Sample records for southern sudan implications

  1. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532...Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods,...

  2. Viewing the Reconstruction of Primary Schooling in Southern Sudan through Education Data, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, HyeJin; Moses, Kurt D.; Jang, Bosun; Wils, Annababette

    2011-01-01

    After one of the longest wars in the history of Africa, Southern Sudan accomplished one of the world's quickest education reconstruction programmes. Once the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005, the international donor community and the government and people of Southern Sudan united under a common goal: to increase access to…

  3. [Sudan].

    PubMed

    The capital of Sudan is Khartoum. As of 1995, Sudan had a population of 28.1 million governed by a military, Islamic regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $5.9 billion and $250. In 1994, Sudan owed $18 billion, then being serviced at $1.3 billion. For the same year, Sudan exported $609 million in goods and services and imported $2.209 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 2.7% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 53 years, the infant mortality rate was 78 per 1000 births, 51% had access to health services, and 48% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347111

  4. The Burden of Trachoma in Ayod County of Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    King, Jonathan D.; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Gatpan, Gideon; Lopidia, Ben; Becknell, Steve; Emerson, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Blindness due to trachoma is avoidable through Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial hygiene and Environmental improvements (SAFE). Recent surveys have shown trachoma to be a serious cause of blindness in Southern Sudan. We conducted this survey in Ayod County of Jonglei State to estimate the need for intervention activities to eliminate blinding trachoma. Methodology and Findings A cross-sectional two-stage cluster random survey was conducted in November 2006. All residents of selected households were clinically assessed for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading scheme. A total of 2,335 people from 392 households were examined, of whom 1,107 were over 14 years of age. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children 1–9 years of age was: trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF)?=?80.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73.9–86.3); trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)?=?60.7% (95% CI, 54.6–66.8); and TF and/or TI (active trachoma)?=?88.3% (95% CI, 83.7–92.9). Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was 14.6% (95% CI, 10.9–18.3) in adults over 14 years of age; 2.9% (95% CI, 0.4–5.3) in children 1–14 years of age; and 8.4% (95% CI, 5.5–11.3) overall. The prevalence of corneal opacity in persons over 14 years of age with TT was 6.4% (95% CI, 4.5–8.3). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of trachoma signs between genders. Trachoma affected almost all households surveyed: 384/392 (98.0%) had at least one person with active trachoma and 130 (33.2%) had at least one person with trichiasis. Conclusions Trachoma is an unnecessary public health problem in Ayod. The high prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis confirms the severe burden of blinding trachoma found in other post-conflict areas of Southern Sudan. Based on WHO recommended thresholds, all aspects of the SAFE strategy are indicated to eliminate blinding trachoma in Ayod. PMID:18820746

  5. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  6. Literacy in the Southern Sudan: A Case Study of Variables Affecting Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, J. Ronayne

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Local Languages Literacy Project in the Southern Sudan; delineates the most important educational, socioeconomic, and linguistic variables affecting the success of large-scale literacy programs in Africa; and questions the widely held assumption that indigenous language literacy is essential to subsequent literacy in the prestige…

  7. Training at the Grassroots: An Integrated Approach to Training Library Assistants in Southern Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Diana; O'Connor, Brigid

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of a library training program by the University of Juba Library in Southern Sudan, and describes three levels of courses offered to library staff. Details are given of the curriculum, training staff, selection of trainees, and teaching tools, as well as examples of problems encountered. (CLB)

  8. South Sudan urban development strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittorio Emmanuel Pareto

    2008-01-01

    Southern Sudan - the ten southern provinces of Sudan - has attained autonomy and may soon achieve total independence from Sudan. Yet decades of civil war not only prevented development but destroyed the infrastructure left over from the colonial period. While Southern Sudan is fortunate to have oil resources that can finance building up the new nation, the task is

  9. Jebel Moya (Sudan): new dates from a mortuary complex at the southern Meroitic frontier

    PubMed Central

    Brass, Michael; Schwenniger, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new chronology for the burial complex at Jebel Moya, south-central Sudan. It reassesses the body of evidence from Sir Henry Wellcome's original 1911–1914 excavations in order to place the site within a firm chronological framework by: (a) applying an attribute-based approach to discern discrete pottery assemblages; and (b) applying initial OSL dates to facilitate the reliable dating of this site for the first time. Jebel Moya is re-interpreted as a burial complex situated on the southern periphery of the late Meroitic state, and its potential to serve as a chronological and cultural reference point for future studies in south-central and southern Sudan is outlined. PMID:25400300

  10. Jebel Moya (Sudan): new dates from a mortuary complex at the southern Meroitic frontier.

    PubMed

    Brass, Michael; Schwenniger, Jean-Luc

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes a new chronology for the burial complex at Jebel Moya, south-central Sudan. It reassesses the body of evidence from Sir Henry Wellcome's original 1911-1914 excavations in order to place the site within a firm chronological framework by: (a) applying an attribute-based approach to discern discrete pottery assemblages; and (b) applying initial OSL dates to facilitate the reliable dating of this site for the first time. Jebel Moya is re-interpreted as a burial complex situated on the southern periphery of the late Meroitic state, and its potential to serve as a chronological and cultural reference point for future studies in south-central and southern Sudan is outlined. PMID:25400300

  11. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and...Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Sudan, Southern...

  12. The epidemiology of trachoma in Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile States, southern Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Onsarigo, Alice; Adamu, Liknaw; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Emerson, Paul; Zingeser, James

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Limited surveys and anecdotal data indicate that trachoma is endemic in the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile in southern Sudan. However, its magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We conducted surveys to ascertain the prevalence and geographical distribution of trachoma, and to identify targets for control interventions. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in nine sites in southern Sudan between September 2001 and June 2004. Two-stage random cluster sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. FINDINGS: A total of 17 016 persons were examined, a response rate of 86.1% of the enumerated population. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years was: TF=53.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=52.1-55.3); TI=42.7% (95% CI=41.2-44.2); TF and/or TI=64.1% (95% CI=62.5-65.5). Prevalence of trichiasis (TT) in children aged less than 15 years was 1.2% (95% CI=0.9-1.4), while TT prevalence in persons aged 15 years and above was 9.2% (95% CI=8.6-9.9). Women were more likely to have trichiasis compared to men (odds ratio (OR)=1.57; 95% CI=1.34-1.84). Tentative extrapolation to the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile estimates that there is a backlog of 178,250 (lower and upper bounds=156,027-205,995) persons requiring surgery and the entire population, estimated to be over 3.9 million, is in need of the SAFE strategy to control blinding trachoma. CONCLUSION: Trachoma is a public health problem in all nine of the study sites surveyed. The unusually high prevalence of active trachoma and TT in children points to the severity of the problem. There is urgent need to implement trachoma control interventions in trachoma endemic regions of southern Sudan. PMID:16462982

  13. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01...Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended...

  14. Integrated Surveys of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Southern Sudan: How Much Do They Cost and Can They Be Refined?

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Hanson, Kara; Robinson, Emily; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Mpakateni, Martin; Lado, Mounir; Moore, Stephen; Petty, Nora; Brooker, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing emphasis on integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires identification of co-endemic areas. Integrated surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection have been recommended for this purpose. Integrated survey designs inevitably involve balancing the costs of surveys against accuracy of classifying areas for treatment, so-called implementation units (IUs). This requires an understanding of the main cost drivers and of how operating procedures may affect both cost and accuracy of surveys. Here we report a detailed cost analysis of the first round of integrated NTD surveys in Southern Sudan. Methods and Findings Financial and economic costs were estimated from financial expenditure records and interviews with survey staff using an ingredients approach. The main outcome was cost per IU surveyed. Uncertain variables were subjected to univariate sensitivity analysis and the effects of modifying standard operating procedures were explored. The average economic cost per IU surveyed was USD 40,206 or USD 9,573, depending on the size of the IU. The major cost drivers were two key categories of recurrent costs: i) survey consumables, and ii) personnel. Conclusion The cost of integrated surveys in Southern Sudan could be reduced by surveying larger administrative areas for LF. If this approach was taken, the estimated economic cost of completing LF, schistosomiasis and STH mapping in Southern Sudan would amount to USD 1.6 million. The methodological detail and costing template provided here could be used to generate cost estimates in other settings and readily compare these to the present study, and may help budget for integrated and single NTDs surveys elsewhere. PMID:20644619

  15. The Research Process in a Multi-Level Mixed-Methods Case Study: International Organization Headquarters and Field Employee Perspectives of a Program in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschenbacher, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the methods and data-collection process for a multi-level mixed-methods case study. Data for the study were gathered through phone interviews and electronic surveys from individuals working on the same educational program in Southern Sudan, though some were supporting the program from outside the country. The…

  16. 75 FR 75865 - Presidential Determination on Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...2011-05 of November 19, 2010 Presidential Determination on Sudan Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and the] President...the United Nations to facilitate the referendum in Southern Sudan pursuant to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The...

  17. Forced Migration and Under-five Mortality: A Comparison of Refugees and Hosts in North-western Uganda and Southern Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kavita Singh; Unni Karunakara; Gilbert Burnham; Kenneth Hill

    2005-01-01

    Millions of people around the world live as displaced persons, often for lengthy periods of time. Little, however, is known about the correlates of health outcomes in displaced populations. This research article used data from north-western Uganda and southern Sudan to understand if and how forced migration and resulting residential arrangements impact under-five mortality for long-term displaced and corresponding host

  18. Implications of renewable energy for women in Sudan: challenges and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2003-01-01

    In Sudan, electricity reaches only about 30% of the population, mainly in urban areas. Hence, a major problem for rural people is the inadequate supply of power for lighting, heating, cooking, cooling, water pumping, radio or TV communications and security services. Petroleum product supplies, including diesel, kerosene and liquid petroleum gas are irregular and often subject to sudden price increases.

  19. Schistosomiasis infection among primary school students in a war zone, Southern Kordofan State, Sudan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a major health problem adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations in Sudan. Methods We conducted a school-based survey to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in 36 villages in Southern Kordofan (SK) State. A total of 2,302 primary school students were recruited. Each student completed a questionnaire and submitted one urine and one stool sample. Results The prevalence of schistosomiasis haematobium was 23.7%, while schistosomiasis mansoni was not detected among the study participants. S. haematobium infection was identified in all areas, with the highest prevalence in the western locality of SK State. The infection was associated with the distance between home/school and open water sources. In addition, S. haematobium infection was associated with the existence of and distance to open water sources, higher frequency of contact with open water, absence of a health advocacy group in the school and history of schistosomiasis treatment. Conclusions This study highlights schistosomiasis as a public health problem in SK State. The findings will guide the schistosomiasis Control Program of the State Ministry of Health in developing and applying treatment plans for schistosomiasis in SK State. PMID:23845226

  20. The Birth of a New Nation: The Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In early July, the country of Sudan, wracked by civil war since the 1980s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan. Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or "Unity." For the…

  1. Sudan Grass.

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, B.; Conner, A. B.

    1915-01-01

    .3~1'1 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN No. 172 JANUARY, 1915 ? SUDAN GRASS ? '! POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS ? VON BOECKMANN-JONES CO., PRINTERS, AUSTIN, TEXAS 1915 BLANK PAGE IN ORIGINAL A42-f1 5-30m... TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT~ STATION BuLLETIN No. 172 JANUARY, 1915 SUDAN GRASS BY B. YOUNGBLOOD .AND A. B. CONNER POSTOFFICE: COLLI:GE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS VON BOECKMANN-JONES CO., PRINTERS, .\\. USTIN .. I'EXAS 1915 AGRICULTURAL...

  2. The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan, and highlights the importance of addressing all these influences on overall health. PMID:20799956

  3. Flood pulsing in the Sudd wetland: analysis of seasonal variations in 2 inundation and evapotranspiration in Southern Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, Gabriel; Rebelo, L-M.; McCartney, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Located on the Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan, the Sudd is one of the largest floodplain wetlands in the world. Seasonal inundation drives the hydrologic, geomorphological, and ecological processes, and the annual flood pulse is essential to the functioning of the Sudd. Despite the importance of the flood pulse, various hydrological interventions are planned upstream of the Sudd to increase economic benefits and food security. These will not be without consequences, in particular for wetlands where the biological productivity, biodiversity, and human livelihoods are dependent on the flood pulse and both the costs and benefits need to be carefully evaluated. Many African countries still lack regional baseline information on the temporal extent, distribution, and characteristics of wetlands, making it hard to assess the consequences of development interventions. Because of political instability in Sudan and the inaccessible nature of the Sudd, recent measurements of flooding and seasonal dynamics are inadequate. Analyses of multitemporal and multisensor remote sensing datasets are presented in this paper, in order to investigate and characterize flood pulsing within the Sudd wetland over a 12-month period. Wetland area has been mapped along with dominant components of open water and flooded vegetation at five time periods over a single year. The total area of flooding (both rain and river fed) over the 12 months was 41 334 km2, with 9176 km2 of this constituting the permanent wetland. Mean annual total evaporation is shown to be higher and with narrower distribution of values from areas of open water (1718 mm) than from flooded vegetation (1641 mm). Although the exact figures require validation against ground-based measurements, the results highlight the relative differences in inundation patterns and evaporation across the Sudd.

  4. Spectral P-wave magnitudes, magnitude spectra and other source parameters for the 1990 southern Sudan and the 2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Hesham Hussein Mohamed

    2008-10-01

    Teleseismic Broadband seismograms of P-waves from the May 1990 southern Sudan and the December, 2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquakes; the western branch of the East African Rift System at different azimuths have been investigated on the basis of magnitude spectra. The two earthquakes are the largest shocks in the East African Rift System and its extension in southern Sudan. Focal mechanism solutions along with geological evidences suggest that the first event represents a complex style of the deformation at the intersection of the northern branch of the western branch of the East African Rift and Aswa Shear Zone while the second one represents the current tensional stress on the East African Rift. The maximum average spectral magnitude for the first event is determined to be 6.79 at 4 s period compared to 6.33 at 4 s period for the second event. The other source parameters for the two earthquakes were also estimated. The first event had a seismic moment over fourth that of the second one. The two events are radiated from patches of faults having radii of 13.05 and 7.85 km, respectively. The average displacement and stress drop are estimated to be 0.56 m and 1.65 MPa for the first event and 0.43 m and 2.20 MPa for the second one. The source parameters that describe inhomogeneity of the fault are also determined from the magnitude spectra. These additional parameters are complexity, asperity radius, displacements across the asperity and ambient stress drop. Both events produce moderate rupture complexity. Compared to the second event, the first event is characterized by relatively higher complexity, a low average stress drop and a high ambient stress. A reasonable explanation for the variations in these parameters may suggest variation in the strength of the seismogenic fault which provides the relations between the different source parameters. The values of stress drops and the ambient stresses estimated for both events indicate that these earthquakes are of interplate type.

  5. DEM-optical-radar data integration for palaeohydrological mapping in the northern Darfur, Sudan: implication for groundwater exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ghoneim; F. El-Baz

    2007-01-01

    North?western Sudan, as a part of the eastern Sahara, is among the driest places on earth. However, the region underwent drastic climatic changes through the alternation of dry and wet conditions in the past. During humid phases, when the rain was plentiful over a prolonged time period, the surface was veined by rivers and dotted by large lakes. The new

  6. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Aspects of Women's Political Participation in Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bakri, Z. B.; Kameir, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    Western preconceptions about the nature of the political process, the division between public and private spheres, and participation in the political process give an incomplete picture of political activity in places like the Sudan. Cultural differences between the northern and southern region further complicate our understanding of the country.…

  8. Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in southern Appalachian Mountain streams: implications for trout

    E-print Network

    Hutchens, John

    Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in southern Appalachian Mountain streams: implications invertebrate drift in six south-western North Carolina streams and their implications for trout production productivity. However, little is known about the contribution of terrestrial invertebrates entering drift

  9. A regional reconnaissance on yellow fever in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R. M.; Haseeb, M. A.; Work, T. H.

    1955-01-01

    Neutralization-tests with yellow fever virus performed on 666 human sera collected in the southern Sudan imply that yellow fever is still endemic south of the 10th parallel, in the south-west border of the Nuba Mountains, and in the plains west of the Nuba Mountains as far north as El Muglad. Similar tests on bloods from 110 primates revealed a high rate of immunity among both baboons (Papio sp.) (94%) and grivet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) (77%), and a very low rate (1 in 56) among galagos (Galago senegalensis). It would therefore appear that, in contrast to the baboon and the grivet monkey, the galago is not significantly involved in the cycle of the virus. The epidemiological implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:14379007

  10. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River and its tributaries were not transformed upstream our sample points (Lavie et al., 2013, under press). Finally, we studied an urban drinking waters network, in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, one of the least developed countries, with chronic political crises. The nearly 6 million inhabitants of this settlement suffer many cuts and bad pressure at tap. Furthermore, Nile's waters that feed the network are summarily treated and then quite turbid, especially in summer during Nile's floods. This situation obliges the population to store and to decant water, transforming it into clear ones (Lavie and Hamza, 2013, under press). The results of our studies demonstrate that, generally, we can observe a correlation between increasing turbidity and bacteriology, and decreasing oximetry. This assumption is disproven in many cases: (1) the stagnant waters of Khartoum and (2) the clarified Mendoza River waters. Finally, (3) the seasonal anthropogenic uses of soil and waters in the Doubegue and Tunuyán Rivers have more impact on the bacteriological quality than the natural seasonality of the suspended solids because soil erosion has increased.

  11. A case of African histoplasmosis from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Gumaa, S A; Ahmed, M A; Hassan, M E; Hassan, A M

    1988-01-01

    The first authentic case of African histoplasmosis from the Sudan is reported. The patient came from Dindir, along the southern part of the Blue Nile River. He had cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis as well as the cutaneous form of African histoplasmosis. The latter was proved by culture and histopathology to be due to Histoplasma duboisii. The fungus was confined to the skin. H. duboisii may be more prevalent, and further studies in Dindir area are needed. PMID:3232196

  12. Structural Implications of Walloomsac and Hartland Rocks Displayed by Borings in Southern Manhattan

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    Structural Implications of Walloomsac and Hartland Rocks Displayed by Borings in Southern Manhattan, and petrography have been fruitful in extending mapping to southern Manhattan from areas of natural exposures different and mappable schistose units constitute the formation known as the Manhattan Schist. Separated

  13. The Politics of Writing Tribal Identities in the Sudan: The Case of the Colonial Nuba Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Linguistics is implicated in the colonial project of the invention of "self-contained" "racial" and "tribal units" in the Sudan. This paper has two objectives. First, to historicise the notions of "language" in the postcolonial discourse of language planning in the Sudan by reviewing one of the significant colonial policies: the colonial Nuba…

  14. Serological examinations of HIV-I virus in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Arbesser, C; Möse, J R; Sixl, W

    1987-01-01

    1614 blood samples from men and women in the Upper Nile region, Melut district (southern Sudan) were examined for HIV-antibodies. 109 samples were positive twice in the ELISA test, and 18 (1.1%) were confirmed by the IFT and Western Blot test. PMID:3327888

  15. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard University in…

  16. Investigations of wild animals as Leishmania reservoir in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Sixl, W; Sebek, Z; Reinthaler, F; Mascher, F

    1987-01-01

    In 1982-1983, 628 small mammals from around the so-called "kala-azar villages" in the Melut district and Paloich (Upper Nile region) were studied. A massive leishmania infection was found only in 1 jakal. All other attempts at isolation of an infectious agent were negative. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a jakal as a reservoir in the southern Sudan. In the Melut District (South Sudan) during the years 1982 and 1983, wild animals (small mammals) were investigated as reservoir of leishmania. Detailed studies have already been submitted by hoogstraal (1). PMID:3443748

  17. Structural Implications of Walloomsac and Hartland Rocks of Southern Manhattan Island

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    Structural Implications of Walloomsac and Hartland Rocks of Southern Manhattan Island Charles separate locations south of Canal Street in Manhattan over the past three years have been fruitful schistose units constitute the formation formerly known as the Manhattan Schist in the type locality

  18. Dust storm in Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A dust storm is carrying dust from Sudan, Africa, out over the Red Sea (right) in this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Image from June 30, 2002. In the lower left quadrant of the image, the sinuous path of the Nile can be seen. Dust storms such as this reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface, and have a cooling effect on the area. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Seismic Hazard Implication of the Seismotectonics of southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbilu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

    2014-05-01

    The work presented in this report / presentation was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. An effort was made to compile information necessary to prepare a seismotectonic map of Africa which can then be used in carrying out a seismic hazard assessment of the continent or locations within the continent. Information on major faults, fault plane solutions, geophysical data as well as stress data has so far been collected and included in a database for the southern Africa region. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the collected information. The seismicity data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various sources. An effort has been made to characterise the identified major faults and through further analysis investigate their possible impact on the seismic hazard of southern Africa.

  20. Operation Lifeline Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, S

    2002-01-01

    The provision of aid in war zones can be fraught with political difficulties and may itself foster inequalities, as it is rare to be allowed access to civilians on both sides of a conflict. Over the past decade, a United Nations (UN) brokered agreement has allowed Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), a UN "umbrella" organisation, to provide the diplomatic cover and operational support to allow long term humanitarian and emergency food aid to both the government and the rebel sides in the long-running south Sudanese civil war. Over the years, the destruction of infrastructure in the country has meant that the provision of basic health care has been seriously hampered. Operation Lifeline Sudan has coordinated the work of most of the non-governmental organisations (NGOs), working in this part of Africa. Each NGO has had responsibility for a particular area of the country and has worked closely with the local Sudanese authorities on either side of the conflict, conforming to strict codes of conduct or "ground rules", based on neutrality. Operation Lifeline Sudan has provided an air-bridge for emergency relief supplies in regions where road access is impossible, either because of landmines, or simply because the roads do not exist. The war continues, however, and the underlying causes of war—economic exploitation, marginalisation of communities, lack of political representation, and systematic violence and abuse remain unsolved. The warring factions have brought some OLS operations in south Sudan to a standstill recently, for certain political reasons that could have compromised the neutrality of the OLS-coordinated humanitarian aid schemes. It would appear that the only resolution to the country's problems are external political pressure to get the respective combatants to negotiate and, less probably, an undertaking by countries of the developed world not to continue to supply arms. Nevertheless, OLS may serve as a model for how medical aid can be delivered in an even-handed way to the populations of countries where there is civil war, irrespective of where they may live. PMID:11834761

  1. Exposure to SIVmnd-2 in southern Cameroon: public health implications.

    PubMed

    Ndembi, Nicaise; Kaptue, Lazare; Ido, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Compelling evidence appeared in 2002 of human exposure to a plethora of primate lentiviruses through hunting, handling of bushmeat, and/or animals kept as pets in Cameroon. To determine SIV prevalence in pet animals, an analysis of 28 sera of nonhuman primates found no SIV infection in greater spot-nosed monkeys (0/5) or chimpanzees (0/10), and a prevalence rate of 23.1% (3/13) in mandrills kept as household pets in southern Cameroon. Phylogenetical analysis based on pol-integrase region and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene showed that the newly found SIV from Mandrillus sphinx (SIVmndCM-202, SIVmndCM-211, and SIVmndCM-218) clustered significantly with SIVmnd-2. Questionnaire data were also collected to assess whether owners had experienced bites, scratches, or exposure to blood and/or body fluid. Risk to human health from cross-species transmission of the newly identified SIVmnd-2 to infect humans remains unknown. PMID:19654855

  2. Distance Teaching in the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badri, Hagga Kashif

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the history, social climate, and country of Sudan as they relate to several educational projects. It is suggested that a satisfactory rate of development cannot be achieved while illiteracy remains at its present high level. (Author/JEG)

  3. Plasmodium falciparum population structure in Sudan post artemisinin-based combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhiet, Amani M A; Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin A; Elzaki, Salah-Eldin G; Al-Hashami, Zainab; Albarwani, Hamida S; AlQamashoui, Badar A; Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Idris, Mohamed A; Elagib, Atif A; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Babiker, Hamza A

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, Sudan has stepped up malaria control backed by WHO, and this has resulted in significant reduction in parasite rate, malaria morbidity and mortality. The present study analyzed Plasmodium falciparum parasites in four geographical separated areas, to examine whether the success in malaria control following the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has disrupted the population structure and evolution of the parasite. We examined 319 P. falciparum isolates collected between October 2009 and October 2012 in four different areas in Sudan (Jazira [central Sudan], Southern Darfur [western Sudan], Upper Nile [southern Sudan] and Kasala [eastern Sudan]). Twelve microsatellites were analyzed for allelic diversity, multi-locus haplotype and inter-population differentiation. Level of diversity was compared to that detected for three of the above microsatellites among P. falciparum parasites in central and eastern Sudan in 1999, prior to introduction of ACT. Diversity at each locus (unbiased heterozygosity [H]) was high in all areas (Jazira, H=0.67), (Southern Darfur, H=0.71), (Upper Nile, H=0.71), and (Kasala, H=0.63). Microsatellites were distributed widely and private alleles, detected in a single population, were rare. The extent of diversity in the above sites was similar to that seen, in 1999, in central (Khartoum, H=0.73) and eastern Sudan (Gedaref, H=0.75). Significant Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between the microsatellites in all populations. Pairwise FST analysis revealed that parasites in the four areas could be considered as one population. However, the parasites in Sudan clustered away from parasites in West Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Despite marked reduction in malaria risk in Sudan, the extent of diversity and parasite genetic structure are indicative of a large population size. Further considerable reduction in transmission would be needed before fragmented sub-population can be seen. In addition, the large divergence of P. falciparum in Sudan from West Africa and Arabian Peninsula populations may result from differential evolutionary pressures acting at the population level, which shall be considered in eradication plans. PMID:25913735

  4. Quaternary extension in southern Tibet: Field observations and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijo, Rolando; Tapponnier, Paul; Mercier, J. L.; Han, Tong-Lin

    1986-12-01

    We summarize evidence for Quaternary and active faulting collected in the field during three Sino-French expeditions to southeastern Tibet (1980-1982). Detailed mapping of Quaternary and active faults as well as microtectonic measurements indicate that normal faulting has been the dominant tectonic regime north of the Himalayas in the last 2 ± 0.5 m.y. The maximum horizontal principal stress in south Tibet appears to be only the intermediate principal stress ?2, ?1 being vertical. South of the "chord" joining the eastern and western syntaxes of the Himalayan arc, extensional strains are principally localized within seven regularly spaced rift zones, three of which have been studied in some detail. The extension direction is determined to be N96° E ± 7° mainly from statistical averaging of strikes of newly formed normal faults. Throw rates on normal faults are evaluated for different time spans (2 ± 0.5 m.y., 60 ± 40 kyr, and 10 ± 2 kyr B.P.), using structural and topographic reliefs, as well as synglacial and postglacial vertical offsets. The rate of Quaternary extension is about 1% m.y.-1 along an 1100-km-long ESE traverse across south Tibet. This corresponds to a "spreading" rate of 1 ± 0.6 cm/yr. This rate and the divergent horizontal projections of slip vectors of earthquakes along the Himalayan front constrain the rate at which rigid India underthrusts southern Tibet to be 2 ± 1 cm/yr. Although most of the normal faults appear to be independent of, and nearly orthogonal to, the ?E-W Mesozoic-Tertiary tectonic fabric, the Yadong-Gulu rift appears to be guided for over 130 km by the older, oblique (?NE-SW) Nyainqentanglha range and fault zones along it. This reactivated zone is the most prominent left-lateral strike-slip fault system in SE Tibet. Excepting this zone, and the vicinity of the SE extremity of the Karakorum fault, Quaternary strike-slip faulting is rare in south Tibet, i.e., south of the chord between the syntaxes of the Himalayan arc. North of the chord, the tectonic style is different. There minor conjugate strike-slip faulting is widespread and appears to control Quaternary normal faulting, which is more diffuse and subdued than in south Tibet. Along the chord, the presence of a major zone of active right-lateral, en échelon strike-slip faults (Karakorum-Jiali fault zone) probably reflects the greater facility of eastward extrusion in north central Tibet, in response to the northward push of India. The eastern Himalayan syntaxis may be an obstacle to such extrusion movements south of the chord.

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    PubMed Central

    Ageep, Tellal B; Cox, Jonathan; Hassan, M'oawia M; Knols, Bart GJ; Benedict, Mark Q; Malcolm, Colin A; Babiker, Ahmed; El Sayed, Badria B

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. Methods Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe) adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. Results Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6%) contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals – often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not evident in vector populations breeding in artificial water sources away from the river. Conclusion The GIS-based survey strategy developed in this study provides key data on the population dynamics of An. arabiensis in Northern State. Quantitative estimates of the contributions of various habitat types and their proximity to settlements provide a basis for planning a strategy for reducing malaria risk by elimination of the vector population. PMID:19500425

  6. Orbital Radar Response of Near Surface Materials in Southern Egypt and Implications for Cenozoic History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, T. A.; Grant, J. A.; Johnston, A. K.

    2004-05-01

    Although the existence of "trunk" and tributary drainage channels beneath the sand in the northeast Sahara has been known for two decades, data from the SIR-C mission continues to be useful in solving geologic problems and understanding the radar response from specific types of near surface materials. In the Kiseiba Oasis region of southwest Egypt, SIR-C data revealed a complex tributary pattern of varying brightness that indicated the presence of paleodrainage not noted in the field. The orbital imaging radar uniquely specified key areas for detailed field studies that were not apparent in visible wavelengths. Twenty-two trenches up to 3 m deep, hundreds of shallow pits, several auger holes, and ground penetrating radar reveal that this area has had a history of fluctuating climatic conditions responsible for excavation and enlargement of the local depression by fluvial erosion and preservation of relict surfaces by aeolian blanketing of sand sheet deposits. The resulting near-surface stratigraphy is a complex mixture of fluvial pebble lags in the subsurface and on the surface, where aeolian mixing and local transport have modified the original geometry. In L-band (23 cm wavelength) SIR-C data, a hierarchy of returned signal strength and geometric patterns enables us to predict the type of surface and near-surface materials, sequentially from shallow bedrock to subsurface and surficial lags to sand sheet-veneered weathered anhydrite. Integrating the pattern of sedimentary deposits with relict channels and interfluves enables a better understanding of the origin of the Kiseiba-Dungul depression and its Cenozoic history. What was once thought to be a continuous deposit of Eocene limestone from southern Egypt into northern Sudan is cast in doubt as even the most optimistic estimates of scarp retreat don't permit hundred's of kms of retreat to the present position. Instead, the E-W pattern of the depression, the relict hills, and fracture zones all suggest structural control and erosion patterns that started with N-S compression in the latest Cretaceous. A humid climate during the Tertiary aided fluvial dissection of the broken surface, with drainage leading to the north into the present Kharga depression. The drainage patterns of the Quaternary seen now in orbital radar result from remnants of large-scale structural patterns and Tertiary drainage, confused by alternating hyperarid and semiarid climatic cycles that inverted topography, protected former erosion surfaces, and reversed drainage.

  7. New Late-Pleistocene uranium–thorium and ESR dates for the Singa hominid (Sudan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. McDermott; C. Stringer; R. Grün; C. T. Williams; V. K. Din; C. J. Hawkesworth

    1996-01-01

    The Singa (Sudan) calvaria has been interpreted previously as a terminal Pleistocene modern human fossil, perhaps related to the Bushman of Southern Africa. Here we report new mass-spectrometric U–Th dates for the calcrete deposit enclosing the fossil teeth and the calvaria itself and new electron spin resonance (ESR) dates for associated dental materials. The new data constrain the age of

  8. The Sudan Rural Television Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, John

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a rural education program, which was implemented in the Gezira Irrigated Area (as defined with a map) in Sudan. The aim of the project was the socioeconomic development of the Gezira tenant farmers through discussion of specifically designed educational programs in village viewing clubs. (JEG)

  9. Environmental justice and regional inequality in southern California: implications for future research.

    PubMed

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Porras, Carlos; Sadd, James

    2002-04-01

    Environmental justice offers researchers new insights into the juncture of social inequality and public health and provides a framework for policy discussions on the impact of discrimination on the environmental health of diverse communities in the United States. Yet, causally linking the presence of potentially hazardous facilities or environmental pollution with adverse health effects is difficult, particularly in situations in which diverse populations are exposed to complex chemical mixtures. A community-academic research collaborative in southern California sought to address some of these methodological challenges by conducting environmental justice research that makes use of recent advances in air emissions inventories and air exposure modeling data. Results from several of our studies indicate that communities of color bear a disproportionate burden in the location of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities and Toxic Release Inventory facilities. Longitudinal analysis further suggests that facility siting in communities of color, not market-based "minority move-in," accounts for these disparities. The collaborative also investigated the health risk implications of outdoor air toxics exposures from mobile and stationary sources and found that race plays an explanatory role in predicting cancer risk distributions among populations in the region, even after controlling for other socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Although it is unclear whether study results from southern California can be meaningfully generalized to other regions in the United States, they do have implications for approaching future research in the realm of environmental justice. The authors propose a political economy and social inequality framework to guide future research that could better elucidate the origins of environmental inequality and reasons for its persistence. PMID:11929723

  10. Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) is very distinctive in both size and shape. The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects. See also STS049-96-003.

  11. Inventory management support systems for emergency humanitarian relief operations in South Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benita M. Beamon; Stephen A. Kotleba

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To develop and test three different inventory management strategies as applied to the complex emergency in south Sudan. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Quantitative modeling, simulation, and statistics. Findings – This research identified critical system factors that contributed most significantly to inventory system performance, and identified strengths and weaknesses of each inventory management strategy. Research limitations\\/implications – This research represents a

  12. Language Situation in Post-War Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2010-01-01

    The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan, after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…

  13. Human Resources for Information Development in Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Cecile

    1992-01-01

    Describes the state of human resources development in Sudan's information industry. Training problems and the emigration of high level personnel are discussed, guidelines for human resource development are suggested, and national strategies to develop and retain Sudan's human resources are suggested. (EA)

  14. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris G; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The Southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasusedwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture. PMID:25561845

  15. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Chris G.; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture. PMID:25561845

  16. Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Aradaib, Imadeldin E.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Elageb, Rehab M.; Khristova, Marina L.; Carroll, Serena A.; Elkhidir, Isam M.; Karsany, Mubarak E.; Karrar, AbdelRahim E.; Elbashir, Mustafa I.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006–2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas. PMID:23347790

  17. Not just about sunburn--the ozone hole's profound effect on climate has significant implications for Southern Hemisphere ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sharon A; Erickson, David J

    2015-02-01

    Climate scientists have concluded that stratospheric ozone depletion has been a major driver of Southern Hemisphere climate processes since about 1980. The implications of these observed and modelled changes in climate are likely to be far more pervasive for both terrestrial and marine ecosystems than the increase in ultraviolet-B radiation due to ozone depletion; however, they have been largely overlooked in the biological literature. Here, we synthesize the current understanding of how ozone depletion has impacted Southern Hemisphere climate and highlight the relatively few documented impacts on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Reviewing the climate literature, we present examples of how ozone depletion changes atmospheric and oceanic circulation, with an emphasis on how these alterations in the physical climate system affect Southern Hemisphere weather, especially over the summer season (December-February). These potentially include increased incidence of extreme events, resulting in costly floods, drought, wildfires and serious environmental damage. The ecosystem impacts documented so far include changes to growth rates of South American and New Zealand trees, decreased growth of Antarctic mosses and changing biodiversity in Antarctic lakes. The objective of this synthesis was to stimulate the ecological community to look beyond ultraviolet-B radiation when considering the impacts of ozone depletion. Such widespread changes in Southern Hemisphere climate are likely to have had as much or more impact on natural ecosystems and food production over the past few decades, than the increased ultraviolet radiation due to ozone depletion. PMID:25402975

  18. Using anticyclonicity to determine the position of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies: Implications for the LGM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Wardle

    2003-01-01

    The possible meridional displacement of southern hemisphere westerlies under a different climate regime is examined by studying the characteristics of surface anticyclones. An atmospheric general circulation model is used to simulate the climates of the present day and the Last Glacial Maximum. A vortex-tracking scheme, applied to the model data, determines the characteristics of southern hemisphere anticyclones. The statistics of

  19. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury...REGULATIONS Interpretations § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates...

  20. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Results will be further used to validate and to test inferred erosion patterns and the potential effect on stress differentiation, in view of the exploration and production of (un)conventional hydrocarbons.

  1. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section 742...BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements...required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1...

  2. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section 742...BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements...required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1...

  3. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section 742...BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements...required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1...

  4. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section 742...BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements...required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1...

  5. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538.418 Section 538.418 Money...538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with...depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of...

  6. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417 Section 538.417 Money... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation...or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g)...

  7. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section 538.305 Money and...General Definitions § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the...

  8. The question of Sudan: a hydroeconomic optimization model for the Sudanese Nile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in East Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications within the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resources infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  9. Fire Regimes of the Southern Appalachian Mountains: Temporal and Spatial Variability and Implications for Vegetation Dynamics 

    E-print Network

    Flatley, William 1977-

    2012-08-31

    Ecologists continue to debate the role of fire in forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains. How does climate influence fire in these humid, temperate forests? Did fire regimes change during the transition from Native American settlement to Euro...

  10. 3D Body Wave Velocity Tomography in Southern Peru: Seismotectonic Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gallego; J. Perez; C. David; D. Comte; R. Charrier; L. Dorbath

    2004-01-01

    The studied region corresponds to the southern segment of the 1868 rupture area, that did not break with the last Mw=8.4 Arequipa earthquake in southern Peru. A temporary network of 19 short period, continuous recording seismic stations was deployed (16.5° -18.5° S; 69.5° -72° W) between December 2002-March 2003 in this region. The 1093 select events were used for a

  11. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan...Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan...is otherwise received in Sudan, of the legal services set forth in paragraph...

  12. Palaeoclimatic implications of small-scale glaciation in the Lesotho highlands, southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S. C.; Carr, S. J.; Grab, S. W.; Rea, B. R.

    2009-04-01

    In southern Africa, past climate data is sporadic, and is dominated by records from arid, coastal or semi-arid environments (Karoo, Kalahari & Namib deserts, Western Cape). There is a vast gap centred on Lesotho where there is currently no reliable temperature or rainfall proxy data for climate change prior to the present interglacial. The few studies of palaeoclimate in the more humid south eastern region of southern Africa provide only qualitative indications of climate shifts through the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Consequently, debate continues over the key issue of whether this region in southern Africa experienced increased precipitation or substantial aridification at and around the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Geomorphic evidence of former glaciation in the high mountain region of southern Africa dated to the LGM implies that specific climatic conditions would have been required to sustain active glaciers. This paper presents results for various sites in the Lesotho highlands, which host linear ridges interpreted as glacial moraines. The application of a glacier reconstruction technique to determine whether these locations could have supported glaciers indicates a reconstructed glacier Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELA) between 3071 and 3127 m a.s.l. and palaeoglacier mass-balance characteristics comparable with modern analogues, reflecting viable, if marginal glaciation. The reconstructed palaeoclimatic conditions during the LGM suggest that snow accumulation in the Drakensberg was significantly higher than considered by other studies, and has substantial relevance for tuning regional climate models for southern Africa during the last glacial cycle. The climate history of Lesotho is still uncertain due to an absence of any palaeoclimatological data from this region, in particular for the period spanning the LGM. The occurrence of glaciation in the Drakensberg suggests that precipitation was greater than at present, despite the general consensus that the summer rainfall region of southern Africa was drier during that time, suggesting that there was a major shift in rainfall zones across south eastern southern Africa during the last glacial cycle.

  13. Tectonic implications of the microearthquake seismicity and fault plane solutions in southern Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grange, F.; Hatzfeld, D.; Cunningham, P.; Molnar, P.; Roecker, S. W.; Suarez, G.; Rodrigues, A.; Ocola, L.

    1984-01-01

    Because the contortion in the seismic zone in southern Peru is aligned approximately parallel to the direction of relative plate motion, rather than perpendicular to the coast of Peru, the position of the contortion need not migrate with respect to the overriding South American plate as the Nazca plate subducts beneath it, and the flow in the surrounding asthenosphere could be in a steady state. In addition, the position of the contortion defines the northern boundary of the volcanic arc in southern Peru. The inference that a wedge of asthenospheric material must overlie the downgoing slab for subduction-related volcanism to occur is thereby strengthened.

  14. SOUTHERN SUDANESE ARABIC AND THE CHURCHES CATHERINE MILLER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOUTHERN SUDANESE ARABIC AND THE CHURCHES CATHERINE MILLER Abstract. This paper examines how Churches in Southern Sudan have used different varieties of Arabic, including Arabic-based P/C in both also relied heavily on various forms of Arabic. 3 types of data are compared: two written published

  15. Orbital remote sensing for geological mapping in southern Tunisia: Implication for oil and gas exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherrie A. Peña; Mohamed G. Abdelsalam

    2006-01-01

    Southern Tunisia is dominated by early to middle Triassic continental sandstones inter-bedded with shales and conglomerates followed by late Triassic shallow marine carbonates, lower Jurassic evaporates, and upper Jurassic to lower Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. These constitute the Dahar Plateau (which is part of the Ghadames Basin and it is the focus of this study) that was developed in association

  16. Energy, Product, and Economic Implications of Environmental Compliance Options- A Southern California Case Study

    E-print Network

    Kyricopoulos, P. F.; Dennison, W. J.

    to selecting an option to implement. We discuss how the options are assembled into an array of coping strategies for environmental compliance. This work is part of an ongoing project to develop a database of regulations and technology options. (A major Southern...

  17. Production, attributes and relative value of alpaca fleeces in southern Australia and implications for industry development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. McGregor

    2006-01-01

    An investigation of commercially important alpaca fibre attributes aimed to identify the influence of management and production variables on alpaca fibre and to quantify the relative economic value of fibre production. Fleeces from five farms in southern Australia (n=1100) were measured using midside samples and standard tests and were assigned a relative economic value based on an analysis of market

  18. Common dolphins subject to fisheries impacts in Southern Australia are genetically differentiated: implications for conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bilgmann; L. M. Möller; R. G. Harcourt; R. Gales; L. B. Beheregaray

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis and the fishing industry of South Australia (SA) have lead to serious concerns over the long-term viability of the local dolphin population. Common dolphins are gregarious animals with high vagility and are expected to display limited genetic differentiation over large spatial scales. Here, we investigate population genetic structure of southern Australian common dolphins

  19. The Phase Dynamics of Earthquakes: Implications for Forecasting in Southern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristy F. Tiampo; John B. Rundle; Seth McGinnis; Susanna Gross; William Klein

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the space-time patterns of earthquake occurrence in southern California using a new method that treats earthquakes as a phase dynamical system. The system state vector is used to obtain a probability measure for current and future earthquake occurrence. Thousands of statistical tests indicate the method has considerable forecast skill. We emphasize that the method is not a model,

  20. Dissertation Citations in Organismal Biology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Implications for Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabe, Jonathan; Imre, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    We report on a citation analysis of Ph.D. dissertations in plant biology and zoology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, undertaken to test the common assumption that scientists favor current research to such an extent that journal backfiles can be de-emphasized in academic library collections. Results demonstrate otherwise. The study is…

  1. Lead isotopes in Southern Ocean marine sediments: implications for paleoclimatic provenance and seawater studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. P.; Martin, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopes in detrital marine sediments and authigenic oxide coatings have proven useful in reconstructing past changes in continental weathering of glaciated continents and ocean circulation. This approach is under-utilised in the Southern Ocean, despite uncertainties about the evolution of Antarctica's ice sheets and oceanographic changes in this region throughout the Cenozoic. Lead isotopes in sediments are controlled by the mineralogy and age of their bedrock sources, making them an ideal tool to trace changes in Southern Ocean sediment provenance associated with onland erosion patterns (and ice sheet variability), and ocean circulation. However, core-top mapping of Pb isotope signatures of detrital marine sediments in this region is non-existent. We present new Pb isotope data for acid-digested <63µm and bulk Late Holocene sediments from 40 cores located in the East Antarctic sector of Southern Ocean. Results demonstrate that, similar to existing Nd and Sr core-top surveys, distinct provenance sectors can be seen in sediments proximal to the continent, due to the geological characteristics of bedrock sources along the margin. A striking N-S trend is also evident, with distal sediments characterised by less radiogenic isotopic signatures, likely associated with a decrease in radiogenic Pb-bearing minerals with increasing distance from the continental margin. This pattern suggests that Pb isotopes in marine sediments may be useful in reconstructing past provenance trends associated with ice sheet change, and migrations of Southern Ocean frontal positions. In addition, we will present new seawater Pb isotope data from reductive leaching of authigenic coatings of these same sediments, permitting for Late Holocene Pb isotope seawater mapping of the Southern Ocean. To ensure we measured the true seawater signal, we adapted established sequential leaching procedures to minimise detrital contamination, and monitored leachate compositions with Nd isotopes, and major and trace elements. Preliminary results, along with those of parallel detrital studies, suggest Pb isotopes are a viable tool for paleoclimatic studies in areas of the Southern Ocean proximal to Antarctica, and our new data forms an important framework for future studies in the region.

  2. Information on Current Research in the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Cecile

    1985-01-01

    Describes and illustrates the main characteristics and methods of data collection and analysis used in compiling the National Register of Current Research, a major element of the Unesco pilot project initiated in the Sudan for the creation of an information service on research in progress. Eight sources are given. (EJS)

  3. Savanna burning and convective mixing in southern Africa - Implications for CO emissions and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Vickie S.; Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Reichle, Henry G.; Brunke, Ernst-Gunther; Garstang, Michael; Seiler, Wolfgang; Scheel, H. E.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric data from both remote and direct measurements were used to compute the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and mass transport from Africa south of the equator. The Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment flew on the Space Shuttle during October 5-13, 1984; the highest CO mixing ratios from the entire mission were measured over southern Africa. In addition to the MAPS data, surface CO mixing ratios were measured in the boundary layer at Cape Point, South Africa. A calibration factor for the remote MAPS CO measurements was determined by computing the ratio of the surface measurements from Cape Point during unpolluted periods to coincident MAPS measurements. The adjusted MAPS CO data were then used to compute the mass flux of CO from biomass burning in southern Africa during the MAPS mission. The transport calculations were compared to the estimated CO emissions from biomass burning to examine the efficiency in which the continental tropical clouds redistribute CO in the troposphere.

  4. 75 FR 67585 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Federal Register...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  6. 78 FR 65865 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Federal Register...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International...

  7. 76 FR 68053 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Federal Register...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  8. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the...relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of...

  9. 77 FR 66357 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Federal Register...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International...

  10. Strike-slip faults offshore southern Taiwan: implications for the oblique arc-continent collision processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Chie Fuh; Char-Shine Liu; Neil Lundberg; Donald L. Reed

    1997-01-01

    Taiwan is the site of present-day oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc of the Philippine Sea plate and the Chinese continental margin. The major structural pattern revealed from marine geophysical studies in the area offshore southern Taiwan is that of a doubly-vergent orogenic belt, bounded by significant zones of thrusting on the west and east of the submarine accretionary

  11. Remote sensing of Southern Ocean sea surface temperature: implications for marine biophysical models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Sumner; Kelvin J. Michael; Corey J. A. Bradshaw; Mark A. Hindell

    2003-01-01

    Nineteen years of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature (AVHRR MCSST) data were used to calculate monthly averages of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for a large region of the Southern Ocean centred on Macquarie Island. Between October and February, the MCSST data were a reliable source of SSTs north of 60°S, but their quality (i.e. spatial and

  12. Forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize: Implications for migrant land birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.

  13. Incidence of bluetongue virus precipitating antibodies in sera of some domestic animals in the Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Eisa, M.; Karrar, A. E.; Abd Elrahim, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    To determine the presence and prevalence of bluetongue (BT) infection in a variety of domestic animal species in different geographical regions of the Sudan, a serological study using the agar gel precipitation technique was initiated. A total of 2142 serum samples were examined. Of the numbers tested approximately 28% of sheep, 11.2% of goats, 8% of cattle and 4.9% of camels were positive for group-specific antibodies to BT virus antigen, indicating previous exposure to BT infection. None of the samples tested from horses or donkeys were positive. The findings suggest that the disease is widely distributed in most parts of the Sudan where possible insect vectors prevail and may be endemic in sheep in Juba District, Equatoria Province, Southern Region. Goats appeared to have some degree of resistance to infection compared with sheep, and there seemed to be no significant differences in positive rates between farm and free-range cattle. It is concluded that BT infection may cause clinical disease in sheep, while it is probably subclinical or inapparent in goats, cattle and camels of the Sudan. PMID:229163

  14. 3D Body Wave Velocity Tomography in Southern Peru: Seismotectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, A.; Perez, J.; David, C.; Comte, D.; Charrier, R.; Dorbath, L.

    2004-12-01

    The studied region corresponds to the southern segment of the 1868 rupture area, that did not break with the last Mw=8.4 Arequipa earthquake in southern Peru. A temporary network of 19 short period, continuous recording seismic stations was deployed (16.5° -18.5° S; 69.5° -72° W) between December 2002-March 2003 in this region. The 1093 select events were used for a joint hypocentral and velocity structure inversion. The first obtained 1D velocity model was used as the initial model for the 3D inversion, consisting in 231 blocks distributed along layers separated by 10 km for depths lower than 80 km, and by 20 km for depths between 80 and 160 km. North of the Arica Bend, between the Coast and Andean Range the high Vp velocity and Vp/Vs ratio observed at depths lower than 10 km could represent the Precambrian basement uplifted by the Incapuquio sinistral fault system, which develops a positive flower structure typical for transpressional zones, that raised the basement. This behavior is in good agreement with the uplift of the Cambrian metamorphic complex, in the Precordillera south of the Arica Bend (northern Chile), by the west-vergent thrust system. Beneath the anomalous high velocities (between 20 and 30 km depth), a low velocity zone (Vp<4.5 km/s, and Vp/Vs<1.5) can be observed; this LVZ can be associated with a zone of continuous metamorphism and/or partial melting that the decouples the upper-crustal imbrication from a thickening lower-crust. The Wadati-Benioff zone exhibits a dip angle of about 20° between 10 to 60 km depth, and about 45° for depths higher than 80 km. The double seismic zone known for northern Chile is not present in southern Peru. Cross sections perpendicular to the trench, define a very active seismic zone which dips about 45° trenchward, and is almost perpendicular to the subducting slab between 0 and 60 km depths, similar to the one existing in northern Chile, but with a lower rate of seismicity; the higher activity of this zone in southern Peru can be associated with the 2001 earthquake post-seismic period.

  15. Orbital remote sensing for geological mapping in southern Tunisia: Implication for oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Sherrie A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2006-02-01

    Southern Tunisia is dominated by early to middle Triassic continental sandstones inter-bedded with shales and conglomerates followed by late Triassic shallow marine carbonates, lower Jurassic evaporates, and upper Jurassic to lower Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. These constitute the Dahar Plateau (which is part of the Ghadames Basin and it is the focus of this study) that was developed in association with regional uplift of the Saharan Platform. Efforts in mapping the details of surface geology in southern Tunisia are hindered by the lack of continuous bedrock outcrops, where some of the formations are buried under the sand of the Sahara Desert. Remote sensing data including multi-spectral optical (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)), radar (RADARSAT), and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data are used to trace along strike continuity of different lithological units as well as mapping morphologically defined structures in southern Tunisia. Landsat ETM+ and ASTER Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color combination images (both band and band-ratio images) have been used for the identification of various lithological units when they are exposed on the surface. On the other hand, RADARSAT images have been utilized for tracing geological formations and geological structures that are buried under thin (˜1 m) sand. Fusion of optical and radar remote sensing data using Color Normalization Transformation (CNT) has been effectively implemented to further identify lithological units and geological structures. Hill-shading techniques are applied to SRTM DEMs to enhance terrain perspective views and to extract geomorphological features and morphologically defined structures through the means of lineament analysis. Results from remote sensing analysis are in good agreement with results obtained from in situ investigations including geological mapping and seismic exploration. Identifying lithological and structural features using remote sensing studies incorporated with surface and sub-surface geological investigations in southern Tunisia can aid exploration for new oil and gas fields. Such an approach of integrating remote sensing and in situ geological studies can be successfully adopted in other parts of North Africa and arid regions in general.

  16. Epidemiological Trends for HIV in Southern Africa: Implications for Reaching the Elimination Targets.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brian G; Gouws, Eleanor; Somse, Pierre; Mmelesi, Mpho; Lwamba, Chibwe; Chikoko, Trouble; Fazito, Erika; Turay, Mohamed; Kiwango, Eva; Chikukwa, Pepukai; Damisoni, Henry; Gboun, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Southern Africa is the region worst affected by HIV in the world and accounts for one third of the global burden of HIV. Achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target by 2020 and ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 depend on success in this region. We review epidemiological trends in each country in southern Africa with respect to the prevalence, incidence, mortality, coverage of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and TB notification rates, to better understand progress in controlling HIV and TB and to determine what needs to be done to reach the UNAIDS targets. Significant progress has been made in controlling HIV. In all countries in the region, the prevalence of HIV in people not on ART, the incidence of HIV, AIDS-related mortality and, in most countries, TB notification rates, are falling. In some countries, the risk of infection began to fall before biomedical interventions such as ART became widely available as a result of effective prevention measures or people's awareness of, and response to, the epidemic but the reasons for these declines remain uncertain. Some countries have achieved better levels of ART coverage than others, but all are in a position to reach the 2020 and 2030 targets if they accelerate the roll-out of ART and of targeted prevention efforts. Achieving the HIV treatment targets will further reduce the incidence of HIV-related TB, but efforts to control TB in HIV-negative people must be improved and strengthened. PMID:25929961

  17. A new fossil mammal assemblage from the southern Chilean Andes: implications for geology, geochronology, and tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, John J.; Novacek, Michael J.; Dodson, Holly E.; Frassinetti, Daniel; McKenna, Malcolm C.; Norell, Mark A.; Sears, Karen E.; Swisher, Carl C.; Wyss, André R.

    2002-07-01

    A diverse (36 taxa), new fossil terrestrial mammal assemblage has been recovered from the Santacrucian South American Land Mammal 'Age' (SALMA; latest Early Miocene) in the southern Andes of Chile. This is the westernmost high latitude mammal fauna known in South America and the first in a string of new mammal assemblages discovered in Chile after a lapse of nearly a century. The terrestrial mammal-bearing sequence conformably overlies a marine section of Late Oligocene to Early Miocene age. The combined marine-terrestrial sequence, as well as a locality with fossil whales and bracketing basalts, bear significantly on theories regarding the extent of the late Tertiary Patagonian epicontinental seaway and the onset of later Cenozoic phases of uplift in the southern Andes. Uplift in this region likely began by Santacrucian SALMA (˜16-17.5 Ma) time, but it remains uncertain whether this occurred in two phases (Pehuenchic and Quechuic) or one. These discoveries substantiate propositions of sharp geologic contrasts north and south of the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires area (Magellanes basin to the south and R?´o Mayo embayment to the north). Minimum estimates of uplift rate are approximately 0.05-0.07 mm/yr (but as high as 0.22 mm/yr), comparable to or slightly lower than those from other parts of the Andes (e.g. Bolivia). The timing and location of uplift may be correlated with major plate tectonic events associated with the Chile Margin Triple Junction.

  18. Spatial genetic structure and regional demography in the southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders.

  19. Phylogeography and spatial genetic structure of the Southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.P.; Haig, S.M.; Wagner, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders. ?? The American Genetic Association. 2006. All rights reserved.

