Sudan III, as well as Sudan Black B, was included in different laboratory techniques for tissue ceroid and lipofucsin analysis and blood-cell staining. Also, Sudan Black B has been recently included in in vivo evaluations in human beings (through oral intake), and Sudan III is still allowed in cosmetics. These azo dyes were metabolized to possible carcinogenic colorless amines, both in the liver of mammalians and by the micro flora present in human skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Both human and laboratory animal cytochrome P450s (CYPs) were able to oxidize Sudan I, whereas Sudan III modified CYP activities. In vitro genotoxic effects were reported for Sudan I, and some DNA adducts formed through exposure to its metabolites were identified. Sudan I was also found to be carcinogenic in the rat, but not in the mouse. The aim of the present review is to put together the most relevant information concerning Sudan dye uses and toxicity to provide some tools for the identification of the risk they represent for human health. PMID:22947042

Fonovich, Teresa M

2012-09-05

156

Local violence and international intervention in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efforts of the international community to build peace in Sudan have been frustrated by the failure to stop the violence in Darfur, continuous setbacks in the implementation of the 2005 peace agreement, and a failure to remain sufficiently engaged with processes at the root of the violence. This applies particularly to local conflicts and the ways in which they

Gunnar M. Sørbø

2010-01-01

157

Information on Current Research in the Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and illustrates the main characteristics and methods of data collection and analysis used in compiling the National Register of Current Research, a major element of the Unesco pilot project initiated in the Sudan for the creation of an information service on research in progress. Eight sources are given. (EJS)

Wesley, Cecile

1985-01-01

158

Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of uranium and thorium isotopes, (sup 226) Ra, (sup 210) Po, (sup 228) Ra, (sup 40) K and fallout radionuclide (sup 137) Cs in soil samples collected from different districts in Sudan, rock phosphate samples collected from the uro and kurun r...

A. K. Sam

1998-01-01

159

Rethinking the civil war in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A troubled country, the largest in a troubled continent, the Sudan surely tells one of the most tragic stories of war. The war is presented in the West as a religiously inspired persecution of Christian tribesmen in the south by the Islamic Fundamentalist government. The real story, however, is one of continued opposition and periodic fighting since shortly before independence

Roger Dean

2000-01-01

160

Water resources and freshwater ecosystems in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudan is a large country with varying standards of living, culture and climate. When this is superimposed on the multi-sectoral nature of water, coordination of activities in water resources planning, management and development becomes essential. The spirit of cooperation and close cooperation with countries sharing the same water resources should continue, preferably through an institutional cooperative framework for each shared

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

2008-01-01

161

Family planning practice in Central Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community and hospital based studies were conducted to assess the major factors related to the practice of family planning during 1989 and 1990 in Central Sudan. The mothers of 1592 births in the community and 1357 births in the hospital were interviewed by trained study workers. Prevalence of contraceptive use prior to current pregnancy was 13.0% and knowledge of a

Taha El Tahir Taha

1993-01-01

162

The primates in Darfur, Republic of Sudan.  

PubMed

The paper describes the distribution, group size and relative abundance of Erythrocebus patas and Papio doguera in Darfur Province, Sudan. Less detailed information is given on Cercopithecus aethiops and Galago senegalensis. Detailed observations were carried out in the field and by low-level aerial survey during 1972--1978 and have been supplemented by references to the literature where appropriate. PMID:116947

Wilson, R T

1979-01-01

163

The African Mission in Sudan: Darfur dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

For much of the past two years, the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) has managed to achieve a semblance of stability in much of Darfur, which has been reflected in the improvement of humanitarian conditions. At the same time, the mission has come under serious international pressure to respond appropriately to the deteriorating security situation on the ground by

Seth Appiah-Mensah

2006-01-01

164

Seroprevalence of East Coast fever in Central Equatoria State, South Sudan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 in different cattle camps in Juba, Mangalla and Terekeka localities of Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. Serum samples were collected from 514 cattle of different age groups. Samples were analysed using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with commercially available polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) ELISA kits. The overall serological prevalence of Theileria parva was 70.8% (364/514). The highest rate of prevalence was observed in Mangalla (91.2%) and the lowest in Juba (61.8%), with Terekeka recording 71.8%. Regarding the age groups, older cattle (over four years of age) showed a significantly higher rate of prevalence (p>0.001) than calves (below one year of age). The implications of these results in the overall epidemiology of East Coast fever in South Sudan are discussed and possible recommendations for future implementation of disease control measures are outlined. PMID:23277119

Marcellino, Wani L; Salih, Diaeldin A; Julla, Ibrahim I; El Hussein, Abdel Rahim M

165

The crustal structure of southern Baffin Bay: implications from a seismic refraction experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baffin Bay represents the northern extension of the extinct rift system in the Labrador Sea. While the extent of oceanic crust and magnetic spreading anomalies are well constrained in the Labrador Sea, no magnetic spreading anomalies have yet been identified in Baffin Bay. Thus, the nature and evolution of the Baffin Bay crust remain uncertain. To clearly characterize the crust in southern Baffin Bay, 42 ocean bottom seismographs were deployed along a 710-km-long seismic refraction line, from Baffin Island to Greenland. Multichannel seismic reflection, gravity and magnetic anomaly data were recorded along the same transect. Using forward modelling and inversion of observed traveltimes from dense airgun shots, a P-wave velocity model was obtained. The detailed morphology of the basement was constrained using the seismic reflection data. A 2-D density model supports and complements the P-wave modelling. Sediments of up to 6 km in thickness with P-wave velocities of 1.8-4.0 km s-1 are imaged in the centre of Baffin Bay. Oceanic crust underlies at least 305 km of the profile. The oceanic crust is 7.5 km thick on average and is modelled as three layers. Oceanic layer 2 ranges in P-wave velocity from 4.8 to 6.4 km s-1 and is divided into basalts and dykes. Oceanic layer 3 displays P-wave velocities of 6.4-7.2 km s-1. The Greenland continental crust is up to 25 km thick along the line and divided into an upper, middle and lower crust with P-wave velocities from 5.3 to 7.0 km s-1. The upper and middle continental crust thin over a 120-km-wide continent-ocean transition zone. We classify this margin as a volcanic continental margin as seaward dipping reflectors are imaged from the seismic reflection data and mafic intrusions in the lower crust can be inferred from the seismic refraction data. The profile did not reach continental crust on the Baffin Island margin, which implies a transition zone of 150 km length at most. The new information on the extent of oceanic crust is used with published poles of rotation to develop a new kinematic model of the evolution of oceanic crust in southern Baffin Bay.

Suckro, Sonja K.; Gohl, Karsten; Funck, Thomas; Heyde, Ingo; Ehrhardt, Axel; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Gerlings, Joanna; Damm, Volkmar; Jokat, Wilfried

2012-07-01

166

Holocene Pacific North American plate interaction in southern Alaska: Implications for the Yakataga seismic gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The St. Elias, Alaska, earthquake (magnitude 7.1 Ms) on February 28, 1979, occurred along the complex Pacific North American plate boundary between Yakutat Bay and Prince William Sound, rupturing only a fraction of the seismic gap identified in that region. To aid in evaluating the potential for, and likely site of, a future earthquake occurring in the remainder of the gap, we have formulated a kinematic model of neotectonic deformation in southern Alaska from available geologic and seismic data. In this model the part of the North American plate bordering on the Gulf of Alaska is divided into three subblocks, which are partially coupled to the Pacific plate. On the basis of the model, the gap-filling rupture or ruptures would most likely be along the north-dipping thrust faults of the Pamplona zone between Icy Bay and the eastern end of the Aleutian Trench. If the accumulated strain of 3.8 m postulated for this region were released suddenly in one event involving the remainder of the gap, the result would be an earthquake as large as magnitude 8.

Lahr, John C.; Plafker, George

1980-10-01

167

Mercury in fishes from Augusta Bay (southern Italy): risk assessment and health implication.  

PubMed

Our study reports on the total mercury (HgT) concentrations measured in the muscles and livers of several benthic, demersal and pelagic fish species caught inside and outside of Augusta Bay (southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area, highly contaminated by the uncontrolled (since the 1950s to 1978s) discharge of the largest European petrochemical plant. Mercury levels in fish tissues are discussed with regard to specific habitat, size and/or age of the specimens and HgT distribution in the bottom sediments. Results suggest a still active Hg release mechanism from the polluted sediments to the marine environment. Also, the high HgT concentrations measured in fishes caught in the external area of the bay imply a potential role of Augusta Bay as a pollutant source for the Mediterranean ecosystem. Finally, values of hazard target quotient (THQ) and estimated weekly intake (EWI) demonstrate that consumption of fishes caught inside the bay represents a serious risk for human health. Also, data indicate that intake of fishes caught from the external area of the bay, especially for that concern demersal and benthic species, could be represent a significant component of risk for the local population. PMID:23485481

Bonsignore, M; Salvagio Manta, D; Oliveri, E; Sprovieri, M; Basilone, G; Bonanno, A; Falco, F; Traina, A; Mazzola, S

2013-02-24

168

Neoproterozoic rifting in the southern Georgina Basin, central Australia: Implications for reconstructing Australia in Rodinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of northwest striking Neoproterozoic rift basins underlies Paleozoic strata in the southern Georgina Basin of central Australia. Normal faults bounding these rift basins were selectively reactivated during the mid-Paleozoic Alice Springs Orogeny and are now expressed as high-angle reverse faults that invert the preexisting rift basins. Exhumed and eroded rift basin remnants are present in the hanging wall of the Oomoolmilla, Lucy Creek, Tarlton, and Toomba reverse faults, and rift basins may be preserved in the subsurface beneath the Toko Syncline and Burke River Structural Belt. Rift basin fill indicates two periods of extension: a major rift-forming episode between approximately 700 and 650 Ma (coeval with Sturtian glacial deposits) and a second episode of extension at approximately 600 Ma (coeval with Marinoan glacial deposits). This northwest striking rift system in central Australia supports results from other regions, indicating that the Neoproterozoic continental margin of Australia consisted of northwest striking rift segments offset by northeast striking transform faults. Such a configuration is geometrically incompatible with a Laurentian continental margin consisting of northeast striking rift segments and conflicts with reconstructions such as SWEAT and AUSWUS that match Australia with western Laurentia in the Rodinia supercontinent.

Greene, David C.

2010-10-01

169

Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science.  

PubMed

Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925

Ceríaco, Luis M P; Marques, Mariana P; Madeira, Natália C; Vila-Viçosa, Carlos M; Mendes, Paula

2011-09-05

170

Climate on the southern Black Sea coast during the Holocene: implications from the Sofular Cave record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the updated Holocene section of the Sofular Cave record from the southern Black Sea coast (northern Turkey); an area with considerably different present-day climate compared to that of the neighboring Eastern Mediterranean region. Stalagmite ? 13 C, growth rates and initial ( 234 U/ 238 U) ratios provide information about hydrological changes above the cave; and prove to be more useful than ? 18 O for deciphering Holocene climatic variations. Between ˜9.6 and 5.4 ka BP (despite a pause from ˜8.4 to 7.8 ka BP), the Sofular record indicates a remarkable increase in rainfall amount and intensity, in line with other paleoclimate studies in the Eastern Mediterranean. During that period, enhanced summertime insolation either produced much stronger storms in the following fall and winter through high sea surface temperatures, or it invoked a regional summer monsoon circulation and rainfall. We suggest that one or both of these climatic mechanisms led to a coupling of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean rainfall regimes at that time, which can explain the observed proxy signals. However, there are discrepancies among the Eastern Mediterranean records in terms of the timing of this wet period; implying that changes were probably not always occurring through the same mechanism. Nevertheless, the Sofular Cave record does provide hints and bring about new questions about the connection between regional and large scale climates, highlighting the need for a more extensive network of high quality paleoclimate records to better understand Holocene climate.

Göktürk, O. M.; Fleitmann, D.; Badertscher, S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Leuenberger, M.; Fankhauser, A.; Tüysüz, O.; Kramers, J.

2011-09-01

171

Snow-avalanche impact landforms in Breheimen, southern Norway: Origin, age, and paleoclimatic implications  

SciTech Connect

Twelve snow-avalanche ramparts in Jostedalen and Sprongdalen (Breheimen, southern Norway) are investigated to elucidate processes of formation, the history of avalanche activity, and their potential for paleoclimatic reconstruction. Variation in the form of these riverbank boulder ramparts reflects local patterns of avalanche impact. Differences in clast roundness between ramparts, avalanche tracks, and river beds indicate that, on average, 50 to 60% of the clasts in the ramparts originate from river bedload as opposed to avalanche source areas or tracks. Rampart clasts increase in roundness downstream over a distance of 12 km, and the contribution from the river bed varies from 26 to 80% depending on local factors. Conventional lichenometric dating suggests ages for the initiation of rampart formation of 250 to 2000 yr, but they probably have a much longer history. Lichen-size frequency distributions, using the largest lichen from each of n boulders, reflect the age-frequency of surface boulders, providing a record of late Holocene avalanche activity. A simulation model suggests that maximum avalanche activity affected nine of the ramparts during the 19th century, after the peak of the Little Ice Age. The pattern of avalanche activity differs from the pattern of glacier variations but is in close agreement with that of debris-flow activity. The ramparts may yield a valuable proxy record of winter snowfall. 48 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Matthews, J.A.; McCarroll, D. (Univ. of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom))

1994-05-01

172

Landscape--wildfire interactions in southern Europe: implications for landscape management.  

PubMed

Every year approximately half a million hectares of land are burned by wildfires in southern Europe, causing large ecological and socio-economic impacts. Climate and land use changes in the last decades have increased fire risk and danger. In this paper we review the available scientific knowledge on the relationships between landscape and wildfires in the Mediterranean region, with a focus on its application for defining landscape management guidelines and policies that could be adopted in order to promote landscapes with lower fire hazard. The main findings are that (1) socio-economic drivers have favoured land cover changes contributing to increasing fire hazard in the last decades, (2) large wildfires are becoming more frequent, (3) increased fire frequency is promoting homogeneous landscapes covered by fire-prone shrublands; (4) landscape planning to reduce fuel loads may be successful only if fire weather conditions are not extreme. The challenges to address these problems and the policy and landscape management responses that should be adopted are discussed, along with major knowledge gaps. PMID:21741757

Moreira, Francisco; Viedma, Olga; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Curt, Thomas; Koutsias, Nikos; Rigolot, Eric; Barbati, Anna; Corona, Piermaria; Vaz, Pedro; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Mouillot, Florent; Bilgili, Ertugrul

2011-07-08

173

Middle-Late Quaternary geodynamics of Crete, Southern Aegean, and seismotectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to characterize and quantify the superficial deformation occurred during Middle-Late Quaternary in the Southern Aegean, we have systematicaly analyzed the major tectonic structures affecting Crete Island. They typically consist of 10 to 30 km-long dip-slip normal faults, separating carbonate and/or metamorphic massifs, in the footwall block, from loose to poorly consolidated alluvial and colluvial materials within the hanging-wall. All these faults show clear evidences of recent re-activations and trend parallel to two principal directions: WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW. Based on all available data for both onland and offshore structures (morphological and structural mapping, satellite imagery and airphotographs remote sensing as well as the analysis of seismic profiles and the investigation of marine terraces and Holocene raised notches along the island coasts), for each fault we estimate and constrain some of the principal seismotectonic parameters and particularly the fault kinematics, the cumulative amount of slip and the slip-rate. Summing up the contribution to crustal extension provided by the two major fault sets (ca. E-W and ca. N-S) we calculate both radial and tangential (i.e. perpendicular and parallel to the Hellenic Arc, respectively) long-term strain-rates. A comparison of these geologically-based values with those obtained from GPS measurements show a good agreement, therefore suggesting that the present-day crustal deformation is probably active since Middle Quaternary and mainly associated with the seismic activity of upper crustal normal fault characterized by frequent shallow moderate-to strong (Mmax = 7.0) seismic events seldom alternating with stronger (Mmax = 7.5) earthquakes occurring along blind low-angle thrust planes affecting deeper and more external sectors of the accretionary wedge.

Caputo, Riccardo; Catalano, Stefano; Monaco, Carmelo; Romagnoli, Giuseppe; Tortorici, Giuseppe; Tortorici, Luigi

2010-05-01

174

The thermal responses of rock art pigments: Implications for rock art weathering in southern Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San rock art of southern Africa is an international heritage subject to degradation and loss resulting from weathering. The paintings occur within rock shelters, where many are exposed to direct solar radiation for varying periods, rather than occurring in dark caves. As part of a study on the factors thought to be impacting weathering, data were collected pertaining to rock and pigment temperatures as well as humidity within the rock shelters. In addition, XRD analyses were undertaken on pigment samples, and the pigment to rock and pigment to pigment contacts were investigated by means of SEM. Pigments were found to be composed of ferric oxide (the ochre) and a gypsum-clay mix (the white) and to occur as a layer on top of, rather than penetrating into, the sandstone. Noncontact infrared sensors were used to monitor the temperatures of the actual pigments while micro-thermocouples to monitor the surrounding (nonpainted) rock surfaces. Thermal data show that there are significant differences between the white and the ochre pigments, both in terms of actual temperatures and short-term thermal responses. Noticeably, the white paint exhibits (relatively) large thermal fluctuations, as compared to the ochre or the rock, over the 20-s to 1-min timescale; these thermal variations may induce pigment-to-pigment stresses within the painting. The pigmented areas also exhibit different temperatures to the surrounding paint-free rock, suggesting that there may be both within-painting and between painting and rock (including the rock beneath the painting) stresses that can lead to degradation. Humidity data were found to be inadequate for any meaningful evaluation of the moisture conditions.

Hall, Kevin; Meiklejohn, Ian; Arocena, Joselito

2007-10-01

175

Studies on the livestock of southern Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on camels have been made over two separate periods of about 18 months each. Information is provided on population structure and on type, with particular reference to weight and shoulder height.

R. T. Wilson

1978-01-01

176

Holocene Sedimentation In The Southern Gulf Of California And Its Climatic Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alfonso Basin on the western side of the Gulf of California and Pescadero Basin on the center slope of the east side of the gulf are margin basins which have sills or shoreward slopes in the Oxygen Minimum Zone and preserve primary varves whose physical and associated geochemical characteristics yield information on Holocene climate and oceanographic changes in the gulf. Primary productivity and sedimentation in the gulf are related to the dominant wind fields and the sediment record can be considered as an imperfect proxy of climate. Here we examine the sediment components in multicores, box and gravity cores recovered during cruises from 1994 to 2001 and show that the sediments provide an important history of the changing environment. Laminated, hemipelagic mud, accumulating at rates of 25-50 cm/kyr, were sampled at 1 cm intervals to produce a high resolution record of organic carbon, calcium carbonate (foraminifera and coccoliths), opal silica (diatoms, radiolaria) and terrigenous content, that was examined for variations in accumulation and preservation. Alfonso Basin sediments are organic carbon-rich (5-7%) with varying amounts of calcium carbonate (1-25%) and little opal silica (<4%). Pescadero Basin sediments are also organic carbon-rich (2.5-4.3%) but contain less carbonate (0-6%) and more silica (8-21%). Changes on the sedimentation pattern for biogenic and terrigenous records occurred starting circa 7,200 YBP with major shifts occurring at 4200, 3000 and YBP typified by carbonate maxima. Smaller changes occurred at 1500, 950, and 400 YBP. Changes can be observed in both basins suggesting the events occurred across the whole southern gulf. The stepwise decrease in mass accumulation rates at 3000 and 1500 YBP indicate a shift of conditions that can be correlated to fall insolation records for the northern hemisphere, creating stronger NW winds and inhibiting the summer rains. Biogenic records (Opal and Carbonate) indicate a drop in productivity and terrigenous mud records suggest a shift from wetter to dryer conditions and perhaps from fluvial to eolic sedimentation. At 400 YBP a recovery is observed suggesting a return to wetter less windy conditions. These shifts also are reflected in sediment lamination. Three general periods are recognized; Early period (10,000-7,200 YBP) with high productivity and variability resulting from strong northwesterly winds and upwelling. Middle period (7,200-4,200 YBP) a stable period with steady decrease in productivity. And Late period (4,200 YBP to the present) with constant primary productivity suggested by opal fluxes, and with an increase in the carbonate-opal east-west asymmetry. Spectral analysis shows a 1-2 kyr climate rhythm in the Gulf and the data suggest that it is mediated by the migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) due to orbital precession. The records are marked by strong climate-ocean variability cycles with two modes: 210 years (throughout the record) and 800 years (after 3000 YBP) that appear related to latitudinal shifts of the ITCZ, produced by solar cycles.

Gonzalez-Yajimovich, O.; Douglas, R. G.; Gorsline, D. S.

2004-12-01

177

Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication  

PubMed Central

Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5%) of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7) of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR) = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6) and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2) showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9) and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6). Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and information on its occurrence, human brucellosis is most likely misdiagnosed for other febrile diseases prevailing in the areas and treated empirically. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that bovine brucellosis is widely prevalent in the study areas particularly in pastoral production system. Hence, the study suggests the need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on prevention methods of brucellosis.

2011-01-01

178

Salt fortification with iodine: Sudan situation analysis.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute a severe public health problem in Sudan. IDD affects children and women throughout life. More than 2 out of 10 school age children have goiter. The prevalence reaches 40% in some regions of the country. Several interventional measures were introduced to control the IDD problem. While the situation with regard to production and supply of iodized salt was thus deteriorating, an Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment Survey (EFSNA) revealed that the prevalence of IDD among adult women, as reflected in the presence of visible goiter, was as high as 25.5%. We have conducted a situation analysis survey in the Republic of Sudan to review the prevailing situation and suggest a benchmark that would help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementations. SWOT analysis, questionnaire, focus groups discussion beside a combination of rapid assessment approach and qualitative method were used to critically evaluate the salt iodization situation in the country and assess the prevailing IDD situation in and propose a plan of action to overcome the bottlenecks. The survey concluded that Iodine deficiency affects children and women all through Sudan. The prevalence is even greater in some regions of the country and there is no supportive policy environment for successful universal salt iodization. To overcome this aggravated situation Sudan will need to conduct a baseline study to provide data on the prevalence of IDD, geographic distribution, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to iodine deficiency. This will provide a benchmark that will help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementation. The study recommended a set of actions to the government to overcome the prevailing situation and strengthening the current policy and implementation. PMID:19326717

Izzeldin, S H; Crawford, M A; Ghebremeskel, K

2009-01-01

179

Crustal Structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Khartoum basin is one of several Mesozoic rift basins in Sudan associated with the Central Africa Rift System. Little is known about the deep crustal structure of this basin, and this limited knowledge hampers the development of a more detailed understanding of its origin and evolution. Constraints on crustal structure in Sudan are only available through regional gravity studies and continental-scale tomography models, but these studies have poor resolution in the Khartoum basin. Here, we investigate the crustal structure of the northern part of the Khartoum basin beneath 3 permanent seismic stations in Khartoum, Sudan through the H-k stacking of receiver functions and the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave group velocities. Our H-k-stacking results indicate that crustal thickness beneath the Khartoum basin ranges between 33 and 37 km, with an average of 35 km and that crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges from 1.74 to 1.81, with an average of 1.78. These results are consistent with 1D velocity models developed from the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave group velocities, which display similar estimates for crustal thickness and an average shear-wave velocity of 3.7 km/s for the basin's crust. Our results provide the first seismic estimate of Moho depth for a basin in Sudan and, when compared to average crustal thickness for the unrifted Proterozoic crust in eastern Africa, reveal that at most a few kilometers of crustal thinning has occurred beneath the Khartoum basin. Keywords: Teleseismic P-waveforms; Moho depth; Shear wave velocity; Khartoum Basin.

El Tahir, Nada; Nyblade, Andrew; Julia, Jordi; Durrheim, Raymond

2013-04-01

180

Kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotope variation on a latitudinal transect in southern Australia: implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.  

PubMed

Tooth enamel apatite carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of modern kangaroos (Macropus spp.) collected on a 900-km latitudinal transect spanning a C(3)-C(4) transition zone were analysed to create a reference set for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in southern Australia. The carbon isotope composition of enamel carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C(3) and C(4) vegetation, and its oxygen isotope composition reflects that of ingested water. Tooth enamel forms incrementally, recording dietary and environmental changes during mineralisation. Analyses show only weak correlations between climate records and latitudinal changes in ?(13)C and ?(18)O. No species achieved the ?(13)C values (~-1.0 ‰) expected for 100 % C(4) grazing diets; kangaroos at low latitudes that are classified as feeding primarily on C(4) grasses (grazers) have ?(13)C of up to -3.5 ‰. In these areas, ?(13)C below -12 ‰ suggests a 100 % C(3) grass and/or leafy plant (browse) diet while animals from higher latitude have lower ?(13)C. Animals from semi-arid areas have ?(18)O of 34-40 ‰, while grazers from temperate areas have lower values (~28-30 ‰). Three patterns with implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction emerge: (1) all species in semi-arid areas regularly browse to supplement limited grass resources; (2) all species within an environmental zone have similar carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, meaning data from different kangaroo species can be pooled for palaeoenvironmental investigations; (3) relatively small regional environmental differences can be distinguished when ?(13)C and ?(18)O data are used together. These data demonstrate that diet-isotope and climate-isotope relationships should be evaluated in modern ecosystems before application to the regional fossil record. PMID:22915330

Brookman, Tom H; Ambrose, Stanley H

2012-08-23

181

78 FR 8360 - Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2012-0278] RIN 3150-AJ21 Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List AGENCY...and import regulations by adding South Sudan to the list of restricted destinations...S. Government law and policy on South Sudan. South Sudan is an independent...

2013-02-06

182

Education in the Sudan: The Privileging of an Islamic Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the educational discourse in the part of the Sudan administered by the Government of the Sudan. It first analyses the value system upon which the Sudanese education is based by focusing on the nature of Islamism. Such a discussion is necessary because the dominant discourse is a discourse where power and Islamic theocracy…

Breidlid, Anders

2005-01-01

183

Unsafe abortion and abortion care in Khartoum, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions

Joyce Kinaro; Tag Elsir Mohamed Ali; Rhonda Schlangen; Jessica Mack

2009-01-01

184

The Dinka of Sudan: Family Traditions in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the core values of the Dinka tribe of Sudan, focusing on the most prominent aspects of their family life. The paper also examines how the Dinka family is changing in the face of Sudan's civil war and modernization. It concludes with suggestions for new directions that social work can take to facilitate the transition of the…

Singleton, Kate

185

US Terrorism Policy Towards Sudan: Blinded by Islamic Fundamentalism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sudan is currently ruled by a government that was put in place by a 1989 military coup that overthrew a democratically elected government. The U.S. considers Sudan an Islamic Fundamentalist regime because National Islamic Front (NIF) members hold key posi...

R. A. Harris

1999-01-01

186

Exploratory analysis of rain days in central Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes in six rain-day categories occurring since the 1940s have been explored in central Sudan, considering two case studies representing important productive agricultural regions under semi-arid rain-fed and arid irrigated schemes. Drought conditions have persisted in Kosti (arid) in the form of a decline in rain-day frequencies, with significant trends in trace, weak and moderate falls. El Gedaref (semi-arid) exhibited both positive and negative trends, though significance characterizes the sequences of trace (falling) and weak and very strong (both rising) falls. The total annual rainfall in El Gedaref behaves depending solely on the heaviest falls contrary to Kosti, the annual values of which follow five fall categories, but with the heaviest events also have the strongest strength. Trace events occur more frequently in the arid area than in the semi-arid one, whereas weak to very strong events have opposite behaviour. Although El Niño-Southern Oscillation is one potential forcing of the variability of rainfall events, especially in Kosti, the paper arguably proposes a complex combination of factors at smaller scale that may also contribute to the large non-uniformity in rainfall patterns between the two areas, including local moisture recycling and convective activity, natural and anthropogenic aerosol loadings in the atmosphere and influence of the Ethiopian highlands.

Elagib, Nadir Ahmed

2010-11-01

187

Return of the Lost Boys to South Sudan: A Strategy to Building a Stronger South Sudan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2000, the United States resettled a group of young South Sudanese men, known as the 'Lost Boys,' in the United States. Since their arrival, many of these Lost Boys have spoken of returning to South Sudan to help with reconstruction efforts after gettin...

T. A. Ayiei

2011-01-01

188

Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian Sudan moisture sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sahelian Sudan, 10° to 16°N, is an arid to semi-arid zone that separates the Saharan to the north and the wet Savannah to the south. The region is characterized by, relatively, limited water resources, and hence has a high dependency on the annual rainfall. According to the latest IPCC report, regions that have such limited water resources are highly vulnerable to the ongoing climate change and variability. Taking into account that the agriculture is the main economical activity, the variability in annual rainfall is of direct soci-economical relevance. Similar to the rest of the African Sahel, the rainy season, June through September, across Sahelian Sudan is connected to the annual march of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). However, there still a limited understanding of the actual sources of moisture that supplies this region with water vapor during the rainy season. Broadly speaking, the Atlantic, the Congo rain forest, the Read Sea and the Indian Ocean are the main potential sources. In this study we use Lagrangian tracing technique to indentify the sources of moisture of Sahelian Sudan and attempt quantifying their contribution to the total annual moisture convergence. For this we utilized output from the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by the meteorological fields from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast ERA-interim for period of ten years 2000 to 2009. We trace back, for ten days each mass element to indentify the source region. The models also accounts for precipitation and moisture uptakes through the course of the transport of the air parcel from source to destination. Identifying the sources of moisture is of great importance, and can help in two connected directions. First, identifying sources of moisture will help in understanding the variability and will provide insight about the drought causes and mechanisms. Second, revealing the moisture sources would enhance ongoing efforts in seasonal forecasting.

Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael

2013-04-01

189

A seroepidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever among Cattle in North Kordufan State, Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), caused by CCHF virus (CCFV), may cause a fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans with mortality rate of approximately 30%. However, in animals the disease is typically asymptomatic and no clinical hemorrhagic infections appears to be associated with CCHFV. Recently, CCHF activity has been detected in western and southern Kordufan region, Sudan. Currently, no information is available in regard to previous exposure of livestock to CCHFV infection in the region. Aims In the present study, a seroepidemiological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of CCHF and to identify the potential risk factors associated with the disease among cattle in North Kordufan State, Sudan. Methods In this survey, 299 blood samples were collected randomly from six localities in North Kordufan State and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Results The result of the study indicated that the prevalence rate of CCHF was relatively high among cattle, where serological evidence of the infection was observed in 21 (7.0%) of 299 animals. Older cattle were eight times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=8.0824, CI=1.174-66.317, p-value=0.034). Cross breeds were at 37 time higher at risk compared to endogenous breed (OR=37.06, CI=1.455-944, p-value=0.029). Highly tick-infested cattle are 6 times higher at risk for CCHF when compared to tick-free animals (OR=6.532, CI=1.042-10.852, p-value=0.030). Conclusion It is recommended that surveillance of CCHF should be extended to include other ruminant animals and to study the distribution of ticks in the region to better predict and respond to CCHF outbreak in the State of North Kordufan, Sudan.

2013-01-01

190

Breast cancer burden in central Sudan  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is a worldwide disease resulting in many deaths. Although breast cancer incidence is lower in Sub-Saharan African countries than in developed countries, African women are more likely than women in the developed world to be diagnosed at later stages of the disease and, thus, are more likely to die from it. This is due to the lack of awareness by women, accessibility to screening methods, and availability of African-based research findings that would influence decision making at the governmental level. This descriptive study was undertaken to shed light on the type, stage and age distribution of breast cancer at diagnosis in women living in central Sudan encompassing al-Gezira, Blue Nile, White Nile, and Sennar States. Cases comprised 1255 women from central Sudan diagnosed with breast cancer and referred to and treated at Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Biology, and Oncology, from January 1999 to December 2006. Data revealed that 74% of the women were <50 years old or premenopausal. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common pathology (82%) and women presenting with stage III or higher tumors that had already metastasized, while ductal carcinoma in situ was the least prevalent (0.5%) finding. Estrogen and progesterone receptors expression were performed on a limited number of samples and the overwhelming majority of cases were observed to be negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors expression.

Elgaili, Elgaili M; Abuidris, Dafalla O; Rahman, Munazzah; Michalek, Arthur M; Mohammed, Sulma I

2010-01-01

191

Crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crustal structure of the northern part of the Khartoum Basin has been investigated using data from 3 permanent seismic stations within 40 km of Khartoum and two modeling methods, H–k stacking of receiver functions and a joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities. The Khartoum Basin is one of several Mesozoic rift basins in Sudan associated with the Central African Rift System. Results from the H–k-stacking indicate that crustal thickness beneath the Khartoum Basin ranges between 33 and 37 km, with an average of 35 km, and that the crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges from 1.74 to 1.81, with an average of 1.78. From the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities, we obtained similar results for Moho depth, as well as an average shear wave velocity of 3.7 km/s for the crust. These results provide the first seismic estimates of Moho depth for a basin in Sudan. When compared to average crustal thickness for unrifted Proterozoic crust in eastern Africa, our results indicate that at most only a few km of crustal thinning may have occurred beneath the Khartoum Basin. This finding is consistent with estimates of effective elastic plate thickness, which indicate little modification of the Proterozoic lithosphere beneath the basin, and suggests that there may be insufficient topography on the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary beneath the Sudanese basins to channel plume material westward from Ethiopia.

El Tahir, Nada; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi; Durrheim, Raymond

2013-05-01

192

Work-Oriented Adult Literacy Project in the Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the illiteracy problem and the adult literacy program undertaken by the government of the Sudan. In addition, it describes a survey undertaken to discover the main shortcomings and mistakes of the labor force which could be corrected. (AN)

Sammak, A.

1971-01-01

193

Results of the Locust Pesticide Testing Trials in Sudan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical report discusses the results of locust pesticide testing trials in the Sudan. Six pesticides were used against the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria). The pesticides were: bendiocarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, lambda-cyhalothr...

1988-01-01

194

Mammalian body size changes and Plio-Pleistocene environmental shifts: implications for understanding hominin evolution in eastern and southern Africa.  

PubMed

This study examines geographic and temporal variation in three mammalian taxa co-occurring in eastern and southern Africa. The selected taxa-the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), the plains zebra (Equus burchellii), and the impala (Aepyceros melampus)--are geographically widespread in modern times and are abundant in eastern and southern African Plio-Pleistocene fossil sites. Craniodental measurements of modern conspecifics from known geographic locations are compared using multivariate statistical methods to discern patterns of modern geographic variation within taxa. Modern and fossil samples are statistically compared to assess the nature and extent of inferred shifts in body size, both between modern samples and through time in each region. These results indicate that modern spotted hyenas and plains zebras exhibit mainly size variation between regions, with southern African samples possessing statistically larger craniodental metrics than eastern African samples. Comparison of fossil and modern samples reveals that the fossil assemblages do not show the same pattern of geographic variation. Significant temporal changes are more numerous between fossil and modern eastern African samples, and these changes are not mirrored by similar changes in the southern African samples. The changes experienced by taxa in eastern Africa appear to have been more extreme and wide-ranging than those in southern Africa, a presumed refugium. This result accords well with genetic studies of several large mammal species and paleoenvironmental studies suggesting that eastern African localized environments were more affected by tectonism and volcanism than were those in southern Africa. This study suggests that different evolutionary scenarios may have existed within Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene, but that both regions played unique and complementary roles in the evolution of African hominins and the broader faunal community. PMID:17915290

Reynolds, Sally Christine

2007-10-03

195

Structural analysis of metasedimentary enclaves: Implications for tectonic evolution and granite petrogenesis in the southern Lachlan Fold Belt, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schistose, upper amphibolite facies, metasedimentary enclaves from granites across the southern Lachlan Fold Belt of southeastern Australia have a common structural history. The middle crustal region, from which the enclaves and their host granites derived, is assumed therefore to be structurally uniform across the fold belt. The uniform nature of the crustal component represented by the metasedimentary enclaves casts doubts on the existence of suspect or Proterozoic microcontinental blocks within the terrane collage. A proposed crustal cross section for the southern Lachlan Fold Belt shows a tectonically thickened Paleozoic section overlying an oceanic substrate. An Ordovician sedimentary component was involved in the generation of both S- and I-type granites.

Anderson, J. A. C.; Price, R. C.; Fleming, P. D.

1998-02-01

196

Between Africanism and Arabism: Libya's Involvement in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

While tracing the chronology of Libya's relations with Sudan during the period of 1969–2010, the article explores Tripoli's essential interests and involvement in its broader geo-strategic neighboring arena. During the rule of Muammar al-Qaddafi, Libya's relations with Sudan substantially affected its ties with Egypt and the broader Arab world as well as its international strategies, which were deeply interwoven into

Yehudit Ronen

2011-01-01

197

Evidence against the existence of acetylated Sudan Black B  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of acetylated Sudan Black B (aSBB) has been investigated, and it has been found, by thin layer chromatography, that each fraction of aSBB has an Rf which is the same as that of a similar fraction of Sudan Black B (SBB). However, aSBB has been found to have fewer fractions, 9–12 than SBB, 14–16. The two major fractions

R. M. Lauder; A. D. Beynon

1989-01-01

198

Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Yambio, Sudan, 2004.  

PubMed

Between the months of April and June 2004, an Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak was reported in Yambio county, southern Sudan. Blood samples were collected from a total of 36 patients with suspected EHF and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G and M antibodies, antigen ELISA, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a segment of the Ebolavirus (EBOV) polymerase gene. A total of 13 patients were confirmed to be infected with EBOV. In addition, 4 fatal cases were classified as probable cases, because no samples were collected. Another 12 patients were confirmed to have acute measles infection during the same period that EBOV was circulating. Genetic analysis of PCR-positive samples indicated that the virus was similar to but distinct from Sudan EBOV Maleo 1979. In response, case management, social mobilization, and follow-up of contacts were set up as means of surveillance. The outbreak was declared to be over on 7 August 2004. PMID:17940949

Onyango, Clayton O; Opoka, Martin L; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Formenty, Pierre; Ahmed, Abdullahi; Tukei, Peter M; Sang, Rosemary C; Ofula, Victor O; Konongoi, Samson L; Coldren, Rodney L; Grein, Thomas; Legros, Dominique; Bell, Mike; De Cock, Kevin M; Bellini, William J; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

2007-11-15

199

Superficial Cancer in the Sudan. A Study of 1225 Primary Malignant Superficial Tumours  

PubMed Central

Superficial cancer in the Sudan accounted for 17·2% of all malignant tumours examined histologically during the period 1962-72 inclusive. Of the 4 pathological types studied, squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest (63·3% of all superficial cancers) followed by malignant melanoma (18·8%) and basal cell carcinoma (14·9%) whilst Kaposi's sarcoma formed only 3% of the total. Generally, twice as many cases occurred in males as in females, with the exception of Kaposi's sarcoma where all the patients were males. Although a relatively high proportion of cases occurred in the young age groups, the age-specific incidence was noted to increase with age. Similarities and differences in the anatomical site of tumours compared with European and African series were noted. Certain differences emerged in the geographical distribution of these tumours in the Northern and Southern regions of the Sudan—regions which differ both ethnologically and geographically—thus suggesting possible roles played by racial and environmental factors in this respect.

Malik, M. O. A.; Hidaytalla, A.; Daoud, E. H.; el Hassan, A. M.

1974-01-01

200

Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation records  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2-8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term "shattered landscape" to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Nin??o events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Nin??o-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion.

Keefer, D. K.; Moseley, M. E.

2004-01-01

201

Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation records  

PubMed Central

In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2–8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term “shattered landscape” to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Niño events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Niño-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion.

Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

2004-01-01

202

Iodized Salt Consumption in Sudan: Present Status and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in Sudan adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of Sudan regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in Sudan. This paper is based on the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in Sudan remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in Sudan.

Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

2012-01-01

203

Iodized salt consumption in Sudan: present status and future directions.  

PubMed

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in Sudan adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of Sudan regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in Sudan. This paper is based on the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in Sudan remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in Sudan. PMID:23304909

Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

2012-12-01

204

Ages of internal granitoids in the Southern Cross region, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and their crustal evolution and tectonic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Cross, where gold deposits are sited in narrow greenstone belts surrounding granitoid domes, was one of the earliest gold mining centres in Western Australia. SHRIMP U–Pb zircon and Pb?isotope studies of the largest granitoid dome, the Ghooli Dome (80 × 40 km), provide important constraints on the crustal evolution and structural history of the central part of the Archaean

Y. M. Qiu; N. J. McNaughton; D. I. Groves; H. J. Dalstra

1999-01-01

205

A comparison of observed and modeled surface waves in southern Lake Michigan and the implications for models of sediment resuspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface pressure sensors were used to make measurements of surface waves during 18 deployments in southern Lake Michigan between 1998 and 2000. Most of the observations were made during the unstratified period (November–May) in water depths between 10 and 55 m. The observations (as well as those obtained from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy 45007, which is located

Nathan Hawley; Barry M. Lesht; David J. Schwab

2004-01-01

206

A comparison of observed and modeled surface waves in southern Lake Michigan and the implications for models of sediment resuspension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface pressure sensors were used to make measurements of surface waves during 18 deployments in southern Lake Michigan between 1998 and 2000. Most of the observations were made during the unstratified period (November--May) in water depths between 10 and 55 m. The observations (as well as those obtained from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy 45007, which is located

Nathan Hawley; Barry M. Lesht; David J. Schwab

2004-01-01

207

Evidence for and implications of sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism in the southern Utopia highland–lowland boundary plain, Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of spatially associated landforms in the southern Utopia Planitia highland–lowland boundary (HLB) plain appear to have resulted from localized geologic activity, including (1) fractured rises, (2) elliptical mounds, (3) pitted cones with emanating lobate materials, and (4) isolated and coalesced cavi (depressions). Stratigraphic analysis indicates these features are Hesperian or younger and may be associated with resurfacing that

James A. Skinner; Kenneth L. Tanaka

2007-01-01

208

Implications of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation for long-range streamflow forecasting: The Columbia River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased demands of water users in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States has also accentuated the need for long range forecasts of streamflow. At present, long range streamflow forecasts are not available to water resource managers. Yet in the Pacific Northwest, a significant lag relationship exists between ENSO (El Nio-Southern Oscillation) and streamflow. Using this lag relationship,

Thomas C. Piechota; J. A. Dracup

1999-01-01

209

Late Glacial and Holocene chironomid assemblages in Lac Long Inférieur (southern France, 2090 m): palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in lake water temperature and trophic states were inferred using chironomid fossil assemblages from Lac Long Inférieur (Southern Alps, France). In the Late Glacial, a colder period, possibly analogous to the Younger Dryas, is characterised by a peak in Micropsectra, a cold stenothermic taxon. The increase in temperatures during the Late Glacial interstadial is indicated by a decrease in

Emmanuel Gandouin; Evelyne Franquet

2002-01-01

210

Ecological analysis in a polluted area of Algeciras Bay (southern Spain): External ‘versus’ internal outfalls and environmental implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of organic effluents both inside and outside the Saladillo Harbour (Algeciras, southern Spain) are investigated. Although the external outfall has a greater rate of discharge, the low levels of hydrodynamism inside the harbour create an area of relatively stagnant water, with markedly different environmental conditions. A clear gradient of decreasing pollution levels was observed from the interior to

F. J. Estacio; E. M. García-adiego; D. A. Fa; J. C. García-Gómez; J. L. Daza; F. Hortas; J. L. Gómez-Ariza

1997-01-01

211

Paleoseismology along the 1980 surface rupture of the Irpinia fault - Implications for earthquake recurrence in the southern Apennines, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of trenching across the scarp of the Irpinia fault, 5 km from the epicenter of the 1980 earthquake, are described. The trenches provide data on earthquake recurrence intervals, slip per event, and slip rate on the Irpinia fault, a major normal fault in the Southern Apennines fault zone. Evidence was found of four paleoearthquakes that occurred in the

Daniela Pantosti; David P. Schwartz; Gianluca Valensise

1993-01-01

212

Vertical stratification of fatty acids in the blubber of southern elephant seals ( Mirounga leonina): implications for diet analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid signature analysis (FASA) is a powerful ecological tool that uses essential fatty acids (FA) from the tissues of animals to indicate aspects of diet. However, the presence of vertical stratification in FA distribution throughout blubber complicates the application of FASA to marine mammals. Blubber biopsy samples were collected from adult female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) from Macquarie

Narelle J. Best; Corey J. A. Bradshaw; Mark A. Hindell; Peter D. Nichols

2003-01-01

213

Implications of the Genetic Epidemiology of Globin Haplotypes Linked to the Sickle Cell Gene in Southern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the origin of sickle cell mutation in different ethnic groups living in southern Iran, we studied the haplotype background of the ?S and ?A genes in subjects from the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan, Bushehr, Hormozgan, and Kerman and from the islands of Khark and Qeshm. ?-globin gene cluster haplotypes were determined using the PCRRFLP technique. Detection of ?-3.7

Zohreh. Rahimi; Ahmad. Merat; Nathalie. Gerard; Rajagopal. Krishnamoorthy

2006-01-01

214

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): Impact on tomato spotted wilt intensity in peanut and the implication on yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on weather patterns could have cascading effects on several diseases of important crops in the southeastern United States. One such disease is spotted wilt of peanut caused by the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Significant economic losses have been recorded by peanut growers in the southeastern United States since the disease

R. O. Olatinwo; J. O. Paz; R. C. Kemerait Jr.; A. K. Culbreath; G. Hoogenboom

2010-01-01

215

U–Pb geochronology of the Acatlán Complex and implications for the Paleozoic paleogeography and tectonic evolution of southern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the Acatlán Complex in southern Mexico contains the largest exposure of Paleozoic rocks in Mexico, it is commonly ignored in reconstructions of Pangea because of poor geochronologic data. Presently, this complex is understood to be composed of metasedimentary units (Cosoltepec, Magdalena, Chazumba and Tecomate Formations), a major magmatic suite (Esperanza Granitoids), and a suite with eclogites and blueschists

Oscar Talavera-Mendoza; Joaquín Ruiz; George E. Gehrels; Diana M. Meza-Figueroa; Ricardo Vega-Granillo; María Fernanda Campa-Uranga

2005-01-01

216

Remagnetizations in late Permian and early triassic rocks from southern Africa and their implications for Pangea reconstructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paleomagnetic study of late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks from southern Africa suggests wide-spread remagnetization of these rocks. Samples of the Mofdiahogolo Formation in Botswana and of the Lower Beaufort Group in South Africa were treated using thermal, alternating field and chemical demagnetization. The Mofdiahogolo redbeds show a univectoral decay of the remanence revealing a characteristic direction of

Martha M. Ballard; Rob van der Voo; I. W. Hälbich

1986-01-01

217

Paleolakes and impact basins in southern Arabia Terra, including Meridiani Planum: Implications for the formation of hematite deposits on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hematite deposit in Meridiani Planum was selected for a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing site because water could be involved in the formation of hematite, and water is a key ingredient in the search for life. Our discovery of a chain of paleolake basins and channels along the southern margin of the hematite deposits in Meridiani Planum with the

Horton E. Newsom; Charles A. Barber; Trent M. Hare; Rachel T. Schelble; Van A. Sutherland; William C. Feldman

2003-01-01

218

Habitat Associations of Hypogeous Fungi in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the Endangered Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

gporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi (truffles) are the major food of northern flying squirrels (Gluucomys satinus). The two subspecies of northern flying squir- rels that occur in the southern Appalachians, G. s. colmatus and G. s. fuscus, are endangered species which are primarily found in the ecotone between high-elevation spruce-fir and northern hardwood forests. Our objective was to determine the

SUSAN C. LOEB; FRANK H. TAINTER; EFREN CÁZARES

2000-01-01

219

GANADERÍA Y CONTAMINACIÓN DIFUSA, IMPLICANCIAS PARA EL SUR DE CHILE Livestock production and diffuse pollution, implications for Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T As a result of the free trade agreements signed by Chile, which will open markets for the export of dairy and beef products, it is expected that the livestock production activity will be increased and intensified in Southern Chile. Despite the technological knowledge available for livestock production in the area, little is

Marta Alfaro; Francisco Salazar

2005-01-01

220

Structural analysis of metasedimentary enclaves: Implications for tectonic evolution and granite petrogenesis in the southern Lachlan Fold Belt, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistose, upper amphibolite facies, metasedimentary enclaves from granites across the southern Lachlan Fold Belt of southeastern Australia have a common structural history. The middle crustal region, from which the enclaves and their host granites derived, is assumed therefore to be structurally uniform across the fold belt. The uniform nature of the crustal component represented by the metasedimentary enclaves casts doubts

J. A. C. Anderson; R. C. Price; P. D. Fleming

1998-01-01

221

Base- and precious-metal deposits in the Basin and Range of Southern California and Southern Nevada—Metallogenic implications of lead isotope studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern California and southern Nevada contain abundant lead-zinc deposits with strikingly different characteristics. On the west, the Darwin Terrane contains abundant Jurassic and Cretaceous intrusions surrounded by lead-zinc skarn and replacement deposits rich in pyrite and manganese minerals. The Tecopa Terrane is east of the Darwin Terrane and contains some lead deposits that are hosted by the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite. These lead deposits have no consistent relation to igneous rocks; they contain mainly galena, and are devoid of pyrite and manganese minerals. Other skarn and vein deposits in the Ivanpah and Tecopa districts are more closely associated with igneous rocks. Mississippi Valley type lead-zinc deposits are present still farther to the east in the Goodsprings Terrane in Nevada. These deposits are hosted by breccias formed below the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity and are unrelated to igneous rocks. Deposits in the Darwin Terrane have lead isotopic signatures that lie along a mantle-sediment mixing line indicating that they formed in a continental arc setting analogous to that for the plutons in the Sierra Nevada batholith [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Encroachment of this continental arc on the North American continent in the eastern part of the Darwin Terrane resulted in a lead isotopic signature that is like that of the strongly contaminated plutons [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Many deposits from the Inyo Mountains on east side of the Owens Valley have lead isotopic signatures that reflect this encroachment. To the east in the Tecopa Terrane, encroachment of the continental arc on the Mojave crust resulted in partial melting of 1.7 Ga amphibolite and granulite facies rocks to produce the plutons and mineral deposits associated with plutons in this terrane. Lead from deposits in this terrane hosted in the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite and associated rocks have a lead isotope signature that reflects hydrothermal circulation of fluids in the Mojave supracrustal rocks. The boundary between the Darwin Terrane and the Tecopa Terrane lies just west of the Ash Valley-Panamint Range Fault and is bounded by the Towne Fault on the north and the Garlock Fault on the south. Lead isotopic data from the Goodsprings district in southwestern Nevada, east of the Tecopa Terrane, form a 1.45 Ga linear array that is indicative of Mississippi Valley type mineralization. Although we have no independent evidence of the timing of the tectonic events that formed these deposits, it is likely that all formed as a result of the Mesozoic collision of the Panthalassen crust with the North American continent.

Church, Stanley E.; Cox, Dennis P.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Tingley, Joseph V.; Vaughn, Robert B.

2005-12-01

222

77 FR 3369 - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012 Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign...defense articles and defense services to the Republic of South Sudan will strengthen the security of the United States and...

2012-01-24

223

The Secession of South Sudan: A Case Study in African Sovereignty and International Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on the recent secession of South Sudan. The primary research questions include an examination of whether or not South Sudan’s 2011 secession signaled a break from the O.A.U.’s traditional doctrines of African stability and noninterference. Additionally, this thesis asks: why did the United States and the international community at large confer recognition to South Sudan immediately upon

Christian Knox

2012-01-01

224

Timing of East African Rift development in southern Ethiopia: Implication for mantle plume activity and evolution of topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate determination of rifting chronology and associateduplift is crucial to understanding the evolution of the EastAfrican Rift System (EARS) and for identifying the significanceof mantle plumes during continental breakup. This investigationof rift-related cooling along a major fault scarp in southernEthiopia, using (U-Th)\\/He thermochronometry, shows that riftingstarted not before 20 Ma. Therefore, there is an absence ofsignificant rift activity synchronous with

Raphaël Pik; Bernard Marty; Jean Carignan; Gezahegn Yirgu; Teklewold Ayalew

2008-01-01

225

Mid-to-Lower-level Plutonic Rocks From Crust of the Southern Mariana Forearc: Implications for Growth of Continental Crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tonalitic plutonic rocks dredged from the southern Mariana forearc are similar in terms of major element composition to tonalitic plutonic rocks of the Tanzawa Mountains on the Izu Peninsula of Japan. The tonalites of the Tanzawa Mountains have been interpreted to represent mid-lower crustal plutonic rocks that make up the 6.0 to 6.3 km\\/s layer identified in seismic velocity profiles

P. Fryer; M. Reagan

2006-01-01

226

Spatial variations in crustal thickness and VP/V_S ratio in southern Africa and their geological implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of crustal thickness (H) and VP/V_S ratio (R) at about 80 broadband seismic stations in southern Africa were made using data from the Southern African Seismic Experiment, by stacking receiver functions. Our results suggest systematic spatial variations in both H and R that appear to be geologically controlled. Regarding H, we observe relatively thick crust beneath the Limpopo belt, younger collisional belts to the south of the Kaapvaal craton, and beneath the Bushveld intrusion, compared to the crust beneath the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons, a result that is consistent with previous studies. There are noteworthy spatial variations in R. The most dramatic change in R actually occurs within the Kaapvaal craton. In particular, going from the Neo-Archean Kimberly block to the Meso-Archean Witswatersrand block (east), the average value of R increases systematically from 1.76 to 1.81. Taken at face value, this suggests that, on average, the Meso-Archean crust is more mafic than the Neo-Archean crust, which may indicate temporal differences in crustal formation processes. R is anomalously high in the general region of the Bushveld intrusion. Indeed the highest value in the entire data set is found at the western edge of the Bushveld, and suggests a more mafic crust, consistent with the characteristics of the intrusion. Finally, there is a region of very low R (<1.7) at the southern edge of the Kaapvaal craton, that may reflect processes active during accretion at this margin. These observations, and particularly the values of R, provide important constraints on the processes that have formed and modified the composition of the ancient southern African crust.

Nair, S. K.; Liu, K. H.; Gao, S. S.; Silver, P. G.

2003-12-01

227

Submarine canyon morphologies in the Gulf of Palermo (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) and possible implications for geo-hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental shelf and the upper slope of the Gulf of Palermo (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) in the depth interval ranging from\\u000a 50 to 1,500 m were mapped for the first time with Multi Beam echosounder and high resolution seismic. Seven submarine canyons\\u000a are confined to the upper slope or indent the shelf-edge and enter the Palermo intraslope basin at a depth

Claudio Lo Iacono; Attilio Sulli; Mauro Agate; Valeria Lo Presti; Fabrizio Pepe; Raimondo Catalano

2011-01-01

228

Late Quaternary CaCO3 production and preservation in the Southern Ocean: Implications for oceanic and atmospheric carbon cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent geochemical models invoke ocean alkalinity changes, particularly in the surface Southern Ocean, to explain glacial age pCO2 reduction. In such models, alkalinity increases in glacial periods are driven by reductions in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) supply, which lead to increases in deep-water nutrients and dissolution of carbonate sediments, and to increased alkalinity of Circumpolar Deep Water upwelling in

William R. Howardand; Warren L. Prell

1994-01-01

229

Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy and implications of palaeoclimatic changes during the Cisuralian (Early Permian) in the southern Urals, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the requirements for potential GSSPs in the Cisuralian Series (Early Permian), isotopic chemostratigraphy from the Carboniferous\\/Permian boundary to middle Artinskian using bulk carbonates was investigated under high-resolution biostratigraphical and new geochronologic constrains from three GSSP candidate sections at Usolka, Kondurovsky and Dal'ny Tulkas in the southern Urals, Russia. A gradually increasing trend in carbonate carbon isotope

Jun Zeng; Chang-qun Cao; V. I. Davydov; Shu-zhong Shen

230

Measurements of air-sea gas exchange at high wind speeds in the Southern Ocean: Implications for global parameterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange (SAGE) Experiment was conducted in the western Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. During SAGE, gas transfer velocities were determined using the 3He\\/SF6 dual gas tracer technique, and results were obtained at higher wind speeds (16.0 m s-1) than in previous open ocean dual tracer experiments. The results clearly reveal a quadratic relationship between wind

David T. Ho; Cliff S. Law; Murray J. Smith; Peter Schlosser; Mike Harvey; Peter Hill

2006-01-01

231

Measurements of air-sea gas exchange at high wind speeds in the Southern Ocean: Implications for global parameterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange (SAGE) Experiment was conducted in the western Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. During SAGE, gas transfer velocities were determined using the 3He\\/SF6 dual gas tracer technique, and results were obtained at higher wind speeds (16.0 m s?1) than in previous open ocean dual tracer experiments. The results clearly reveal a quadratic relationship between wind

David T. Ho; Cliff S. Law; Murray J. Smith; Peter Schlosser; Mike Harvey; Peter Hill

2006-01-01

232

Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.  

PubMed

The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region. PMID:22458224

Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

2012-03-01

233

Recent developments in understanding the tectonic evolution of the Southern California offshore area: Implications for earthquake-hazard analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During late Mesozoic and Cenozoic time, three main tectonic episodes affected the Southern California offshore area. Each episode imposed its unique structural imprint such that early-formed structures controlled or at least influenced the location and development of later ones. This cascaded structural inheritance greatly complicates analysis of the extent, orientation, and activity of modern faults. These fault attributes play key roles in estimates of earthquake magnitude and recurrence interval. Hence, understanding the earthquake hazard posed by offshore and coastal faults requires an understanding of the history of structural inheritance and modifi-cation. In this report we review recent (mainly since 1987) findings about the tectonic development of the Southern California offshore area and use analog models of fault deformation as guides to comprehend the bewildering variety of offshore structures that developed over time. This report also provides a background in regional tectonics for other chapters in this section that deal with the threat from offshore geologic hazards in Southern California. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

Fisher, M. A.; Langenheim, V. E.; Nicholson, C.; Ryan, H. F.; Sliter, R. W.

2009-01-01

234

Paleomagnetism, rock magnetism and opaque mineralogy of iron ore deposits from southern Mexico and their implications for quantitative modelling of magnetometric data  

SciTech Connect

Paleomagnetism, Rock Magnetism and Opaque Mineralogy of Iron Ore Deposits from Southern Mexico and Their Implications for Quantitative Modelling of Magnetometric Data. The tectonic history of the Pacific continental margin is critical for understanding their mineral deposits. The margin presents intrusive and volcanic activity characteristic of magmatic arcs of subduction zones, which are genetically related with deposits of Cu, Fe, Mo, Au, and Ag. Although the tectonic history has been complex, involving oblique plate subduction, lateral movements, accretion of magmatic arcs and oceanic plateaux, and lateral displacements of major blocks, the mineral deposits are spatially distributed along elongated belts that roughly follow the margin. The authors have conducted paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and petrological studies of the iron ore deposits to investigate genesis, magnetic mineralogy, stratigraphic relationships, metamorphism, and applications on quantitative modelling of magnetometric data. The remanent magnetization and susceptibility data are necessary for interpretation of magnetic anomalies. The results permit a comparison of the mineral deposits along the continental margin.

Alva-Valdivia, L.M.; Fucugauchi, Urrutia, J.; Bohnel, H.; Moran Zenteno, D.J. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico))

1990-06-01

235

3 CFR - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...and defense services to the Republic of South Sudan will strengthen the security of...

2013-01-01

236

3 CFR - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section 2005 of...Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section 2005 of the...participating in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan are without risk of criminal...

2013-01-01

237

Impacts of Tribal and Economic Factors on Civil Conflict between North and South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crisis of Greater Darfur Region of Sudan extends to other regions as the South Sudan prepares for secession next July 2011. In the past eight years Sudan's crisis in Darfur was amplified by global news media all over the world. Civil conflict erupted, developed into armed rebellions and open uncontrolled war that enveloped the whole region. The current inflamed

Issam A. W. Mohamed

2010-01-01

238

Effect of phosphomolybdic acid on the binding of Sudan black B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paraffin sections of tissues fixed in absolute alcohol or Carnoy's fluid were mordanted in a 1% aqueous solution of phosphomolybdic acid, stained in saturated solutions of Sudan black B, acetylated Sudan black, various solvent and basic dyes in 70% ethyl alcohol for 5 min at room temperature, dehydrated in alcohol and covered in Permount. Sudan black B and other dyes

Holde Puchtler; Faye Sweat

1964-01-01

239

31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537...and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they are...through Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan are authorized. (b)...

2013-07-01

240

Paleomagnetism of an east-west transect across the Cascade arc in southern Washington: Implications for regional tectonism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleomagnetic data from a transect across the Cascade arc in southern Washington were collected to test models of vertical axis rotations for this part of the Pacific Northwest and to provide information on the tectonic history of the St. Helens seismic zone. The 75 site-mean directions are divided into three groups based on isotopic, fission track, and stratigraphic ages. Group 1 consists of samples from rocks deposited between 39 and 30 Ma and shows a mean clockwise vertical axis rotation of 34?? ?? 13??, group 2 consists of samples from rocks deposited be-tween 30 and 24 Ma and shows a mean clockwise rotation of 17?? ?? 11??, and group 3 consists of samples from rocks between 24 and 16 Ma and shows a mean clockwise rotation of 20?? ?? 12??. Although these three values of rotation are statistically indistinguishable at the 95% confidence level, we interpret them in combination with other data to indicate differential rotation across the St. Helens seismic zone (SHZ). The available paleomagnetic data for Eocene-Oligocene rocks west of the seismic zone show clockwise vertical axis rotations of 30?? ?? 8?? and 35?? ?? 9?? consistent with the value for group 1. The rotational values for groups 2 and 3 and the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek (13 Ma), despite their different ages, have similar values east of the SHZ. Comparing these groups of data east and west of the seismic zone indicates a differential rotation of 10?? ?? 3?? across it. In addition, the rates of rotation in southern Washington are similar to those for rocks in the western Cascades of Oregon and indicate that rotational deformation of Miocene age extends northward into southern Washington and eastward into the axis of the arc.

Hagstrum, J. T.; Swanson, D. A.; Evarts, R. C.

1999-01-01

241

PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological implications.  

PubMed

Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the Southern Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from southern oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs to black-footed and Laysan albatrosses of the North Pacific Ocean may be suspected from TEQ levels. PMID:14750714

Tanabe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Ono, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

2004-01-15

242

Paleomagnetic results from the Cambrian and Ordovician sediments of Bornholm (Denmark) and Southern Sweden and paleogeographical implications for Baltica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If apparent polar wander paths (APWP) cross, the question arises how to prove the older magnetization to be primary and not just a younger overprint. This problem is typically met in areas affected by percolating mineralizing fluids and/or heating due to a younger regional igneous activity. The Permian magnetic overprint is the classical example. Earlier paleomagnetic studies over the Lowermost Cambrian Nekso Sandstone Fm (NSF) of Bornholm (Denmark) yielded a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) similar to the Permian directions for Baltica. Since a possible reason could be a chemical overprint, we checked whether this phenomenon did take place on a regional scale. Some samples therefore were collected from other Lower Cambrian clastics of Bornholm and Southern Scandinavia. In result we show that the well-grouped and stable ChRM of the NSF contrasts with fairly chaotic, soft, and badly preserved magnetizations of the Balka, Hardeberga, Mickwitzia, and Lingulid sandstones of Bornholm and Southern Sweden, thus not indicating widespread paleomagnetic overprint. We demonstrate that the ChRM of the NSF is most probably of syndepositional/early diagenetic origin and its similarity to the Permian direction for Baltica is only casual. We propose a normal polarity and a near-equatorial position on the Southern Hemisphere for Baltica in the early Cambrian time, as well as a more complicated trend of the APWP for this paleocontinent than envisaged by other authors. Paleomagnetic results from the Arenigian limestones of the Laesaa Formation (Bornholm) that yield excellently defined but most probably only secondary components are also presented.

Lewandowski, Marek; Abrahamsen, Niels

2003-11-01

243

Development planning and international migration in the Sudan.  