  20. Humpback Whale Song on the Southern Ocean Feeding Grounds: Implications for Cultural Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Ellen C.; Gedamke, Jason; Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Noad, Michael J.; Garrigue, Claire; Gales, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean. PMID:24278134

  1. Lateral extrusion of Tunisia : Contribution of Jeffara Fault (southern branch) and Petroleum Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedhoui, R.; Deffontaines, B.; Rabia, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Contrasting to the northward African plate motion toward Eurasia and due to its geographic position in the North African margin, since early cretaceous, Tunisia seems to be submitted to an eastward migration. The aim of this work is to study the southern branch of this inferred tectonic splay that may guide the Tunisian extrusion characterised to the east by the Mediterranean sea as a free eastern boundary. The Jeffara Fault zone (southern Tunisia), represent a case example of such deformation faced by Tunisia. Helped by the results of previous researchers (Bouaziz, 1995 ; Rabiaa, 1998 ; Touati et Rodgers, 1998 ; Sokoutis D. et al., 2000 ; Bouaziz et al., 2002 ; Jallouli et al., 2005 ; Deffontaines et al., 2008…), and new evidences developed in this study, we propose a geodynamic Tunisian east extrusion model, due to such the northern African plate migration to the Eurasian one. In this subject, structural geomorphology is undertaken herein based on both geomorphometric drainage network analysis (Deffontaines et al., 1990), the Digital Terrain Model photo-interpretation (SRTM) combined with photo-interpretation of detailed optical images (Landsat ETM+), and confirmed by field work and numerous seismic profiles at depth. All these informations were then integrated within a GIS (Geodatabase) (Deffontaines 1990 ; Deffontaines et al. 1994 ; Deffontaines, 2000 ; Slama, 2008 ; Deffontaines, 2008) and are coherent with the eastern extrusion of the Sahel block. We infer that the NW-SE Gafsa-Tozeur, which continue to the Jeffara major fault zone acting as a transtensive right lateral motion since early cretaceous is the southern branch of the Sahel block extrusion. Our structural analyses prove the presence of NW-SE right lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so on that parallel this major NW-SE transtensive extrusion fault zone.These evidences confirm the fact that the NW-SE Jeffara faults correspond to the tectonic accident, located in the south of the Tunisian extrusion, in favour of the eastern migration of the Sahel block toward the free Mediterranean sea boundary. Therefore this geodynamic movement explains the presence, in offshore area, of small elongated NW-SE, N-S &NE-SW petroleum transtensive basins and grabens. To conclude, at the regional scale, the structural geomorphologic approach combined with both field work and reflexion seismic profile analyses appear to be an excellent tool to prove & confirm the east Sahel block extrusion of the central Tunisian part caused by the northward migration of African plate. _______________________________________ Keywords : Geodynamics, Neotectonics, right lateral transtensive fault, Extrusion, Petroleum exploration, Geomorphometry, Digital Elevation Model, Geographic Information System (GIS), Geodatabase, Jeffara, South Tunisia.

  2. Recurrence, Rates, and Paleogeodetic Implications: Southern Cascadia Subduction Zone, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, T. H.; Patton, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake and tsunami hazard for northern California and southern Oregon is dominated by estimates of recurrence for earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and upper plate thrust faults. Recurrence interval (RI)estimates derived from site based terrestrial data (270-1,370 years) are inconsistent with the regional marine record of great earthquakes (RI = ~240 years). Reconciling these differences reveals information regarding different sources or magnitudes of coseismic or interseismic deformation in the southern CSZ. Early paleoseismic investigations utilized bulk peat for 14C age determinations and lack vertical elevation control. All terrestrial data sets are compiled, evaluated, ranked, and excluded according to their paleoseismic relevance. We construct an OxCal age model to evaluate the discriminated 14C based space-time relations graphically and statistically. We interpret a regional timing of tectonic deformation that is consistent with the timing of the marine record. Not all events are observed in each region and not all events have age control. Some regions lack cores representing the complete modern tidal elevation range (biasing the paleoseismic record). For example, when individual sites in the same region are combined, a more complete record of coseismic subsidence can be assumed, reducing the terrestrial RI to 360+-40, yet still longer than the marine RI. We consider relative sea-level (RSL), as the relation between land-level and sea-level and we find that chronologically distinct buried soils are found in settings segregated by elevation. Subsidence in southern Humboldt Bay occurred in positions of higher RSL at ~1,500, 2,200, and ~3,500 cal yrs BP. We pose that the RSL position does not relate to the time preceding the earthquake, but may relate to the accumulated strain at the time of the earthquake. RSL with a higher position would correspond with more accumulated strain in the upper plate. We evaluate the various factors that may confound this relation. We also compare the estimates of subsidence for cores in locations that share the sea-level / land-level relations as today as these may be a modern analogue to what subsidence we might expect if the CSZ earthquake were to occur tomorrow. Some unknowns that are priorities to complete this analysis include down-core diatom paleoecologic interpretations based upon correlations (transfer function) with modern biogeochemical transects, neither of which currently exist, developing a reliable vertical tidal elevation network tied to distal benchmarks, and there are also several buried soils that lack 14C age determinations. Lastly, additional cores collected in regions that are under sampled with respect to various elevation ranges.

  3. Three-dimensional P and S wave velocity structures of southern Peru and their tectonic implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Paul S.; Roecker, Steven W.; Hatzfeld, Denis

    1986-01-01

    Arrival times of compressional and shear (S) waves from microearthquakes recorded in 1981 by an 18-station regional array are used to study the three-dimensional velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle of the central Andes. The data suggest a crustal thickness of about 40 km beneath the coast, increasing to about 70 km beneath the Cordillera Occidental. The inverse correlation between the dip in the Moho and the dip of the slab may indicate a broad-scale causal relation between the two. S wave velocities in the mantle between 70 and 130 km depth above the 30-degree dipping slab are low, possibly indicating the presence of a partially melted asthenosphere that may be responsible for the magmatic activity recorded in southern Peru.

  4. Downscaled Climate Change Projections for the Southern Colorado Plateau: Variability and Implications for Vegetation Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfin, G. M.; Eischeid, J. K.; Cole, K. L.; Ironside, K.; Cobb, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Recent and rapid forest mortality in western North America and associated changes in fire frequency and area burned are among the chief concerns of ecosystem managers. These examples of climate change surprises demonstrate nonlinear and threshold ecosystem responses to increased temperatures and severe drought. A consistent management request from climate change adaptation workshops held during the last four years in the southwest U.S. is for region-specific estimates of climate and vegetation change, in order to provide guidance for management of federal and state forest, range, and riparian preserves and land holdings. Partly in response to these concerns, and partly in the interest of improving knowledge of potential ecosystem changes and their relationships with observed changes and changes demonstrated in the paleoecological record, we developed a set of integrated climate and ecosystem analyses. We selected five of twenty-two GCMs from the PCMDI archive of IPCC AR4 model runs, based on their approximations of observed critical seasonality for vegetation in the Southern Colorado Plateau (domain: 35°- 38°N, 114°-107°W), centered on the Four Corners states. We used three key seasons in our analysis, winter (November-March), pre-monsoon (May-June), and monsoon (July- September). Projections of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation from our five-model ensemble indicate steadily increasing temperatures in our region of interest during the twenty-first century. By 2050, the ensemble projects increases of 3.0°C during May and June, months critical for drought stress and tree mortality, and 4.5-5.0°C by 2090. Projected temperature changes for months during the heart of winter (December and January) are on the order of 2.5°C by 2050 and 3.0°C by 2090; such changes are likely to affect snow hydrology in middle to low elevations in the Southern Colorado Plateau. Summer temperature increases are on the order of 2.5°C (2050) and 4.0°C (2090). The most striking aspect of projections of future precipitation is steadily decreasing May-June precipitation during the twenty-first century. Though absolute precipitation during this season is small, declining moisture during the arid pre-monsoon will likely decrease soil moisture, and increase drought stress - consequently, increasing vegetation susceptibility the insect outbreaks and disease. Summer precipitation projections show considerable multi-decade variability, but no substantial trends. Winter precipitation shows little interannual variability and no strong trends. By 2090, annual precipitation is projected to decline by 1-5% across much of the region, with greater declines in the southern part of the domain and increases of 1-5% in the northwestern and northeastern parts of the domain. As part of a National Institute for Climate Change Research project, these projected changes will be input into a USDA-FS vegetation response model, in order to estimate species-specific responses to projected climate changes. We expect increasing temperatures, declining annual precipitation, and extreme declines in pre-monsoon season precipitation to generate significant redistribution of some plant species in the Southern Colorado Plateau.

  5. Heat flow anomaly in Lesotho - Implications for the southern boundary of the Kaapvaal craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. Q. W.

    1992-10-01

    Heat flow studies in southern Africa reveal a pattern of low heat flow in Archean cratons compared with Proterozoic mobile belts that provides grounds for modeling in which cratons have lower mantle heat flux and greater lithospheric thickness. Measurements at nine locations in a 90-km-long north-south traverse show an increase of heat flow from typically cratonic values of about 45 mW/sq m in the north to about 80 mW/sq m where the craton abuts on the Natal belt in the south. The change occurs within 30 km, suggesting that the anomaly largely reflects an increase in radioactive heat from the upper crust in the orogenic front. The change in mantle heat flux across the boundary is probably considerably smaller. These and other results suggest that the surficial craton boundary is further north than usually depicted.

  6. Heat flow anomaly in Lesotho - implications for the southern boundary of the Kaapvaal craton

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.Q.W. (Witwatersrand Univ., Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1992-10-01

    Heat flow studies in southern Africa reveal a pattern of low heat flow in Archean cratons compared with Proterozoic mobile belts that provides grounds for modeling in which cratons have lower mantle heat flux and greater lithospheric thickness. Measurements at nine locations in a 90-km-long north-south traverse show an increase of heat flow from typically cratonic values of about 45 mW/sq m in the north to about 80 mW/sq m where the craton abuts on the Natal belt in the south. The change occurs within 30 km, suggesting that the anomaly largely reflects an increase in radioactive heat from the upper crust in the orogenic front. The change in mantle heat flux across the boundary is probably considerably smaller. These and other results suggest that the surficial craton boundary is further north than usually depicted. 20 refs.

  7. Footprints of large theropod dinosaurs and implications on the age of Triassic biotas from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Rafael Costa; Barboni, Ronaldo; Dutra, Tânia; Godoy, Michel Marques; Binotto, Raquel Barros

    2012-11-01

    Dinosaur footprints found in an outcrop of the Caturrita Formation (Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil), associated with a diverse and well preserved record of fauna and flora, reopen the debate about its exclusive Triassic age. The studied footprints were identified as Eubrontes isp. and are interpreted as having been produced by large theropod dinosaurs. The morphological characteristics and dimensions of the footprints are more derived than those commonly found in the Carnian-Norian, and are more consistent with those found during the Rhaetian-Jurassic. The trackmaker does not correspond to any type of dinosaur yet known from Triassic rocks of Brazil. Recent studies with the paleofloristic content of this unit also support a more advanced Rhaetian or even Jurassic age for this unit.

  8. Seismic signatures of the Pan-African orogeny: implications for southern Indian high-grade terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Abhishek; Gaur, V. K.; Rai, S. S.; Priestley, K.

    2009-02-01

    We present the results of a study designed to investigate and compare the seismic characteristics of the once contiguous terranes of eastern Gondwanaland, now incorporated in five separated continental masses, which, during the Neoproterozoic (~600Ma) Pan-African orogeny, suffered a high degree of thermal stress and deformation. Receiver functions and surface wave data from stations located in East Antarctica, Sri Lanka, the southern-Indian high-grade terranes, Madagascar and the Tanzania-Mozambique belt, were used to determine the shear-wave velocity structure, Moho depth and VP/VS values of the respective crustal segments. This study provides an additional dimension to the otherwise well-documented characteristic petrology of their surface exposures and other geological signatures such as their extensive granulitization and gem formation during the Pan-African event. Analysis of the receiver functions and surface wave data for these seismic stations located on their present day widely distributed continental fragments have been made. It is observed that with the exception of KOD (at Kodaikanal hill), situated on the southern Indian granulites having the thickest crust (~43.5 km), most of the Pan-African granulitic terranes have a crustal thicknesses of ~37 +/- 0.8km, with a transition to higher velocity at mid-crustal depths, and that their bulk composition is felsic. Average crustal VP/VS values (1.704 +/- 0.03) and thicknesses (37.8 +/- 0.8km), for four stations (SYO, PALK, TRV and ABPO), now located in East Antarctica, Sri Lanka, India and Madagascar, respectively, show remarkable similarity, indicating that the Pan-African orogeny was extensive enough to reorder the crustal structure of a wide region with a broadly similar stamp.

  9. Recent Rifting Events in the Southern Red Sea and Regional Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruch, J.; Xu, W.; Jonsson, S.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decades, several rifting events on land have been observed along divergent plate boundaries, separating plates up to several meters in a few weeks. These events are typically accompanied by short-term seismic swarms (<15 days) and normal faulting, and are in some cases followed by eruptions as well. These on land rifting events represent, however, a very limited portion (< 2%) of global intrusions that take place in most cases along mid-ocean ridge systems. Here we focus on the southern Red Sea area, which is a part of the triple junction separating the Nubian, Somalian and Arabian plates where several earthquake swarms were recorded from 2000 to 2014. In three cases, these swarms were followed by eruptions within a year, at Jebel at Tair (2007) and in the Zubair Archipelago (40 km south) were two new volcanic islands developed in 2011 and 2013. Without the surface eruptions, these intrusive events may have remained unnoticed. Together the surface evidence of volcanic activity and recorded seismic swarms during the past two decades allow for a better definition of the overall magmatic activity in the southern Red Sea. We further discuss the possibility that Zubair, which is an emerged portion of a shallow 20 km-long by 5 km-wide NNW-SSE oriented platform, may be the surface expression of an active spreading center, comparable in size with other on land spreading centers. The recent concentration of activity at Zubair developed in a context of high regional magmatic and tectonic activity, including the rifting episode at Dabbahu (2005-2011), the rifting event in the Gulf of Aden (2010-2011) and the 2011 Nabro volcano eruption. Preliminary analysis of regional structural features and volcano lineaments suggest distinct intrusion paths and faulting running parallel to the three main active rift zone axes, and also along a dominant NE-SW oriented preexisting regional fault zones affecting the entire triple junction area.

  10. Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bekele Megersa; Demelash Biffa; Fekadu Niguse; Tesfaye Rufael; Kassahun Asmare; Eystein Skjerve

    2011-01-01

    Background  Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence\\u000a of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional\\u000a livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using

  11. Well-being in Dinka refugee women of southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Baird, Martha B; Boyle, Joyceen S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health and well-being of Sudanese refugee women who were resettled with their children to the United States. The design was an interpretive ethnography using individual interviews and participant observation with extensive field notes. The findings describe personal factors as well as community and social conditions that influenced the health and well-being of the refugee women and their families. These influences are captured in the three themes that emerged from the study: (1) liminality--living between two cultures, (2) self-support--standing on our own two legs, and (3) hope for the future. These themes describe a process of how refugee women achieve well-being in the transition to a new country and culture. The study contributes to our theoretical understanding of how to develop culturally congruent interventions for resettled refugees. PMID:22052094

  12. Implications of Stratigraphic and Structural Data from the Bitter Spring Region, Southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donatelle, A.; Goeden, J.; Hannon, M.; Hickson, T.; Holter, S.; Johnson, T.; Lamb, M.; Lindberg, J.

    2004-05-01

    Deposition of the Tertiary Horse Spring Formation (HSF) in southern Nevada has been used to infer varying styles of extensional and strike-slip basin formation. Beard (1996) proposes an initial large contiguous basin of Rainbow Gardens age (ca. 26-18 Ma) that is subsequently broken up into sub-basins during Thumb time (16-14 Ma). A key locality to test this hypothesis is near the southern end of East and West Longwell Ridges, on the Bitter Spring USGS 1:24000 quadrangle (BSQ). However, the stratigraphic framework in this area is poorly defined. The BSQ is located west of the Overton arm of Lake Mead near the junction of the Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone and the Lake Mead Fault System. By mapping a portion of the quadrangle at 1:5000 scale, measuring detailed sections, and collecting ash samples from key localities, we investigated the structural and sedimentary framework of the area and have begun to clarify the stratigraphic relationships between members of the HSF. Faults fall into three categories: one set strikes north and dips moderately to the west; another strikes east-northeast and dips shallowly to the northwest; and the last strikes north and dips to the east. Many of these faults show an oblique sense of movement and may be related to movement on the White Basin (WBF) and Rodgers Spring Faults (Bohannon, 1983). A distinctive resistant limestone caps gypsiferous and clastic units on both sides of the north-south trending WBF. To the west of the WBF, this limestone is mapped as the Bitter Ridge Limestone Member of the HSF, whereas to the east it is mapped as the Thumb Member by Beard (unpub) and as the Rainbow Gardens Member by Bohannon (1983). We suspect that these limestones may be correlative; geochemical and petrographic fingerprinting of numerous ashes from our sections should allow correlation of these units across the WBF. In addition, sections from the east side of the WBF spaced over 1.5 km show conglomerate at the base, overlain by a sequence of red sandstone, gypsum, and carbonates (mainly oncolitic and peloidal limestone). These units show rapid lateral facies changes and thickness variation suggesting comparable changes in accommodation-space creation, possibly related to extensionally-induced subsidence. Paleocurrent data from the central portion of the mapping area indicate that flow was east- to southeast-directed, indicating that West Longwell Ridge may have been a topographic high during Thumb time. This interpretation is further supported by stratigraphic relationships near the basin margin, where conglomerate was deposited in buttress contact against Paleozoic limestones at the southern end of the ridge. Future work in this area includes continued mapping, Ar-Ar dating of ash mineral phases, and provenance analysis of sedimentary units.

  13. Holocene Pacific - North American plate interaction in southern Alaska: implications for the Yakataga seismic gap.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahr, J.C.; Plafker, G.

    1980-01-01

    The St. Elias, Alaska, earthquake (magnitude 7.1 MS) on February 28, 1979, occurred along the complex Pacific-North American plate boundary between Yakutat Bay and Prince William Sound, rupturing only a fraction of the seismic gap identified in that region. To aid in evaluating the potential for, and likely site of, a future earthquake occurring in the remainder of the gap, we have formulated a kinematic model of neotectonic deformation in southern Alaska from available geologic and seismic data. In this model the part of the North American plate bordering on the Gulf of Alaska is divided into three subblocks, which are partially coupled to the Pacific plate. On the basis of the model, the gap-filling rupture or ruptures would most likely be along the north-dipping thrust faults of the Pamplona zone between Icy Bay and the eastern end of the Aleutian Trench. If the accumulated strain of 3.8 m postulated for this region were released suddenly in one event involving the remainder of the gap, the result would be an earthquake as large as magnitude 8. -Authors

  14. Tephrochronology of a 72 ka-long marine record: implications for the southern Tyrrhenian explosive volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburrino, Stella; Insinga, Donatella; Pelosi, Nicola; Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo; Capotondi, Lucilla; Sprovieri, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Several discrete tephra layers occur in a Marion Dufresne 13.9 m-long deep-sea core (MD01-2474G) from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Major, minor and trace element data (EMPA-WDS and LA-ICP-MS analyses) from fresh micro-pumices and glass shards allow to correlate them with the volcanic activity from Aeolian Islands (Lipari, Vulcano, Salina), Campanian Plain (Ischia), Pantelleria and Mt. Etna. The chronology of the succession is provided by a high-resolution age-model based on isotope stratigraphy and AMS radiocarbon dating, which places the succession in a time interval spanning the last 72 kyrs BP. According to a detailed proximal-distal and distal-distal correlation, a precise chronological framework is established and some main markers tephras of the central Mediterranean area (Y-1, Y-6, Y-7 and Y-8) are recognised. In additions, the succession is a precious archive to record multiple volcanic events occurred at Ischia volcano and the Aeolian Arc (Lipari and Vulcano). This latter, in particular, erupted several products which exhibits strong compositional variations otherwise non detectable from terrestrial counterparts. The results of the present study, hence, provide new data for a detailed analytical reference database of the Tyrrhenian Sea tephrochronology and may contribute to a better chronostratigraphic reconstruction of the Aeolian arc explosive events.

  15. Environmental and Archaeological Implications of a Late Quaternary Palynological Sequence, Poyang Lake, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qinhua; Piperno, Dolores R.

    1999-09-01

    Paleoecological data from Poyang Lake, southern China, indicate that significant natural and human-induced vegetational changes have occurred during the Late Quaternary in the Middle Yangtze River valley, the likely location of rice (Oryza sativa L.) domestication. During the late Pleistocene (from ca. 12,830 to ca. 10,500 yr B.P.), the climate was cooler and drier than today's. The subtropical, mixed deciduous-evergreen broad-leaved forest which constitutes the modern, potential vegetation was reduced and herbaceous vegetative cover expanded. A hiatus in sedimentation occurred in Poyang Lake, beginning sometime after ca. 10,500 yr B.P. and lasting until the middle Holocene (ca. 4000 yr B.P.). At ca. 4000 yr B.P., the regional vegetation was a diverse, broad-leaved forest dominated by many of the same arboreal elements (e.g., Quercus, Castanopsis, Liquidambar) that grow in the area today. A significant reduction of arboreal pollen and an increase of herbaceous pollen at ca. 2000 yr B.P. probably reflect human influence on the vegetation and the expansion of intensive rice agriculture into the dryland forests near the river valleys.

  16. Climate on the southern Black Sea coast during the Holocene: implications from the Sofular Cave record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göktürk, O. M.; Fleitmann, D.; Badertscher, S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Leuenberger, M.; Fankhauser, A.; Tüysüz, O.; Kramers, J.

    2011-09-01

    We present the updated Holocene section of the Sofular Cave record from the southern Black Sea coast (northern Turkey); an area with considerably different present-day climate compared to that of the neighboring Eastern Mediterranean region. Stalagmite ? 13C, growth rates and initial ( 234U/ 238U) ratios provide information about hydrological changes above the cave; and prove to be more useful than ? 18O for deciphering Holocene climatic variations. Between ˜9.6 and 5.4 ka BP (despite a pause from ˜8.4 to 7.8 ka BP), the Sofular record indicates a remarkable increase in rainfall amount and intensity, in line with other paleoclimate studies in the Eastern Mediterranean. During that period, enhanced summertime insolation either produced much stronger storms in the following fall and winter through high sea surface temperatures, or it invoked a regional summer monsoon circulation and rainfall. We suggest that one or both of these climatic mechanisms led to a coupling of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean rainfall regimes at that time, which can explain the observed proxy signals. However, there are discrepancies among the Eastern Mediterranean records in terms of the timing of this wet period; implying that changes were probably not always occurring through the same mechanism. Nevertheless, the Sofular Cave record does provide hints and bring about new questions about the connection between regional and large scale climates, highlighting the need for a more extensive network of high quality paleoclimate records to better understand Holocene climate.

  17. Shear-wave splitting beneath southern Korea and its tectonic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Tae-Seob; Shin, Jin Soo

    2009-06-01

    Seismic anisotropy beneath the southern Korean Peninsula (SKP) was investigated based on the ScS waves of deep-focused earthquakes recorded at 35 broadband stations. The most striking feature of the observed splitting patterns is the preference of the fast directions (NW-SE) that are nearly parallel to the direction of the absolute plate motion in the region. However, the splitting patterns over the region show significant variation in splitting parameters indicating a complex anisotropic structure. Variations of the splitting directions and dissimilarity in the source domains of basaltic volcanisms suggest that the asthenospheric mantle flow since at least the late Cenozoic cannot explain the seismic anisotropy beneath the region. Comparison to shear-wave splitting measurements from eastern China revealed that the NW-SE fast direction of splitting measurements in the SKP is close to that in the North China block (NCB) while the NE-SW fast direction might be related to that in the South China block (SCB). The shallow mantle lithosphere beneath the SKP retains the fossil anisotropy amalgamated prior to the late Paleozoic before the collision between the NCB and SCB, and the anisotropic structure was not completely realigned by the major orogenic events during the late Paleozoic to Mesozoic eras.

  18. Snow-avalanche impact landforms in Breheimen, southern Norway: Origin, age, and paleoclimatic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, J.A.; McCarroll, D. (Univ. of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom))

    1994-05-01

    Twelve snow-avalanche ramparts in Jostedalen and Sprongdalen (Breheimen, southern Norway) are investigated to elucidate processes of formation, the history of avalanche activity, and their potential for paleoclimatic reconstruction. Variation in the form of these riverbank boulder ramparts reflects local patterns of avalanche impact. Differences in clast roundness between ramparts, avalanche tracks, and river beds indicate that, on average, 50 to 60% of the clasts in the ramparts originate from river bedload as opposed to avalanche source areas or tracks. Rampart clasts increase in roundness downstream over a distance of 12 km, and the contribution from the river bed varies from 26 to 80% depending on local factors. Conventional lichenometric dating suggests ages for the initiation of rampart formation of 250 to 2000 yr, but they probably have a much longer history. Lichen-size frequency distributions, using the largest lichen from each of n boulders, reflect the age-frequency of surface boulders, providing a record of late Holocene avalanche activity. A simulation model suggests that maximum avalanche activity affected nine of the ramparts during the 19th century, after the peak of the Little Ice Age. The pattern of avalanche activity differs from the pattern of glacier variations but is in close agreement with that of debris-flow activity. The ramparts may yield a valuable proxy record of winter snowfall. 48 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The impact of war on women and children: case study of Sudan.

    PubMed

    El-nagar, S E

    1992-06-01

    Civil war has raged in southern Sudan from 1955 to 1972 and again from 1983 to the present. This situation has been compounded by regional conflicts in other parts of Sudan and wars in neighboring countries. The consequences of war are taking their toll on the entire region and are intensified by environmental hazards, desertification, drought, and famine. The socioeconomic and educational infrastructure has been destroyed in southern Sudan, taking the family support system with it. The atmosphere of continued fighting has made it all but impossible for relief agencies to provide services. The innocent victims of the war are civilians who are forced to choose between disastrous alternatives: if they flee, they lose their homes, their livelihoods, and their communities; if they stay, they watch these things being destroyed around them. Women and children are suffering the most. Hunger and disease are widespread, and immunization programs have been curtailed. Very few school-age children are receiving an education, and children are subject to kidnapping and abuse from soldiers. There may be as many as 3 million people displaced, with 1.5 million living in settled areas and 707,000 in camps in the Khartoum area. Relief aid in the camps is unreliable, and the displace women arrive with no assets or skills. They survive through domestic work, begging, petty trading, or beer-brewing and prostitution (the latter 2 are illegal). Children are left to fend for themselves all day or to find work in situations where they are exploited. In addition to depriving the children of their health, education, and economic stability, the war has resulted in cultural deprivation as ethnic groups lose their sense of identity. Psychological problems are the natural consequence of this situation, and aggressive behavior is seen in the displaced children, while trauma and anxiety plague the children in the war zones. PMID:12318292

  20. Solar water pumping clean water for Sudan rural areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Sudan in Eastern Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in Africa. However, its remotely isolated rural areas pose problems to rural energy management and development because of poor road links with the urban centres, and remoteness from the national electrical transmission grid. Development of renewable energy sources, therefore, has a vast potential in Sudan. Solar

  1. Unsafe abortion and abortion care in Khartoum, Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce Kinaro; Tag Elsir Mohamed Ali; Rhonda Schlangen; Jessica Mack

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions

  2. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AT column 1 refers to items controlled to Iran, Sudan, and Syria for anti-terrorism...refers to additional items controlled to Iran and Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes...2A994, 2D994 and 2E994 are controlled to Iran for anti-terrorism purposes....

  3. Education in the Sudan: The Privileging of an Islamic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the educational discourse in the part of the Sudan administered by the Government of the Sudan. It first analyses the value system upon which the Sudanese education is based by focusing on the nature of Islamism. Such a discussion is necessary because the dominant discourse is a discourse where power and Islamic theocracy…

  4. The Dinka of Sudan: Family Traditions in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Kate

    This paper examines the core values of the Dinka tribe of Sudan, focusing on the most prominent aspects of their family life. The paper also examines how the Dinka family is changing in the face of Sudan's civil war and modernization. It concludes with suggestions for new directions that social work can take to facilitate the transition of the…

  5. 78 FR 8360 - Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...NRC-2012-0278] RIN 3150-AJ21 Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List AGENCY...and import regulations by adding South Sudan to the list of restricted destinations...S. Government law and policy on South Sudan. South Sudan is an independent...

  6. Geology and Geochemistry of the Yingmailai Granitic Intrusion in the Southern Tianshan and Its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Letian; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zhang, Shu; Huang, He

    2015-04-01

    The Late Permian Yingmailai granitic intrusion is located in the middle part of the southern Tianshan. It consists predominantly of biotite K-feldspar granite with minor two-mica K-feldspar granite. Two types of ellipse-shaped xenoliths including dark-color fine-granular xenolith and light-color granitic xenolith have been recognized in the granitic intrusion. The xenoliths have geochemically similarities to granites. They are characterized by high SiO2 contents, enrichment of K and total alkali coupled with low MgO and CaO contents. Furthermore, they display the enrichment in Rb, Ba, Th and REE as well as significant fractionation of LREE from HREE, and negative Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf anomalies on the ORG normalized trace element patterns. The similar variation trends of major oxides between granites and xenoliths on the Harker diagram suggest that they were derived from a common parental magma. The A/CNK ratios range from 0.99 to 1.08, meta-aluminous to per-aluminous feature. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns are characterized by strong enrichment of LREE relative to HREE and significantly negative Eu anomalies. In combination with their high (87Sr/86Sr)t ratios (0.71036 to 0.71585) and negative Nd(t) values (-1.67 to -6.45), it can be inferred that the magmas might be produced by dehydration melting of crust-source amphibole-bearing mafic rocks (<50 km), and that crystal fractionation of biotite and plagioclase with minor magnetite might have occurred before emplacement. The petrological and geochemical characteristics of the granitic rocks suggest that the intrusion is a transition type between A and S types, and formed in the late or end stage of collision between Tarim and Kazakhstan plate in late Permian time.

  7. Home management of childhood diarrhoea in southern Mali--implications for the introduction of zinc treatment.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Amy A; Winch, Peter; Daou, Zana; Gilroy, Kate E; Swedberg, Eric

    2007-02-01

    Diarrhoea remains one of the leading killers of young children. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that a two-week course of zinc tablets once daily significantly reduces the severity and duration of diarrhoea and mortality in young children (Bhutta et al., 2000. Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries: Pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(6), 1516-1522). Formative research is being conducted in a number of countries to prepare for the large-scale promotion of this new treatment. In-depth and semi-structured interviews with parents, community health workers, and traditional healers were conducted to examine the household management of diarrhoea in the Sikasso region of southern Mali in preparation for the introduction of a short-course of daily zinc for childhood diarrhoea at the community level. Supporting data from a subsequent household survey are also presented. Although nearly all parents knew oral rehydration solution (ORS) could replace lost fluids, its inability to stop diarrhoea caused parents to seek antibiotics from local markets, traditional medicines or anti-malarials to cure the illness. The notion of combining multiple treatments to ensure the greatest therapeutic benefit was prevalent, and modern medicines were often administered simultaneously with traditional therapies. As parents often deem ORS insufficient and judge that an additional treatment should be combined with ORS to cure diarrhoea, the concept of joint therapy of zinc and ORS should be well accepted in the community. Mothers-in-law and fathers, who play a significant role in decisions to seek treatment for sick children, as well as traditional healers, should also be considered when designing new programs to promote zinc. Similarities with formative research conducted for a previous generation of diarrhoea control programmes are discussed. PMID:17097788

  8. Shear wave velocity mapping of Hat Yai district, southern Thailand: implication for seismic site classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordkayhun, Sawasdee; Sujitapan, Chedtaporn; Chalermyanont, Tanit

    2015-02-01

    Soil characteristics play an important role in the degree of ground shaking due to local site amplification during an earthquake. The objectives of this work are to study shear wave velocity (Vs) distribution in the near surface, and to develop a seismic site classification map for soil effect characterization and seismic hazard assessment in Hat Yai district, southern Thailand. The Vs determination based on the multichannel analysis of surface waves technique, has been carried out and analyzed at 70 measuring sites throughout the district. On the basis of the weighted-average Vs in the upper 30?m depth (Vs30), a seismic site classification map, based on the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) standard has been developed. It is found that the NEHRP site class in Hat Yai can be classified into four groups in accordance with the value of Vs30 within the range of about 150 to 1160?m?s?1. Most parts of the study area are typically classified as site class C and D. Site class C is mostly found within the colluvial and terrace deposits in the western and eastern part of the area, whereas site class D is concentrated in the alluvial sediment of the middle and northern flood plain areas. A small portion of site class B is observed in the western mountain ranges, where there is a thin overburden on the firm rock. There is a remarkably low Vs30 value at only one site, located near the main stream in the northern part of the study area. The results imply that the soil characteristics in the central and northern Hat Yai district pose a medium to high amplification rate with respect to the other regions. Although Vs data alone are insufficient to verify the potential of the amplification of ground shaking, this study provides an initial attempt to understand seismic hazards in the study area.

  9. Volume 7, Number 13 July 9, 2013 From One Sudan to Two Sudans

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a twenty-year war between the central government in Khartoum and the South-based Sudan Peoples' Liberation-up be seen as the first time an African state disintegrated in the postcolonial era? Was it the inevitable, while the latter, depending on the time period and leadership, advocated either regional autonomy

  10. Southern hemisphere sand furrows: spatial patterning and implications for the cryo-venting process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Ciaran; Bourke, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide is an important volatile on Mars. Seasonally, atmospheric CO2 condenses as ice on to the Martian surface and sublimates during the spring. Links have been made between a suite of observed surface features and the sublimation of surface CO2 ice; these include spider-like araneiform, gullies, and fans. Sand furrows are one such feature; suggested to form due to the erosive action of pressurised CO2 gas as it escapes through cracks in surficial ice (i.e. cryo-venting, Bourke, 2013). There are significant and important differences between the North and South Hemispheres, particularly in the seasonal CO2 deposits. Previous investigations into the formation and distribution of sand furrows on Mars have concentrated solely on the northern hemisphere. We present a study of furrows in the southern hemisphere which has yielded new data on their distribution and spatial patterning as well as providing insights into the cryo-venting process. A total of 221 dune sites were surveyed over the three Martian years' of available HiRISE data to establish the overall distribution of sand furrows. A more detailed study was carried out at eight sites using data from Mars Year 30. These sites represent a latitudinal sample of dunefields located between 40°S to 72°S. Surficial CO2 ice thickness was estimated using the Mars Climate Database (Millour et al., 2014). Our data show that sand furrows are significantly less numerous in the study region than in the northern hemisphere where data show they occur in 95% of surveyed sites. We found a strong correlation between latitude and furrow distribution. As one progresses polewards from 40°S, furrows become more numerous until 68°S. Furrows were not detected south of 72°S. Carbon dioxide ice thickness has been highlighted as a potentially important factor controlling furrow distribution in the northern hemisphere (Bourke and McGaley-Towle, 2014). Results from our investigation suggest there is a feedback mechanism between CO¬2 ice thickness and furrow formation; indicating a threshold thickness above which geomorphologically effective cryo-venting may not occur. Bourke, M. C., The Formation of Sand Furrows by Cryo-Venting on Martian Dunes. 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, 2013, pp. Abstract #2919. Bourke, M. C., McGaley-Towle, Why do sand furrows distributions vary in the North Polar latitudes on Mars? , European Geosciences Union, Vienna, Vol. 16, EGU2014-13626, 2014. Millour, E., et al., The Mars Climate Database (MCD version 5.1). Eighth International Conference on Mars. Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, 2014, pp. Abstract #1184.

  11. A sediment budget for the southern reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: implications for habitat restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, Gregory G.; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the southern reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with this uncertainty provides a more statistically rigorous method of quantifying this uncertainty than the more typical “sum of errors” approach. The results of this study reinforce the need for measurement of estuarine sediment fluxes over multiple years (multiple hydrologic conditions) to adequately detail the variability in flux. Additionally, the timing of breaching events for the restoration project could be tied to annual hydrologic conditions to capitalize on increased regional sediment supply.

  12. Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah M.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease. PMID:25330098

  13. Islands of Education: Schooling, Civil War and the Southern Sudanese (1983-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Victims of warfare, famine, slavery, and isolation, the Southern Sudanese are one of the most undereducated populations in the world. Since the inception of formal education in southern Sudan a century ago, schooling has largely consisted of island-like entities surrounded by oceans of educational emptiness. Islands of Education is the first book…

  14. Anthocyanins of Hibiscus sabdiffera calyces from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Cahliková, Lucie; Ali, Badreldin H; Havliková, Lucie; Lo?árek, Mirek; Siatka, Tomáš; Opletal, Lubomir; Blunden, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa are widely used in folk medicine to combat many illnesses. The active constituents of the extracts have been shown on several occasions to be anthocyanins. In our current studies the biological activities of an extract of H. sabdariffa calyces purchased in Oman, but grown in Sudan, are being compared with those of the anthocyanins isolated from them, and, for this, the anthocyanin profile of the extract needed to be ascertained. Although several anthocyanins were detected by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS, delphinidin-3-sambubioside (major) and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were predominant. PMID:25920224

  15. Work-Oriented Adult Literacy Project in the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammak, A.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the illiteracy problem and the adult literacy program undertaken by the government of the Sudan. In addition, it describes a survey undertaken to discover the main shortcomings and mistakes of the labor force which could be corrected. (AN)

  16. Simulating Historic Landscape Patterns of Fire in the Southern Appalachian Mountains: Implications for Fire History and Management 

    E-print Network

    Gass, Ellen R

    2014-05-21

    Fire suppression policies implemented in the early 20th century led to a decrease in fire-associated species and ecosystems in the southern Appalachian Mountains. As managers work towards restoration, a greater understanding of the pre...

  17. Determining the effect of climate change and development on water resources management in the Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of climate change in East Africa provide a myriad of challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. The construction of the Grand renaissance dam (GRD), as well as the unknown trajectory of precipitation trends in the Ethiopian highlands may greatly affect the countries that rely on the Nile. Sudan's huge irrigation potential and dams that feed multiple current irrigation schemes as well as its location within the basin means that Sudan's water management decisions may reverberate and have social, economic and political implications within the east African sub-region. Here, we apply a suite of state-of-the-art hydrology and climate analysis tools to evaluate the sensitivity of Sudan's optimal hydropower and irrigation development pathways to hydrologic variability and climate change. Present day hydrologic conditions are derived from a gridded implementation of the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) that includes representation of typical irrigation practices in the region. Noah is implemented using the NASA Land Information System (LIS), and draws forcing data from a combination of reanalysis and satellite meteorological products. Additional satellite inputs are used to provide a constraint on Noah evapotranspiration estimates and to acquire parameters such as crop water requirements that are crucial in determining yield and agricultural production. Future climate conditions are projected using statistical downscaling techniques trained to historical meteorological records and projected forward using inputs from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulation database. These climatic and hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to drive an optimization model developed within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). By using output and results from climate, hydrologic and optimization models this research aims to show how these models can be integrated to aid decision makers in the quest to better manage their water resources.

  18. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the...reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology...

  19. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily incident to the routine...

  20. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China’s afforestation program. PMID:26115116

  1. Late Holocene Marsh Expansion in Southern San Francisco Bay, California: Implications for the Use of Historic Baselines as Restoration Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the largest tidal wetlands restoration project on the US Pacific Coast is being planned and implemented in southern San Francisco Bay; however, knowledge of baseline conditions of salt marsh extent in the region prior to European settlement is limited. Here, analysis o...

  2. Ecological analysis in a polluted area of Algeciras Bay (southern Spain): External ‘versus’ internal outfalls and environmental implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Estacio; E. M. García-adiego; D. A. Fa; J. C. García-Gómez; J. L. Daza; F. Hortas; J. L. Gómez-Ariza

    1997-01-01

    The effects of organic effluents both inside and outside the Saladillo Harbour (Algeciras, southern Spain) are investigated. Although the external outfall has a greater rate of discharge, the low levels of hydrodynamism inside the harbour create an area of relatively stagnant water, with markedly different environmental conditions. A clear gradient of decreasing pollution levels was observed from the interior to

  3. A magnetostratigraphic study of the sediments of the Ridge Basin, southern California and its tectonic and sedimentologic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross A. Ensley; Kenneth L. Verosub

    1982-01-01

    A magnetic polarity zonation has been established for the upper Castaic Formation and lower Ridge Route and Peace Valley Formations of the Ridge Basin of the central Transverse Ranges of southern California. The zonation is based on the analysis of over 1900 samples from 669 sites in the 5800 m thick sedimentary sequence. Rock magnetic studies provide evidence that the

  4. Crustal structure beneath southern Africa and its implications for the formation and evolution of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Nguuri; J. Gore; D. E. James; S. J. Webb; C. Wright; T. G. Zengeni; O. Gwavava; J. A. Snoke

    2001-01-01

    The formation of Archean crust appears to involve processes unique to early earth history. Initial results from receiver function analysis of crustal structure beneath 81 broadband stations deployed across southern Africa reveal significant differences in the nature of the crust and the crust-mantle boundary between Archean and post-Archean geologic terranes. With the notable exception of the collisional Limpopo belt, where

  5. Habitat Associations of Hypogeous Fungi in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the Endangered Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUSAN C. LOEB; FRANK H. TAINTER; EFREN CÁZARES

    2000-01-01

    gporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi (truffles) are the major food of northern flying squirrels (Gluucomys satinus). The two subspecies of northern flying squir- rels that occur in the southern Appalachians, G. s. colmatus and G. s. fuscus, are endangered species which are primarily found in the ecotone between high-elevation spruce-fir and northern hardwood forests. Our objective was to determine the

  6. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program. PMID:26115116

  7. Crustal strain rates, upper mantle seismic wave speeds, and implications for lower crustal strength in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Venkataramani, S.; Mcelwaine, J. N.; Restrepo, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    In southern California the dilatational strain rate field of the crust imaged using GPS geodesy is strongly correlated with upper mantle wave speeds imaged using Rayleigh wave tomography. This correlation suggests that small-scale upper mantle convection may be actively contributing to upper crustal deformation. Understanding this correlation is important for determining whether geodesy has a role to play in advancing our understanding of upper mantle dynamics, and for improving tectonic interpretations of crustal motion data, particularly with regard to hazards assessment. To study this issue further, we developed an analytical model in which a viscoelastic crust is driven by tractions induced by negatively buoyant cylinders sinking in a viscous mantle halfspace. This model may serve as a numerical analog for delaminated crustal roots or lithospheric mantle drips. For models in which the crust is composed of a single viscoelastic layer with viscosity that is higher than that of the upper mantle, we found that tractions on the base of the crust associated with Stokes-like flow may result in horizontal motions of the crustal surface of order 1 mm/yr or more over distances of as small as 50 km (strain rates of order 20 nanostrain/yr), depending on crustal thickness, cylinder size and density contrast, and crust and mantle viscosities. These strain rates are comparable to the dilatational strain rates observed in southern California. For models in which the lower crust behaves as a weak, low viscosity layer sandwiched between stronger upper crust and mantle, the horizontal components of upper crust are decoupled from mantle flow. Thus, the geodetic strain rate and seismic tomography data for southern California may suggest that the lower crust of southern California is relatively strong. This inference is consistent with long-time scale rheologic properties recently inferred by other researchers from short-time scale postseismic deformation data for the southern California region.

  8. The fault pattern in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel and its hydrogeological implications for groundwater flow in the Judea Group aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, G.; Rosenthal, E.

    1994-03-01

    On the basis of a broadly expanding data base, the hydrogeological properties of the Judea Group sequence in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel have been reassessed. The updated subsurface model is based on data derived from water- and oil-wells and on recent large-scale geophysical investigations. A new regional pattern of the reassessed geological through the subsurface of the study area has been revealed. In view of the reassessed geological and hydrological subsurface setting, it appears that the Judea Group aquifer should not be regarded as one continuous and undisturbed hydrological unit; owing to the occurrence of regional faults, its subaquifers are locally interconnected. These subaquifers, which contain mainly high-quality water, are juxtaposed, as a result of faulting, against Kurnub Group sandstones containing brackish paleowater. The latter Group is faulted against late Jurassic formations containing highly saline groundwater. In the Beer Sheva area, the Judea Group aquifer is vertically displaced against the Senonian and Eocene Mt. Scopus and Avdat Groups, which also contain brackish and saline water. In the southern Coastal Plain, major faults locally dissect also the Pleistocene Kurkar Group, facilitating inflow of Mg-rich groundwater deriving from Judea Group dolomites. The new geological evidence and its hydrogeological implications provide new solutions for previously unexplained salinization phenomena.

  9. Timing of emplacement and deformation of the Tia Granodiorite, southern New England Fold Belt, NSW: Implications for the metamorphic history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. G. M. Dirks; R. Offler; W. J. Collins

    1993-01-01

    The Tia Granodiorite, a Hillgrove Suite pluton in the southern New England Fold Belt, intruded complexly deformed metasediment and metabasite belonging to the Tia Complex, which at the time of intrusion had already been affected by two deformation events at low?T moderate?P metamorphic conditions and two overprinting deformation events at high?T low?P metamorphic conditions. Emplacement took place during D5 thrusting

  10. Tomographic imaging of deep velocity structure beneath the Eastern and Southern Carpathians, Romania: Implications for continental collision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangwei Fan; Terry C. Wallace; Dapeng Zhao

    1998-01-01

    The Vrancea seismic zone, located beneath the ``elbow'' of the Eastern and Southern Carpathians, is characterized by intermediate-depth seismicity associated with subduction and plate collision. Among many strong earthquakes that have occurred in the region, the 1977 Vrancea earthquake (March 4, 1977, Ms=7.1, depth of 86 km) caused extensive damage and fatalities. The Vrancea seismic zone is defined by a

  11. Circulation and seasonal evolution of polar waters south of Australia: implications for iron fertilization of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trull, Tom; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Hadfield, Mark; Abraham, Edward R.

    The Southern Ocean Iron Release Experiment (SOIREE) was carried out in late summer (February 1999) south of Australia (61°S, 140°E). This region of the southern Antarctic Zone (AZ-S), between the southern branch of the Polar Front (PF) and the southern front of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SAACF), is characterized by weak currents and is remote from the influence of sea-ice or coastal waters. The SOIREE site exhibits high nutrient concentrations year-round (phosphate, nitrate and silicate remain above 10 ?M), low chlorophyll accumulations (<0.5 ?g/l), and moderate summer mixed-layer depths (50-70 m). The SOIREE iron fertilization led to a large increase in algal biomass, particularly large diatoms, and persisted into March well after normal seasonal production is complete. No increase in carbon export occurred during the SOIREE 13-day observation period. The seasonal cycles of mixed-layer development and low biomass accumulation at the SOIREE site are representative of most of the region between the PF and the SACCF, i.e. between ˜54 and ˜62°S, and to a lesser extent the Polar Frontal Zone. However, north of ˜59°S surface waters are depleted in silica by mid-summer (as occurs year-round north of the Subantarctic Front). A different response to iron fertilization is likely under these conditions, possibly the promotion of lightly silicified diatoms and non-siliceous organisms, whose ability to export carbon is uncertain. The SOIREE fertilized waters are likely to have remained at the surface in the AZ-S throughout the winter. In general, carbon sequestration by subduction of iron-enhanced biomass accumulations is unlikely south of the SAF, except in very limited regions. Moreover, intermediate water masses formed in the Southern Ocean sink with little pre-formed silicate, so that the "silica pump" is already working at close to maximal capacity. Therefore, in the absence of significant changes in community structure or algal physiology, which increase the ratio of carbon export to silicate export, increased iron supply is unlikely to increase the magnitude of carbon sequestration.

  12. Sources of recharge at Abu Delaig, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmunds, W. M.; Darling, W. G.; Kinniburgh, D. G.; Kotoub, S.; Mahgoub, S.

    1992-02-01

    Various components of the water cycle in and around Abu Delaig, a small town in a semiarid region of Sudan, have been investigated with geochemical and isotopic techniques to determine the sources of groundwater recharge. Rain samples (total deposition during storms) contain significant concentrations of dissolved solids for a continental site (mean 4.6 mgl -1 for 1982-1985). The heaviest rains important for recharge tend to have the lowest chlorinities, and are also the most negative isotopically. Wadi floods generally have lower chlorinity than the rainfall indicating the proportionally lower amounts of dust in the more intense rainfall events. Shallow ground waters at Abu Delaig have relatively evolved compositions (higher Mg/Ca ratios) compared with rainfall and wadi floods, yet they also contain tritium and retain isotopic signatures similar to the local rainfall. They also have a distinctive chemistry compared with the deeper ground waters in the region and recharge from the former to the latter is considered to be insignificant. Ground waters in the unsaturated zone are saline and have isotopic compositions highly enriched in heavy isotopes compared with rainfall, indicating strong evaporation. The chloride balance indicates that mean recharge rates are 0.2-1.3 mm year -1 through the interfluve areas. It is concluded that the only significant replenishable resources at Abu Delaig are from wadi recharge during floods and that direct regional recharge is insignificant. Fluctuations in the water table, however, lead to solutes from the lower unsaturated zone contributing to the chemistry of the shallow ground waters. Elsewhere it is possible that wadi recharge may be a possible route for deeper replenishment, but this needs to be demonstrated by dedicated experiments.

  13. An outbreak of bluetongue in sheep in the Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Eisa; OM Osman; AE Karrar; AH Abdel Rahim

    1980-01-01

    An outbreak of bluetongue and the first isolation of the virus in the Sudan are reported. The disease occurred in sheep stressed by walking for five days when biting arthropods were prevalent. Estimates of the morbidity and mortality rates ranged from about 30 per cent and 2 per cent respectively in adult sheep to around 80 per cent and 100

  14. A Fuzzy Vault Scheme and Madhu Sudan2

    E-print Network

    Sudan, Madhu

    A Fuzzy Vault Scheme Ari Juels1 and Madhu Sudan2 1 RSA Laboratories Bedford, MA 01730, USA E to as a fuzzy vault. A player Alice may place a secret value in a fuzzy vault and "lock" it using a set A of elements from some public universe U. If Bob tries to "unlock" the vault using a set B of similar length

  15. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  16. Unsafe abortion and abortion care in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kinaro, Joyce; Ali, Tag Elsir Mohamed; Schlangen, Rhonda; Mack, Jessica

    2009-11-01

    Unsafe abortion in Sudan results in significant morbidity and mortality. This study of treatment for complications of unsafe abortion in five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan, included a review of hospital records and a survey of 726 patients seeking abortion-related care from 27 October 2007 to 31 January 2008, an interview of a provider of post-abortion care and focus group discussions with community leaders. Findings demonstrate enormous unmet need for safe abortion services. Abortion is legally restricted in Sudan to circumstances where the woman's life is at risk or in cases of rape. Post-abortion care is not easily accessible. In a country struggling with poverty, internal displacement, rural dwelling, and a dearth of trained doctors, mid-level providers are not allowed to provide post-abortion care or prescribe contraception. The vast majority of the 726 abortion patients in the five hospitals were treated with dilatation and curettage (D&C), and only 12.3% were discharged with a contraceptive method. Some women waited long hours before treatment was provided; 14.5% of them had to wait for 5-8 hours and 7.3% for 9-12 hours. Mid-level providers should be trained in safe abortion care and post-abortion care to make these services accessible to a wider community in Sudan. Guidelines should be developed on quality of care and should mandate the use of manual vacuum aspiration or misoprostol for medical abortion instead of D&C. PMID:19962640

  17. Renewable energy resources for electricity generation in Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2007-01-01

    Electricity reaches only about 30% of Sudan's more than 40M population; this mainly in urban areas. Hence, a major problem for rural people is the inadequate supply of power for lighting, heating, cooking, cooling, water pumping, radio or TV communications and security services. Petroleum product supplies, including diesel, kerosene and LPG are irregular and often subject to sudden price increases.

  18. New sources of grain mold resistance among accessions from Sudan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from Sudan were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold. The environmental conditions during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for gra...

  19. Educational Change and the "Khalwa" in the Sudan: Reform Reformed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes Sudan's New Educational Policy, a top-down educational reform plan promulgated by the Nimeiri Government during 1970-85. The plan attempted to increase enrollments dramatically and change a colonial British curriculum to a modern, authentically Sudanese curriculum. Fortunately, the plan ignored the Khalawi, alternative institutions that…

  20. The Development of an Environmental Education Curriculum for Sudan, Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of three environmental education workshops held in Sudan between 1983 and 1985. Explains the participants' involvement with curriculum design, curriculum structure development, and activity selection. Suggests that this program can serve as a model for national environmental education program development. (ML)

  1. Child Prodigy in Astronomy: A Biographical Study from the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleefa, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have been conducted in the West regarding child prodigies, no such studies have taken place in indigenous Arab cultures--particularly not in Sudan. The present study attempts to bridge the existing gap in this area by focusing on a Sudanese child prodigy with extraordinary inclination towards astronomy. It is a qualitative…

  2. Variability in transport pathways on and around the South Georgia shelf, Southern Ocean: Implications for recruitment and retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Emma F.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Banglawala, Neelofer; Murphy, Eugene J.

    2014-01-01

    The waters around South Georgia are among the most productive in the Southern Ocean, with zooplankton populations close to the island, in particular Antarctic krill, supporting vast colonies of higher predators. However, our understanding of the processes governing variability in the supply of these food resources is limited by the poor spatial and temporal resolution of available data. Here, we use a numerical modeling approach to examine the underlying physical processes driving the recruitment and retention of zooplankton to the South Georgia shelf. Variability in the magnitude and spatial distribution of recruitment was dominated by the proximity and orientation of the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current front to the shelf edge. Shelf retention was highest for source sites on the southwest shelf, with the main transport routes off the shelf to the north and northwest. Retention was lowest in the austral summer and winter; in summer increased glacial melt drives stronger off-shelf near-surface currents, while in winter, stronger winds lead to an increase in off-shelf transport. Of particular note was the prediction of a significant increase in retention for particles released throughout the shelf in April and July 2000. This period coincided with the development of pronounced anticlockwise shelf flows, associated with horizontal density gradients due to reduced wind mixing of shelf waters, and differences between shelf and oceanic waters, which significantly reduced off-shelf transport rates. Such findings are crucial for understanding the influence of variability in physical processes on the ecosystem at South Georgia.

  3. Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable. PMID:26125972

  4. Hydroclimate implications of thermocline variability in the southern South China Sea over the past 180,000 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Li; Li, Qianyu; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2015-03-01

    Based on core-top calibration, the TEX 86H-derived temperature has been considered as representing subsurface sea temperature (SSST), and the difference between the U37K?-derived sea-surface temperature (SST) and the TEX 86H-derived SSST can be used to reflect the depth of thermocline (DOT) in the South China Sea region (Jia et al., 2012). We evaluated the DOT dynamics in late Quaternary records using this approach on paired analysis of samples from core MD05-2896/7 in the southern South China Sea. The reconstructed DOT over the last 180,000 yr (180 ka) displays a shoaling trend in glacial periods, which may be attributed to the strengthened cyclonic gyre by the enhanced East Asian winter monsoon and Walker circulation with prominent La Niña-like state, and vice versa in interglacial periods corresponding to reduced winter monsoon with enhanced El Niño-like state. These upper-water thermal variations testify that enhanced winter monsoon was the direct cause of an uplifted local thermocline during glacial or La Niña-like states with strengthened cyclonic gyre due to positive wind stress curl in the southern South China Sea. Our results provide insights into the relationship between monsoon and ENSO on both glacial and millennial time scales.

  5. The Prevalence of Blinding Trachoma in Northern States of Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Awad; Ngondi, Jeremiah M.; King, Jonathan D.; Elshafie, Balgesa E.; Al Ginaid, Ghada; Elsanousi, Mazin; Abdalla, Zeinab; Aziz, Nabil; Sankara, Dieudonne; Simms, Victoria; Cromwell, Elizabeth A.; Emerson, Paul M.; Binnawi, Kamal H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite historical evidence of blinding trachoma, there have been no widespread contemporary surveys of trachoma prevalence in the northern states of Sudan. We aimed to conduct district-level surveys in this vast region in order to map the extent of the problem and estimate the need for trachoma control interventions to eliminate blinding trachoma. Methods and Findings Separate, population based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 88 localities (districts) in 12 northern states of Sudan between 2006 and 2010. Two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. Key prevalence indicators were trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1–9 years and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in adults aged 15 years and above. The sample comprised 1,260 clusters from which 25,624 households were surveyed. A total of 106,697 participants (81.6% response rate) were examined for trachoma signs. TF prevalence was above 10% in three districts and between 5% and 9% in 11 districts. TT prevalence among adults was above 1% in 20 districts (which included the three districts with TF prevalence >10%). The overall number of people with TT in the population was estimated to be 31,072 (lower and upper bounds?=?26,125–36,955). Conclusion Trachoma mapping is complete in the northern states of Sudan except for the Darfur States. The survey findings will facilitate programme planning and inform deployment of resources for elimination of trachoma from the northern states of Sudan by 2015, in accordance with the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) objectives. PMID:21655349

  6. Evidence for a Nascent Rift in South Sudan: Westward Extension of the East African Rift System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maceira, M.; Van Wijk, J. W.; Coblentz, D. D.; Modrak, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    Joint inversion of seismic and gravity data of eastern Africa reveals a low seismic wave velocity arm stretching from the southern Main Ethiopian rift westward in an east-west direction that has not been noticed in earlier work. The zone of low velocities is located in the upper mantle and is not overlain by a known structural rift expression. We analyzed the local pattern of seismicity and the stresses in the African plate to interpret this low velocity arm. The zone of low velocities is located within the Central African Fold Belt, which dissects the northern and southern portions of the African continent. It is seismically active with small to intermediate sized earthquakes occurring in the crust. Seven earthquake solutions indicate (oblique) normal faulting and low-angle normal faulting with a NS to NNW-SSE opening direction, as well as strike-slip faulting. This pattern of deformation is typically associated with rifting. The present day stress field in northeastern Africa reveals a tensional state of stress at the location of the low velocity arm with an opening direction that corresponds to the earthquake data. We propose that the South Sudan low velocity zone and seismic center are part of an undeveloped, nascent rift arm. The arm stretches from the East African Rift system westward.