PubMed

Sudan's Six-year Plan of 1978 envisaged a 7.5% annual growth rate, which is unrealistically high. Centralized government has been notoriously weak in the Sudan. Only limited progress in integrated planning has been made. Out migrations of labor suggests that almost 180,000 Sudanese (without wives or children) were working abroad in 1978. Since 1974 out-migration has been increasing. The rise of capital holdings and construction development in the oil-rich states of the Middle East is depleting the urban markets of labor in Sudan. The proportion of the workforce abroad has risen to 3% of the total in the country. Roughly 80% of Sudanese migrants are skilled clerical or professional; 90% are aged 20-39 and have, on average, more education than nonmigratory Sudanese. More than 10% of all migrants have a post-secondary school education or training. Only 1% of the adult male population has the same amount of education. The remittances of foreign exchange resources held abroad by Sudanese residents are an estimated U.S. $2,133,000 in 1975. A symposium held by the Development Committee of the Sudan Socialist Union recommended countries receiving Sudanese manpower pay for training facilities in Sudan. PMID:12278318

El Murtada Mustafa, M

1980-01-01

244

The geology of the Lega Dembi gold deposit, southern Ethiopia: implications for Pan-African gold exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lega Dembi deposit is the largest gold producer in Ethiopia. It is situated in late-Precambrian metamorphosed sediments\\u000a of the N-S trending, volcano-sedimentary Megado belt, which forms part of the late-Proterozoic Adola granite-greenstone terrane\\u000a in southern Ethiopia. The lode-gold mineralization occurs in a N-S trending, steep westerly dipping quartz-vein system that\\u000a follows the structural contact between underlying feldspathic gneisses and

A. Y. Billay; A. F. M. Kisters; F. M. Meyer; J. Schneider

1997-01-01

245

Expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 and its contribution to oxidation of a potential human carcinogen 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol (Sudan I) in human livers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is one of the most important enzymes implicated in the metabolic activation of carcinogens. To date, there is still conflicting evidence for the expression of enzymatically functional CYP1A1 in human liver. In the present work, we clearly demonstrate that CYP1A1 capable of metabolizing a carcinogen 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol (Sudan I) is expressed in livers of eight American Caucasian

Marie Stiborová; Václav Martínek; Helena Rýdlová; Tomáš Koblas; Petr Hodek

2005-01-01

246

Talc-bearing serpentinized peridotites from the southern Mariana forearc: implications for aseismic character within subduction zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The serpentinized peridotites overlying the subducted zones in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system have been interpret as the cause of the low-velocity layer identified beneath the IBM froearc, in turn few earthquakes occurred along the plate boundary. Chrysotile, which is a low temperature and highly hydrated phase of serpentine with low frictional strength, has been suggested as the low velocity material in the serpentinized peridotites, besides, brucite is inferred to be likely conducive to stable sliding. However, such idea encounters challenging in our serpentinized peridotites from the southern Mariana forearc, which absent both the above minerals. The presence of talc, which characterized by its weak, low-friction and inherently stable sliding behavior, provides new clue. Here we report the occurrence of talc in serpentinized peridotites collected from the landward trench slope of the southern Mariana forearc. We infer that talc is mainly forming as a result of the reaction of serpentine minerals with silica-saturated fluids released from the subducting slab, and talc also occurs as talc veins sometimes. Due to its unique physical properties, talc may therefore play a significant role in aseismic slip in the IBM subduction zone.

Wang, Xiaomei; Zeng, Zhigang; Liu, Changhua; Chen, Junbing; Yin, Xuebo; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Daigeng; Zhang, Guoliang; Chen, Shuai; Li, Kang; Ouyang, Hegen

2009-09-01

247

Petrostratigraphic analysis of a Late Miocene mixed siliciclastic-carbonate depositional system (Calabria, Southern Italy): Implications for Mediterranean paleogeography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments are common in shallow water environments in which clastic deposition and carbonate production coexist. In the Mediterranean Basin, the Tortonian-Messinian sedimentary successions are commonly comprised of marls, alternations of marls with diatomites, sands and sandstones, limestones (especially algal and coral reefs), and evaporites. Most of the studies in the Mediterranean Basin have been focused on carbonate facies analysis, whereas the siliciclastic portions are poorly described. Similarly to the other marginal settings of the Mediterranean Basin, the Capo Vaticano area (southern Calabria, southern Italy), experienced mixed sedimentation at that time. Petrological analysis was performed on 56 weakly cemented sandstones linking compositional signatures to stratigraphic data with the aim of investigating sedimentary response to the Tortonian-Messinian transgression and its influence on the carbonate production. The information obtained is used to refine the regional sediment dispersal pathways and paleogeography. By means of (bio-)stratigraphic evidence, the studied succession to coeval mixed deposits dislocated in the Mediterranean Basin is correlated.

Caracciolo, L.; Gramigna, P.; Critelli, S.; Calzona, A. B.; Russo, F.

2013-02-01

248

A comparison of observed and modeled surface waves in southern Lake Michigan and the implications for models of sediment resuspension.  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface pressure sensors were used to make measurements of surface waves during 18 deployments in southern Lake Michigan between 1998 and 2000. Most of the observations were made during the unstratified period (November--May) in water depths between 10 and 55 m. The observations (as well as those obtained from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy 45007, which is located in the middle of the southern basin of the lake) were compared to the results obtained from the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)-Donelan wave model implemented on a 2-km grid. The results show that the wave model does a good job of calculating the wave heights, but consistently underestimates the wave periods. In over 80% of the cases the bottom stresses calculated from both the observations and the wave model results agree as to whether or not resuspension occurs, but over 70% of this agreement is for cases when resuspension does not occur; both stresses predict resuspension about 6% of the time. Since the bottom stresses calculated from the model results are usually lower than those calculated from the observations, resuspension estimates based on the wave model parameters are also lower than those calculated from the observed waves.

Hawley, N.; Lesht, B. M.; Schwab, D. J.; Environmental Research; Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab

2004-06-25

249

Mid-to-Lower-level Plutonic Rocks From Crust of the Southern Mariana Forearc: Implications for Growth of Continental Crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tonalitic plutonic rocks dredged from the southern Mariana forearc are similar in terms of major element composition to tonalitic plutonic rocks of the Tanzawa Mountains on the Izu Peninsula of Japan. The tonalites of the Tanzawa Mountains have been interpreted to represent mid-lower crustal plutonic rocks that make up the 6.0 to 6.3 km/s layer identified in seismic velocity profiles of the Izu arc at 32°N. The tonalities of the southern Mariana forearc may be analogous to the Tanzawa tonalities in terms of lithology and presumably seismic velocities, but have distinctive trace element and isotopic compositions. The exposure of these rocks on the southern Mariana forearc in a location where it is narrower by up to 80 km than elsewhere along its strike indicates a truncation of the arc lithosphere by tectonic erosion in the southern Mariana forearc. If tectonic processes in the forearc have exposed silicic plutonic rock of the arc lithosphere within 150 km of the volcanic front, then the structure of the Mariana arc and forearc is likely similar to that of the Izu arc, where seismic velocity structure suggests 25% of the arc/forearc lithosphere is comprised of a mid-crustal level tonalitic plutonic complex. The trace element and Sr isotopic compositions of the tonalities dredged from the Mariana forearc links them to a suprasubduction-zone environment. The Pb isotopic compositions, however, are consistent with crystallization ages that may be as old as Cretaceous. The compositions of these tonalites differ markedly from those of silicic volcanic rocks that have erupted throughout the history of the IBM arc and suggest that they represent a minor component of the arc. Nevertheless, the presence of Cretaceous tonalites in the Mariana forearc suggests that a portion of its crust may predate subduction initiation. The presence of silicic mid-to-lower crustal level plutonics beneath the Mariana arc as well as Eocene rhyolites on Saipan indicate that average major element composition of the arc crust may be comparable with average continental crust. This is consistent with estimates of the average composition of the Izu arc crust from seismic velocity studies and petrologic studies of exposures of the Izu arc crust in southern Japan's Izu peninsula. These data imply that the island arc that developed along the entire margin of the Philippine Sea plate may have had a generally similar structure and composition. Most components of the IBM arc crust, however, have relatively flat rare-earth patterns and low rare-earth concentrations compared with average continental crust. The averaged composition of the IBM crust, as a whole, differs markedly from that suggested by studies of the velocity structure of the central Aleutian arc. If the continental crust was generated in oceanic island arc settings throughout the history of the Earth, then its sources were significantly more enriched in LREE than the sources for the Cenozoic IBM arcs.

Fryer, P.; Reagan, M.

2006-12-01

250

Maternal and perinatal outcomes of dengue in PortSudan, Eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate maternal and perinatal outcomes (maternal death, preterm delivery, low birth weight and perinatal mortality) of dengue at PortSudan and Elmawani hospitals in the eastern Sudan. Method This was a retrospective Cohort study where medical files of women with dengue were reviewed. Results There were 10820 deliveries and 78 (0.7%) pregnant women with confirmed dengue IgM serology at the mean (SD) gestational age of 29.4(8.2) weeks. While the majority of these women had dengue fever (46, 58.9%), hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome were the presentations in 18 (23.0%) and 12, (15.3%) of these women, respectively. There were 17(21.7%) maternal deaths. Fourteen (17.9%) of these 78 women had preterm deliveries and 19 (24.3%) neonates were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit. Nineteen (24.3%) women gave birth to low birth weight babies. There were seven (8.9%) perinatal deaths. Eight (10.2%) patients delivered by caesarean section due to various obstetrical indications. Conclusion Thus dengue has poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in this setting. Preventive measures against dengue should be employed in the region, and more research on dengue during pregnancy is needed.

2010-01-01

251

Anaemia among adults in Kassala, Eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background The increased heterogeneity in the distribution of social and biological risk factors makes the epidemiology of anaemia a real challenge. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kassala, Eastern Sudan during the period of January — March 2011 to investigate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia among adults (> 15 years old). Findings Out of 646, 234 (36.2%) adults had anaemia; 68 (10.5%); 129 (20.0%) and 37 (5.7%) had mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, age (OR?=?1.0, CI?=?0.9–1, P?=?0.7), rural vs. urban residency (OR?=?0.9, CI?=?0.7–1.3, P?=?0.9), female vs. male gender (OR?=?0.8, CI?=?0.6–1.1, P?=?0.3), educational level???secondary level vs. < secondary level (OR?=?1.0, CI?=?0.6–1.6, P?=?0.8) and Hudandawa vs. non-Hudandawa ethnicity (OR?=?0.8, CI?=?0.6–1, P?=?0.1) were not associated with anaemia. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of anaemia in this setting, anaemia affected adults regardless to their age, sex and educational level. Therefore, anaemia is needed to be screened for routinely and supplements have to be employed in this setting.

2012-01-01

252

Paleomagnetism and geochronology of late Paleozoic granitic rocks from the Lake District of southern Chile: Implications for accretionary tectonics  

SciTech Connect

K/Ar and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating shows that granite rocks in the central Lake District, southern Chile, are late Paleozoic. Granitic rocks of similar age extend far up the coast of Chile, perhaps as much as 1800 km. The authors have obtained paleomagnetic directions from seven sites near Lago Ranco; these give a paleomagnetic pole at lat 57.4{degree}S, long 323.5{degree}E, with a circle of 95% confidence of 18.8{degree}. This is not significantly different from the mean late Paleozoic reference pole for the South American craton. If these results are characteristic of the late Paleozoic belt as a whole, it follows that post-late Plaeozoic accretion and terrane displacement are absent throughout much of the central Andes.

Beck, M.E. Jr; Alfredo, G.R.; Burmester, R.F. (Western Washington Univ., Bellingham (USA)); Francisco, M.H.; Francisco, H.A. (Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)); Drake, R.E. (Berkeley Geochonology Center, Berkeley, CA (USA))

1991-04-01

253

Paleomagnetism of the Cambrian Sediments in Bornholm (Denmark) and Southern Sweden and Implications for Paleogeography of Baltica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Bornholm the Phanerozoic sedimentary succession overlying Precambrian basement starts with the Lower Cambrian (ca. 545 Ma) Nekso Sandstone Fm (NSF) that, in the earlier paleomagnetic analyses, have yielded characteristic magnetization (ChRM) similar to the Permian direction for Baltica. Here, we present paleomagnetic results from other Lower Cambrian formations in Bornholm (Balka Sandstone, Broens Odde siltstone) and in southern Sweden (Hardebega, Mickwitzia and Lingula Sandstones). Lithologically, most of these formations are very similar to the NSF and they are all considered stratigraphically younger. The intention was to check, whether a Permian paleomagnetic overprint occured on a regional scale and could it be attributed to secondary magnetic phases originating from fluids, which possibly traveled laterally along the contact between the basement and the Lower Cambrian sediments. In this report we show results of this regional test, followed by a comprehensive re-analysis of our Nekso data, including new results obtained after supplementary sampling and new petrologic information, which appeared recently. We have found that the NSF possessed a unique ChRM. The well-grouped and stable characteristic magnetization of the Nekso Sandstone contrasts with fairly chaotic, soft and badly preserved magnetization of the Balka, the Hardeberga, the Mickwitzia and the Lingulid sandstones of Bornholm and southern Sweden. A regional geological context, including the inferred diagenetic evolution of Lower Cambrian sediments, points to a syndepositional/early diagenetic origin of the characteristic remanence of the Nekso Sandstone, revealing a stable remanence applicable for plate tectonic interpretations. Similarity of the characteristic remanence of the NSF to the Permian direction for Baltica has been confirmed, but it is supposed to be casual, because of lack of any sign of a regional Permian remagnetization within the other Cambrian deposits of Southern Scandinavia. This is in line with recent results from isotopic and mineralogical studies which point to a final cementation and pore closure due to the late Silurian - early Devonian burial and diagenesis, what made the sedimentary rocks in question impermeable for mineralized fluids later during the Permian time. Supportive evidence for early Cambrian age of ChRM of the NSF is detrital/early diagenetic nature of hematite, which is the main carrier of the NSF magnetization. Taking into account the relatively low (up to 150circC) temperature of the burial event, a total thermoviscous resetting of the Ti-poor hematite carriers residing in the NSF seems unrealistic in any time of its geological history. The sub-horizontal paleomagnetic inclinations obtained for the NSF indicate an equatorial position of Bornholm (and hence of Baltica ) during the time of the remanence acquisition ( paleolatitude about 8circ N or S). Possible inclination and compaction errors may only be roughly estimated (say 10circ-15circ), and this would increase the paleolatitude for the early Cambrian position of the Bornholm basin up to 15circ. Following a minimum plate velocity principle and the shortest distance between paleopoles for the APWP we propose normal polarity and the southern hemisphere for Baltica. Such a paleogeographic position and orientation of Baltica increase the drift rate for this paleocontinent in the early Cambrian-Lower Ordovician time span and makes the APWP trend more complicated than envisaged by other authors.

Lewandowski, M.; Abrahamsen, N.

2001-12-01

254

Sudan black B positivity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

A total of 146 patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occurring over a 9 1/2-yr period were reviewed; four of these patients (2.7%) had blast cells that stained positively with Sudan Black B. These four, two adults and two children, were all B type. Electron microscopy was performed on three of these four cases and showed the sudanophilia to be due to lipid droplets. The lipid droplets were also demonstrated in one of the three cases by Oil Red O stain. Therefore, Sudan Black B used alone to differentiate lymphoid from myeloid leukemia may be misleading. PMID:1542637

Ngan, M; Chien, K; Lee, S

1992-01-01

255

[Sudan black B-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia].  

PubMed

Inasmuch as Sudan black B stain is highly specific for myeloid cells and since over 3% positive blast cells meet the needs of diagnosis for myeloblastic leukaemias, we had the opportunity to study a 27 year-old male with acute leukaemia whose morphological, cytochemical, immunocytochemical (HLA-DR, CD-10, CD-19, CD-20, CD-21 all positive) and ultrastructural features were clearly in accordance with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, except for 42% Sudan black B positivity of the bone marrow blast cells. The practical interest of this case comes from the necessity to take this rare ALL case into account. PMID:2762985

Martín Noya, A; García Luaces, M; Picabea, L; Bodineau, C; Noguerol, P; Parody, R; Rodríguez Fernández, J M

1989-06-01

256

[Oral health in Sudan--a challenge to Norwegian dentistry?].  

PubMed

The paper gives an overview over the oral health situation in the Sudan. Available epidemiologic data indicate that the caries prevalence is low, but increasing. Recent information on periodontal disease is scarce. Dental fluorosis is of growing concern. Oral cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma, is prevalent. Sudan has approximately 300 dentists to meet the treatment needs of the country's 25 million inhabitants. The great majority of the dentists live in the Khartoum area. The University of Khartoum, School of Dentistry has a capacity of 20 candidates a year. A close cooperation has been established between the dental school in Khartoum and its counterpart at the University of Bergen. PMID:2247363

Abu Affan, A; Bjorvatn, K

1990-09-01

257

Active extension in Val d'Agri area, Southern Apennines, Italy: implications for the geometry of the seismogenic belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integration of geologic, geomorphologic and seismologic data sets is used to reconstruct the recent tectonic evolution and active deformation pattern in the Val d'Agri area, located in the seismically active axial sector of the Southern Apennines (Italy). The western portion of the Apennines thrust belt has been affected by Pliocene-Quaternary extension during easterly roll-back and crustal delamination of the Adriatic slab. The bulk of Quaternary extension has been accommodated by SW-dipping oblique and normal faults, which have attained mature morphologic and structural features and, nowadays, separate mountain ranges from intermontane basins. However, in the present seismogenic belt, coseismic faulting locally occurs on NE-dipping structures, which might cut the inherited Pleistocene landscape. In the Val d'Agri basin, in spite of the large Early-Middle Pleistocene, displacement occurred on SW-dipping faults bordering its eastern flank, our investigations show that the recent basin evolution has been controlled by a NE-dipping fault system (Monti della Maddalena fault system, MMFS). This fault system cuts across the Monti della Maddalena range, west of the Agri valley and has not yet created an evident tectonic landscape. Notwithstanding, fault motion since the Middle Pleistocene might explain geomorphologic and hydrographic anomalies of the Agri river and its valley, where fault-controlled subsidence has captured the river course and produced an aggrading plain within a regional uplift context. Recent and ongoing motion is documented by fault scarplets in loose deposits, 14C ages of palaeosols and the spatial relation with low to moderate instrumental seismicity. Results from fault kinematic analysis are compatible with fault-plane solutions of local and regional seismic events, and indicate ~NE-SW oriented extension. Recognition of the MMFS as a potential seismogenic fault increases the longitudinal extent of the NE-dipping, morphologically immature seismic sources in the Southern Apennines and argues against the range-bounding fault model for active extension in the region. The regional size of the NE-dipping seismogenic belt may result from impingement of a mantle wedge beneath the Apenninic chain and possibly track the external front of crustal delamination.

Maschio, L.; Ferranti, L.; Burrato, P.

2005-08-01

258

Implications for the Formation of Transform Faults from Pliocene Basins on Isla San Jose, Southern Gulf of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pliocene basins on islands in the southern Gulf of California offer a superb opportunity to evaluate how transform faults form in a highly oblique plate boundary. Pliocene strata are exposed in two subbasins on Isla San Jose, 100 km north of La Paz, Mexico. The subbasins have broadly similar stratigraphy and part of the basin is subsided offshore. A ~1 km thick lower sequence deepens upward from a thick alluvial fan unit through marginal marine strata to an outer shelf to upper slope mudstone (based on lithology and benthic forams). The uppermost mudstone has planktonic forams that indicate an early late Pliocene age ( ~3.5-3 Ma). There is evidence for widespread syn-sedimentary deformation in the lower sequence. The upper sequence is a ~50 - 120 m thick shallow marine calcarenite that lies across a low-angle to abruptly gradational unconformity. The overall stratigraphy represents 1 - 1.5 km of subsidence in the lower sequence before 3 Ma, followed by local tilting of the basin and rapid upward shallowing at and after 3 Ma. A late Pliocene to Quaternary unconformity lies above the basin and most Quaternary deposits are alluvial. The southern subbasin is bounded by NW-N striking Pliocene normal and normal-dextral faults, while the northern subbasin has mainly buttress unconformities and local faults along an irregular embayment. The subbasins on Isla San Jose may have initiated at the northern end of an early transform fault emanating from the Cerralvo trough, which suggests basin inception at 5 - 6 Ma. This implies a reasonable rate of subsidence for a rift basin. The rapid basin uplift indicates a major reorientation (or cessation) of Cerralvo transform faulting at ~3 Ma. Mudstone deposition at 3.5 - 3 Ma followed by basin uplift is similar to events in the Perico basin on Isla Carmen, 120 km to the NW near Loreto. These synchronous events on two separate islands may mean that the development of early transform faults acted in unison from Loreto to the mouth of the Gulf. This implies that there was a major reorganization of early transform faults to the modern configuration at 3 Ma. In contrast, later fault reorientation in the Loreto basin at 2.4 - 2 Ma suggests that there may be a northward propagation of transform fault development. The evidence from the islands shows that MCS and bathymetric data from the narrow shelf are needed to resolve the connections from the basins and faults we are studying on the islands to the main plate boundary transform spreading ridge system in the middle of the Gulf of California.

Umhoefer, P. J.; Schwennicke, T.; Ingle, J. C.; Del Margo, M. T.; Ruiz-Geraldo, G.

2001-12-01

259

Regional variations in the lead isotopic composition of galena from southern Korea with implications for the discrimination of lead provenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a comprehensive database (n = 215) of lead isotopes in galena from the southern Korean peninsula using new and published data. Of the 69 metal mines examined, predominantly skarn- and hydrothermal-type Pb-Zn-Au-Ag-Cu deposits were observed and were associated with Mesozoic magmatic activities. Galena samples from each geotectonic unit showed discrete lead isotopic signatures. The Gyeongsang basin samples were characteristically unradiogenic and had restricted variations in lead isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.16-18.59, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.48-15.64, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.87-38.77). Their 208Pb/204Pb range indicated an involvement of source materials less thorogenic than the associated granites. The galena samples from Cambro-Ordovician carbonate rocks of the northeastern Yeongnam massif and eastern Taebaeksan basin had the most radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb (19.28 ± 0.14) and 207Pb/204Pb (15.833 ± 0.027) ratios. Their lead isotopic trend indicated a combined contribution of ore lead from granitic magmas, Precambrian basements, and overlain host rocks. Less radiogenic galena samples from the middle to southwestern parts of the Yeongnam massif and Okcheon belt showed limited lead isotopic variations (206Pb/204Pb = 18.332 ± 0.065, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.693 ± 0.012, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.93 ± 0.07 on average), probably resulted from mixing with a common crustal basement. The differences in lead isotopes between the radiogenic and unradiogenic groups from the Yeongnam massif and Okcheon belt may reflect the spatial dissimilarity of involved crustal rocks. The old crust appears to have significantly contributed ore lead to galenas from the western Gyeonggi massif, but the geochronological meaning of their steep 207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb trend is not clear. The comprehensive database constructed by the present study suggests that lead province in the southern Korean peninsula may be subdivided into four discrete zones. Linear discriminant analysis showed that more than 90% of the compiled data were correctly reclassified within their a priori zones. Such discrimination may be useful for a wide range of applications, including mineral exploration, archaeological correlation, and environmental characterization.

Jeong, Youn-Joong; Cheong, Chang-sik; Shin, Dongbok; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Jo, Hui Je; Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Lee, Insung

2012-11-01

260

Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 ?g C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 ?g-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC-emitting species in the genera Bambusa, Elaeis, Eucalyptus, Hevea, Pinus, and Populus (among others). This could result in profound changes in atmospheric chemistry in these regions, for instance, terpene emissions from H. brasiliensis could increase wet season biogenic organic aerosol burdens by approximately a factor of 2 in the Xishuangbanna region. Increases in plantation area established with high isoprene emitting species, (e.g. Bambusa spp. and Eucalyptus spp.) are also projected for China and other parts of Southeast Asia in the near future. Thus, landcover change in South Asian landscapes is usually associated with large increases in BVOC flux with the potential to alter the atmospheric chemical composition and air quality over this rapidly developing region.

Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

261

Tectonic implications for the along-strike variation of the Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern and Baja California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jurassic-Cretaceous Peninsular Ranges batholith of southern and Baja California exhibits several along-strike variations that are most pronounced across the Agua Blanca fault. These variations include differences in the age of magmatism, degree of inheritance in zircons, depositional environment of volcanic strata, extra-arc basin geography, lateral extent of continentally derived flysch strata, and the structures attending juxtaposition of the two segments with the North American continental margin and with each other. We propose that these variations, when taken together, imply that the two segments of the western zone currently juxtaposed by the active Agua Blanca fault were accreted to North America diachronously and did not share a common history prior to the late Early Cretaceous. The Santiago Peak arc segment north of the fault developed on oceanic lithosphere juxtaposed with the continental margin prior to and during arc magmatism. Conversely, the Alisitos arc segment developed on oceanic lithosphere exotic to North America prior to accretion at 115 108 Ma. If this model is correct, it implies that the Agua Blanca fault initiated as a transpressional continuation of the suture joining the latter arc segment to the continent and that a large portion of the forearc that existed between them was subducted.

Wetmore, Paul H.; Schmidt, Keegan L.; Paterson, Scott R.; Herzig, Charles

2002-03-01

262

Variability of fecal indicator bacteria in flowing and ponded waters in southern California: implications for bacterial TMDL development and implementation.  

PubMed

Recreational water quality is assessed by using water quality objectives for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including total coliform, fecal coliform (or E. coli), and/or Enterococcus. It is required under the Clean Water Act that a TMDL be developed for a bacteria-impaired water body. The development and implementation of bacterial TMDLs has proven challenging and often difficult due to unknown source(s) of FIB. This study found that FIB levels varied significantly in flowing water, ponded water, and associated sediment. FIB levels in isolated ponded water in waterways were significantly higher than in flowing water. Sediment under ponded water contained a great amount of FIB. Furthermore, FIB concentrations in ponded water tended to increase with increasing water temperature and to decrease with increasing water salinity. The result provides the field evidence of survival/growth of FIB in water and sediment under ambient conditions in southern California. A holistic approach including natural sources (e.g., a reference system) should be considered for practical and applicable purposes while developing and implementing bacterial TMDLs for pathogen-impaired waterbodies. PMID:17543369

He, Li-Ming; Lu, Jun; Shi, Weiyong

2007-05-31

263

Geophysical interpretation of the gneiss terrane of northern Washington and southern British Columbia, and its implications for uranium exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Omineca crystalline belt of northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia has a regional Bouguer gravity high, and individual gneiss domes within the terrane are marked by local gravity highs. Models of crustal structure that satisfy the limited available seismic-refraction data and explain the gravity high over the gneiss terrane permit the hypothesis that the core metamorphic complexes are the surface expression of a zone of dense infrastructure that makes up the upper 20 km (kilometers) of the crust within the crystalline belt. The Omineca crystalline belt is characterized regionally by low aeromagnetic relief. The gneiss domes and biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites are generally marked by low magnetic relief, whereas hornblende-biotite granites often cause magnetic highs. Exceptional magnetic highs mark zones of magnetic rock within the biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites and the gneiss domes; these areas are worthy of study, both to determine the origin and disposition of the magnetite and to explore the possible existence of uraniferous magnetite deposits.

Cady, John W.; Fox, Kenneth F.

1984-01-01

264

Jurassic-Cretaceous history of Cuba: implications for the evolution of the southern margin of the North American plate  

SciTech Connect

The oldest Cuban sedimentary rocks, clastics of the Bajocian San Cayetano Fm. provide the earliest record of North American-Gondwana rifting as seen in Cuba. A similar clastic sequence is seen below the carbonates of the Bahamas platform. In the Pinar del Rio area, the San Cayetano is succeeded by Oxfordian limestones, the shallow water Jagua Fm. to the south and deeper water Francisco Fm. to the north. Both contain basaltic pillow lavas, related either to rifting or to leaky transform motion parallel to the margin. The Oxfordian units are overlain by Kimmeridgian to Tithonian pelagic limestones, the Guasasa and Artemisa Fms. The later interfingers with northerly derived calci-turbidites. North of the Escambray, silici-clastic fragments in late Jurassic pelagic limestones suggests that a basement high existed south of the platform until the Berriasian. The carbonate platform continues to shed debris along its southern edge throughout the Cretaceous. To the south an Aptian-Albian episode of turbidite deposition suggests that South America-Africa rifting caused tectonic disturbances in the Caribbean. Southerly derived volcanoclastics deposited during the Maastrichtian marks the start of the Cuban orogeny.

Barros, J.A.; Rosencrantz, E.

1985-01-01

265

Onchocerciasis in Sudan: the Abu Hamed focus.  

PubMed

The current status of onchocerciasis in Abu Hamed, Northern Province, Sudan, was studied. Of 208 persons attending out-patient clinics in villages in this region, 71 were microfilariae-positive on skin snips or had palpable nodules. Microfilariae and worms in nodules were identified as Onchocerca volvulus. No microfilariae were seen in peripheral blood. Most nodules and microfilariae were found in the pelvic region, but the intensity of infection was uniformly low (av. less than 3 mf/mg). Despite this, signs of onchocercal dermatitis were common and severe, especially over the buttocks. Papular eruptions and scarring often appeared to lead to black-grey hyperpigmentation, but no cases were seen of the unilateral, hyper-reactive 'sowda' described in Arabs in Yemen. No microfilariae were detected in the eyes of any of the patients who had positive outer canthus snips. Serum retinol concentrations were normal but mildly elevated concentrations of serum IgG, IgM and IgA were detected in many patients. Immunoglobulin E values in a sample of 20 microfilariae-positive patients were markedly higher than normal, with most in the 4,000 to 15,000 U/ml range. Eosinophil levels in differential counts of peripheral blood from the 208 villagers were markedly elevated. In skin snip surveys of over 400 villagers and school pupils, sample prevalence rates of 2 to 17.5% were recorded. Simulium biting was seasonal (November to May) and peaked in March. Over-all, the results indicate that O. volvulus infection persists in the Abu Hamed region as a serious cause of skin disease in the absence of other complicating filariases. PMID:4082257

Williams, J F; Abu Yousif, A H; Ballard, M; Awad, R; el Tayeb, M; Rasheed, M

1985-01-01

266

Renewable energy resources for electricity generation in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity reaches only about 30% of Sudan's more than 40M population; this mainly in urban areas. Hence, a major problem for rural people is the inadequate supply of power for lighting, heating, cooking, cooling, water pumping, radio or TV communications and security services. Petroleum product supplies, including diesel, kerosene and LPG are irregular and often subject to sudden price increases.

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

2007-01-01

267

Political Impact of Islam in Sudan: Numayri's Islamization Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research study deals with the general subject of the political impact of Islam in the Sudan through an analysis of the Islamization program recently initiated by President Ja'far Numayri. Part I provides a basic summary of the extended analysis. It p...

J. O. Voll

1984-01-01

268

The Development of an Environmental Education Curriculum for Sudan, Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of three environmental education workshops held in Sudan between 1983 and 1985. Explains the participants' involvement with curriculum design, curriculum structure development, and activity selection. Suggests that this program can serve as a model for national environmental education program development. (ML)|

Stapp, William B.

1986-01-01

269

New sources of grain mold resistance among accessions from Sudan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from Sudan were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold. The environmental conditions during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for gra...

270

The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

Breidlid, Anders

2013-01-01

271

Sudanese Images of the Other: Education and Conflict in Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Education can contribute to peace and reconciliation as well as to conflict and strife. The complex, often contradictory role of education in conflict is explored in this article in relation to Sudan. The focus of the article is the North-South conflict, bearing in mind that other, "minor" wars and military clashes in both the North and South…

Breidlid, Anders

2010-01-01

272

Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011  

PubMed Central

Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities.

Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Stroher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

2012-01-01

273

The potential for Historical Archaeology in the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional archaeologies of the Sudan have long-focused on the more obvious and monumental achievements of its early ‘civilizations’. The archaeology of more recent periods, however, remains largely neglected while little interest has been shown in developing research drawing on the great theoretical and methodological advances made in ‘Historical Archaeology’ in recent decades. Still framed largely around generalized distinctions between ‘Christian’

David N. Edwards

2004-01-01

274

Child Prodigy in Astronomy: A Biographical Study from the Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many studies have been conducted in the West regarding child prodigies, no such studies have taken place in indigenous Arab cultures--particularly not in Sudan. The present study attempts to bridge the existing gap in this area by focusing on a Sudanese child prodigy with extraordinary inclination towards astronomy. It is a qualitative…

Khaleefa, Omar

2009-01-01

275

Educational Change and the "Khalwa" in the Sudan: Reform Reformed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Sudan's New Educational Policy, a top-down educational reform plan promulgated by the Nimeiri Government during 1970-85. The plan attempted to increase enrollments dramatically and change a colonial British curriculum to a modern, authentically Sudanese curriculum. Fortunately, the plan ignored the Khalawi, alternative institutions that…

Lynch, Patrick D.; And Others

1992-01-01

276

The Development of an Environmental Education Curriculum for Sudan, Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of three environmental education workshops held in Sudan between 1983 and 1985. Explains the participants' involvement with curriculum design, curriculum structure development, and activity selection. Suggests that this program can serve as a model for national environmental education program development. (ML)

Stapp, William B.