  7. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks - implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friederich, W.; Brüstle, A.; Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lamara, S.; Egelados Working Group

    2014-05-01

    The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini-Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW-SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE-SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east-west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW-SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except in volcanic areas, where both appear to be unrelated, and in the forearc where compressional principal stresses are very well aligned with compressional principal strain rates. This finding indicates that, except for volcanic areas, microseismic activity in the southern Aegean is not controlled by small-scale local stresses but rather reflects the regional stress field. The lateral and depth variations of the stress field reflect the various agents that influence tectonics in the Aegean: subduction of the Hellenic slab, incipient collision with continental African lithosphere, roll back of the slab in the southeast, segmentation of the slab, arc volcanism and extension of the Aegean crust.

  8. Increased dry-season length over southern Amazonia in recent decades and its implication for future climate projection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Rong; Yin, Lei; Li, Wenhong; Arias, Paola A.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Huang, Lei; Chakraborty, Sudip; Fernandes, Katia; Liebmann, Brant; Fisher, Rosie; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    We have observed that the dry-season length (DSL) has increased over southern Amazonia since 1979, primarily owing to a delay of its ending dates (dry-season end, DSE), and is accompanied by a prolonged fire season. A poleward shift of the subtropical jet over South America and an increase of local convective inhibition energy in austral winter (June–August) seem to cause the delay of the DSE in austral spring (September–November). These changes cannot be simply linked to the variability of the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Although they show some resemblance to the effects of anthropogenic forcings reported in the literature, we cannot attribute them to this cause because of inadequate representation of these processes in the global climate models that were presented in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report. These models significantly underestimate the variability of the DSE and DSL and their controlling processes. Such biases imply that the future change of the DSE and DSL may be underestimated by the climate projections provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report models. Although it is not clear whether the observed increase of the DSL will continue in the future, were it to continue at half the rate of that observed, the long DSL and fire season that contributed to the 2005 drought would become the new norm by the late 21st century. The large uncertainty shown in this study highlights the need for a focused effort to better understand and simulate these changes over southern Amazonia. PMID:24145443

  9. Reproductive biology and implications for management of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Grandcourt, E M; Al Abdessalaam, T Z; Francis, F; Al Shamsi, A T; Hartmann, S A

    2009-03-01

    The reproductive biology of Epinephelus coioides was determined from the examination of 1455 individuals collected between July 2005 and June 2007 in the southern Arabian Gulf. Histological preparations of gonads indicated that males were either derived from a juvenile phase or the transition of postspawning females, confirming a diandric protogynous sexual pattern. The spawning season was well defined, occurring once a year during April and early May. Peaks in spawning occurred after the full and new moons and was completed within a single lunar cycle. The presence of mature males over the entire size and age range and the absence of inactive mature females during the spawning season suggested that the population was not constrained by sperm limitation. While specimens undergoing sexual transition were only observed in size and age ranges of 335-685 mm total length (L(T)) and 5-6 years, patterns in the proportion of males in size and age classes suggested that sex change occurred at a relatively constant rate after female maturation up to the maximum size (1002 mm L(T)) and age (11 years). Relationships between reproductive output and capacity with size and age indicated that conventional regulations that equate the mean size at first capture to sexual maturation are unsuitable for the management of E. coioides. The maximum age, small size and young age at sexual maturation (L(min)= 320 mm L(T), 2 years, for females and 242 mm L(T), 1 year, for males) conflict with the general pattern for large epinepheline groupers and may be a direct result of the intensive demersal fishery in the southern Arabian Gulf. PMID:20735602

  10. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Havemann, Carl Peter; Lines, Robin; Palazy, Lucille; Price, Aaron Ernest; Retief, Tarryn Anne; Rhebergen, Tiemen; Van der Waal, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo) are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved) and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal) lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world where carnivore conservation is being attempted on private lands. PMID:23326333

  11. Implications of water supply for indigenous Americans during Holocene ardity phases on the Southern High Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Stokes, S.; Rich, J.

    2002-01-01

    Springs in the 40 to 50 large lake basins (>15 km2) on the southern portion of the Southern High Plains (SHP) were active during periods of aridity in the Holocene when there may have been human habitation of the area. Eolian erosion of the lake floors and lunette accretion occurred as groundwater levels declined in response to decreased groundwater recharge. The declining lake floor associated with eolian erosion allowed groundwater evaporative discharge to continue, thus maintaining a groundwater gradient toward the lake. This hydrologic condition was favorable for a relatively continuous spring discharge to the lake, independent of the elevation of the lake floor. To evaluate the postulated dynamic equilibrium critical to this conclusion, 17 optically stimulated ages were determined from a 17.7-m deep core of a lunette adjacent to Double Lakes, Texas (33??13???15???N, 101??54???08???W). The core yielded sediment accumulation dates of 11,500 ?? 1100, 6500 ?? 700, and 4900 ?? 500 yr B.P., corresponding broadly with periods of aridity known from other evidence. Based on analysis of this lunette, it is concluded that springs in Double Lakes basin probably existed throughout the Holocene with discharges similar to those observed historically. We assumed that similar dynamic equilibrium existed in the other large lake basins in the SHP and that these springs could have provided a continuous source of water for indigenous peoples during periods of prolonged aridity. The dynamic equilibrium that is proposed in this study is applicable not only to other arid and semiarid geographic areas with wind-erodible material but also over different geologic times. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  12. Microseismicity distribution in the southern Dead Sea basin and its implications on the structure of the basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeuer, B.; Asch, Guenter; Hofstetter, R.; Haberland, Ch.; Jaser, D.; El-Kelani, R.; Weber, M.

    2012-03-01

    While the Dead Sea basin has been studied for a long time, the available knowledge about the detailed seismicity distribution in the area, as well as the deeper structure of the basin, is limited. Therefore, within the framework of the international project DESIRE (DEad Sea Integrated REsearch project), a dense temporary local seismological network was operated in the southern Dead Sea area. We use 530 local earthquakes, having all together 26 730 P- and S-arrival times for a simultaneous inversion of 1-D velocity models, station corrections and precise earthquake locations. Jackknife tests suggest an accuracy of the derived hypocentre locations of about 1 km. Thus, the result is the first clear image of the absolute distribution of the microseismicity of the area, especially in depth. The seismicity is concentrated in the upper crust down to 20 km depth while the lower limit of the seismicity is reached at 31 km depth. The seismic events at the eastern boundary fault (EBF) in the southern part of the study area represent the northward transform motion of the Arabian Plate along the Dead Sea Transform. North of the Boqeq fault the seismic activity represents the transfer of the motion in the pull-apart basin from the eastern to the western boundary. We find that from the surface downward the seismic events are tracing the boundary faults of the basin. The western boundary is mapped down to 12 km depth while the EBF reaches about 17 km depth, forming an asymmetric basin. One fifth of the data set is related to a specific cluster in time and space, which occurred in 2007 February at the western border fault. This cluster is aligned vertically, that is, it is perpendicular to the direction of the dominating left-lateral strike-slip movement at the main transform fault.

  13. Historical land-use and landscape change in southern Sweden and implications for present and future biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qiao-Yu; Gaillard, Marie-José; Lemdahl, Geoffrey; Stenberg, Li; Sugita, Shinya; Zernova, Ganna

    2014-01-01

    The two major aims of this study are (1) To test the performance of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to quantify past landscape changes using historical maps and related written sources, and (2) to use the LRA and map reconstructions for a better understanding of the origin of landscape diversity and the recent loss of species diversity. Southern Sweden, hemiboreal vegetation zone. The LRA was applied on pollen records from three small bogs for four time windows between AD 1700 and 2010. The LRA estimates of % cover for woodland/forest, grassland, wetland, and cultivated land were compared with those extracted from historical maps within 3-km radius around each bog. Map-extracted land-use categories and pollen-based LRA estimates (in % cover) of the same land-use categories show a reasonable agreement in several cases; when they do not agree, the assumptions used in the data (maps)-model (LRA) comparison are a better explanation of the discrepancies between the two than possible biases of the LRA modeling approach. Both the LRA reconstructions and the historical maps reveal between-site differences in landscape characteristics through time, but they demonstrate comparable, profound transformations of the regional and local landscapes over time and space due to the agrarian reforms in southern Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries. The LRA was found to be the most reasonable approach so far to reconstruct quantitatively past landscape changes from fossil pollen data. The existing landscape diversity in the region at the beginning of the 18th century had its origin in the long-term regional and local vegetation and land-use history over millennia. Agrarian reforms since the 18th century resulted in a dramatic loss of landscape diversity and evenness in both time and space over the last two centuries leading to a similarly dramatic loss of species (e.g., beetles). PMID:25478148

  14. Tectonic magnetic lineation and oroclinal bending of the Alborz range: Implications on the Iran-Southern Caspian geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, Francesca; Ballato, Paolo; Alimohammadian, Habib; Sabouri, Jafar; Mattei, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetic data for deciphering the origin of magnetic lineation in weakly deformed sedimentary rocks and for evaluating oroclinal processes within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. In particular, we have analyzed the Miocene Upper Red Formation (URF) from the outer curved front of the southern Central Alborz Mountains of north Iran, to test for the first time with paleomagnetic data the origin (primary versus secondary) of this orogenic arc. AMS data document the existence of a magnetic lineation parallel to the orientation of the major tectonic structures, which vary along strike from WNW to ENE. These directions are highly oblique to the paleoflow directions and hence suggest that the magnetic lineation in the URF was produced by compressional deformation during layer-parallel shortening. In addition, our paleomagnetic data document clockwise and anticlockwise rotations along vertical axis for the western and eastern sectors of the Central Alborz Mountains, respectively. Combined, our results suggest that the orogen represents an orocline, which formed not earlier than circa 7.6 Ma most likely through bending processes caused by the relative motion between the rigid crustal blocks of the collision zone. Moreover, our study provides new insights into the Iran-Southern Caspian Basin kinematic evolution suggesting that the present-day SW motion of the South Caspian Basin with respect to Central Iran postdates oroclinal bending and hence cannot be as old as late Miocene to early Pliocene but a rather recent configuration (i.e., 3 to <1 Ma).

  15. Historical land-use and landscape change in southern Sweden and implications for present and future biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qiao-Yu; Gaillard, Marie-José; Lemdahl, Geoffrey; Stenberg, Li; Sugita, Shinya; Zernova, Ganna

    2014-09-01

    The two major aims of this study are (1) To test the performance of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to quantify past landscape changes using historical maps and related written sources, and (2) to use the LRA and map reconstructions for a better understanding of the origin of landscape diversity and the recent loss of species diversity. Southern Sweden, hemiboreal vegetation zone. The LRA was applied on pollen records from three small bogs for four time windows between AD 1700 and 2010. The LRA estimates of % cover for woodland/forest, grassland, wetland, and cultivated land were compared with those extracted from historical maps within 3-km radius around each bog. Map-extracted land-use categories and pollen-based LRA estimates (in % cover) of the same land-use categories show a reasonable agreement in several cases; when they do not agree, the assumptions used in the data (maps)-model (LRA) comparison are a better explanation of the discrepancies between the two than possible biases of the LRA modeling approach. Both the LRA reconstructions and the historical maps reveal between-site differences in landscape characteristics through time, but they demonstrate comparable, profound transformations of the regional and local landscapes over time and space due to the agrarian reforms in southern Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries. The LRA was found to be the most reasonable approach so far to reconstruct quantitatively past landscape changes from fossil pollen data. The existing landscape diversity in the region at the beginning of the 18th century had its origin in the long-term regional and local vegetation and land-use history over millennia. Agrarian reforms since the 18th century resulted in a dramatic loss of landscape diversity and evenness in both time and space over the last two centuries leading to a similarly dramatic loss of species (e.g., beetles). PMID:25478148

  16. Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh.; Shamkhali, A. N.

    2014-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

  17. Crustal xenoliths from Calbuco Volcano, Andean Southern Volcanic Zone: implications for crustal composition and magma-crust interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Abdollahi, Mohammad J.; Parada, Miguel A.; López-Escobar, Leopoldo; Frey, Fred A.

    1995-04-01

    Crustal xenoliths in the 1961 andesite flow of Calbuco Volcano, in the southern Southern Volcanic Zone (SSVZ) of the Andes, consist predominantly of pyroxene granulites and hornblende gabbronorites. The granulites contain plagioclase+pyroxene+magnetite±amphibole, and have pronounced granoblastic textures. Small amounts of relict amphibole surrounded by pyroxene-plagioclase-magnetite-glass symplectites are found in some specimens. These and similar textures in the gabbronorites are interpreted as evidence of dehydration melting. Mineral and bulk rock geochemical data indicate that the granulites are derived from an incompatible trace element depleted basaltic protolith that underwent two stages of metamorphism: a moderate pressure, high temperature stage accompanied by melting and melt extraction from some samples, followed by thermal metamorphism after entrainment in the Calbuco andesite lavas. High ?Nd T values (+4.0 to +8.6), Nd-isotope model ages of 1.7 2.0 Ga, and trace element characteristics like chondrite normalized La/Yb< and La/Nb?1 indicate that the protoliths were oceanic basalts. Similar oceanic metabasalts of greenschist to amphibolite facies are found in the Paleozoic metamorphic belt that underlies the Chilean coastal ranges. Mineral and bulk rock compositions of the gabbronorite xenoliths indicate that they are cognate, crystallizing from the basaltic andesite magma at Calbuco. Crystallization pressures for the gabbros based on total Al contents in amphibole are 6 8 kbar. These pressures point to middle to lower crustal storage of the Calbuco magma. Neither granulite nor gabbro xenoliths have the appropriate geochemical characteristics to be contaminants of Calbuco andesites, although an ancient sedimentary contaminant is indicated by the lava compositions. The presence of oceanic metabasaltic xenoliths, together with the sedimentary isotopic imprint, suggests that the lower crust beneath the volcano is analogous to the coastal metamorphic belt, which is an accretionary complex of intercalated basalts and sediments that formed along the Paleozoic Gondwanan margin. If this is the case, the geochemical composition of the lower and middle crust beneath the SSVZ is significantly different from that of most recent SSVZ volcanic rocks.

  18. Multi-decadal variability and trends in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and tropical Pacific fisheries implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, D. E.; Chiodi, Andrew M.

    2015-03-01

    Extremes of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are known to have various socio-economic impacts, including effects on several Pacific fisheries. The 137-year-long record of Darwin sea-level pressure offers a uniquely long-term perspective on ENSO and provides important insight into various aspects of interannual to century-scale variability that affects these fisheries. One particular issue of interest is whether there is a centennial-scale (or longer) trend that can be expected to alter the future distributions of these fisheries. Since most tropical Pacific fishery records are no longer than a few decades, another issue is the extent to which trends over these recent decades are a good basis for detecting the presence of long-term (e.g., centennial-scale) deterministic changes, and perhaps thereby projecting future conditions. We find that the full 137-yr trend cannot be distinguished from zero with 95% confidence, and also that the ENSO variance in recent decades is very similar to that of the early decades of the record, suggesting that ENSO has not fundamentally changed over the period of large increase in atmospheric CO2. However, the strong multi-decadal variability in ENSO is reflected in decades with quite different levels of ENSO effects on the ecosystem. Many multi-decadal subsets of the full record have statistically significant trends, using standard analysis techniques. These multi-decadal trends are not; however, representative of the record-length trend, nor are they a useful basis for projecting conditions in subsequent decades. Trend statistical significance is not a robust foundation for speculation about the future. We illustrate how the difficulties involved in determining whether a trend is statistically significant or not mean that, even after careful consideration, an unexpectedly large number of trends may reach standard statistical significance levels over the time spans for which many newer records are available, but still not continue into future decades or be indicative of deterministic changes to the system. Analysis of the Southern Oscillation Index, another common ENSO index, but one that has been directly measured for fewer years than has Darwin, yields similar results.

  19. Focal mechanisms in the Southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks - implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friederich, W.; Brüstle, A.; Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.

    2013-10-01

    The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located earthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini-Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW-SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE-SSW. Intermediate depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east-west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW-SE compression. The lateral and depth variations of the stress field reflect the various agents that influence tectonics in the Aegean: subduction of the Hellenic slab, incipient collision with continental African lithosphere, roll back of the slab in the south-east, segmentation of the slab, arc volcanism and extension of the Aegean crust.

  20. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-01-01

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. PMID:26133245

  1. Predicted implications of using percentage weight gain as single discharge criterion in management of acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Forsén, Emmanuel; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2013-08-14

    Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is increasingly used in identifying and admitting children with acute malnutrition for treatment. It is easy to use because it does not involve height assessment, but its use calls for alternative discharge criteria. This study examined how use of percentage weight gain as discharge criterion would affect the nutritional status of children admitted into a community-based management programme for acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia. Non-oedematous children (n?=?631) aged 6-59 months and having a MUAC of <125?mm were studied. By simulation, 10%, 15% and 20% weight was added to admission weight and their nutritional status by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) was determined at each target. Moderate and severe wasting according to World Health Organization WHZ definitions was used as outcome. Applying the most commonly recommended target of 15% weight gain resulted in 9% of children with admission MUAC <115?mm still being moderately or severely wasted at theoretical discharge. In children with admission MUAC 115-124?mm, 10% of weight gain was sufficient to generate a similar result. Children failing to recover were the ones with the poorest nutritional status at admission. Increasing the percentage weight gain targets in the two groups to 20% and 15%, respectively, would largely resolve wasting but likely lead to increased programme costs by keeping already recovered children in the programme. Further research is needed on appropriate discharge procedures in programmes using MUAC for screening and admission. PMID:23941395

  2. Geophysical interpretation of the gneiss terrane of northern Washington and southern British Columbia, and its implications for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cady, John W.; Fox, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The Omineca crystalline belt of northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia has a regional Bouguer gravity high, and individual gneiss domes within the terrane are marked by local gravity highs. Models of crustal structure that satisfy the limited available seismic-refraction data and explain the gravity high over the gneiss terrane permit the hypothesis that the core metamorphic complexes are the surface expression of a zone of dense infrastructure that makes up the upper 20 km (kilometers) of the crust within the crystalline belt. The Omineca crystalline belt is characterized regionally by low aeromagnetic relief. The gneiss domes and biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites are generally marked by low magnetic relief, whereas hornblende-biotite granites often cause magnetic highs. Exceptional magnetic highs mark zones of magnetic rock within the biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites and the gneiss domes; these areas are worthy of study, both to determine the origin and disposition of the magnetite and to explore the possible existence of uraniferous magnetite deposits.

  3. Crustal structure of Precambrian terranes in the southern African subcontinent with implications for secular variation in crustal genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachingwe, Marsella; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    New estimates of crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio and crustal shear wave velocity have been obtained for 39 stations in Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia by modelling P-wave receiver functions using the H-? stacking method and jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These estimates, combined with similar results from previous studies, have been examined for secular trends in Precambrian crustal structure within the southern African subcontinent. In both Archean and Proterozoic terranes we find similar Moho depths [38-39 ± 3 km SD (standard deviation)], crustal Poisson's ratio (0.26 ± 0.01 SD), mean crustal shear wave velocity (3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1 SD), and amounts of heterogeneity in the thickness of the mafic lower crust, as defined by shear wave velocities ?4.0 km s-1. In addition, the amount of variability in these crustal parameters is similar within each individual age grouping as between age groupings. Thus, the results provide little evidence for secular variation in Precambrian crustal structure, including between Meso- and Neoarchean crust. This finding suggests that (1) continental crustal has been generated by similar processes since the Mesoarchean or (2) plate tectonic processes have reworked and modified the crust through time, erasing variations in structure resulting from crustal genesis.

  4. The Extent and Nature of Fluidity in Typologies of Female Sex Work in Southern India: Implications for HIV Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Saggurti, Niranjan

    2012-01-01

    These authors examine the nature and extent of fluidity in defining the typology of female sex work based on the place of solicitation or place of sex or both places together, and whether sex workers belonging to a particular typology are at increased risk of HIV in southern India. Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted during 2007–2008 among mobile female sex workers (N = 5301) in four Indian states. Findings from this study address an important policy issue: Should programmatic prevention interventions be spread to cover all places of sex work or be focused on a few places that cover a large majority of sex workers? Results indicate that most female sex workers, including those who are usually hard to reach such as those who are mobile or who use homes for soliciting clients or sex, can be reached programmatically multiple times by concentrating on a smaller number of categories, such as street-, lodge-, and brothel-based sex workers. PMID:22745597

  5. Paleoecological and taphonomic implications of insect-damaged pleistocene vertebrate remains from Rancho La Brea, southern California.

    PubMed

    Holden, Anna R; Harris, John M; Timm, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The La Brea Tar Pits, the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into southern California's past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects serve as sensitive and valuable paleoecological and taphonomic indicators. Of the thousands of fossil bird and mammal bones recovered from the Tar Pits, insect trace damage is thus far almost exclusively confined to the foot bones of large herbivores, especially bison, camel, and horse species. Our laboratory experiments with dermestid and tenebrionid beetles establish that the larvae of both consume bone, producing different characteristic feeding traces and providing the first documentation that tenebrionids consume bone. The presence of carcass-exploiting insects in the Rancho La Brea biota provides insight into the taphonomy of the asphaltic bone masses and the environmental conditions under which they accumulated. The succession of dermestids, tenebrionids, and indeterminate traces on many of the foot elements, combined with the climate restrictions and life cycles of these insects, indicate that carcasses could remain unsubmerged for at least 17-20 weeks, thus providing the most reliable estimate to date. Attribution of these traces also suggests that the asphaltic fossils only accumulated during warmer intervals of the Late Pleistocene. Forensic studies need to reevaluate the role of tenebrionids in carcass decomposition and other additional insects that modify bone. PMID:23843988

  6. Formation of cycloidal dust devil tracks by redeposition of coarse sands in southern Peru: Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Dennis; Zimmerman, Michael I.; Lewellen, David C.

    2013-12-01

    Aeolian processes are the most active processes modifying the surface of Mars under present day climatic conditions. Besides wind streak changes and dune and ripple migrations, active dust devils occur frequently leaving numerous tracks on the Martian surface. These dust devil tracks (DDTs) are characterized by albedo changes with respect to their surroundings and are suggested to be caused by erosion of dust exposing coarser grained material. Here we show that DDTs with a cycloidal pattern analyzed in situ in southern Peru are formed by erosion of very coarse sands at the outer margins and its subsequent annular deposition in the central parts of dust devils. Field observations are supported by large-eddy simulations using typical dust devil parameters resembling the cycloidal morphology of the DDTs. Cycloidal DDTs observed on Mars resembling the Peruvian DDTs suggest an equivalent formation mechanism. Our results imply that the formation of DDTs on Mars are not solely due to dust erosion but also depositional processes and dust devils are strong enough to redistribute coarser grained material such as sands; hence they might contribute to the modification of the present day Martian landscape.

  7. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-01-01

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. PMID:26133245

  8. Deposits of the most recent eruption in the Southern Mono Craters, California: Description, interpretation and implications for regional marker tephras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursik, Marcus; Sieh, Kerry; Meltzner, Aron

    2014-04-01

    The penultimate eruption in the Mono Craters, Mono County, CA, USA, occurred in the southern section of the volcanic chain, and is herein named the South Mono eruption. The South Mono eruption occurred in 594-648cal A.D., and its products consist of widespread Plinian and phreatomagmatic fall, surge and pyroclastic flow deposits. The explosive deposits can be broken into Basal, Orange-Brown (surge dominated) and Upper subunits. The eruptive phase represented by the Upper beds was the most intense and voluminous, dispersing tephra over a wide region of eastern CA and western NV. South Coulee was the only effusive product of the eruption, and comprises the vast majority of the c. 0.4 cu km dense-rock equivalent (DRE) volume. The tephra overlies the deposits of Wilson Butte to the south, and is correlated herein with Wood's Tephra 2, and Walker Lake and Turupah Flats regional marker tephra layers. Other dates for these regional tephras may be the result of dating ash redeposited in debris flow events following fire.

  9. Inorganic contaminants from diffuse pollution in shallow groundwater of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy). Implications for geochemical survey.

    PubMed

    Cuoco, E; Darrah, T H; Buono, G; Verrengia, G; De Francesco, S; Eymold, W K; Tedesco, D

    2015-02-01

    The Campanian Plain (CP) shallow aquifer (Southern Italy) represents a natural laboratory to validate geochemical methods for differentiating diffuse anthropogenic pollution from natural water-rock interaction processes. The CP is an appropriate study area because of numerous potential anthropogenic pollution vectors including agriculture, animal husbandry, septic/drainage sewage systems, and industry. In order to evaluate the potential for geochemical methods to differentiate various contamination vectors, 538 groundwater wells from the shallow aquifer in Campanian Plain (CP) were sampled. The dataset includes both major and trace elements. Natural water-rock interactions, which primarily depend on local lithology, control the majority of geochemical parameters, including most of the major and trace elements. Using prospective statistical methods in combination with the traditional geochemical techniques, we determined the chemical variables that are enriched by anthropogenic contamination (i.e. NO3, SO4 and U) by using NO3 as the diagnostic variable for detecting polluted groundwater. Synthetic agricultural fertilizers are responsible for the majority of SO4 and U pollution throughout the CP area. Both SO4 and U are present in the groundmass of synthetic fertilizers; the uranium concentration is specifically applicable as a tracer for non-point source agricultural fertilizer contamination. The recognition of non-geological (anthropogenic) inputs of these elements has to be considered in the geochemical investigations of contaminated aquifers. PMID:25638062

  10. Compositional diversity of Late Cenozoic basalts in a transect across the southern Washington Cascades: Implications for subduction zone magmatism

    SciTech Connect

    Leeman, W.P. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA)); Smith, D.R. (Trinity Univ., San Antonio, TX (USA)); Hildreth, W. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Palacz, Z.; Rogers, N. (Open Univ., Milton Keynes (England))

    1990-11-10

    Major volcanoes of the Southern Washington Cascades (SWC) include the large quaternary stratovolcanoes of Mount St. Helens (MSH) and Mount Adams (MA) and the Indian Heaven (IH) and Simcoe Mountain (SIM) volcanic fields. There are significant differences among these volcanic centers in terms of their composition and evolutionary history. The authors conclude that subducted fluids and sediments do not play an essential role in producing these magmas. Rather, they infer that they formed by variable degree melting of a mixed mantle source consisting mainly of heterogeneously distributed OIB and mid-ocean ridge basalt source domains. Relatively minor occurrences of high field strength element (HFSE) depleted arclike basalts may reflect the presence of a small proportion of slab-metasomatized subarc mantle. The juxtaposition of such different mantle domains within the lithospheric mantle is viewed as a consequence of (1) tectonic mixing associated with accretion of oceanic and island arc terranes along the Pacific margin of North America prior to Neogene time, and possibly (2) a seaward jump in the locus of subduction at about 40 Ma. The Cascades arc is unusual in that the subducting oceanic plate is very young and hot. They suggest that slab dehydration outboard of the volcanic front resulted in a diminished role of aqueous fluids in generating or subsequently modifying SWC magmas compared to the situation at most convergent margins. Furthermore, with low fluid flux conditions, basalt generation is presumably triggered by other processes that increase the temperature of the mantle wedge (e.g., convective mantle flow, shear heating, etc.).

  11. Hillslope response to knickpoint migration in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the evolution of post-orogenic landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wegmann, S.F.G.; Franke, K.L.; Hughes, S.; Lewis, R.Q.; Lyons, N.; Paris, P.; Ross, K.; Bauer, J.B.; Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The southern Appalachians represent a landscape characterized by locally high topographic relief, steep slopes, and frequent mass movement in the absence of significant tectonic forcing for at least the last 200 Ma. The fundamental processes responsible for landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape remain enigmatic. The non-glaciated Cullasaja River basin of south-western North Carolina, with uniform lithology, frequent debris flows, and the availability of high-resolution airborne lidar DEMs, is an ideal natural setting to study landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape through the lens of hillslope-channel coupling. This investigation is limited to channels with upslope contributing areas >2.7 km2, a conservative estimate of the transition from fluvial to debris-flow dominated channel processes. Values of normalized hypsometry, hypsometric integral, and mean slope vs elevation are used for 14 tributary basins and the Cullasaja basin as a whole to characterize landscape evolution following upstream knickpoint migration. Results highlight the existence of a transient spatial relationship between knickpoints present along the fluvial network of the Cullasaja basin and adjacent hillslopes. Metrics of topography (relief, slope gradient) and hillslope activity (landslide frequency) exhibit significant downstream increases below the current position of major knickpoints. The transient effect of knickpoint-driven channel incision on basin hillslopes is captured by measuring the relief, mean slope steepness, and mass movement frequency of tributary basins and comparing these results with the distance from major knickpoints along the Cullasaja River. A conceptual model of area-elevation and slope distributions is presented that may be representative of post-orogenic landscape evolution in analogous geologic settings. Importantly, the model explains how knickpoint migration and channel- hillslope coupling is an important factor in tectonically-inactive (i.e. post-orogenic) orogens for the maintenance of significant relief, steep slopes, and weathering-limited hillslopes. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Geochemical studies of hotspot volcanism in the Southern Pacific and its implications for mantle structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Q.C.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation dedicates to geochemical investigations of hotspot volcanism in the Southern Pacific, by means of detailed, combined major, trace element and isotope studies of individual islands and island/seamount chains. Chapter 2 describes Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic studies of the whole Louisville Seamount Chain (LSC), to investigate long term evolution of hotspot source. Leaching experiments were conducted to study seawater alteration effects on both Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. Chapter 3 studies the Easter Island-Seamount Chain (EISC). Results from this study are most consistent with a hotspot origin for the EISC. Chapter 4 involves detailed geochemical studies of Tahiti, including Teahitia and Mehetia, from Society Islands. Both major and trace element compositions change systematically with time, indicating a progressive decrease in both the extent of partial melting and the amount of plume component. Isotope data are well correlated on the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr vs. {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd diagram, suggesting mixing between two distinct end-members. Secular isotopic variation pattern records volcanic activities on Tahiti, which links geochemical characteristics to mantle processes of hotspot volcanism. A mantle blob model is preferred for island formation. Most existing OIB isotopic data can be explained by mixing of a small amount of sediments with MORB-like sources. These findings provide further geochemical evidence for a subducted slab origin of OIB sources. Chapter 5 synthesizes the author's own data and those from the literature, to evaluate mantle heterogeneities, origin and evolution of hotspot sources, and mantle structure and dynamics.

  13. Variability in New Shortening Estimates from Southern Peru (12-14S); Implications for Mass Balance of the Andean Plateau.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotberg, N.; McQuarrie, N.

    2008-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions of interest with regards to the Andean Plateau is the mass balance of material needed to create and sustain a 3-4 km high plateau. Is crustal shortening sufficient to support an isostatically compensated crust of 60-70km? We present new estimates of shortening across the northern margin of the Andean Plateau. The cross section extent, from the eastern edge of the volcanic arc to foreland basin, is approximately one half of the physiographic width of the Andean Plateau in Peru. Cross sectional shortening estimates in southern Peru (12-14°S) provide a best estimate of 123 km or 40% shortening with an absolute minimum estimate of 86 km or 30% and absolute maximum estimate of 275 km or 60%. We determined the maximum and minimum shortening estimates using the cross sectional area and possible variations in assumptions made about the amount of erosion, detachment dip, involvement of basement thrusts and displacement along faults. The best estimate of shortening is well short of the required 240-300km of shortening needed in order to account for a 60-70km thick crust under the entire plateau. This suggests that for an isostatically equilibrated crust either 1) there is a significant amount of shortening (~150km) in the western half of the plateau which, is hidden by the volcanic arc or 2) crustal material is being added to the Peruvian section of the Andean Plateau either through lower crustal flow or a process of magmatic underplating followed by differentiation and delamination.

  14. Petrography and geochemical characteristics of the sediments of the small River Hemavati, Southern India: Implications for provenance and weathering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensarma, S.; Rajamani, V.; Tripathi, Jayant K.

    2008-04-01

    Small rivers (? 100 km length) are likely to drain fewer rock types. Therefore, their solutes and sediments are good indicators of weathering environments typical of their basins and help constraining the nature of their source rocks. To understand this, the texture, mineralogy, major and trace element compositions of the sediments deposited by the River Hemavati, a northern upland tributary of the Cauvery River in southern India, are analyzed and discussed. The Hemavati sediments are overall of fine sand size (mean 2-3?), and have high concentrations of FeO (? 7 wt.%), TiO 2 (? 1.2 wt.%), Cr (? 350 ppm) and Ni (? 125 ppm). Major and trace element distribution call for a binary source for the sediments, and particularly point to contrasting climatic conditions of their provenances. The source areas in the upstream and downstream parts are exposed to sub-humid high relief and sub-arid low relief conditions, respectively, with distinct weathering characteristics. The CIA values (85-48) decrease from near the source to downstream, suggesting that the downstream rain-shadow part of the catchment suffered only minor chemical weathering. On the other hand, the REE distribution in the Hemavati sediments indicates contrasting lithologies in their provenance, and is not controlled by chemical weathering. On the basis of REE patterns, the sediments are divided into two compositional groups. The Type 1 sediments have a REE chemistry similar to the upper continental crust, and have been derived from the > 3.2 Ga composite peninsular gneisses occurring in the low-lying, semi-arid Mysore Plateau. The Type 2 sediments, however, have dominantly intermediate to mafic granulite contributions from the tectonically uplifted Western Ghats, weathered under sub-humid conditions. High concentrations of FeO, TiO 2, Cr and Ni in the sediments suggest mafic-dominated source lithologies in the upper catchment, a feature also confirmed by field observations and petrographic study.

  15. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  16. Quaternary morphotectonic mapping of the Wadi Araba and implications for the tectonic activity of the southern Dead Sea fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le BéOn, Maryline; Klinger, Yann; MéRiaux, Anne-Sophie; Al-Qaryouti, Mahmoud; Finkel, Robert C.; Mayyas, Omar; Tapponnier, Paul

    2012-10-01

    The Dead Sea strike-slip fault accommodates the northward motion of Arabia relative to Sinai at a rate of ˜5 mm/yr. The southern segment of the fault, the Wadi Araba fault, runs along a valley blanketed in Quaternary sediments. We first focused on understanding the relative and absolute timing of emplacement of the alluvial surfaces. We then determined the probable source of the sediments before assessing their lateral offset to constrain the late Pleistocene fault slip rate. Seven successive morphostratigraphic levels were identified. At two sites, we recognized an alluvial sequence of five to seven successive levels with ages getting younger northward, a pattern consistent with the western block moving southward relative to two fixed feeding channels located to the east. Surface samples were collected for10Be cosmogenic radionuclide dating. Fans F3 and F5 were found to be synchronous from site to site, at 102 ± 26 ka and 324 ± 22 ka, respectively, while F4 could be dated at 163 ± 19 ka at one site only. These are minimum ages, assuming no erosion of the alluvial surfaces. At least two of these periods are correlated with wet periods that are regionally well documented. Further analyses of tectonic offsets are affected in most cases by large uncertainties due to the configuration of the sites. They indicate maximum offsets of ˜5.5 km for the oldest, possibly ˜1 Ma old, surfaces. They lead to bracketing of the fault slip rate between 5 and 12 mm/yr, with preferred values of 5-7 mm/yr, for the last 300 ka.

  17. Site Response and Earthquake Design Spectra for Central Khartoum, Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. E. A. Mohamedzein; J. A. Abdalla; A. Abdelwahab

    2006-01-01

    Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, is located at the confluence of White and Blue Niles. The city is heavily populated. Central\\u000a Khartoum with its high-rise buildings is the center of governmental and business activities and is located on a strip adjacent\\u000a to the Blue Nile. Geological and geotechnical data indicate that the subsoil conditions at Central Khartoum are characterized\\u000a by

  18. The Prevalence of Blinding Trachoma in Northern States of Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Awad Hassan; Jeremiah M. Ngondi; Jonathan D. King; Balgesa E. Elshafie; Ghada Al Ginaid; Mazin Elsanousi; Zeinab Abdalla; Nabil Aziz; Dieudonne Sankara; Victoria Simms; Elizabeth A. Cromwell; Paul M. Emerson; Kamal H. Binnawi

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundDespite historical evidence of blinding trachoma, there have been no widespread contemporary surveys of trachoma prevalence in the northern states of Sudan. We aimed to conduct district-level surveys in this vast region in order to map the extent of the problem and estimate the need for trachoma control interventions to eliminate blinding trachoma.Methods and FindingsSeparate, population based cross-sectional surveys were

  19. Mitochondrial discrimination of honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) of Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mogbel A. A. El-Niweiri; Robin F. A. Moritz

    2008-01-01

    Sudanese honeybee populations are surrounded by a suite of various subspecies with different mitochondrial haplotypes, including\\u000a the O-lineage in the north (Egypt), the Y-lineage in the east (Ethiopia) and the A-lineage in the south and west. Using Dra I analyses and the partial sequence of the tRNAleu COII region of 75 sampled colonies throughout Sudan, we never found the\\u000a Y-lineage

  20. Nasopharyngeal Cancer in Sudan: Epidemiology, Clinical and Histological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Nazik E.; Adam, Ameera A.M.; Khalifa, Eman H.; EL Hassan, Lamyaa A.M.; Ibrahim, M.E.; Hamad, K.M.; El Hassan, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study the epidemiology, clinical features, staging, etiology and pathology of nasopharyngeal cancer in Sudan. Study design: This is a retrospective study. Setting: Ear, Nose and Throat Department Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Khartoum City, Sudan. Subjects and methods: Patients suspected to have nasopharyngeal cancer were assessed during the period March 2004 to May 2010. Data from confirmed cases was obtained; it included clinical and epidemiological information. Results: Three hundred and eighty five cases were studied. Bimodal age distribution of the disease was noted with two peaks, one at 15–19 years and one at 50–54 years. The male to female ratio was 2.6:1 and a distinct geographical distribution of the disease was noted, with clustering of cases in the towns of Dilling, Kadogli and the surrounding rural area of the Nuba Mountains. These areas in the Western States were reported to be of high background radiation due to naturally produced radioactive uranium. The Nuba tribe headed the list among other tribes, demonstrating a clear ethnic predilection. Sixty-eight cases presented at stage IV. There was a predominance of Type II (15.58%) and Type III (65.97%). Patients were treated by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusions: NPC is an important form of cancer in Sudan. Some tribes are significantly more affected than others. Patients present with advanced disease. Environmental and genetic factors need further studies. Screening at risk populations that aim at early diagnosis and management of patients is recommended. PMID:24179400

  1. 3-D Mohr circle construction using vein orientation data from Gadag (southern India) - Implications to recognize fluid pressure fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Tridib Kumar; Mamtani, Manish A.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper orientations of quartz veins from the Archaean age lode-gold bearing region of Gadag (southern India) are used to determine the relative stress and fluid pressure (Pf) conditions by constructing 3-D Mohr circle. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analysis of the host massive metabasalt reveals that the magnetic foliation is NW-SE striking, which is related to early NE-SW compression (D1/D2 deformation) that affected the region. The quartz veins have a wide range of orientations, with NW-SE striking veins (steep northeasterly dips) being the most prominent. Vein emplacement is inferred to have taken place under NW-SE compression that is known to have caused late deformation (D3) in the region. It is argued that the NW-SE fabric defined the pre-existing anisotropy and channelized fluid flow during D3. The permeability was initially low, which resulted in high Pf (>?2). 3-D Mohr circle analysis indicates that the driving pressure ratio (R?) was 0.94, a condition that favoured fracturing and reactivation of fabric elements (foliations and fractures) having a wide range of orientations. This led to an increase in permeability and fluid flowed (burped) into the fractures. Resulting vein emplacement and sealing of fractures led to a reduction of Pf (?2). Thus, it is concluded that the quartz veins in the Gadag region are a consequence of an interplay between conditions that fluctuated from Pf > ?2 to Pf < ?2.

  2. A magnetostratigraphic study of the sediments of the Ridge Basin, southern California and its tectonic and sedimentologic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensley, Ross A.; Verosub, Kenneth L.

    1982-06-01

    A magnetic polarity zonation has been established for the upper Castaic Formation and lower Ridge Route and Peace Valley Formations of the Ridge Basin of the central Transverse Ranges of southern California. The zonation is based on the analysis of over 1900 samples from 669 sites in the 5800 m thick sedimentary sequence. Rock magnetic studies provide evidence that the carrier of the primary remanence is magnetite and that the magnetization was acquired at or shortly after deposition of the sediment. Although many samples contain a secondary, normal overprint, systematic analysis of the changes in direction upon demagnetization leads to an accurate determination of the original polarity. Thirteen polarity intervals are recognized. On the basis of biostratigraphic constraints imposed by a marine invertebrate faunaat the base of the sequence and a terrestrial vertebrate fauna at the top, the magnetic polarity zonation can be correlated to the magnetic polarity time scale. The studied interval extends from the Epoch 5/Epoch 6 boundary to the middle of Epoch 8. Polarity changes within the studied interval represent chronostratigraphic horizons which can be used to analyze tectonic and sedimentologic processes which are recorded in the sediments of the Ridge Basin. The locus of the tectonic activity within the basin has been dated as occurring on the Clearwater fault from 8.1 to 7.8 m.y. ago, on the Liebre faultfrom 7.3 to 6.1 m.y. ago and on the North Liebre fault from 6.0 to 5.0 m.y. ago. During this entire period of time, the San Gabriel fault on the western margin of the basin was continuously active, and a period of particularly vigorous activity has been dated at 7.3 to 7.0 m.y. The mean declinations of samples from the normal magnetozones provide no evidence for the existence of a major rotation of the Ridge Basin subsequent to about 8.5 m.y. ago. Sedimentation rates for interbedded sandstone and shale units within the basin have been separately determined as 0.2 m/1000 years and 3.0 m/1000 years, respectively. The water content of certain deformed structures within the sequence has been determined to have been 35% and 40% at the time of deformation.

  3. Constraining the age of Liuqu Conglomerate, southern Tibet: Implications for tectonic evolution of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Sandiford, M.; Kohn, B.

    2014-12-01

    The depositional age and provenance of the Liuqu Conglomerate (LC), distributed along the Indus-Yarlung suture zone (IYSZ) in South Tibet, remain controversial, leading to different interpretations, such as a Paleogene basin deposited during India-Asia collision (Wang et al., 2010) or the result of the collision between India and an intra-oceanic arc (Aitchison et al., 2007). Here, we report low-temperature thermochronometry data (apatite fission track, apatite and zircon U-Th/He) for the LC in the Xigaze area, to constrain its depositional age, provenance and burial-exhumation history. Five samples from Liuqu yielded consistent AFT ages of ~6-8Ma, and dispersed single-grain AFT ages of six samples range from ~ 140 to 5 Ma, and single grain AFT ages for grains with >0.4 Cl (wt%) content was calculated three age-peaks of ~16.4 ±3.0, 37.3 ± 6.4 and 89.5 ± 22.2 Ma. Four groups of detrital ZHe ages, including 18 scattered single grain ages in the range of ~20 - 107.9 Ma, yielded four age peaks of ~20, 37, 66 and 104 Ma. We interpret the AHe ages of the LC as having been completely thermally reset, while AFT ages have been partially annealed and ZHe ages have not been thermally reset, suggesting that the post-depositional maximum temperature of the LC was > 80 °C and < 110°C. Collectively, our results indicate that the Liuqu Conglomerate was probably deposited in the Early Miocene time, similar to the Qiuwu-Dazhuka conglomerates which are located in the northern part of the IYSZ, as one component of the Gangrinboche Group, and was derived from the Xigaze forearc basin, Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, as well as the Tethyan Himalaya. Furthermore, the Liuqu Conglomerate was exhumed to the surface by post-depositional incision of a tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo river by the Late Miocene time.Aitchison, J. C.; Ali, J. R., and Davis, A. M. 2007, When and where did India and Asia collide?: J. Geophys. Res. v. 112: B05423, doi:10.1029/2006JB004706.Wang, J.G., Hu, X.M., Wu, F.Y., and Jansa, L., 2010, Provenance of the Liuqu Conglomerate in southern Tibet: A Paleogene erosional record of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen: Sedimentary Geology, v. 231, p. 74-84, doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2010.09.004.

  4. Vertical fault mapping within the Gutingkeng Formation of southern Taiwan: implications for sub-aerial mud diapir tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, J. R.; Lee, Y.; Ching, K.

    2012-12-01

    Vertical faults were mapped around the periphery of the mudstone-rich Plio-Pleistocene Gutingkeng Formation (Gtk) in southern Taiwan. The faults are manifested as black colored, penetrating shear bands that intersect bedding planes of the Gtk (shear band dips range from 60 - 90 degrees; shear band thicknesses range from several centimeters to several meters). Thin (1-2cm), friable calcite veins were found locally within the shear bands and often contain weakly developed slickensides. Where available, the sense of shear of these faults show consistent interior upward motion of the Gtk. The Chishan Fault is the southeastern bounding structure of the Gtk and where exposed, near-vertical shear bands were observed with a normal sense of shear (west-side-up). In addition, three exploratory cores drilled in 2010 along the western edge of the hanging wall of the Chishan Fault did not intersect the fault or the Gtk after nearly 200 meters of drilling. This suggests that the main Chishan Fault may not be a typical top-to-the-west reverse fault as previously mapped and does not fit the typical fold and thrust geometry that is prevalent in the western foothills of Taiwan. Instead, we interpret the collective field evidence to suggest that the Chishan Fault is a near vertical structure that is accommodating uplift of the Gtk, similar to mechanism by which sub-aqueous mud diapirs grow. A chain of mud diapirs is located off the southeastern coast of Taiwan and the Gtk may be the onshore extension of this chain. The sub-aerial mud diapir hypothesis is further supported by recent leveling data collected across the Gtk that shows the largest vertical uplift in the region to be centered within the Gtk. Finally, observations at the western end of the Highway 3 tunnel through the Chishan fault and overlying Wushan Formation indicate that there is recent west side (footwall) uplift along the Chishan Fault. The vertical faults mapped within the Gtk are significant for they may provide evidence for a long-term history of vertical tectonics in this region that has shaped the structural geometries and geologic patterns of southwestern Taiwan.

  5. Geophysical exploration of an active pockmark field in the Bay of Concarneau, southern Brittany, and implications for resident suspension feeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, Agnès; Ehrhold, Axel; Rigolet, Carinne; Souron, Aurélie; Cordier, Céline; Clouet, Hélène; Dubois, Stanislas F.

    2014-06-01

    About a decade ago, a large field of pockmarks (individual features up to 30 m in diameter and <2 m deep) was discovered in water depths of 15-40 m in the Bay of Concarneau in southern Brittany along the French Atlantic coast, covering an overall area of 36 km2 and characterised by unusually high pockmark densities in places reaching 2,500 per square kilometre. As revealed by geophysical swath and subbottom profile data ground-truthed by sediment cores collected during two campaigns in 2005 and 2009, the confines of the pockmark field show a spectacular spatial association with those of a vast expanse of tube mats formed by a benthic community of the suspension-feeding amphipod Haploops nirae. The present study complements those findings with subbottom chirp profiles, seabed sonar imagery and ultrasonic backscatter data from the water column acquired in April 2011. Results show that pockmark distribution is influenced by the thickness of Holocene deposits covering an Oligocene palaeo-valley system. Two groups of pockmarks were identified: (1) a group of large (>10 m diameter), more widely scattered pockmarks deeply rooted (up to 8 ms two-way travel time, TWTT) in the Holocene palaeo-valley infills, and (2) a group of smaller, more densely spaced pockmarks shallowly rooted (up to 2 ms TWTT) in interfluve deposits. Pockmark pore water analyses revealed high methane concentrations peaking at ca. 400 ?l/l at 22 and 30 cm core depth in silty sediments immediately above Haploops-bearing layers. Water column data indicate acoustic plumes above pockmarks, implying ongoing pockmark activity. Pockmark gas and/or fluid expulsion resulting in increased turbidity (resuspension of, amongst others, freshly settled phytoplankton) could at least partly account for the strong spatial association with the phytoplankton-feeding H. nirae in the Bay of Concarneau, exacerbating impacts of anthropogenically induced eutrophication and growing offshore trawling activities. Tidally driven hydraulic pumping in gas-charged pockmarks represents a good candidate as large-scale short-term triggering mechanism of pockmark activation, in addition to episodic regional seismic activity.

  6. Volcanic risk and tourism in southern Iceland: Implications for hazard, risk and emergency response education and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Deanne K.; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between volcanic risk and the tourism sector in southern Iceland and the complex challenge emergency management officials face in developing effective volcanic risk mitigation strategies. An early warning system and emergency response procedures were developed for communities surrounding Katla, the volcano underlying the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. However, prior to and during the 2007 tourist season these mitigation efforts were not effectively communicated to stakeholders located in the tourist destination of Þórsmörk despite its location within the hazard zone of Katla. The hazard zone represents the potential extent of a catastrophic jökulhlaup (glacial outburst flood). Furthermore, volcanic risk mitigation efforts in Þórsmörk were based solely on information derived from physical investigations of volcanic hazards. They did not consider the human dimension of risk. In order to address this gap and provide support to current risk mitigation efforts, questionnaire surveys were used to investigate tourists' and tourism employees' hazard knowledge, risk perception, adoption of personal preparedness measures, predicted behaviour if faced with a Katla eruption and views on education. Results indicate that tourists lack hazard knowledge and they do not adopt preparedness measures to deal with the consequences of an eruption. Despite a high level of risk perception, tourism employees lack knowledge about the early warning system and emergency response procedures. Results show that tourists are positive about receiving information concerning Katla and its hazards and therefore, the reticence of tourism employees with respect to disseminating hazard information is unjustified. In order to improve the tourism sector's collective capacity to positively respond during a future eruption, recommendations are made to ensure adequate dissemination of hazard, risk and emergency response information. Most importantly education campaigns should focus on: (a) increasing tourists' knowledge of Katla, jökulhlaup and other volcanic hazards and (b) increasing tourist and employee awareness of the early warning and information system and appropriate behavioural response if a warning is issued. Further, tourism employees should be required to participate in emergency training and evacuation exercises annually. These efforts are timely given that Katla is expected to erupt in the near future and international tourism is an expanding industry in Þórsmörk.

  7. 77 FR 3371 - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section 2005 of the American...in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan are without risk of criminal prosecution...Court (ICC) because the Republic of South Sudan is not a party to the ICC and has not...

  8. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized...United States person to the Government of Sudan is...

  9. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre-existing trade contracts...owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  10. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United...payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts within the...

  11. Guns, Southernness, and gun control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline Gasdow Brennan; Alan J. Lizotte; David McDowall

    1993-01-01

    Southerners have been found to have higher levels of gun ownership than persons who reside elsewhere. This may be due to cultural factors peculiar to the Southern region. If so, this would have interesting implications for gun control initiatives. Although the differential in gun ownership has been linked to varying support or opposition to gun control, the relationship between this

  12. Large Glacitectonic structures on the Dogger Bank, southern North Sea; Implications for glacial dynamics, glacial limits, and interplay between the British and Fennoscandinavian Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, Dayton; Cotterill, Carol; Long, Dave; Ruiter, Astrid; Phillips, Emrys; James, Leo; Forsberg, Carl Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    Recently acquired 2D seismic data (sparker) acquired over the Dogger Bank (DB) reveal large glacitectonic structures associated with late-Pleistocene glacial incursion into the southern North Sea. The densely populated survey data (100m line spacing) collected for the purposes of offshore windfarm development on the DB, allow for pseudo-3D interpretation. The sparker data show discrete thrust faults extending from within ~5 m of the seabed to ~200 m depth, and consistently terminate at one of two décollement surfaces. Preliminary mapping and amplitude extraction maps reveal the thrusts to occur in a series of thrust blocks (5-8 faults), with each set encompassing an area of approximately 6 km along-strike and 2 km at right angles. The overall zone of thrusting is up to 16 x 6 km on the western edge of the DB. The strike of the faults indicates ice-flow from the west. Other deformation structures include: open, recumbent, and fault propagation folds, as well as back thrusts, and pop-up structures. The relief of the DB (dimensions) is entirely accounted for by what has historically been termed the 'DB Formation'. These new data reveal that this seismostratigraphic unit likely consists of deposits from a variety of glacially influenced depositional regimes. The observed thrusts penetrate through the 'DB formation', indicating this phase of intense deformation post-dated the initial construction of the bank. Less pronounced glacial deformation affects much of the rest of the DB, and the products of this deformation (push-moraine complexes?) were possibly integral to the construction of the bank itself. While the style and fabric (NS?) of this deformation is less clear, it is likely there were multiple incursions of glacial ice, from different directions (and sources?), into this area where late-Pleistocene glaciation limits are poorly understood. Several mechanisms for forming such glacitectonic features have been proposed, and the thrust blocks here may have been caused by sub-glacial (gravitational spreading), ice-marginal (push-moraine complex), or pro-glacial (ice-push) processes, or a combination of the three at an oscillating ice-margin. The thrusts appear to have no surface expression, suggesting the topography was removed either by late-stage glacial erosion or Holocene marine transgression. Work to date on the paleoenvironmental implications of the data has been preliminary. The exact style, pattern, and timing glacial deformation (and associated sedimentation) on the Dogger Bank and circum-southern North Sea, and glacial history of the region, will be the focus of a Ph.D studentship which commenced Sept. 2012.