1986-01-01

277

Security promotion seen from below: experiences from South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report is based on 8 weeks of field research in South Sudan between March and April 2011, and looks at the linkages between security interventions such as DDR, SALW control and SSR in relation to community security. It opens with an analysis of what security constitutes and assesses what various actors’ capacities and limitations for security promotion at the

R. C. Willems; H. Rouw

2011-01-01

278

Do UN troops secure crops? Evidence from South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we analyse the relationship between the deployment of United Nations Blue Helmets and cereal production, using the 78 South Sudan counties over 2007-2011 as a test ground. We find a negative effect of the UN troops\\/area ratio, but their effect is positive in areas that are badly damaged by conflict.

Raul Caruso; Prabin B. Khadka; Roberto Ricciuti

2012-01-01

279

Secession and South Sudan: an African precedent for the future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secession of South Sudan marks a significant milestone in the political evolution of the African continent. The new state has no separate colonial heritage, and hence no recognised boundary, and has been formed as the result of a struggle for independence waged against the government of an independent state. International law on the subject of secession has been highly

Anthony J. Christopher

2011-01-01

280

Lipide (Sudan Black Positive) Corpuscles in the Bovine Lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the course of histochemical investigations on lipides in the adult bovine lens, I observed certain sudanophilic corpuscles which do not appear to have been previously described. These bodies were discovered because of their intense staining with sudan black B (and also with its acetylated derivative1), which was applied to frozen sections of thin lens slices that had been fixed

A. J. Dark

1956-01-01

281

Epidemiology of Hepatitis B in the Gezira Region of Sudan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis B infection in rural Sudan. 2 villages in the Gezira were surveyed. There were 851 subjects (age 1-89 years; mean age 24.6 years) of equal sex distribution. 408 from Khalawaat and 443 from Sale...

K. C. Hyams M. A. Al-Arabi A. A. Al-Tagani J. F. Messiter A. A. Al-Gaali

1989-01-01

282

A case of Cornelia de Lange syndrome from Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Brachmann de Lange syndrome (BDLS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, psychomotor delay, behavioral problems, and malformations of the upper extremities. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present for the first time a case of BDLS from Sudan, a 7-month-old female infant, who was referred as a case of malnutrition.

Mona Ellaithi; David Gisselsson; Therese Nilsson; Atif Elagib; Imad Fadl-Elmula; Mashair Abdelgadir

2007-01-01

283

Rainfed mechanized farming and deforestation in central Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudan is threatened by a serious deforestation problem. Total forested area decreased by about 20 percent over the last two decades, largely as a result of the expansion of rainfed mechanized farming (RMF). To safeguard against the problems of deforestation, the government's Mechanized Farming Corporation requires each farmer to leave at least ten percent of the total farm area under

Abdelmoneim Hashim Elnagheeb; Daniel W. Bromley

1992-01-01

284

Building Opportunities and Livelihoods in Darfur (BOLD), Darfur, Sudan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As of the middle of 2004, the conflict in Sudans Darfur provinces had displaced over 2 million people, including approximately 1.8 million internally displaced people (IDPs) in Darfur and 200,000 refugees who fled to neighboring Chad. IDPs dwelt with host...

J. A. Hermanson

2004-01-01

285

Quaternary morphotectonic mapping of the Wadi Araba and implications for the tectonic activity of the southern Dead Sea fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dead Sea strike-slip fault accommodates the northward motion of Arabia relative to Sinai at a rate of ˜5 mm/yr. The southern segment of the fault, the Wadi Araba fault, runs along a valley blanketed in Quaternary sediments. We first focused on understanding the relative and absolute timing of emplacement of the alluvial surfaces. We then determined the probable source of the sediments before assessing their lateral offset to constrain the late Pleistocene fault slip rate. Seven successive morphostratigraphic levels were identified. At two sites, we recognized an alluvial sequence of five to seven successive levels with ages getting younger northward, a pattern consistent with the western block moving southward relative to two fixed feeding channels located to the east. Surface samples were collected for10Be cosmogenic radionuclide dating. Fans F3 and F5 were found to be synchronous from site to site, at 102 ± 26 ka and 324 ± 22 ka, respectively, while F4 could be dated at 163 ± 19 ka at one site only. These are minimum ages, assuming no erosion of the alluvial surfaces. At least two of these periods are correlated with wet periods that are regionally well documented. Further analyses of tectonic offsets are affected in most cases by large uncertainties due to the configuration of the sites. They indicate maximum offsets of ˜5.5 km for the oldest, possibly ˜1 Ma old, surfaces. They lead to bracketing of the fault slip rate between 5 and 12 mm/yr, with preferred values of 5-7 mm/yr, for the last 300 ka.

Le BéOn, Maryline; Klinger, Yann; MéRiaux, Anne-Sophie; Al-Qaryouti, Mahmoud; Finkel, Robert C.; Mayyas, Omar; Tapponnier, Paul

2012-10-01

286

Submarine canyon morphologies in the Gulf of Palermo (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) and possible implications for geo-hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental shelf and the upper slope of the Gulf of Palermo (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) in the depth interval ranging from 50 to 1,500 m were mapped for the first time with Multi Beam echosounder and high resolution seismic. Seven submarine canyons are confined to the upper slope or indent the shelf-edge and enter the Palermo intraslope basin at a depth of around 1,300 m. The canyons evolved through concurrent top-down turbiditic processes and bottom-up retrogressive mass failures. Most of the mass failure features of the area are related to canyon-shaping processes and only few of them are not confined to the upper slope. In general, these features probably do not represent a significant tsunami hazard along the coast. The geological element that controls the evolution of the canyons and induces sediment instability corresponds to the steep slope gradient, especially in the western sector of the Gulf, where the steepest canyons are located. The structural features mapped in the Palermo offshore contributed to the regulation of mass failure processes in the area, with direct faults and antiform structures coinciding with some of the canyon heads. Furthermore, the occurrence of pockmarks and highs that probably consist of authigenic carbonates above faulted and folded strata suggests a local relationship between structural control, fluid escape processes and mass failure. This paper presents a valuable high-resolution morphologic dataset of the Gulf of Palermo, which constitutes a reliable base for evaluating the geo-hazard potential related to slope failure in the area.

Lo Iacono, Claudio; Sulli, Attilio; Agate, Mauro; Lo Presti, Valeria; Pepe, Fabrizio; Catalano, Raimondo

2011-03-01

287

Controls on large landslide distribution and implications for the geomorphic evolution of the southern interior Columbia River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large landslides (>0.1 km2) are important agents of geomorphic change. While most common in rugged mountain ranges, large landslides can also be widespread in relatively low-relief (several 100 m) terrain, where their distribution has been relatively little studied. A fuller understanding of the role of large landslides in landscape evolution requires addressing this gap, since the distribution of large landslides may affect broad regions through interactions with channel processes, and since the dominant controls on landslide distribution might be expected to vary with tectonic setting. We documented >400 landslides between 0.1 and ~40 km2 across ~140,000 km2 of eastern Oregon, in the semiarid, southern interior Columbia River basin. The mapped landslides cluster in a NW-SE-trending band that is 50-100 km wide. Landslides predominantly occur where even modest local relief (~100 m) exists near key contacts between weak sedimentary or volcaniclastic rock and coherent cap rock. Fault density exerts no control on landslide distribution, while ~10% of mapped landslides cluster within 3-10 km of mapped fold axes. Landslide occurrence is curtailed to the NE by thick packages of coherent basalt and to the SW by limited local relief. Our results suggest that future mass movements will localize in areas stratigraphically preconditioned for landsliding by a geologic history of fluviolacustrine and volcaniclastic sedimentation and episodic capping by coherent lava flows. In such areas, episodic landsliding may persist for hundreds of thousands of years or more, producing valley wall slopes of ~7??-13?? and impacting local channels with an evolving array of mass movement styles. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

Safran, E. B.; Anderson, S. W.; Mills-Novoa, M.; House, P. K.; Ely, L.

2011-01-01

288

Paleoclimatic implications of fossil shoreline deposits in the southern basin and range province during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleolake shoreline deposits throughout the southern Basin and Range (SBAR) signify past intervals of steady-state climatic conditions occuring during the late Pleistocene slightly before, as well as after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~23-19 Ka). Unfortunately, a lack of knowledge about the age of fossil shoreline deposits—due to C-14 related uncertainties and incomplete dating of shorelines—has resulted in a large gap in our knowledge about past climatic and surface hydrologic conditions in the SBAR. Several studies collectively reveal multiple lake level oscillations during the LGM and last part of the Pleistocene, with reasonably well dated shoreline deposits existing for only four paleolakes: one in central New Mexico (Estancia), two in southwestern New Mexico (Playas and Cloverdale), and one in southeastern Arizona (Cochise). In summary, there is evidence for a pre-LGM high-stand at Cochise (>26 Ka), LGM high-stands at Estancia and Cloverdale (>20-16 Ka), deglacial age high-stands at Playas and Cochise (16-13 Ka), and latest Pleistocene-early Holocene still stands of as yet undetermined elevation at Playas and Estancia (13-9K). Further, the absence of high-stands from 11-10 Ka suggests that the Younger Dryas climatic reversal—which is detected in the stable O isotopic composition of speleothems from Cave-of-the-Bells in southeastern Arizona—was marked there by a decrease in mean annual air temperature without a significant increase in precipitation. Alternatively, if a return to glacial precipitation levels did occur, then it was for an interval so short that sedimentological evidence was not preserved. This presentation will cover the afore mentioned chronologies, along with discussion about associated atmospheric circulation patterns in the SBAR and across western North America.

Kowler, A. L.

2010-12-01

289

The Prevalence of Blinding Trachoma in Northern States of Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Despite historical evidence of blinding trachoma, there have been no widespread contemporary surveys of trachoma prevalence in the northern states of Sudan. We aimed to conduct district-level surveys in this vast region in order to map the extent of the problem and estimate the need for trachoma control interventions to eliminate blinding trachoma. Methods and Findings Separate, population based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 88 localities (districts) in 12 northern states of Sudan between 2006 and 2010. Two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. Key prevalence indicators were trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1–9 years and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in adults aged 15 years and above. The sample comprised 1,260 clusters from which 25,624 households were surveyed. A total of 106,697 participants (81.6% response rate) were examined for trachoma signs. TF prevalence was above 10% in three districts and between 5% and 9% in 11 districts. TT prevalence among adults was above 1% in 20 districts (which included the three districts with TF prevalence >10%). The overall number of people with TT in the population was estimated to be 31,072 (lower and upper bounds?=?26,125–36,955). Conclusion Trachoma mapping is complete in the northern states of Sudan except for the Darfur States. The survey findings will facilitate programme planning and inform deployment of resources for elimination of trachoma from the northern states of Sudan by 2015, in accordance with the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) objectives.

Hassan, Awad; Ngondi, Jeremiah M.; King, Jonathan D.; Elshafie, Balgesa E.; Al Ginaid, Ghada; Elsanousi, Mazin; Abdalla, Zeinab; Aziz, Nabil; Sankara, Dieudonne; Simms, Victoria; Cromwell, Elizabeth A.; Emerson, Paul M.; Binnawi, Kamal H.

2011-01-01

290

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables.  

PubMed

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed. PMID:10206264

Thomson, M C; Elnaiem, D A; Ashford, R W; Connor, S J

1999-02-01

291

Deglaciation Chronology of the Southern Laurentide Ice Sheet and Implications for Meltwater Routing bracketing the Younger Dryas Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last glacial hemicycle the intricate interplay of ice sheet margin geometry, isostatic rebound, and topography dictated the locations of meltwater storage and routing. Perhaps the least well understood of these is the ice margin chronology. Consequently, we have developed ice margin chronologies at three potential outlets of the large meltwater reservoir in the center of North America known as glacial Lake Agassiz. At the southern outlet of Lake Agassiz, several channels cut across the Big Stone Moraine. Radiocarbon dates from depressions and an intermediate level meltwater channels indicate initial lake formation after 13,680 cal yr. Coupled with regional data this implies a minimum ice margin retreat of ~270 m/yr at the beginning of Bölling/Alleröd warm interval. The chronology of subsequent events and the location of the ice margin at the beginning of the Younger Dryas is still being studied. However, in order for the ice margin to retreat sufficiently to produce a volume of Lake Agassiz suggested in prior reconstructions for the start of the Younger Dryas requires retreat rates comparable to those of present day catastrophic collapse of the Columbia Glacier (~570 m/yr). The northwest outlet is via the Clearwater spillway of northern Alberta. New geomorphic mapping confirmed fluvial activity within the spillway, but also revealed several unrecognized ice margin positions. According to our reconstructions retreat rates from 15,000 cal yr to 12,400 cal yr average some 25 m/yr then increase to ~200 to 300 m/yr as the ice margin calving into water. The ice margin position could not allow for northward drainage until about 11,000 cal yr, well after the start of the Younger Dryas. The eastern outlet is of interest as the suggested location of meltwater change (flood or simple diversion) from the Gulf of Mexico to the North Atlantic. However, the lack of a clear geomorphic meltwater route is problematic. About 14,000 cal yr the ice sheet retreat rate increased to ~63 m/yr and continued at that pace until 12,100 cal yr at which time the ice margin crossed the lowest topographic pathway out of the Lake Agassiz basin. In this reconstruction the lowest pathway would not be available for meltwater flow until after the start of the Younger Dryas.

Lowell, T. V.; Fisher, T. G.; Waterson, N.; Hajdas, I.

2007-05-01

292

Review of SISA Student Dissertations on Library and Information Systems and Services in Eastern and Southern Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and southern African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)

Chowdhury, G. G.; Tadesse, Taye T.

1995-01-01

293

Struggling for social justice in the capitalist world system: the cases of African Americans, Oromos, and Southern and Western Sudanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies and examines the processes through which the social justice movements of African Americans in the US, Oromos in Ethiopia, and Southern and Western Sudanese in Sudan emerged, and the successes and failures of these movements in a global and comparative perspective. It specifically explores four interrelated issues. First, the paper deals with some theoretical and methodological insights.

Asafa Jalata

2008-01-01

294

Compositional diversity of Late Cenozoic basalts in a transect across the southern Washington Cascades: Implications for subduction zone magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major volcanoes of the Southern Washington Cascades (SWC) include the large Quaternary stratovolcanoes of Mount St. Helens (MSH) and Mount Adams (MA) and the Indian Heaven (IH) and Simcoe Mountain (SIM) volcanic fields. There are significant differences among these volcanic centers in terms of their composition and evolutionary history. The stratovolcanoes consist largely of andesitic to dacitic lavas and pyroclastics with minor basalt flows. IH consists dominantly of basaltic with minor andesite lavas, all erupted from monogenetic rift and cinder cone vents. SIM has a poorly exposed andesite to rhyolite core but mainly consists of basaltic lavas erupted from numerous widely dispersed vents; it has the morphology of a shield volcano. Distribution of mafic lavas across the SWC is related to north-northwest trending faults and fissure zones that indicate a significant component of east-west extension within the area. There is overlap in eruptive history for the areas studied, but it appears that peak activity was progressively older (MSH (<40 Ka), IH (mostly <0.5 Ma), MA (<0.5 Ma), SIM (1-4 Ma)) and more alkalic toward the east. A variety of compositionally distinct mafic magma types has been identified in the SWC, including low large ion lithophile element (LILE) tholeiitic basalts, moderate LILE calcalkalic basalts, basalts transitional between these two, LILE-enriched mildly alkalic basalts, and basaltic andesites. Compositional diversity among basaltic lavas, both within individual centers as well as across the arc, is an important characteristic of the SWC traverse. The fact that the basaltic magmas either show no correlation between isotopic and trace element components or show trends quite distinct from those of the associated evolved lavas, suggests that their compositional variability is attributable to subcrustal processes. Both the primitive nature of the erupted basalts and the fact that they are relatively common in the SWC sector also imply that such magmas had little residence time in the crust. A majority of the SWC basaltic samples studies are indistinguishable from oceanic island basalts (OIB) in terms of trace element and isotopic compositions, and more importantly, most do not display the typical high field strength element (HFSE) depletion seen in subduction-related magmas in volcanic arcs elsewhere. LILE enrichment and HRSE depletion characteristics of most arc magmas are generally attributed to the role of fluids released by dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere and to the effects of sediment subduction. Because most SWC basalts lack these compositional features, we conclude that subducted fluids and sediments do not play an essential role in producing these magmas. Rather, we infer that they formed by variable degree melting of a mixed mantle source consisting mainly of heterogeneously distributed OIB and mid-ocean ridge basalt source domains. Relatively minor occurrences of HFSE-depleted arclike basalts may reflect the presence of a small proportion of slab-metasomatized subarc mantle. The juxtaposition of such different mantle domains within the lithospheric mantle is viewed as a consequence of (1) tectonic mixing associated with accretion of oceanic and island arc terranes along the Pacific margin of North America prior to Neogene time, and possibly (2) a seaward jump in the locus of subduction at about 40 Ma. The Cascades arc is unusual in that the subducting oceanic plate is very young and hot. We suggest that slab dehydration outboard of the volcanic front resulted in a diminished role of aqueous fluids in generating or subsequently modifying SWC magmas compared to the situation at most convergent margins. Furthermore, with low fluid flux conditions, basalt generation is presumably triggered by other processes that increase the temperature of the mantle wedge (e.g., convective mantle flow, shear heating, etc.).

Leeman, William P.; Smith, Diane R.; Hildreth, Wes; Palacz, Zen; Rogers, Nick

1990-11-01

295

Cooling History in Mabja Dome, Southern Tibet: Implications for the Tectonic Evolution of the North Himalayan Gneiss Domes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mabja Dome (MD), southern Tibet, is one of a series of gneiss domes, called the North Himalayan Gneiss Domes, located south of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone and north of the high Himalaya. The MD consists of an ~25 km diameter doubly plunging antiform cored by migmatitic K-feldspar augen biotite orthogneiss which is mantled by high grade metapelites and granitic orthogneisses. These rocks record two primary deformational events: an older deformational event, D1, characterized by ~EW-trending folds of S0 with an associated moderately N-dipping axial planar foliation, S1, and a younger event, D2, characterized by a domed mylonitic foliation, S2, and associated NS-trending mineral stretching lineation. Peak metamorphism is pre- to early syntectonic with D2 structures and defines a set of isograds that are subparallel to structure. Two-mica granites, one of which yielded an U/Pb monazite age of 14.5+/-0.1 Ma, were emplaced during the latest stages of D2 deformation. Mica and kspar Ar/Ar and apatite fission track (AFT) analyses were completed on orthogneisses, metasediments, and two-mica granites to shed light on the timing and mechanism of cooling of these rocks. Muscovite yielded Ar/Ar cooling ages of ~12.7 Ma on the northern flank of the dome, increasing to ~17.0 Ma in metapelite and orthogneiss at deeper structural levels, and decreasing to ~13.5 Ma within migmatite at the deepest structural levels. Biotites are disturbed and yield total gas ages that are slightly younger than muscovite on the flanks of the dome, but older within the core. Analyses of four kspars from orthogneiss and migmatite yielded complex spectra with old apparent ages at the lowest temperature steps, followed by ages that climb slowly from 12.5-13.0 Ma over the first 30% of 39Ar released, which in turn is followed by ages that climb to 100 Ma (orthogneiss) and 15-18 Ma (migmatite) at high temperature steps. AFT analyses from orthogneiss and migmatite yielded a mean age of 9.5 Ma indicating symmetric cooling across the dome at this time. The two mica granites yielded concordant muscovite and biotite ages of 13.1-13.5 Ma, ages of ~11 Ma at the low temperature part of kspar spectra and ages of ~13 Ma at the high temperature part, and AFT ages of 9.2-9.9 Ma. Cooling rates vary from ~60° C/Ma in the migmatitic core and two-mica granites to ~30° C/Ma in the overlying metapelite and orthogneiss. We interpret these structural, metamorphic, and cooling relations as suggesting a similar tectonic history as that documented in the Kangmar Dome (e.g. Lee et al., 2000): (1) contraction (D1 deformation) leading to thickening followed by thermal re-equilibration (peak metamorphism), (2) mid-crustal extension (D2 deformation), (3) doming and exhumation as a consequence of thrusting upward and southward over a north-dipping ramp above cold Tethyan sediments (mica Ar/Ar ages at higher structural levels that increase with depth suggesting refrigeration from below) and erosion during early to middle Miocene, and (4) emplacement of two-mica granites resulting in reheating at the deepest structural levels during the middle Miocene and continued doming as a consequence of diapirism and erosion during middle to late Miocene.

Lee, J.; Wang, Y.; McWilliams, M.; Hourigan, J.; Blythe, A.; McClelland, W.

2001-12-01

296

Large Glacitectonic structures on the Dogger Bank, southern North Sea; Implications for glacial dynamics, glacial limits, and interplay between the British and Fennoscandinavian Ice Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently acquired 2D seismic data (sparker) acquired over the Dogger Bank (DB) reveal large glacitectonic structures associated with late-Pleistocene glacial incursion into the southern North Sea. The densely populated survey data (100m line spacing) collected for the purposes of offshore windfarm development on the DB, allow for pseudo-3D interpretation. The sparker data show discrete thrust faults extending from within ~5 m of the seabed to ~200 m depth, and consistently terminate at one of two décollement surfaces. Preliminary mapping and amplitude extraction maps reveal the thrusts to occur in a series of thrust blocks (5-8 faults), with each set encompassing an area of approximately 6 km along-strike and 2 km at right angles. The overall zone of thrusting is up to 16 x 6 km on the western edge of the DB. The strike of the faults indicates ice-flow from the west. Other deformation structures include: open, recumbent, and fault propagation folds, as well as back thrusts, and pop-up structures. The relief of the DB (dimensions) is entirely accounted for by what has historically been termed the 'DB Formation'. These new data reveal that this seismostratigraphic unit likely consists of deposits from a variety of glacially influenced depositional regimes. The observed thrusts penetrate through the 'DB formation', indicating this phase of intense deformation post-dated the initial construction of the bank. Less pronounced glacial deformation affects much of the rest of the DB, and the products of this deformation (push-moraine complexes?) were possibly integral to the construction of the bank itself. While the style and fabric (NS?) of this deformation is less clear, it is likely there were multiple incursions of glacial ice, from different directions (and sources?), into this area where late-Pleistocene glaciation limits are poorly understood. Several mechanisms for forming such glacitectonic features have been proposed, and the thrust blocks here may have been caused by sub-glacial (gravitational spreading), ice-marginal (push-moraine complex), or pro-glacial (ice-push) processes, or a combination of the three at an oscillating ice-margin. The thrusts appear to have no surface expression, suggesting the topography was removed either by late-stage glacial erosion or Holocene marine transgression. Work to date on the paleoenvironmental implications of the data has been preliminary. The exact style, pattern, and timing glacial deformation (and associated sedimentation) on the Dogger Bank and circum-southern North Sea, and glacial history of the region, will be the focus of a Ph.D studentship which commenced Sept. 2012.

Dove, Dayton; Cotterill, Carol; Long, Dave; Ruiter, Astrid; Phillips, Emrys; James, Leo; Forsberg, Carl Fredrik

2013-04-01

297

Complex Formation of Sudan I with Cu(II) and Its Identification from Chilli Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new chemical method for identifying and quantifying Sudan I (1-[(2,4-dimethylphenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenol) from chilli species is devised to overcome the shortcoming with complex operation, longer analytical period of High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Sudan I complexed with Cu2+ leads to the shift of visible absorption wavelength from 478 nm to 526 nm. The major product is the Sudan I complex

Jinxian Huo; Yong Guo; Shuangming Meng; Meiyun Wang; Ying Wang

2010-01-01

298

Paleomagnetism of the Ocotillo Badlands, southern California, and implications for slip transfer through an antidilational fault jog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The right-lateral Coyote Creek fault is the southernmost segment of the San Jacinto fault zone in California. At the Ocotillo Badlands, an anticlinorium of locally updomed material is exposed at a step-over between echelon segments of the fault. Here, uplift and deformation most probably result from multiple slip increments transferred across the antidilational fault jog, under the assumption that material away from the jog region deforms by rigid body translation. Within the 2 km wide fault jog, contraction has occurred by folding of the Quaternary sedimentary strata about east-west trending hinge lines. Structural analysis of this deformation shows that folding has accommodated ˜ 800 m of fault slip transferred through the antidilational jog. By comparison, total right slip on the Coyote Creek fault is 2.5 km, measured 25 km to the northwest at Coyote Ridge. A magnetostratigraphic study of the deformed strata was undertaken to determine the longevity of this fault discontinuity at the Ocotillo Badlands. The eroded core of the updomed material at the Ocotillo Badlands exposes a 325 m thick sequence of sedimentary rock, made up by the lacustrine Borrego Formation (˜ 200 m) and the overlying conglomeratic Ocotillo Formation (˜ 125 m). Stepwise thermal demagnetization of samples from the exposed strata suggests that the formation boundary also marks a magnetic polarity reversal, of reversed field to normal field as one travels upwards through the composite section. The inferred primary magnetization is probably produced by a detrital remanent magnetization (DRM) and is often overprinted with a weak, viscous present field component. Comparison with magnetostratigraphy of the Borrego Badlands 10 km to the northwest indicates that the reversal sampled is the onset of the Jaramillo event (0.97 Ma). The presence of a 20° angular unconformity within the upper portion of the exposed stratigraphy shows that deformation within the Ocotillo Badlands began during deposition of the Ocotillo Formation, shortly after the time of the field reversal. If total slip on the Coyote Creek fault at the Ocotillo Badlands is greater than 800 m, it appears that the fault jog has been a transitory feature within the fault zone, with slip alternately bypassing it or being transferred across it. Such switchyard behavior of slip transfer through the fault jog has important implications for understanding structural controls on earthquake rupture.

Brown, Norman N.; Fuller, Michael D.; Sibson, Richard H.

1991-03-01

299

77 FR 3371 - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent...of the United States in certain United Nations peacekeeping and peace enforcement...Armed Forces participating in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan are...

2012-01-24

300

The Status of Women in Physics in Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress of women in physics education in the last five years was surveyed in the six top universities in Sudan. The data reveal great increases in the number of females studying undergraduate physics. Most were studying experimental physics rather than theoretical physics, especially the laser and electronics fields. It appears undergraduate laboratory experiments are an important factor in attracting women to physics. Our survey found that girls are encouraged to study physics at the high school level. However, the data also showed that the fewer tendencies to study physics among the women after high school are due to the limited job opportunities and low income of teachers. Postgraduate physics study is handicapped by lack of institutions, financial constraints, and lack of qualified advisors. Improvement of education systems and new ways of teaching will have great influences on attracting women to physics in Sudan.

Abdelbagi, Abdrazig M.; Sirelkhatim, Amna H.; Abdelrahman, Wafaa S.; Osman, Mai E.; Shatir, Tahani S.

2009-04-01

301

Fossil Occurrence of Murine Rodent (Nesokia indica) in the Sudan.  

PubMed

A specimen of the murid rodent Nesokia indica has been recovered from a late Paleolithic archeological site in the Sudan. This is a range 1200 km south of the site of any known occurrences, and it indicates a different environment near the Nile River than that which exists at the present time. The late Paleolithic water table is inferred to have been more stable, allowing for permanent moist soil. PMID:17810306

Robinson, P

1966-10-14

302

Mitochondrial discrimination of honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) of Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudanese honeybee populations are surrounded by a suite of various subspecies with different mitochondrial haplotypes, including\\u000a the O-lineage in the north (Egypt), the Y-lineage in the east (Ethiopia) and the A-lineage in the south and west. Using Dra I analyses and the partial sequence of the tRNAleu COII region of 75 sampled colonies throughout Sudan, we never found the\\u000a Y-lineage

Mogbel A. A. El-Niweiri; Robin F. A. Moritz

2008-01-01

303

Stable isotopes and diet at Ancient Kerma, Upper Nubia (Sudan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values were measured from bone collagen extracted from archaeological Nubian human (n=54) and faunal (n=61) populations from the site of Kerma, Sudan. Collagen suitable for isotopic analysis was extracted from 22 faunal and 48 human samples from the Eastern cemetery site, dated to the Middle Kerma (c. 2050–1750 BC) and Classic Kerma (c. 1750–1500 BC)

A. H. Thompson; L. Chaix; M. P. Richards

2008-01-01

304

Major climate indicators of ongoing drought in Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a drastic increase in temperature variables over the whole Sudan. A significant rainfall decline over the northern half of the country is also found. Accordingly, trends in Pedj drought index show evidence of intensifying drought. The 2000s depict a widespread drought (mild to severe), thus refuting a recovery. There is a strong ENSO footprint on drought south of latitude 15°N.

Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Elhag, Muna M.

2011-11-01

305

Bacteriological quality of drinking water in Nyala, South Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water in Nyala city, South Darfur, Sudan\\u000a with special reference to the internally displaced people camps (IDPs). Two hundred and forty water samples from different\\u000a sites and sources including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers\\u000a were collected in 2009.

Amira Ahmed Abdelrahman; Yassir Mohammed Eltahir

2011-01-01

306

Sudan Black B Positivity in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The records of 458 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have been reviewed. The diagnosis of ALL was based on clinical examination and morphological, cytochemical and immunophenotypic characteristics (20% or more blasts reacting with lymphoid monoclonal antibodies) of blood and\\/or bone marrow. Blast cells of 6 (1.3%) patients showed positive reaction with Sudan black B (SBB) in the absence of

B. S. Charak; S. H. Advani; S. M. Karandikar; P. M. Parikh; C. N. Nair; A. Das Gupta; R. Gopal; K. S. Tapan; K. S. Nadkarni; P. A. Kurkure; S. K. Pai; V. R. Pai

1988-01-01

307

Optimal land-use allocation in central Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal land-use in the gerf land of central Sudan was determined from the social welfare point of view. The alternative land-use options considered were Acacia nilotica plantations, eucalyptus plantations and bananas. The evaluation technique adopted was cost–benefit analysis using the Little–Mirrlees–Squire–van der Tak (LMST) approach. The results indicate that eucalyptus plantations are the optimum land-use option on the basis

Huda Abdelwahab Sharawi

2006-01-01

308

Country report of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan.  

PubMed

Reports on current activities in training of nonphysician personnel for maternal-child health/family health care delivery in Sudan. Lists are provided for the following: the 5 types of facilities operated by the Ministry of Health; other training and services projects; and The Sudan Family Planning Association activities. It is felt that all of these activities need strengthening in the training component. The following projects are being planned by the Khartoum College of Nursing: 1) a family planning project in conjunction with the nutrition clinic in the Children's Hospital; 2) a family planning project in the Gazera irrigated area where community development projects are in existence; 3) a movement into the rural areas of 6 regions of the country of the Sudan Women's Union Health Education Program for Women Leaders; 4) a project for providing free maternity service to needy mothers through maternity homes located within easy reach. These homes are intended to give service and at the same time act as training centers in maternal-child health/family health care for nonphysician personnel. PMID:12312109

Osman, A

1982-01-01

309

Malaria risk mapping for control in the republic of Sudan.  

PubMed

Evidence shows that malaria risk maps are rarely tailored to address national control program ambitions. Here, we generate a malaria risk map adapted for malaria control in Sudan. Community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data from 2000 to 2010 were assembled and were standardized to 2-10 years of age (PfPR(2-10)). Space-time Bayesian geostatistical methods were used to generate a map of malaria risk for 2010. Surfaces of aridity, urbanization, irrigation schemes, and refugee camps were combined with the PfPR(2-10) map to tailor the epidemiological stratification for appropriate intervention design. In 2010, a majority of the geographical area of the Sudan had risk of < 1% PfPR(2-10). Areas of meso- and hyperendemic risk were located in the south. About 80% of Sudan's population in 2011 was in the areas in the desert, urban centers, or where risk was < 1% PfPR(2-10). Aggregated data suggest reducing risks in some high transmission areas since the 1960s. PMID:23033400

Noor, Abdisalan M; ElMardi, Khalid A; Abdelgader, Tarig M; Patil, Anand P; Amine, Ahmed A A; Bakhiet, Sahar; Mukhtar, Maowia M; Snow, Robert W

2012-10-01

310

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. 538.536 Section 538.536...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they are...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan are authorized, including but...

2013-07-01

311

31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre-existing trade contracts...owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

2010-07-01

312

31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre-existing trade contracts...owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

2009-07-01

313

Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy making via gameplay. It…

Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

2013-01-01

314

Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy making via gameplay. It…

Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

2013-01-01

315

‘Nests of criminals’: policing in the peri-urban regions of Northern Sudan, 1964–1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the strategies adopted by the Sudanese police in dealing with migration from Sudan's rural peripheries to the central urban riverain areas of Sudan, in particular Khartoum. It contends that police policy in these regions demonstrated the limited governmental ambitions of the Sudanese state and its inability, or unwillingness, to individuate its population. It thus shifts the

W. J. Berridge

2012-01-01

316

The sociolinguistics of nationalism in the Sudan: the politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This monograph describes the historiography of language ideologies that led to the politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of politics in the Sudan, starting from British colonial rule until the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that was a precursor to the separation of the South as an independent state. The monograph shows that the politicisation of Arabic in the Sudan is largely

Ashraf Abdelhay; Busi Makoni; Sinfree Makoni; Abdel Rahim Mugaddam

2011-01-01

317

‘Nests of criminals’: policing in the peri-urban regions of Northern Sudan, 1964–1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the strategies adopted by the Sudanese police in dealing with migration from Sudan's rural peripheries to the central urban riverain areas of Sudan, in particular Khartoum. It contends that police policy in these regions demonstrated the limited governmental ambitions of the Sudanese state and its inability, or unwillingness, to individuate its population. It thus shifts the

W. J. Berridge

2011-01-01

318

Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for

Mo'awia M Hassan; Omran F Osman; Fathi MA El-Raba'a; Henk DFH Schallig; Dia-Eldin A Elnaiem

2009-01-01

319

The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences of…

Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

2008-01-01

320

Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in financing development in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper fills the gap in the Sudanese literature and discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that the Chinese share in total loans and grants offered to Sudan greatly increased from 17% in 1999 to 73% in 2007 out of total loans and grants offered

Samia Satti Osman Mohamed Nour

2011-01-01

321

Overcoming Structural Adjustment Policies in Africa: Strategies for Vocational Education and Training in the Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most developing countries have been debt ridden since the mid-1970s. This continuing debt burden has resulted in increasing prices and inflation, growing unemployment, and daily life difficulties. This problem has been acute for the Sudan. Sudan received help from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1978 and negotiated new credit terms. By…

Washi, Sidiga; Pitamber, Sunita

322

78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to South Sudan, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

2013-03-13

323

South Sudan: institutional legacy of colonialism and the making of a new state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues that the post-colonial crisis of citizenship demands a rethinking of the paradigm of viewing colonialism simply as a system of economic exploitation to viewing colonialism as a political project that is anchored in law. The paper provides a historical and post-referendum analysis of the political division between North and South Sudan. As South Sudan seeks to build

Christopher Zambakari

2012-01-01

324

Sudan black B as a histological stain for polymeric biomaterials embedded in glycol methacrylate.  

PubMed

Sudan black B, usually a stain for all kinds of lipid, turned out to be an excellent histological stain for polymeric biomaterials embedded in glycol methacrylate. Staining the surrounding connective tissue with toluidine blue-basic fuchsin makes details of the polymer-tissue interface clearly visible. Sudan black B might be used to visualize the biodegradation process of polymeric biomaterials. PMID:3224132

Hoeksma, E A; van der Lei, B; Jonkman, M F

1988-09-01

325

A new gravimetric geoid model for Sudan using the KTH method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudan is characterized by vast area with flat terrains in most of the country’s regions and therefore the existence of a high-resolution geoid model is considered very important especially with the widespread of the GPS technology in the country. A few studies were previously conducted to compute a geoid model for Sudan, the current study is the second of its

Ahmed Abdalla; Derek Fairhead

2011-01-01

326

Assessment of the impacts of oil: Opportunities and challenges for economic development in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an assessment of the impacts of oil and discusses the opportunities and challenges for enhancing economic development in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis in this paper is that we provide a more comprehensive analysis using the most recent secondary data to discuss the positive and negative impacts of oil for enhancing economic development in Sudan. We

Samia Satti Osman Mohamed Nour

2011-01-01

327

N Isotopes in Nile Sediments (ethiopia, Sudan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nile is the most important river of the Eastern Mediterranean. Its water and sediment fluxes have greatly influenced marine circulation throughout the Quaternary, and are widely considered as possible causes for stagnation and formation of sapropel (Krom et al., 1999a; 2002; Talbot et al., 2000; Freydier et al., 2001; Weldeab et al., 2002; Scrivner et al., 2004). Variations in annual flooding and baseflow of the river Nile, controlled by climate changes, had major impact on the rise and demise of Egyptian dynasties (Stanley et al., 2003). In order to better define sedimentary sources of the Nile system and to obtain more robust results, we have analyzed Nd isotopes in sediments of all its major Sudanese and Ethiopian tributaries (Atbara, Gash, Abay, Didesa, Dabus, White Nile, Bahr Ez Zeraf) in several replicate samples. Analyses were carried out on distinct mud and sand fractions (<40 microns and 125-180 microns) of 30 samples, and systematic changes related to grain size and hydraulic-sorting processes could thus be investigated. On the same samples, companion studies are being carried out on Sr isotopes (Padoan et al., 2007) and on Pb isotopes at the Geological Survey of Israel (Harlavan et al., in preparation). Overall, isotopic signals are markedly different between the White Nile system, derived from largely Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement rocks, and Ethiopian tributaries, derived in diverse proportions from largely Neoproterozoic rift-shoulder basements and overlying Oligocene flood basalts. Isotopic signals of Main Nile sediments downstream of the Atbara confluence are close to those of Blue Nile sediments, indicating that detritus is mainly provided by the latter (Garzanti et al., 2006). In the White Nile branch, the 143Nd/144Nd ratio of the mud fraction is lower in the Bahr Ez Zeraf (0.51167) than in the White Nile downstrean of the Sobat confluence (0.51219), revealing significant sediment influx from the latter. In Blue Nile and Atbara branches, values vary from 0.51240-0.51242 for tributaries draining basement rocks only (e.g., Gash, wadi Guba) to 0.51275-0.51280 for tributaries draining mostly basaltic rocks (Atbara); tributaries draining both record mixed signals (e.g., 0.51259; Beles). Nd ratios for Atbara sediments correspond closely with signatures of volcanic source rocks (0.51271-0.51298; Pik et al., 1999), revealing involvement of various mantle and crustal components in petrogenesis of flood basalts. Corresponding Nd model ages (tDM) cluster around 0.84 Ga for the mostly volcanic-derived Blue Nile, Atbara, and Main Nile muds, range 1.2 - 1.5 Ga for tributaries draining Ethiopian basement rocks, and reach as high as 2.4 Ga for the Bahr Ez Zeraf. The different Nd isotopic signal between mud and sand samples is closely controlled by mineralogical composition, Nd and other REE being chiefly contributed by ultradense minerals (e.g., monazite), and consequently concentrated in the finest size fractions of each sample (Garzanti et al., 2008). FREYDIER, R., MICHARD, A., DE LANGE G., THOMSON, J., 2001. Nd isotopic composition of Eastern Mediterranean sediments: tracers of the Nile influence during sapropel S1 formation. Mar. Geol., 177, 45-62. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., ABDEL MEGID, A.A., EL KAMMAR, A., 2006. Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopian and Sudan): Sediment budgets and erosion patterns. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 252, 327-341. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., 2008. Settling-equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 273, 138-151. HARLAVAN Y., GARZANTI, E., PADOAN, M., EL KAMMAR, A. Geochemical characterization of Nile River sands; Rare earth elements, Pb and Sr isotopes of the fine fraction. In preparation. KROM, M.D., CLIFF, R.A., EIJSINK, L.M., HERUT, B., CHESTER, R., 1999a. The characterisation of Saharan dusts and Nile particulate matter in surface sediments from the Levantine basin using Sr isotopes. Mar. Geol., 155, 319-330. KROM, M.D., STANLEY, J.D., CLIFF, R.A., WOODWARD, J.C., 2002. Nile River s

Padoan, M.; Villa, I. M.; Garzanti, E.; Galbusera, M.; Quistini, S.; Peruta, L.; El Kammar, A.

2009-04-01

328

Correlation of the Askyn River section, Southern Urals, Russia, with the Mid-Carboniferous Boundary GSSP, Bird Spring Formation, Arrow Canyon, Nevada, USA: implications for global paleoceanography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic data of unaltered low-Mg calcite brachiopods from type Bashkirian strata of the Askyn River section (southern Urals, Russia) are correlated with those from the Mid-Carboniferous Boundary Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) at Arrow Canyon (southern Nevada, USA). Strontium isotope and conodont data of precisely located samples from the sub- to tropical locations spanning the Mid-Carboniferous boundary facilitate the

Uwe Brand; Peter Bruckschen

2002-01-01

329

A Carboniferous high-pressure klippe in the western Acatlán Complex of southern México: implications for the tectonothermal development and palaeogeography of Pangea  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure (HP) rocks are critical for palinspastic restorations because they mark inferred subducted\\/extruded oceanic crust; knowledge of their geometric, geodynamic, and age relationships provide essential constraints on palaeogeographic reconstructions. The westernmost HP belt (Ixcamilpa) in the Acatlán Complex of southern Mexico has been inferred to be a mid-Late Ordovician backarc basin on the southern Iapetan margin that was subducted beneath

Mario A. Ramos-Arias; J. Duncan Keppie; James K. W. Lee; Amabel Ortega-Rivera

2012-01-01

330

A Carboniferous high-pressure klippe in the western Acatlán Complex of southern México: implications for the tectonothermal development and palaeogeography of Pangea  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure (HP) rocks are critical for palinspastic restorations because they mark inferred subducted\\/extruded oceanic crust; knowledge of their geometric, geodynamic, and age relationships provide essential constraints on palaeogeographic reconstructions. The westernmost HP belt (Ixcamilpa) in the Acatlán Complex of southern Mexico has been inferred to be a mid-Late Ordovician backarc basin on the southern Iapetan margin that was subducted beneath

Mario A. Ramos-Arias; J. Duncan Keppie; James K. W. Lee; Amabel Ortega-Rivera

2011-01-01

331

Use of antenatal care services in Kassala, eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Antenatal care is named as one of the four pillars initiatives of the Safe Motherhood Initiative. While many of routine antenatal care procedure have little effect on maternal mortality and morbidity, some of these have been ascertained as beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate coverage of antenatal care and identify factors associated with inadequacy of antenatal care in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out in Kassala, eastern Sudan during September-October 2009. Household surveys were conducted. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from women who had been pregnant within the last year, or pregnant more than 14 weeks. Results Out of 900 women investigated for antenatal care coverage, 811(90%) women had at least one visit. Only 11% of the investigated women had ? four antenatal visits, while 10.0% had not attended at all. Out of 811 women who attended at least one visit, 483 (59.6%), 303 (37.4%) and 25 (3.1%) women attended antenatal care in the first, second and third trimester, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, while maternal age and residence were not associated with inadequacy of antenatal care (<2 visits), high parity (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.1-3.5; P = 0.01) and husband education ? secondary level (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.3-4.2; P = 0.002) were associated with inadequacy of antenatal care. Conclusions Antenatal care showed a low coverage in Kassala, eastern Sudan. This low coverage was associated with high parity and low husband education.

2010-01-01

332

Sudan black B positivity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

The records of 458 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have been reviewed. The diagnosis of ALL was based on clinical examination and morphological, cytochemical and immunophenotypic characteristics (20% or more blasts reacting with lymphoid monoclonal antibodies) of blood and/or bone marrow. Blast cells of 6 (1.3%) patients showed positive reaction with Sudan black B (SBB) in the absence of reactivity to any other myeloid markers. Positive reaction with SBB stain cannot be considered specific for myeloid series. PMID:2464265

Charak, B S; Advani, S H; Karandikar, S M; Parikh, P M; Nair, C N; Das Gupta, A; Gopal, R; Tapan, K S; Nadkarni, K S; Kurkure, P A

1988-01-01

333

Visual detection of Sudan dyes based on the plasmon resonance light scattering signals of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A visual light scattering detection method of Sudan dyes is reported in food products based on the formation of silver nanoparticles (NPs) . Sudan dyes including I, II, III and IV have reducibility due to the nitrogen-nitrogen double bond and phenol group in their molecular structure, and a redox reaction could occur with AgNO3. Owing to the formation of silver NPs as a result of the redox reaction, color changes could be observed by eye from the red of Sudan to the brown of silver NPs, resulting in strong plasmon resonance light scattering (PRLS) signals characterized at 452 nm, which could be measured using a common spectrofluorometer. It was found that the PRLS intensities were proportional to the dye concentrations over the range of 0.2-2.4 microM Sudan I, 0.1-2.4 microM Sudan II, 0.1-2.4 microM Sudan III, and 0.2-3.0 microM Sudan IV, with the corresponding limits of determination (3 sigma) of 3.2, 3.0, 3.2, and 2.9 nM, respectively. Using hot chili as a model sample, detection could be made with the recovery of 90.8-103.3% and RSD of 4.0-4.9%, and the results are identical with that of a liquid chromatographic method approved by the European Commission. To make the PRLS method much more practical, we could visually detect the quantity of Sudan dyes based on the PRLS signals using simple devices such as a portable laser pointer (653 nm) and a light emitting diode (458 nm). Mechanism investigations show that the functional group of Sudan oxidized by AgNO3 is the phenol group, not the nitrogen-nitrogen double bond. PMID:16878897

Wu, Li Ping; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Zhang, Qin

2006-08-01

334

Electrochemical Determination of Trace Sudan I Contamination in Chili Powder at Carbon Nanotube Modified Electrodes  

PubMed Central

We have developed a simple, convenient and inexpensive voltammetric method for determining trace Sudan I contamination in chili powder, based on the catalyzed electrochemical reduction of Sudan I at the carbon nanotube modified electrode. Under optimized conditions, the method exhibited acceptable analytical performance in terms of linearity (over the concentration range 6.0×10?7 to 7.5×10?5 M, r = 0.9967), detection limit (2.0×10?7 M) and reproducibility (RSD = 4.6%, n=10, for 2.0×10?5 M Sudan I).

Ming, Liang; Xi, Xia; Chen, Tingting; Liu, Jie

2008-01-01

335

[Fertility as the outcome of the length of exposure. Methodology and application to Sudan, Syria, and Tunisia].  

PubMed

A graduate student applied World Fertility Survey data from Syria, Sudan, and Tunisia to a fertility model that takes into account duration of exposure to risk of pregnancy. The 11 variables of this model have been grouped into three categories: nuptiality, maternal period, and birth spacing variables. Syria had the youngest age at first birth. The interval between marriage and first birth was only 11 months in Syria, but 16 months in Tunisia and 24 months in Sudan. The researcher thought that it was relatively improbable that new brides used contraception in Sudan, so it appears that involuntary subfecundity occurred in Sudan. After 15 years of marriage, marriage stability was much lower for Sudan. Fertility was the lowest in Sudan (6.23 vs. 6.81 for Tunisia and 7.7 for Syria). Remarried Sudanese women had lower fertility than those in a first union, while this was the opposite in Tunisia and Syria. Women from Syria had a longer maternal period (by about two years) and a shorter birth interval (by 6 months compared to Sudan and by 9 months compared to Tunisia), so they had the highest total fertility (7.03 vs. 5.17 for Tunisia and 5.7 for Sudan). Fertility levels determined by the model corresponded with those of national reports. Tunisia had the lowest breast feeding levels (33% vs. 47% in Syria and 62% in Sudan) and contraceptive use was rather high (37% vs. 16% for Sudan and 34% for Syria). The sterilization level was highest in Tunisia (8.1% vs. 0.3% in Sudan and 0.4% in Syria). Subfecundity was more or less the same in Syria and Tunisia (18% and 20%, respectively) while it was 64% in Sudan. This high rate of subfecundity was probably due to female genital mutilation practices. True infertility was 20% for Sudan and Tunisia and 15% for Syria. PMID:12346231

Kouaouci, A

336

Puerperal Sepsis in a Rural Hospital in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background: Increasingly, women in rural areas in Sudan reported to hospital with puerperal infections. Aims: This study was design to identify the common pathogens causing puerperal infections and their susceptibility to current antibiotics. Subjects and methods: We prospectively studied 170 women from January, 2011 through January 2012 attended Hussein Mustafa Hospital for Obstetrics and Gynecology at Gadarif State, Sudan. We included patients if they met the criteria proposed by the WHO for definition of maternal sepsis. Blood was collected on existing infection guidelines for clean practice and equipments. Results: Out of the 170 samples, 124 (72.9%) were pathogen-positive samples. Out the 124 positive cases, aerobes were the predominant isolates 77 (62.1 %%) which included Staph.aureus 49 (39.5%), Staph. epidemics 7 (5.6%) and Listeria monocytogenes 21 (16.9%). The anaerobes isolates were Clostridium perfringens 34 (27.4 %) and Entrobactor cloacae 13 (10.5%). Standard biochemical test were for bacterial isolation. Higher rate of infections followed vaginal delivery compared to Cesarean section 121 (97.6%), 3 (2.5%) respectively. All strains of Staph were sensitive to Vancomycin, Gentamicin and Ceftriaxone. C. perfringens were sensitive to Ceftriaxone, Penicillins, Vancomycin and Metronidazole, while E. cloacae were sensitive to Gentamicin and Ceftriaxone. Conclusion: Despite the limited resources in the developing countries, treatment based on cultures remains the only solution to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality rates following puerperal infections.

Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; babiker, Rabie Ali

2013-01-01

337

Oil exploration in nonmarine rift basins of interior Sudan  

SciTech Connect

In early 1975 Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc. commenced a major petroleum exploration effort in previously unexplored interior Sudan. With the complete cooperation of the Sudanese Government, Chevron has acquired a vast amount of geologic and geophysical data during the past 9 years. These data include extensive aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, 25,000 mi (40,200 km) of seismic data, and the results of 66 wells. This information has defined several large rift basins which are now recognized as a major part of the Central African rift system. The sedimentary basins of interior Sudan are characterized by thick Cretaceous and Tertiary nonmarine clastic sequences. Over 35,000 ft (10,600 m) of sediment have been deposited in the deepest trough, and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6100 m) of sediment. The depositional sequence includes thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones which were deposited in an anoxic environment provide oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism which formed these basins began in the Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history which led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasin high trends, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps.

Schull, T.J.

1984-04-01

338

A climate distribution model of malaria transmission in Sudan.  

PubMed

Malaria remains a major health problem in Sudan. With a population exceeding 39 million, there are around 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year. The predicted distribution of malaria derived from climate factors such as maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity was compared with the actual number of malaria cases in Sudan for the period 2004 to 2010. The predictive calculations were done by fuzzy logic suitability (FLS) applied to the numerical distribution of malaria transmission based on the life cycle characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito accounting for the impact of climate factors on malaria transmission. This information is visualized as a series of maps (presented in video format) using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach. The climate factors were found to be suitable for malaria transmission in the period of May to October, whereas the actual case rates of malaria were high from June to November indicating a positive correlation. While comparisons between the prediction model for June and the case rate model for July did not show a high degree of association (18%), the results later in the year were better, reaching the highest level (55%) for October prediction and November case rate. PMID:23242678

Musa, Mohammed I; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Hashim, Nor R; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy

2012-11-01

339

Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To assess participants' knowledge about HIV/AIDS and to identify the factors associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan. Methods. Observational cross-sectional study carried out at Omdurman National Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre, Sudan covered 870 participants. Sociodemographic data as well as information related to sexual behavior were collected. Results. Most of the respondents were knowledgeable about the true transmission modes for AIDS virus. Very few respondents knew someone infected with AIDS (4.5%), died of AIDS (8.1%), accepted to live with someone infected with AIDS (4.7%) or to work with someone infected with AIDS (2.1%). Regarding sexual behavior, 96.5% had reported their first sexual experience between 20 and 30 years, with 85.7% reporting one or two partners, and only 1.8% reported using condom. Multivariate logistic regression showed that circumcision, religion, marital status, age at first sex, number of sexual partners, education level, and misconception of knowledge are the main risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. Our results showed that a number of diversity risk factors were associated with HIV/AIDS. It is unlikely that a holistic approach will be found to immediately change sexual-risk-relating behavior. Interventions including sustained educational programs, promotion of condom, and encouragement of voluntary testing and active involvement of the country's political and religious leaders will be needed to alleviate this problem.

Mohamed, Badreldin Abdelrhman; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

2013-01-01

340

Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7%) and progesterone injection (17.8%) were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five), couple education (? secondary level) were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

2011-01-01

341

Current status of equine piroplasmosis in the Sudan.  

PubMed

This is a cross-sectional molecular epidemiological study on equine piroplasmosis (EP) affecting horses and donkeys in the Sudan. The study evaluated 499 samples from geographically distinct regions in eastern, central and western parts of the country. PCR amplification of the 18S rRNA gene of both Thelieria equi and Babesia caballi was carried out. Horses from all sampled areas were found positive to T. equi DNA but no B. caballi was detected. Absence of B. caballi infection was confirmed by another PCR targeting the B. caballi 48-kDa merozoite antigen. The overall prevalence was found to be 35.95%. The highest prevalence was detected in Showak 13 (81.3%) and the lowest was in Shearia locality in South Darfur 1 (5.6%). In another experiment, capillary electrophoresis was used to detect and differentiate between T. equi and B. caballi using one set of primers designed to amplify the 18S rRNA gene in a single PCR. Capillary electrophoresis method was found to be powerful in detecting mixed infections in artificially mixed controls samples. The data obtained in this study would contribute to the development of a national control strategy of EP in the Sudan. PMID:23485745

Salim, Bashir; Bakheit, Mohammed Ahmed; Kamau, Joseph; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2013-02-26

342

Breeding strategies of Antarctic Petrels Thalassoica antarctica and Southern Fulmars Fulmarus glacialoides in the high Antarctic and implications for reproductive success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding strategies of two closely related fulmarine petrels were studied on Ardery Island, on the continental coast of East Antarctica, where short summers are expected to narrow the time-window for reproduction. Both species had a similar breeding period (97 days from laying to fledging) but Antarctic Petrels Thalassoica antarctica bred up to 16 days earlier than Southern Fulmars. During the

JEROEN C. S. CREUWELS; JAN A. VAN FRANEKER; SUSAN J. DOUST; ANNA BEINSSEN; BELINDA HARDING; OLIVER HENTSCHEL

2007-01-01

343

Breeding strategies of Antarctic Petrels Thalassoica antarctica and Southern Fulmars Fulmarus glacialoides in the high Antarctic and implications for reproductive success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding strategies of two closely related fulmarine petrels were studied on Ardery Island, on the continental coast of East Antarctica, where short summers are expected to narrow the time-window for reproduction. Both species had a similar breeding period (97 days from laying to fledging) but Antarctic Petrels Thalassoica antarctica bred up to 16 days earlier than Southern Fulmars. During the

J. C. S. Creuwels; Franeker van J. A; S. J. Doust; A. Beinssen; B. Harding; O. Hentschel

2008-01-01

344

Geology, Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Upper Cretaceous high-K volcanics in the southern Part of the Eastern Pontides: Implications for Mesozoic Geodynamic Evolution of NE Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt is one of the most complex geodynamic settings in the Alpine-Mediterranean region. Its geodynamic evolution is very controversial due to lack of systematic, quantitative structural, geochemical and geochronological data. This belt is divided into three subgroups: northern, southern and axial zones, distinguished from north to south by different lithological units, facies changes and tectonic characteristics.

Y. Eyuboglu

2009-01-01

345

Phytate, zinc, iron and calcium content of selected raw and prepared foods consumed in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia, and implications for bioavailability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representative staple foods from Sidama, Southern Ethiopia, were analyzed for phytate using HPLC, and for Zn, Fe and Ca by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Enset starchy foods had the lowest phytic acid content, followed by fermented injera prepared from tef. Oleaginous seeds (niger and sesame) had the highest phytate content (?1600mg\\/100g). The iron content of raw tef and tef

Yewelsew Abebe; Alemtsehay Bogale; K. Michael Hambidge; Barbara J. Stoecker; Karl Bailey; Rosalind S. Gibson

2007-01-01

346

Active continental rifting in southern Baja California, Mexico: Implications for plate motion partitioning and the transition to seafloor spreading in the Gulf of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three major earthquake series have occurred during the past 30 years on fault systems that are spatially and kinematically distinct from oceanic spreading centers and transform faults in the southern Gulf of California. Focal mechanism solutions for earthquakes of the April 1969 and June 1995 series indicate nearly pure normal displacement across NNW striking planes. This seismicity falls along different

John M. Fletcher; Luis Munguía

2000-01-01

347

Magnetic Properties of Granitic Rocks From the Southern Half of the Idaho Batholith: Influences of Hydrothermal Alteration and Implications for Aeromagnetic Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measured magnetic susceptibilities of rocks from more than 600 outcrops in the southern Idaho batholith have a good spatial correspondence with the observed intensities of magnetic anomalies. Koenigsberger ratios are low (_<0.3) in 75% of cored samples, indicating that remanent magnetizations are unimportant relative to induced magnetizations (which are related to susceptibilities) in aeromagnetic anomaly interpretations in this region.

R. E. Criss; D. E. Champion

1984-01-01

348

Magnetic properties of granitic rocks from the southern half of the idaho batholith: influences of hydrothermal alteration and implications for aeromagnetic interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measured magnetic susceptibilities of rocks from more than 600 outcrops in the southern Idaho batholith have a good spatial correspondence with the observed intensities of magnetic anomalies. Koenigsberger ratios are low (<=0.3) in 75% of cored samples, indicating that remanent magnetizations are unimportant relative to induced magnetizations (which are related to susceptibilities) in aeromagnetic anomaly interpretations in this region.

R. E. Criss; D. E. Champion

1984-01-01

349

Deep Electrical Resistivity Structure of the Kaapvaal and Rehoboth Terranes, Southern Africa, from Broadband Magnetotellurics, and Implications for Archaean and Proterozoic Lithospheric Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The configuration of the Rehoboth Terrane of southern Africa (also known as the Nama or Namibia Province), located beneath thick Kalahari sand cover, has been interpreted to date primarily on the basis of potential field data patterns. The thickness and stabilisation age of the Rehoboth lithosphere, and its tectonic relationship with the adjacent Archaean Kaapvaal Craton, are currently poorly constrained.

Mark R. Muller; Alan G. Jones; Rob L. Evans; Chris Hatton; Xavier Garcia; Mark P. Hamilton; Marion P. Miensopust; Jessica E. Spratt; Shane F. Evans; Andy Mountford; Wayne Pettit; Patrick Cole; Dave Hutchins; C. J. S. Fourie

350

Rapid warming of the ocean around South Georgia, Southern Ocean, during the 20th century: Forcings, characteristics and implications for lower trophic levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Ocean is known to have warmed considerably during the second half of the 20th century but there are few locations with data before the 1950s. In addition, assessments of change in this region are hampered by the strong seasonal bias in sampling, with the vast majority of data collected during the austral summer. However, oceanographic measurements near South

M. J. Whitehouse; M. P. Meredith; P. Rothery; A. Atkinson; P. Ward; R. E. Korb

2008-01-01

351

Geochemistry of Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks from the Birim diamondiferous field, southern Ghana: Implications for provenance and crustal evolution at the Archean-Proterozoic boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metagraywackes and metapelites from the Paleoproterozoic Birimian Supergroup in the Birim diamondiferous field, southern Ghana, were analyzed for their major and trace element contents. Compared to early Proterozoic crust, the metasedimentary rocks are enriched in ferromagnesian elements but depleted in rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE) (with exception of Zr), and Th. They show REE patterns similar

D. K. ASIEDU; S. B. DAMPARE; P. A SAMOAH SAKYI; B. BANOENG-YAKUBO; S. OSAE; B. J. B. NYARKO; J. MANU

352

Right-lateral displacements and the Holocene slip rate associated with prehistoric earthquakes along the southern Panamint Valley fault zone: Implications for southern Basin and Range tectonics and coastal California deformation  

SciTech Connect

The N 20{degree}W-trending Panamint Valley fault zone is linked to the N 60{degree}W-trending Hunter Mountain strike-slip fault and the Saline Valley fault system, which represents on of the three major fault systems accommodating active crustal extension in the southern Great Basin. The displacement associated with the most recent event, determined through six detailed topographic maps of offset features, is 3.2 {plus minus} 0.5 m, and a number of larger offsets, in range of 6-7 m and 12 m, are also observed. If the larger displacements represent, respectively, two and three events, each of {approximately} 3 m, then the fault zone appears to be associated with a characteristic earthquake, which the authors estimate from the length of the rupture zone and the displacement to be between (Ms) 6.5 and 7.2. The Holocene slip rate is 2.36 {plus minus} 0.79 mm/yr, is determined from the displacement of two alluvial features whose maximum age is estimated from pluvial shorelines. Assuming a characterisitc earthquake model, the recurrence interval is between 860 and 2,360 years. The total slip vector of the southern Panamint Valley fault system is oriented toward {approximately} N 35{degree}W, making this a predominately strike-slip fault. In conjunction with the N 60{degree}W orientation of the Hunter mountain strike-slip fault, the authors suggest that the displacement vector for the southern Great Basin is toward the NW, consistent with results from VLBI data, rather than WNW as determined by combining VLBI and geological data. This is turn suggests that the coastal California deformation component involves, respectively, less shortening and more strike-slip displacement perpendicular and parallel to the San Andreas fault than is currently proposed.

Peizhen Zhang; Ellis, M.; Slemmons, D.B.; Fengying Mao (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States))

1990-04-10

353

76 FR 69612 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sudan AGENCY: Department...is amending the International Traffic in Arms Regulations to include the Republic of...pursuant to a United Nations Security Council arms embargo, and to clarify that this...

2011-11-09

354

[IR, Raman and DFT studies of Sudan red III and IV].  

PubMed

Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and normal Raman spectroscopy (NRS) of Sudan red(III) and Sudan red(IV), and surface -enhanced Raman spectroscopy(SERS) of them on Cu-Ag nanocomposite material were reported in the present paper. The density functional theory (DFT) calculation was applied to calculate IR and NRS on a B3LYP/6-311+G (d, p) level, and the theoretically calculated spectra were carefully compared with the obtained experimental spectra. The vibrational peaks were assigned by the software of Gauss view 5.0. Rapid identification of Sudan red was realized, which provided profitable basis for characteristics and quick test of Sudan dyes, and reliable detection method of food security. PMID:23427545

Dou, Wen-Hu; He, Qiang; Zhou, Guang-Ming; Kang, Qian-Qian; Yang, Yuan-Gao; Chen, Jun

2012-12-01

355

48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in SudanâCertification. As prescribed at 25...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in SudanâCertification (AUG 2009) (a)...

2010-10-01

356

48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in SudanâCertification. As prescribed at 25...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in SudanâCertification (AUG 2009) (a)...

2009-10-01

357

74 FR 69355 - Extension of the Designation of Sudan for Temporary Protected Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) signed...militia groups and two principal Darfuri opposition groups--the Sudanese Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)....

2009-12-31

358

75 FR 67585 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13400, the President determined that the conflict in Sudan's Darfur region posed an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national...with respect to the national emergency and to implement the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 (Public Law...

2010-11-02

359

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...13400, the President determined that the conflict in Sudan's Darfur region posed an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national...with respect to the national emergency and to implement the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 (Public Law...

2013-01-01

360

77 FR 66357 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13400, the President determined that the conflict in Sudan's Darfur region posed an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national...with respect to the national emergency and to implement the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 (Public Law...

2012-11-02

361

76 FR 68053 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13400, the President determined that the conflict in Sudan's Darfur region posed an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national...with respect to the national emergency and to implement the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 (Public Law...

2011-11-02

362

Archean Sedimentation and Tectonics in Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sequences in the Barberton Mountain Land greenstone belt (southern Africa) were examined to determine the nature of the sedimentary rocks, their tectonic implications, and their bearing on the present large-scale structural condition of the belt. Also ass...