  13. Tectono-thermal History of the Southern Nenana Basin, Interior Alaska: Implications for Conventional and Unconventional Hydrocarbon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, N. C.; Hanks, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Tertiary Nenana basin of Interior Alaska is currently the focus of both new oil exploration and coalbed methane exploitation and is being evaluated as a potential CO2sequestration site. The basin first formed as a Late Paleocene extensional rift with the deposition of oil and gas-prone, coal-bearing non-marine sediments with excellent source potential. Basin inversion during the Early Eocene-Early Oligocene times resulted in folding and erosion of higher stratigraphic levels, forming excellent structural and stratigraphic traps. Initiation of active faulting on its eastern margin in the middle Oligocene caused slow tectonic subsidence that resulted in the deposition of reservoir and seal rocks of the Usibelli Group. Onset of rapid tectonic subsidence in Pliocene that continues to the present-day has provided significant pressure and temperature gradient for the source rocks. Apatite fission-track and vitrinite reflectance data reveals two major paleo-thermal episodes: Late Paleocene to Early Eocene (60 Ma to 54.8 Ma) and Late Miocene to present-day (7 Ma to present). These episodes of maximum paleotemperatures have implications for the evolution of source rock maturity within the basin. In this study, we are also investigating the potential for coalbed methane production from the Late Paleocene coals via injection of CO2. Our preliminary analyses demonstrate that 150 MMSCF of methane could be produced while 33000 tonnes of CO2 per injection well (base case of ~9 years) can be sequestered in the vicinity of existing infrastructure. However, these volumes of sequestered CO2and coal bed methane recovery are estimates and are sensitive to the reservoir's geomechanical and flow properties. Keywords: extensional rift, seismic, subsidence, thermal history, fission track, vitrinite reflectance, coal bed methane, Nenana basin, CO2 sequestration

  14. Compositional diversity of Late Cenozoic basalts in a transect across the southern Washington Cascades: Implications for subduction zone magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeman, William P.; Smith, Diane R.; Hildreth, Wes; Palacz, Zen; Rogers, Nick

    1990-11-01

    Major volcanoes of the Southern Washington Cascades (SWC) include the large Quaternary stratovolcanoes of Mount St. Helens (MSH) and Mount Adams (MA) and the Indian Heaven (IH) and Simcoe Mountain (SIM) volcanic fields. There are significant differences among these volcanic centers in terms of their composition and evolutionary history. The stratovolcanoes consist largely of andesitic to dacitic lavas and pyroclastics with minor basalt flows. IH consists dominantly of basaltic with minor andesite lavas, all erupted from monogenetic rift and cinder cone vents. SIM has a poorly exposed andesite to rhyolite core but mainly consists of basaltic lavas erupted from numerous widely dispersed vents; it has the morphology of a shield volcano. Distribution of mafic lavas across the SWC is related to north-northwest trending faults and fissure zones that indicate a significant component of east-west extension within the area. There is overlap in eruptive history for the areas studied, but it appears that peak activity was progressively older (MSH (<40 Ka), IH (mostly <0.5 Ma), MA (<0.5 Ma), SIM (1-4 Ma)) and more alkalic toward the east. A variety of compositionally distinct mafic magma types has been identified in the SWC, including low large ion lithophile element (LILE) tholeiitic basalts, moderate LILE calcalkalic basalts, basalts transitional between these two, LILE-enriched mildly alkalic basalts, and basaltic andesites. Compositional diversity among basaltic lavas, both within individual centers as well as across the arc, is an important characteristic of the SWC traverse. The fact that the basaltic magmas either show no correlation between isotopic and trace element components or show trends quite distinct from those of the associated evolved lavas, suggests that their compositional variability is attributable to subcrustal processes. Both the primitive nature of the erupted basalts and the fact that they are relatively common in the SWC sector also imply that such magmas had little residence time in the crust. A majority of the SWC basaltic samples studies are indistinguishable from oceanic island basalts (OIB) in terms of trace element and isotopic compositions, and more importantly, most do not display the typical high field strength element (HFSE) depletion seen in subduction-related magmas in volcanic arcs elsewhere. LILE enrichment and HRSE depletion characteristics of most arc magmas are generally attributed to the role of fluids released by dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere and to the effects of sediment subduction. Because most SWC basalts lack these compositional features, we conclude that subducted fluids and sediments do not play an essential role in producing these magmas. Rather, we infer that they formed by variable degree melting of a mixed mantle source consisting mainly of heterogeneously distributed OIB and mid-ocean ridge basalt source domains. Relatively minor occurrences of HFSE-depleted arclike basalts may reflect the presence of a small proportion of slab-metasomatized subarc mantle. The juxtaposition of such different mantle domains within the lithospheric mantle is viewed as a consequence of (1) tectonic mixing associated with accretion of oceanic and island arc terranes along the Pacific margin of North America prior to Neogene time, and possibly (2) a seaward jump in the locus of subduction at about 40 Ma. The Cascades arc is unusual in that the subducting oceanic plate is very young and hot. We suggest that slab dehydration outboard of the volcanic front resulted in a diminished role of aqueous fluids in generating or subsequently modifying SWC magmas compared to the situation at most convergent margins. Furthermore, with low fluid flux conditions, basalt generation is presumably triggered by other processes that increase the temperature of the mantle wedge (e.g., convective mantle flow, shear heating, etc.).

  15. Paleoclimatic implications (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene) from micromorphology of calcretes, palustrine limestones and silcretes, southern Paraná Basin, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tófalo, Ofelia R.; Pazos, Pablo J.

    2010-04-01

    Sedimentologic and petrographic analyses of outcroping and subsurface calcretes, palustrine carbonates, and silcretes were carried out in the southern Paraná Basin (Uruguay). The aim of this work is to describe the microfabric and interpret the genesis of these rocks through detailed analyses, since they contain significant paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution information. The main calcrete and silcrete host rock (Mercedes Formation) is represented by a fluvial thinning upward succession of conglomerate and sandstone deposits, with isolated pelitic intervals and paleosoils. Most of the studied calcretes are macroscopically massive with micromorphological features of alpha fabric, originated by displacive growth of calcite in the host clastic material due to evaporation, evapotranspiration and degassing. Micromorphologically, calcretes indicate an origin in the vadose and phreatic diagenetic environments. Micrite is the principal component, and speaks of rapid precipitation in the vadose zone from supersaturated solutions. The abundance of microsparite and secondary sparite is regarded as the result of dissolution and reprecipitation processes. Although present, brecciated calcretes are less common. They are frequent in vadose diagenetic environments, where the alternation between cementation and non-tectonic fracturing conditions take place. These processes generated episodes of fragmentation, brecciation and cementation. Fissures are filled with clear primary sparitic calcite, formed by precipitation of extremely supersaturated solutions in a phreatic diagenetic environment. The micromorphological characteristics indicate that calcretes resulted from carbonate precipitation in the upper part of the groundwater table and the vadose zone, continuously nourished by lateral migration of groundwater. The scarcity of biogenic structures suggests that they were either formed in zones of little biological activity or that the overimposed processes related to water table fluctuations produced intense recrystallization completely obliterating the biogenic fabric. Limestone beds containing terrestrial gastropods are geographically restricted. Situated at the top of the calcrete successions, they exhibit brecciated and peloidal-intraclastic textures but lack lamination, edaphic structures, aggregates and vertical rhizoliths. This indicates they correspond to low-energy palustrine deposits, generated in shallow, local and ephemeral ponds developed in topographic depressions. When water table levels dropped, the palustrine deposits were exposed. This favours the presence of terrestrial gastropods, seeds and insect nests. The combination of calcretes and palustrine carbonates indicates periods and areas with a reduced clastic input and a predominantly semiarid climate, with well-defined humid and dry seasons. Characteristics of the later developed massive and nodular horizons of silcretes, such as, preservation of the internal structure of the host rock, the small areal extent, the formation of massive lenses, the complex pore infillings and the lack of a columnar upper section, indicate that they were generated from groundwaters. Every silcretized horizon shows different positions of the groundwater table and relates to the dissection of landscape. The age of calcretization and silcretization is bracketed between the Late Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) and the Early Eocene. Paleoclimate indicates changing conditions from warm and humid at the end of the Cretaceous (Mercedes Formation) to semiarid and seasonal during Paleocene (groundwater calcretes and palustrine deposits) and subtropical and seasonal in the early Eocene (Asencio Formation).

  16. Bribery and Identity: Evidence from Sudan Alexander Hamilton and John Hudson

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    -social to non-group members (Hogg and Vaughan, 2005). Spears (2011) argues that social identity theory describes1 Bribery and Identity: Evidence from Sudan Alexander Hamilton and John Hudson No. 30/14 BATH ECONOMICS RESEARCH PAPERS Department of Economics #12;2 Bribery and Identity: Evidence from Sudan Alexander

  17. 77 FR 3369 - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961...as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Republic of South Sudan will...

  18. The Birth of a Nation Is Only the Beginning: The Travails of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Just three years since it broke away from Sudan, the new country of South Sudan is embroiled in a violent civil war. This article examines what went wrong and why, by discussing the incredible difficulty of building a new nation from scratch following years of conflict, war, suspicion, and great expectations. How this tragedy will end is…

  19. Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy making via gameplay. It…

  20. Do free-of-charge public health services impede cost recovery policies in Khartoum state, Sudan?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Do free-of-charge public health services impede cost recovery policies in Khartoum state, Sudan? K to a valued social service. In Sudan, the issue of the cost recovery policies at public health facilities in 2001 to analyse the characteristics of those who receive free public health services and to ascertain

  1. 78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to South Sudan, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

  2. ELEMENTAL UPTAKE BY SORGHUM SUDAN GRASS FROM A FLUE GAS DESULPHURIZATION WASTE AMENDED SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to assess the effect of flue gas desulphurization (FGDW) waste on elemental uptake by sorghum sudan grass (Sorghum sundensis L.). Unweathered FGDW was applied to an Ogeechee loamy soil (Typic Paleudult) at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% by weight. The sorghum-sudan grass was ...

  3. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury...538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the importation into...

  4. Environmental determinants of the distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elnaiem, D A; Connor, S J; Thomson, M C; Hassan, M M; Hassan, H K; Aboud, M A; Ashford, R W

    1998-12-01

    Despite its importance as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan, the ecology of Phlebotomus orientalis is still poorly understood. The results of a ground-based survey and a geographical-information-system (GIS) study, carried out to investigate the environmental determinants of the distribution of P. orientalis in the wooded areas of the central savannah belt of Sudan, are described here. The survey, carried out in April-June 1996, consisted of a collection of sandflies over two consecutive nights at each of 44 study sites, using three CDC, miniature, light traps at each site. During the survey, the ecology of each site was described. Phlebotomus orientalis was caught at 17 of the sites. Environmental data on the collection sites (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures, soil class, vegetation and land-surface-temperature indices) were extracted from a range of sources of digital data collected by satellites in the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's series. These data were then analysed, to ascertain which variables were significantly associated with sites positive for P. orientalis. In line with the results of previous studies, P. orientalis was found to have a significant association with the presence of the tree species Acacia seyal and Balanites aegyptiaca and with the black cotton (vertisolic) soils of eastern Sudan. The positive sites were found to have significantly higher annual mean maximum and minimum daily temperatures than the negative sites and the annual mean maximum normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) value was also found to be significantly higher in these sites than in sites where no P. orientalis were found. PMID:10396348

  5. New insights into the origin of the subduction component in Late Oligocene magmatism in the Ronda peridotite (southern Spain): geodynamic implications for the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Károly; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Several tectonic scenarios have been proposed for the Tertiary evolution of the Betic-Rif chain in the westernmost Mediterranean. Recent studies on late, mantle-derived Cr-rich websterite dykes in the Ronda peridotite have revealed recycling the involvement of sources of continental detrital sediments in the waning magmatic stage of the Ronda peridotite (Marchesi et al., 2012). This new data are consistent with a subduction-related setting for the late evolution of the Alboran lithospheric mantle before its final intracrustal emplacement in the early Miocene (Garrido et al., 2011). Detailed structural studies of Ronda plagioclase peridotites show that large-scale, ductile folding of peridotites-associated to the development of LT-LP plagioclase peridotite tectonites and ultramylonites-occurred during a contractional event before intracrustal emplacement of peridotites (Hidas et al., 2013). These authors have proposed that this event was related to inversion of a back-arc basin, followed by failed subduction initiation that ended into the intracrustal emplacement of peridotite into the Alboran wedge. This new structural data leads us to hypothesize that the crustal component observed in late, Cr-rich websterite might come from fluids produced by dehydration of underthrusted crustal units in the earliest stages of subduction initiation. Here we present new trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data in whole rocks from Flysch sediments from the Betic cordillera and the underlying crustal units of the Ronda massif, which may account for the timing and geochemical signature of the Ronda Cr-rich pyroxenites dykes. These units correspond to the Flysch trough composed of turbiditic deposits, formed in the region between Iberia and Africa during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, and the underlying crustal unit of the Ronda peridotite known as the Blanca unit. These new data are used to constrain the potential role of different crustal sources in the generation of the Late Oligocene subduction-related magmatism in the Ronda peridotite, and its implications for geodynamic models of the western Mediterranean in the Cenozoic. REFERENCES Garrido, C. J., F. Gueydan, G. Booth-Rea, J. Precigout, K. Hidas, J. A. Padrón-Navarta, and Marchesi C. . (2011) Garnet lherzolite and garnet-spinel mylonite in the Ronda peridotite: Vestiges of Oligocene backarc mantle lithospheric extension in the western Mediterranean, Geology, 39(10), 927-930. Hidas, K., Booth-Rea, G, Garrido, C. J., Martínez-Martínez, J. M., Padrón-Navarta, J. A., Konc, Z., Giaconia, F., Frets, E., and Marchesi, C. (2013) . Backarc basin inversion and subcontinental mantle emplacement in the crust: kilometre-scale folding and shearing at the base of the proto-Alborán lithospheric mantle (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain): Journal of the Geological Society, London. Marchesi, C., Garrido, C. J., Bosch, D., Bodinier, J.-L., Hidas, K., Padrón-Navarta, J. A., and Gervilla, F. (2012) A Late Oligocene Suprasubduction Setting in the Westernmost Mediterranean Revealed by Intrusive Pyroxenite Dikes in the Ronda Peridotite (Southern Spain): The Journal of Geology, 120 (2), 237-247.

  6. Palliative care for cancer patients in Sudan: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Gafer, Nahla; Elhaj, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Sudan is facing an increasing number of cancer patients every year, and cancer is now among the top ten killer diseases in the country. The majority of cancer patients are diagnosed with an advanced type of cancer where curative treatment has little, if any, effect. The need for palliative care (PC) is urgent. In spite of this, there is no established programme for comprehensive cancer control in the country. In this article we review the state of PC services available for cancer patients. A PC service started in 2010 as an outpatient service at the main oncology centre in Sudan. With the help of international bodies, several training activities in PC were held. Currently the service includes an outpatient clinic, a nine-bed ward, and a limited home-care service. PC has started to reach two other hospitals in the country. Unfortunately, the need is still great; the services provided are not fully supported by the hospital administration. And even now, thousands of patients outside the cities of Khartoum and Medani have no access to oral morphine. PMID:25624872

  7. A climate distribution model of malaria transmission in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Musa, Mohammed I; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Hashim, Nor R; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy

    2012-11-01

    Malaria remains a major health problem in Sudan. With a population exceeding 39 million, there are around 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year. The predicted distribution of malaria derived from climate factors such as maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity was compared with the actual number of malaria cases in Sudan for the period 2004 to 2010. The predictive calculations were done by fuzzy logic suitability (FLS) applied to the numerical distribution of malaria transmission based on the life cycle characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito accounting for the impact of climate factors on malaria transmission. This information is visualized as a series of maps (presented in video format) using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach. The climate factors were found to be suitable for malaria transmission in the period of May to October, whereas the actual case rates of malaria were high from June to November indicating a positive correlation. While comparisons between the prediction model for June and the case rate model for July did not show a high degree of association (18%), the results later in the year were better, reaching the highest level (55%) for October prediction and November case rate. PMID:23242678

  8. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01...Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended...

  9. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01...Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services intended...

  10. The first report on the prevalence of pestivirus infection in camels in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Intisar, Kamil Saeed; Ali, Yahia H; Khalafalla, Abdelmelik I; Mahasin, E A Rahman; Amin, Adil S; Taha, Khalid M

    2010-08-01

    The role of pestivirus particularly bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in causing respiratory infections in camels was studied in four different localities in Sudan. The evaluation was carried out using ELISA, and positive specimens were further tested using direct fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for confirmation. The overall detected seroprevalence of BVD in camel sera was 84.6% with the highest prevalence in Western Sudan (92.5%) and with most of positives showing 2+ and 3+ titer. Out of 186 lung specimens examined for BVDV antigen, 13 were found positive (7%) with the highest prevalence in Central Sudan. All ELISA-positive specimens were positive using FAT and RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the detection of BVDV antigen and antibodies in camels in Sudan. PMID:20376559

  11. Humanitarian crisis continues to grow in the Sudan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This week the already grave situation in the western region of the Sudan (known as Darfur) continued to grow even worse, as the United Nations called for a larger international monitoring force to quell attacks on civilians by members of the Arab militia in the country. In a report made to the U.N. Security Council this week, Secretary-General Kofi Annan remarked that such a monitoring force was necessary in order to help "decrease the level of violence and enhance the protection of the civilian population". The origins of the crisis date back to February 2003 when two African rebel factions brought arms in order to protest alleged discrimination by the largely Arab-dominated government located in the nation's capital at Khartoum. The tension has complex roots, but some of the problems are centered around disputes dealing with land and grazing rights between the nomadic Arabs in the region and farmers from the Fur, Massaleet and Zagawa ethnic groups. Since the conflict started last year, close to one million people have fled their homes and approximately 50,000 people have been killed.The first link will take visitors to a news article from the Guardian that offers a report on the recent call from the United Nations to increase the international monitoring force in the Sudan. The second link leads to a news brief from the U.N. News Centre that talks about the precarious situation of those displaced residents of the Darfur region. The third link provided by the BBC answers a host of questions about the current situation in the Darfur region, including helpful background information about the various groups involved. The fourth link leads to the homepage of the Sudanese Media Centre, where visitors may find editorial pieces, browse through special reports, and read their various press releases. The fifth link leads to an informative report from June 2004 prepared for the House of Commons in the British Parliament on the conflict in Darfur. The final link will take visitors to the transcript of a recent interview conducted by the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs with Al Zhawi Ibrahim, who serves as the Minister for Information and Communications for the Sudan. In the interview, he speaks about the postwar challenges that will face the country, and of course, the situation in Darfur.

  12. The Use of Sudan Grass Pastures and Other Feeds for Beef Production. 

    E-print Network

    Jones, John H.

    1941-01-01

    concentrate supplements while fleshy yearling steers made much smaller gains. Cottonseed cake, ground ear corn, mixtures of concentrate feeds, and cane molasses were self-fed to yearling steers while on sudan pasture without ill effect from scouring... or going "off feed." It was possible to market creditably finished yearling steers directly from the sudan fields by self-feeding cottonseed cake or ground ear corn with the grazing; however, carcasses of steers so fed showed yellow color of external...

  13. Diagnosis of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in horses in Sudan using ELISA and PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. O. M. Salim; S. M. Hassan; M. A. Bakheit; A. Alhassan; I. Igarashi; P. Karanis; M. B. Abdelrahman

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Sudan. The presence of antibodies against\\u000a Babesia caballi and Theileria equi was determined in serum samples obtained from 158 horses raised in different locations in Sudan by enzyme-linked immunosorbent\\u000a assay (ELISA). The B. caballi 48-kDa and the T. equi EMA-2 purified recombinant proteins were used as

  14. Nairobi fly (Paederus) dermatitis in South Sudan: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Walton, Emily K

    2012-09-01

    A 28-year-old nursing student working in Juba, South Sudan, suddenly developed a rash over her mid-right clavicle. Beginning as a 10-cm-diameter erythematous patch with an irregular border, within 24 hours it had developed an increasingly gray, necrotic center, appearing similar to a burn. The patient was seen by 2 local physicians without a diagnosis being made. Ultimately, it was diagnosed as being caused by the toxic hemolymph, pederin, from the Nairobi fly (Paederus). The rash usually affects body parts not covered by clothing; healing time ranges from 7 to 28 days, usually with permanent skin discoloration. Preventive measures include typical antivector precautions, including bed nets, long-sleeve clothing, and avoiding fluorescent lights. If the beetles are found on the skin, brushing them off, rather than crushing them, avoids producing dermatitis. Treatment includes rapidly washing the affected area, applying cold, wet compresses, and possibly treating with antibiotics, steroids, and antihistamines. PMID:22683362

  15. Tectonostratigraphic development of the Interior Sudan rifts, Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHargue, Tim R.; Heidrick, Tom L.; Livingston, Jack E.

    1992-10-01

    In the Muglad, Melut and Blue Nile rift basins of Interior Sudan three major episodes of rifting, concomitant subsidence and nonmarine/nonvolcanic sedimentation are recognized. These three rifting cycles, which spanned 140 to 95 Ma (Fl), 95 to 65 Ma (F2), and 65 to 30 Ma (F3), resulted in the accumulation of up to 5400, 4200 and 5400 m of sediments, respectively. In the Muglad Basin, the best known and largest of the Sudan rift basins, each rifting cycle consists of (1) a basal sandstone unit (at least near rift margins), that is followed by (2) an upward coarsening section of lacustrine shale grading through marginal lacustrine mudstone and sandstone into fluvial mudstone and sandstone, and (3) a capping blanket of fluvial and alluvial sandstone. The shale-dominated portions of these cycles were deposited in a closed-drainage basin during active faulting. The fluvial and alluvial blanket sands were deposited in an open-drainage basin during the thermal sag phase following each tectonic cycle. The Early Cretaceous F1 intracontinental rifts of Interior Sudan were linked to major rifts/spreading centres in the Proto-South Atlantic by the dextral WSW-trending Central African Shear Zone and to the Indian Ocean via the NW-trending Anza rift in Kenya. In the Muglad Basin, F1 deformation involved high strain rates, rapid syn-rift crustal stretching and subsidence, and the formation of deep, fault-bounded tensional and transtensional pull-apart basins. During the F2 and F3 deformations, the rates of subsidence and stretching were much lower and were focused within smaller geographic areas. Structural elements include asymmetric half-grabens and less common full-grabens with central highs. The three superimposed tectonic episodes resulted in the subsidence of NNW- to NW-trending rift sub-basins; this gave rise to a wide variety of normal fault geometries, displacements, and growth histories. Planar domino-style and listric normal F1 fault arrays are modeled. The rotated F1 basement blocks typically are asymmetric and low-standing, and favour NE-directed growth and material transport. The F2 and F3 normal faults, which have both NE- and SW-directed polarities, often are listric and decouple younger syn-rift strata from older F1 rotated and locked planar basement faults. Palinspastic restorations and forward modeling of three regional cross-sections suggest that F1 faults account for 65-80% of total crustal extension. Stretching factors across the Interior Sudan rifts vary between 1.25 and 1.40. This range is considered to be a minimum since restored sections do not cross F3 depocenters. Total crustal extension across the Muglad plus the Melut rift basins exceeds 75 km.

  16. The Impact of Conflict on Forests in South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, V.; Kasischke, E. S.; Dempewolf, J.; Loboda, T. V.; Geores, M.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of armed conflict on ecosystems are complex and difficult to assess due to restricted access to affected areas making satellite remote sensing a useful tool for studying direct and indirect effects of conflict on the landscape. The Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) in South Sudan together with the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) in Northern Uganda share a boundary and encompass a biologically diverse montane ecosystem. This study used satellite data combined with general human population trends to examine the impact of armed conflict and its outcome on similar forest ecosystems both during and after hostilities. A Disturbance Index (DI) was used to investigate the location and extent of forest cover loss and gain in three areas for two key time periods. Results indicate that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the ICFR. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by some gains in forest cover. Discussions with local inhabitants confirmed these findings and provided further insights into the underlying causes impacting forest cover and wildlife. South Sudan is the latest nation to join the Global Environment Facility (GEF). While the GEF does not explicitly address conflict, many of the projects it supports occur in conflict and post-conflict zones with wide-ranging repercussions for both people and the environment. In an effort to assess best practices for working in conflict and post-conflict areas, the GEF Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will undertake an analysis of GEF-funded projects over the last two decades to identify where the GEF has promoted cooperation between groups and states, and/or made a positive contribution toward conflict avoidance resulting in shared environmental benefits.

  17. a Regional Study of Seasonal Rainfall Conditions in the Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Seed, Abdel Malik Gasm

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis is primarily a regional climatological study of some spatial and temporal rainfall characteristics, with a special emphasis being made on quantitative analysis of the wet season rains over the Sudan. The study area has been objectively classified into five main "rainfall regions" on the basis of wet season duration and timing at 60 observing stations. Also a regionalisation derived from two multivariate techniques is compared and critically discussed. The spatial distributions of mean wet and dry season rainfall over individual regions, are described and explained by reference to the main weather systems and topographic features using the method of trend surface analysis. Rainfall variability has been quantified by the coefficient of variation index and analysed in a similar way to that of rainfall distribution. The results have shown an inverse relationship between variability indices and mean rainfall amounts. In relation to the study of variability, an assessment of rainfall probability and reliability has been discussed with reference to certain critical rainfall amounts and by applying the concept of binomial frequency distribution for critical time periods. The spatial distribution of mean rain days tends to portray a similar pattern to that of the mean rainfall. This apparent relationship is confirmed by the highly significant correlation coefficients between the two parameters. The relation between mean rainfall and daily rainfall intensity is not always a direct one, since wetter areas are mostly associated with increased frequency of rain days rather than greater rainfall intensities. Daily rainfall analysis has also revealed that the probability distributions of wet and dry spells of various sequence lengths can be mathematically derived from a Markov chain model and these were found to fit the actual daily data closely. Finally, the contributions of various atmospheric factors to the rainfall amounts are determined by applying multiple regression analysis. The provision of partial regression equations also permits an estimate of rainfall with a reasonable degree of accuracy for any place in the Sudan.

  18. Ignimbrite flare-up and deformation in the southern Sierra Madre Occidental, western Mexico: Implications for the late subduction history of the Farallon plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Ferrari; Margarita López-Martínez; José Rosas-Elguera

    2002-01-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) of western Mexico is one of the largest silicic volcanic provinces on Earth, but the mechanism for the generation of such a large volume of ignimbrites has never been clearly defined. We present new 40Ar\\/39Ar ages, geologic mapping, and structural data for the southern part of the SMO demonstrating that most of this volcanic province

  19. Plio-Pleistocene intra-plate magmatism from the southern Sulu Arc, Semporna peninsula, Sabah, Borneo: Implications for high-Nb basalt in subduction zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin G. Macpherson; Kai Kim Chiang; Robert Hall; Geoff M. Nowell; Paterno R. Castillo; Matthew F. Thirlwall

    2010-01-01

    New analyses of major and trace element concentrations and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios are presented for Plio-Pleistocene basalts and basaltic andesites from the Semporna peninsula in Sabah, Borneo, at the southern end of the Sulu Arc. Depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE), which is characteristic of many subduction-related magmatic suites, is present in more evolved Semporna rocks

  20. The development and demise of a Medieval forest-meadow system at Linnaeus' birthplace in southern Sweden: implications for conservation and forest history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matts Lindbladh; Richard Bradshaw

    1995-01-01

    The rapid industrialisation of agriculture and forestry during the last century has contributed to a transformation of the forested landscape in southern Sweden. Palaeoecological investigation revealed how the Medieval forest-meadow system was created about 900 years ago from a deciduous forest type that had been rather stable for the previous 3000 years. The study site was a forest hollow close

  1. International Aid as Informal Educator: Exploring Political Attitudes and Engagement in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagen, Christine Mary

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship has isolated internal economic conditions and political institutions as essential factors in political development and democracy-building, this research suggests that external influences are at play. During times of civil war and post-conflict reconstruction, governmental and socioeconomic structures are likely weak or nonexistent, and…

  2. Education in Emergencies and Early Reconstruction: UNICEF Interventions in Colombia, Liberia, and Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beleli, Ozsel; Chang, Victoria; Feigelson, Michael J.; Kopel-Bailey, Jules A.; Maak, Sheila A.; Mnookin, Jacob P.; Nguyen, Thu H.; Salazar, Mariana; Sinderbrand, Joy E.; Tafoya, Simon N.

    2007-01-01

    Broad access to quality, child-friendly education in emergencies is a critical component of early reconstruction and development. As a class of graduate students at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, our goal is to make a modest contribution to the field of education in emergencies by working…

  3. A DERMATOPHILOSIS OUTBREAK IN SOUTHERN SUDAN TREATMENT TRIAL WITH TERRAMYCINE LONG ACTIVITY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    multimorphic life cycle. The epidemiology and the pathogenesis of the disease are still poorly understood. In many parts of Africa, there is a well-marked seasonal variation in the disease incidence (Chodnick 1956). Derma- tophilosis is a « Rainy season disease», moisture enhances transmission of infection. Ticks

  4. The epidemiology of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in southern Sudan

    E-print Network

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona E; Ole-Sempele, Francis; Onsarigo, Alice; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul M

    2007-08-28

    -turned lashes (TT), and the cornea was then inspected for corneal opacities (CO), and the lens examined for cataract. TT was defined as the presence of at least one eyelash touching the eyeball or evidence of epilation of eyelashes; CO was defined as easily... with trichiasis. It is possible that some individuals develop trachomatous CO and vision loss without trichiasis, or CO develops first followed by trichiasis [22]. In addition, some people with few inturned lashes effectively epilate the offending lashes making...

  5. 78 FR 68499 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ...Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Aso Known as Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan Also Known as Vanguards for the Protection...Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a Foreign Terrorist Organization...

  6. 78 FR 68500 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ...Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Also Known as Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan Also Known as Vanguards for the Protection...Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a Specially Designated Global...

  7. Early Permian post-collisional high-K granitoids from Liuyuan area in southern Beishan orogen, NW China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shan; Wilde, Simon A.; Wang, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Early Permian magmatism is one of the most important tectonothermal events in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Early Permian granitic magmatism has been recognized from southern Beishan, NW China and they were emplaced between 275 Ma and 279 Ma according to LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating. They are mainly metaluminous I-type and belong to the high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic series. The granitoids have calc-alkalic and alkali-calcic features. Their Sri values range from 0.7028 to 0.7047, ?Nd(t) values from - 2.5 to + 1.2 with Nd model ages (TDM) of 1.06-1.25 Ga, suggesting a mixed magma source of juvenile material with old continental crust. Furthermore, some granitoids have weak heterogeneous zircon ?Hf(t) values (- 1.7 to + 9.6) and Hf model ages (TDM2 = 0.84-1.57 Ga) that are also indicative of juvenile components with a small involvement of old continental crust. Based on geochemical and isotopic features, these high-K granitoids were derived from melting of heterogeneous crustal sources or through mixing of old continental crust with juvenile components and minor AFC (assimilation and fractional crystallization). The juvenile components probably originated from underplated basaltic magmas in response to asthenospheric upwelling. These Early Permian high-K calc-alkaline granitoids in the southern Beishan orogen were probably emplaced in a post-collisional extensional setting and suggest vertical continental crustal growth in the southern CAOB, which is the same or similar to most granitoids in CAOB. This study provides new evidence for determining the post-accretionary evolution of the southern CAOB.

  8. Evidence for late-paleozoic brine migration in Cambrian carbonate rocks of the central and southern Appalachians: implications for Mississippi Valley-type sulfide mineralization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. Jr Hearn; J. F. Sutter; H. E. Belkin

    1987-01-01

    Many Lower Paleozoic limestones and dolostones in the Valley and Ridge province of the central and southern Appalachians contain 10 to 25 weight percent authigenic potassium feldspar. This was considered to be a product of early diagenesis, however, ⁴°Ar\\/³⁹Ar analyses of overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar in Cambrian carbonate rocks from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee yield Late Carboniferous-Early Permian ages

  9. Climatic implications of ? 13 C and ? 18 O ratios from C3 and C4 plants growing in a tropical montane habitat in southern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geeta Rajagopalan; R. Ramesh; R. Sukumar

    1999-01-01

    The stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in cellulose of C3 and C4 plants growing on the surface of a montane peat bog\\u000a in the Nilgiri hills, southern India, were measured. The mean monthly ?13C values in cellulose of both C3 and C4 plants are found to be significantly related to rainfall, while the ?18O values are sensitive to changes

  10. Monazite dating of granitic gneisses and leucogranites from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: implications for Late Proterozoic crustal evolution in East Gondwana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingo Braun; Michael Bröcker

    2004-01-01

    Two stages of granitic magmatism occurred during the Pan-African evolution of the Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) in southern India. Granitic gneisses were derived from porphyritic granites, which intruded prior to the main stage of deformation and peak-metamorphism. Subsequently, leucogranites and leucotonalites formed during fluid-absent melting and intruded the gneiss sequences. Monazites from granitic gneisses, leucogranites and a leucotonalite were investigated

  11. Structural-metamorphic evolution of the Southern Yenisey Range of Eastern Siberia: implications for the emplacement of the Kanskiy granulite Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Smit; D. D. Van Reenen; T. V. Gerya; D. A. Varlamov; A. V. Fed’kin

    2000-01-01

    Summary  ¶The Southern Yenisey Range of Eastern Siberia consists of the granulite facies Kanskiy Complex bordered in the west by the\\u000a lower-grade Yeniseyskiy and Yukseevskiy Complexes. Three deformational events were recognized in each of the three complexes\\u000a along the Yenisey River cross-section: a D1 fabric forming event, a D2 shear and folding event, and a D3 shear event. Thrust\\u000a kinematics across

  12. Detrital Geochemical Fingerprints of Rivers Along Southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for Erosion of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone and the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassim, M. F. B.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P. A.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Our detrital geochemical study of modern sand collected from tributaries of the Yarlung River in southern Tibet and the Kali Gandaki River and its tributaries in Nepal shed light on the ages and exhumation histories of source rocks within the Indus-Yarlung Suture (IYS) zone and the Himalayas. Seven sand samples from rivers along the suture zone in southern Tibet between Xigatze to the east and Mt. Kailas to the west were collected for detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and Apatite Fission Track (AFT) thermochronologic analyses. Zircon U-Pb ages for all rivers range between 15 and 3568 Ma. Rivers draining the northern side of the suture zone mainly yield ages between 40 and 60 Ma, similar to the age of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Samples from rivers draining the southern side of the suture zone record a Tethyan Himalayan signal characterized by age clusters at 500 Ma and 1050 Ma. Our results indicate that the ages and proportion of U-Pb zircons ages of downstream samples from tributaries of the Yarlung River directly reflect source area ages and relative area of source rock exposure in the catchment basin. Significant age components at 37 - 40 Ma, 47 - 50 Ma, 55 - 58 Ma and 94 - 97 Ma reflect episodicity in Gangdese arc magmatism. Our AFT ages show two main signals at 23-18 Ma and 12 Ma, which are in agreement with accelerated exhumation of the Gangdese batholith during these time intervals. The 23 - 18 Ma signal partly overlaps with deposition of the Kailas Formation along the suture zone and may be related to exhumation due to upper plate extension in southern Tibet in response to Indian slab rollback and/or break-off events. Detrital thermochronology of four sand samples from the Kali Gandaki River and some of its tributaries in Nepal is underway and will provide constraints on the timing of erosion of the central Nepal Himalaya.

  13. Gravity anomalies, Quaternary vents, and Quaternary faults in the southern Cascade Range, Oregon and California: Implications for arc and backarc evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.; Christiansen, R.L.; Guffanti, M.; Wells, R.E.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, M.A.; Smith, James G.

    1997-01-01

    Isostatic residual gravity anomalies in the southern Cascade Range of northern California and southern Oregon are spatially correlated with broad zones of Quaternary magmatism as reflected by the total volume of Quaternary volcanic products, the distribution of Quaternary vents, and the anomalously low teleseismic P wave velocities in the upper 30 km of crust. The orientation of Quaternary faults also appears to be related to gravity anomalies and volcanism in this area, trending generally north-south within the magmatic regions and northwest-southeast as they enter the neighboring amagmatic zones to the north and south. The relationship between gravity anomalies, vent density, and fault orientations may indicate in a broad sense the strength of the middle and upper crust. The southern Cascade Range occupies a transition zone where horizontal stress is transferred from the northwest-southeast dextral shear of the Walker Lane belt to the east-west extension characteristic of the Cascade arc in central Oregon. Faulting along north-south strikes in the volcanically active areas indicates the east-west extensional stresses in thermally weakened crust, whereas northwest faulting between the volcanically active areas reflects the northwest trending, right lateral shear strain of the Walker Lane belt. The segmentation of the arc reflected in Quaternary magmatism may be caused by differential extension behind crustal blocks of the forearc rotating clockwise with respect to North America. In this view the volcanic centers at Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake volcano, and Lassen Peak in northern California are situated along the southern parts of the trailing edges of two distinct segments of the forearc where additional extension is implied by their differential clockwise rotation. U.S. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. The Relationship between Leadership Style and Motivation among Faculty Members in Two Public Universities in the Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malok, Malok N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership style and motivation among faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of the South Sudan. The researcher examined this issue by surveying and interviewing faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of South Sudan, a total of 67 for…

  15. Agricultural pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in central Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Taha, T. E.; Gray, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Hospital- and community-based studies were conducted in central Sudan to investigate the association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality. The cases were 197 stillbirths in the hospital and 36 perinatal deaths in the community; the controls were 812 liveborn, normal-birth-weight infants in the hospital, and 1505 liveborn infants who survived for the first 7 days after birth in the community. The odds ratio (OR) of perinatal death associated with pesticide exposure was estimated using multiple logistic regression. There was a consistent and significant association between pesticide exposure and perinatal mortality in the hospital (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-2.8) and the community populations (adjusted OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.4). The OR was significantly higher among women engaged in farming (3.6; 95% CI: 1.6-8.0), but not among women in nonfarming occupations (1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.3). The estimated attributable risks of perinatal death owing to pesticide exposure were 22.6% for hospital stillbirths and 15.7% for community perinatal deaths; but among women engaged in farming in the hospital population the attributable risks were substantially higher (34.5%). PMID:8324850

  16. Cystic echinococcosis in Mundari tribe-members of South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay T; Jacob, Joseph; Finn, Timothy; Lado, Mounir; Napoleon, Robert; Brooker, Simon; Sidhu, Paul S; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Many neglected tropical diseases, including the zoonotic disease cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), are endemic to East Africa. However, their geographical distribution is heterogenous and incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if Mundari pastoralists harbor endemic human hydatidosis. The survey was conducted in cattle camps randomly selected from accessible sites provided by officials in Terekeka, South Sudan. Following informed consent, a questionnaire collected demographic data and hydatid exposure risk. A systematic sonographic abdominal exam was performed using General Electric’s LOGIQ Book XP with a 3C-RS 2–5 MHz curvilinear transducer. Six hundred and ten individuals were screened from 13 camps. Four infections were identified, all in women. The prevalence of abdominal hydatid disease in the Mundari tribe-members in cattle camps was 0.7% and all individuals reporting at least one high-risk exposure to hydatid disease. Cystic echinococcosis is endemic among Mundari pastoralists; however, it would appear to be less endemic than in neighboring tribes. PMID:24139620

  17. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, A. Y. A.; Ali, Y. S. A.; Roelvink, J. A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.

    2014-03-01

    Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its storage capacity due to sedimentation in the last four decades. Appropriate management of the eroded area in the upper basin could mitigate this problem. In order to do that, the areas providing the highest sediment volumes to the river have to be identified, since they should have priority with respect to the application of erosion control practices. This requires studying the sedimentation record inside Roseires Reservoir, with the aim of identifying when and how much sediment from a certain area is deposited. The identification of deposition time is derived from soil stratification inside the reservoir. This requires expensive coring campaigns that need to be optimized. The most promising sampling coring areas were therefore selected beforehand by combining bathymetric data and the results of a depth-averaged morphodynamic model able to record vertical stratification in sediment deposits. The model allowed recognising the areas that are potentially neither subject to net erosion nor to bar migration during the life span of the reservoir. Verification of these results was carried out by analysing sediment stratification from the data collected in subsequent field campaign.

  18. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, A. Y. A.; Ali, Y. S. A.; Roelvink, J. A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.

    2015-04-01

    Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the vast upper river catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir has already lost more than one-third of its storage capacity due to sedimentation in the last four decades. Appropriate management of the eroded soils in the upper basin could mitigate this problem. In order to do that, the areas providing the highest sediment volumes to the river have to be identified, since they should have priority with respect to the application of erosion control practices. This requires studying the sedimentation record inside Roseires Reservoir in order to assess when and how much sediment is deposited and to identify its source. This paper deals with the identification of deposition time and soil stratification inside the reservoir, based on historical bathymetric data, numerical modelling and newly acquired soil data. The remoteness of the study area and the extreme climate result in coring campaigns being expensive and difficult. Therefore, these activities need to be optimised and coring locations selected beforehand. This was done by combining bathymetric data and the results of a depth-averaged morphodynamic model recording the vertical stratification in sediment deposits. The model allowed for recognising the areas that are potentially subject to neither net erosion nor bar migration during the lifespan of the reservoir. Verification of these results was carried out by analysing sediment stratification from the data collected during the subsequent field campaign.

  19. Piagetian Theory and Its Implications for the Helping Professions. Proceedings of Interdisciplinary Conference (7th, Volume I, University of Southern California, February, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizmann, Rama, Ed.; And Others

    This book is the first volume of a collection of papers from the Seventh Interdisciplinary Conference on Piagetian theory and its implications for the helping professions social work and psychological services. More than 40 papers are included. Areas explored in the papers include development of prosocial behavior in children; the effect of…

  20. A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat: insights from South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Vodzak, Megan E.; Lunde, Darrin P.; Ejotre, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new genus is proposed for the strikingly patterned African vespertilionid “Glauconycteris” superba Hayman, 1939 on the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons. A review of the attributes of a newly collected specimen from South Sudan (a new country record) and other museum specimens of “Glauconycteris” superba suggests that “Glauconycteris” superba is markedly distinct ecomorphologically from other species classified in Glauconycteris and is likely the sister taxon to Glauconycteris sensu stricto. The recent capture of this rarely collected but widespread bat highlights the need for continued research in tropical sub-Saharan Africa and in particular, for more work in western South Sudan, which has received very little scientific attention. New country records for Glauconycteris cf. poensis (South Sudan) and Glauconycteris curryae (Gabon) are also reported. PMID:23805046

  1. The 2007 M5.4 Alum Rock, California, earthquake: Implications for future earthquakes on the central and southern Calaveras Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, David H.; Bakun, William H.; Parsons, Tom; Simpson, Robert W.; Boatwright, John; Uhrhammer, Robert A.

    2010-08-01

    The similarity of seismograms recorded by two seismic stations demonstrate that the 31 October 2007 moment magnitude M5.4 Alum Rock earthquake is a repeat of a 1955 ML5.5 earthquake. Both occurred on Oppenheimer et al.'s (1990) Zone V "stuck patch" on the central Calaveras fault, providing new support for their model of Calaveras fault earthquake activity. We suggest that Zone V fails only in a family of recurring M ˜ 5.4-5.5 earthquakes. The 1955 and 2007 earthquakes are the penultimate and ultimate Zone V events. Earthquakes in 1891 and 1864 are possible earlier Zone V events. The next Zone V event is not expected in the next few decades, assuming a time-dependent recurrence model: the mean forecast date is 2064 (2035-2104, 95% confidence range). We further suggest that Zones I, II, III, and IV fail in recurring M ˜ 5.1-5.3, M ˜ 5.6-5.8, M ˜ 6.1-6.3, and M ˜ 4.9-5.0 earthquakes, respectively. If our earthquake recurrence model is correct, the next Zone I event is overdue and could occur anytime, and M5-6 earthquakes should not occur on Zones II, III, and IV before 2014, 2012, and 2026, respectively. We cannot rule out the possibility that Zone VI, which lies at the southern end of the Mission Seismic Trend, where the southern Hayward and central Calaveras faults appear to connect at depth, fails aseismically or in large events on the southern Hayward fault, such as last occurred in 1868, or in large events on the adjoining northern Calaveras fault segment.

  2. Elemental and Sr–Nd isotopic systematics of the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuejun Wang; Weiming Fan; Touping Peng; Feng Guo

    2005-01-01

    Elemental and Sr–Nd isotopic results are presented for the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence (~172 Ma) in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. The sequence is voluminously composed of ~45% subalkaline basaltic rocks (group 1), mg andesite–dacites (group 2) and ~50% rhyolites (group 3). The group 1 rocks are characterized by (La\\/Yb)cn = 3.8–7.2, Eu\\/Eu* = 0.65–1.15, Nb\\/La = 0.64–0.99, 87Sr\\/86Sr(t) = 0.70602~0.70822 and eNd(t) = -1.63 to +0.11, similar to those of

  3. Organochlorine contaminants in blubber from stranded marine mammals collected from the Northern Oregon and Southern Washington coasts: implications for re-introducing California Condors, Gymnogyps californianus, in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Deke T; Duffield, Deborah A; Randall, Tina; Wintle, Nate; D'Alessandro, Dalin N; Rice, James M; Shepherdson, David

    2013-03-01

    Re-introduction of California Condors into Oregon is currently being considered, but there are concerns about the safety of potential food sources of this species. Condors are opportunistic feeders and a largely available food source for this species will be stranded marine mammal carcasses. We analyzed 37 blubber samples from 7 different marine mammal species collected from the Oregon and Southern Washington coasts for 18 organochlorine (OC) pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) was the most prevalent OC contaminant, making up more than 58 % of the total OC concentration measured. There were no significant differences in OC content between species or sexes. PMID:23275975

  4. Carbonate saturation state of surface waters in the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean: controls and implications for the onset of aragonite undersaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, H. B.; Dunbar, R. B.; Mucciarone, D. A.; Koweek, D. A.

    2015-06-01

    Predicting when surface waters of the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to biogenic carbonate minerals is challenging in part due to the lack of baseline high resolution carbon system data. Here we present ~ 1700 surface total alkalinity measurements from the Ross Sea and along a transect between the Ross Sea and southern Chile from the austral autumn (February-March 2013). We calculate the saturation state of aragonite (?Ar) and calcite (?Ca) using measured total alkalinity and pCO2. In the Ross Sea and south of the Polar Front, variability in carbonate saturation state (?) is mainly driven by algal photosynthesis. Freshwater dilution and calcification have minimal influence on ? variability. We estimate an early spring surface water ?Ar value of ~ 1.2 for the Ross Sea using a total alkalinity-salinity relationship and historical pCO2 measurements. Our results suggest that the Ross Sea is not likely to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite until the year 2070.

  5. Carbonate xenoliths hosted by the Mesoproterozoic Siddanpalli Kimberlite Cluster (Eastern Dharwar craton): implications for the geodynamic evolution of southern India and its diamond and uranium metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalapathi Rao, N. V.; Anand, M.; Dongre, A.; Osborne, I.

    2010-12-01

    A number of limestone and metasomatised carbonate xenoliths occur in the 1,090 Ma Siddanpalli kimberlite cluster, Raichur kimberlite Field, Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India. These xenoliths are inferred to have been derived from the carbonate horizons of the Kurnool (Palnad) and Bhima Proterozoic basins and provide evidence for a connection between these basins in the geological past. A revised Mesoproterozoic age is proposed for the Bhima and Kurnool (Palnad) basins based on this kimberlite association and is in agreement with similar proposals made recently for the Chattisgarh and Upper Vindhyan sediments in Central India. The observed Bhima-Kurnool interbasinal uplift may have been caused by: (1) extension- or plume-related mafic alkaline magmatism that included the emplacement of the southern Indian kimberlites at ~1.1 Ga, (2) mantle plume-related doming of the peninsular India during the Cretaceous, or (3) Quaternary differential uplift in this region. It is not possible, with the currently available geological information to constrain the exact timing of this uplift. The deep erosion of primary diamond sources in the Raichur kimberlite Field in the upper reaches of the Krishna River caused by this uplift could be the elusive source of the alluvial diamonds of the Krishna valley. Mesoproterozoic sedimentary basins can host world class unconformity-type uranium deposits. In light of its inferred Mesoproterozoic age, a more detailed stratigraphic and metallogenic analysis of the Kurnool basin is suggested for uranium exploration.

  6. Impact of moisture flux convergence and soil moisture on precipitation: a case study for southern U.S. with implications for the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J.; Su, H.; Yang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Interactions between soil moisture, evapotranspiration (ET), atmospheric moisture fluxes and precipitation are complex. It is difficult to attribute the variations of one variable to another. In this study, we investigate the influence of atmospheric moisture fluxes and land surface soil moisture on local precipitation, with a focus on the southern U.S., a region with a strong humidity gradient and intense moisture fluxes. Experiments with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model show that the variation of moisture flux convergence (MFC) is more important than that of soil moisture for precipitation variation over the southern U.S. Further analyses decompose the precipitation change into several contributing factors and show that MFC exerts a stronger impact on precipitation in wetter regions, where the direct moisture inflow is large. Over transitional zones, the effect of soil moisture variations becomes important, mainly by changing precipitation efficiency. The direct moisture contribution from surface ET is relatively small over all areas. Analysis of global reanalysis data sets shows that similar conclusions apply to other land regions. Although MFC is more important than soil moisture for precipitation over most regions, the impact of soil moisture could be large over certain transitional regions. At the submonthly time scale we analyzed, African Sahel is the only region where soil moisture has greater impact than MFC on precipitation.

  7. Implications of Small-Scale Superimposed Bedforms on the Morphodynamics and Sediment Transport Patterns on the Lower Shoreface in the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noormets, R.; Flemming, B.; Ernstsen, V.; Winter, C.; Hebbeln, D.

    2004-12-01

    Shoreface connected ridges (length up to a few kilometers, height up to a few meters) on the shoreface of the Island of Spiekeroog in the southern North Sea have been shown to be rather stable over decades and possibly hundreds of years (Flemming and Davis 1994). Recent high-resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys have revealed patterns of small-scale bedforms (length and height up to 10 m and 0.3 m, respectively) superimposed on the ridge-trough morphology across the entire lower shoreface. In general, the flood current velocities, measured at 1 m above the bottom are as much as 47% higher than ebb counterparts (Antia et al., 1995). Exceptions are the landward flanks of and troughs between the shoreface connected ridges where higher ebb velocities have been recorded. The superimposed megaripple-scale bedforms imply a net shoreward sediment transport on the seaward flanks of the shoreface connected ridges at a low angle to the ridge crest. Sediment reaching the crest and being pushed over to the landward side is then transported seaward by occasionally dominating ebb currents there. Storm events, having generally an erosive effect on the shoreface, tend to increase the amplitude of the shoreface connected ridges, i.e. amplify the morphodynamic feedback mechanisms. Recovery of the seabed after ordinary winter storms occurs in time scales less than a month. Hence, the ridge maintenance seems to be controlled by the fair-weather tidal currents that are competent to transport fine to medium sands during a considerable part of the tidal cycle. The suggested sediment transport circulation mechanism is consistent with the long term stability of the shoreface connected ridges as well as high sediment mobility on the seabed. References Antia, E.E., Flemming, B.W. and Wefer, G. 1995. Calm-weather spring and neap tidal current characteristics on a shoreface-connected ridge complex in the German Bight, southern North Sea. Geo-Marine Letters 15, 30-36. Flemming, B.W. and Davis, R.A. Jr. 1994. Holocene Evolution, Morphodynamics and Sedimentology of the Spiekeroog Barrier Island System (Southern North Sea). Senckenbergiana maritima 24, 117-155.

  8. Field geology, geochronology and geochemistry of mafic-ultramafic rocks from Alxa, China: Implications for Late Permian accretionary tectonics in the southern Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianyun, Feng; Wenjiao, Xiao

    2013-04-01

    The termination of orogenesis for the southern Altaids has been controversial. Systematical investigations of field geology, geochronology and geochemistry on mafic-ultramafic rocks from the northern Alxa of the southern Altaids were conducted to address the termination controversy. The newly discriminated mafic-ultramafic rocks belt is located at Bijiertai, Honggueryulin, and Qinggele areas, stretching from west to east for about 100 km in length. All of the three rock associations contact tectonically with the adjacent metamorphic and deformed Precambrian rocks as tectonic blocks or lenses, and are composed of peridotite, pyroxenite, gabbro, and serpentinite, most of which have subjected to pronounced alteration, i.e., serpentinization and chloritization. Geochemically, the rocks are characterized by a uniform trend of compositional distribution, e.g., with low SiO2-contents (42.51-52.21 wt.%) and alkalinity (Na2O+K2O) (0.01-5.45 wt.%, mostly less than 0.8 wt.%), and enriched in MgO (7.37-43.36 wt.%), with Mg# = 52.75-91.87. As the rocks have had strong alteration and have a wide range of loss-on-ignition (LOI: 0.44-14.07 wt.%), the rocks may be subjected to considerable alteration by either sea-water or metamorphic fluid. The REE and trace element patterns for the rocks show a relatively fractionated trend with LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, similar to that of T-MORB between N-MORB and E-MORB, indicating that the parental melt resulted from the partial melting of oceanic lithospheric mantle overprinted by fluid alteration of island-arc subsequently. The ultramafic rocks are relics derived from the magma after large degree of partial melting of the oceanic lithospheric mantle with overprinted by island-arc processes under the influence of mid-ocean-ridge magmatism. LA - ICP MS U - Pb zircon ages of gabbros from the three spots are 274 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 0.35), 306 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 0.49), 262 ± 5 Ma (MSWD = 1.2), respectively, representing the formation ages of the mafic-ultramafic rocks. Therefore, considering the other data published previously, we suggest that the mafic-ultramafic rocks are products of a south-dipping subduction, most probably a ridge subduction for the Paleo-Asian Ocean beneath the Alxa block in the Late Carboniferous to Late Permian before the Paleo-Asian Ocean completely closed. This shed light on the controversial tectonic history of the southern Altaids and support that the termination of the orogenesis was in the end Permian to Triassic.

  9. A new model for management of mycetoma in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh; Alshambaty, Yassir; Hashim, Ahmed; Hago, Ali; Zijlstra, Eduard E

    2014-10-01

    Patients with mycetoma usually present late with advanced disease, which is attributed to lack of medical and health facilities in endemic areas, poor health education and low socio-economic status. With this background, an integrated patient management model at the village level was designed to address the various problems associated with mycetoma. The model was launched in an endemic village in the Sudan, between 2010 and 2013. This model is described in a prospective, descriptive, community-based study, aimed to collect epidemiological, ecological, and clinical data and to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in order to design effective and efficient management measures. In this study, the prevalence of mycetoma was 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The patients were farmers, housewives and children of low socio-economic status, and no obvious risk group was detected. All had surgery performed in a mobile surgical unit in the village which encouraged patients to present early with small early lesion leading to a good clinical outcome. The close contact with the Acacia tree thorns, animals and animal dung, walking bare footed and practising poor hygiene may all have contributed to the development of mycetoma in the village. Knowledge of mycetoma was poor in 96.3% of the study population, 70% had appropriate attitudes and beliefs towards interaction with mycetoma patients and treatment methods, and 49% used satisfactory or good practices in the management of mycetoma. Knowledge and practices on mycetoma were found to be significantly associated with age. Based on the KAP and epidemiological data, several health education sessions were conducted in the village for different target groups. The integrated management approach adopted in this study is unique and appeared successful and seems suitable as an immediate intervention. While for the longer term, establishment of local health facilities with trained health staff remains a priority. PMID:25356640

  10. Marriage pattern in the Sudan and its interrelation with fertility.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, M

    1986-06-01

    The marriage pattern is an aspect of the social, economic and cultural conditions of a population. Recent changes taking place in Sudanese society are associated with a slight increase in the mean age at 1st marriage for females. Demographic and economic factors may be responsible for the change. The migration of Sudanese males at marriageable ages to the rich oil countries resulted in an unbalanced sex ratio which may be responsible for a marriage squeeze. The same effect is taking place as a result of high rural-urban migration. Increasing economic pressure has created a need for employment of women outside the home. This phenomenon has helped to change the role concept of both sexes and provided an alternative to early marriage. There has been a remarkable expansion of women's education in the Sudan since independence in 1956. Economic pressure has also affected the age at marriage by making marriage less feasible. Financial preparations for a marriage, in both urban and rural areas, appear to exert a significant pressure towards marital postponement. Postponement of marriage is associated with more marital stability and reductions in the amount of lost reproductive time. Also, the fertility of the women who marry late is only slightly less than that of those who marry young. Late marriers catch up with those who married young and the slight excess experienced by the young marriers takes place towards the end of the reproductive life. Changes in the Sudanese birth rate are not expected to accompany the process of development. The current level and effectiveness of birth control are not enough to affect fertility especially as it is not aimed at reducing the number of births. Reductions in the level of Sudanese fertility can be achieved only through improvement of the effectiveness of family planning programs. PMID:12280549

  11. A New Model for Management of Mycetoma in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; EL Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh; Alshambaty, Yassir; Hashim, Ahmed; Hago, Ali; Zijlstra, Eduard E.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with mycetoma usually present late with advanced disease, which is attributed to lack of medical and health facilities in endemic areas, poor health education and low socio-economic status. With this background, an integrated patient management model at the village level was designed to address the various problems associated with mycetoma. The model was launched in an endemic village in the Sudan, between 2010 and 2013. This model is described in a prospective, descriptive, community-based study, aimed to collect epidemiological, ecological, and clinical data and to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in order to design effective and efficient management measures. In this study, the prevalence of mycetoma was 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The patients were farmers, housewives and children of low socio-economic status, and no obvious risk group was detected. All had surgery performed in a mobile surgical unit in the village which encouraged patients to present early with small early lesion leading to a good clinical outcome. The close contact with the Acacia tree thorns, animals and animal dung, walking bare footed and practising poor hygiene may all have contributed to the development of mycetoma in the village. Knowledge of mycetoma was poor in 96.3% of the study population, 70% had appropriate attitudes and beliefs towards interaction with mycetoma patients and treatment methods, and 49% used satisfactory or good practices in the management of mycetoma. Knowledge and practices on mycetoma were found to be significantly associated with age. Based on the KAP and epidemiological data, several health education sessions were conducted in the village for different target groups. The integrated management approach adopted in this study is unique and appeared successful and seems suitable as an immediate intervention. While for the longer term, establishment of local health facilities with trained health staff remains a priority. PMID:25356640

  12. Influence of climate and land use in carbon biogeochemistry in lower reaches of rivers in central southern Chile: Implications for the carbonate system in river-influenced rocky shore environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Claudia A.; DeGrandpre, Michael D.; Lagos, Nelson A.; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Cascales, Emma-Karin; Vargas, Cristian A.

    2015-04-01

    Freshwater discharge affects the biogeochemistry of river-influenced nearshore environments by contributing with carbon and nutrients. An increase in human activities in river basins may alter the natural riverine nutrients and carbon export to coastal ecosystems. Along a wide latitudinal range (32°55'S-40°10'S), this study explores the role of climate and land use in determining the nutrient and carbon concentrations in the river mouth and fluxes to adjacent coastal areas. Between winter 2011 and fall 2012, we collected monthly samples in five river mouths in central southern Chile and at rocky shore sites affected by river plumes. Basins were characterized by different land uses and meteorological conditions along this latitudinal range. Water samples were collected for pH measurements, nutrients, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, particulate organic carbon, and isotopic signatures (?13C). Our results show a north-south gradient in concentrations of nutrients and carbon. The highest concentrations were observed in the Maipo basin, which presents the highest percentage of urban-industrial activities. Nutrients and carbon contributions, in most cases, were lowest in the southern Valdivia basin, which has the least human intervention and a greater percentage of vegetation. The Biobío River had the highest nutrient and carbon fluxes, in most cases, due to its high river discharge. Our results show the influence of river plume effects on carbon and nitrogen concentrations in river-influenced rocky shore sites. Moreover, our study suggests that land use might influence some parameters of carbonate system in rivers and river-influenced rocky shore environments. River-influenced rocky shore environments may exhibit suppression in aragonite saturation state with implications for calcifiers inhabiting these marine environments.

  13. Disability associated with exposure to traumatic events: results from a cross-sectional community survey in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general lack of knowledge regarding disability and especially factors that are associated with disability in low-income countries. We aimed to study the overall and gender-specific prevalence of disability, and the association between exposure to traumatic events and disability in a post-conflict setting. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional community based study of four Greater Bahr el Ghazal States, South Sudan (n = 1200). The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) was applied to investigate exposure to trauma events. Disability was measured using the Washington Group Short Measurement Set on Disability, which is an activity-based scale derived from the WHO’s International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Results The estimated prevalence of disability (with severe difficulty) was 3.6% and 13.4% for disability with moderate difficulties. No gender differences were found in disability prevalence. Almost all participants reported exposure to at least one war-related traumatic event. The result of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that, for both men and women, exposure to traumatic events, older age and living in a polygamous marriage increased the likelihood of having a disability. Conclusions The finding of association between traumatic experience and disability underlines the precariousness of the human rights situation for individuals with disability in low-income countries. It also has possible implications for the construction of disability services and for the provision of health services to individuals exposed to traumatic events. PMID:23672785

  14. Late Holocene Environmental Change at Amara West: A New Kingdom Town on the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Neal; Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Dalton, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Amara West is a well-preserved town of the late New Kingdom downstream of Sai Island in Northern Sudan. The town has being identified as the seat of the pharaonic administration of Kush (Upper Nubia) in the Ramesside Period (c. 1306-1070 BC). This region fell under Egyptian control after about 1500 BC. The modern Nile (flowing eastwards in this reach) lies to the south of the town and a well preserved palaeochannel lies immediately to the north. Following the Egypt Exploration Society excavations of 1938-39 and 1947-48, it was argued that the ancient town was once located upon an island in the Nile. Renewed archaeological excavations allied to geomorphological work on the ancient river environment are attempting to establish the nature of the local and regional landscape before, during, and after the occupation of the town. This paper presents new OSL and radiocarbon dates on the sedimentary fill from the palaeochannel system to establish when the channel system ceased to flow on a permanent basis. Micromorphological work on the sedimentary records within the town provide additional insights into the nature of the local environment during the period of occupation. We discuss the implications of the new palaeoenvironmental data for our understanding of Amara West and we set out the wider significance of these new geoarchaeological data.

  15. Concomitant Infection with Leishmania donovani and L. major in Single Ulcers of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients from Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Babiker, A. M.; Ravagnan, S.; Fusaro, A.; Hassan, M. M.; Bakheit, S. M.; Mukhtar, M. M.; Cattoli, G.; Capelli, G.

    2014-01-01

    In Sudan human leishmaniasis occurs in different clinical forms, that is, visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Clinical samples from 69 Sudanese patients with different clinical manifestations were subjected to a PCR targeting the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene for Leishmania species identification. Mixed infections were suspected due to multiple overlapping peaks presented in some sequences of the COII amplicons. Cloning these amplicons and alignment of sequences from randomly selected clones confirmed the presence of two different Leishmania species, L. donovani and L. major, in three out of five CL patients. Findings were further confirmed by cloning the ITS gene. Regarding other samples no significant genetic variations were found in patients with VL (62 patients), PKDL (one patient), or ML (one patient). The sequences clustered in a single homogeneous group within L. donovani genetic group, with the exception of one sequence clustering with L. infantum genetic group. Findings of this study open discussion on the synergetic/antagonistic interaction between divergent Leishmania species both in mammalian and vector hosts, their clinical implications with respect to parasite fitness and response to treatment, and the route of transmission with respect to vector distribution and or adaptation. PMID:24744788

  16. A New Estimate for Total Offset on the Southern San Andreas Fault: Implications for Cumulative Plate Boundary Shear in the Northern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, M. H.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Development of a consistent and balanced tectonic reconstruction for the late Cenozoic San Andreas fault (SAF) in southern California has been hindered for decades by incompatible estimates of total dextral offset based on different geologic cross-fault markers. The older estimate of 240-270 km is based on offset fluvial conglomerates of the middle Miocene Mint Canyon and Caliente Formations west of the SAF from their presumed source area in the northern Chocolate Mountains NE of the SAF (Ehlig et al., 1975; Ehlert, 2003). The second widely cited offset marker is a distinctive Triassic megaporphyritic monzogranite that has been offset 160 ± 10 km between Liebre Mountain west of the SAF and the San Bernadino Mountains (Matti and Morton, 1993). In this analysis we use existing paleocurrent data and late Miocene clockwise rotation in the eastern Transverse Ranges (ETR) to re-assess the orientation of the piercing line used in the 240 km-correlation, and present a palinspastic reconstruction that satisfies all existing geologic constraints. Our reconstruction of the Mint Canyon piercing line reduces the original estimate of 240-270 km to 195 ± 15 km of cumulative right-lateral slip on the southern SAF (sensu stricto), which is consistent with other published estimates of 185 ± 20 km based on correlative basement terranes in the Salton Trough region. Our estimate of ~195 km is consistent with the lower estimate of ~160 km on the Mojave segment because transform-parallel extension along the southwestern boundary of the ETR during transrotation produces ~25-40 km of displacement that does not affect offset markers of the Liebre/San Bernadino correlation located northwest of the ETR rotating domain. Reconciliation of these disparate estimates places an important new constraint on the total plate boundary shear that is likely accommodated in the adjacent northern Gulf of California. Global plate circuit models require ~650 km of cumulative Pacific-North America (PAC-NAM) relative plate motion since ~12 Ma (Atwater and Stock, 1998). We propose that the continental component of PAC-NAM shear is accommodated by: (1) 195 ± 15 km on the southern SAF (this study); (2) 12 ± 2 km on the Whittier-Elsinore fault; (3) 75 ± 20 km of cumulative shear across the central Mojave in the eastern California shear zone; (4) 30 ± 4 km of post-13 Ma slip on the Stateline fault; and (5) 47 ± 18 km of NW-directed translation produced by north-south shortening. Together, these components sum to 359 ± 31 km of net dextral displacement on the SAF system (sensu lato) in southern California since ca. 12 Ma, or ~300 km less than what is required by the global plate circuit. This suggests that the continental component of post-12 Ma PAC-NAM transform motion can be no more than ~390 km in the adjacent northern Gulf of California, substantially less than the 450 km of shear proposed in some models. We suggest that the remaining ~270-300 km of NW-directed relative plate motion is accommodated by a small component of late Miocene extension and roughly 225 km of slip on the offshore borderland fault system west of Baja California.

  17. Mineralogical study of the hyper-arid Mars like-soils from Pampas de La Joya, southern Peru and its implications in the geochemistry of dry environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, J. E.; Ortega, F.

    2011-10-01

    The Pampas de La Joya is located in southern Peru between 16°S and 17°S latitude and is part of the hyper-arid region of the Atacama Desert. Recently, this place has acquired an increased interest by astrobiology community because it presents Marslike soils regarding with the very low levels of organic matter, high oxidant activity, marked driest conditions, and very low levels of microorganisms. This work describes petrology, X-ray diffraction, and EDS-electron microscopy of 119 samples collected on the surface and shallow subsurface of the desert. The samples were divided in six types of soil due to its physical properties. Overall, our results show that the detrital components of the soils come essentially from the Andean volcanic chain and local outcrops of Precambriam gneisses and Cretaceous granitic batholiths. Current and past microclimates allowed the formation of paleolakes and the consequent heterogeneous deposits of evaporitic minerals.

  18. Southern Ocean air-sea heat flux, SST spatial anomalies, and implications for multi-decadal upper ocean heat content trends.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamsitt, V. M.; Talley, L. D.; Mazloff, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean displays a zonal dipole (wavenumber one) pattern in sea surface temperature (SST), with a cool zonal anomaly in the Atlantic and Indian sectors and a warm zonal anomaly in the Pacific sector, associated with the large northward excursion of the Malvinas and southeastward flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). To the north of the cool Indian sector is the warm, narrow Agulhas Return Current (ARC). Air-sea heat flux is largely the inverse of this SST pattern, with ocean heat gain in the Atlantic/Indian, cooling in the southeastward-flowing ARC, and cooling in the Pacific, based on adjusted fluxes from the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE), a ?° eddy permitting model constrained to all available in situ data. This heat flux pattern is dominated by turbulent heat loss from the ocean (latent and sensible), proportional to perturbations in the difference between SST and surface air temperature, which are maintained by ocean advection. Locally in the Indian sector, intense heat loss along the ARC is contrasted by ocean heat gain of 0.11 PW south of the ARC. The IPCC AR5 50 year depth-averaged 0-700 m temperature trend shows surprising similarities in its spatial pattern, with upper ocean warming in the ARC contrasted by cooling to the south. Using diagnosed heat budget terms from the most recent (June 2014) 6-year run of the SOSE we find that surface cooling in the ARC is balanced by heating from south-eastward advection by the current whereas heat gain in the ACC is balanced by cooling due to northward Ekman transport driven by strong westerly winds. These results suggest that spatial patterns in multi-decadal upper ocean temperature trends depend on regional variations in upper ocean dynamics.

  19. U-Cr-rich high Mg-Al granulites from Karimnagar Granulite Belt, India: implications for Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic events in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarbajna, Chanchal; Bose, Sankar; Rajagopalan, V.; Das, Kaushik; Som, Anjan; Paul, A. K.; Shivkumar, K.; Umamaheswar, K.; Chaki, Anjan

    2013-08-01

    High Mg-Al granulite occurs as enclave within granite gneisses at Karimnagar, southern India, and it contains coarse granoblastic aggregates of orthopyroxene and sapphirine with minor amount of cordierite, spinel and phlogopite. An important chemical characteristic of these minerals is their extremely high MgO content and the high Cr2O3 in sapphirine and spinel. Textural analysis shows sapphirine + orthopyroxene + cordierite as the peak-metamorphic assemblage that possibly evolved though the breakdown of a spinel-bearing assemblage. Cation exchange geothermometers involving orthopyroxene, sapphirine and spinel yield temperatures of 600-800 °C with a maximum of 860 °C implying an event of high temperature (HT) metamorphism. Pseudosection analysis in the FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 chemical system shows the stability of the peak- assemblage below 6.2 kbar. Subsequently, the rock underwent hydration and cooling with the appearance of phlogopite in the assemblage. Chromium enrichment is possibly inherited from the protolith and its presence presumably stabilized sapphirine and spinel below their high-temperature stability field. The recorded Rb-Sr age of ca. 2,500 Ma in host granite gneiss marks the upper age limit of HT metamorphism. Presence of patchy, lobate grains as well as veinlets of uraninite and brannerite is also a characteristic feature of the rock. Uranium mineralization took place during the post peak metamorphic stage, sulfide mineralization represented by tiny grains and veinlets of pyrite, millerite and pentlandite coincided with, and outlasted the uranium mineralization. The U-Th-Pb chemical ages of uraninite grains suggest ca. 2,200 ± 12 Ma for the age of uranium mineralization in the granulite. Based on the field relations, it is surmised that the granulite metamorphism in the study area is older than ca. 2,500 Ma and is comparable with an event in the other parts of Eastern Dharwar Craton. It can be conceived as a widespread event in southern India.

  20. Geology of the Eel River basin and adjacent region: Implications for late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and Mendocino triple junction

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.H. Jr. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Two upper Cenozoic depositional sequences of principally marine strata about 4,000 m thick overlie accreted basement terranes of the Central and Coastal belts of the Franciscan Complex in the onshore-offshore Eel River basin of northwestern California. The older depositional sequence is early to middle Miocene in age and represents slope basin and slope-blanket deposition, whereas the younger sequence, later Miocene to middle Pleistocene in age, consists largely of forearc basin deposits. Youthful tectonic activity related to Gorda-North American plate convergence indicates an active Cascadia subduction zone and strong partial coupling between these plates. Structures of the northeastern margin of the Eel River basin are principally north-northwest-trending, east-northeast-dipping thrust and reverse faults that form imbricate thrust fans. The Coastal belt fault, the early Tertiary accretionary suture between the Franciscan Central and Coastal belts, can be traced from Arcata Bay northward offshore to the southern Oregon border. It is tentatively extended farther northward based on aeromagnetic data to an offshore position west of Cape Blanco. Thereafter, it may coincide with the offshore Fulmar fault. The Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) does not join the Mendocino transform fault at the commonly depicted offshore location of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ). Instead, the CSZ extends southeastward around the southern Eel River basin and shoreward along Mendocino Canyon to join the Petrolia shear zone. Similarly, the Mendocino fault may extend shoreward via Mattole Canyon and join the Cooskie shear zone. These two shear zones intersect onshore north of the King Range, and the area of their intersection is the probable location of the MTJ.

  1. Early mid-Holocene sea-level change and coastal environmental response on the southern Yangtze delta plain, China: implications for the rise of Neolithic culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanghua; Zhuang, Chencheng; Saito, Yoshiki; Chen, Jie; Zhan, Qing; Wang, Xiaodan

    2012-03-01

    We used a series of Holocene sediment cores with AMS 14C dated basal saltmarsh peat and supratidal sediment to reconstruct early mid-Holocene sea-level change on the southern Yangtze delta plain. We also synthesized results for ca 150 late Quaternary cores, as well as archeological data to reveal the unique interplay between coastal evolution and Neolithic cultural response. Relative sea level was ca -16.5 to -14.5 m from 8600 to 8500 cal BP and ca -6 to -4 m from 7400 to 7200 cal BP, reflecting the rate of eustatic sea-level rise but being ca 10 m higher possibly because of the effect of hydro-istostasy. Three late Pleistocene interfluve terraces, T3 to T1, were revealed at burial depths of <5 m, 5-15 m, and 20-30 m, respectively, lying between the paleo-incised mega-valleys of the Yangtze River in the north and the Qiantang River in the south, during the last glacial maximum. During the early mid-Holocene, the combined effect of rapid sea-level rise and the huge sediment accommodation space of the mouths of the two mega-rivers resulted in widespread inundation by brackish water and the shoreline retreated onto the highest terrace (T3). Although seaward migration of the Yangtze delta probably began at ca 7300 cal BP, saltmarsh and tidal flats dominated on the southern Yangtze delta plain until ca 6500 to 6000 cal BP when sea level became relatively stable and the shoreline prograded rapidly from T3 to the seaward boundary of T2. The concurrent formation of the freshwater-dominated Taihu Plain allowed Neolithic settlement and development of agriculture.

  2. 40Ar-39Ar thermochronology of the southern Gawler Craton, Australia: Implications for Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic tectonics of East Gondwana and Rodinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, David A.; Ehlers, Karin

    1998-05-01

    40Ar-39Ar thermochronology of the southern Gawler Craton, Australia, reveals a protracted history of slow cooling, with local crustal heating, rapid cooling, and fault reactivation, between ˜1700 and ˜700 Ma. Hornblendes from most of the southern part of the Craton, including the Kalinjala Mylonite Zone, yield ages ˜1580-1610 Ma, with younger more discordant samples showing evidence of retrogression. These results indicate that the region cooled below ˜500°C ˜100 m.y. after the Kimban Orogeny and coincident with the Gawler Range-Hiltaba Suite magmatism, to the north, perhaps associated with postorogenic extension. Biotite and K-feldspar data indicate that regional cooling after this time was more gradual, with a few exceptions. Locally, in the southeastern Eyre Peninsula, rapid cooling at ˜1425 Ma is indicated by nearly concordant hornblende and biotite ages and may record a phase of regional extension. Other exceptions include areas of lower grade Archean rocks that cooled to <350°C by ˜1700-1640 Ma. Greenschist facies reactivation of shear zones occurred at ˜1100 Ma, during the Musgravian Orogeny, on the basis of biotite single-grain data and retrogressed amphiboles. K-feldspar age spectra record cooling at 700-800 Ma following regional intrusion of the Gairdner Dike Swarm and/or denudation during rifting along the Pacific margin of East Gondwana and breakup of Rodinia. Tectonothermal events revealed by these results, previous geochronological, and geological studies and available paleomagnetic data are comparable to other cratons and mobile belts in Australia, East Gondwana, and Laurentia, providing evidence that southeastern Australia and North America were adjacent during much of Proterozoic time.

  3. Impact of moisture flux convergence and soil moisture on precipitation: a case study for the southern United States with implications for the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Su, Hua; Yang, Zong-Liang

    2015-04-01

    Interactions between soil moisture, evapotranspiration (ET), atmospheric moisture fluxes and precipitation are complex. It is difficult to attribute the variations of one variable to another. In this study, we investigate the influence of atmospheric moisture fluxes and land surface soil moisture on local precipitation, with a focus on the southern United States (U.S.), a region with a strong humidity gradient and intense moisture fluxes. Experiments with the Weather Research and Forecasting model show that the variation of moisture flux convergence (MFC) is more important than that of soil moisture for precipitation variation over the southern U.S. Further analyses decompose the precipitation change into several contributing factors and show that MFC affects precipitation both directly through changing moisture inflow (wet areas) and indirectly by changing the precipitation efficiency (transitional zones). Soil moisture affects precipitation mainly by changing the precipitation efficiency, and secondly through direct surface ET contribution. The greatest soil moisture effects are over transitional zones. MFC is more important for the probability of heavier rainfall; soil moisture has much weaker impact on rainfall probability and its roles are similar for the probability of intermediate-to-heavy rainfall (>10 mm day-1). Although MFC is more important than soil moisture for precipitation over most regions, the impact of soil moisture could be large over certain transitional regions. At the submonthly time scale, the African Sahel appears to be the only major region where soil moisture has a greater impact than MFC on precipitation. This study provides guidance to understanding and further investigation of the roles of local land surface processes and large-scale circulations on precipitation.

  4. Genetic Diversity of Schistosoma haematobium Eggs Isolated from Human Urine in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Mohamed, Abdoelohab Saed; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Lee, Jin-Su; Hong, Sung-Tae; Yong, Tai-Soon; Cha, Guang-Ho; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium remains largely unstudied in comparison to that of Schistosoma mansoni. To characterize the extent of genetic diversity in S. haematobium among its definitive host (humans), we collected S. haematobium eggs from the urine of 73 infected schoolchildren at 5 primary schools in White Nile State, Sudan, and then performed a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker ITS2 by PCR-RFLP analysis. Among 73 S. haematobium egg-positive cases, 13 were selected based on the presence of the S. haematobium satellite markers A4 and B2 in their genomic DNA, and used for RFLP analysis. The 13 samples were subjected to an RFLP analysis of the S. haematobium ITS2 region; however, there was no variation in size among the fragments. Compared to the ITS2 sequences obtained for S. haematobium from Kenya, the nucleotide sequences of the ITS2 regions of S. haematobium from 4 areas in Sudan were consistent with those from Kenya (> 99%). In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that most of the S. haematobium population in Sudan consists of a pan-African S. haematobium genotype; however, we also report the discovery of Kenyan strain inflow into White Nile, Sudan. PMID:26174820

  5. Part I: cancer in Sudan—burden, distribution, and trends breast, gynecological, and prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Elamin, Amany; Ibrahim, Muntaser E; Abuidris, Dafalla; Mohamed, Kamal Eldin H; Mohammed, Sulma Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing burden of cancer worldwide, it continues to receive low priority in Africa, across the continent and specifically in Sudan. This is due to political unrest, limited health resources, and other pressing public health issues such as infectious diseases. Lack of awareness about the magnitude of the current and future cancer burden among policy makers play a major role as well. Although, the real scope of cancer in Sudan is not known, the reported cases have increased from 303 in 1967–6303 in 2010. According to Globocan estimates, the top most common cancers in both sexes are breast, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, esophagus, and colorectum. This review is the first of four papers that focuses on cancer, its distribution and trend as well as the risk factors most common in Sudan. It is expected that cancer will increase in Sudan as a result of migration of people from rural areas to urban cities in the pursuit of a better standard of living, which has resulted in lifestyle and behavioral changes that include tobacco chewing and smoking, unhealthy dieting, and a lack of physical activity. These changes are further exacerbated by the aging population and have made the country vulnerable to many diseases including cancer. These reviews are meant to provide a better understanding and knowledge required to plan appropriate cancer-control and prevention strategies in the country. PMID:25641872

  6. Insecticide resistance in the cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) in the Sudan Gezira

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. M. Ahmed; E. A. Elhag; N. H. H. Bashir

    1987-01-01

    The results of a survey of insecticide resistance in the cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) to some of the commonly used insecticides, or insecticide mixtures, in the Sudan Gezira Scheme, disclosed that high levels of resistance exist in the Scheme's whitefly populations. The resistance ratios of the scheme populations, relative to a susceptible strain, for the adults and nymphs, respectively

  7. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater in the Blue Nile Basin, eastern Sudan, using conventional and multivariate techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Tahir Hussein

    2004-01-01

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater systems can be carried out using conventional and multivariate techniques, namely cluster, factor analyses and others such as correspondence analysis. The main objective of this study is to investigate the groundwater quality in the Blue Nile basin of eastern Sudan, and to workout a hydrochemical evaluation for the aquifer system. Conventional methods and multivariate techniques were

  8. Statistical-Dynamical Approach for Streamflow Modeling at Malakal, Sudan, on the White Nile River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Block; Balaji Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The upper White Nile Basin above Malakal, Sudan, is considered to be one of the most complicated and diverse hydrologic settings on Earth. Accurately depicting and predicting the streamflow at Malakal is essential for water managers considering Nile Basin-wide initiatives and potential large-scale projects. Dynamical, statistical, and combination models are assessed for their ability to predict monthly streamflow at Malakal.

  9. A Fuzzy Vault Scheme Ari Juels 1 and Madhu Sudan 2

    E-print Network

    A Fuzzy Vault Scheme Ari Juels 1 and Madhu Sudan 2 1 RSA Laboratories Bedford, MA 01730, USA E to as a fuzzy vault. A player Alice may place a secret value # in a fuzzy vault and ``lock'' it using a set A of elements from some public universe U . If Bob tries to ``unlock'' the vault using a set B of similar length

  10. Using Open Source Software in Education in Developing Countries: The Sudan as an Example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bazara I. A. Barry

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the demand for education in the developing countries at all levels has witnessed an exponential growth. Despite the difficulties and hurdles facing learners, we find that wide sectors of the societies in developing countries aspire to access educational resources. In this paper, we try to shed some light on the promise of open source software in education in Sudan

  11. State Terrorism and GlobalizationThe Cases of Ethiopia and Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asafa Jalata

    2005-01-01

    This article compares the essence and effects of Ethiopian and Sudanese state terrorism by focusing on the commonalities between the two states. These peripheral African states have used global and regional connections and state terrorism as political tools for creating and maintaining the confluence of identity, religion, and political power. Ethiopia primarily depends on the West, and Sudan on the

  12. South Sudan: Stakeholders' Views of Technical and Vocational Education and Training and a Framework for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atari, Dominic Odwa; McKague, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of South Sudan, recently emerging from the longest civil war in contemporary African history, has set goals towards post-conflict reconstruction in many areas of social services. However, the educational infrastructure continues to struggle, and many stakeholders in government and international and local organisations are not…

  13. Decoding ReedSolomon Codes up to the Sudan Radius with the Euclidean Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Decoding Reed­Solomon Codes up to the Sudan Radius with the Euclidean Algorithm Alexander Zeh {alexander.zeh,wenhui.li}@uni-ulm.de Abstract--We modify the Euclidean algorithm of Feng and Tzeng to decode (IRS) codes, Euclidean algorithm, Shift­Register syn- thesis I. INTRODUCTION The Euclidean algorithm

  14. Adult Literacy in Africa--Nigeria, Rhodesia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania. Literacy Bibliographies 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Inst. for Adult Literacy Methods, Teheran (Iran).

    Approximately 200 items are listed in this bibliography of materials pertaining to adult literacy in Nigeria, Rhodesia, South Africa, the Sudan, and Tanzania. The listed materials are categorized according to country and deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) adult education and adaptation to change in Nigeria; (2) adult…

  15. Chironomid Haemoglobins: Their Detection and Role in Allergy to Midges in the Sudan and Elsewhere.

    E-print Network

    Cranston, Peter S.

    f' Chironomid Haemoglobins: Their Detection and Role in Allergy to Midges in the Sudan. London SW7 5BD. ROSEMARYD. TEE Department ofAllergy and Clinical Immunology Cardiothoracic Institute University of London Regent's Park, London NWI 4NS. A.B. KAY Department of Allergy and Clinical

  16. Sub-regional integration in Sudan: the key to food security and recovery.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Brian; Tecosky, Olivia

    2007-03-01

    The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Sudan has created a new opportunity for peace. Approaches to food security must now be reoriented based on the agro-ecological diversity in Sudan. WFP is in a unique position to catalyse an approach to food security that meets immediate needs and contributes to long-term recovery, in collaboration with the Government of National Unity (GNU) and the Government of South Sudan (GOSS). Aggregate food production in Sudan has increased in the past decade. At sub-regional levels, however, many areas remain food insecure. Major research must be undertaken to identify optimum levels of food production and barriers to access to food at sub-regional levels as a first step towards linking deficit areas with areas of surplus. Initiatives must also be undertaken to facilitate increased integration between sub-regions. Increased sub-regional linkages could ensure more efficient delivery of food in the short term as well as recovery and economic growth in the long term. PMID:17349002

  17. Tree Knowledge and Livelihood Activities in a Changing Environment: Views From Smallholder Farmers in Kosti, Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fobissie B. Kalame; Olavi Luukkanen; Elnour A. Elsiddig; Edinam K. Glover

    2010-01-01

    Integrated agriculture and forestry land-use practices are critical in countries like Sudan, which faces accelerated deforestation, as they can make land-use and agricultural production systems more sustainable. The accelerated loss of forest vegetation is often perceived to result from increased unsustainable exploitation by poor rural populations for their livelihood needs. To explore this critique, we examined smallholder farmers' (SHFs) views

  18. In situ ionic-liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of Sudan dyes from liquid samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Song, Daqian; Wang, Yuanpeng; Gao, Yan; Cao, Bocheng; Zhang, Hanqi; Sun, Ying

    2014-08-01

    In situ ionic-liquid-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was introduced for extracting Sudan dyes from different liquid samples followed by detection using ultrafast liquid chromatography. The extraction and metathesis reaction can be performed simultaneously, the extraction time was shortened notably and higher enrichment factors can be obtained compared with traditional dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. When the extraction was coupled with ultrafast liquid chromatography, a green, convenient, cheap, and efficient method for the determination of Sudan dyes was developed. The effects of various experimental factors, including type of extraction solvent, amount of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, ratio of ammonium hexafluorophosphate to 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, pH value, salt concentration in sample solution, extraction time and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized for the extraction of four kinds of Sudan dyes. The limits of detection for Sudan I, II, III, and IV were 0.324, 0.299, 0.390, and 0.655 ng/mL, respectively. Recoveries obtained by analyzing the seven spiked samples were between 65.95 and 112.82%. The consumption of organic solvent (120 ?L acetonitrile per sample) was very low, so it could be considered as a green analytical method. PMID:24840862

  19. Serodiagnosis of infection with Trypanosoma evansi in camels in the Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Luckins; R. Boid; P. Rae; M. M. Mahmoud; K. H. EL MALIK; A. R. Gray

    1979-01-01

    Five diagnostic tests for infection withTrypanosoma evansi have been compared in groups of camels experimentally infected or exposed to natural infection in the Sudan. The correlation of positive results obtained by assays of IgM levels, the mercuric chloride test and the formol gel test with the presence of active infection was unsatisfactory, but there was a good correlation between results

  20. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan...538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to...

  1. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan...538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to...

  2. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan...538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to...

  3. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan...538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to...

  4. Mothers and militias: Islamic state construction of the women citizens of Northern Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sondra Hale

    1999-01-01

    As the only Sunni Islamic Republic in the world, Sudan's middle?class, modernist Islamist revolution can be seen as a model for the mobilization of public consciousness about citizenship in an Islamic state. That this citizenship is consciously and conspicuously gendered is the main theme of this paper. In the north, where mobilization has been most successful, Sudanese women have both

  5. A statistical perspective on data mining Jonathan Hosking, Edwin Pednault and Madhu Sudan

    E-print Network

    Sudan, Madhu

    A statistical perspective on data mining Jonathan Hosking, Edwin Pednault and Madhu Sudan IBM T. J, frequentist inference, PAC learning, statistical learning theory. 1 Introduction: a statistician looks at data for summarizing and identifying patterns in data. Many statistical models exist for explaining relationships

  6. Heterogeneity and Reservoir Quality of Yabus and Samaa Formations, Agordeed Field, Melut Rift Basin, Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amani Badi; Omer Ali; Abdalla Farwa; Osman Abdullatif

    2010-01-01

    The Tertiary Yabus and Samaa Formations occur within the Melut Rift basin of interior Sudan which is regionally linked to the central and west African rift system. Yabus and Samaa Formations in Agordeed oil field are ones of the most productive oil reservoirs in Melut basin and are composed of sandstones and mudstones lithofacies that differ in size and length

  7. Upper Cretaceous to Neogene palynology of the Melut Basin, Southeast Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Eisawi; Eckart Schrank

    2008-01-01

    The palynology of the Upper Cretaceous to Neogene non?marine succession in the Melut Basin, southeast Sudan was investigated. The palynomorphs are overwhelmingly of terrestrial origin, but rare brackish water dinoflagellate cysts and scolecodonts were encountered from the Lower Miocene and Oligocene?Miocene. Mangrove pollen, which is common in coeval West African coastal basins, is rare and inconsistent. Examples are Spinizonocolpites (Nypa)

  8. Investigations in the problem of diarrhoea in the Melut district, South Sudan (1981-1982).

    PubMed

    Sixl, W; Sixl-Voigt, B; Stünzner, D; Arbesser, C; Reinthaler, F; Mascher, F; Rosegger, H; Schneeweiss, W; Schuhmann, G

    1987-01-01

    Studies of diseases associated with diarrhoea in the Melut district of South Sudan in the years 1981-1982 showed amoebic dysentery and Rota-virus to be predominate, whereby according to our previous results Yersinia, Campylobacter, Shigella and Salmonella infections also play a role. In addition other parasitological bacterial and viral-infections are presumed. PMID:3443749

  9. A Basic Hybrid Library Support Model to Distance Learners in Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelrahman, Omer Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Distance learning has flourished in Sudan during the last two decades; more and more higher education institutions offer distance learning programmes to off-campus students. Like on-campus students, distance learners should have access to appropriate library and information support services. They also have specific needs for library and…

  10. Urbanization, Culture, and Helpfulness: Cross-Cultural Studies in England and the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousif, Yousif; Korte, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Studies the "urban unhelpfulness" effect in England and the Sudan and the validity of cultural and dispositional explanations that have been put forward to explain it. Responses from 270 participants show the urban unhelpfulness effect to be quite equivalent in both countries. Additionally, the dispositional explanation was not supported in light…

  11. The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

  12. Reaching out and Partnering in the Sudan through Integrated Community-Oriented Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelrahman, Samira; Al Fadil, Sumaia

    2011-01-01

    Community-university partnerships, if they are to be successful, must be firmly grounded in the context in which they take place. This paper describes the ways in which the University of Gezira in the Sudan from its very beginning was built on an understanding of rural communities. The university's Faculty of Medicine built its training around…

  13. Report to the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan on Industrial Vocational Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This detailed, 2-year study used skill surveys to determine the Sudan's existing and developing needs for vocational training in various trades (at various levels, including retraining and upgrading). Two other objectives were to ascertain the educational and skill levels for different occupations, in particular in the engineering industry to…

  14. The upper lithostratigraphic unit of ANDRILL AND-2A core (Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica): local Pleistocene volcanic sources, paleoenvironmental implications and subsidence in the southern Victoria Land Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carlo, P.; Panter, K. S.; Bassett, K. N.; Bracciali, L.; di Vincenzo, G.; Rocchi, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report results from the study of the uppermost 37 meters of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) AND-2A drillcore, corresponding to the lithostratigraphic unit 1 (LSU 1), the most volcanogenic unit within the core. Nearly all of LSU 1 consists of volcanic breccia and sandstone that is a mixture of near primary volcanic material dominated by lava and vitric clasts with minor exotic material derived from distal basement sources. Lava clasts and glass are mafic and range from strongly alkaline (basanite, tephrite) to moderately alkaline (alkali basalt, hawaiite) compositions that are similar to nearby land deposits. 40Ar-39Ar laser step-heating analyses on groundmass separated from lava clasts yield Pleistocene ages (692±38 and 793±63, ±2? internal errors). Volcanoes of the Dailey Island group, located ~13 km SW of the drillsite, are a possible source for the volcanic materials based on their close proximity, similar composition and age. A basanite lava flow on Juergens Island yields a comparable Pleistocene age of 775±22 ka. Yet there is evidence to suggest that the volcanic source is much closer to the drillsite and that the sediments were deposited in much shallower water relative to the present-day water depth of 384 mbsl. Evidence for local volcanic activity is based in part on the common occurrence of delicate vitriclasts (e.g. glass shards and Pele’s hair) and a minimally reworked ~2 meter thick monomict breccia that is interpreted to have formed by autobrecciating lava. In addition, conical-shaped seamounts and high frequency magnetic anomalies encompass the drillsite and extend south including the volcanoes of the Dailey Islands. Sedimentary features and structures indicate shallow water sedimentation for the whole of LSU 1. Rippled asymmetric cross-laminated sands and hummocky cross-stratification occur intermittently throughout LSU 1 and indicate water depths shallower than 100 meters. The occurrence of ooliths and layers containing siderite and Fe-rich cement, along with the occurrence of shallow water diatoms, all indicate deposition in shallow waters agitated by waves. These results contrast strikingly with the present water depth, and let us infer rapid recent tectonic subsidence within this segment of the Victoria Land Basin (Terror Rift).

  15. Age and tectonic evolution of Neoproterozoic ductile shear zones in the Southern Granulite Terrain of India, with implications for Gondwana studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Joy Gopal; de Wit, Maarten J.; Zartman, R. E.

    2004-06-01

    The high-grade rocks of the Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) of Peninsular India are bounded to the north by the Archean Dharwar Craton. Another high-grade terrane, the Mesoproterozoic Eastern Ghats, occurs to the northeast of the SGT. The tectonic relationship between these crustal domains is complex. We present new geochronological and structural data that indicate a continuation of the Dharwar Craton into the Southern Granulite Terrain as far south as a newly identified Neoproterozoic shear zone, here named the Karur-Kamban-Painavu-Trichur Shear Zone (KKPTSZ). South of the KKPTSZ, Mesoproterozoic dates of the SGT are similar to those recorded in the Eastern Ghats, and the two domains may have been conterminous. Thirty-three new U/Pb/Th single zircon and monazite dates of samples from six structural transects across the regional shear zones indicate that the SGT has experienced at least seven thermo-tectonic events at 2.5 Ga, ˜2.0 Ga, ˜1.6 Ga, ˜1.0 Ga, ˜800 Ma, ˜600 Ma, and ˜550 Ma, and two distinct episodes of metasomatism/charnockitization between 2.50-2.53 and between 0.55-0.53 Ga. Deformation along a number of major shear zones in the SGT is Neoproterozoic to earliest Paleozoic in age, with an early phase (D2) concentrated between 700-800 Ma, and a later phase (D3) between 550 and 600 Ma. Major charnockitization (530-550 Ma) post dates D3, and is, in turn, overprinted by granitization, retrogression, and uplift between 525 and 480 Ma. The KKPTSZ, active between 560 and 570 Ma, is either a terrane boundary, or a tectonized décollement between cover and Archean basement rocks represented by predominantly paragneisses to the south and orthogneisses to the north, respectively. Other regional Neoproterozoic shear zones do not appear to separate allochthonous terranes as previously suggested on the basis of Nd model ages and Rb/Sr biotite/whole rock dates. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian tectonothermal history of the SGT and Eastern Ghats is similar to that recorded in parts of Madagascar, East Africa, and Antarctica, and is used to reconstruct parts of central Gondwana, here named the Deccan Continent, with more robust confidence.

  16. Elemental and Sr Nd isotopic systematics of the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Peng, Touping; Guo, Feng

    2005-02-01

    Elemental and Sr Nd isotopic results are presented for the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence (~172 Ma) in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. The sequence is voluminously composed of ~45% subalkaline basaltic rocks (group 1), <5% high-mg andesite dacites (group 2) and ~50% rhyolites (group 3). The group 1 rocks are characterized by (La/Yb)cn = 3.8 7.2, Eu/Eu* = 0.65 1.15, Nb/La = 0.64 0.99, 87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.70602~0.70822 and ?Nd(t) = -1.63 to +0.11, similar to those of an EMII-like source. The group 2 rocks have mg=0.42~0.60, SiO2=60.24~66.71%, MgO=2.65~ 5.54%, Ni=24~102 ppm and Cr=84~266 ppm, classified as high-mg andesitic rocks. These rocks are more enriched in LILEs and LREE with more significant negative Eu anomaly (0.63~0.79), are more depleted in HFSEs with Nb/La ratios of 0.40 0.56 and have lower ?Nd(t) (-9.44 to -7.78) and higher 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.70985~0.71016), in comparison with the group 1 rocks. They most likely originated from metasomatised veins in the lithospheric mantle. The origination of the group 1 and group 2 magma suggests the development of a peridotite-plus-vein lithospheric mantle during early Mesozoic era beneath the interior of the Cathaysian block. The group 3 rhyolites are characterized by high SiO2 (72.75~77.97%), Zr (99~290 ppm), Hf (3.9~9.7 ppm) and Ga/Al (2.76~3.87) and significant Nb Ta, Ba Sr and P Ti depletions. These rhyolites exhibit Sr Nd isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.70962~0.71104, ?Nd(t) = -4.63 to -5.80) similar to the contemporaneous Zhaibei and Pitou A-type granites in the area. Such characteristics suggest that they might be derived from the underplating basaltic magma contaminated by crustal materials. Therefore, an early Mesozoic rifting model in response to intracontinental lithospheric extension is proposed to account for the early Mesozoic volcanism in southern Jiangxi Province, South China.

  17. Modeling the bloom evolution and carbon flows during SOIREE: Implications for future in situ iron-enrichments in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannon, E.; Boyd, P. W.; Silvoso, M.; Lancelot, C.

    The impact of a mesoscale in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SOIREE) on the planktonic ecosystem and biological pump in the Australasian-Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean was investigated through model simulations over a period of 60-d following an initial iron infusion. For this purpose we used a revised version of the biogeochemical SWAMCO model ( Lancelot et al., 2000), which describes the cycling of C, N, P, Si, Fe through aggregated chemical and biological components of the planktonic ecosystem in the high nitrate low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean. Model runs were conducted for both the iron-fertilized waters and the surrounding HNLC waters, using in situ meteorological forcing. Validation was performed by comparing model predictions with observations recorded during the 13-d site occupation of SOIREE. Considerable agreement was found for the magnitude and temporal trends in most chemical and biological variables (the microbial food web excepted). Comparison of simulations run for 13- and 60-d showed that the effects of iron fertilization on the biota were incomplete over the 13-d monitoring of the SOIREE bloom. The model results indicate that after the vessel departed the SOIREE site there were further iron-mediated increases in properties such as phytoplankton biomass, production, export production, and uptake of atmospheric CO 2, which peaked 20-30 days after the initial iron infusion. Based on model simulations, the increase in net carbon production at the scale of the fertilized patch (assuming an area of 150 km2) was estimated to 9725 t C by day 60. Much of this production accumulated in the upper ocean, so that the predicted downward export of particulate organic carbon (POC) only represented 22% of the accumulated C in the upper ocean. Further model runs that implemented improved parameterization of diatom sedimentation (i.e. including iron-mediated diatom sinking rate, diatom chain-forming and aggregation) suggested that the downward POC flux predicted by the standard run might have been underestimated by a factor of up to 3. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the biological response to iron-enrichment at locales with different initial oceanographic conditions (such as mixed-layer depth) or using different iron fertilization strategies (single vs. pulsed additions) was conducted. The outcomes of this analysis offer insights in the design and location of future in situ iron-enrichments.

  18. Respiratory infection of camels associated with parainfluenza virus 3 in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Intisar, K S; Ali, Y H; Khalafalla, A I; Rahman, Mahasin E A; Amin, A S

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) in respiratory infection of camels. A total of 273 lung specimens from camels with pneumonia lesions were collected from slaughterhouses in four different areas of Sudan. In addition, eight specimens were collected from outbreaks of respiratory infection in camels. Using antigen detection sandwich ELISA kits, six out of the 281 specimens tested were positive for the PIV3 antigen (2.1%); the highest prevalence was noted in Eastern Sudan (4.2%), then in Central and Northern Sudan (1.4%). The direct immunofluorescent test (FAT) was used to confirm the positive reactions for PIV3 by ELISA. The polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied for the detection of the PIV3 genome in lungs of camels; two out of four samples which were positive by the PIV3 ELISA were also positive by RT-PCR. Virus isolation was attempted for PIV3 in MDBK cells; four specimens yielded cytopathic virus when inoculated onto the cell culture. The cytopathic effect (CPE) consisted of cell rounding, multinucleated cells, sloughing and elongation of cells, and some syncytia were observed on the 3rd to 7th day post-inoculation. Using commercially available indirect ELISA kits for antibodies to PIV3, 495 camel sera were tested, and the seroprevalence detected was 82.2%. The highest seroprevalence was observed in Central (92.6%), then in Eastern (92.2%) and Central to South Sudan (82.5%); the lowest prevalence was found in Northern Sudan (64.8%). PMID:19733593

  19. Regional variations in upper mantle compressional velocities beneath southern California 1. Post-shock temperatures: Their experimental determination, calculation, and implications, 2.. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raikes, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    The compressional velocity within the upper mantle beneath Southern California is investigated through observations of the dependence of teleseismic P-delays at all stations of the array on the distance and azimuth to the event. The variation of residuals with azimuth was found to be as large as 1.3 sec at a single station; the delays were stable as a function of time, and no evidence was found for temporal velocity variations related to seismic activity in the area. These delays were used in the construction of models for the upper mantle P-velocity structure to depths of 150 km, both by ray tracing and inversion techniques. The models exhibit considerable lateral heterogeneity including a region of low velocity beneath the Imperial Valley, and regions of increased velocity beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Transverse Ranges. The development is described of a technique for the experimental determination of post-shock temperatures, and its application to several metals and silicates shocked to pressures in the range 5 to 30 GPa. The technique utilizes an infra-red radiation detector to determine the brightness temperature of the free surface of the sample after the shock wave has passed through it.

  20. Iron enrichment and photoreduction of iron under UV and PAR in the presence of hydroxycarboxylic acid: implications for phytoplankton growth in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, Murat; Croot, Peter L.; Bertilsson, Stefan; Abrahamsson, Katarina; Karlson, Bengt; David, Roland; Fransson, Agneta; Sakshaug, Egil

    2004-11-01

    Iron(III) photoreduction and the responses of phytoplankton under ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) were investigated with the presence of hydroxycarboxylic acid (glucaric acid (GA), a model compound for organic acids excreted by phytoplankton). The incubation experiments were carried out on board using seawater samples collected in the location of the winter ice edge (WIE) and the spring ice edge (SIE) of the Southern Ocean. In this paper, we focus on the results of experiment in WIE. Throughout the experiments, dissolved Fe(II), major nutrients and in vivo fluorescence were monitored regularly. In addition, Chl- a, POC/PON, cell densities of phytoplankton and bacteria, bacterial production, organic peroxide, hydrogen peroxide and total CO 2 were measured. The results from the WIE show that iron enrichment had a substantial effect on phytoplankton growth rate. Fe(III) addition in the presence of GA (FeGA) gave higher Fe(II) concentration and higher growth rate of phytoplankton than those in controls. Our results suggest that hydroxycarboxylic acid had a significant chemical and biological impact. The presence of GA influenced iron photochemistry and iron availability to phytoplankton. Phytoplankton growth responses to iron enrichments in incubations under UV and PAR were completely dissimilar. It seems that FeGA addition prominently changes the harmful effect of UV on the phytoplankton population. This study provides preliminary information on how the photoreduction of iron(III) and the phytoplankton growth are affected by iron enrichment in the presence of hydroxycarboxylic acid.

  1. The Sr and Nd isotopic variations of the southern Japan Sea sediments over the past 48 ka: Implications for terrigenous sediment provenance and East Asian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, XueFa; Zhu, Aimei

    2015-04-01

    143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the acid-insoluble residues of the fine-grained sediments (<63?m) of core KCES1 collected from the Ulleung Basin (southern Japan Sea) were investigated. The Sr isotopic compositions of the sediments range between 0.718-0.723 with an average value of 0.72. ?Nd values vary from -10.12 to -12.03 with an average vaule of -11.02. Temporal distributions of the Sr and Nd isotopes of the sediments showed higher Sr isotope ratios and lower Nd isotope ratios during the Holocene, increasing trends of Sr and Nd isotope ratios during the last deglaciation and relatively stable Sr and Nd isotope ratios during the last glacial periods. The downcore variations in Sr and Nd isotopic compositions indicate climatically induced changes in sediment provenance from two isotopically distinct end-members: Yangtze River and Chinese Loess Plateau. Sediments deposited after 8 ka were supplied mainly from the Yang River, while before 8 ka the eolian input contributed much to the sediments. The rapid change in sediment source is closely related to the evolution of East Asian Monsoon and sea level. Acknowledgements: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41476056, 41206059) and by Basic Scientific Fund for National Public Research Institutes of China (No. 2012G31, GY0213G23).

  2. Risk maps for the presence and absence of Phlebotomus perniciosus in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in southern Spain: implications for the control of the disease.

    PubMed

    Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Irigaray, C; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant Leishmania infantum vector, P. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. We obtained data for the presence/absence of P. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern Spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. The probability of P. perniciosus presence was estimated as a function of these environmental variables and generated spatial risk maps. Altitude, land use and drainage hole features (with or without PVC piping) were retained as the only predictors for the distribution of this vector species. Drainage hole features in retaining walls, with or without PVC piping, produce significant variations in the probability of P. perniciosus presence, varying from 2·3 to 91·8% if PVC piping is absent and from 0·4 to 66·5% if all holes have PVC piping. It was concluded that the use of PVC piping in drainage holes could help to reduce leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:21854702

  3. Isotopic composition of a calcite-cemented layer in the Lower Jurassic Bridport Sands, southern England: Implications for formation of laterally extensive calcite-cemented layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerkum, P.A. (Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)); Walderhaug, O. (Rogaland Research, Stavanger (Norway))

    1993-07-01

    [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] and [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values have been measured on 107 calcite cement samples from a laterally extensive (> 3 km) and continuous calcite-cemented layer 0.5 m thick in the coastal exposures of the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine Bridport Sands in Dorset, southern England. The samples were taken from a two-dimensional grid with 10-cm horizontal and vertical spacing between samples and along individual vertical lines across the calcite-cemented layer, [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values vary between [minus]4.8% and [minus]9.2% and decrease radially outwards from points with lateral spacings on the order of 0.5-1 m in the middle of the calcite-cemented layer. The [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values therefore indicate that the calcite-cemented layer was formed by merging of concretions. All [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values measured are in the narrow range [minus]2.2% to [minus]0.5%, which suggests that the dominant source of calcite cement in the layer was biogenic carbonate.

  4. Geographic distribution of Theileria sp. (buffalo) and Theileria sp. (bougasvlei) in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa: implications for speciation.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Ronel; Latif, Abdalla A; Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Mans, Ben J

    2014-03-01

    Strict control measures apply to movement of buffalo in South Africa including testing for Theileria parva, the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle. The official test is a real-time hybridization PCR assay that amplifies the 18S rRNA V4 hyper-variable region of T. parva, T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Mixed infections with the latter organisms affect diagnostic sensitivity due to PCR suppression. While the incidence of mixed infections in the Corridor disease endemic region of South Africa is significant, little information is available on the specific distribution and prevalence of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei). Specific real-time PCR assays were developed and a total of 1211 samples known to harbour these parasites were screened. Both parasites are widely distributed in southern Africa and the incidence of mixed infections with T. parva within the endemic region is similar (?25-50%). However, a significant discrepancy exists in regard to mixed infections of T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) (?10%). Evidence for speciation between T. sp. (buffalo) and T. sp. (bougasvlei) is supported by phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene, and their designation as different species. This suggests mutual exclusion of parasites and the possibility of hybrid sterility in cases of mixed infections. PMID:24229841

  5. High-resolution bathymetry using Alvin scanning sonar at the Southern East Pacific Rise and its implication to the formation of collapsed lava lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Rosat, S.; Kisimoto, K.; Urabe, T.

    2007-04-01

    A high-resolution bathymetric map of a collapsed lava lake on the ridge crest of the superfast-spreading Southern East Pacific Rise was constructed. The data were acquired during the MOAI'98 Cruise using a pencil-beam scanning sonar that was installed on the submersible Alvin. The map covers an area of 200 × 350 m at the Oasis hydrothermal site (17°25.4´S, 113°12.3´W) where low-temperature fluids are venting from a collapsed lava lake. The collapsed lava lake is 250 m long, with a mean width of 10 m in parallel to the spreading axis on the western flank of the ridge crest. The estimated volume of lava that has drained out is about 7000 m3 erupted from a single event. This small amount of melt and frequent contacts between "young" and "younger" flows indicate that volcanism at the superfast-spreading ridge system is characterized by frequent eruptions of very small volumes of magma.

  6. Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: Implications of an individual-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rose, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    We used an individual-based model to examine possible explanations for the dominance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in southern Appalachian streams. Model simulations were used to quantify the effects on interspecific competition of (1) competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout, (2) latitudinal differences in stream temperatures, flows, and daylight, (3) year-class failures, (4) lower fecundity of brook trout, and (5) reductions in spawning habitat. The model tracks the daily spawning, growth, and survival of individuals of both species throughout their lifetime in a series of connected stream habitat units (pools, runs, or riffles). Average densities of each species based on 100-year simulations were compared for several levels of each of the five factors and for sympatric and allopatric conditions. Based on model results and empirical information, we conclude that more frequent year-class failures and the lower fecundity of brook trout are both possible and likely explanations for rainbow trout dominance, that warmer temperatures due to latitude and limited spawning habitat are possible but unlikely explanations, and that competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout is an unlikely explanation. Additional field work should focus on comparative studies of the reproductive success and the early life stage mortalities of brook and rainbow trout among Appalachian streams with varying rainbow trout dominance. 53 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Petrofacies and provenance of the Puente Formation (middle to upper Miocene), Los Angeles basin, southern California: Implications for rapid uplift and accumulation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Critelli, S. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roges di Rende (Italy). Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica nell`Italia Meridionale ed Insulare; Rumelhart, P.E.; Ingersoll, R.V. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences

    1995-10-02

    The Peunte Formation is a Middle-Upper Miocene clastic unit lying unconformably on the Lower-Middle Miocene El Modeno Volcanics and Topanga Group, in the Los Angeles basin. The Puente Formation, about 3900 m thick, is composed of conglomerate, sandstone, and mudrock deposit;ed as a submarine fan at bathyal depths. Several intrabasinal discordances suggest tectonic activity during deposition. The succession consists of two main upward-thickening and -coarsening megacycles, reflecting submarine-fan progradation. The Puente Formation is characterized up-section by: (1) thin-bedded sandstone and shale (La Vida member) grading to thick-bedded sandstone and conglomerate (Soquel Member); and (2) thin-bedded mudrock and sandstone (Yorba Member) grading to thick- to very thick-bedded sandstone and conglomerate (Sycamore Canyon Member). There is consistent provenance signal in spite of complex transportation tectonics, responsible for opening of the Los Angeles Basin, and later transpressional processes, which are still active. Detailed provenance study of the Puente Formation and related units provides important constraints on paleogeographic and paleotectonic reconstructions of southern California basins and uplifts.

  8. Abrupt turnover in calcareous-nannoplankton assemblages across the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum: implications for surface-water oligotrophy over the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Shijun; Wise, Sherwood W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core Section 183-1135A-25R-4 from the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean represents only the second complete, expanded sequence through the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55 Ma) recovered from Antarctic waters. Calcareous nannoplankton at this site underwent an abrupt, fundamental turnover across the PETM as defined by a carbon isotope excursion. Although Chiasmolithus, Discoaster, and Fasciculithus exponentially increase in abundance at the onset, the former abruptly drops but then rapidly recovers, whereas the latter two taxa show opposite trends due to surface-water oligotrophy. These observations confirm previous results from ODP Site 690 on Maud Rise. The elevated pCO2 that accompanied the PETM caused a shoaling of the lysocline and carbonate compensation depth, leading to intensive dissolution of susceptible holococcoliths and poor preservation of the assemblages. Similarities and contrasts between the results of this study and previous work from open-ocean sites and shelf margins further demonstrate that the response to the PETM was consistent in open-ocean environments, but could be localized on continental shelves where nutrient regimes depend on the local geologic setting and oceanographic conditions.

  9. Family planning in the Sudan: a pilot project success story.

    PubMed

    el Tom, A R; Lauro, D; Farah, A A; McNamara, R; Ali Ahmed, E F

    1989-01-01

    In 1980, the Department of Community Medicine of the University of Khartoum designed an operations research project to test the possibility of getting village midwives to be involved in the delivery of maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) services. From 1981-1983 the project was implemented by the University of Khartoum in cooperation with the Ministry of Health. The project area covered 100 km. It encompassed a largely agrarian population of 93,000 in 90 villages north of Khartoum along the banks of the Nile. The focus was on training and supervising village midwives. Information was provided on contraceptives for birth spacing, distribution of oral contraceptives, and referral for other methods. Also provided to midwives was information for mothers on oral rehydration therapy for children with diarrhea, and distribution of oral rehydration solution packets. Nutrition education was given midwives with emphasis on breastfeeding and weaning procedures. Information was also supplied about vaccination for children under 5 years of age (in collaboration with the Sudan Expanded Program on Immunization). The project was expensive, particularly regarding incentive payments for supervisors and midwives. The project had a very good start, but when incentive payments were withdrawn, it almost collapsed. At first, what midwives could do to provide maternal and child health services was targeted, but as the project went on, there was more concern for involvement of midwives in broader rural health delivery. The project area was a conservative, Islamic one. An extension area was selected 5 hours travelling time from Khartoum in Shendi District of Nile Province. The project was begun in 60 villages of 75,000 inhabitants. The land stretched for 120 km along both banks of the Nile. In the extension area, a small fee (US$.025) was charged per cycle, half going to the midwives, and half towards the health teams' expenses. 21 health zones were created, and a health team created for each. Registers of women aged 15-49 and children 3 years have been set up for each health zone. There have been very good results in the management of diarrhea. PMID:2637704

  10. Large-scale measures applied in the elimination of severe head louse infestation in south Sudan, using pyrethrum and synergists.