W. S. F. Kidd

1984-01-01

363

Assessment of effectiveness of China aid in financing development in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper fills the gap in the Sudanese literature and discusses the\\u000aeffectiveness of Chinese aid for financing development in Sudan using\\u000anew primary data at the micro level. We find that the Chinese share in\\u000atotal loans and grants offered to Sudan greatly increased from 17% in\\u000a1999 to 73% in 2007 out of total loans and grants offered

Samia Satti Osman Mohamed Nour

2011-01-01

364

Comprehensive impurity profiling and quantification of Sudan III dyes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel analysis strategy was created for comprehensive qualitative and quantitative impurity profiling of the coloring agent Sudan III by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The identification of impurities in commercial Sudan III was performed by GC/MS combined with trimethylsilylation (TMS). A total of 24 impurities were identified or tentatively characterized in commercial Sudan III dyes by GC/MS and were mainly classified as phenylazo and naphtholazo analogs. Four new impurities with coplanar structures, suspected of being toxic compounds, were observed in commercial Sudan III dyes. For further identification and sensitive detection of polar impurities, an extract was trimethylsilyl-derivatized to improve the GC chromatographic properties and mass spectrometric detection sensitivity. On the basis of the impurities identified by GC/MS, pathways for the formation of the major impurities during the manufacture of Sudan III were suggested. Four impurities regulated by the EU commission and the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in Sudan III were quantified by GC/MS-scan mode. Method validation was conducted to determine linearity, precision, accuracy, and limit of quantification (LOQ). The linear dynamic range extended from 0.001 to 4.0%, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) greater than 0.997 for GC/MS. The LOQs of the impurities ranged from 2.73 to 4.39?g/g for GC/MS. Based on the established method, the levels of regulated impurities in five commercial Sudan III dyes manufactured by different chemical companies were successfully determined. This study provides very useful information for the quality control of Sudan III and evaluation of its manufacture. PMID:23726074

Hong, Ji Yeon; Park, Na Hyun; Yoo, Kyung Ho; Hong, Jongki

2013-04-29

365

Bromine-Sudan Black: a general stain for lipids including free cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Preliminary bromination (with bromine water) increases the intensity of staining of tissue lipids with Sudan Black and certain other dyes. The mechanism appears to be due to the formation of sudanophilic bromo-derivatives of cholesterol and to the retention of certain other lipids, notably phosphatidyl choline and free fatty acids, during staining. The advantage of the bromine-Sudan Black method is that

O. B. Bayliss; C. W. M. Adams

1972-01-01

366

Using apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry to resolve regional unroofing patterns across the interior of the southern African Plateau and implications for mantle dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern African Plateau is a long wavelength physiographic feature characterized by elevated Archean and Proterozoic cratonic lithosphere surrounded by a horseshoe shaped "Great Escarpment" which drops to the coastal plane. The average elevation of the plateau interior is ~1 km, ~0.5 km higher than average cratons. Unlike other major continental plateaus, southern Africa is surrounded by divergent margins which formed during the Jurassic breakup of Gondwana. The mechanisms for plateau uplift are intensely debated and include mantle drivers such as shallow convection or dynamic topography related to the southern African superplume. Constraining the timing and patterns of uplift can help to differentiate these competing explanations for the high topography. Thermochronological studies can yield critical information regarding unroofing histories to help decipher the timing and causes of plateau elevation gain. Previous studies using apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology mostly focused on transects across southern portions of the Great Escarpment. However, despite its importance for resolving large-scale unroofing patterns, there is limited thermochronological information from the plateau interior. This is in part because the temperature sensitivity of the AFT system may be somewhat higher than that required to tightly resolve the lower magnitudes of unroofing in the plateau interior relative to the coastal plain. The (U-Th)/He system in apatite (AHe) is particularly well-suited to this problem because its sensitivity to temperatures as low as ~30°C allows unroofing events in the upper 1-2 km of crust to be detected. Here we present the first AHe dataset from a broad swath across the interior of the plateau from northern South Africa and Botswana. New AHe data for eight Proterozoic diabase samples yield Cretaceous dates that display an interesting bimodal distribution of data. These results suggest at least 1.5 km of unroofing across this portion of the plateau interior since Cretaceous time. The only published AHe data for southern Africa (Flowers and Schoene 2009) comes from across the Great Escarpment in the Barberton region of South Africa and Swaziland. Those results are also Cretaceous with dates clustering ~100 Ma. Our new data, when combined with the previously published results, complete a large scale, ~900 km long, transect of AHe data from the coastal plain across the Great Escarpment well into the interior of the plateau. This full dataset suggests an intriguing spatial variability in dates, and shows the promise of using AHe data to decipher unroofing patterns across the continent to help better understand the mantle processes responsible for the rise of the southern African Plateau.

Stanley, J. R.; Flowers, R. M.

2011-12-01

367

A comparison of the physics of the northern and southern shelves of the eastern Bering Sea and some implications for the ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sufficient oceanographic measurements have been made in recent years to describe the latitudinal variation in the physics of the eastern Bering Sea shelf and the potential impact of climate change on the species assemblages in the two ecosystems (north and south). Many of the predicted ecosystem changes will result from alterations in the timing and extent of sea ice. It is predicted that the sea ice in the northern Bering Sea will be less common in May, but will continue to be extensive through April. In contrast, the southern shelf will have, on average, much less sea ice than currently observed, but with large interannual and multiyear variability until at least 2050. Thus, even under current climate warming scenarios, bottom temperatures on the northern shelf will remain cold. Based on biophysical measurements, the southern and northern ecosystems were divided by a North-South Transition at ˜60°N. The northern middle shelf was characterized by a freshwater lens at the surface, cold bottom temperatures, and a thicker pycnocline than found on the southern shelf. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms were common. In contrast, the southern shelf stratification was largely determined by temperature alone; the pycnocline was thin (often<3 m) and subsurface blooms were uncommon. Biological responses to climate warming could include greater north-south differences in zooplankton community structure, the transport of large Outer Shelf Domain crustacean zooplankton to the middle shelf, and the disappearance of two principal prey taxa (Calanus spp. and Thysanoessa spp.) of planktivorous fish, seabirds and whales. The response of commercially and ecologically important fish species is predicted to vary. Some species of fish (e.g., juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka) may expand their summer range into the northern Bering Sea; some (e.g., pink salmon, O. gorbuscha) may increase in abundance while still other species (e.g., walleye pollock and arrowtooth flounder; Theragra chalcogramma and Atheresthes stomias, respectively) are unlikely to become common in the north. The projected warming of the southern shelf will limit the distribution of arctic species (e.g., snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio) to the northern shelf and will likely permit expansion of subarctic species into the southern Bering Sea. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales will respond to shifts in prey availability; for instance, if prey are advected northward from the southeastern Bering Sea, an extension of range and an increase in seasonally migratory baleen whale numbers is anticipated. Thus, alteration of this ecosystem in response to climate change is expected to result in something other than a simple northward shift in the distribution of all species.

Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Kachel, Nancy B.; Moore, Sue; Mordy, Calvin W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Overland, James E.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Sigler, Michael F.

2012-06-01

368

Male attitudes towards family planning in Khartoum, Sudan.  

PubMed

Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and use of contraception were investigated in a 1982 survey of 250 men living in Khartoum, Sudan. Interviews were conducted at mosques, marketplaces, a government office building, and a textile factory. 75% of respondents were ages 21-40. 92% of respondents expressed the belief that Khartoum is overcrowded, although this was attributed by 57% to rural-urban migration. Despite the fact that 85-95% linked overpopulation with social problems such as inflation, food shortages, and unemployment, 72% expressed a desire for 5 or more children. Only 30% of the men interviewed supported the concept of family size limitation, largely for economic reasons. The majority of those opposing family size limitation cited religious reasons. Attitudes toward child spacing were more favorable, with 80% indicating approval 59% of the men with wives at risk of pregnancy reported that they were using some form of contraception, but only 21% were using an effective method. Two-thirds of respondents reported that they do not discuss contraception with their spouse. 60% identified either the mass media or friends and relatives as their source of family planning information. Although 64% indicated an awarencess of where to obtain family planning services, only 2.8% had ever received services from a family planning clinic. 79% voiced an interest in more information on family planning, and 59% with wives of reproductive age wanted to use family planning services. Most respondents desired more information on sexual sterilization and, although surgical contraception is not available in Sudan, 10% said they would consider this method when they attained their desired family size. The belief that family size should be limited increased dramatically with education, from 9% among those with no formal schooling to 45% among men with 13 or more years of school. Men under 40 years of age had more favorable attitudes toward family planning than older men. Surprisingly, men interviewed at mosques had the most favorable attitudes whereas government employees were the most conservative. Overall, these fndings suggest that the present family planning clinic system in Sudan may be falling short of meeting the demand for information services. PMID:6490682

Mustafa, M A; Mumford, S D

1984-10-01

369

The curious case of the date of introduction of leaded fuel to Australia: Implications for the history of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric lead pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By comparison with the Northern Hemisphere, the history of atmospheric lead pollution in the Southern Hemisphere is still poorly understood. Until recently, the main source of atmospheric lead fallout in the Southern Hemisphere was tetraethyl lead from motor fuel and for most of the 20th century the most important single source of this pollutant was Australia. Yet there is little agreement over when leaded fuel made its first appearance in Australia. Reported dates range from the early 1920s to the late 1940s. A study of oil company advertisements and reports in motoring and oil company journals shows that leaded petrol first became available in Australia in August 1932. This date is important both for the reconstruction of lead pollution histories and in the use of lead stratigraphies to determine chronology.

Cook, D. E.; Gale, S. J.

370

Crustal architecture beneath Madurai Block, southern India deduced from magnetotelluric studies: Implications for subduction–accretion tectonics associated with Gondwana assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Madurai Block in southern India is considered to represent the eroded roots of an arc-accretionary complex that developed during the subduction–collision tectonics associated with the closure of the Mozambique Ocean and final suturing of the crustal fragments within the Gondwana supercontinent in the Late Neoproterozoic–Cambrian. Here we present a magnetotelluric (MT) model covering the main collisional suture (Palghat–Cauvery Suture

K. Naganjaneyulu; M. Santosh

2011-01-01

371

Genetic Diversity of the Outer Surface Protein C Gene of Southern Borrelia Isolates and Its Possible Epidemiological, Clinical, and Pathogenetic Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ospC genes of 20 southern Borrelia strains were sequenced. The strains consisted of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. andersonii, B. bissettii, one undescribed genospecies, MI-8, and one probably new Borrelia species, TXW-1. A high degree of similarity exists between B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. bissettii and between B. bissettii and B. andersonii. Lateral transfers of the ospC gene

Tao Lin; James H. Oliver; Lihui Gao

2002-01-01

372

Changes in the source and transport mechanism of terrigenous input to the Indian sector of Southern Ocean during the late Quaternary and its palaeoceanographic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the terrigenous sediment source and transport mechanisms during the late Quaternary have been investigated using\\u000a four sediment cores within the Indian sector of Southern Ocean, using the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and sedimentological\\u000a records. Sediments deposited during the Holocene and other interglacial periods were characterised by low MS, low sand content,\\u000a reduced ice-rafted detritus (IRD) input and increased illite

M. Thamban; S. S. Naik; R. Mohan; A. Rajakumar; N. Basavaiah; Witty D’Souza; Sarita Kerkar; M. M. Subramaniam; M. Sudhakar; P. C. Pandey

2005-01-01

373

Implications and concerns of deep-seated disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water using three-dimensional contaminant transport model in Bhit Area, Dadu District of Southern Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional contaminant transport model has been developed to simulate and monitor the migration of disposal of hydrocarbon\\u000a exploration produced water in Injection well at 2,100 m depth in the Upper Cretaceous Pab sandstone, Bhit area in Dadu district\\u000a of Southern Pakistan. The regional stratigraphic and structural geological framework of the area, landform characteristics,\\u000a meteorological parameters, and hydrogeological milieu have been

Zulfiqar Ahmad; Gulraiz Akhter; Arshad Ashraf; Alan Fryar

2010-01-01

374

Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of Paleogene turbidite deposits in the southern Aegean (Karpathos Island, SE Greece): Implications for provenance and tectonic setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provenance and depositional setting of Paleogene turbidite sediments from the southern Aegean are investigated using petrography and whole-rock geochemistry. Petrography indicates that Karpathos Island turbidites are consisting of compositionally immature sandstones (graywackes–litharenites) derived from igneous (plutonic–volcanic), sedimentary, low-grade metamorphic and ophiolitic sources. The studied sediments probably reflect a mixing from an eroded magmatic arc and from quartzose, recycled sources.

G. Pantopoulos; A. Zelilidis

375

International Aid as Informal Educator: Exploring Political Attitudes and Engagement in Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scholarship has isolated internal economic conditions and political institutions as essential factors in political development and democracy-building, this research suggests that external influences are at play. During times of civil war and post-conflict reconstruction, governmental and socioeconomic structures are likely weak or nonexistent,…

Pagen, Christine Mary

2010-01-01

376

‘Humanitarianism that harms’: A critique of NGO charity in Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of intra?state conflicts is challenging those international agencies which, directly or indirectly, offer assistance to people affected by disasters. International interventions in intra?state conflicts have become more complex, and the humanitarian mandate of such agencies has expanded beyond emergency relief interventions. Some agencies now insist, not only they must do something to relieve the effects of armed conflicts,

Soforonio Efuk

2000-01-01

377

Education in Emergencies and Early Reconstruction: UNICEF Interventions in Colombia, Liberia, and Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broad access to quality, child-friendly education in emergencies is a critical component of early reconstruction and development. As a class of graduate students at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, our goal is to make a modest contribution to the field of education in emergencies by working…

Beleli, Ozsel; Chang, Victoria; Feigelson, Michael J.; Kopel-Bailey, Jules A.; Maak, Sheila A.; Mnookin, Jacob P.; Nguyen, Thu H.; Salazar, Mariana; Sinderbrand, Joy E.; Tafoya, Simon N.

2007-01-01

378

Community health in a rural area of Sudan.  

PubMed

A community survey was conducted in Al awayda village, one of eight villages selected for study in the rural Gezira province of Sudan. The objective of the survey was to identify the main health, social and economic problems of people in rural areas and to set priorities as a first phase in a rural development program. The results showed a high illiteracy rate and poor socioeconomic status aggravated by the drought and famine which affected this area of Africa in the years 1983-85. There was an inadequate safe water supply, poor environmental sanitation and inadequate primary health care services. The major disease problems were malaria, diarrheal diseases and schistosomiasis. The implementation of primary health care services with special emphasis on maternal and child health and health education is a clear need. The impact of Sennar Sugar Agricultural Scheme on this village is also discussed. PMID:2212096

Taha, A Z; Merghani, O A

1990-08-01

379

Nairobi fly (Paederus) dermatitis in South Sudan: a case report.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old nursing student working in Juba, South Sudan, suddenly developed a rash over her mid-right clavicle. Beginning as a 10-cm-diameter erythematous patch with an irregular border, within 24 hours it had developed an increasingly gray, necrotic center, appearing similar to a burn. The patient was seen by 2 local physicians without a diagnosis being made. Ultimately, it was diagnosed as being caused by the toxic hemolymph, pederin, from the Nairobi fly (Paederus). The rash usually affects body parts not covered by clothing; healing time ranges from 7 to 28 days, usually with permanent skin discoloration. Preventive measures include typical antivector precautions, including bed nets, long-sleeve clothing, and avoiding fluorescent lights. If the beetles are found on the skin, brushing them off, rather than crushing them, avoids producing dermatitis. Treatment includes rapidly washing the affected area, applying cold, wet compresses, and possibly treating with antibiotics, steroids, and antihistamines. PMID:22683362

Iserson, Kenneth V; Walton, Emily K

2012-06-09

380

Population Genetics of Trypanosoma evansi from Camel in the Sudan  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation of microsatellite loci is a widely used method for the analysis of population genetic structure of microorganisms. We have investigated genetic variation at 15 microsatellite loci of T. evansi isolated from camels in Sudan and Kenya to evaluate the genetic information partitioned within and between individuals and between sites. We detected a strong signal of isolation by distance across the area sampled. The results also indicate that either, and as expected, T. evansi is purely clonal and structured in small units at very local scales and that there are numerous allelic dropouts in the data, or that this species often sexually recombines without the need of the “normal” definitive host, the tsetse fly or as the recurrent immigration from sexually recombined T. brucei brucei. Though the first hypothesis is the most likely, discriminating between these two incompatible hypotheses will require further studies at much localized scales.

Salim, Bashir; de Meeus, Thierry; Bakheit, Mohammed A.; Kamau, Joseph; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2011-01-01

381

A population study in cotton ginnery workers in the Sudan  

PubMed Central

Khogali, M. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 308-313. A population study in cotton ginnery workers in the Sudan. An epidemiological study in cotton ginneries in the Sudan covered 323 permanently employed ginnery workers, a random sample of 35 seasonal farfara workers, and a control group of 24 members of a fire brigade. All the workers studied were men. The study showed a prevalence of byssinosis (defined as chest tightness starting on return from the annual holiday and continuing for at least three consecutive days) in 20% of the ginnery workers and in 48·6% of the farfara workers. Workers exposed to dust showed a mean fall in F.E.V.1·0 of -0·10 litre during the shift, while workers not so exposed showed a mean rise of +0·23 litre; this difference was statistically significant. The F.E.V.1·0 was adjusted for age and standing height. The adjusted means of F.E.V.1·0 were significantly lower for workers exposed to dust compared with those in the control group. The workers with byssinosis showed a statistically significant fall in F.E.V.1·0 when compared with all ginnery workers; and a highly significant fall when compared with cotton workers without chest symptoms. An attempt was made to grade the byssinotics according to the extent of fall in F.E.V.1·0 during the shift. The concentration of fine dust (< 7 ?) was measured in each work place. There was a statistically significant association between the prevalence of byssinosis and the concentration of fine dust when comparing the ginnery and farfara workers. Also, there was a significant relationship between the mean adjusted F.E.V.1·0, the mean fall in F.E.V.1·0, and the fine dust concentration.

Khogali, Mustafa

1969-01-01

382

The vibrational studies and theoretical investigation of structure, electronic and non-linear optical properties of Sudan III [1-{[4-(phenylazo) phenyl]azo}-2-naphthalenol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure, electronic and NLO properties, NBO analysis were studied for Sudan III.The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of Sudan III were recorded.The calculated vibrational frequencies are in good accordance with experimentally measured values.

Esme, Asl?; Sagdinc, Seda Gunesdogdu

2013-09-01

383

Strong thermodynamic imprint on Recent bottom-water and epibenthic ?13C in the Weddell Sea revealed: Implications for glacial Southern Ocean ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleonutrient proxies are widely used to reconstruct the geometry of deep-water masses during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Epibenthic ?13C provides best spatial coverage, and artifacts are well investigated. Discrepancies between reconstructed LGM-circulation patterns derived from models or different benthic nutrient proxies can partly be resolved by varying air-sea signatures of ?13C, i.e. ?13Cas. However, there are very few data available to calculate a ?13Cas of modern bottom water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ?13C, and to document how this signal is recorded in benthic foraminiferal ?13C. Here I show that today bottom water in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean is 13C enriched with ?13CDIC values between 0.4 and 1.0‰ and ?13Cas values > 0.4‰, and that this signal is recorded in live and dead epibenthic ?13C. This is in contrast to a uniform modern Antarctic circumpolar ?13CDIC of rather 0.4‰, which hitherto is used as modern framework to compare to low LGM ?13CDIC of southern sourced bottom-water and glacial inter basin differences. I conclude that a potential reduction of the strong Recent thermodynamic imprint during bottom-water generation in glacial times could explain depleted circum Antarctic 13CDIC without associated CO2 enrichment and anoxia in Antarctic bottom waters. The present synoptic compilation of ?13CDIC and live benthic foraminifera ?13C is in support of hypotheses that explain low LGM ?13C by a depletion of southern end-member 13CDIC due to extensive sea-ice formation with low ?13Cas-brine rejection and diminished air-sea gas exchange.

Mackensen, Andreas

2012-02-01

384

Inclination shallowing in Eocene Linzizong sedimentary rocks from Southern Tibet: correction, possible causes and implications for reconstructing the India-Asia collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic reconstructions, particularly those used in climate models and to date collisional events in convergent orogenic systems, such as those surrounding the Neotethys. Here we report palaeomagnetic inclinations from the sedimentary Eocene upper Linzizong Group of Southern Tibet that are ˜20° lower than conformable underlying volcanic units. At face value, the palaeomagnetic results from these sedimentary rocks suggest the southern margin of Asia was located ˜10°N, which is inconsistent with recent reviews of the palaeolatitude of Southern Tibet. We apply two different correction methods to estimate the magnitude of inclination shallowing independently from the volcanics. The mean inclination is corrected from 20.5° to 40.0° within 95 per cent confidence limits between 33.1° and 49.5° by the elongation/inclination (E/I) correction method; an anisotropy-based inclination correction method steepens the mean inclination to 41.3 ± 3.3° after a curve fitting- determined particle anisotropy of 1.39 is applied. These corrected inclinations are statistically indistinguishable from the well-determined 40.3 ± 4.5º mean inclination of the underlying volcanic rocks that provides an independent check on the validity of these correction methods. Our results show that inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks can be corrected. Careful inspection of stratigraphic variations of rock magnetic properties and remanence anisotropy suggests shallowing was caused mainly by a combination of syn- and post-depositional processes such as particle imbrication and sedimentary compaction that vary in importance throughout the section. Palaeolatitudes calculated from palaeomagnetic directions from Eocene sedimentary rocks of the upper Linzizong Group that have corrected for inclination shallowing are consistent with palaeolatitude history of the Lhasa terrane, and suggest that the India-Asia collision began at ˜20°N by 45-55 Ma.

Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Hallot, Erwan

2013-09-01

385

Segmentation of the southern part of the Outer Hebrides Fault Zone (NW Scotland). Implications on the seismotectonic behaviour of large-scale crustal faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crustal-scale Outer Hebrides Fault Zone (OHFZ) in NW Scotland is a complex fault zone which cuts Precambrian gneisses and which was active, with varied kinematics, at several epochs between the Proterozoic and the Mesozoic. It is outlined by a series of fault rocks formed under ductile to brittle conditions. The southern part of the Outer Hebrides Fault Zone, exposed in South Uist, Eriskay and Barra, is outlined by pseudotachylytes and cataclasites presumably formed by reverse motion during the brittle stages of the Caledonian orogeny about 430 Ma ago. Analysis of published geological maps and detailed field mapping between latitudes N56°54' and N57°17' show that the OHFZ consists of two segments. Between N57°07' and N57°17', the northern segment emplaces a banded granulite-textured metadiorite, forming the so-called Corodale gneiss, upon Lewisian gneiss. This fault segment is characterised by moderate deformation in the footwall. The hanging-wall consists of a pseudotachylyte sole whose thickness is comprised between 2 and 10 m and which is overlain by a cataclastic zone whose thickness ranges from a few meters to more than 50 m, locally reaching 250 m. Between N56°54' and N57°07', the hanging-wall and footwall of the southern segment both consist of Lewisian gneiss but with different metamorphic grades. Unlike the northern segment, the southern segment is characterized by numerous pseudotachylyte-bearing thrust surfaces along which the pseudotachylyte thickness seldom exceeds 0.5 m. In summary, seismic deformation along the northern segment appears localized and is associated with significant cataclasis, whereas along the southern segment, seismic deformation is essentially distributed, with limited formation of pseudotachylyte and very little cataclasis. The segmentation likely reflects the contrasted mineralogical compositions and the texture of the rocks from the hanging-wall. The Corodale gneiss mainly consists of an assemblage of minerals (opx-cpx-gt-pl) whose friction melting susceptibilities are higher than the mineralogical assemblage of the Lewisian gneiss (qz-pl-kf- bi and minor hbl-px). Similarly, unlike the Lewisian gneiss, the Corodale gneiss is devoid of any planar fabric. These differences may account for the preferred development of cataclasites in Corodale gneiss. The segmentation is further discussed by comparison with modern earthquake ruptures.

Souquiere, F.; Fabbri, O.

2008-12-01

386

Provenance and tectonic settings of Permian turbidites from the Beishan Mountains, NW China: Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the southern Altaids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Beishan orogenic belt, which connects the Tianshan suture on the west and Solonker suture on the east, contains key evidence for the termination time of the southern Altaids. Critical for evaluating different controversial tectonic models are Permian marine volcaniclastic arenites in the Liuyuan and Heishankou areas, which are dominated by greywackes and lenticular pebbly litharenites that contain grading, groove marks, and erosional bases, which provide evidence of turbidity action. Sandstones from the Liuyuan section are dominated by angular basaltic, andesitic, and feldspar fragments, but sandstones from the Heishankou section mainly consist of andesitic and felsic volcanic fragments. These relations suggest derivation from two different sources. Major element compositions suggest that the source rocks of the Heishankou litharenites were more SiO2-rich than those at Liuyuan. Sandstones at Heishankou are characterized by lower Ni-Co-Cr-V and slightly higher Th and La contents than those at Liuyuan. This indicates that the litharenites in the Liuyuan and Heishankou areas were derived from intermediate-mafic and intermediate-felsic source rocks, respectively. Tectonic setting discrimination plots suggest that the Liuyuan sandstones were deposited as detritus from an oceanic island arc, but the Heishankou sediments from an Andean continental margin. Our petrological and geochemical data from these two types of Permian turbidites suggest that an arc-continent collision took place in the Early Permian, and this is consistent with the Permian termination of the southern Altaids.

Guo, Qianqian; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Mao, Qigui; Han, Chunming; Qu, Junfeng; Ao, Songjian; Li, Jiliang; Song, Dongfang; Yong, Yong

2012-04-01

387

Late Cretaceous protolith age and provenance of the Pelona and Orocopia Schists, southern California: Implications for evolution of the Cordilleran margin  

SciTech Connect

The Pelona and Orocopia Schists are southern members of a eugeoclinal terrane that structurally underlies a large part of southwestern North America. Ion-microprobe U-Pb ages of >100 detrital zircons from three widely spaced samples of these two units indicate that deposition occurred after 70--80 Ma. Moreover, the distribution of zircon ages, including a significant peak centered ca. 1.7 Ga, implies a major contribution f detritus from the Mojave Desert and Transverse Ranges of southern California. Recrystallization of the schists at depths of 20--35 km occurred within 10--15 m.y. of deposition, which requires underthrusting at minimum rates of {approximately}4--12 mm/yr for reasonable thrust dips. Considering that similar processes formed the more northern Rand Schist at somewhat earlier times, results indicate a southward progression in timing of deformation for the schists' protoliths. This result is at odds with northward migration of deformation implied by the Baja British Columbia hypothesis. The age and provenance of the schist's protoliths are consistent with models that derive the schists from either the Franciscan Complex or Great Valley Group.

Jacobson, C.E.; Barth, A.P.; Grove, M.

2000-03-01

388

Geology, Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Upper Cretaceous high-K volcanics in the southern Part of the Eastern Pontides: Implications for Mesozoic Geodynamic Evolution of NE Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Pontide Orogenic Belt is one of the most complex geodynamic settings in the Alpine-Mediterranean region. Its geodynamic evolution is very controversial due to lack of systematic, quantitative structural, geochemical and geochronological data. This belt is divided into three subgroups: northern, southern and axial zones, distinguished from north to south by different lithological units, facies changes and tectonic characteristics. Especially, the southern zone is very attractive with its numerous rock associations such as alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic intrusions, shoshonitic and ultrapotassic volcanics, adakitic magmatics, glaucophane-bearing gabbros, metamorphic and ultramafic massifes. This study focuses on the petrology, geotectonic setting and evidence for subduction polarity of the Upper Cretaceous shoshonitic and ultrapotassic volcanics exposed in the most southerly part of the eastern Pontide magmatic arc. Geological, geochemical and isotopic data indicate that there were two distinct cycles of high-K volcanic activity in the southern part of the eastern Pontide magmatic arc during the Late Cretaceous. The first cycle (Early Campanian), represented by shoshonitic trachyandesites and associated pyroclastics, containing high K2O (2.74-4.81 wt %) and Na2O (3.60-5.51 wt %), overlies the Middle-Cretaceous ophiolitic-olistostromal melange formed during the rifting stage of a back-arc basin (Neotethys). The second cycle of high-K volcanism is characterized by potassic or ultrapotassic analcime-bearing volcanics, erupted in a lagoonal environment during the Maastrichtian. Progressive shallowing of the basin indicates that Upper Cretaceous high-K volcanism developed during the final stage of pull-apart basin development in the southern zone of the eastern Pontides. These volcanic rocks, intercalated with continental detritus, are characterized by high Na2O (3.22-7.16 wt %) concentrated in secondary analcime crystals. Their K2O contents also range between 0.83 and 6.05 (wt %). Volcanic rocks belonging to both cycles have remarkable similarity in their trace and rare earth element concentrations and display variable enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), high field strength elements (HFSE), light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) with respect to primitive mantle and chondrite. Negative Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and Ti anomalies are typical of subduction-related arc magmas. In addition, Nd-Sr and Pb isotope ratios of the investigated volcanics support that they are products of a similar mantle source. Undoubtedly, the existence of the subduction-related high-K volcanics in the southern part of the eastern Pontide magmatic arc is very important for interpretation of subduction polarity. Southward subduction of the Paleotethys oceanic crust during Mesozoic can be separated into two main stages. The first stage of southward subduction ended with slab break-off of the old and dense part of the Paleotethys oceanic crust during the Mid-Cretaceous. This process caused upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle and opening of the back-arc basins in the eastern Pontides. Middle Cretaceous olistostromal ophiolitic mélange formed on the transitional crust or on true oceanic crust restricted by deep spreading troughs of the pull-apart basins. Deformation of the deep-spreading troughs, in which the mélange formed, was initially extensional (drifting stage) but became increasingly compressional (infilling stage) as the strike-slip cycle was completed. Southward migration of the Upper Cretaceous volcanism in the eastern Pontides (arranged TH-CA in the north, CA-A in the south and shoshonitic-ultrapotassic in the far south) implies that the remaining undepleted part of Paleotethys oceanic crust continued to subduct southward. In addition, intense volcanic activity and emplacement of granite, gabbro and diorite intrusions in the northern part of the arc caused break-up of the Malm-Lower Cretaceous carbonate platform during the Upper Cretaceous.

Eyuboglu, Y.

2009-04-01

389

Implications of Small-Scale Superimposed Bedforms on the Morphodynamics and Sediment Transport Patterns on the Lower Shoreface in the Southern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shoreface connected ridges (length up to a few kilometers, height up to a few meters) on the shoreface of the Island of Spiekeroog in the southern North Sea have been shown to be rather stable over decades and possibly hundreds of years (Flemming and Davis 1994). Recent high-resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys have revealed patterns of small-scale bedforms (length and height up to 10 m and 0.3 m, respectively) superimposed on the ridge-trough morphology across the entire lower shoreface. In general, the flood current velocities, measured at 1 m above the bottom are as much as 47% higher than ebb counterparts (Antia et al., 1995). Exceptions are the landward flanks of and troughs between the shoreface connected ridges where higher ebb velocities have been recorded. The superimposed megaripple-scale bedforms imply a net shoreward sediment transport on the seaward flanks of the shoreface connected ridges at a low angle to the ridge crest. Sediment reaching the crest and being pushed over to the landward side is then transported seaward by occasionally dominating ebb currents there. Storm events, having generally an erosive effect on the shoreface, tend to increase the amplitude of the shoreface connected ridges, i.e. amplify the morphodynamic feedback mechanisms. Recovery of the seabed after ordinary winter storms occurs in time scales less than a month. Hence, the ridge maintenance seems to be controlled by the fair-weather tidal currents that are competent to transport fine to medium sands during a considerable part of the tidal cycle. The suggested sediment transport circulation mechanism is consistent with the long term stability of the shoreface connected ridges as well as high sediment mobility on the seabed. References Antia, E.E., Flemming, B.W. and Wefer, G. 1995. Calm-weather spring and neap tidal current characteristics on a shoreface-connected ridge complex in the German Bight, southern North Sea. Geo-Marine Letters 15, 30-36. Flemming, B.W. and Davis, R.A. Jr. 1994. Holocene Evolution, Morphodynamics and Sedimentology of the Spiekeroog Barrier Island System (Southern North Sea). Senckenbergiana maritima 24, 117-155.

Noormets, R.; Flemming, B.; Ernstsen, V.; Winter, C.; Hebbeln, D.

2004-12-01

390

Magnetic solid-phase extraction and ultrafast liquid chromatographic detection of Sudan dyes in red wines, juices, and mature vinegars.  

PubMed

A nanocomposite of polystyrene-coated magnetic nanoparticles was successfully synthesized and employed as adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of four Sudan dyes (I, II III, and IV) in red wines, juices, and mature vinegars. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles with highly hydrophobic properties have excellent adsorption capacity for these lipophilic Sudan dyes. Extraction conditions were optimized. Experimental results showed that the recoveries of the four Sudan dyes were very satisfactory when 70 mg of polystyrene-coated magnetic nanoparticles were used and the extraction could be completed within 20 min. It was proved that these magnetic nanoparticles can be reused after an easy washing process. By coupling the magnetic solid-phase extraction with ultrafast liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrometry, a rapid, green, effective, and sensitive method for the determination of Sudan dyes was developed. The LOD for Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, and Sudan IV were 0.0039, 0.0063, 0.0057, and 0.017 ng/mL, respectively. Recoveries obtained by analyzing spiked water samples at three concentration levels (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 ng/mL) were between 76.3 and 96.6%. The intra- and interday RSDs for the analytes were lower than 9.6%. PMID:23184374

Yu, Xi; Sun, Ying; Jiang, Chun-Zhu; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yuan-Peng; Zhang, Han-Qi; Song, Da-Qian

2012-12-01

391

Midterm evaluation of USAID (US Agency for International Development) Sudan Energy Planning and Management Project (650-0059)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1984, the United States Agency for International Development's mission in Sudan implemented the Energy Planning and Management Project to strengthen several key institutions in the energy sector of Sudan. One component of the project focused on improving management, billing and collection, pricing, purchasing and stores, and vehicle operation and maintenance in the National Electricity Corporation. The other major component

D. W. Jones; J. P. Stovall; J. G. Raby; D. R. Younger; C. A. Pryor

1988-01-01

392

31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan...30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan...under a contract entered into prior to November 4, 1997 (a âpre-existing...

2013-07-01

393

Impact of extreme rainfall in the central Sudan during 1999 as a partial analogue for reconstructing early Holocene prehistoric environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 1999 was an exceptionally wet year, with severe floods in China, India and Australia and very high flow in the Nile. In Sudan, the July rainfall was unusually early and heavy, and persistent rains throughout August and early September caused severe floods in much of central Sudan, including Khartoum.The synoptic conditions historically associated with extreme rainfall events in

Martin Williams; Justin Nottage

2006-01-01

394

Further studies on bluetongue and bluetongue-related orbiviruses in the Sudan.  

PubMed Central

The seasonal incidence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in Central Sudan is related primarily to fluctuations in the prevalence of the vector, Culicoides imicola. Population densities of this midge begin to rise with the onset of precipitation and peak during October, before falling sharply at the end of the rainy season in November. These are also the months of BTV transmission. Populations of C. schultzei, the commonest midge in Central Sudan, are also related to the rainy season but this species does not seem to be involved with BTV transmission. BTV serotype 2 was isolated from C. imicola confirming the status of this midge as a known vector but a second isolate of the same serotype was made from a mixed pool of Culicoides not including C. imicola. This suggests that BTV transmission in the Sudan may involve more than one species of Culicoides. Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 4 and a palyam virus were isolated from C. schultzei which indicates that this species may be involved in the transmission of BT-related viruses. Seven further virus isolates from sentinel calves at Shambat (Khartoum) confirmed the presence of BTV serotypes 1, 4 and 16, and an untyped EHDV (designated 318) in the Sudan. All of the viruses isolated and identified during the course of this work are recorded from the Sudan for the first time. Images Fig. 3

Mohammed, M. E.; Mellor, P. S.

1990-01-01

395

Human African Trypanosomiasis in South Sudan: How Can We Prevent a New Epidemic?  

PubMed Central

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has been a major public health problem in South Sudan for the last century. Recurrent outbreaks with a repetitive pattern of responding-scaling down activities have been observed. Control measures for outbreak response were reduced when the prevalence decreased and/or socio-political crisis erupted, leading to a new increase in the number of cases. This paper aims to raise international awareness of the threat of another outbreak of sleeping sickness in South Sudan. It is a review of the available data, interventions over time, and current reports on the status of HAT in South Sudan. Since 2006, control interventions and treatments providing services for sleeping sickness have been reduced. Access to HAT diagnosis and treatment has been considerably diminished. The current status of control activities for HAT in South Sudan could lead to a new outbreak of the disease unless 1) the remaining competent personnel are used to train younger staff to resume surveillance and treatment in the centers where HAT activities have stopped, and 2) control of HAT continues to be given priority even when the number of cases has been substantially reduced. Failure to implement an effective and sustainable system for HAT control and surveillance will increase the risk of a new epidemic. That would cause considerable suffering for the affected population and would be an impediment to the socioeconomic development of South Sudan.

Ruiz-Postigo, Jose A.; Franco, Jose R.; Lado, Mounir; Simarro, Pere P.

2012-01-01

396

Cytochrome P450 isozyme protein verified in the skin of southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): implications for biochemical biomarker assessment.  

PubMed

Large mysticete whales represent a unique challenge for chemical risk assessment. Few epidemiological investigations are possible due to the low incidence of adult stranding events. Similarly their often extreme life-history adaptations of prolonged migration and fasting challenge exposure assumptions. Molecular biomarkers offer the potential to complement information yielded through tissue chemical analysis, as well as providing evidence of a molecular response to chemical exposure. In this study we confirm the presence of cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A1 (CYP1A1) in epidermal tissue of southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). The detection of CYP1A1 in the integument of the humpback whale affords the opportunity for further quantitative non-destructive investigations of enzyme activity as a function of chemical stress. PMID:21276991

Waugh, Courtney A; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Noad, Michael J; Bengtson Nash, Susan

2011-01-28

397

Structural analysis of the northern Tongbai Metamorphic Terranes, Central China: Implications for Paleozoic accretionary process on the southern margin of the North China Craton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tongbai Mountain located at the junction between the Qinling and the Dabie mountains, is a part of the Qinling-Tongbai-Dabie-Sulu Composite Orogenic System containing arc-continent accretion-dominated and continent-continent collision-dominated orogenic belts. The Paleozoic accretion-dominated events are mainly preserved in the northern Tongbai Metamorphic Terranes, such as the Kuanping Group at the southern margin of the North China Craton where the Erlangping Tectonic Unit and the Qinling Complex Unit define the nature of arc, from north to south. Based on structural analysis and available geochronological data, four principal episodes of deformation (D1, D2, the boundary shear zones and D3) are distinguished in these metamorphic terranes following the Paleozoic peak metamorphism at ca. 440 Ma. The D1 deformation took place at ca. 440-430 Ma, and is characterized by a nearly WNW-NW trending penetrative foliation (S1) developed in all of these metamorphic terranes. The D2 is marked by an E-W trending pop-up structure developed at ca. 425-415 Ma. The simultaneously opposite ductile strike-slip shearing at ca. 405-395 Ma indicates that the Qinling Complex Unit was extruded laterally to the east at the end of Early Devonian. The D3 event is defined by WNW-trending open folds, and has occurred during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. The first three episodes of deformation are related to Paleozoic accretionary tectonics with strong structural imprints of the arc-continent collision process, while the D3 deformation belongs to the Mesozoic continent-continent collision-related deformation. We distinguish that not all of the deformation features in the northern Tongbai Metamorphic Terranes are related to the Paleozoic accretionary process on the southern margin of the North China Craton.

Liu, Xin; Li, Sanzhong; Suo, Yanhui; Liu, Xiaochun; Dai, Liming; Santosh, M.

2012-03-01

398

Nd- and Sr-isotopic compositions of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs: implications for the origin of island arc melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nd- and Sr-isotopic data are reported for lavas from 23 submarine and 3 subaerial volcanoes in the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs. Values of ?Nd range from +2.4 to +9.5 whereas 87Sr/86Sr ranges from 0.70319 to 0.70392; these vary systematically between and sometimes within arc segments. The Nd-and Sr-isotopic compositions fall in the field of ocean island basalt (OIB) and extend along the mantle array. Lavas from the Volcano arc, Mariana Central Island Province and the southern part of the Northern Seamount Province have ?Nd to +10 and 87Sr/86Sr=0.7032 to 0.7039. These are often slightly displaced toward higher 87Sr/86Sr at similar ?Nd. In contrast, those lavas from the northern part of the Mariana Northern Seamount Province as far north as Iwo Jima show OIB isotopic characteristics, with ?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr=0.7035 to 0.7039. Plots of 87Sr/86Sr and ?Nd versus Ba/La and (La/Yb)n support a model in which melts from the Mariana and Volcano arcs are derived by mixing of OIB-type mantle (or melts therefrom) and a metasomatized MORB-type mantle (or melts therefrom). An alternate interpretation is that anomalous trends on the plots of Nd- and Sr-isotopic composition versus incompatible-element ratios, found in some S-NSP lavas, suggest that the addition of a sedimentary component may be locally superimposed on the two-component mixing of mantle end-members.

Lin, P. N.; Stern, R. J.; Morris, J.; Bloomer, S. H.

1990-09-01

399

A seismicity burst following the 2010 M 6.4 Jiashian earthquake - Implications for short-term seismic hazards in southern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the 4 March 2010 MW 6.4 Jiashian earthquake the seismicity rate in southern Taiwan was determined to be significantly higher than before the quake and aroused seismic hazard awareness. In this work, seismic hazards were investigated in terms of earthquake activity, the Coulomb stress change, the rate-and-state friction model, and short-term seismic hazard assessments. The significantly higher seismicity rate that followed the 2010 Jiashian earthquake was found to mainly be attributed to aftershock decay, in terms of the modified Omori formula. The results suggest that aftershock duration may continue until the end of 2012. The spatial migration of seismicity was modeled using the Coulomb stress changes of large earthquakes. Most of the consequent events were distributed in the vicinity of large earthquakes. The observations corresponded to a remarkable stress increase within the same area. Additionally, large events were located within regions with stress increases promoted by previous earthquakes. The results confirm interactive relationships between large events. By considering time-dependency, the seismicity rate evolution was estimated using the rate-and-state friction model. The results indicated that a high seismic rate will persist at least until the end of 2012. Short-term probabilistic seismic hazard assessments were also applied in terms of the probability of strong ground motion. Using this application, a sudden jump in seismic hazards in southern Taiwan was accompanied by each large earthquake. At the end of 2012 it is expected that hazards will return to a background level. Our results may be valuable in the future to decision-makers and public officials engaged in seismic hazard mitigation.

Chan, Chung-Han; Wu, Yih-Min

2012-10-01

400

Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3) and 3.4 (1.8) respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812) and 26.2% (213/812) were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13%) and 130 (16%) respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education < secondary level (OR=7.8; CI=5.6-10.9; P=0.00), husband education < secondary level (OR=1.9; CI=1.3-2.6, P = 0.00) and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00) were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

2013-01-01

401

A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat: insights from South Sudan.  

PubMed

A new genus is proposed for the strikingly patterned African vespertilionid "Glauconycteris" superba Hayman, 1939 on the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons. A review of the attributes of a newly collected specimen from South Sudan (a new country record) and other museum specimens of "Glauconycteris" superba suggests that "Glauconycteris" superba is markedly distinct ecomorphologically from other species classified in Glauconycteris and is likely the sister taxon to Glauconycteris sensu stricto. The recent capture of this rarely collected but widespread bat highlights the need for continued research in tropical sub-Saharan Africa and in particular, for more work in western South Sudan, which has received very little scientific attention. New country records for Glauconycteris cf. poensis (South Sudan) and Glauconycteris curryae (Gabon) are also reported. PMID:23805046

Reeder, Deeann M; Helgen, Kristofer M; Vodzak, Megan E; Lunde, Darrin P; Ejotre, Imran

2013-04-05

402

A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat: insights from South Sudan  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new genus is proposed for the strikingly patterned African vespertilionid “Glauconycteris” superba Hayman, 1939 on the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons. A review of the attributes of a newly collected specimen from South Sudan (a new country record) and other museum specimens of “Glauconycteris” superba suggests that “Glauconycteris” superba is markedly distinct ecomorphologically from other species classified in Glauconycteris and is likely the sister taxon to Glauconycteris sensu stricto. The recent capture of this rarely collected but widespread bat highlights the need for continued research in tropical sub-Saharan Africa and in particular, for more work in western South Sudan, which has received very little scientific attention. New country records for Glauconycteris cf. poensis (South Sudan) and Glauconycteris curryae (Gabon) are also reported.

Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Vodzak, Megan E.; Lunde, Darrin P.; Ejotre, Imran

2013-01-01

403

A lithofacies terrain model for the Blantyre Region: Implications for the interpretation of palaeosavanna depositional systems and for environmental geology and economic geology in southern Malawi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Blantyre City Area is part of the African savanna in southern Malawi. Sedimentological, geomorphological, chemical and mineralogical studies were conducted to create a lithofacies terrain model. The project involves mapping, cross-sectioning, grain size, heavy mineral analysis, XRD and the study of sedimentary textures under the petrographic microscope. These classical techniques were combined with GIS-based field and office works. The combined efforts led to 2-D maps and 3-D block diagrams that illustrate the geomorphological and sedimentological evolution of the landscape in southern Malawi during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The results obtained through integrated geomorphological sedimentological studies form the basis for land management (planning of residential areas, waste disposal sites, assessment of bearing capacity of rocks), geohazard prediction (delineation of high risk zones in terms of mass flow and inundation) and the evaluation of high-place (ceramic raw materials) and high-unit value (placers of precious metals and gemstones) mineral commodities in the study area. The study addresses regional and general aspects alike. In regional terms, the study aimed at unraveling the evolution of landforms at the southern end of the East African Rift System during the most recent parts of the geological past. Four stages of peneplanation were established in the working area. Planation was active from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary (stage I: early to mid-Cretaceous, stage II: early Tertiary, stage III: early to mid-Tertiary, stage IV: mid- to late Tertiary). During the most recent parts of the Quaternary, strong fluvial incision was triggered by the base-level lowering of the Shire River. Geomorphological alteration of the landscape goes along with a phyllosilicate sesquioxide transformation from minerals indicative of more acidic meteoric fluids (e.g., gibbsite, kaolinite) to those typical of more alkaline conditions (e.g. smectite, vermiculite, hydrobiotite). In addition, the investigation is to provide some characteristic features suitable for the recognition and interpretation of terrestrial environments resembling the present-day savanna in the ancient sedimentary record: Conspicuous bimodality in the grain-size distribution.High degree of gravel roundness.Boulder fields (basal conglomerates) with fitting breccias and no rotation of structural elements.Poor to very poor sorting of siliciclastics.Stratification is rare; if present only in sandy beds with antidune and tabular cross-bedding at low angle prevailing over cross-bedding at high angle.Grading rare; in arenaceous deposits poorly developed FU sequences, in rudites poorly developed CU sequences, locally with surface armoring.Directional sedimentary structures in coarse-grained deposits are unimodal. Fabric types: a(t)b(i) and a(p)b(i); shear planes indicative of slide may be present.Ribbon-shaped architectural elements prevail over channel-like types. Bounding surfaces/unconformities are uneven to wavy and more widespread than scour-and-pool structures.Fine-grained carbonaceous interbeds are restricted to shallow depressions.Etch marks such as tafonis, flutes, honeycomb textures are common.Placer deposits of metallic and non-metallic mineral commodities are abundant.Alucretes and ferricretes of bog iron (ferrihydrite > goethite) and lateritic (goethite > ferrihydrite) types are common, calcitic freshwater limestones and gypcretes are scarce.Kandite-group minerals “in” (relic), smectite-group minerals “in”, vermiculite “in” (recent), mica-group minerals “out”.

Dill, H. G.; Ludwig, R.-R.; Kathewera, A.; Mwenelupembe, J.

2005-06-01

404

Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations.  

PubMed

Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM) strategic plan 2007-2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements. PMID:23394124

Chanda, Emmanuel; Doggale, Constantino; Pasquale, Harriet; Azairwe, Robert; Baba, Samson; Mnzava, Abraham

2013-02-08

405

Rift basins of interior Sudan: petroleum exploration and discovery  

SciTech Connect

The sedimentary basins of interior Sudan are characterized by thick nonmarine clastic sequences of Jurassic(.)-Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Over 45,000 ft (13,716 m) of sediment was deposited in the deepest trough and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6096 m) of sedimentary rocks. The depositional sequences include thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones deposited in a suboxic environment provide good oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism that formed these basins began in the Jurassic(.)-Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history that led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasinal highs, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps. During the past eight years, several important oil discoveries have been made. Significant accumulations have been delineated in the Heglig and Unity areas, where estimated recoverable reserves are 250-300 million bbl of oil. 14 figures.

Schull, T.J.

1988-10-01

406

[Sudan and other illegal dyes--food adulteration].  

PubMed

As foodstuffs adulterated by illegal dyes, such as Sudan I, II, III IIV, para-Red, have appeared on the European Union market, the emergency measures to eliminate this problem have been taken. The illegal dyes are added to dried, ground chilli, curry, curcuma and to palm oil. These products are imported from countries outside the E.U. The adulteration concerns also ready to eat products which contain the ingredients mentioned above. Apart from the adulteration, the presence of illegal dyes in foodstuffs can be a threat to consumer's health. In 2003-2005 three Commission Decisions on emergency measures regarding some products which can contain illegal dyes were published. Since May 2003 to March 2006, 651 notifications on food adulteration by illegal dyes were sent to the RASFF system. As a result of the taken measures, the number of notifications have decreased. The possibility of food adulteration by illegal dyes different from the ones which are used now are considered. This is the reason why the continuation of food control and cooperation between official control authorities and food producers are necessary. PMID:17713194

Gajda, Joanna; Switka, Agnieszka; Ku?ma, Katarzyna; Jarecka, Jolanta

2006-01-01

407

Anaemia and low birth weight in Medani, Hospital Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing the incidence of Low birth weight (LBW) neonates by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 is one of the major goals of the United Nations resolution "A World Fit for Children". This was a case-control study conducted between August-October 2009 in Medani Hospital, Sudan to investigate the risk factors for LBW. Cases were mothers who delivered singleton baby < 2500 gm. Controls were mothers delivered singleton baby of ? 2500 gm. Findings Out of 1224 deliveries, 97 (12.6%) of the neonates were LBW deliveries. While maternal socio-demographic characteristics (age, parity and mother education) and anthropometrics measurements were not associated with LBW, lack of antenatal care (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 1.4-24.4; P = 0.01) and maternal anaemia (OR = 9.0, 95% CI = 3.4-23.8; P < 0.001) were the main risk factor for LBW. Conclusion Thus, more care on antenatal care and nutrition may prevent LBW.

2010-01-01

408

Pervasive Palaeogene remagnetization of the central Taurides fold-and-thrust belt (southern Turkey) and implications for rotations in the Isparta Angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Turkish Anatolide-Tauride block rifted away from the northern margin of Gondwana in the Triassic, which gave way to the opening of the southern Neo-Tethys. By the late Palaeocene to Eocene, it collided with the southern Eurasian margin, leading to the closure of the northern Neo-Tethys ocean. To determine the position of the Anatolide-Tauride block with respect to the African and Eurasian margin we carried out a palaeomagnetic study in the central Taurides belt, which constitutes the eastern limb of the Isparta Angle. The sampled sections comprise Carboniferous to Palaeocene rocks (mainly limestones). Our data suggest that all sampled rocks are remagnetized during the late Palaeocene to Eocene phase of folding and thrusting event, related to the collision of the Anatolide-Tauride block with Eurasia. To further test the possibility of remagnetization, we use a novel end-member modelling approach on 174 acquired isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) curves. We argue that the preferred three end-member model confirms the proposed remagnetization of the rocks. Comparing our data to the post-Eocene declination pattern in the central Tauride belt, we conclude that our clockwise rotations are in agreement with data from other studies. After combining our results with previously published data from the Isparta Angle (that includes our study area), we have reasons to cast doubt on the spatial and temporal extent of an earlier reported early to middle Miocene remagnetization event. We argue that the earlier reported remagnetized directions from Triassic rocks—in tilt corrected coordinates—from the southwestern Antalya Nappes (western Taurides), are in good agreement with other studies from the area that show a primary origin of their characteristic remanent magnetization. This implies that we document a clockwise rotation for the southwestern Antalya Nappes since the Triassic that is remarkably similar to the post-Eocene (˜40°) rotation of the central Taurides. For the previously published results that are clearly remagnetized, we argue that their remagnetization has occurred in the Palaeocene to Eocene.

Meijers, Maud J. M.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Alt?ner, Demir; Kaymakc?, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cor G.

2011-03-01

409

Provenance Ages of Protoliths From the Chiapas Massif Complex and Adjacent Strata of the Southern Maya Block - Implications on the Paleozoic Reconstruction of Middle America.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basement of the Maya block is exposed in the Maya Mountains of Belize, the Chuacús Complex of Guatemala, and in the Chiapas Massif Complex (CMC) of SE Mexico. In the CMC medium- to high-grade metasedimentary rocks occur as isolated domains in mostly metaigneous crystalline rocks. The most important tectonothermal event in the entire CMC is of late Permian age, culminating in partial anatexis and the intrusion of the Chiapas batholith. In this work we present U-Pb data obtained by LA-MC-ICPMS from detrital zircon cores of metasediments from the CMC and from detrital zircons of Paleozoic strata exposed in SE Chiapas. The Pennsylvanian-Permian Santa Rosa Formation (SRF) contains mostly Pan-African (500-650 Ma) zircons, minor populations of Silurian-Early Devonian (400-420 Ma) and Grenville (1.0-1.25 Ga) zircons, and few Paleoproterozoic and Archean grains. The maximum sedimentation age is documented by ~320 Ma old zircons. Metagreywacke and metasandstones of the central CMC have inherited detrital zircon cores with age distributions indistinguishable from those of the SRF. High-grade metapelites and para-amphibolites from the CMC, instead, have inherited zircon cores with one single population of 1.0 Ga or with populations at 1.0, 1.2, and 1.5 Ga. In the southern part of the CMC leucocratic granites intrude sedimentary rocks whose detrital zircons yielded mostly 1.53 Ga ages with some grains in the range of 1.6-1.7 Ga, but no younger zircons. White mica grown in contact with the leucogranite has a 40Ar- 39Ar age of 406 ± 4 Ma, defining a minimum age for both deposition of the sediments and intrusion of the leucogranite. Our data indicate that the CMC has a composite pre-metamorphic basement, containing sedimentary protoliths from the Pennsylvanian-Permian SRF and from early Paleozoic strata intruded by Silurian-Early Devonian granites. This favors a similar pre-Permian geologic history for the CMC as for the Maya Mountains of Belize. The early Paleozoic sediments were shed from a Mesoproterozoic landmass with ages typically observed from the SW Amazon craton; however, it seems more likely that during the Silurian-Early Devonian the Maya block was situated close to the southern Grenville Province of Laurentia where ancestors from the SW Amazon craton, but no Pan-African belts, are present. By initiating the collision between Gondwana and Laurentia during the Carboniferous, the sediments were shed mostly from the newly formed orogens close to West Africa, which contains mainly Pan-African crust.

Weber, B.; Schaaf, P.; Valencia, V. A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Ortega-Gutierrez, F.

2007-05-01

410

Tectonic geomorphology and paleoseismology of strike-slip faults in Jamaica: Implications for distribution of strain and seismic hazard along the southern edge of the Gonave microplate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The east-west, left lateral strike-slip fault system forming the southern edge of the Gonave microplate crosses the110-km-long and 70-km-wide island of Jamaica. GPS measurements in the northeastern Caribbean are supportive of the microplate interpretation and indicate that ~ half of the Caribbean-North America left-lateral plate motion (8-14 mm/yr) is carried by the Plantain Garden (PGFZ) and associated faults in Jamaica. We performed Neotectonic mapping of the Plantain Garden fault along the southern rangefront of the Blue Mountains and conducted a paleoseismic study of the fault at Morant River. Between Holland Bay and Morant River, the fault is characterized by a steep, faceted, linear mountain front, prominent linear valleys and depressions, shutter ridges, and springs. At the eastern end of the island, the PGFZ is characterized by a left-stepping fault geometry that includes a major, active hot spring. The river cut exposure at Morant River exposes a 1.5-m-wide, sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and faulted Cretaceous basement rocks. This section is overlain by an, unfaulted 3-m-thick fluvial terrace inset into a late Pleistocene terrace that is culturally modified. Upward fault terminations indicate the occurrence of three paleoearthquakes that occurred prior to deposition of the flat lying inset terrace around 341-628 cal yr BP. At this time, our radiocarbon results suggest that we can rule out the PGFZ as the source of the 1907 Kingston earthquake 102 years ago, as well as, the 1692 event that destroyed Port Royal 317 years ago and produced a major landslide at Yallahs. Pending OSL ages will constrain the age of the penultimate and most recent ruptures. Gently to steeply dipping rocks as young as Pliocene exposed in roadcuts within the low coastal hills south of and parallel to the Plantain Garden fault may indicate active folding and blind thrust faulting. These structures are poorly characterized and may accommodate an unknown amount of oblique strain. Reconnaissance mapping was also performed along the South Coast fault in south-central Jamaica north of Portland Ridge, and along the Crawle River-Rio Minho fault near Frankfield in the Central Inlier. The absence of fault scarps or other tectonic geomorphic features across fluvial terraces of the Milk and Minho Rivers indicate that the South Coast fault has not been active in Holocene time. Left laterally offset streams, linear valleys, and saddles support active faulting along the east-west Crawle River-Rio Minho fault that is roughly collinear with the western extension of the Plantain Garden fault.

Koehler, R. D.; Mann, P.; Brown, L. A.

2009-12-01

411

Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.  

PubMed

For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. PMID:23623648

Awofeso, Niyi

2013-04-24

412

Characterization of epidemic and nonepidemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strains from Sudan and Sweden.  

PubMed Central

A random selection of 25 strains isolated during an epidemic caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis in Sudan (1988), 3 preepidemic meningococcal strains (1985), and 26 serogroup A strains isolated from sporadic cases of meningitis in Sweden (1973 to 1987) were assessed for multilocus enzyme genotypes (ETs), DNA restriction enzyme patterns, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharides, pilus formation, and antibiograms. All of the 25 Sudanese epidemic isolates and 22 of the Swedish strains were of the same or closely related ETs (ETs 3, 4, and 5), corresponding to clone III-1, which has been responsible for two pandemic waves in the last three decades. The earlier pandemic involved Scandinavia, and the last one caused an outbreak during the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia (August 1987), spreading to Sudan, Chad, and Ethiopia. The three Sudanese preepidemic isolates (1985) were clone IV-1 (sulfonamide susceptible), which has been resident in the African meningitis belt for the last 25 years. The uniformity of clone III-1 strains (all sulfonamide resistant) from Sudan and Sweden was confirmed by DNA restriction enzyme patterns. ETs 3, 4, and 5 from Sudan and Sweden had 86 to 100% similarity to a Swedish clone III-1 reference strain, whereas ETs 1, 2, 6, and 7 showed 50 to 80% similarity. Class 1 protein for clone III-1 showed serosubtype antigens P1.9 and P1.x, whereas ET6 strains (clone IV-1) had serosubtype P1.7. Lipopolysaccharides were variable in the Sudanese and Swedish strains. Pili were expressed in all clone III-1 isolates from Sudan and Sweden but in none of the clone IV-1 isolates (Sudan, 1985). Images

Salih, M A; Danielsson, D; Backman, A; Caugant, D A; Achtman, M; Olcen, P

1990-01-01

413

Seasonal variation of carbon fluxes in a sparse savanna in semi arid Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Large spatial, seasonal and annual variability of major drivers of the carbon cycle (precipitation, temperature, fire regime and nutrient availability) are common in the Sahel region. This causes large variability in net ecosystem exchange and in vegetation productivity, the subsistence basis for a major part of the rural population in Sahel. This study compares the 2005 dry and wet season fluxes of CO2 for a grass land/sparse savanna site in semi arid Sudan and relates these fluxes to water availability and incoming photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). Data from this site could complement the current sparse observation network in Africa, a continent where climatic change could significantly impact the future and which constitute a weak link in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Results The dry season (represented by Julian day 35–46, February 2005) was characterized by low soil moisture availability, low evapotranspiration and a high vapor pressure deficit. The mean daily NEE (net ecosystem exchange, Eq. 1) was -14.7 mmol d-1 for the 12 day period (negative numbers denote sinks, i.e. flux from the atmosphere to the biosphere). The water use efficiency (WUE) was 1.6 mmol CO2 mol H2O-1 and the light use efficiency (LUE) was 0.95 mmol CO2 mol PPFD-1. Photosynthesis is a weak, but linear function of PPFD. The wet season (represented by Julian day 266–273, September 2005) was, compared to the dry season, characterized by slightly higher soil moisture availability, higher evapotranspiration and a slightly lower vapor pressure deficit. The mean daily NEE was -152 mmol d-1 for the 8 day period. The WUE was lower, 0.97 mmol CO2 mol H2O-1 and the LUE was higher, 7.2 ?mol CO2 mmol PPFD-1 during the wet season compared to the dry season. During the wet season photosynthesis increases with PPFD to about 1600 ?mol m-2s-1 and then levels off. Conclusion Based on data collected during two short periods, the studied ecosystem was a sink of carbon both during the dry and wet season 2005. The small sink during the dry season is surprising and similar dry season sinks have not to our knowledge been reported from other similar savanna ecosystems and could have potential management implications for agroforestry. A strong response of NEE versus small changes in plant available soil water content was found. Collection and analysis of flux data for several consecutive years including variations in precipitation, available soil moisture and labile soil carbon are needed for understanding the year to year variation of the carbon budget of this grass land/sparse savanna site in semi arid Sudan.

Ardo, Jonas; Molder, Meelis; El-Tahir, Bashir Awad; Elkhidir, Hatim Abdalla Mohammed

2008-01-01

414

Analysis of overpressure zones at the southern margin of the Baram Delta Province and their implications to hydrocarbon expulsion, migration, and entrapment  

SciTech Connect

The Baram delta oil and gas province covers a major part of the onshore and offshore areas of northern Sarawak, Malaysia, and Brunei. Thick marine to deltaic sediments of late Eocene to Pleistocene age were rapidly deposited in the basin, resulting in widespread abnormal formation pressures. Overpressure zones are normally encountered within thick marine-deposited claystone intervals occurring below and/or just at the basal part of major oil and gas accumulations in the offshore areas of the Baram delta. Because of drilling hazards, the onset of overpressuring is regarded as an arbitrary economic limit for oil exploration. In onshore Sarawak, the southern margin of the Baram delta province contains thick late Eocene to Miocene (Cycle I-V) sediments deposited and uplifted in the latest Pliocene. Abnormal pressure zones have been encountered in three different settings viz.: (1) undercompacted claystone predominant intervals, (2) uplifted reservoir sands with hydrocarbons, and (3) hydrodynamically pressured shallow sand intervals. A unique overpressure zone, which occurs below stacks of hydrostatic and permeable coastal-deltaic sands, has been observed.

Mantaring, A.; Matsuda, F.; Okamoto, M. (Idemitsu Oil Exploration Co., Ltd., Sarawak (Malaysia))

1994-07-01

415

Volcaniclastic debris-flow occurrences in the Campania region (Southern Italy) and their relation to Holocene Late Pleistocene pyroclastic fall deposits: implications for large-scale hazard mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Campania Region (southern Italy) is characterized by the frequent occurrence of volcaniclastic debris flows that damage property and loss of life (more than 170 deaths between 1996 and 1999). Historical investigation allowed the identification of more than 500 events during the last four centuries; in particular, more than half of these occurred in the last 100 years, causing hundreds of deaths. The aim of this paper is to quantify debris-flow hazard potential in the Campania Region. To this end, we compared several elements such as the thickness distribution of pyroclastic fall deposits from the last 18 ka of the Vesuvius and Phlegrean Fields volcanoes, the slopes of relieves, and the historical record of volcaniclastic debris flows from A.D. 1500 to the present. Results show that flow occurrence is not only a function of the cumulative thickness of past pyroclastic fall deposits but also depends on the age of emplacement. Deposits younger than 10 ka (Holocene eruptions) apparently increase the risk of debris flows, while those older than 10 ka (Late Pleistocene eruptions) seem to play a less prominent role, which is probably due to different climatic conditions, and therefore different rates of erosion of pyroclastic falls between the Holocene and the Late Pleistocene. Based on the above considerations, we compiled a large-scale debris-flow hazard map of the study area in which five main hazard zones are identified: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high.

Bisson, M.; Pareschi, M. T.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Santacroce, R.

2007-11-01

416

New information on Riograndia guaibensis Bonaparte, Ferigolo & Ribeiro, 2001 (Eucynodontia, Tritheledontidae) from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil: anatomical and biostratigraphic implications.  

PubMed

The tritheledontid Riograndia guaibensis was the first cynodont described for the "Caturrita Formation" fauna from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil (Santa Maria 2 Sequence). The type materials did not preserve anatomical information regarding braincase, occiput, basicranium, zygomatic arch, postdentary bones and craniomandibular joint. Here new materials are described and supply the missing information. Riograndia shows a suite of important anatomical features quite derived among the non-mammaliaform eucynodonts, such as the partial closure of the medial orbital wall and braincase, extensive secondary osseous palate, wide primary palate, basicranium with jugular foramen separated from the periphery of fenestra rotunda, narrow zygomatic arch and much reduced postdentary bones. Many of these features constitute synapomorphies shared only with the other members of mammaliamorpha. Thus, the almost complete cranial, mandibular and dental information from the new fossils of Riograndia can bring a significant improve in the understanding of the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of the tritheledontids and help to elucidate the transformational steps involved in the cynodont-mammal transition. Additionally, Riograndia is a key taxon in refining the "Caturrita Formation" biostratigraphy, enabling the connection of several fossiliferous outcrops that have a rich tetrapod fauna that can be correlated with other Triassic faunas from Gondwana and Laurasia. PMID:21437390

Soares, Marina B; Schultz, Cesar L; Horn, Bruno L D

2011-03-01

417

The AyiaTriadha Cave, Southern Euboea Finds and Implications of the Earliest Human Habitation in the Area (A Preliminary Report).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ayia Triadha cave excavation project aims to explore early maritime connections in the Aegean during the Late Neolithic I and II and the Early Bronze Age. The cave lies in a strategic position close to the crossroads that connect insular regions and the mainland. We also aim to explore the manifestations of the so-called Saliagos culture of the Cyclades and the Aegean. This culture is connected to the White-on-Dark pottery horizon (late sixth to early fifth millennium B.C.) found in the cave. The Final Neolithic/LNIIa material is also present in the cave in large quantities. It is closely connected to the Attica-Kephala horizon (late fifth/fourth millennium B.C.) known from the Cyclades and the southern part of mainland Greece. Of great importance is the identification of an Early Bronze Age context, located inside a small chamber, off the main entrance corridor. In this paper we present our preliminary results from the 2007 field season and some aspects of the 2008 campaign together with research strategies we plan to apply in the future.