    PubMed

    Sixl, W; Sixl-Voigt, B

    1988-01-01

    For the elimination of head-body lice in various villages in the Melut District in South Sudan the application of Pyrethrum louse shampoo and Pyrethrum spray proved highly effective. Clothing were also placed in Pyrethrum suspensions. PMID:3169559

  11. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in...

  12. The evolution of the Hornelen Basin detachment system, western Norway: Implications for the style of late orogenic extension in the southern Scandinavian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilks, W. J.; Cuthbert, S. J.

    1994-11-01

    The geology of the Devonian Hornelen Basin and the surrounding Western Gneiss Region (WGR), western Norway has been examined in detail. Structural, clast provenance and geothermobarometric data have been combined to reconstruct the motion history of part of a major late-orogenic extensional shear zone in the southern Scandinavian Caledonides, the Nordfjord-Sogn Detachment (NSD). The NSD in the Hornelen Basin area is a zone of mylonites 4-6 km thick, tectonostratigraphically constrained within the Lower and Middle Allochthons (LMA) and the uppermost part of the WGR. It separates eclogite-bearing gneisses of the WGR from greenschist and amphibolite facies rocks of the Middle and Upper Allochthons, marking a profound metamorphic break and indicating major excision of crustal section. Kinematic indicators give a consistent "top to the west" shear sense, indicating a reversal of the movement sense of the Scandian nappes, with the ductile strain being distributed through the entire LMA section. The WGR was exhumed from depths of up to 100 km in the footwall of the shear zone, partly aided by pure-shear vertical flattening below the NSD and extension and erosion of the hanging wall. The majority of the movements on the NSD in the Hornelen Basin area occurred under amphibolite facies conditions prior to 410 Ma. Subsequent shear caused limited greenschist retrogression along extensional crenulation cleavages. Depending on interpretation of mica 40Ar- 39Ar ages, this lower-grade shearing may be due to a continuation of movements, or renewal of motion associated with opening of the Hornelen Basin at about 385 Ma. The lack of clear evidence of penetrative greenschist facies mylonites in the Hornelen area may be due to the faulted omission of tectonites of this grade. Following Scandian A-subduction and eclogite facies metamorphism at 425 Ma, the P-T-t path of the WGR shows very rapid decompression associated with early slip on the extensional detachment horizons. Unroofing was initially near isothermal, followed by a phase of rapid near-isobaric cooling. After 410 Ma decompression and cooling slowed, as slip on the NSD slowed or even ceased. By the Middle Devonian, the WGR lay at about 10-15 km depth and the crust had almost returned to isostatic equilibrium. At this time, a brittle fault, splaying from the NSD, ramped upwards through the Upper Allochthon, opening a scoop-shaped, west-facing half-graben, the Hornelen Basin. A further 50 km of heave on the NSD occurred during alluvial infilling of the basin. Subsequently, the basin fill was folded by (Late Devonian?) N-S compression and the basin margins were modified by Mesozoic faulting. These features are consistent with an orogenic collapse model for southern Scandinavia that involves large-scale backsliding of the Scandinavian Caledonides within tectonostratigraphic units. By this mechanism the Baltic Shield could have been efficiently unloaded, with tectonic translations producing significant metamorphic breaks within a seemingly preserved tectonostratigraphic sequence. The model favours orogenic collapse driven by an external pull, rather than internal body forces.

  13. C. 1.5 Ga metamorphism of the Lazdijai 13 volcano-sedimentary sequence in southern Lithuania: its origin and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siliauskas, Laurynas; Skridlaite, Grazina

    2015-04-01

    The concealed crystalline crust in the SW East European Craton consists of several domains finally accreted at 1.8-1.70 Ga (Bogdanova et al., 2014). However, some geological structures in the Lithuanian basement are still poorly reconstructed because of insufficient isotopic and geochemical data. Such is the Lazdijai 13 (Lz13) volcano-sedimentary sequence in southern Lithuania, preliminary dated at 1.83-1.80 Ga (U-Pb zircon age). The newly obtained monazite analyses (EPMA dating, Cameca SX-100 electron microprobe, Warsaw University) allowed dating of metamorphism of the Lz13 rocks. The 300 m thick Lz13 sequence is composed of deformed and metamorphosed volcanics, volcano-clastics and sediments, cross-cut by pegmatite and quartz veins. The upper part of the drilling (at c. 493 m) consists of exhalitic quartz chlorite cherts and metaandesitic rocks. They are underlain by medium-fine grained shists composed of quartz, biotite, garnet, cordierite, staurolite, minor plagioclase, K-feldspar, magnetite and monazite (felsic volcanics, 540 m) that were metamorphosed at 580° C and 6 kbar (garnet, biotite, cordierite geothermobarometry). Monazites are small, interstitial, fragmented and dissolved, some found as inclusions in magnetite. They yielded three ages: 1685±25 Ma, 1525±11Ma, and 1448±24 Ma. Another layer of a fine grained shist (quartz, biotite, garnet, K-feldspar, muscovite, 599 m) of sedimentary origin contains zircons and monazites arranged in thin, undulating lines. The monazites are small, interstitial, partly dissolved, in places overgrown by alanite aggregates. They yielded 1671±29 Ma and 1523±17 Ma ages. Below, at 757 m, a strongly deformed shist composed of quartz, biotite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, garnet and cordierite (former sediment) was metamorphosed at 498° C and 5.4 kbar (garnet, biotite, plagioclase and muscovite geothermobarometry). It contains very small, strongly dissolved and locally overgrown by alanite, monazite grains. Three of them were dated at 1629±48 Ma and 1499±21 Ma. The 1685-1629 Ma ages were obtained from relic domains in the c 1.5 Ga monazites. These domains might be the relics of magmatic monazites, somewhat older than 1.69 Ga. The largest monazite group of c. 1530-1500 Ma seems to record a major metamorphic event. The c. 1450 Ma age might indicate a cooling or lead loss as in case of the oldest monazites. According to the previously obtained data, the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Lz13 might have been formed in a back arc tectonic setting c. 1.83-1.80 Ga ago. The new data shows that the rocks did not experience any stronger metamorphic reworking until c. 1.5 Ga. The nearby AMCG charnockites and host rocks were metamorphosed at 1.53-1.50 Ga (Skridlaite et al., 2008). The metamorphism might have been caused by the intrusion of the 1.54-1.50 Ga AMCG Mazury suite in N Poland and S Lithuania. The Mesoproterozoic AMCG magmatism and metamorphism in Lithuania as well as in Poland may be regarded as inboard manifestations of the accretionary Danopolonian orogeny (Bogdanova, 2008) at the present southern margin of ProtoBaltica. This is a contribution to the Open Access Centre activities Bogdanova, S.V. et al., 2008, Precambrian Research, 160, 23-45. Bogdanova, S., et al., 2014, Precambrian Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2014.11.023 Skridlaite, et al., 2008. Gondwana Research, 14, 663-674.

  14. Leafcutter Bee Nests and Pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: Implications for Understanding the Paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Anna R.; Koch, Jonathan B.; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M.; Hall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ?23,000–40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum ?21,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the broad ecological niche of M. gentilis appears to have remained stable. PMID:24718701

  15. Spatial Variability in Ultrafine Particles at Five Sites in Southern Ontario, Canada During BAQS-Met 2007 Campaign: Implication of Regional Nucleation Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, C.; McGuire, M.; Evans, G.; Rachel, R. Y.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P.; Popescu, R.; Murphy, J.; Zeromskiene, K. G.; Mozurkewich, M.; Leaitch, R.

    2008-12-01

    Ultrafine particle (UFP) measurements were simultaneously conducted in five urban and rural areas; Toronto, Egbert, Ridgetown, Bear Creek, and Harrow in Ontario, Canada as part of the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007). The number and size distributions of UFP in the size range of 14 to 93 nm were measured by a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS, TSI 3091) and four Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers (SMPS) from June 19 to July 8, 2007. Continuous measurements of PM2.5 mass and gaseous pollutants (NH3, CO, SO2, NOx, O3) were also performed at the sites. The highest particle concentrations were observed at the rural site in Harrow, whereas lower concentrations were found in Toronto, a metropolitan area. The variability of hourly averaged UFP concentrations were significantly higher at the Harrow and Bear Creek sites indicating low background levels and frequent occurrence of strong particle nucleation events. Regional particle nucleation events were classified by assessing particle formation and growth rates at the five monitoring sites. The influences of pre-existing particles, gaseous pollutants and meteorological parameters on the classified particle nucleation events were evaluated. Spatial variability of UFP was examined by using the coefficient of divergence (COD) of each size bin of UFP. The COD provides relative measure of homogeneity in UPF concentrations in the southern Ontario. On average, the COD value was lower between Harrow and Bear Creek than between Harrow and Ridgetown. The COD values for smaller particles in the size range (14nm-22nm) tended to be higher than the levels for larger particles (25nm-93nm) suggesting size dependent homogeneity. In order to regional distribution and dispersion of UFP with distance, cumulative semivariogram (CSV) technique was used for UFP number concentrations at five sites. Detailed results over the measurement periods will be presented and discussed.

  16. Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene geologic history of Eastern Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia: implications for the evolution of the southern Afar Depression and hominin paleoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMaggio, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Campisano, C. J.; Reed, K.; Deino, A.

    2012-12-01

    During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (~ 3-2.5 Ma), the Afar region of Ethiopia was undergoing major structural reorganization (e.g., change in extension direction, increased spreading rate) leading to significant landscape modification. Concurrent with these changes in paleogeography, regional trends towards a cooler and drier climate coincide with a clustering of first appearance and extinction events in the faunal record, including the diversification of the early hominin genus Australopithecus and the emergence of our own genus, Homo. However, sediments that span the 3 to 2.5 Ma interval are sparse in eastern Africa, and are especially rare at paleoanthropological sites in the Afar. Here we present new geologic mapping results that indicate extensive deposits of late Pliocene sediments in a previously unmapped region of the lower Awash Valley referred to as the Eastern Ledi-Geraru (ELG). Numerous interbedded airfall tephras enable geochemical comparisons to the existing regional tephrostratigraphic framework as well as high precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephras with suitable feldspars. Feldspars from 8 such tephra deposits span the time period of 3.0 to 2.8 Ma, providing the first glimpse of depositional environments and associated landscapes that existed at that time. Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analysis shows that over a 100 meter thick section of lacustrine to fluvial sediments are exposed along faulted basalt flows following both the Red Sea Rift and Main Ethiopian Rift structural trends. We interpret the geology at ELG to reflect a northeastern migration of paleo Lake Hadar, possibly into a series of smaller basins responding to the migration of the triple junction, a thinning lithosphere, and an increased period of volcanism. Combined with recently collected paleontological assemblages this work provides an opportunity to test proposed links between biotic events, global/regional climate change, and local tectonic events during a critical interval of evolutionary and structural change in southern Afar.

  17. Genesis of an esker-like ridge over the southern Fraser Plateau, British Columbia: Implications for paleo-ice sheet reconstruction based on geomorphic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Andrew J.; Brennand, Tracy A.; Burke, Matthew J.

    2013-05-01

    Robust interpretations of meltwater systems operating during ice sheet decay are integral to reconstructing deglacial patterns and style. Yet over reliance on meltwater landform morphology with limited attention to morpho-sedimentary relationships, and basin-scale geomorphic and stratigraphic context can lead to unreliable geomorphic inversion-based paleo-ice sheet reconstructions. This problem is illustrated by the evolution of Young Lake esker-like ridge (YLER) formed in the Young Lake basin (YLB) on BC's southern Fraser Plateau during decay of the last Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS). We integrate data from digital elevation models, aerial photographs, sedimentary outcrops, water wells and shallow geophysics (ground-penetrating radar, electrical resistivity tomography). Previous interpretations of YLER as both an esker and an ice-contact, poorly-sorted, stratified deposit emplaced by westerly flowing meltwater, imply an eastward retreating ice margin. Geophysical data from a flat-topped component of YLER reveal slipface and planar-bedded sand and gravel overlying lacustrine sediments, characteristic of a Hjulstrom delta. Eastward-dipping foresets in a Gilbert delta exist at the eastern terminus. Contextually our observations suggest, despite esker-like morphology, YLER was not deposited within a subglacial ice tunnel. Instead, it formed through deposition of subaerial outwash between and/or on dead ice in front of a regionally backwasting ice margin. The complex deglacial evolution of YLB, including a drainage reversal and formation of two glacial lakes, supports northwestward backwasting of the CIS and dead ice within YLB. We conclude that accurate geomorphic inversion of meltwater landforms for deglacial paleo-ice sheet reconstruction requires knowledge of landform-scale morpho-sedimentary relationships and basin-scale geomorphic and stratigraphic context.

  18. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Holden, Anna R; Koch, Jonathan B; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M; Hall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ?23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum ?21,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the broad ecological niche of M. gentilis appears to have remained stable. PMID:24718701

  19. Basin geometry and cumulative offsets in the Eastern Transverse Ranges, southern California: Implications for transrotational deformation along the San Andreas fault system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Powell, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Eastern Transverse Ranges, adjacent to and southeast of the big left bend of the San Andreas fault, southern California, form a crustal block that has rotated clockwise in response to dextral shear within the San Andreas system. Previous studies have indicated a discrepancy between the measured magnitudes of left slip on through-going east-striking fault zones of the Eastern Transverse Ranges and those predicted by simple geometric models using paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations of basalts distributed along the faults. To assess the magnitude and source of this discrepancy, we apply new gravity and magnetic data in combination with geologic data to better constrain cumulative fault offsets and to define basin structure for the block between the Pinto Mountain and Chiriaco fault zones. Estimates of offset from using the length of pull-apart basins developed within left-stepping strands of the sinistral faults are consistent with those derived by matching offset magnetic anomalies and bedrock patterns, indicating a cumulative offset of at most ???40 km. The upper limit of displacements constrained by the geophysical and geologic data overlaps with the lower limit of those predicted at the 95% confidence level by models of conservative slip located on margins of rigid rotating blocks and the clockwise rotation of the paleomagnetic vectors. Any discrepancy is likely resolved by internal deformation within the blocks, such as intense deformation adjacent to the San Andreas fault (that can account for the absence of basins there as predicted by rigid-block models) and linkage via subsidiary faults between the main faults. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  20. Southern blotting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    This protocol describes a basic method to perform the Southern blot. Blotting allows the detection of specific molecules among a mixture separated by gel electrophoresis. Molecules are transferred from the gel to a porous membrane by capillary action using absorbent paper to soak solution through the gel and the membrane. For DNA, specific sequences are detected in the membrane by

  1. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the visibility of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. ... is visible. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission ...

  2. Archean sedimentation and tectonics in southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, W. S. F.

    1984-01-01

    Sequences in the Barberton Mountain Land greenstone belt (southern Africa) were examined to determine the nature of the sedimentary rocks, their tectonic implications, and their bearing on the present large-scale structural condition of the belt. Also assessed was whether there was evidence for a significant component of shallow-water-deposited sedimentary rocks in the parent materials of the Limpopo belt. The nature of a largehigh strain zone on the southern margin of the central Limpopo belt was examined.

  3. Geochemistry, geochronology, and Sr-Nd isotopes of the Late Neoproterozoic Wadi Kid volcano-sedimentary rocks, Southern Sinai, Egypt: Implications for tectonic setting and crustal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghazi, Abdel-Kader M.; Ali, Kamal A.; Wilde, Simon A.; Zhou, Qin; Andersen, Tom; Andresen, Arild; Abu El-Enen, Mahrous M.; Stern, Robert J.

    2012-12-01

    The Kid Group is one of the few exposures of Neoproterozoic metavolcano-sedimentary rocks in the basement of southern Sinai in the northernmost Arabian-Nubian Shield. It is divided into the mostly metamorphosed volcaniclastic Melhaq and siliciclastic Um Zariq formations in the north and the mostly volcanic Heib and Tarr formations in the south. The Heib, Tarr, and Melhaq formations reflect an intense episode of igneous activity and immature clastic deposition associated with core-complex formation during Ediacaran time, but Um Zariq metasediments are relicts of an older (Cryogenian) sedimentary sequence. The latter yielded detrital zircons with concordant ages as young as 647 ± 12 Ma, which may indicate that the protolith of Um Zariq schist was deposited after ~ 647 Ma but 19 concordant zircons gave a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 813 ± 6 Ma, which may represent the maximum depositional age of this unit. In contrast, a cluster of 11 concordant detrital zircons from the Melhaq Formation yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 615 ± 6 Ma. Zircons from Heib Formation rhyolite clast define a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 609 ± 5 Ma, which is taken to approximate the age of Heib and Tarr formation volcanism. Intrusive syenogranite sample from Wadi Kid yields a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 604 ± 5 Ma. These constraints indicate that shallow-dipping mylonites formed between 615 ± 6 Ma and 604 ± 5 Ma. Geochemical data for volcanic samples from the Melhaq and Heib formations and the granites show continuous major and trace element variations corresponding to those expected from fractional crystallization. The rocks are enriched in large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, with negative Nb anomalies. These reflect magmas generated by melting of subduction-modified lithospheric mantle, an inference that is further supported by ?Nd(t) = + 2.1 to + 5.5. This mantle source obtained its trace element characteristics by interaction with fluids and melts from subducting oceanic crust during the Late Cryogenian time, prior to terminal collision between fragments of East and West Gondwana at ~ 630 Ma. Positive ?Nd(t) values and the absence of pre-Ediacaran zircons in all but Um Zariq metasediments indicate minor interaction with Cryogenian and older crust. A model of extensional collapse following continental collision, controlled mainly by lithospheric delamination and slab break-off is suggested for the origin of the post-collision volcanics and granites at Wadi Kid. No evidence of pre-Neoproterozoic sources was found. Kid Group Ediacaran volcanic rocks are compositionally and chronologically similar to the Dokhan Volcanics of NE Egypt, which may be stratigraphic equivalents.

  4. Ages and origins of rocks of the Killingworth dome, south-central Connecticut: Implications for the tectonic evolution of southern New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wintsch, R.P.; Tollo, R.P.; Unruh, D.M.; Fanning, C.M.; Schmitz, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Killingworth dome of south-central Connecticut occurs at the southern end of the Bronson Hill belt. It is composed of tonalitic and trondhjemitic orthogneisses (Killingworth complex) and bimodal metavolcanic rocks (Middletown complex) that display calc-alkaline affinities. Orthogneisses of the Killingworth complex (Boulder Lake gneiss, 456 ?? 6 Ma; Pond Meadow gneiss, ???460 Ma) were emplaced at about the same time as eruption and deposition of volcanic-sedimentary rocks of the Middletown complex (Middletown Formation, 449 ?? 4 Ma; Higganum gneiss, 459 ?? 4 Ma). Hidden Lake gneiss (339 ?? 3 Ma) occurs as a pluton in the core of the Killingworth dome, and, on the basis of geochemical and isotopic data, is included in the Killingworth complex. Pb and Nd isotopic data suggest that the Pond Meadow, Boulder Lake, and Hidden Lake gneisses (Killingworth complex) resulted from mixing of Neoproterozoic Gander terrane sources (high 207Pb/204Pb and intermediate ??Nd) and less radiogenic (low 207Pb/204Pb and low ??Nd) components, whereas Middletown Formation and Higganum gneiss (Middletown complex) were derived from mixtures of Gander basement and primitive (low 207Pb/204Pb and high ??Nd) sources. The less radiogenic component for the Killingworth complex is similar in isotopic composition to material from Laurentian (Grenville) crust. However, because published paleomagnetic and paleontologic data indicate that the Gander terrane is peri-Gondwanan in origin, the isotopic signature of Killingworth complex rocks probably was derived from Gander basement that contained detritus from non-Laurentian sources such as Amazonia, Baltica, or Oaxaquia. We suggest that the Killingworth complex formed above an east-dipping subduction zone on the west margin of the Gander terrane, whereas the Middletown complex formed to the east in a back-arc rift environment. Subsequent shortening, associated with the assembly of Pangea in the Carboniferous, resulted in Gander cover terranes over the Avalon terrane in the west; and in the Middletown complex over the Killingworth complex in the east. Despite similarities of emplacement age, structural setting, and geographic continuity of the Killingworth dome with Oliverian domes in central and northern New England, new and published isotopic data suggest that the Killingworth and Middletown complexes were derived from Gander crust, and are not part of the Bronson Hill arc that was derived from Laurentian crust. The trace of the Ordovician Iapetan suture (the Red Indian line) between rocks of Laurentian and Ganderian origin probably extends from Southwestern New Hampshire west of the Pelham dome of northcentral Massachusetts and is coverd by Mesozoic rocks of the Hartford basin.

  5. Vegetation and geomorphic significance of the riparian greenline in the Sprague River basin, southern Oregon: implications for biogeomorphic monitoring of riparian corridors in semi-arid mountain valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, M. L.; Leeseberg, C.

    2009-12-01

    Like many regions in the western U.S., valley-floor environments of the semi-arid Sprague River basin of southern Oregon are heavily irrigated and widely grazed by cattle. To better understand the impacts of grazing and other land uses on river quality, the Klamath Tribes have begun a long-term, basin-wide program aimed at: (1) establishing baseline geomorphic and vegetative conditions along the Sprague River and its tributaries, and (2) monitoring changes in these conditions over time. Because of its widespread use and ease of application, determining the composition of the lowest line of perennial vegetation above baseflow, or the “greenline,” has been included. The goal of this paper is to summarize results of 38 greenline surveys conducted at 19 sites in 2008-9 and to explore geomorphic hypotheses that may explain vegetation patterns evident in the surveys. Spikerush (Eleocharis ssp.) and reed-canary grass (Phalaris arudinacea) were the most commonly occurring vegetation in the greenline across all sites. Because these species are aggressive colonizers, they indicate high availability of fresh alluvium, which may be associated with sustained channel-bank disturbance. Sedges dominated some portions of the greenline at most of the sites, but occurred in less abundance. The late successional or early-to-late transitional state of these sedges, combined with their relatively low frequency, further supports the hypothesis that channel-bank systems remain chronically disturbed and dynamic. Grazing is common, but variable in intensity, at nearly all of the study sites, likely contributing to the persistence of channel-bank disturbance. Among meandering channels, the richness of dominant species (i.e., “community diversity”) was higher on the outer bends than on the inner bends of meanders at 10 of 12 sites. The variability of geomorphic surfaces (old floodplain, new floodplain, failed bank, accreted toe, etc.) incorporated in the greenline by the spatially discontinuous processes of channel-bank erosion and failure on the outer meander bends appears to increase the types of habitats surveyed and their combined biodiversity. In contrast, the spatial continuity of bar accretion on the inner meander bends appears to result in a more uniform geomorphic setting with fewer dominant species in the greenline. Despite widespread recognition that geomorphic processes influence riparian vegetation, factors such as the type and severity of bank erosion, the location of the survey with respect to meander geometry, and the type of geomorphic surface underlying greenline observations are not explicitly included in published guidance for biogeomorphic monitoring of the riparian greenline. Inclusion of such factors would improve communication, study design, and application of research by fluvial geomorphologists, riparian ecologists, and resource managers utilizing the greenline methodology.

  6. Morphometric analysis of drainage network in the northern sector of the southern Italian foredeep: implications for fluvial denudation processes and Late Quaternary geomorphological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioia, D.; Moretti, M.; Gallicchio, S.; Schiattarella, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present new data about the morphological and stratigraphic evolution and the rates of fluvial denudation of an area located in the northernmost sector of the foredeep of the southern Apennines. The study area is the medium- to low-relief sector located between the easternmost part of the Daunia Apennine and the Apulian foreland of the Gargano promontory. This area is characterized by several orders of terraced fluvial deposits disconformably overlying lower Pleistocene marine clay and organized in a staircase geometry, which recorded the emersion and the long-term incision history of this sector since mid-Pleistocene times. Geomorphological analyses have been carried out in order to retrace the landscape evolution of the area and its relationships with tectonic- and eustatic-induced variations of base-levels of erosion. Drainage network morphometry and the estimation of several topographic attributes have been added to the data collected through photo-aerial geomorphological interpretation and field survey. Drainage pattern, morphometric indexes and geological data seem to indicate that the thrust front is not active in the Late Quaternary. Paleotopographic reconstruction of ancient base-levels of erosion has permitted to calculated missing volumes. The estimation of eroded volumes in river valleys was performed through a GIS-aided calculation supported by a DEM with spatial resolution of 8 m, using the several orders of terraced deposits recognized in the area. The mapped remnants of relict geomorphological land surfaces have been interpolated by geospatial analysis and subtracted pixel by pixel to the present-day topography. Then, denudation rates were calculated on the basis of the relative age assigned to the deposits. Middle to upper Pleistocene denudation rates estimated by means of such an approach are about 0.1 mm/y, in good agreement with data coming from direct and indirect evaluation of transport sediment yield. The analysis of longitudinal river profiles using the stream power erosion model provided additional information on the incision rates of the studied area. The Late Quaternary uplift rate (0.15 mm/y), calculated on the basis of the elevation above sea level of the marine deposits outcropping in the easternmost sector of the study area, is quite similar to the erosion rates average value, so suggesting a steady-state fluvial incision.

  7. Implications of the transition from magma-poor to volcanic margin for the understanding of early spreading and break-up of the southern South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Hannes; Franke, Dieter; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Becker, Katharina; Schnabel, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The South Atlantic has been generally recognized as a prime example for continental break-up with accompanying volcanic activity reflected today in massive seaward dipping reflector sequences (SDRS) in reflection as well as high velocity lower crust in refraction seismic data. The southern South Atlantic conjugated margins of Uruguay / Argentina and Namibia / South Africa have been previously investigated with the volcanic segments receiving most of the attention and less focus on the magma-poor margin segments in the southernmost South Atlantic. In our study we show that the southernmost segments on either side of the South Atlantic are indeed magma-poor, with a sharp transition to a volcanic margin type northwards. As the Atlantic opened from South to North, the magma-poor segments of the southernmost South Atlantic are also the oldest segments of the Ocean. Therefore, the magma-poor segments on the conjugated margins must be considered crucial in the understanding of the initial phase of spreading and rifting concluding in the opening of the South Atlantic. Understanding what led to the magma-poor beginning of the spreading phase and what triggered the subsequent change towards the volcanic margin type is therefore the aim of our research. Reflection, refraction seismic and potential field data show that while the two conjugated margins share much of their structural features such as segmentation and abundant volcanism, they are by no means perfectly symmetrical. This is for example shown in shelf width, strength of the magnetic anomalies or orientation of break-up related sedimentary basins. From our data, we suggest changes in spreading and later rifting direction to be the cause of for these asymmetries. This directional change is also suggested to be responsible for the change in margin character from magma-poor to volcanic rather than solely a spontaneous change in crustal melt-generation. The change from south to north is not only reflected in the lack of volcanic extrusives in the more southerly, older segments on either side of the Atlantic, but also in a steeper basement slope more characteristic to sheared passive margins.

  8. Benthic Epiphytic Diatoms in Deep-sea Southern Ocean Sediments as a New Tool for Reconstructing Antarctic Paleoclimatic and Paleoceanographic History: Implications of Floating 'Macroalgal Biotic Oases'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, D. M.; Porter, N.; OConnell, S.

    2014-12-01

    A new paleobiological proxy for Antarctic paleoclimate history provides insight into past extent of open marine shelves on Wilkes Land margin, and calls for reassessment of IRD interpretations in the deep-sea. Marine, epiphytic benthic diatoms that grow attached to macroalgae (seaweed) are recovered in Miocene sediment from DSDP Site 269. They suggest periodic presence of floating rafts or 'biotic oases' in the Southern Ocean comprising buoyant macroalgae, attached benthic diatoms, and biota associated with this displaced coastal community. Macroalgae attach to the substrate with a holdfast, a multi-fingered structure that serves as an anchor. Uprooted holdfasts attached to buoyant macroalgae can raft sedimentary particles, some large (>50 kg), into the deep-sea. In addition, a rich biota of associated invertebrates live in cavities within the holdfast, the dispersal of which may explain the biogeographic distribution of organisms on Subantarctic islands. The stratigraphic occurrence of large, benthic epiphytic diatoms of genera Arachnoidiscus, Isthmia, Rhabdonema, Gephyra, Trigonium, and smaller Achnanthes, Cocconeis, Grammatophora, and Rhaphoneis in sediment cores from DSDP Site 269 reflect a rich, productive epiphytic diatom flora that maintained its position in the photic zone attached to their buoyant seaweed hosts. Amphipods and other herbivores grazed the benthic diatoms and produced diatom-rich fecal pellets that were delivered to the sea-floor. The discontinuous stratigraphic occurrence of the epiphytic diatoms, amongst the background of planktonic diatoms in Core 9 of DSDP Site 269, suggests environmental changes induced by either warm or cold events may have controlled the production and/or release of the macroalgae into the deep-sea. Warm events led to increased shelf areas, and cold events led to formation of ice on the macroalgae to increase their buoyancy and lift-off. Complicating the distinction between warm and cold events is the potential for the transport of sediment within the holdfast, biologically-rafted-debris (BRD). Identifying the abundance and provenance of the terrigeneous sediment may help to distinguish the climate and source-area signal of this complex relationship and refine the use of epiphytic diatoms as a paleoclimate and stratigraphic tool.

  9. Late Quaternary incision rates in the Vésubie catchment area (Southern French Alps) from in situ-produced 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide dating: Tectonic and climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saillard, Marianne; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Zerathe, Swann; Revel, Marie; Jourdon, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    We have estimated recent river incision rates using the in situ-produced 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. The target site consists of a ~25 m high vertical profile along a polished river cliff located in Jurassic limestones in the Vésubie catchment area, in the southern French Alps. The 36Cl exposure ages of the sampled river polished surface range from 3 to 14 ka, i.e., after the Last Glacial Maximum. Our data suggest as a first approximation a linear age/height relationship and lead to a mean incision rate of 2.2 mm a-1 over the last 14 ka. More precisely, incision rates are characterized by two peaks reaching ~2 and 4-5 mm a-1 at 4-5 ka and 11-12 ka, respectively, separated by a period experiencing a lower incision rate (~1 mm a-1). A chi-plot of the river longitudinal profile suggests that on the long term, the river is close to equilibrium conditions with a concavity index of 0.475. The evolution of the Vésubie River longitudinal profile over a time period of 2 Ma based on the stream power law of river incision was then modeled with varying erodibility coefficients and uplift rates ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm a-1. The best fitting models yield erodibility coefficient values ranging from 2.5 to 9.0 × 10-6 m-0.475 a-1 for the considered uplift rates. For long-term uplift rates lower than 2 mm a-1, an increase of the erodibility coefficient during the last 16 ka, with two peaks at 11-12 and 4-5 ka, is necessary to precisely match the observed incision rates and is interpreted as resulting from recent climatic changes. These variations do not strongly affect the general shape of the river profile and suggest that the measured short-term incision rate is dominated by a climatic signal, which does not preclude the possible role of tectonic uplift.

  10. Variations in rock-fragment abundance and bulk geochemistry of soils across the Southern Sierra Nevada CZO: Implications for hillslope-channel coupling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebe, C. S.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Johnson, D. W.; Jessup, B.

    2009-12-01

    As the interface between air and rock, the critical zone integrates everything from the biologically-mediated breakdown of minerals to the effects of climate change and tectonics on soil formation and sediment transport. River incision into rock provides a crucial, first-order link between extrinsic forcing factors (such as climate change and tectonic uplift) and the hillslope processes that shape the critical zone by changing soil thickness, geochemistry, and ultimately topographic form. Theoretical considerations and experimental studies indicate that there is great potential for feedbacks between hillslope and channel processes. For example, bedrock river incision should be regulated in part by both the quantity and caliber (i.e., grain-size distribution) of sediment supply, which together affect the availability and persistence of bed-scouring tools in channels. Although sediment supply rates and grain-size distributions can be readily measured in many landscapes (e.g., using cosmogenic nuclides and traditional soil sampling techniques), the importance of measuring them together, to help unravel and understand the complex linkages among hillslope and channel processes, has been overlooked until recently. Here we compile and analyze data from nearly 200 soil pits arrayed across a nearly uniform grid of sampling localities within the Southern Sierra Nevada Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). The CZO is part of the Kings River Experimental Watershed, where measurements of sediment and solute yields are an integral part of an ongoing, multi-decadal effort to monitor stocks and flows of biogeochemical cycles. Our quantitative data on rock fragment abundance, regolith density, and bulk geochemistry represents a range of topographic conditions, from convex ridgelines to positions at the toes of slopes, next to stream channels. Our results indicate that the percentage of coarse (>2 mm) material—which presumably becomes the bedload that abrades and thus lowers channels—varies significantly in soils across the 4 CZO watersheds, from an average of 15% in one extreme case to 50% in another. Rock fragment abundance is lowest in the catchment that also exhibits both the highest sediment yield and the lowest percent coverage by bare rock outcrops. This may indicate that both sediment yield and the physical breakdown of rock are limited by percent coverage of bare rock, consistent with a decades-old hypothesis that was developed to explain relationships among weathering, erosion, outcrop density, and topographic form in the region.

  11. A novel sensitive DNA-biosensor for detection of a carcinogen, Sudan II, using electrochemically treated pencil graphite electrode by voltammetric methods.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Rezaei, Behzad; Amini, Maryam; Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil

    2012-01-15

    A simple and inexpensive methodology was used to develop a novel electrochemical sensor for the determination of Sudan II. The interaction of Sudan II with salmon sperm ds-DNA on the surface of salmon sperm ds-DNA-modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE) and in solution phase was studied, using differential pulse voltammetry. The difference between adenine and guanine signals of the ds-DNA after and before interaction with Sudan II was directly proportional to Sudan II concentration, which used for quantitative inspections. Using PGE, a linear calibration curve (R(2)=0.9958) was observed with 0.5-6.0 ?g mL(-1) Sudan II. Furthermore, the LOD of 0.4 ?g mL(-1) and linear range between 0.5 and 4.0 ?g mL(-1) were achieved in solution phase. In the second part, Sudan II was determined on a pretreated pencil graphite electrode by means of adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetry. The peak current was linearly dependent on Sudan II concentration over the range of 0.0015-0.30 ?g mL(-1), with a detection limit of 0.00007 ?g mL(-1) Sudan II. Both ds-DNA-modified PGE and PPGE were applied to analyze Sudan II in real samples. PMID:22265494

  12. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally, water from Nubian aquifers is satisfactory for most uses and is of better quality than that obtained from Umm Ruwaba aquifers. The relatively high mineralization of water from the Umm Ruwaba, especially in the eastern part of the Province, makes the water unsuitable for many municipal ad industrial uses. The water is generally usable, however, for domestic and livestock purposes. Some 175 drilled wells located at 75 water yards yield an average, of about 1,000 imperial gallons .per hour per well from Nubian or Umm Ruwaba. aquifers. Generally the water yards provide sufficient water for minimum domestic and livestock requirements throughout the year. Commonly, however, the water yards are widely separated and, hence, not always properly spaced for good range management or for serving the needs of the dispersed rural population. In 1962, withdrawals from Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the Province were approximately 600 million gallons annually. This rate of draft: could probably be continued almost indefinitely without significant depletion of the water supply. Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the southwestern part of Kordofan offer excellent potential for future development. Nubian aquifers in northern Kordofan need extensive exploration by test drilling before their economic potential can be properly evaluated.

  13. OM/OC Ratio and Specific Attenuation Coefficient in Ambient Particulate Matter at a Rural Site in Southern Ontario: Implications for Aerosol Aging and Emission Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. W.; Huang, L.; Leaitch, R.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J.; Slowik, J.; Abbatt, J.

    2008-05-01

    Carbonaceous species (organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) contribute a large portion of atmospheric fine particle mass and influence air quality, human health, and climate forcing. However, their emission sources and atmospheric aging processes are not well understood. The OM/OC ratio, defined as the organic mass per unit OC mass, is useful to understand the degree of oxidation of aerosol particles in atmospheric processes. We define the modified BC/EC (mod BC/EC) ratio as the ratio of the non-scattering corrected absorption coefficient per unit mass of EC. The mod BC/EC ratio has a similar meaning as the site specific attenuation coefficient, which is an important parameter used to convert light absorption measurements to black carbon mass. The mod BC/EC ratio can vary due to light scattering effect on absorption measurements, in which the oxygenated organics may play a role. The pyrolysis organic carbon (POC) is defined as the carbon mass fraction obtained at T= 870°C under a pure helium environment using the thermal separation method [Huang et al., 2006]. Since POC mass is generally proportional to the amount of oxygenated OC, studying the relationships among OC, EC, POC, as well as OM/OC and mod BC/EC ratios may help us understand the mechanisms of aerosol aging from different emission sources. Two 1-month field studies were conducted at a rural site in southern Ontario (NW of Toronto) during fall 2005 and spring 2007. Quartz filter samples were collected and analyzed for OC, POC, and EC concentrations using a thermal/optical method [Huang et al., 2006]. Together with the total organic matter measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and the absorption coefficient obtained from a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), the OM/OC and mod BC/EC ratios for ambient aerosols were obtained. Our results show that when air mass was mainly from south, OC, POC, and EC were relatively high, with average ratios of OC/EC, OM/OC, and POC/EC as 1.94, 1.41, and 0.52, respectively; this indicates significant anthropogenic impacts and relatively large portion of oxygenated OC, which might be due to either primary emissions or photo-chemical reactions occurred in a short period of time. When air mass was mainly from north, OC, POC, and EC were much lower, with average ratios of OC/EC, OM/OC, and POC/EC as 3.10, 1.20, and 0.79, respectively; this suggests less influence from anthropogenic emissions and relatively aged air mass from biogenic-source dominated clean air. Using POC, we estimate the specific attenuation at the site to be 5.8 m2 g-1 independent of the air mass origin. The relationships among OM/OC, mod BC/EC, and POC will be further discussed. References: Huang, L., Brook, J.R., Zhang, W., Li, S.M., Graham, L., Ernst, D., Chivulescu, A., and Lu, G. (2006) Stable isotope measurements of carbon fractions (OC/EC) in airborne particulate: a new dimension for source characterization and apportionment, Atmospheric Environment, 40, 2690-2705.

  14. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis (TEGA) of hyperarid soils doped with microorganisms from the Atacama Desert in southern Peru (Pampas de la Joya): Implications for the Phoenix Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Chris

    TEGA is one of several instruments on board of the Phoenix Lander that will perform differential scanning calorimetry and evolved gas analysis of soil samples and ice, collected from the surface and subsurface at a northern landing site on Mars. TEGA is a combination of a high-temperature furnace and a mass spectrometer that will be use to analyze samples delivered to instrument via a robotic arm. The samples will be heated at a programmed ramp rate up to 1000° C and the power required for heating will be carefully and continuously monitored (scanning calorimetry). The evolved gases generated during the process will be analyzed with the evolved-gas analyzer (a magnetic sector mass spectrometer) in order to determine the composition of gases released as a function of temperature. Our laboratory has developed a sample characterization method using a pyrolizer integrated to a quadrupole mass spectrometer to support the interpretations of TEGA data. Here we examine the thermal and evolved gas properties of six types of hyperarid soils from the Pampas de La Joya southern Peru, a possible analog to Mars, which has been previously enriched with microorganisms (Salmonella thypimurium, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans) to investigate the effect of soil matrix over TEGA response. Between 20 to 40 mg of soil pre-treated to 500° C for 24 hours to remove traces of organics, was mixed with or without 5mg biomass lyophilized (dry weight). Additionally 20 mg of each one microorganism were analyzed. The samples were placed in the pyrolizer that reached 1200° C at 1 hour. The volatiles released were transferred to the MS using helium as a carrier gas. The quadrupole MS was ran in scan mode from 40-350m/z. As expected, there were significant differences in the evolved gas behaviors for microorganism samples with or without a soil matrix under similar heating conditions. In addition, samples belonging to the most arid environments had significant differences compared with less arid soils. Organic C in the form of CO2 (ion 44 m/z) for microorganisms evolved between 326±19.5° C showing characteristic patterns for each one. Others ions such as 41, 78 and 91 m/z were found too. Interestingly, the release of CO2 increased and ions previously found disappeared, demonstrating a high-oxidant activity in the soil matrix when it is subjected to temperature. Samples of soil pre-treated show CO2 evolved up to 650° C suggesting thermal decomposition of carbonates. Finally in hyperarid soils, ion 44 began its release to 330±30° C while the less arid soils to 245±45° C. These results indicate that some organics (mixed with soils) are oxidized to CO2, and that carbonates present in hyperarid soils also decompose into CO2. The nature of oxidant(s) present in the soils from Pampas de La Joya is still unknown. Key words: Thermal analysis, TEGA, Atacama desert, La Joya desert, hyperarid soils.

  15. Thermally evolved gas analysis (TEGA) of hyperarid soils doped with microorganisms from the Atacama Desert in southern Peru: Implications for the Phoenix mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Navarro-González, Rafael; McKay, Christopher

    2009-07-01

    TEGA, one of several instruments on board of the Phoenix Lander, performed differential scanning calorimetry and evolved gas analysis of soil samples and ice, collected from the surface and subsurface at a northern landing site on Mars. TEGA is a combination of a high temperature furnace and a mass spectrometer (MS) that was used to analyze samples delivered to the instrument via a robotic arm. The samples were heated at a programmed ramp rate up to 1000 °C. The power required for heating can be carefully and continuously monitored (scanning calorimetry). The evolved gases generated during the process can be analyzed with the evolved gas analyzer (a magnetic sector mass spectrometer) in order to determine the composition of gases released as a function of temperature. Our laboratory has developed a sample characterization method using a pyrolyzer integrated to a quadrupole mass spectrometer to support the interpretations of TEGA data. Here we examine the evolved gas properties of six types of hyperarid soils from the Pampas de La Joya in southern Peru (a possible analog to Mars), to which we have added with microorganisms ( Salmonella typhimurium, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans) in order to investigate the effect of the soil matrix on the TEGA response. Between 20 and 40 mg of soil, with or without ˜5 mg of lyophilized microorganism biomass (dry weight), were placed in the pyrolyzer and heated from room temperature to 1200 °C in 1 h at a heating rate of 20 °C/min. The volatiles released were transferred to a MS using helium as a carrier gas. The quadrupole MS was ran in scan mode from 10 to 200 m/z. In addition, ˜20 mg of each microorganism without a soil matrix were analyzed. As expected, there were significant differences in the gases released from microorganism samples with or without a soil matrix, under similar heating conditions. Furthermore, samples from the most arid environments had significant differences compared with less arid soils. Organic carbon released in the form of CO 2 (ion 44 m/z) from microorganisms evolved at temperatures of ˜326.0 ± 19.5 °C, showing characteristic patterns for each one. Others ions such as 41, 78 and 91 m/z were also found. Interestingly, during the thermal process, the release of CO 2 increased and ions previously found disappeared, demonstrating a high-oxidant activity in the soil matrix when it was subjected to high temperature. Finally, samples of soil show CO 2 evolved up to 650 °C consistent with thermal decomposition of carbonates. These results indicate that organics mixed with these hyperarid soils are oxidized to CO 2. Our results suggest the existence of at least two types of oxidants in these soils, a thermolabile oxidant which is highly oxidative and other thermostable oxidant which has a minor oxidative activity and that survives the heat-treatment. Furthermore, we find that the interaction of biomass added to soil samples gives a different set of breakdown gases than organics resident in the soil. The nature of oxidant(s) present in the soils from Pampas de La Joya is still unknown.

  16. Mass-movement and flood-induced deposits in Lake Ledro, southern Alps, Italy: implications for Holocene palaeohydrology and natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonneau, A.; Chapron, E.; Vannière, B.; Wirth, S. B.; Gilli, A.; Di Giovanni, C.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Desmet, M.; Magny, M.

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution seismic profiles and sediment cores from Lake Ledro combined with soil and riverbed samples from the lake's catchment area are used to assess the recurrence of natural hazards (earthquakes and flood events) in the southern Italian Alps during the Holocene. Two well-developed deltas and a flat central basin are identified on seismic profiles in Lake Ledro. Lake sediments have been finely laminated in the basin since 9000 cal. yr BP and frequently interrupted by two types of sedimentary events (SEs): light-coloured massive layers and dark-coloured graded beds. Optical analysis (quantitative organic petrography) of the organic matter present in soil, riverbed and lacustrine samples together with lake sediment bulk density and grain-size analysis illustrate that light-coloured layers consist of a mixture of lacustrine sediments and mainly contain algal particles similar to the ones observed in background sediments. Light-coloured layers thicker than 1.5 cm in the main basin of Lake Ledro are synchronous to numerous coeval mass-wasting deposits remoulding the slopes of the basin. They are interpreted as subaquatic mass-movements triggered by historical and pre-historical regional earthquakes dated to AD 2005, AD 1891, AD 1045 and 1260, 2545, 2595, 3350, 3815, 4740, 7190, 9185 and 11 495 cal. yr BP. Dark-coloured SEs develop high-amplitude reflections in front of the deltas and in the deep central basin. These beds are mainly made of terrestrial organic matter (soils and lignocellulosic debris) and are interpreted as resulting from intense hyperpycnal flood event. Mapping and quantifying the amount of soil material accumulated in the Holocene hyperpycnal flood deposits of the sequence allow estimating that the equivalent soil thickness eroded over the catchment area reached up to 5 mm during the largest Holocene flood events. Such significant soil erosion is interpreted as resulting from the combination of heavy rainfall and snowmelt. The recurrence of flash flood events during the Holocene was, however, not high enough to affect pedogenesis processes and highlight several wet regional periods during the Holocene. The Holocene period is divided into four phases of environmental evolution. Over the first half of the Holocene, a progressive stabilization of the soils present through the catchment of Lake Ledro was associated with a progressive reforestation of the area and only interrupted during the wet 8.2 event when the soil destabilization was particularly important. Lower soil erosion was recorded during the mid-Holocene climatic optimum (8000-4200 cal. yr BP) and associated with higher algal production. Between 4200 and 3100 cal. yr BP, both wetter climate and human activities within the drainage basin drastically increased soil erosion rates. Finally, from 3100 cal. yr BP to the present-day, data suggest increasing and changing human land use.

  17. A Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Survey of KIilbourne Hole, Southern New Mexico: Implication for Paleohydrology and Near Surface Geophysical Exploration of Mars and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, N.; Hurtado, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    Features such as the Home Plate plateau on Mars, a suspected remnant of a phreatomagmatic eruption, can reveal important information about paleohydrologic conditions. The types and sizes of pyroclastic rocks produced by a phreatomagmatic eruption are indicative of the behavior of the explosion and the characteristics of the groundwater reservoir. Analysis of the pyroclast size distribution can be used to determine magma volatile content. We conduct an analysis of pyroclast size distribution using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to make a quantitative estimate of the presence of past groundwater at Kilbourne Hole, a well-known phreatomagmatic crater located in southern Dona Ana County, New Mexico. As basaltic magma intruded the groundwater reservoir in the mid-Pleistocene, the water vaporized and caused a phreatomagmatic explosion that excavated the 2-km wide and 200-m deep depression. The pyroclastic units produced during a phreatomagmatic explosion are proportional to the size and the duration of the explosion and the size of the groundwater reservoir such that the wetter the eruption, the stronger the explosion. In a violent volcanic eruption, magma changes from a liquid into solid fragments and the explosion releases kinetic energy (Ek) by ejecting liquid water, vapor water (with mass Mw) and solid fragments (with mass Mf) at an ejection velocity (Ve). In order to determine Mw, we must know Ve. The relationship between Ve and the distance from center of the eruption (R) is such that Ve exponentially decreases with time (t) and R. A numerical model relating pyroclast size and Ve for material ejected in Hawaiian and Plinian eruptions shows that clast size also exponentially decreases with decreasing Ve. Based on these relationships, we use GPR to map the ejected clast size distribution as a function of distance from the edge of Kilbourne Hole in an effort to determine Ve and Mw. GPR surveys were performed in January 2012 and January 2013 using a Noggins 250 MHz radar system. We designed the surveys to detect volcanic bombs in the shallow subsurface and to map radial variations in their sizes. Six GPR lines were extended radially in each cardinal direction from the rim of Kilbourne Hole, and, as a control, fifteen short GPR lines were performed along an accessible cliff where visible volcanic bombs and blocks are exposed. We are able to visualize 58 bombs and blocks along one of the six GPR lines within the maximum penetration depth of 2.4-3.2 m. From the resulting GPR profiles, we measured the width and the length of the bombs. The largest dimension of each bomb was plotted against distance from crater rim, and the obtained exponential relationship between bomb size and distance will be applied to a numerical model of ejecta dispersal from transient volcanic explosions to solve for Ve and Mw. This case study at Kilbourne Hole serves as a planetary analog for similar surveys that could be done on Mars and on the Moon.

  18. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon

    E-print Network

    Camara, Gilberto

    Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon Douglas C ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps

  19. Examination frequency and population dose from medical X-ray examinations in Sudan in 2010.

    PubMed

    Suliman, I I; Ibraheem, S B; Youssif, B E; Abdelgabar, M I; Gafar, R; Elshiekh, E; Ahmed, Nada A; Sulieman, A

    2015-07-01

    This study was performed to estimate examination frequency and collective and per caput effective doses arising from medical X-ray procedures in Sudan, 2010. Information was collected from 30 hospitals performing radiography, computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopy and interventional radiology (IR) procedures. The estimated annual number of examinations was 33 million radiographic X-ray procedures (99 %), 0.34 million CT exams per year (14 % paediatrics CT), 0.02 million fluoroscopy and IR procedures. The estimated annual number of examinations was 326 per 1000 people. The estimated annual collective and per caput effective doses from medical X-ray procedures mount 7197 man Sv and 0.18 mSv, respectively. The study offered the first projection of frequency and population dose from medical X-ray examinations in Sudan and provides estimates of the impact of the medical X-ray procedures at the national level. PMID:25836683

  20. Exposure to Traumatic Experiences Among Asylum Seekers from Eritrea and Sudan During Migration to Israel.

    PubMed

    Nakash, Ora; Langer, Benjamin; Nagar, Maayan; Shoham, Shahar; Lurie, Ido; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the experiences of displaced individuals en route to destination countries. We investigated the reported prevalence of exposure to traumatic experiences during migration among a consecutive sample of adult asylum seekers (n = 895 Eritrean, n = 149 Sudanese) who sought health services in the Physicians for Human Rights Open-Clinic in Israel. Percentage of Eritrean and Sudanese men and women who reported witnessing violence (Eritrea: men: 41.3 %, women: 29.3 %; Sudan: men: 16.8 %, women: 22.2 %) and/or being a victim of violence (Eritrea: men: 56.0 %, Women: 34.9 %; Sudan: men: 51.9 % women: 44.4 %) during migration varied by gender and country of origin. Findings highlight the need for a well-coordinated international cooperation to document and prevent these transgressions. PMID:24752982

  1. Psychosocial effects of war experiences among displaced children in southern Darfur.

    PubMed

    Morgos, Dorothy; Worden, J William; Gupta, Leila

    This study focused on assessing the psychosocial effects of the long standing, high intensity, and guerrilla-style of warfare among displaced children in Southern Darfur. The goal was to better understand the etiology, prognosis, and treatment implications for traumatic reactions, depression, and grief symptoms in this population. Three hundred thirty-one children aged 6-17 from three IDP Camps were selected using a quota sampling approach and were administered a Demographic Questionnaire, Child Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Index, Child Depression Inventory, and the Expanded Grief Inventory. Forty-three percent were girls and 57% were boys. The mean age of the children was 12 years. Results found that children were exposed to a very large number of war experiences with no significant differences between genders for types of exposure, including rape, but with older children (13-17 years) facing a larger number of exposures than younger children (6-12 years). Out of the 16 possible war experiences, the mean number was 8.94 (SD = 3.27). Seventy-five percent of the children met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, and 38% exhibited clinical symptoms of depression. The percentage of children endorsing significant levels of grief symptoms was 20%. Increased exposure to war experiences led to higher levels of: (1) traumatic reactions; (2) depression; and (3) grief symptoms. Of the 16 war experiences, abduction, hiding to protect oneself, being raped, and being forced to kill or hurt family members were most predictive of traumatic reactions. Being raped, seeing others raped, the death of a parent/s, being forced to fight, and having to hide to protect oneself were the strongest predictors of depressive symptoms. War experiences such as abduction, death of one's parent/s, being forced to fight, and having to hide to protect oneself were the most associated with the child's experience of grief. In addition to Total Grief, Traumatic Grief, Existential Grief, and Continuing Bonds were measured in these children. Although trauma, depression, and grief often exist as co-morbid disorders, the mechanisms and pathways of these is less understood. In this study we used Structural Equation Modeling to better understand the complex interaction and trajectories of these three symptoms evolving from war exposure and loss. This study is the first of its kind to assess the psychosocial effects of war experiences among children currently living in war zone areas within Sudan. It identifies some of the most prevalent war-related atrocities and their varying impact on the children's psychological well-being and overall adjustment. Implications for planning mental health interventions are discussed. PMID:18300649

  2. Cancer incidence in Khartoum, Sudan: first results from the Cancer Registry, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Intisar E; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Mohamed, Kamal H; Mohammed, Sulma I

    2014-08-01

    In 2009, the first National Population-based Cancer Registry (NCR) was established in Sudan. We report in this study, the first data from the NCR for Khartoum State for the period 2009-2010. The NCR staff used passive and active approaches to collect data on cancer diagnosed by all means in Khartoum State. Rates were age standardized to the 2010 Sudan Standard Population and 1966 and 2000 World Standard Population and expressed per 100,000 populations. During 2009-2010, 6771 new cancer cases were registered. Of those, 3646 (53.8%) cases were in women and 3125 (46.2%) were in men. The most commonly diagnosed cancer among women was breast followed by leukemia, cervix, and ovary, and among men it was prostate cancer followed by leukemia, lymphoma, oral, colorectal, and liver. In children less than 15 years of age, leukemia was the most common cancer followed lymphoma, and cancer of the eye, bone, kidney, and the brain. The overall age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 population was higher in women (124.3) than in men (90.8) using 2010 Sudan Standard Population. Similarly, it was higher in women (188.6 and 206.3 per 100,000 population) than in men (145.4 and 160.0 per 100,000 population) using 1966 and 2000 World Standard Population, respectively. The data from NCR indicated that prostate and breast as the most commonly diagnosed cancer sites in men and women in Khartoum, while cancer of the cervix trailed behind portraying a cancer picture similar to that of the developed world. Despite the study limitations, the NCR data gave a fair representation of cancer profile of Khartoum State and underscored the need for high-quality cancer registries in Sudan. PMID:24821265

  3. Decoding Reed-Solomon codes up to the Sudan radius with the Euclidean algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Zeh; Wenhui Li

    2010-01-01

    We modify the Euclidean algorithm of Feng and Tzeng to decode Reed-Solomon (RS) codes up to the Sudan radius. The basic steps are the virtual extension to an Interleaved RS code and the reformulation of the multi-sequence shift-register problem of varying length to a multi-sequence problem of equal length. We prove the reformulation and analyze the complexity of our new

  4. Competition between Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Anopheles arabiensis patton in the Khartoum area, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rayah, El Amin; Abu Groun, Nawal A.

    1983-03-01

    The range of environmental temperatures that allow of survival would appear to be greater for Anopheles arabiensis than for Culex quinquefasciatus. Nevertheless the latter is the more common species in the Khartoum (Sudan) area. This relative abundance is suggested to be attributed largely to the success of Culex quinquefasciatus in exploiting a wide range of breeding sites, even those which are obviously contaminated in various ways.