Mavridis, F.; Tankosi?, Ž.

418

Similarity in venom alkaloid chemistry of alate queens of imported fire ants: implication for hybridization between Solenopsis richteri and S. invicta in the Southern United States.  

PubMed

Both cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-undecylpiperidines, MC11P, have been previously reported as the major components of the venom of alate queens of the imported fire ants, Solenopsis richteri (black) and S. invicta (red). To identify the minor components of venom alkaloids from alate queens and compare the venom alkaloid chemistry of alate queen of their hybrid (S. richteri×S. invicta) with that of the two parental fire ant species (S. richteri and S. invicta), silica-gel short-column chromatography was utilized for separating cis-stereoisomers of venom alkaloids from trans-stereoisomers. GC/MS Analyses of venom-alkaloid chemistry of alate queens demonstrated that fewer alkaloid peaks were detected in the chromatograms of the alate queens compared to those of workers. Three new compounds, 7, 12, and 13, were detected as minor components in the venom of alate queens of all three fire ant species. Alate queens of hybrid fire ants showed cis- and trans-alkaloid patterns similar to those of the parental species. Similarity in venom-alkaloid chemistry of alate queens of S. richteri and S. invicta, and their hybrid may indicate their reproductive compatibility in the hybrid zone in southern United States, where all three species occur sympatrically. PMID:22492489

Chen, Li; Lu, Yong-Yue; Hu, Qiong-Bo; Fadamiro, Henry Y

2012-04-01

419

Geomorphic assessment of late Quarternary volcanism in the Yucca Mountain area, southern Nevada: Implication for the proposed high-level radiocative waste repository  

SciTech Connect

Volcanic hazard studies for high-level radioactive waste isolation in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, require a detailed understanding of Quaternary volcanism to forecast rates of volcanic processes. Recent studies of the Quaternary Cima volcanic field in southern California have demonstrated that K-Ar dates of volcanic landforms are consistent with their geomorphic and pedologic properties. The systematic change of these properties with time may be used to provide age estimates of undated or questionably dated volcanic features. The reliability of radiometric age determinations of the youngest volcanic center, Lathrop Wells, near the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been problematic. In this study, a comparison of morphometric, pedogenic, and stratigraphic data establishes that correlation of geomorphic and soil properties between the Cima volcanic field and the Yucca Mountain area is valid. Comparison of the Lathrop Wells cinder cone to a 15-20 ka cinder cone in California shows that their geomorphic-pedogenic properties are similar and implies that the two cones are of similar age. We conclude that previous determinations of ca. 0.27 Ma for the latest volcanic activity at Lathrop Wells, approximately 20 km from the proposed repository, may be in error by as much as an order of magnitude and that the most recent volcanic activity is no older than 20ka.

Wells, S.G.; McFadden, L.D.; Renault, C.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (USA); Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos Yucca Mountain Project Office, Las Vegas, NV (USA)

1990-06-01

420

Geomorphic assessment of late Quaternary volcanism in the Yucca Mountain area, southern Nevada: Implications for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository  

SciTech Connect

Volcanic hazard studies for high-level radioactive waste isolation in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, require a detailed understanding of Quaternary volcanism to forecast rates of volcanic processes. Recent studies of the Quaternary Cima volcanic fields in southern California have demonstrated that K-Ar dates of volcanic landforms are consistent with their geomorphic and pedologic properties. The systematic change of these properties with time may be used to provide age estimates of undated or questionably dated volcanic features. The reliability of radiometric age determinations of the youngest volcanic center, Lathrop Wells, near the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been problematic. In this study, a comparison of morphometric, pedogenic, and stratigraphic data establishes that correlation of geomorphic and soil properties between the Cima volcanic field and the Yucca Mountain area is valid. Comparison of the Lathrop Wells cinder cone to a 15-20 ka cinder cone in California shows that their geomorphic-pedogenic properties are similar and implies that the two cones are of similar age. The authors of ca. 0.27 Ma for the latest volcanic activity at Lathrop Wells, approximately 20 km from the proposed repository, may be in error by as much as an order of magnitude and that the most recent volcanic activity is no older than 20 ka.

Wells, S.G.; McFadden, L.D.; Renault, C.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (USA); Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos Yucca Mountain Project Office, Las Vegas NV (USA)

1991-03-01

421

Iron enrichment and photoreduction of iron under UV and PAR in the presence of hydroxycarboxylic acid: implications for phytoplankton growth in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron(III) photoreduction and the responses of phytoplankton under ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) were investigated with the presence of hydroxycarboxylic acid (glucaric acid (GA), a model compound for organic acids excreted by phytoplankton). The incubation experiments were carried out on board using seawater samples collected in the location of the winter ice edge (WIE) and the spring ice edge (SIE) of the Southern Ocean. In this paper, we focus on the results of experiment in WIE. Throughout the experiments, dissolved Fe(II), major nutrients and in vivo fluorescence were monitored regularly. In addition, Chl- a, POC/PON, cell densities of phytoplankton and bacteria, bacterial production, organic peroxide, hydrogen peroxide and total CO 2 were measured. The results from the WIE show that iron enrichment had a substantial effect on phytoplankton growth rate. Fe(III) addition in the presence of GA (FeGA) gave higher Fe(II) concentration and higher growth rate of phytoplankton than those in controls. Our results suggest that hydroxycarboxylic acid had a significant chemical and biological impact. The presence of GA influenced iron photochemistry and iron availability to phytoplankton. Phytoplankton growth responses to iron enrichments in incubations under UV and PAR were completely dissimilar. It seems that FeGA addition prominently changes the harmful effect of UV on the phytoplankton population. This study provides preliminary information on how the photoreduction of iron(III) and the phytoplankton growth are affected by iron enrichment in the presence of hydroxycarboxylic acid.

Öztürk, Murat; Croot, Peter L.; Bertilsson, Stefan; Abrahamsson, Katarina; Karlson, Bengt; David, Roland; Fransson, Agneta; Sakshaug, Egil

2004-11-01

422

Reconstructing the southern South China Sea upper water column structure since the Last Glacial Maximum: Implications for the East Asian winter monsoon development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper water column dynamics in the southern South China Sea were reconstructed in order to track changes in the activity of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) since the Last Glacial Maximum. We used the difference in the stable oxygen isotopes (??18O) and Mg/Ca-based temperatures (?T) of surface-dwelling (G. ruber) and thermocline-dwelling (P. obliquiloculata) planktonic foraminifera and the temperature difference between alkenone- and P. obliquiloculata Mg/Ca-based temperatures to estimate the upper ocean thermal gradient at International Marine Past Global Change Study (IMAGES) core MD01-2390. Estimates of the upper ocean thermal gradient were used to reconstruct mixed layer dynamics. We find that our ??18O estimates are biased by changes in salinity and, thus, do not display a true upper ocean thermal gradient. The ?T of G. ruber and P. obliquiloculata as well as the alkenone and P. obliquiloculata suggest increased surface water mixing during the late glacial, likely due to enhanced EAWM winds. Surface water mixing was weaker during the late Holocene, indicating a weaker influence of winter monsoon winds. The weakest winter monsoon activity occurred between 6.5 ka and 2.5 ka. Inferred EAWM changes since the Last Glacial Maximum coincide with EAWM changes as recorded in Chinese loess sediments. We find that the intensity of the EAWM and the East Asian summer monsoon show an inverse behavior during the last glacial and deglaciation but covaried during the middle to late Holocene.

Steinke, Stephan; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Lin, Li-Chuan; Löwemark, Ludvig; Chen, Min-Te; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca

2010-06-01

423

Miocene tectono-stratigraphic history of La Mision basin, northwestern Baja California: implications for early tectonic development of southern California continental borderland  

SciTech Connect

The middle Miocene La Mision basin in northwestern Baja California, Mexico, provides a rare opportunity to study an onshore portion of the southern California continental borderland. Stratigraphy, geometry of dispersal, and a variety of lithotypes within the volcanic and volcaniclastic sediments of the Rosarito Beach Formation provide clues to the nature of early tectonic evolution of this area during the Miocene. The elongated, trough-shaped La Mision basin formed in response to peninsular basement uplifts and the formation of volcanic highlands west of the present coastline. Lithologies and depositional environments represented within the basin sediments include: subaerial basalt flows and airfall tuffs, submarine muddy- and sandy-matrix mudflow breccias, lapilli tuffs, crystal tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones,d diatomites, and conglomerates. The environments of deposition range from fluvatile to intertidal to shallow marine. Early basin infilling is characterized by sediments and basalts, with a western source terrane, that were deposited against the faulted seacliffs. progressive infilling against the seacliff resulted in the formation of an extensive eastward-sloping basaltic platform extending eastward to the foothill coastal belt of the Peninsular Ranges. Marine transgression and subsequent regression are recorded by diverse marine volcaniclastic lithologies. Abundant fossils, K-Ar dates, and paleomagnetic data obtained from the La Mision basin allow precise correlation with other areas in the continental borderland and provide conclusive evidence that this block of the borderland was formed and in its present position by 16-14 Ma.

Ashby, J.R.; Minch, J.

1988-03-01

424

Risk maps for the presence and absence of Phlebotomus perniciosus in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in southern Spain: implications for the control of the disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant Leishmania infantum vector, P. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. We obtained data for the presence/absence of P. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern Spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. The probability of P. perniciosus presence was estimated as a function of these environmental variables and generated spatial risk maps. Altitude, land use and drainage hole features (with or without PVC piping) were retained as the only predictors for the distribution of this vector species. Drainage hole features in retaining walls, with or without PVC piping, produce significant variations in the probability of P. perniciosus presence, varying from 2·3 to 91·8% if PVC piping is absent and from 0·4 to 66·5% if all holes have PVC piping. It was concluded that the use of PVC piping in drainage holes could help to reduce leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:21854702

Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Irigaray, C; Martín-Sánchez, J

2011-09-01

425

Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: Implications of an individual-based model  

SciTech Connect

We used an individual-based model to examine possible explanations for the dominance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in southern Appalachian streams. Model simulations were used to quantify the effects on interspecific competition of (1) competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout, (2) latitudinal differences in stream temperatures, flows, and daylight, (3) year-class failures, (4) lower fecundity of brook trout, and (5) reductions in spawning habitat. The model tracks the daily spawning, growth, and survival of individuals of both species throughout their lifetime in a series of connected stream habitat units (pools, runs, or riffles). Average densities of each species based on 100-year simulations were compared for several levels of each of the five factors and for sympatric and allopatric conditions. Based on model results and empirical information, we conclude that more frequent year-class failures and the lower fecundity of brook trout are both possible and likely explanations for rainbow trout dominance, that warmer temperatures due to latitude and limited spawning habitat are possible but unlikely explanations, and that competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout is an unlikely explanation. Additional field work should focus on comparative studies of the reproductive success and the early life stage mortalities of brook and rainbow trout among Appalachian streams with varying rainbow trout dominance. 53 refs., 11 figs.

Clark, M.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rose, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-01-01

426

Radiative forcing associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative forcing due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP). We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006) of an intense and long-lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne operations were conducted at the regional scale, from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea. Profiles of heating rates are computed from airborne LEANDRE 2 and space-borne CALIOP lidar observations using two mineral dust model constrained by airborne in situ data and ground-based sunphotometer obtained during the campaign. Complementary space-borne observations (from MODIS) and in-situ observations such as dropsondes are also used to take into account a realistic infrared contribution of the water vapour. We investigate the variability of the heating rate on the vertical within a dust plume, as well as the contribution of longwave radiation to the heating rate and the radiative forcing of dust during the nighttime. The sensitivity of the so-derived heating rate is also analyzed for some key variables for which the associated uncertainties are quite large. During daytime, the warming associated with the presence of dust was found to be between 1.5 K day-1 and 4 K day-1, on average, depending on altitude and latitude. Strong warming (i.e. heating rates as high as 8 K day-1) was also observed locally in some limited part of the dust plumes. Obviously, during nighttime much smaller values of heating/cooling are retrieved (less than ±1 K day-1) but large enough to modify the low tropospheric equilibrium. Furthermore, cooling is observed as the result of the longwave forcing in the dust layer, while warming is observed below the dust layer, in the monsoon layer.

Lemaètre, C.; Flamant, C.; Cuesta, J.; Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Formenti, P.; Pelon, J.

2010-04-01

427

Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopia and Sudan): Sediment budgets and erosion patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital modes of modern Nile sands, together with estimates of sediment volumes trapped in Sudanese reservoirs, allow us to calculate sediment loads of major tributaries (Blue Nile, White Nile, Atbara) and erosion rates in the Nile catchment. A tridimensional array of high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral data was obtained on both levee (suspended load) and bar (bedload) deposits, analysed separately for each grain-size subclass at 0.5? intervals. From available information on sediments stored in the Roseires, Khashm el Girba and Lake Nasser reservoirs between 1964 and 1990, the total Nile load is reassessed at 230 ± 20 106 t/a, an estimate two to four times higher than figures reported so far, on which previous estimates of sediment yields and erosion rates were based. Of such huge amount of detritus, 82 ± 10 106 t/a are contributed by River Atbara, which carries more volcanic rock fragments, brown augite and olivine from basaltic rocks, and 140 ± 20 106 t/a by the Blue Nile, which carries more K-feldspar and hornblende from amphibolite-facies basement rocks. The additional ? 107 t/a of almost purely quartzose sediments supplied by the rest of the Nile catchment, corresponding to insignificant average yields and erosion rates, represent the stable residue which survived extreme subequatorial weathering in southern Sudan swamps (White Nile, Bahr ez Zeraf, and Sobat sands) or fluvial and eolian recycling of ancient quartzarenites in hyperarid climates (Nubian sands). Sediment production is thus markedly focused on Ethiopian rift highlands, where rainfall is concentrated in a single July August peak. High average yields and erosion rates (800 ± 150 t/km2 a, 0.29 ± 0.05 mm/a) partly reflect anthropically-accelerated erosion caused by deforestation and intensive land use, and cannot be extrapolated far in the past. Erosion patterns may have changed repeatedly during Quaternary climatic oscillations, and possibly also in the longer term during the multistage rift-related events which, since impingement of the Afar plume and eruption of flood basalts in the Oligocene, caused elevated topography and monsoonal climate in Ethiopia.

Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Ali Abdel Megid, Ada; El Kammar, Ahmed

2006-12-01

428

Long Return Periods for Earthquakes in San Gorgonio Pass and Implications for Large Ruptures of the San Andreas Fault in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest discontinuity in the surface trace of the San Andreas fault occurs in southern California at San Gorgonio Pass. Here, San Andreas motion moves through a 20 km-wide compressive stepover on the dextral-oblique-slip thrust system known as the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone. This thrust-dominated system is thought to rupture during very large San Andreas events that also involve strike-slip fault segments north and south of the Pass region. A wealth of paleoseismic data document that the San Andreas fault segments on either side of the Pass, in the San Bernardino/Mojave Desert and Coachella Valley regions, rupture on average every ~100 yrs and ~200 yrs, respectively. In contrast, we report here a notably longer return period for ruptures of the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone. For example, features exposed in trenches at the Cabezon site reveal that the most recent earthquake occurred 600-700 yrs ago (this and other ages reported here are constrained by C-14 calibrated ages from charcoal). The rupture at Cabezon broke a 10 m-wide zone of east-west striking thrusts and produced a >2 m-high scarp. Slip during this event is estimated to be >4.5 m. Evidence for a penultimate event was not uncovered but presumably lies beneath ~1000 yr-old strata at the base of the trenches. In Millard Canyon, 5 km to the west of Cabezon, the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone splits into two splays. The northern splay is expressed by 2.5 ± 0.7 m and 5.0 ± 0.7 m scarps in alluvial terraces constrained to be ~1300 and ~2500 yrs old, respectively. The scarp on the younger, low terrace postdates terrace abandonment ~1300 yrs ago and probably correlates with the 600-700 yr-old event at Cabezon, though we cannot rule out that a different event produced the northern Millard scarp. Trenches excavated in the low terrace reveal growth folding and secondary faulting and clear evidence for a penultimate event ~1350-1450 yrs ago, during alluvial deposition prior to the abandonment of the low terrace. Subtle evidence for a third event is poorly constrained by age data to have occurred between 1600 and 2500 yrs ago. The southern splay at Millard Canyon forms a 1.5 ± 0.1 m scarp in an alluvial terrace that is inset into the lowest terrace at the northern Millard site, and therefore must be < ~1300 yrs old. Slip on this fault probably occurred during the most recent rupture in the Pass. In summary, we think that the most recent earthquake occurred 600-700 yrs ago and generated ~6 m of slip on the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone. The evidence for two older earthquakes is less complete but suggests that they are similar in style and magnitude to the most recent event. The available data therefore suggest that the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone has produced three large (~6 m) events in the last ~2000 yrs, a return period of ~700 yrs assuming that the next rupture is imminent. We prefer a model whereby a majority of San Andreas fault ruptures end as they approach the Pass region from the north or the south (like the Wrightwood event of A.D. 1812 and possibly the Coachella Valley event of ~A.D. 1680). Relatively rare (once-per-millennia?), through-going San Andreas events break the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone and produce the region's largest earthquakes.

Yule, J.; McBurnett, P.; Ramzan, S.

2011-12-01

429

First reconstruction of last millennium flooding activity on Kerguelen archipelago (50°S, sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean) from Lake Armor sediment: implications for southern hemisphere cyclonic circulation changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subantarctic Indian Ocean, above 50°S, is one the places in the world where past atmospheric circulation patterns remain completely unknown. This is an important lack in scientific knowledge of past climate changes as this region is one of the key places of the climate machine. In particular, we do not know the impact of Holocene climate variability on extreme south cyclonic circulation. Lake Armor is a fjord-type lake, 98m maximum depth, located on the eastern edge of Kerguelen mainland central plateau. A first reconnaissance survey, including seismic imaging and short cores retrieving, was led here in November 2006. Seismic and bathymetric data reveal the existence of two depocentres submitted to river inputs (Heirman et al., 2007 ; Arnaud et al., 2007). The southern one is submitted to strong underwater currents and is not suited for paleoclimate reconstruction. On the contrary, the northern one exhibits finely stratified Holocene deposits which were cored in the aim of reconstructing the evolution of river floods on Kerguelen archipelago. We led on the retrieved short cores a high resolution sedimentological study, including micro-grainsize, colour, physical properties (Geotek multi-track sensor), and geochemistry (XRF core scanning, major and trace elemental composition, infrared spectrometry). In the case of lake sediments in which detrital inputs are diluted by an autochthonous biogenic fraction, such an approach permits a high resolution reconstruction of flood history (Arnaud et al., 2005; Arnaud, 2005), taking account of both sediment source and river activity evolutions. Using an XRF core scanner, we established high resolution geochemical profiles on a short 14C-dated core, spanning the last 1200 years. We here interpret the Si/Rb ratio as an indicator of biogenic silica abundance, in opposition to Rubidium-bearing detrital inputs. We hence evidenced a series of high and low terrigenous inputs, corresponding to high and low flooding activity, respectively. Our results were compared with the only available climate-related information for Late Holocene on Kerguelen archipelago: a series of two 14C ages interpreted as evidences of glacier retreat (Frénot et al., 1997). Both records match together, as the 1100-1350 AD minima of flood activity corresponds to the younger age of glacier retreat. We hence evidence three periods of wetter conditions at ca. 800-1100, 1350-1750, 1880-1940 AD, which are interpreted as periods of enhanced cyclonic circulation, compared to the present-day situation. Those results show the potential of Lake Armor sediments to establish the first Holocene palaeohydrological record in southern Indian Ocean. References Arnaud et al., 2005, The Holocene 15, 420-428 Arnaud, 2005, Jour. Of Palaeolim. 34, 519-52 Arnaud et al., 2007, ILIC congress Frénot et al., 1997, CRAS 320, 567-573. Heirman et al., 2007, ILIC congress

Arnaud, F.; Révillon, S.; Poulenard, J.; Boone, D.; Heirman, K.

2009-04-01

430

10Be and U-series dating of late Quaternary landforms along the southern San Jacinto fault: Implications for temporal slip rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust age control on faulted landforms with well-constrained offsets is essential to documenting the heterogeneous behavior of a fault zone over time. However, showing late Quaternary temporal slip rate variation is often challenging due to the difficultly of obtaining reliable ages for Quaternary deposits. Exposure ages from cosmogenic isotopes can be significantly affected by surface processes, and U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate provides only minimum ages because carbonate accumulation occurs after deposition. Fortunately, the controlling factors for the resulting age uncertainties of each method are relatively independent from each other, so a combination of cosmogenic isotope and U-series dating may significantly improve the reliability of landform dating and yield more robust slip rate estimates. We present preliminary results of this dual-dating approach at 4 sites along the southern San Jacinto fault zone in California: 2 sites along the Coyote Creek fault, and 2 sites along the Clark fault. These results show age agreement between the two dating methods. Along the southern Clark fault, a 10Be depth profile model age of 34.5 ±6.6 ka and a U-series age of 33.2 ±1.1 ka were obtained for an offset Q2b fan surface, and a Q3b surface yielded a weighted mean 10Be surface exposure age of 5.9 ±1.5 ka, similar to an U-series age of 6.3 ±0.4 ka. Along the northern Coyote Creek fault, preliminary data indicate a 10Be surface exposure age of 11.3 ±3.4 ka and a U-series age of 11.7 ±1.8 ka for an offset Q3a surface, and a 10Be surface exposure age of 6.9 ±1.0 ka and a U-series age of 7.8 ± 0.9 ka for an offset Q3b surface. The remarkable consistency among ages from the two dating methods suggest that: (1) U-series ages of pedogenic carbonate clast rinds closely approach depositional ages of the host alluvium; (2) erosion may be negligible at the sampled sites; and (3) inherited 10Be has been accurately quantified (via depth profile) for the late Pleistocene deposits, and is negligible for Holocene fans. In general, our results show that, in an arid setting where post-depositional processes are limited and multiple dating techniques can be applied, reliable ages may be obtained to yield robust slip rates across and along fault zones. Preliminary slip-rate results from these sites imply that slip rates may have varied significantly over the late Quaternary, with an ~2x increase since ~8-6 kyr.

Blisniuk, K.; Oskin, M. E.; Fletcher, K.; Sharp, W. D.; Rockwell, T. K.

2009-12-01

431

Genesis of an esker-like ridge over the southern Fraser Plateau, British Columbia: Implications for paleo-ice sheet reconstruction based on geomorphic inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust interpretations of meltwater systems operating during ice sheet decay are integral to reconstructing deglacial patterns and style. Yet over reliance on meltwater landform morphology with limited attention to morpho-sedimentary relationships, and basin-scale geomorphic and stratigraphic context can lead to unreliable geomorphic inversion-based paleo-ice sheet reconstructions. This problem is illustrated by the evolution of Young Lake esker-like ridge (YLER) formed in the Young Lake basin (YLB) on BC's southern Fraser Plateau during decay of the last Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS). We integrate data from digital elevation models, aerial photographs, sedimentary outcrops, water wells and shallow geophysics (ground-penetrating radar, electrical resistivity tomography). Previous interpretations of YLER as both an esker and an ice-contact, poorly-sorted, stratified deposit emplaced by westerly flowing meltwater, imply an eastward retreating ice margin. Geophysical data from a flat-topped component of YLER reveal slipface and planar-bedded sand and gravel overlying lacustrine sediments, characteristic of a Hjulstrom delta. Eastward-dipping foresets in a Gilbert delta exist at the eastern terminus. Contextually our observations suggest, despite esker-like morphology, YLER was not deposited within a subglacial ice tunnel. Instead, it formed through deposition of subaerial outwash between and/or on dead ice in front of a regionally backwasting ice margin. The complex deglacial evolution of YLB, including a drainage reversal and formation of two glacial lakes, supports northwestward backwasting of the CIS and dead ice within YLB. We conclude that accurate geomorphic inversion of meltwater landforms for deglacial paleo-ice sheet reconstruction requires knowledge of landform-scale morpho-sedimentary relationships and basin-scale geomorphic and stratigraphic context.

Perkins, Andrew J.; Brennand, Tracy A.; Burke, Matthew J.

2013-05-01

432

Mid-Triassic felsic igneous rocks from the southern Lancangjiang Zone, SW China: Petrogenesis and implications for the evolution of Paleo-Tethys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Lancangjiang magmatic belt is an important component of the Triassic San-Jiang igneous zone in Southwestern China and is mainly composed of the Lincang (LC) batholith and a Mesozoic volcanic belt that contains abundant rhyolites. Our new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb results, together with previous SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS ages, define two emplacement ages for the Lincang batholith: at ~ 230 Ma and ~ 220 Ma, corresponding to the eruption times of volcanic rocks of the Manghuai and Xiaodingxi formations, respectively. Most of the ~ 230 Ma LC granites possess high A/CNK values (> 1.1) and display strongly peraluminous characteristics, similar to S-type granite, whereas the Manghuai Formation (MHF) rhyolites show an affinity to A-type granite, especially their elevated FeOt/(FeOt + MgO) and Ga/Al ratios. Both of the granitic and volcanic rocks have strongly fractionated REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 2.66-33.2 and 13.1-19.7, respectively) and have conspicuous negative Eu anomalies (Eu*/Eu = 0.06-0.65 and 0.52-0.74, respectively) with a similar depletion in HFSE (Nb, Zr, Hf), P, Ba and Sr. The Sr-Nd isotopic data and TDM2 model ages suggest that the LC granitic magma had a dominantly crustal source, whereas the MHF rhyolites were derived from mixing between middle/upper crustal rocks similar to the source of the LC granitic magma, with a small volume of mantle-derived melt.

Peng, Touping; Wilde, Simon A.; Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Peng, Bingxia

2013-05-01

433

Evidence for late-paleozoic brine migration in Cambrian carbonate rocks of the central and southern Appalachians: implications for Mississippi Valley-type sulfide mineralization  

SciTech Connect

Many Lower Paleozoic limestones and dolostones in the Valley and Ridge province of the central and southern Appalachians contain 10 to 25 weight percent authigenic potassium feldspar. This was considered to be a product of early diagenesis, however, /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar analyses of overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar in Cambrian carbonate rocks from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee yield Late Carboniferous-Early Permian ages (278-322 Ma). Simple mass balance calculations suggest the feldspar could not have formed isochemically, but required the flux of multiple pore volumes of fluid through the rocks, reflecting regional fluid migration events during the Late-Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar and quartz grains from unmineralized rocks throughout the study area indicate homogenization temperatures from 100/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C and freezing point depressions of -14/sup 0/ to -18.5/sup 0/C. The apparent similarity of these fluids to fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals of nearby Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits suggests that the regional occurrences of authigenic K-feldspar and MVT mineralization may be genetically related. This hypothesis is supported by the discovery of authigenic K-feldspar intergrown with sphalerite in several mines of the Mascot-Jefferson City District, E. Tennessee. Regional potassic alteration in unmineralized carbonate rocks and localized occurrences of MVT mineralization are both explainable by a gravity-driven flow model, in which deep brines migrate towards the basin margin under a hydraulic gradient established during the Alleghanian orogeny.

Hearn, P.P. Jr; Sutter, J.F.; Belkin, H.E.

1987-05-01

434

Determination of banned Sudan dyes in food samples by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A method for molecularly imprinted SPE of banned Sudan azo-dyes from food samples was investigated. The molecularly imprinted polymer was obtained by suspension polymerization using 1-(4-chlorophenyl)azonaphthalen-2-ol as the mimic template. The molecular recognition properties of imprinted beads were evaluated for use as a SPE sorbent, in order to develop a selective extraction protocol for the Sudan class of dyes. The optimized extraction protocol resulted in a reliable molecularly imprinted SPE (MISPE) method suitable for HPLC analysis. It was selective for the main analyte, Sudan I, and the related azo-dyes Sudan II, III, IV, Sudan Red B, and Sudan Red 7B, while the permitted azo-dyes Allura Red AC, Neococcin, and Sunset Yellow FCF were not extracted. The method was tested for Sudan I, II, III, and IV in five different food samples (hot chilli pepper, hot chilli tomato sauce, sausage, tomato sauce, and hard boiled egg yolk) at three concentration levels (15, 100, and 300 microg/g). It demonstrated itself to be insensitive to the presence of different complex matrices, precise, accurate, and with good recovery rates (85-101%). The LOD and LOQ were satisfactory for most analytical determinations. PMID:19722173

Baggiani, Claudio; Anfossi, Laura; Baravalle, Patrizia; Giovannoli, Cristina; Giraudi, Gianfranco; Barolo, Claudia; Viscardi, Guido

2009-10-01

435

Patient doses in interventional cardiology procedures in Sudan.  

PubMed

Radiation doses delivered to 461 patients were measured during the period of 12 months in a hospital in Khartoum, Sudan. Kerma Area Product, Cumulative Kerma and fluoroscopy time were registered during four selected procedures, namely coronary angiography (CA), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) and pacemaker. For CA, PTCA, PTMC and pacemaker the mean and median kerma area product values in gray centimeter square were found to be (20, 17.9), (56.5, 50.3), (21.6, 19.6) and (15.3, 9.6), respectively. The obtained results for mean and median cumulative kerma in milli gray were (143.7, 120.5), (418.4, 371.4), (119.8, 102) and (88.7, 59.8) as measured for CA, PTCA, PTMC and pacemaker, respectively. The mean and median total fluoroscopy time in minutes were (5.2, 3.39), (17.6, 14.8), (18, 15) and (10.2, 7.16) as registered for CA, PTCA, PTMA and pacemaker, respectively. Maximum skin dose was estimated for 13 patients during PTCA and CA procedures. Dose exceeded 2 Gy in PTCA for one patient. In comparison with the guidelines for coronary examinations suggested by SENTINEL Consortium, a higher fluoroscopy time for PTCA procedure is reported in this study. It is realised that proper selection of irradiation area, technique modes, fluoroscopy time and conducting special training on radiation protection to the operators are the main factors for potential optimisation. PMID:22791837

Ahmed, Nada A; Ibraheem, S B; Habbani, F I

2012-07-11

436

Community and individual acceptance: family planning services in the Sudan.  

PubMed

The Sudan Community-Based Health Project, initiated by the University of Khartoum in cooperation with the Ministry of Health in 1980, sought to test the proposition that government-trained village midwives could provide maternal-child health and birth spacing services in addition to their ongoing obstetrical duties. The project area encompassed 92,000 people in 93 villages. The 120 midwives serving the project area received training in 4 interventions -- oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child nutrition, immunization, and birth spacing -- and introduced these services by means of 3 rounds of household visits over a 5-month period. Comparison of pre- and post-intervention survey data indicates that village midwives can indeed be used successfully to promote not only contraceptive use, but also health attitudes and practices that are positively associated with fertility regulation. Between the 2 surveys, the percentage of women who ever used contraception increased from 22% to 28%, while the percentage of current users rose from 10% to 13%. Parity was significantly related to current use; each child born multiplied the likelihood of contraceptive acceptance (by a factor of 0.76 in the post-intervention sample). Maternal education was the socioeconomic variable that most enhanced receptivity to contraceptive acceptance after the project's interventions. In terms of community-level variables, village location along the Nile and proximity to a paved road were significant correlates of contraceptive use. When variables related to the project itself were analyzed, women with vaccinated children were found to be twice as likely to contracept as those with nonvaccinated children and women who believed breast feeding should be continued during diarrhea episodes were 1.5 times more likely to use birth spacing than those who did not. Although midwives did not specifically emphasize contraceptive use, it appears women who were encouraged by midwives to take positive steps in the area of child health were also likely to become more innovative in terms of fertility regulation. PMID:12342258

El Tom, A R; Farah, A A; Lauro, D; Fenn, T

1987-06-01