  5. Visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan: parasite identification in humans and dogs; host-parasite relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Dereure; Sayda Hassan El-Safi; Bruno Bucheton; Mickaël Boni; Musa Mohamed Kheir; Bernard Davoust; Francine Pratlong; Eric Feugier; Monique Lambert; Alain Dessein; Jean-Pierre Dedet

    2003-01-01

    In 1996, an epidemic outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) started in Barbar el Fugara, a village in Gedarif State (eastern Sudan). From 1997 to 2000, regular epidemiological studies were carried out in the human population, as well as in mammals and sand flies. In symptomatic patients, 46\\/69 lymph node, 6\\/20 post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and 1\\/4 cutaneous cultures in NNN medium were

  6. Risk Management in the Rain-fed Farming of Gedaref Area, Eastern Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajaa Hassan Mustafa; Mau Markus; Friedrich Kuhlmann

    The rain-fed mechanized agricultural sub-sector of the Sudan has high potential of building a national food stock and foreign exchange earnings, which could contribute substantially to agricultural development and hence the development of the whole economy as well. However, the agricultural production in this sub-se ctor is generally characterized by a high degree of instability, which arises from the nature

  7. The impact of apiculture on the genetic structure of wild honeybee populations ( Apis mellifera ) in Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mogbel A. A. El-Niweiri; Robin F. A. Moritz

    2010-01-01

    Apiculture often relies on the importation of non-native honeybees (Apis mellifera) and large distance migratory beekeeping. These activities can cause biodiversity conflicts with the conservation of wild\\u000a endemic honeybee subspecies. We studied the impact of large scale honeybee imports on managed and wild honeybee populations\\u000a in Sudan, a centre of biodiversity of A. mellifera, using as set of linked microsatellite

  8. Petroleum geology of the Melut Basin and the Great Palogue Field, Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lirong Dou; Kunye Xiao; Dingsheng Cheng; Buqing Shi; Zhi Li

    2007-01-01

    This paper overviews the framework, structural and petroleum geology aspects of the Melut rift Basin in Sudan. The data base is from mainly proprietary exploration work consisting of more than 20,000km of seismic profiles, 2000km2 of 3D seismic, and more than 50 exploration wells. There have been more than 15 oil and oil and gas discoveries.The Melut Basin is a

  9. Unusual high acidity oils from the Great Palogue Field, Melut Basin, Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lirong Dou; Dingsheng Cheng; Maowen Li; Kunye Xiao; Buqing Shi; Zhi Li

    2008-01-01

    Crude oils produced from the Great Palogue Field in the Melut Basin, Sudan display unusually high total acid number values (TAN, up to 10.4mg KOH\\/g oil). This field was discovered in 2002 and produces oils of highly variable (15–31°) API gravity. The main production comes from the Paleogene Samma and Yabus Formations, with the Upper Cretaceous Melut Formation being a

  10. The Inter and Intra-Tribal Distribution of Red Cell G6PD Phenotypes in Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Saha; A. P. W. Samuel; A. Omer; A. V. Hoffbrand

    1983-01-01

    1,416 males and 564 female subjects from four Negroid and five Arab tribes and a group of mixed tribes of the Sudan were investigated for the phenotypic distribution of red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by starch gel electrophoresis. In general, the tribes of Negroid origin had higher frequency of GdA compared to the tribes of Arab ancestry. However, the Nilotes showed

  11. Determination of aflatoxin M1 in dairy cattle milk in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amin O. Elzupir; Abdelrahim M. Elhussein

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins that contaminate various types of food and feedstuff leading to health risk in both humans and animals. Aflatoxin M1 (AfM1), the major metabolite of AfB1, was determined in dairy cattle milk samples of Khartoum State of Sudan using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. A total of 44 bulk dairy cattle milk samples

  12. Isolation of bluetongue and related viruses from Culicoides spp. in the Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, P. S.; Osborne, R.; Jennings, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Infection of domestic ruminants with bluetongue virus (BTV) is widespread in the Sudan but there are no records of vector species of Culicoides in that country. Therefore, light-trap collections of Culicoides for virus isolation procedures were made in the Khartoum and Um Benein areas of the Sudan during September-October 1982. Two virus isolates were made from pools of unengorged, female Culicoides. An isolate from a pool of C. kingi (schultzei gp) is a member of the Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease (EHD) serogroup. The other isolate from a pool of C. imicola, a known BTV vector in other parts of Africa, is type-5 BTV. In laboratory experiments, the North American vector of BTV, C. variipennis, supported replication of both Sudanese isolates to a high titre and transmission occurred after 10 days' incubation. This paper records the first isolation in the Sudan of arboviruses from Culicoides, with the identification of a BTV serotype and the presence of a member of the EHD (genus orbivirus, family Reoviridae) serogroup. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6096444

  13. Natural exposure of Dromedary camels in Sudan to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (bovine herpes virus-1).

    PubMed

    Intisar, K S; Ali, Y H; Khalafalla, A I; Mahasin, E A Rahman; Amin, A S

    2009-09-01

    The occurrence of bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1) in camels was studied. A total of 186 pneumonic camel lungs were collected from slaughter houses at four different areas in Sudan during 2000-2006. Using sandwich ELISA 1.6% of 186 tested lungs were found positive for BHV-1 antigen, all were from Tambool at Central Sudan. Direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT) was used to confirm the BHV-1 ELISA positives, all ELISA positives were also positive. PCR was used to detect BHV-1 genome with three positive results. BHV-1 was isolated from two camel lungs in MDBK cells. Isolates were identified using ELISA and FAT. Indirect ELISA was used to detect antibodies to BHV-1 in 260 camel sera; 76.9% were found positive. Highest prevalence was observed in sera from Kordofan (84%) then Blue Nile (80%) and Tambool (76.3%). This is the first report for the detection of BHV-1 antigen, genome using PCR, isolation in cell culture and antibodies in camels in Sudan. PMID:19433051

  14. Diagnosis of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in horses in Sudan using ELISA and PCR.

    PubMed

    Salim, B O M; Hassan, S M; Bakheit, M A; Alhassan, A; Igarashi, I; Karanis, P; Abdelrahman, M B

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Sudan. The presence of antibodies against Babesia caballi and Theileria equi was determined in serum samples obtained from 158 horses raised in different locations in Sudan by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The B. caballi 48-kDa and the T. equi EMA-2 purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens in the ELISA test. Results showed that seven (4.4%) were positive for B. caballi and 80 (63.5%) were positive for T. equi. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have been applied using primers targeting the B. caballi 48-kDa merozoite antigen, the T. equi SSUrRNA and the T. equi EMA-1 genes. PCR performed on 131 blood spots in filter paper revealed that 33 (25.2%) samples were positive for T. equi but no positives were found for B. caballi. It is concluded that equine piroplasmosis is endemic in the country. This is the first study on serological and molecular epidemiological diagnosis on equine piroplasmosis in Sudan. PMID:18618143

  15. The prevention and mitigation of famine: policy lessons from Botswana and Sudan.

    PubMed

    Teklu, T

    1994-03-01

    Botswana and Sudan experienced consecutive years of drought in the 1980s. Sudan faced a large decline in food entitlement and nutritional deterioration, which translated into famine in 1984/85. Botswana, on the other hand, nearly compensated income losses and averted nutritional deterioration and famine-related deaths. There are important lessons to learn from the famine prevention experience of Botswana. Its strategy for dealing with drought and famine combines policies of steady economic growth with supplementary poverty alleviation and drought relief programs. To provide continuity and stabilization of market operations in times of distress, the country channels sufficient food through market chains, provides price support to preempt market collapse and augments the income of consumers through public income transfer programs to prevent demand failure. In addition, it maintains a responsive and accountable political system and a decentralized participatory administrative structure. While Sudan should develop policies that are compatible with its own environment, it is crucial that it recognizes the critical role of public action in promoting growth, alleviating poverty, and providing timely relief responses in times of anticipated growth failure. PMID:8044640

  16. Linking Satellite Derived Land Surface Temperature with Cholera: A Case Study for South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaach, H. S. V.; Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    A sudden onset of cholera in South Sudan, in April 2014 in Northern Bari in Juba town resulted in more than 400 cholera cases after four weeks of initial outbreak with a case of fatality rate of CFR 5.4%. The total number of reported cholera cases for the period of April to July, 2014 were 5,141 including 114 deaths. With the limited efficacy of cholera vaccines, it is necessary to develop mechanisms to predict cholera occurrence and thereafter devise intervention strategies for mitigating impacts of the disease. Hydroclimatic processes, primarily precipitation and air temperature are related to epidemic and episodic outbreak of cholera. However, due to coarse resolution of both datasets, it is not possible to precisely locate the geographical location of disease. Here, using Land Surface Temperature (LST) from MODIS sensors, we have developed an algorithm to identify regions susceptible for cholera. Conditions for occurrence of cholera were detectable at least one month in advance in South Sudan and were statistically sensitive to hydroclimatic anomalies of land surface and air temperature, and precipitation. Our results indicate significant spatial and temporal averaging required to infer usable information from LST over South Sudan. Preliminary results that geographically location of cholera outbreak was identifiable within 1km resolution of the LST data.

  17. Determination of Sudan I in paprika powder by molecularly imprinted polymers-thin layer chromatography-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Hu, Yaxi; Chen, Da; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Grant, Edward; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-10-01

    Sudan I is a carcinogenic and mutagenic azo-compound that has been utilized as a common adulterant in spice and spice blends to impart a desirable red color to foods. A novel biosensor combining molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), thin layer chromatography (TLC) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) could determine Sudan I levels in paprika powder to 1ppm (or 2ng/spot). Sudan I spiked paprika extracts (spiking levels: 0, 1, 5, 10, 40, 70 and 100ppm) were prepared. Sudan I imprinted polymers were synthesized by employing the interaction between Sudan I (template) and methacrylic acid (functional monomer), followed by washing to remove Sudan I leaving the Sudan I-binding sites exposed. MIPs were used as a stationary phase for TLC and could selectively retain Sudan I at the original spot with little interference. A gold colloid SERS substrate could enhance Raman intensity for Sudan I in this MIP-TLC system. Principal component analysis plot and partial least squares regression (R(2)=0.978) models were constructed and a linear regression model (R(2)=0.983) correlated spiking levels (5, 10, 40, 70 and 100ppm) with the peak intensities (721cm(-1)) of Sudan I SERS spectra. Both separation (30-40s) and detection (1s or 0.1s) were extremely fast by using both commercial bench-top and custom made portable Raman spectrometers. This biosensor can be applied as a rapid, low-cost and reliable tool for screening Sudan I adulteration in foods. PMID:26078169

  18. Amperometric detection of Sudan I in red chili powder samples using Ag nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, E; Pandian, K

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive electrochemical method was developed to determine the concentration of Sudan I in chili powder based on silver nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (AgNPs@GO/GCE). The voltammetry behaviour of Sudan I on modified GCE was investigated in phosphate buffer medium (PBS) with various pH ranges and the electron transfer properties were studied. It is found that the AgNPs@GO/GCE can catalyse the reduction of azo group, -N=N- followed by electrochemical oxidation of (-)OH group present in Sudan I dye molecule. Quantitative detection of Sudan I present in food products was carried out by amperometry method in which reduction potential was fixed at -0.77 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The amperometry method showed an excellent performance with a sensitivity of 6.83 ?A mM(-1) and a detection limit of 11.4 × 10(-7)ML(-1). A linear calibration graph was constructed in the ranging 3.90 × 10(-6) to 3.19 × 10(-5)ML(-1). The method was successfully applied for the determination of Sudan I in red chili powder samples. PMID:25053046

  19. Repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with CI Solvent Yellow 14 (Sudan I) using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Shoji; Ikeda, Naohiro; Hamada, Shuichi; Ohyama, Wakako; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kasamatsu, Toshio; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2015-03-01

    The in vivo genotoxicity of CI Solvent Yellow 14 (Sudan I) was examined using repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus (MN) assays in young adult rats. Sudan I is a mono-azo dye based on aniline and 1-amino-2-hydroxynaphthalene. This dye was demonstrated as a rat liver carcinogen in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) bioassay, and genotoxicity was noted in a rat bone marrow micronucleus (BMMN) assay. In the present study, Sudan I was administered orally to rats for 14-days, and the MN frequency in the liver, stomach, colon, and bone marrow were analyzed. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) was not significantly increased by the administration of the Sudan I. Gastrointestinal tract MNs were also not induced. However, in the BMMN assay, a significant increase in micronucleated immature erythrocytes (MNIMEs) was observed in a dose-dependent manner. While Sudan I has been reported to lack hepatic genotoxicity, it has also exhibited tumor-promoting activities. These results are consistent with the lack of induction of MN in the hepatocytes. The lack of MN induction in cells of the gastrointestinal tract was also logical because azo-compounds are reported to be unlikely to induce DNA damage in the rat gut. The repeated-dose rat liver and gastrointestinal tract MN assays have the potential to be used in the evaluation of the genotoxicity of a chemical in each organ in accordance with its mode of action. PMID:25892626

  20. Concomitant malaria among visceral leishmaniasis in-patients from Gedarif and Sennar States, Sudan: a retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In areas where visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and malaria are co-endemic, co-infections are common. Clinical implications range from potential diagnostic delay to increased disease-related morbidity, as compared to VL patients. Nevertheless, public awareness of the disease remains limited. In VL-endemic areas with unstable and seasonal malaria, vulnerability to the disease persists through all age-groups, suggesting that in these populations, malaria may easily co-occur with VL, with potentially severe clinical effects. Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed using medical records of VL patients admitted to Tabarakallah and Gedarif Teaching Hospitals (Gedarif State) and Al`Azaza kala-azar Clinic (Sennar State), Sudan (2005-2010). Patients positively diagnosed with VL and malaria were identified as cases, and VL patients without microscopy-detectable malaria as controls. Associations between patient characteristics and the occurrence of the co-infection were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Confirmation of epidemiological outcomes was obtained with an independently collected dataset, composed by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) at Um-el-Kher and Kassab Hospitals, Gedarif State (1998). Results The prevalence of malaria co-infection among VL surveyed patients ranged from 3.8 to 60.8%, with a median of 26.2%. Co-infected patients presented at hospital with deteriorated clinical pictures. Emaciation (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.46; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.72-3.50), jaundice (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.04-6.09) and moderate anemia (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.10-2.28) were found to be positively associated with the co-infection, while severity of splenomegaly (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35-0.81) and, to a less extent, hepatomegaly (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.27-1.01) appeared to be reduced by concomitant VL and malaria. The in-hospital case-fatality rates did not significantly differ between co- and mono-infected patients (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.59-2.17). Conversely, a significantly increased mortality rate (OR: 4.38; 95% CI: 1.83-10.48) was observed by MSF amongst co-infected patients enrolled at Um-el-Kher and Kassab Hospitals, who also suffered an enhanced risk of severe anemia (OR: 3.44; 95% CI: 1.68-7.02) compared to VL mono-infections. Conclusions In endemic VL areas with unstable seasonal malaria, like eastern Sudan, VL patients are highly exposed to the risk of developing concomitant malaria. Prompt diagnosis and effective treatment of malaria are essential to ensure that its co-infection does not result into poor prognoses. PMID:23577673

  1. Accelerated removal of Sudan dye by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in the presence of quinones and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Ji, Qiuyan; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei; Lv, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Although there have been many studies on bacterial removal of soluble azo dyes, much less information is available for biological treatment of water-insoluble azo dyes. The few bacterial species capable of removing Sudan dye generally require a long time to remove low concentrations of insoluble dye particles. The present work examined the efficient removal of Sudan I by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in the presence of redox mediator. It was found that the microbially reduced anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) could abiotically reduce Sudan I, indicating the feasibility of microbially-mediated reduction. The addition of 100 ?M AQDS and other different quinone compounds led to 4.3-54.7 % increase in removal efficiencies in 22 h. However, adding 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone into the system inhibited Sudan I removal. The presence of 10, 50 and 100 ?M AQDS stimulated the removal efficiency in 10 h from 26.4 to 42.8, 54.9 and 64.0 %, respectively. The presence of 300 ?M AQDS resulted in an eightfold increase in initial removal rate from 0.19 to 1.52 mg h?¹ g?¹ cell biomass. A linear relationship was observed between the initial removal rates and AQDS concentrations (0-100 ?M). Comparison of Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants revealed the advantage of AQDS-mediated removal over direct reduction. Different species of humic acid could also stimulate the removal of Sudan I. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis confirmed the accelerated removal performance in the presence of AQDS. These results provide a potential method for the efficient removal of insoluble Sudan dye. PMID:23539152

  2. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

    PubMed

    Mofadal, Adam I A; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong

    2015-05-01

    The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US$0.019 to US$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community. PMID:25794921

  3. Insecticide resistance in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi from Khartoum State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phlebotomus papatasi the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most widely spread sand fly in Sudan. No data has previously been collected on insecticide susceptibility and/or resistance of this vector, and a first study to establish a baseline data is reported here. Methods Sand flies were collected from Surogia village, (Khartoum State), Rahad Game Reserve (eastern Sudan) and White Nile area (Central Sudan) using light traps. Sand flies were reared in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute laboratory. The insecticide susceptibility status of first progeny (F1) of P. papatasi of each population was tested using WHO insecticide kits. Also, P. papatasi specimens from Surogia village and Rahad Game Reserve were assayed for activities of enzyme systems involved in insecticide resistance (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), non-specific carboxylesterases (EST), glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome p450 monooxygenases (Cyt p450). Results Populations of P. papatasi from White Nile and Rahad Game Reserve were sensitive to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), permethrin, malathion, and propoxur. However, the P. papatasi population from Surogia village was sensitive to DDT and permethrin but highly resistant to malathion and propoxur. Furthermore, P. papatasi of Surogia village had significantly higher insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than of those of Rahad Game Reserve. The sand fly population in Surogia displayed high AChE activity and only three specimens had elevated levels for EST and GST. Conclusions The study provided evidence for malathion and propoxur resistance in the sand fly population of Surogia village, which probably resulted from anti-malarial control activities carried out in the area during the past 50 years. PMID:22397726

  4. Relationship of the sickle cell gene to the ethnic and geographic groups populating the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Abdelrahim O; Attalla, Bekhieta; Bashir, Fathya M K; Ahmed, Fatima E; El Hassan, Ahmed M; Ibnauf, Gafar; Jiang, Weiying; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L; Karrar, Zein Al Abdin; Ibrahim, Muntaser E

    2006-01-01

    The presence of a geographical pattern in the distribution of the sickle cell gene (S gene) and its association with malaria is well documented. To study the distribution of the S gene among various ethnic and linguistic groups in the Sudan we analyzed a hospital-based sample of 189 sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients who reported to the Khartoum Teaching Hospital between June 1996 and March 2000 and 118 controls with other complaints, against their ethnic and linguistic affiliations and geographic origin. Electrophoresis for hemoglobin S and sickling tests were carried out on all patients and controls as a prerequisite for inclusion. The majority of patients (93.7%) belonged to families of single ethnic descent, indicating the high degree of within-group marriages and thus the higher risk of augmenting the gene. SCA was found to be predominant among the Afro-Asiatic-speaking groups (68.4%) including nomadic groups of Arab and non- Arab descent that migrated to the Sudan in various historical epochs. Those patients clustered in western Sudan (Kordofan and Darfur) from where 73% of all cases originate. The proportion of patients reporting from other geographic areas like the south (3.1%), which is primarily inhabited by Nilo-Saharan-speaking groups (19% of the whole sample) who populated the country in previous times, is disproportionate to their total population in the country (chi(2) = 71.6; p = 0.0001). Analysis of the haplotypes associated with the S gene indicated that the most abundant haplotypes are the Cameroon, Benin, Bantu and Senegal haplotypes, respectively. No relationship was seen between haplotypes and the various hematological parameters in the sub-sample analyzed for such association. These results provide an insight into the distribution of the sickle cell gene in the Sudan, and highlight the strong link of the middle Nile Valley with West Africa through the open plateau of the Sahel and the nomadic cattle herders and also probably the relatively young age of the S gene. PMID:16612062

  5. Education and assortative marriage in northern and urban Sudan: 1945-79.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, A I

    1994-07-01

    This study examines the extent of assortative mating for education in Northern Sudan and urban Khartoum. More males than females were found at higher levels of education. Increasingly, people tend to marry persons of equal educational level, but the unequal educational opportunities for males and females have led to the emergence of educational exogamy in which members of different educational levels are more likely to marry from the adjacent educational category than from distant categories. The increasing level of education for both sexes, and especially for females, may in part explain the rising trend in age at marriage. PMID:7929482

  6. Serological investigation of measles (morbilli) in the Melut district, South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Sixl, W; Stünzner, D; Rosegger, H; Withalm, H; Schneeweiss, W D; Reinthaler, F; Mascher, F; Schuhmann, G; Thiel, W

    1988-01-01

    In Sudan, measles are often not identified and are diagnosed and treated as "fever". Apart from this, the unimmunized population is an important factor, however, cold storage of the vaccine is not always possible. For this reason detailed instruction and introduction in diagnostic identification was given by our team of doctors. The contamination rate and antibody verification varies according to region. The highest percentage of 83% was reached in Melut among hospitalized patients. At the time of our investigation, immunization had not been carried out in this region. PMID:3169558

  7. Southern Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03026 Southern Clouds

    This image shows a system of clouds just off the margin of the South Polar cap. Taken during the summer season, these clouds contain both water-ice and dust.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.2S, Longitude 57.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Southern Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03583 Southern Crater

    This crater is located south of Agassiz Crater. It is likely that the polar freeze/thaw/frost cycle is responsible for unusual appearance of the ejecta region around the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 76.2S, Longitude 247.8E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Southern Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03092 Southern Spots

    This VIS image of the south polar region was collected during the summer season. The markings of the pole are very diverse and easy to see after the winter frost has been removed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79.7S, Longitude 56.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  11. The Dialectic between Global Gender Goals and Local Empowerment: Girls' Education in Southern Sudan and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.; Ekne, Ingrid Birgitte Moller; Augestad, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    The start of the Education for All (EFA) movement ushered in a new era in education, an era linked to research on issues such as "global governance" or the "world institutionalization of education". This global governance not only affects the way in which educational systems are influenced, it also involves how we view and define various issues…

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in South Sudan: benefit-cost analysis and livelihoods impact.

    PubMed

    Barasa, M; Catley, A; Machuchu, D; Laqua, H; Puot, E; Tap Kot, D; Ikiror, D

    2008-10-01

    A benefit-cost analysis of vaccination for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was conducted in an area of South Sudan, which due to chronic conflict, had been subject to large-scale humanitarian assistance for many years. The study used participatory epidemiology (PE) methods to estimate the prevalence and mortality of acute and chronic FMD in different age groups of cattle, and the reduction in milk off-take in cows affected by FMD. The benefit-cost of FMD vaccination was 11.5. Losses due to the chronic form of FMD accounted for 28.2% of total FMD losses, indicating that future benefit-cost analyses for FMD control in pastoral and agropastoral areas of Africa need to consider losses caused by chronic disease. Participatory epidemiological methods were also used to assess the importance of milk in the diet of Nuer agropastoralists, and seasonal variations in diet in relation to cattle movements and FMD outbreaks. Marked seasonal variation in diet included a 'hunger gap' period during which households were highly dependent on milk as their main source of food. Outbreaks of FMD occurred immediately before this period of milk dependency, with chronic losses extending through this period and affecting human food security. The paper discusses the need and feasibility of mass vaccination and strategic vaccination for FMD in South Sudan. The paper also discusses the value of combining conventional benefit-cost analysis with livelihoods analysis to inform disease control efforts and funding commitments in humanitarian contexts. PMID:18786073

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility and multi-drug resistance of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elmadiena, Mayha Mohammed Ali Nor; El Hussein, Adil Ali; Muckle, Catherine Anne; Cole, Linda; Wilkie, Elizabeth; Mistry, Ketna; Perets, Ann

    2013-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica recovered from human, food, water, and animal samples collected in Khartoum State, Sudan. A total of 64 Salmonella isolates belonging to 28 different serovars were tested for their susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents. The majority of isolates (98.4 %) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Isolates were frequently resistant to ampicillin (90.6 %), cephalexin (50.0 %), nalidixic acid (25.0 %), streptomycin (21.9 %), kanamycin (18.8 %), gentamicin (17.2 %), and co-trimoxazole and trimethoprim (12.5 %). The most common pattern of multiple drug resistance included resistance to ampicillin and cephalexin. Most isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.4 %), ciprofloxacin (93.8 %), and norfloxacin (90.6 %). Two chicken- and the two human-origin S. Kentucky isolates were resistant to both ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. All S. Kentucky isolates and the one S. Rissen isolate demonstrated multi-drug resistance. The results indicate the significance of multi-drug-resistant Salmonella serovars isolated from chickens and other animals and foods as sources for multi-drug-resistant Salmonella in humans in Sudan. PMID:23271416

  14. Serological survey of canine leptospirosis in three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan, Gabon and Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Roqueplo, Cédric; Marié, Jean-Lou; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Kodjo, Angeli; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the presence of leptospiral antibodies among 475 dogs from three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan (n=62), Gabon (n=255) and Ivory Coast (n=158). Sixteen reference strains belonging to seven serogroups were used as antigen in the microscopic agglutination test. Overall, considering titres ?1:40, 453 samples were positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. Focusing on high titres, i.e. ?1:320, the seroprevalence was 40.8%. In Gabon, the seroprevalence was higher in rural areas than in an urban environment (p<0.001). In Ivory Coast, the seroprevalence for serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola was not statistically different according to the vaccinal status. Predominant serogroups varied according to the countries but Grippotyphosa and Sejroë were the most common, while Icterohaemorragiae and Canicola were dominant in Sudan. In these three countries, dogs are heavily exposed to pathogenic Leptospira and humans living in the same environment are also at risk of infection. PMID:25467033

  15. Socio-economic aspects of Gum Arabic production in Dalanj area, South Korodofan, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Koli, A O; Eltayeb, A M; Sanjak, E M; Mohammed, M H

    2013-11-01

    Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers' associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production. PMID:24511757

  16. Prevalence of Protozoa Species in Drinking and Environmental Water Sources in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Shanan, Salah; Abd, Hadi; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani) in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8%) amoebae, 17 (25.7%) Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9%) ciliates, and 5 (7.6%) flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health. PMID:25789313

  17. Sugars in the gut of the sandfly Phlebotomus orientalis from Dinder National Park, Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J G; El Naiem, D A

    2000-03-01

    The sandfly Phlebotomus orientalis Parrot (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern and Upper Nile regions of Sudan, where vector infection rates of over 7% have been reported. Sugars are known to be important for development of the parasite and for increasing the survival and oviposition rates of several species of sandflies. In the present study we have analysed the sugars present in the guts of individuals and groups of male and female P. orientalis and compared these with sugars from several potential local plant sources: Acacia seyal, Balanites aegyptiaca and Combretum kordofanum. The distribution of these trees in Sudan is closely correlated with that of P. orientalis. Only 20% of individually analysed female sandflies had significant amounts of sugars present suggesting that P. orientalis either digest their sugar meal quickly or do not require regular sugar meals. Interestingly, the sugars present in the males were significantly different to those found in the females, indicating that they had fed on different sugar sources. There was evidence that fruit sugars from Balanites aegyptiaca, Combretum kordofanum and aphid or coccid honeydew are utilized by male and female P. orientalis. There was evidence to indicate that female P. orientalis feeds directly on honeydew. There was no evidence to indicate that direct feeding on leaves is a typical source for the sugar meal. There was no melizitose and only a very small amount of turanose present in the male, suggesting that honeydew was not an important sugar source for males. PMID:10759314

  18. Evidence for Early and Mid-Cryogenian glaciation in the Northern ArabianNubian Shield (Egypt, Sudan, and western Arabia)

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    (Egypt, Sudan, and western Arabia) ROBERT J. STERN1*, PETER R. JOHNSON2, KAMAL A. ALI1,3 & SUMIT K over broad regions of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt, NW Arabia and possible correlative units diamictite and BIFs of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt and the correlative Nuwaybah diamictite and BIF

  19. Non-Formal Environmental Education: The Utilization of Solar Energy for Cooking in a Rural Area in Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Zubeir, Z.

    1997-01-01

    In El Sururab in rural Sudan, solar energy is used for cooking instead of wood. This study explored the efficiency of a hot-box type of solar cooker for storing heat and its effectiveness for different methods of cooking various foods used daily in El Sururab. Forty local women served as a respondent group. (PVD)

  20. Addressing the Challenges of Language Choice in the Implementation of Mother-Tongue Based Bilingual Education in South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spronk, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (South Sudan) has been working towards the implementation of a Language and Education Policy in which the mother tongue of the learner is to be used as a medium of instruction for the first three years of primary education.…

  1. Educational Concerns of Arabic Speaking Migrants from Sudan and Iraq to Melbourne: Expectations on Migrant Parents in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sainsbury, W. J.; Renzaho, A. M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Families immigrating to Australia face many challenges integrating into the educational system, including language barriers and interrupted schooling. We have qualitatively evaluated the educational concerns of Arabic migrants from Sudan and Iraq to Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, a city that receives a high percentage of Australia's immigrants.…

  2. Children of the "Sug": A Study of the Daily Lives of Street Children in Khartoum, Sudan, with Intervention Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudrati, Mustafa; Plummer, Mary L.; Yousif, Nassrin Dafaalla El Hag

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study examines street children's daily lives in Khartoum, Sudan to recommend ways to improve their conditions and to successfully assist them off the streets. Methods: In 2000-2001, eight researchers conducted participant observation for 7 weeks; 20 groups of children engaged in role-plays and drawing activities; over 500 children…

  3. Central Southern Thai Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaewkhao, Uthai; Kiatboonyarit, Tawan

    The dictionary for Central to Southern varieties of Thai is designed as a reference for use by Peace Corps volunteers assigned to southern Thailand. An introductory section gives an overview of the dictionary's content and design and some notes on tone patterns and spelling variation in the Central and Southern varieties. Most of the words…

  4. Arabicization in high education: The case of medical colleges in the Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fadni Suliman, Issameldin

    This thesis explores language policies, language conflict and language-user attitudes toward arabicization which refers to the use of Arabic as a medium of instruction in teaching medicine in universities in the Sudan. It follows up these objectives: (1) To highlight the roots of arabicization and implemented language planning activities through document analysis. (2) To report on the advantages and disadvantages of both Arabic and English as media of instruction in teaching medicine in the Sudan. (3) To survey the attitudes of students and their instructors in the colleges of Khartoum, Omdurman and Gezira universities towards arabicization using two similar developed questionnaires and an interview for faculty members. The questionnaires were distributed to the students and faculty members in the three colleges to probe six factors: (I) The extent of use of languages of instruction (2) Readiness of the students to receive medical studies in English (3) The difficulties they face (4) English as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (5) Arabic as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (6) Students' preference of a language of instruction. The study utilized tables, charts and chi square tests to illustrate the attitudes of students and their faculty members. The study has revealed that the attitude of most of the students and their faculty members were in favor of arabicization in principle. In fact, students showed support for the pedagogical benefits of Arabic like they can prepare and study in Arabic in less time than English. They can take more notes in Arabic than in English. The study has highlighted that Arabic as a native language of the students offers them a mighty and indispensable support for the ability to convey ideas, capacity for imaginative or creative thinking than the limited capacity given by the foreign language. Notwithstanding, English is reported to be very important for students' current medical studies and future career. The study emphasized that the language shift to Arabic should not lead to marginalize English in higher education in Sudan. A realization of the need of boosting the teaching of English in case of arabicization is fully implemented was present in the participants' responses. To conclude, the study has culminated in calling for benefiting from the successes of human resource development (HRD) in leading change in organizations in language planning and language policy implementation.

  5. Preventing Malnutrition in Post-Conflict, Food Insecure Settings: A Case Study from South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Amy; Doocy, Shannon; Tappis, Hannah; Funna Evelyn, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Decades of civil conflict compound the challenges of food insecurity in South Sudan and contribute to persistent, high levels of child malnutrition. As efforts to prevent child malnutrition continue, there is a critical need for strategies that effectively supplement the diets of pregnant women and young children in transitional, highly food insecure settings like South Sudan. Methods: This mixed-methods case study of four communities in South Sudan reports on the diets of children under 2 years of age and explores household-level factors including household size, intrahousehold food allocation practices, and responses to scarcity that may have significant impact on the effectiveness of strategies relying on household ration distribution to supplement the diets of pregnant women and children under 2 years of age. Results: Participants reported experiencing increased scarcity as a result of prolonged drought and household sizes enlarged by the high volume of returning refugees. Although communities were receiving monthly household rations through a non-emergency food assistance program, most households had exhausted rations less than 30 days after receipt. Results showed that more than one half of children 12-17 months and one third of children 18-23 months consumed diets consisting of fewer than 4 food groups in the last week. Intrahousehold food allocation patterns give children first priority at meal times even in times of scarcity, yet adult women, including pregnant women, have last priority. Discussion: These findings suggest that distribution of supplementary household rations will likely be insufficient to effectively supplement the diets of young children and pregnant women in particular. In light of the multiple contextual challenges experienced by households in transitional, food-insecure settings, these findings support recommendations to take a context-specific approach to food assistance programming, in which considerations of intrahousehold food allocation patterns and broader cultural and environmental factors inform program design. Incorporating assessments of intrahousehold food allocation patterns as part of needs assessments for food assistance and voucher or cash transfer programs may contribute to more effective, context specific programming. PMID:25045588

  6. Utilizing Remote Sensing to Explore Hydrological and Climatic Factors of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruczkiewicz, A.; Sweeney, A.; Reid, C.; Seaman, J.; Abubakar, A.; Ritmeijer, K.; Jensen, K.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Lessel, J.; Thomson, M. C.; Elnaiem, D.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan and South Sudan (locally known as Kala Azar) have caused an estimated 100,000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of this vector borne disease. In the past 30 years outbreaks have occurred cyclically within this country, but recent shifts in endemicity have necessitated a more robust understanding of the drivers of the disease. Previous work (e.g. Gebre-Michael et al., 2004; Ashford & Thomson, 1991; Hoogstraal & Heyneman, 1969) has suggested that the primary biological vector in this region, the female sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis, exhibits sensitivities to environmental and climatic variables. Results of this study showed a relationship between precipitation and inundation during months of the transmission season (April-July) and the number of confirmed cases in the following September-January period. Particular months of the transmission season with below-average precipitation were better indicators of lagged reports of VL than others. During VL epidemics (2009, 2010, 2011) the month of June exhibited below average precipitation. The two largest epidemics (2010, 2011) were associated with years of below average precipitation in the month of April. Inundation during April-July (AMJJ) also exhibited a strong inverse relationship with reported VL cases in the following September- January (SONDJ). This relationship was best explored when comparing the VL case data of a specific medical center to the inundation anomalies. Results are typified by the Lankien Medical Center analysis where below average inundation during April displays an inverse relationship with VL cases in the following SONDJ. Drought may lead to below average inundation, which could allow for soils to maintain their fissures, thus maintaining the sand fly breeding habitat, resulting in a sustained breeding season for the sandflies (Quate, 1964). Above-average precipitation and inundation might have the inverse effect, eliminating their breeding sites within the soil. Land surface temperature (LST) Night, LST Day, and relative humidity did not show a particularly strong relationship with VL. Further research is needed, as these variables are known to exist across strong gradients within the northern states of South Sudan (Quate, 1964).

  7. Research in Nursing Practice, Education, and Administration: Collaborative, Methodological, and Ethical Implications. Proceedings of the Research Conference of the Southern Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing (3rd, Baltimore, Maryland, December 2-3, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Ora L., Ed.; Damrosch, Shirley P., Ed.

    Collaborative research in nursing is discussed in five papers from the 1983 conference of the Southern Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing. Also included are 32 abstracts of nursing research, focusing on clinical practice, as well as nursing education and research models. Paper titles and authors are as follows: "Building a Climate for…

  8. A novel conducting poly(p-aminobenzene sulphonic acid)-based electrochemical sensor for sensitive determination of Sudan I and its application for detection in food stuffs.

    PubMed

    Li, Bang Lin; Luo, Jun Hua; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2015-04-15

    In the present work, a new method for the determination of Sudan I has been developed based on a conducting poly(p-aminobenzene sulphonic acid) (poly(p-ABSA)) film modified electrode. The new electrochemical sensor showed strong accumulation ability and excellent electrocatalytic activity for Sudan I. Electrochemical oxidation signal of Sudan I at the poly(p-ABSA) modified glassy carbon electrode (poly(p-ABSA)/GCE) was significantly increased when compared to that at the bare GCE. The experimental conditions such as amount of alcohol, pH of buffer solution, accumulation time, and instrumental parameters for square wave anodic stripping voltammetry were optimised for the determination of Sudan I. Under optimum conditions, the linear regression equation of Sudan I was ip=1.868+0.1213c (ip: ?A, c: ?gL(-1), R=0.9981) from 1 to 500 ?g L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.3 ?g L(-1). Finally, this sensor was successfully employed to detect Sudan I in some hot chili and ketchup samples. PMID:25466064

  9. Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

  10. A survey of the intestinal helminths of refugees in Juba, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Marnell, F; Guillet, A; Holland, C

    1992-08-01

    A parasitological survey of refugees based in Juba, Sudan, involving 241 faecal samples, revealed that 66% of the population harboured intestinal helminths. The most commonly found infection was hookworm (36%), followed by Schistosoma mansoni (26%), Strongyloides stercoralis (20%), Hymenolepis nana (11%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%), Trichuris trichiura (0.8%) and Taenia sp. (0.4%). Many of the specimens (42%) harboured a single infection, 21% had double, 2% triple and 1% quadruple infections. Parasite prevalences and intensities were analysed in relation to age, sex, religion and occupation: females (70%) were found to be more infected than males (64%); Muslims (50%) were less infected than Christians (68%) and agriculturalists (90%) were the most infected occupational group. PMID:1463359

  11. Evaluation of the community-oriented medical education in two medical schools in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Azizi, F

    2003-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the extent and impact of community-oriented medical education in the Khartoum and Gezira medical schools in the Sudan. Competency of graduates 3-7 years after graduation and health indicators of the provinces of both medical schools were examined. Gezira had a more community-oriented curriculum although it was deficient in other aspects. The degree of partnership of both schools with the Ministry of Health and the community was weak and the schools' research programmes had no community orientation. Graduates had similar profiles of job satisfaction, community service, knowledge, attitudes and self-learning. Although Gezira had more emphasis on community medical education, graduates of both schools adapted themselves to the environment dictated by the health care delivery system and cultural values. PMID:15562751

  12. Delineation of groundwater zones using lithology and electric tomography in the Khartoum basin, central Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohammed Tahir; Awad, Hussein Salim

    2006-12-01

    The three towns of Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum are located north of the capital of Sudan. This capital has agglomerated to reach more than 7 million inhabitants. The present situation is confronted with a dramatic shortage in freshwater supply. The treatment of surface water from the Nile became costly, particularly in flood season. Thus the authorities turned towards developing groundwater resources. The electric tomography, obtained by the combination of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and well logs, turned out to be very efficient to provide a complete electrical image of the underground from the surface until about 200-m depth. This methodology constitutes a very cheap guide for the evaluation of the quality of groundwater resources in the Khartoum area. To cite this article: M.T. Hussein, H.S. Awad, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  13. Transitional coordination in Sudan (2006-08): lessons from the United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office.

    PubMed

    Clarke, John N

    2013-07-01

    With the increase in internal conflicts following the end of the Cold War, the scale and scope of the United Nations' work in conflict and post-conflict environments grew markedly. As a result, the coordination of programming and policy in the transition from relief to recovery has been a central preoccupation of academics and practitioners alike. Intergovernmental bodies such as the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) have made these topics a subject of regular discussion, while some countries have altered their bureaucratic structures to respond more effectively in post-crisis settings, particularly in cases involving the deployment of national troops. The United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office in Sudan provides a model for other transitional countries and is a useful case study of the broader challenges of post-crisis programming. Effective coordination structures and planning/programming processes are identified as interdependent prerequisites for ensuring a successful transition from relief to recovery. PMID:23601119

  14. Brucellosis in the upper Nile region--Melut district, Sudan (report).

    PubMed

    Sixl, W; Reinthaler, F; Sixl-Voigt, B; Withalm, H; Stünzner, D; Schneeweiss, W D; Rosegger, H; Schuhmann, G; Mascher, F

    1988-01-01

    In the Melut district, South Sudan human and animal blood samples were investigated for Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis. 9.2% of the investigated cattle and 16.2% of the green long-tailed monkies were Brucella abortus-positive. School children revealed a 3.7% positivity rate, Melut's hospital patients 5.2% and village children and adults 2.2%. However, only a small number of hospital patients was investigated. A small percentage of sheep and goats was investigated for Brucella melitensis revealing 12% positive results. 8.7% of cattle were positive. 2.2% of school children reacted in high titers against Brucella melitensis, 5.2% of Melut's patients and in the Melut district 3.6% of children and adults. PMID:3275090

  15. Preliminary Analysis of Dust Effects on Microwave Propagation Measured in Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, Elfatih A. A.; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Chebil, Jalel; Bashir, Saad; Ismail, Ahmad F.

    2013-12-01

    Dust storms are meteorological phenomena which occur for a percentage of time in arid and semi arid areas especially at African Sahara and Middle East. Measurements at existing microwave links have showed dust storms can potentially result in serious attenuation in signal level especially at Ku band and higher frequencies with direct impact on telecommunications system performance. Only a limited amount of research has been carried out and the available data was very scarce. Few prediction models have been developed to estimate microwave signal attenuation during the dust storm based on scattering theory and approximation of dust properties. However, real dust storm is a complex phenomenon which is difficult to be described by theoretical physical or mathematical models [5-6]. In this paper, an evaluation of the existing attenuation prediction models has been done based on the measured dust storm properties and measured attenuation in Sudan.

  16. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in rural communities in Sudan: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Noor, S K M; Bushara, S O E; Sulaiman, A A; Elmadhoun, W M Y; Ahmed, M H

    2015-03-01

    Undiagnosed diabetes constitutes a challenge for health providers, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance among adults in rural communities in River Nile State, north Sudan. In a cross-sectional community-based study, blood glucose, anthropometric, demographic and clinical history data were obtained from 1111 individuals from 35 villages. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 2.6% (29 individuals); glucose intolerance was detected in 1.3% (14 individuals). Classic symptoms (polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss) were present in around half of the participants but were not more prevalent in those with diabetes. Lower educational level, increasing age, hypertension and unexplained weight loss were significant risk factors for diabetes. Other variables (obesity, sex, occupation, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking) were not significant risk factors. There is a low prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and glucose intolerance in the rural population of River Nile State. PMID:26074216

  17. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2015-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan. PMID:25898993

  18. Severe Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria among adults at Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been few published reports on severe Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria among adults in Africa. Methods Clinical pattern/manifestations of severe P. falciparum and P. vivax (according to World Health Organization 2000 criteria) were described in adult patients admitted to Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan. Results A total of 139 adult patients (80 males, 57.6%) with a mean (SD) age of 37.2 (1.5) years presented with severe P. falciparum (113, 81.3%) or P. vivax (26, 18.7%) malaria. Manifestations among the 139 patients included hypotension (38, 27.3%), cerebral malaria (23, 16.5%), repeated convulsions (18, 13.0%), hypoglycaemia (15, 10.8%), hyperparasitaemia (14, 10.1%), jaundice (14, 10.1%), severe anaemia (10, 7.2%), bleeding (six, 4.3%), renal impairment (one, 0.7%) and more than one criteria (27, 19.4%). While the geometric mean of the parasite count was significantly higher in patients with severe P. vivax than with severe P. falciparum malaria (5,934.2 vs 13,906.6 asexual stage parasitaemia per ?L, p?=?0.013), the different disease manifestations were not significantly different between patients with P. falciparum or P. vivax malaria. Three patients (2.2%) died due to severe P. falciparum malaria. One had cerebral malaria, the second had renal impairment, jaundice and hypoglycaemia, and the third had repeated convulsions and hypotension. Conclusions Severe malaria due to P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria is an existing entity among adults in eastern Sudan. Patients with severe P. falciparum and P. vivax develop similar disease manifestations. PMID:23634728

  19. Integrated bio-behavioural HIV surveillance surveys among female sex workers in Sudan, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Elhadi, Magda; Elbadawi, Abdulateef; Abdelrahman, Samira; Mohammed, Ibtisam; Bozicevic, Ivana; Hassan, Ehab A; Elmukhtar, Mohammed; Ahmed, Sally; Abdelraheem, Mohammed Sidahmed; Mubarak, Nazik; Elsanousi, Salwa; Setayesh, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV and syphilis prevalence, HIV-related behaviours and testing for HIV in female sex workers (FSW) in Sudan. Design Bio-behavioural surveys using respondent-driven sampling were carried out among FSW in the capital cities of 14 states in Sudan in 2011–2012. HIV and syphilis testing was done by rapid tests. Results 4220 FSW aged 15–49?years were recruited. The median age of recruited women varied from 21 to 28?years per site. The highest HIV prevalence was measured at two sites in the eastern zone (5.0% and 7.7%), while in the other zones it ranged from 0% to 1.5%. Syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% in the northern zone to 8.9% in the eastern zone. Ever having been tested for HIV was reported by 4.4%–23.9% of FSW across all sites. Condom use at last sex with a client varied from 4.7% to 55.1%, while consistent condom use with clients in the month preceding the surveys was reported by 0.7%–24.5% of FSW. The highest reporting of ever injecting drugs was measured at a site in the western zone (5.0%). Conclusions The surveys’ findings indicate that the highest burden of HIV in FSW is in the eastern states of the country. Condom use and HIV testing data demonstrate the need for HIV interventions that should focus on HIV testing and risk reduction strategies that include stronger condom promotion programmes in FSW and their clients. PMID:23996450

  20. Strengthening human resources for health through information, coordination and accountability mechanisms: the case of the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Elsheikh; Mohamed, Nazar A; Afzal, Muhammad Mahmood; Bile, Khalif Mohamud

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Human resources for health (HRH) in the Sudan were limited by shortages and the maldistribution of health workers, poor management, service fragmentation, poor retention of health workers in rural areas, and a weak health information system. Approach A “country coordination and facilitation” process was implemented to strengthen the national HRH observatory, provide a coordination platform for key stakeholders, catalyse policy support and HRH planning, harmonize the mobilization of resources, strengthen HRH managerial structures, establish new training institutions and scale up the training of community health workers. Local setting The national government of the Sudan sanctioned state-level governance of the health system but many states lacked coherent HRH plans and policies. A paucity of training institutions constrained HRH production and the adequate and equitable deployment of health workers in rural areas. Relevant changes The country coordination and facilitation process prompted the establishment of a robust HRH information system and the development of the technical capacities and tools necessary for data analysis and evidence-based participatory decision-making and action. Lessons learnt The success of the country coordination and facilitation process was substantiated by the stakeholders’ coordinated support, which was built on solid evidence of the challenges in HRH and shared accountability in the planning and implementation of responses to those challenges. The support led to political commitment and the mobilization of resources for HRH. The leadership that was promoted and the educational institutions that were opened should facilitate the training, deployment and retention of the health workers needed to achieve universal health coverage. PMID:24347712

  1. Reduction of Urogenital Schistosomiasis with an Integrated Control Project in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Ha; Jeong, Hoo Gn; Kong, Woo Hyun; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Cho, Han-Ik; Nam, Hae-Sung; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Alla, Gibril Nouman Abd; Oh, Chung Hyeon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in Sudan, particularly Schistosoma haematobium infection. This study presents the disease-reduction outcomes of an integrated control program for schistosomiasis in Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan from 2009 through 2011. Methods The total population of the project sites was 482,902, and the major target group for intervention among them was 78,615 primary school students. For the cross-sectional study of the prevalence, urine and stool specimens were examined using the urine sedimentation method and the Kato cellophane thick smear method, respectively. To assess the impacts of health education for students and a drinking water supply facility at Al Hidaib village, questionnaire survey was done. Results The overall prevalence for S. haematobium and S. mansoni at baseline was 28.5% and 0.4%, respectively. At follow-up survey after 6–9 months post-treatment, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced to 13.5% (95% CI?=?0.331–0.462). A higher reduction in prevalence was observed among girls, those with moderately infected status (around 20%), and residents in rural areas, than among boys, those with high prevalence (>40%), and residents in urban areas. After health education, increased awareness about schistosomiasis was checked by questionnaire survey. Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit. However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI?=?0.933–6.891). Conclusions At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate. Approximately 200,000 subjects had received either praziquantel therapy, health education, or supply of clean water. To consolidate the achievements of this project, the integrated intervention should be adapted continuously. PMID:25569278

  2. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mo'awia M; Osman, Omran F; El-Raba'a, Fathi MA; Schallig, Henk DFH; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A

    2009-01-01

    Background The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, É. Geoffrey, 1803), the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758), the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758), and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. Results DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%). Two out of 87 (2.3%) blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P < 0.001). This was followed by the Egyptian mongoose baited trap and less frequently by the genet baited trap. Conclusion It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat. PMID:19534802

  3. Cretaceous to Cenozoic sequential kinematics in the forearc–arc transition: effects of changing oblique plate convergence and the San Andreas system with implications for the La Paz fault (southern Baja California, Mexico)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Mattern; José Antonio Pérez Venzor; Jesus Efraín Pérez Espinoza; Joel Hirales Rochin

    2010-01-01

    We studied metasediments and mylonitic arc granitoids from the forearc–arc transition of southern Baja California, Mexico.\\u000a Thin section analyses and field evidence show that metamorphism of the forearc–arc transition is of the high T\\/P active margin\\u000a type. The heat was provided by Cretaceous arc intrusions. Field observations and thin section analyses, including the time\\/temperature\\u000a deformation path, demonstrate that the study

  4. Recovery of bluetongue virus serogroup from sera collected for a serological survey from apparently healthy cattle, from the Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Abu Elzein, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Virus of the bluetongue (BT) serogroup was recovered from 11% of cattle sera collected from apparently healthy animals in Khartoum Province for the sole purpose of screening for BT antibodies. Since these sera did not contain BT antibodies, the donor cattle could have been scored as BT free in the serological survey. Virus was initially isolated in chicken embryos inoculated intravascularly, and was further adapted to Vero cell cultures. Isolates were identified as belonging to the BT serogroup using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and complement fixation (CF) tests. The results indicated that cattle in the Sudan could harbour BT virus without showing symptoms of the disease. Such an observation necessitates further work to clarify the role of cattle in the epidemiology of BT in the Sudan. PMID:3016079

  5. Searching for the HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) in south Sudan, Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde Islands, Iran, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Columbia.

    PubMed

    Arbesser, C; Sixl, W

    1988-01-01

    In the spring of 1986, 3.473 human blood samples were serologically screened for HIV-antibodies. The methods used were ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), immunoblotting (Western Blot) and the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The blood samples were collected from males and females of all age groups in: South Sudan (Melut District in 1981 and 1983), Guinea Bissau (1983), on the Cape Verde Islands (1983/84), in Iran (1985), Nicaragua (1984), El Salvador (1984) and Columbia (1984). 18 out of 1.614 sera from South Sudan, 5 out of 93 sera from Guinea Bissau, 1 out of 289 tested sera from El Salvador were confirmed to be positive. None of the sera from Iran and Nicaragua were HIV-antibody positive. PMID:3049240

  6. Carvone-Rich Essential Oils from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. schimperi Briq. and Mentha spicata L. Grown in Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Younis M. H. Younis; Shadia M. Beshir

    2004-01-01

    Steam distillation of the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. schimperi Briq. and Mentha spicata L. growing in Sudan yielded oil contents of 1.8% and 0.9%, respectively. Analysis of the oils by GC and GC\\/MS revealed that both oils were found to be rich in carvone. Twenty-two compounds were identified in each oil, the major ones being carvone

  7. SIR-B analysis of the Precambrian shield of Sudan and Egypt: Penetration studies and subsurface mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, T. H.; Roth, L.; Stern, R. J.; Almond, D. C.; Kroner, A.; Elshazly, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    A shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B) study is proposed for the Precambrian shield in southeast Egypt and northeast Sudan in an area east of the Nile. The phenomenon of radar penetration of thin, dry eolian/alluvial cover is to be confirmed and quantified. The penetration phenomenon is to be used to map structural and lithologic features. Field work to be done in conjunction with image acquisition is discussed.

  8. Measurements of moisture in smoldering smoke and implications for fog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Achtemeier

    2006-01-01

    Smoke from wildland burning in association with fog has been implicated as a visibility hazard over roadways in the southern United States. A project began in 2002 to determine whether moisture released during the smoldering phases of southern prescribed burns could contribute to fog formation. Temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken from 27 smoldering 'smokes' during 2002 and 2003.

  9. East side of Southern Parkway between Watterson Expressway and Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side of Southern Parkway between Watterson Expressway and Southern Heights, looking from the edge of the historic district, southwest - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  10. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, showing present Watterson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, showing present Watterson Expressway entrance ramp, looking from area to be affected towards Beechmont Historic District, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  11. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 13, PAGES 2501-2504, JULY 1, 2001 Crustal structure beneath southern Africa and its

    E-print Network

    Gao, Stephen Shangxing

    beneath southern Africa and its implications for the formation and evolution of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe structure beneath 81 broadband stations deployed across southern Africa re- veal significant differences$05.00 Seismic station locations and a schematic outline of the principal geologic provinces of southern Africa

  12. Malaria indicator survey 2009, South Sudan: baseline results at household level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Sudan has borne the brunt of years of chronic warfare and probably has the highest malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. This nationally representative survey aimed to provide data on malaria indicators at household level across the country. Methods In 2009, data were collected using a two-stage random cluster sample of 2,797 households in 150 census enumeration areas during a Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) in South Sudan. The survey determined parasite and anaemia prevalence in vulnerable population groups and evaluated coverage, use and access to malaria control services. Standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group (RBM-MERG) MIS household and women’s questionnaires were adapted to the local situation and used for collection of data that were analysed and summarized using descriptive statistics. Results The results of this survey showed that 59.3% (95% CI: 57.5-61.1) of households owned at least one mosquito net. The proportion of the population with access to an ITN in their household was 49.7% (95% CI: 48.2-51.2). The utilization of insecticide-treated nets was low; 25.3% (95% CI: 23.9-26.7) for children under five (U5) and 35.9% (95% CI: 31.9-40.2) of pregnant women (OR: 1.66 (1.36-2.01); P =0.175). Prevalence of infection was 24.5% (95% CI: 23.0-26.1) in children U5 and 9.9% (95% CI: 7.4-13.1) in pregnant women. About two thirds (64%) of children U5 and 46% of pregnant women were anaemic. Only 2% of households were covered by indoor residual spraying (IRS) the previous year. Data shows that 58% reported that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, 34% mentioned that the use of mosquito nets could prevent malaria, 41% knew the correct treatment for malaria, and 52% of the children received treatment at a health facility. Conclusion The observed high malaria prevalence could be due to low levels of coverage and utilization of interventions coupled with low knowledge levels. Therefore, access and utilization of malaria control tools should be increased through scaling up coverage and improving behaviour change communication. PMID:24490895

  13. Mixed infection of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and other respiratory viruses in dromedary camels in Sudan, an abattoir study.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Intisar Kamil; Ali, Yahia Hassan; AbdulRahman, Magdi Badawi; Mohammed, Zakia Abas; Osman, Halima Mohammed; Taha, Khalid Mohammed; Musa, Mohammed Zain; Khalafalla, AbdelMelik Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    This study was intended to determine the role played by peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in causing respiratory infections in camels and its association with other respiratory viruses. A total of 474 lung specimens showing pneumonia were collected from clinically healthy camels in slaughterhouses at five different areas in Sudan. Using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA), 214 specimens (45.1 %) were found to be positive for PPR antigen. The highest prevalence was found in central Sudan (59.9 %) then northern Sudan (56.6 %) and eastern Sudan (26.6 %). Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV 3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), and adenovirus were detected in 4.4, 2.9, 2.0, 9.0, and 1.3 % of the specimens, respectively. PPR antigen was found in about 50 % of specimens that showed positive result for other viral antigens. Twenty-five of 28 BVD, 15 of 16 PIV3, 8 of 12 RSV, 4 of 4 adenovirus, and 4 of 5 BHV-1 were found in association with other respiratory antigens. Results revealed the existence of PPRV infection in dromedary camels in Sudan and present evidence for mixed virus infection, suggesting that respiratory infections in camels might be exacerbated by PPRV. PMID:25904508

  14. Periodic Variability in the Large-Scale Southern Hemisphere

    E-print Network

    Periodic Variability in the Large-Scale Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation David W. J. Thompson* and Elizabeth A. Barnes Periodic behavior in the climate system has important implications circulation exhibits marked periodicity on time scales of approximately 20 to 30 days. The periodicity is tied

  15. 'Gupton' southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) are hybrids derived from crosses between the (northern) highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and germplasm developed from Vaccinium spp. that are both native and adapted to the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberries have an advantage o...

  16. Paleomagnetism of the Permo\\/Carboniferous (280Ma) Jebel Nehoud Ring Complex, Kordofan, Central Sudan: Implications for Pangea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Bachtadse; J. A. Tait; R. Zänglein; H. Soffel

    2001-01-01

    Paleogeographic reconstructions of Pangea during Permian times, based on paleomagnetic data, result in major overlaps between Gondwana and Laurasia when choosing a Wegener type configuration (Pangea A1 or A2). In order to reduce these overlaps, several alternative reconstructions for Pangea have been proposed whereby Gondwana is shifted towards the East with respect to Laurasia (Pangea B and Pangea C). Although

  17. Monitoring of larval habitats and mosquito densities in the Sudan savanna of Mali: implications for malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Sogoba, Nafomon; Doumbia, Seydou; Vounatsou, Penelope; Baber, Ibrahima; Keita, Moussa; Maiga, Mamoudou; Traoré, Sékou F; Touré, Abdoulaye; Dolo, Guimogo; Smith, Thomas; Ribeiro, José M C

    2007-07-01

    In Mali, anopheline mosquito populations increase sharply during the rainy season, but are barely detectable in the dry season. This study attempted to identify the dry season mosquito breeding population in and near the village of Bancoumana, Mali, and in a fishing hamlet 5 km from this village and adjacent to the Niger River. In Bancoumana, most larval habitats were human made, and dried out in January-February. In contrast, in the fishing hamlet, productive larval habitats were numerous and found mainly during the dry season (January-May) as the natural result of drying riverbeds. Adult mosquitoes were abundant during the dry season in the fishermen hamlet and rare in Bancoumana. To the extent that the fishermen hamlet mosquito population seeds Bancoumana with the advent of the rainy season, vector control in this small hamlet may be a cost-effective way to ameliorate malaria transmission in the 40-times larger village. PMID:17620634

  18. Implications of the Precambrian lineaments on the Red Sea tectonics based on Landsat study of northeast Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahmed, F.

    1982-01-01

    Projection of the ENE continental fractures offshore on the basis of a modified trend due to rift movements, and "principle of equidistances," corresponds with apparently more precise locations of possible transverse faults.  Projections of the proposed transverse faults generally conform with breaks in bathymetric contours, and azimuth trend of the axial trough.  Hot brine pools, shallow focus epicenters and anomalous heat flow measurements, all tend to lie at or close to the intersection of the transverse faults and axis of the deep waters.  The transverse faults exhibit a general N35-50°E trend as compared with the N60-70_Etrend of the ancestor continental fractures. Deflection in trend caused by faults coinciding with the presnet shore line, may indicate lateral displacement prior to the initial hase of rifting in Miocene times.  It also supports the hypothesis of a "two-phase rifting" of the Red Sea.  Spreading movements proposed along transverse faults with trend values exceeding N50°E may not be applicable, at least for the more recent separation movements.

  19. The Rhodope Zone as a primary sediment source of the southern Thrace basin (NE Greece and NW Turkey): evidence from detrital heavy minerals and implications for central-eastern Mediterranean palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, L.; Critelli, S.; Cavazza, W.; Meinhold, G.; von Eynatten, H.; Manetti, P.

    2015-04-01

    Detrital heavy mineral analysis coupled with a regional geological review provide key elements to re-evaluate the distribution of the Rhodope metamorphic zone (SE Europe) in the region and its role in determining the evolution of the Thrace basin. We focus on the Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary successions exposed in the southern Thrace basin margin to determine the dispersal pathways of eroded crustal elements, of both oceanic and continental origins, as well as their different contributions through time. Lithological aspects and tectonic data coupled with geochemistry and geochronology of metamorphic terranes exposed in the area point to a common origin of tectonic units exposed in NW Turkey (Biga Peninsula) with those of NE Greece and SE Bulgaria (Rhodope region). The entire region displays (1) common extensional signatures, consisting of comparable granitoid intrusion ages, and a NE-SW sense of shear (2) matching zircon age populations between the metapelitic and metamafic rocks of the Circum-Rhodope Belt (NE Greece) and those of the Çamlica-Kemer complex and Çetmi mélange exposed in NW Turkey. Detrital heavy mineral abundances from Eocene-Oligocene sandstones of the southern Thrace basin demonstrate the influence of two main sediment sources mostly of ultramafic/ophiolitic and low- to medium-grade metamorphic lithologies, plus a third, volcanic source limited to the late Eocene-Oligocene. Detrital Cr-spinel chemistry is used to understand the origin of the ultramafic material and to discriminate the numerous ultramafic sources exposed in the region. Compositional and stratigraphic data indicate a major influence of the metapelitic source in the eastern part (Gallipoli Peninsula) during the initial stages of sedimentation with increasing contributions from metamafic sources through time. On the other hand, the western and more external part of the southern Thrace margin (Gökçeada, Samothraki and Limnos) displays compositional signatures according to a mixed provenance from the metapelitic and metamafic sources of the Circum-Rhodope Belt (Çaml?ca-Kemer complex and Çetmi mélange). Tectonic restoration and compositional signatures provide constraints on the Palaeogene palaeogeography of this sector of the central-eastern Mediterranean region.

  20. SHUTTLE IMAGING RADAR PROVIDES FRAMEWORK FOR SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC EXPLORATION IN EGYPT AND SUDAN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breed, Carol S.; McCauley, John F.; Schaber, Gerald G.

    1984-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar provides a pictorial framework to guide exploration for mineral resources (potential placers), groundwater sources, and prehistoric archaeological sites in the Western Desert of Egypt and Sudan. Documented penetration by the SIR-A signal of dry surficial sediment to depths of a meter or more revealed bedrock geologic features and networks of former stream valleys otherwise concealed beneath windblown sand, alluvium, and colluvial deposits. 'Radar units' mapped on SIR-A images according to relative brightness and degree of mottling correspond to subsurface geologic and topographic features identified in more than 50 test pits. Petrologic examination of pit samples confirms that a variety of depositional environments existed in this now hyper-arid region before it was mantled by windblown sand sheets and dunes. Wet sand was discovered in two buried valleys shown on the radar images and located in the field with the aid of co-registered maps and Landsat images, and a satellite navigation device. Buried valleys whose streams once traversed mineralized zones are potential sites of placers (gold, tin).

  1. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah; Maiga, Abdou; Moussa, Ibrahim Bouzou; Barbier, Bruno; Diouf, Awa; Diallo, Drissa; Da, Evariste Dapola; Dabi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic changes and their perceptions were compared across north-south and west-east rainfall gradients. More than 80% of all households found that rainfall had decreased, especially in the wettest areas. Increases in wind speeds and temperature were perceived by an overall 60-80% of households. Contrary to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500-900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region, especially in the 500-900 mm zones and the western part of SSWA. PMID:22270527

  2. Zinc and selenium levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus at Medani Hospital, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, H Z; Elbashir, L M; Hamdan, S Z; Elhassan, E M; Adam, I

    2014-10-01

    Gestational diabetes is a common medical disorder in pregnancy. There is a growing body of evidence of the association between zinc, selenium status and diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted at Medani Hospital, Sudan, to compare zinc and selenium levels in pregnant women with gestational diabetes and normal pregnant women (controls). The two groups (31 in each arm) were well-matched in age, parity, gestational age, haemoglobin and body mass index. Zinc and selenium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were no significant differences in the median (interquartile) zinc (498.9 [395-703] vs 486.4 [404-667] ?g/l, p = 0.905) and selenium (164.4 [61-415] vs 204 [68-541] ?g/l, p = 0.838) values between the two groups. There were no significant correlations between zinc and selenium, or between these trace elements and body mass index, gestational age and blood glucose levels. PMID:24911198

  3. Northern Sudan in 1991: food crisis and the international relief response.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M; Buchanan-Smith, M

    1994-03-01

    By the end of 1991, less than half the amount of relief food requested for North Sudan at the beginning of the year had been delivered. Despite ample evidence of social and economic stress and high rates of child malnutrition, many donors felt that relief needs had been exaggerated, and were unwilling to accept that relief assistance was urgently needed. The feeble response of the main food aid donors is explained initially by the politics of relief in 1990/91, which seriously delayed the launch of the relief operation. These problems were compounded by an oversimplified understanding of famine among some sections of the relief community, and by the orientation of the international relief system to crisis indicators. Toward the end of 1991, donors argued that despite the shortfall in relief assistance there had been no deaths from starvation, and therefore local people had 'coped' better than expected. This paper challenges that view by arguing that excess deaths did occur, but went unnoticed and unremarked. Local people's 'coping strategies', which supposedly 'saved the day', actually had very negative and sometimes fatal consequences. PMID:8044639

  4. Soil Fertility Status of the Kano River Irrigation Project Area in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibrin, J. M.; Abubakar, S. Z.; Suleiman, A.

    This study was conducted to assess the soil fertility status and the extent of soil sodicity and salinity in the Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP), located between latitudes 11°32`N to 11°51`N and longitudes 8°20`E to 8°40`E in the Sudan Savanna of Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from the entire project area using stratified random sampling technique. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on farmers` soil and water management practices. Soil sodicity was the most serious problem in the area. The exchangeable sodium percentage in the top soil ranged from 3.1 to 34.4 with an average of 14.8, while in the subsoil the range was from 3.1 to 40.6 with an average of 17.5. Soil pH values ranged from 5.6 to 9.5 and 4.8 to 9.6 in the top and subsoil, respectively. About 53% of the farmers interviewed cultivated on their field drains, a practice that has led to the blockage of most of the field drains in KRIP and resulted in waterlogging.

  5. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Abu Hamed Focus, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Higazi, Tarig B.; Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Mohamed, Hanan A.; ElMubark, Wigdan A.; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Richards, Frank; Hashim, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Abu Hamed, Sudan, the northernmost location of onchocerciasis in the world, began community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in 1998, with annual treatments enhanced to semiannual in 2007. We assessed the status of the parasite transmission in 2011 entomologically, parasitologically, and serologically. O-150 pool screening showed no parasite DNA in 17,537 black flies collected in 2011 (95% confidence interval upper limit [95% CI UL] = 0.023). Skin microfilariae, nodules, and signs of skin disease were absent in 536 individuals in seven local communities. Similarly, no evidence of Onchocerca volvulus Ov16 antibodies was found in 6,756 school children ? 10 years (95% CI UL = 0.03%). Because this assessment of the focus meets the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for interrupted transmission, treatment was halted in 2012, and a post-treatment surveillance period was initiated in anticipation of declaration of disease elimination in this area. We provide the first evidence in East Africa that long-term CDTI alone can interrupt transmission of onchocerciasis. PMID:23690554

  6. p53 Codon 72 arginine/proline polymorphism and cancer in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Eltahir, Huda A; Adam, Ameera A M; Yahia, Zeinab A; Ali, Noon F; Mursi, Dalia M; Higazi, Ashraaf M; Eid, Nahid A; Elhassan, Ahmed M; Mohammed, Hiba S; Ibrahim, Muntaser E

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this report is to determine frequencies and associations of p53 codon 72 arg/pro polymorphism with different types of cancer in Sudan. p53 codon72 arg/pro polymorphism distribution and allele frequencies in 264 samples of different types of cancers were investigated using PCR. The results were compared to 235 normal controls. The results indicated significant differences in frequency and genotype association between different types of cancers. Breast carcinoma patients most prominently showed excess of homozygous arg genotype as compared to controls with an Odd ratio (OR) of 19.44, 95 %CI: 6.6-78.3, P < 0.0001. Less prominently cervical cancer showed genotype effect of 2.4 OR, 95 %CI: 1.12-5.33, P = 0.015, while esophageal cancer had an OR of 0.57, 95 %CI: 0.23-1.42, P = 0.1. In Burkitt's lymphoma, however, in contrast the homozygous arg accounted for only 6.9 %, (OR 0.18, 95 %CI: 0.02-0.89, P = 0.018). We concluded that p53 arg/pro polymorphism has different pattern of frequency in different types of cancer among Sudanese patients, indicating perhaps different etiology and biology of these tumours. PMID:23053979

  7. Nonmarine Cretaceous palynology of northern Kordofan, Sudan, with notes on fossil Salviniales (water ferns)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrank, E.

    1994-12-01

    A palynological investigation of 164 samples from 18 water wells in northern Kordofan, Sudan, enabled the recognition of five informal zones based on pollen and spore assemblages ranging in age from Albian to Maastrichtian. The youngest (late Campanian-Maastrichtian) assemblages are restricted to the Bagbag Basin, whereas Albian-Cenomanian (to Turonian) sediments are widespread to the east and west of the Bagbag area. Impressions of Salvinia floating leaves from outcrops of the upper Hamrat el Wuz Formation, western part of the study area, are among the oldest occurrences of this water fern and indicate a Campanian-Maastrichtian age for these sediments. The vertical distribution of hygrophilous (pteridophytic spores) versus xerophilous (ephedroids and possibly small, weakly sculptured tricolporates) elements in the palynofloras suggests widespread moist or even aquatic habitats in the Albian-Cenomanian and Campanian-Maastrichtian. A shift towards drier conditions occurred in the late Cenomanian-Turonian. Throughout the Cretaceous, however, there may have been extensive arid/semiarid areas of non-deposition and seasonally dry periods. Some characteristics of the local palynofloras are attributed to its inner continental position. Rare Albian-Cenomanian and Campanian-Maastrichtian dinoflagellates could be interpreted as lacustrine phytoplankton rather than as evidence for marine influence.

  8. Cytotaxonomic and molecular analysis of Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosum sensu lato (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Abu Hamed, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Higazi, T B; Boakye, D A; Wilson, M D; Mahmoud, B M; Baraka, O Z; Mukhtar, M M; Unnasch, T R

    2000-07-01

    The northernmost focus for Onchocerca volvulus Leuckhart (Nematoda: Onchocercidae), the causative agent of human onchocerciasis, is found along the Nile near the town of Abu Hamed in Sudan. The vector for O. volvulus at this focus is a single monomorphic population of Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosum Theobald. This black fly population is limited to a small area between the fourth and fifth cataracts of the Nile River that is isolated geographically from all other populations of S. damnosum sensu lato. Phylogenies produced from cytological analyses and sequence data derived from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 and 16S rRNA genes indicate that Abu Hamed black flies are similar to, but distinct from, the savanna-dwelling sibling species of S. damnosum s.l., Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosum sensu strictu Theobald, and S. (Edwardsellum) sirbanum Vajime & Dunbar. The DNA sequence and the cytological data support the hypothesis that the black fly population present in Abu Hamed may represent a new sibling species of S. damnosum s.l. We propose that this population be informally designated as the hamedense form of the Simulium damnosum complex. PMID:10916295

  9. Bacteriological examinations of drinking water in the district of Melut (Upper Nile Province) South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mascher, F

    1987-01-01

    In October and November 1983 bacteriological examinations of drinking water were done in the district of Melut/Upper Nile Province/South Sudan. The samples were taken from the middle of the White Nile, from handpumps along the river-bank, from the bank of the river and from drinking water bowls in the village of Melut and other surrounding villages within about 100 kilometers. All together 213 water samples were bacteriologically examined. The examinations of the samples taken from the river-bank and from the drinking water bowls showed very high plate counts (10(4)-10(7) colonies/ml) and a very high identification rate of Escherichia coli (11.1-31.5%) and of coliforms (82.1-92.8%). The water from the middle of the White Nile and from the handpumps, which are pumping water from a distance of 25 meters from the river-bank, had a better bacteriological quality. The plate counts were about 10(3)-10(4) colonies/ml. Escherichia coli could only be identified in one sample from the handpumps (4.4%) and coliforms were found in 40% of the samples of the middle of the Nile and in 48.8% of the samples from the handpumps. The trial to get qualitative better water with handpumps from regions far away from the river-bank, can be viewed as successful. PMID:3553321

  10. Leptospirosis in the Melut district--upper Nile province (south Sudan)--an overview.

    PubMed

    Sebek, Z; Sixl, W; Reinthaler, F; Abdel-Nabi, O; Stünzner, D; Schneeweiss, W; Mascher, F; Valova, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined 195 domestic animals for leptospirosis serologically in Sudan (170 cattle, 7 sheep and 18 goats) and 771 wild animals (36 species) with 13 serovars from 13 serogroups. 54% of domestic animals namely, 108 cattle and 1 sheep were positive in titer levels of 1:400 and higher. Cattle sera with the serovars of the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae were 2.4% positive with Cynopteri 2.4%, Autumnalis 3.5%, Australis 1.2%, Pomona 2.9%, Grippotyphosa 2.9%, Hebdonadis 17.1%, Bataviae 9.4% and Tarassovi 50.6%. Only one Numida meleagris of the 54 wild birds (14 species) was positive in low titer level of 1:100 with L. canicola. Seventy (9.8%) of the 717 wild mammals (22 species) examined were positive namely with the serovars of the serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae 3.4%, Javanica 3.0%, Pomona 2.0%, Grippotyphosa 0.7%, Hebdomadis 0.4%, Ballum, Australis, Pyrogenes, Bataviae each 0.3% and Cynopteri 0.1%, whereby sera from 7 animals reacted simultaneously with the serovars of two serogroups. With regard to the species, positive reactions were found in Erinaceus albiventris, Eidolon helbum, Cercopithecus aethiops, Genetta spec., Canis adustus et aurus, Felis silvestris, Leptailurus serval, Arvicanthis niloticus, Mastomys spec., Mus spec., Gazella spec., Tragelaphus spec. The positivity in rodents was very low - 1.2%. PMID:2599388

  11. Providing health services during a civil war: the experience of a garrison town in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kevlihan, Rob

    2013-10-01

    The impact of conflict, particularly conflict arising during civil wars, on the provision of healthcare is a subject that has not been widely considered in conflict-related research. Combatants often target health services to weaken or to defeat the enemy, while attempts to maintain or improve health systems also can comprise part of counter-insurgency 'hearts-and-minds' strategies. This paper describes the dynamics associated with the provision of health services in Malakal, an important garrison town in South Sudan, during the second Sudanese civil war (1983-2005). Drawing on the concepts of opportunity hoarding and exploitation, it explores the social and political dynamics of service provision in and around the town during the war. These concepts provide a useful lens with which to understand better how health services are affected by conflict, while the empirical case study presented in the paper illustrates dynamics that may be repeated in other contexts. The concepts and case study set out in this paper should prove useful to healthcare providers working in conflict zones, including humanitarian aid agencies and their employees, increasing their understanding of the social and political dynamics that they are likely to face during future conflict-related complex emergencies. PMID:24007519

  12. Holocene Floods and Sediment Sources in the Desert Nile: a Strontium Isotope Record from Northern Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Millar, Ian; Williams, Martin; Welsby, Derek; Duller, Geoff; Williams, Frances

    2014-05-01

    Strontium isotope ratios can be used to explore changes in Nile sediment sources and flood regime because the Blue Nile/Atbara and White Nile headwater catchments lie in markedly contrasting geological settings. Most of the existing Sr isotope data for the Holocene Nile has been obtained from lagoonal/lacustrine environments rather than directly from the fluvial sediments of the desert Nile. Northern Sudan contains some of the best preserved Holocene river deposits and landforms in the desert Nile. Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating, we have compiled a detailed record of Holocene river history in the Northern Dongola Reach (NDR) that spans the last c. 8500 years. This period includes major changes in global climate and Nile hydrological regime. In the palaeochannel fills and floodplain deposits of the NDR, we have sampled sedimentary units that represent discrete flood events. We have measured Sr and Nd isotopes on the fine-grained fraction of dated alluvial units. The Sr isotope signature of the NDR fluvial sediments is discussed and compared to published datasets for the Nile delta.

  13. An interesting coordination complex formed between the azo dye Sudan Red G and cobalt ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Humberto C.; Ferreira, Gilson Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the synthesis, spectroscopic analysis (Raman and infrared) and crystal structure of compound denominated [Co(SRG)2]·CH3CH2OH have been investigated, were SRG is 1-(2-methoxyphenyl-azo)-2-naphthol or simply Sudan Red G and CH3CH2OH is one molecule of ethanol. The repeating unit is formed by the presence of an adduct complex constituted by two SRG ligands coordinated to the cobalt ion in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The other building block consists of a molecule of ethanol, which was used as the reaction solvent. The spectroscopic analysis provided important information related to coordination and formation of molecular complex through its mains bands. In the Raman spectrum the presence of marker bands as in at 1224 cm-1 ascribed to the binder SRG [?(NH) + ?(COC) + ?(CH) + ?(CC)] were displaced in the complex formed to 1232 cm-1 due to the loss of the proton from the azo group and the formation of a bond between the oxygen of the ether group with the metal ion. In the infrared spectrum the bands at 653/489 cm-1 and 622/528 cm-1 were attributed to [?(CoO) + ?CC)] and [?CoN + ?CC] characteristic of the metal-ligand bond.

  14. A Seasonal Trend of Single Scattering Albedo in Southern African Biomass-burning Particles: Implications for Satellite Products and Estimates of Emissions for the World's Largest Biomass-burning Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Piketh, S. J.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Hyer, E. J.; Ward, D. E.; Dubovik, O.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Sorokin, M.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.

    2013-01-01

    As a representative site of the southern African biomass-burning region, sun-sky data from the 15 year Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) deployment at Mongu, Zambia, was analyzed. For the biomass-burning season months (July-November), we investigate seasonal trends in aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals. The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from approx.. 0.84 in July to approx. 0.93 in November (from 0.78 to 0.90 at 675 nm in these same months). There was no significant change in particle size, in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months, nor any significant trend in the Angstrom exponent (440-870 nm; r(exp 2) = 0.02). A significant downward seasonal trend in imaginary refractive index (r(exp 2) = 0.43) suggests a trend of decreasing black carbon content in the aerosol composition as the burning season progresses. Similarly, burning season SSA retrievals for the Etosha Pan, Namibia AERONET site also show very similar increasing single scattering albedo values and decreasing imaginary refractive index as the season progresses. Furthermore, retrievals of SSA at 388 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument satellite sensor show similar seasonal trends as observed by AERONET and suggest that this seasonal shift is widespread throughout much of southern Africa. A seasonal shift in the satellite retrieval bias of aerosol optical depth from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer collection 5 dark target algorithm is consistent with this seasonal SSA trend since the algorithm assumes a constant value of SSA. Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, however, appears less sensitive to the absorption-induced bias.

  15. A user's guide to the SUDAN computer program for determining the vibration modes of structural systems. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ., Jun. 1963

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, R. G.; Durling, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    The use of the SUDAN computer program for analyzing structural systems for their natural modes and frequencies of vibration is described. SUDAN is intended for structures which can be represented as an equivalent system of beam, spring, and rigid-body substructures. User-written constraint equations are used to analytically join the mass and stiffness matrices of the substructures to form the mass and stiffness matrices of the complete structure from which all the frequencies and modes of the system are determined. The SUDAN program can treat the case in which both the mass and stiffness matrices of the coupled system may be singular simultaneously. A general description of the FORTRAN IV program is given, the computer hardware and software specifications are indicated, and the input required by the program is described.

  16. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region northern Uganda, the rate of forest recovery was much higher during the second period, coinciding with the time people began leaving overcrowded Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps. I also found that fire activity largely corresponded to coarse-scale human population trends on the South Sudan and northern Uganda side of the border in that post-war fire activity decreased for all areas in South Sudan and northern Uganda except for areas near the larger towns and villages of South Sudan, where people have begun to resettle. Fires occurred most frequently in woodlands on the South Sudan side, while the greatest increase in post-war, northern Ugandan fires occurred in croplands and the forested area around the Agoro-Agu reserve, Interviews with key informants revealed that while some people fled the area during the war, many others remained in the forest to hide; however, their impact on the forests during and after the conflict has been minimal; in contrast, those interviewed believed that wildlife has been largely depleted due to the widespread access to firearms and lack of regulations and enforcement. This study demonstrates the utility of using a multi-disciplinary approach to examine aspects of forest dynamics and fire activity related to human activities and conflict and as such contributes to the nascent but growing body of research on armed conflict and the environment.

  17. Wetland InSAR: Observations and Implications

    E-print Network

    Zanibbi, Richard

    to other areas including the Louisiana Coast (southern US), Okavango Delta (Botswana) and other wetlandsWetland InSAR: Observations and Implications Shimon Wdowinski Research Associate Professor south Florida, showing water level changes in the Everglades wetlands during a 24 day period at the end

  18. Unsaturated Zone Arsenic Distribution and Implications for

    E-print Network

    Scanlon, Bridget R.

    Unsaturated Zone Arsenic Distribution and Implications for Groundwater Contamination R O B E R T C Geology, The University of Texas, University Station, Box X, Austin, Texas 78713-8924 Arsenic compounds. The purposeofthisstudywastoevaluatethefateofanthropogenic arsenic applications related to agriculture, using arsenic applications on cotton in the southern

  19. Prediction, Assessment of the Rift Valley Fever Activity in East and Southern Africa 2006–2008 and Possible Vector Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Anyamba, Assaf; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Small, Jennifer; Britch, Seth C.; Pak, Edwin; de La Rocque, Stephane; Formenty, Pierre; Hightower, Allen W.; Breiman, Robert F.; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Tucker, Compton J.; Schnabel, David; Sang, Rosemary; Haagsma, Karl; Latham, Mark; Lewandowski, Henry B.; Magdi, Salih Osman; Mohamed, Mohamed Ally; Nguku, Patrick M.; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Swanepoel, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Historical outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) since the early 1950s have been associated with cyclical patterns of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, which results in elevated and widespread rainfall over the RVF endemic areas of Africa. Using satellite measurements of global and regional elevated sea surface temperatures, elevated rainfall, and satellite derived-normalized difference vegetation index data, we predicted with lead times of 2–4 months areas where outbreaks of RVF in humans and animals were expected and occurred in the Horn of Africa, Sudan, and Southern Africa at different time periods from September 2006 to March 2008. Predictions were confirmed by entomological field investigations of virus activity and by reported cases of RVF in human and livestock populations. This represents the first series of prospective predictions of RVF outbreaks and provides a baseline for improved early warning, control, response planning, and mitigation into the future. PMID:20682905

  20. Reactivation of the Archean-Proterozoic suture along the southern margin of Laurentia during the Mazatzal orogeny: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of ca. 1.63 Ga granite in southeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Daniel S.; Barnes, Calvin G.; Premo, Wayne R.; Snoke, Arthur W.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of ca. 1.63 Ga monzogranite (the “white quartz monzonite”) in the southern Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming, is anomalous given its distance from the nearest documented plutons of similar age (central Colorado) and the nearest contemporaneous tectonic margin (New Mexico). It is located immediately south of the Cheyenne belt—a ca. 1.75 Ga Archean-Proterozoic tectonic suture. New geochronological, isotopic, and geochemical data suggest that emplacement of the white quartz monzonite occurred between ca. 1645 and 1628 Ma (main pulse ca. 1628 Ma) and that the white quartz monzonite originated primarily by partial melting of the Big Creek Gneiss, a modified arc complex. There is no evidence that mafic magmas were involved. Open folds of the ca. 1750 Ma regional foliation are cut by undeformed white quartz monzonite. On a regional scale, rocks intruded by the white quartz monzonite have experienced higher pressure and temperature conditions and are migmatitic as compared to the surrounding rocks, suggesting a genetic relationship between the white quartz monzonite and tectonic exhumation. We propose that regional shortening imbricated the Big Creek Gneiss, uplifting the now-exposed high-grade rocks of the Big Creek Gneiss (hanging wall of the thrust and wall rock to the white quartz monzonite) and burying correlative rocks, which partially melted to form the white quartz monzonite. This tectonism is attributed to the ca. 1.65 Ga Mazatzal orogeny, as foreland shortening spread progressively into the Yavapai Province. Mazatzal foreland effects have also been described in the Great Lakes region and have been inferred in the Black Hills of South Dakota. We suggest that the crustal-scale rheologic contrast across the Archean-Proterozoic suture, originally developed along the southern margin of Laurentia, and including the Cheyenne belt, facilitated widespread reactivation of that boundary during the Mazatzal orogeny. This finding emphasizes the degree to which crustal heterogeneities can localize subsequent deformation in accretionary orogens, producing significant crustal melting in the distal foreland—a region not typically associated with orogenic magmatism.

  1. Determination of OM/OC ratios and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC) in ambient fine PM at a rural site in southern Ontario: implications for emission sources, particle aging, and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. W.; Huang, L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J. R.; Slowik, J. G.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brickell, P. C.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.-M.; Moosmüller, H.

    2009-07-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) samples were collected on quartz filters at a rural site in southern Ontario during intensive studies in 2005 and 2007. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC), pyrolysis organic carbon (POC), and elemental carbon (EC) were determined by thermal analysis. These results were compared to the organic aerosol mass concentration (OM) measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and to the particle absorption coefficient (b_asp) obtained from a Radiance Research Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). The total organic mass to organic carbon ratios (OM/OC) and specific attenuation coefficients (SAC) were also derived. According to the results, the POC mass is proportional to the approximated oxygen mass in the aerosols and OM/OC ratios can be estimated directly from thermal measurements. The study also suggests that the air masses from the south, with relatively low OC/EC ratios, high EC, sulphate contents and OM/OC ratios, were originated from urban and industrial emissions and subsequently experienced photo-oxidations in the atmosphere, implying that the oxygenated organics could come from both primary and secondary sources. Whereas the air masses from the north, with relatively high OC/EC ratios, low EC, sulphate contents and OM/OC ratios, were dominant by the background clean air with relatively larger contributions from biogenic emissions. The mean SAC derived from the 2005 and 2007 studies are 4.9 m2 g-1 and 3.8 m2 g-1, respectively. When POC mass approaching zero (i.e. the impact of atmospheric aging is minimized), the SAC for primary emitted soot is estimated to be 5.8 m2 g-1 and 6.3 m2 g-1 for the northern and southern air masses, respectively, supported by the corresponding values when particulate sulphate concentration approaches zero. A decreasing trend in the SAC value with atmospheric aging of the aerosol was observed at the site, suggesting that during the study, the light absorption enhancement due to the presence of coating on particles was likely to be offset by the decrease in light absorption caused by increasing soot particle diameter and collapsing of soot particle structure. This result may imply that model simulations of atmospheric warming by BC could be 50% too high.

  2. Petrological, geochemical and geochronological constraints on the origin of the Xiadong Ural-Alaskan type complex in NW China and tectonic implication for the evolution of southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ben-Xun; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Thakurta, Joyashish; Tang, Dong-Mei; Liu, Ping-Ping; Xiao, Qing-Hua; Sun, He

    2014-07-01

    The Xiadong mafic-ultramafic complex is located in the Central Tianshan Terrane, the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. It is composed of dunite, hornblende clinopyroxenite, hornblendite and hornblende gabbro. Several dykes of hornblendite, hornblende gabbro and gabbroic diorite cut the main body. These rocks are characterized by adcumulate textures. The dunites contain high-Fo (92.3-96.6) olivines with rare orthopyroxene and plagioclase. Hornblende, chromite, and magnetite are common phases in all of the rock types. Geochemically, the rocks of the Xiadong complex display high MgO contents and extremely low trace element abundances. Although the rocks of the main body show higher MgO contents and lower trace element abundance compared to the dykes, both are characterized by flat REE patterns and enrichment of LILE relative to HSFE. These petrological, mineralogical and geochemical features indicate that the Xiadong complex is a typical Ural-Alaskan type complex. The cross-cutting and intrusive relationships of the rock units and their distinct geochemical features suggest that the main body represents a different pulse from the intrusive dyke. The positive whole-rock ?Nd(t) values, together with variable (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios, show a depleted mantle source metasomatized by subduction-related material. Zircon U-Pb dating on one hornblende gabbro from the main body of the complex yields a U-Pb 206Pb/238U age of 479 Ma, and zircons from three samples of the dykes yield ages of 477, 379 and 313 Ma. All the zircons have positive ?Hf(t) and slightly higher ?18O than normal mantle, and their Hf-O isotopic values are correlated to their ages. The older samples are comparable to those from the Permian mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Beishan Terrane, which were derived from a mantle source metasomatized by subduction of the South Tianshan ocean, while the younger samples are similar to those from the Paleozoic complexes in the Eastern Tianshan, which record the subduction features of the Junggar ocean. These results suggest that the Central Tianshan was a continental arc from at least the Ordovician to the Carboniferous. The lithospheric mantle beneath the Central Tianshan was depleted in Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions and was metasomatized by melts and/or fluids from the subduction of the South Tianshan and Junggar oceans in Paleozoic. The formation of the Xiadong Ural-Alaskan type complex was the product of arc magmatism via high-degree melting of the lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt.

  3. Substance geology of the western desert in Egypt and Sudan revealed by Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, C. S.; Schaber, G. G.; Mccauley, J. F.; Grolier, M. J.; Haynes, C. V.; Elachi, C.; Blom, R.; Issawi, B.; Mchugh, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    A correlation of known archaeologic sites with the mapped locations of the streamcourses is expected and may lead to new interpretations of early human history in the Sahara. The valley networks, faults, and other subjacent bedrock features mapped on the SIR-A images are promising areas for ground water and mineral exploration. Additionally, the analogies between the interplay of wind and running water in the geologic history of the Sahara and of Mars are strengthened by the SIR-A discoveries of relict drainage systems beneath the eolian veneer of Egypt and Sudan.

  4. A comparative study on the efficacy of artesunate plus sulphadoxine\\/pyrimethamine versus artemether-lumefantrine in eastern Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebtihal A Mukhtar; Nahla B Gadalla; Salah-Eldin G El-zaki; Izdihar Mukhtar; Fathi A Mansour; Ahmed Babiker; Badria B El-Sayed

    2007-01-01

    Background  A combination of artesunate (AS) plus sulphadoxine\\/pyrimethamine (SP) as first-line and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as second-line\\u000a treatment are currently recommended against uncomplicated P. falciparum infection in Sudan. However, there is limited information on the efficacy of ACTs in the country and only one report of PCR-corrected\\u000a results for AS\\/SP only.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The WHO protocol for the assessment of antimalarial drug efficacy for

  5. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  6. Identifying Residual Foci of Plasmodium falciparum Infections for Malaria Elimination: The Urban Context of Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Nourein, Amal B.; Abass, Mohammed A.; Nugud, Abdel Hameed D.; El Hassan, Ibrahim; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Identifying the location and size of residual foci of infections is critical where malaria elimination is the primary goal. Here the spatial heterogeneity of Plasmodium falciparum infections within the urban extent of Khartoum state in Sudan is investigated using data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken from 1999 to 2008 to inform the Khartoum Malaria Free Initiative (KMFI). Methods From 1999–2008 the KMFI undertook cross-sectional surveys of 256 clusters across 203 random samples of residential blocks in the urban Khartoum state in September of each year. Within sampled blocks, at least five persons, including at least one child under the age of five years, were selected from each household. Blood smears were collected from the sampled individuals to examine the presence of P. falciparum parasites. Residential blocks were mapped. Data were analysed for spatial clustering using the Bernoulli model and the significance of clusters were tested using the Kulldorff scan statistic. Results A total of 128,510 malaria slide examinations were undertaken during the study period. In 1999, overall prevalence was 2.5%, rising to 3.2% in 2000 and consistently staying below 1% in subsequent years. From 2006, over 90% of all surveyed clusters reported no infections. Spatial clustering of infections was present in each year but not statistically significant in the years 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2008. Spatial clusters of high infection were often located at the junction of the Blue and White Niles. Conclusion Persisting foci of malaria infection in Khartoum are likely to distort wide area assessments and disproportionately affect future transmission within the city limits. Improved investments in surveillance that combines both passive and active case detection linked to a geographic information system and a more detailed analysis of the location and stability of foci should be undertaken to facilitate and track malaria elimination in the state of Khartoum. PMID:21373202

  7. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in White Nile, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Widaa, Sally Osman; Ahmed, Khalid Awadelkarim; Bari, Amel Ahmed Elsheikh; Ali, Mayada Mohmmedelhassan; Ibrahim, Mihad Abdelaal; Bashir, Mohammed Ahmed; Mastour, Ahmed Hamid Awadelkarim; Yagi, Zakkiah Algali; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar

    2012-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to occur since the 1980s on the western bank of the White Nile River (Central Sudan), 150 km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in 2006. Entomological surveys were carried out during May 2008, June 2010 and May and July 2011 in the White Nile area. Sandflies were collected using Centers for Disease Control light traps and sticky oil traps in the village of Kadaba and the nearby woodland. Phlebotomus females were dissected for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes. A total of 17,387 sandflies, including six species of Phlebotomus and 10 species of Sergentomyia, were identified. The Phlebotomus species recorded were Phlebotomus orientalis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus duboscqi, Phlebotomus rodhaini and Phlebotomus saevus. P. orientalis was collected in both habitats. The relative abundance of P. orientalis in the woodland habitat was higher than that recorded in the village habitat. In the woodland habitat, there was a notable increase in the relative abundance of P. orientalis during the surveys conducted in 2008 and 2010 compared to 2011. None of the 311 P. orientalis females dissected were infected with Leishmania promastigotes, although relatively high parous rates were recorded in both habitats. Based on the distribution of P. orientalis recorded in this study, this species is the most likely vector of VL in the endemic focus in the White Nile area. Further investigation is required to elucidate the seasonal abundance and distribution of the vector, as well as the transmission season of VL in both habitats so that appropriate control strategies for the vector can be designed. PMID:22666856

  8. Heterogeneity and Reservoir Quality of Yabus and Samaa Formations, Agordeed Field, Melut Rift Basin, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badi, Amani; Ali, Omer; Farwa, Abdalla; Abdullatif, Osman

    2010-05-01

    The Tertiary Yabus and Samaa Formations occur within the Melut Rift basin of interior Sudan which is regionally linked to the central and west African rift system. Yabus and Samaa Formations in Agordeed oil field are ones of the most productive oil reservoirs in Melut basin and are composed of sandstones and mudstones lithofacies that differ in size and length along and across the basin. The reservoir sandstone, which occurs at shallow burial depth, deposited within fluvial/lacustrine environments. This work aims to describe and characterize the reservoir heterogeneity and to investigate their impact on reservoir quality and architecture. This study employed a multidisciplinary and integrated approach that investigated and synthesized stratigraphic, sedimentological, cores, logs, petrographical, petrophysical and seismic data from Agordeed oil field. The stratigraphic and lithofacies analysis indicated that Yabus and Samaa formations vary systematically in their facies, sequences and stacking patterns within the basin. Reservoir heterogeneity exists at multiple scales, where reservoir sandstones macro- and micro scale heterogeneity shows vertical and lateral variations along and across the basin. These variations reflect the tectonic, depositional and post depositional controls within the proximal to distal fluvial, prodelta and lacustrine environments. The porosity and permeability distributions are controlled by the heterogeneities within the reservoir formation, such as stratigraphic layering, facies, diagenetic processes, and fracturing. Porosity is enhanced by extensive fracturing and grain dissolution creating intergranular, intragranular and moldic porosity. In addition, permeability is also increased by fractures connecting separated the buildups, that affect directly the reservoir quality. Assessing the different scales of heterogeneity is important to understand their impact on reservoir quality and architecture in Agordeed Field.

  9. Seismic reflection study of acoustic basement in the South Korea Plateau, the Ulleung Interplain Gap, and the northern Ulleung Basin: Volcano-tectonic implications for Tertiary back-arc evolution in the southern East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. B.; Yoon, S. H.; Chough, S. K.; Kwon, Y. K.; Ryu, B. J.

    2011-05-01

    In order to understand the volcano-tectonic evolution history of the East Sea back-arc basin, this study focuses on the seismic characteristics of acoustic basement, based on the multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired from the South Korea Plateau, the northern Ulleung Basin, and the Ulleung Interplain Gap. According to the seismic reflection characteristics, the "acoustic basement" in the study area can be classified into three types. Type-A acoustic basement is a remnant of rifted continental crust comprising relatively shallow-seated continental margin platforms, elongated ridges, and equidimensional blocks in the South Korea Plateau and its vicinities. Type-B acoustic basement is volcanic sills/flows-sediments complexes infilling the rift-controlled basement lows in the South Korea Plateau, the Ulleung Interplain Gap, and the northern Ulleung Basin. Type-C acoustic basement is a cluster or chain of volcanic edifices which shows internal facies variation from main body to apron slope facies. Volcanic activities identified in the types-B and -C acoustic basements can be classified into three stages based on the volcano-stratigraphic correlation with the existing stratigraphic framework. Stage-1 volcanism is characterized by a fissure-type eruption represented by scattering volcanic cones and mounds (type-C), and volcanic sills and lava flows interlayering with syn-rift sedimentary units (type-B). Early-stage continental rifting prior to the Middle Miocene most likely controlled this volcanism. Stage-2 volcanism is characterized by ENE-WSW trending chain of volcanic edifices (type-C) along the northern margin of the Ulleung Basin and Ulleung Interplain Gap. During the Middle Miocene, the weakening of back-arc extension might have resulted in limited volcanic eruption, which formed elongate volcanic fields across the Ulleung and Yamato basins. Stage-3 volcanism is represented by highly peaked volcanic islands and seamounts (type-C) showing vertically stacked apron slopes in seismic cross-sections. This vertical stacking pattern is indicative of multiple eruption events from a single eruption center at least from the Late Miocene to the Quaternary. Expanded volcanic age-control, based on volcano-stratigraphic and isotopic age dating, reveals that the volcanic activities in the southwestern and southeastern East Sea show similar spatio-temporal variations. This implies that the entire southern East Sea has experienced almost same volcano-tectonic evolution during the Cenozoic back-arc evolution. Especially, the stage-2 volcanic chain along the northern Ulleung Basin and the Yamato Seamount Chain in the Yamato Basin matches in their eruption timing (ca. 12 Ma) and geomorphic properties (i.e., direction of the volcanic chains and distances from subduction zone), which strongly suggests the existence of regional-scale chain volcanism across the southern East Sea. Considering the chemical properties of volcanic rock samples from the volcanic chain in association with the suggested tectonic frameworks during the Tertiary, the remnant magma source derived from the waning mantle convection most likely fed the volcanic chain in the terminal stage of back-arc opening.

  10. Effect of tactile kinesthetic stimulation on preterm infants’ weight and length of hospital stay in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ragaa G.; Suliman, Gaafer I.; Elfakey, Walyeldin A.; Salih, Karimeldin M.; El-Amin, Ehab I.; Ahmed, Waled A.; Khalid, Khalid E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of 7 days tactile kinesthetic stimulation (TKS) on preterm infants’ weight and hospital stays in Khartoum State, Sudan. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study, it was conducted in 4 hospitals between January and June 2013, Khartoum, Sudan, and it involved 160 preterm infants randomly assigned into the case and control groups (80 neonates in each). Preterm infants in the control group received routine nursing care, while preterm infants in the case group received TKS for 3 periods, 15 minute per day for 7 constitutive days, in addition to routine care. Data was collected using a structured self-designed and validated questionnaire, checklist, and weighting scale. Weight gain and hospital stay were compared between the 2 groups. Results: Over the constitutive 7 days, the case group gained significantly more weight (1071gm versus 1104gm) compared with the control group (1077gm versus 1084gm) (1084.55±90.74) who gained only 6.9gm within the same 7 days without TKS treatment. The mean difference in weight gain was significant (p=0.00). The hospital stay for preterm infants in the case group was significantly shorter (18.05±9.36 versus 25.47±10.25; p=0.00). Conclusion: Tactile kinesthetic stimulation for preterm infants has a beneficial effect on weight gain and earlier discharge from hospital, which are sequentially efficient and cost effective. PMID:25719584

  11. Bilharziasis control in pump schemes near Khartoum, Sudan, and an evaluation of the efficacy of chemical and mechanical barriers*

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Emile A.

    1962-01-01

    Agricultural schemes irrigated by pumps are of significant importance in the spread of bilharziasis in the Sudan. On the basis of detailed pre-control studies and of post-control evaluation in some of these schemes near Khartoum, a procedure is recommended by which it is thought that satisfactory results could be obtained. Although use of a ”chemical barrier” (i.e., the continuous application of a concentration of 0.125 p.p.m. of copper sulfate as a maintenance dose) has apparently been successful in reducing the snail population in the Gezira irrigation scheme in the Sudan, where it was initiated, it has not yielded satisfactory results in certain other countries. An evaluation of this method and of mechanical barriers has been attempted in the studies reported here and it was found that the canals remained suitable habitats for snails introduced downstream from the site of application of the maintenance dose. The principle of continuous application of low concentrations of molluscicides is probably sound and might be effective; further investigations are, however, necessary to improve the method, and to provide further data on the possibility of a residual effect resulting from continuous application. PMID:14468862

  12. Assessment of Routine Immunization Coverage in Nyala Locality, Reasons behind Incomplete Immunization in South Darfur State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ismail Tibin Adam; El-Tayeb, Elsadeg Mahgoob; Omer, Mohammed Diaaeldin F.A.; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed; El-Sayed, El-Tayeb Ahmed; Deribe, Kebede

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the coverage of routine immunization service in South Darfur state, Sudan. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the vaccination rate and barriers for vaccination. A cross-sectional community-based study was undertaken in Nyala locality, south Darfur, Sudan, including urban, rural and Internal Displaced Peoples (IDPs) population in proportional representation. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 213 children 12-23 months. The collected data was then analyzed with SPSS software package. Results showed that vaccination coverage as revealed by showed vaccination card alone was 63.4% while it was increased to 82.2% when both history and cards were used. Some (5.6%) of children were completely non-vaccinated. The factors contributing to the low vaccination coverage were found to be knowledge problems of mothers (51%), access problems (15%) and attitude problems (34%). Children whose mother attended antenatal care and those from urban areas were more likely to complete their immunization schedule. In conclusion, the vaccination coverage in the studied area was low compared to the national coverage. Efforts to increase vaccination converge and completion of the scheduled plan should focus on addressing concerns of caregivers particularly side effects and strengthening the Expanded Programmer on Immunization services in rural areas. PMID:25729558

  13. Foreign direct investment strategies: Least-developed countries and foreign firms. A case study of Sudan and Chevron Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The least-developed countries (LDCS) are politically underdeveloped. They often have autocratic authoritarian regimes that give less than appropriate attention to their societies' development. Being vulnerable and fairly unstable, such regimes are more occupied with their own survival than with developing pragmatic plans that cater to supplying their nations with missing economic resources needed through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Internal and external pressures on LDCS with such primitive political structures have greatly confused their leaderships and have resulted in the lack of institutionalization in these countries. Foreign firms normally choose to serve world markets through direct operations rather than exporting or licensing because the former maximize their gains more than the two other alternatives. This is why benefits to host countries may not match a host country's expectations when it allows FDI penetration. It is the contention of this research that Sudan failed to formulate a right policy towards FDI, and came short of maximizing its scarce resource returns. On the other hand, Chevron Oil, with a global overall profit-maximization strategy, succeeded in running its subsidiary in Sudan in accordance with its global outlook.

  14. Oral health status of 12-year-old school children in Khartoum state, the Sudan; a school-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Nurelhuda, Nazik Mostafa; Trovik, Tordis Agnete; Ali, Raouf Wahab; Ahmed, Mutaz Faisal

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the prevalence of dental caries among school children in the past decades in Sudan rendering it difficult to understand the status and pattern of oral health. Methods A school-based survey was conducted using stratified random cluster sampling in Khartoum state, Sudan. Data was collected through interviews and clinical examination by a single examiner. DMFT was measured according to WHO criteria. Gingival index (GI) of Loe & Silness and Plaque index (PI) of Silness & Loe were used. Results The mean DMFT for 12-year-olds was found to be 0.42 with a significant caries index (SiC) of 1.4. Private school attendees had significantly higher DMFT (0.57) when compared to public school attendees (0.4). The untreated caries prevalence was 30.5%. In multivariate analysis caries experience (DMFT > 0) was found to be significantly and directly associated with socioeconomic status. The mean GI for the six index teeth was found to be 1.05 (CI 1.03 – 1.07) and the mean PI was 1.30 (CI 1.22 – 1.38). Conclusion The prevalence of caries was found to be low. The school children with the higher socioeconomic status formed the high risk group. PMID:19527502

  15. Using Transformative Models of Adult Literacy in Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding Processes at Community Level: Examples from Guinea, Sierra Leone and Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffery, Juliet

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on the experience in Guinea, Sierra Leone and South Sudan, to explore how the methodology and modalities of community based participatory literacy can interrelate and combine with those of conflict resolution and peacebuilding. The paper considers how transformative models of literacy, such as those of Freire, REFLECT, the…

  16. Influence of Preservatives on the Fermentation, Nutrient Recovery, and Feeding Value of Alfalfa, Starr Millet, and Cowpea and Sudan Grass Silages1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. McCullough; L. R. Sisk; O. E. Sell; Ann R. Stasch; D. L. Cason

    1960-01-01

    SUMMARY Over a 2-yr. period, 12 silos of silage were used to study the influence of preserva- tives on silage fermentation, nutrient preservation, and feeding value. Included in the data were silages made from alfalfa, Starr millet, and a mixture of Sudan grass and cowpeas. Preservatives included ground snap corn, citrus pulp, molasses, and sodium metabisulfite. When used with alfalfa,

  17. Towards Social Progress and Post-Imperial Modernity? Colonial Politics of Literacy in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1946-1956

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seri-Hersch, Iris

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the politics of literacy in late colonial Sudan. Drawing upon hitherto untapped archival sources in English and Arabic, it focuses on two key questions: What were the purposes and uses of literacy in the eyes of colonial authorities? What means were used to spread literacy skills among Sudanese people? Positioning these…

  18. Detection of Babesia canis rossi, B. canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis in Dogs in a Village of Eastern Sudan by Using a Screening PCR and Sequencing Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Oyamada, Maremichi; Davoust, Bernard; Boni, Mickaël; Dereure, Jacques; Bucheton, Bruno; Hammad, Awad; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Okuda, Masaru; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2005-01-01

    Babesia and Hepatozoon infections of dogs in a village of eastern Sudan were analyzed by using a single PCR and sequencing. Among 78 dogs, 5 were infected with Babesia canis rossi and 2 others were infected with B. canis vogeli. Thirty-three dogs were positive for Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon canis was detected by sequence analysis. PMID:16275954

  19. Synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer strategy and its application in the Sudan dyes residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liang; Pan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Sicen

    2015-07-31

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have become a hotspot owing to the dual functions of target recognition and magnetic separation. In this study, the MMIPs were obtained by the surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using Sudan I as the template. The resultant MMIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and X-ray diffraction. Benefiting from the controlled/living property of the RAFT strategy, the uniform MIP layer was successfully grafted on the surface of RAFT agent-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles, favoring the fast mass transfer and rapid binding kinetics. The developed MMIPs were used as the solid-phase extraction sorbents to selectively extract four Sudan dyes (Sudan I, II, III, and IV) from chili powder samples. The recoveries of the spiked samples in chili powder samples ranged from 74.1 to 93.3% with RSD lower than 6.4% and the relative standard uncertainty lower than 0.029. This work provided a good platform for the extraction and removal of Sudan dyes in complicated matrixes and demonstrated a bright future for the application of the well-constructed MMIPs in the field of solid-phase extraction. PMID:26077971

  20. Operational results of the 13 kW/50 m sup 3 solar-driven cold store in Khartoum, The Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Sloetjes, W.; Haverhals, J.; Kerkdijk, K. (Stork Product Engineering, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Ahmed, I.O.; Saber, H.; Eldin, S.S. (Renewable Energy Research Institute, Khartoum (Sudan)); Porsius, R.; Stolk, A. (Technical Univ. of Delft (Netherlands)); Karib, A.E.; Yousif, K. (Food Research Centre, Khartoum North (Sudan)); Hassan, H.W. (Materials Research Development Centre, Khartoum (Sudan))

    1988-01-01

    Experimental test results on a 13-kW solar-driven absorption refrigerator, located at Khartoum, The Sudan, are presented. Design considerations and cost aspects of the solar-driven refrigerator are given as well. The test shows that the solar-driven refrigerator performed satisfactorily during nine months of operation. However, continued tests have to show the ultimate system performance.

  1. An assessment of gender inequitable norms and gender-based violence in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Following decades of conflict, South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011. Prolonged conflict, which included gender-based violence (GBV), exacerbated gender disparities. This study aimed to assess attitudes towards gender inequitable norms related to GBV and to estimate the frequency of GBV in sampled communities of South Sudan. Methods Applying a community-based participatory research approach, 680 adult male and female household respondents were interviewed in seven sites within South Sudan in 2009–2011. Sites were selected based on program catchment area for a non-governmental organization and respondents were selected by quota sampling. The verbally-administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Results were stratified by gender, age, and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and 2 did not provide gender data. Among respondents, 82% of females and 81% of males agreed that ‘a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together’. The majority, 68% of females and 63% of males, also agreed that ‘there are times when a woman deserves to be beaten’. Women (47%) were more likely than men (37%) to agree that ‘it is okay for a man to hit his wife if she won’t have sex with him’ (p=0.005). Agreement with gender inequitable norms decreased with education. Across sites, 69% of respondents knew at least one woman who was beaten by her husband in the past month and 42% of respondents knew at least one man who forced his wife or partner to have sex. Conclusion The study reveals an acceptance of violence against women among sampled communities in South Sudan. Both women and men agreed with gender inequitable norms, further supporting that GBV programming should address the attitudes of both women and men. The results support promotion of education as a strategy for addressing gender inequality and GBV. The findings reveal a high frequency of GBV across all assessment sites; however, population-based studies are needed to determine the prevalence of GBV in South Sudan. South Sudan, the world’s newest nation, has the unique opportunity to implement policies that promote gender equality and the protection of women. PMID:23497469

  2. Late-glacial of southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, C. J.

    Overall trends in late-glacial paleoenvironments of southern South America are interpretable from the pollen stratigraphy of radiocarbon dated sections of mires in Tierra del Fuego (55°S), the Chilotan archipelago (42-43°S), and the Chilean Lake District (39-41°S). In Tierra del Fuego, southern beech ( Nothofagus) and shrub and herb taxa (Gramineae, Empetrum, Acaena, Gunnera, Compositae and Cyperaceae) serve as indicators of the changing climate; in the Chilotan archipelago and in the Chilean Lake District, southern beech and other trees (species of Myrtaceae, Podocarpus, Prumnopitys, Pseudopanax and Weinmannia) suffice as indices of climatic change. Pollen records from each of these regions, although in need of greater dating control, indicate climatic sequences that are broadly similar. The records, however, are not regionally consistent in all aspects and differ in their indicator value with the implication of fossil beetle evidence. Attempts at correlation can be unsatisfactory at times and can stem inter alia from the different ecophysiological responses of both plants and beetles to environmental pressures. These differences, which affect the timing of reproduction and migration, may result in the variable occurrence of different species in the records. The broad implication of the pollen data is that following a glacial readvance culminating at about 15,000-14,500 BP, late-glacial climate was generally warmer during intervals before 13,000 and between 12,000 and 11,000 BP, and was cooler between 13,000 and 12,000 and from 11,000 to 10,000 BP.

  3. Registration Form Southern Tier

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    of Neurosurgery 601 Elmwood Avenue - Box 670 Rochester, New York 14642 Schedule of Events Southern Tier Medical Center Department of Neurosurgery 601 Elmwood Avenue - Box 670 Rochester, New York 14642 Phone Department of Neurosurgery *All fields must be completed for credit. 3:30 pm 4:00 pm 4:45 pm 7:15 pm 5:30 pm

  4. 'Biloxi' Southern Highbush Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Biloxi' tetraploid southern highbush blueberry is a new cultivar developed and released by the Agricultural Reseach Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture breeding programs in Beltsville, MD, and Poplarville MS. Plants of 'Biloxi' are upright, vigorous and productive. The fruit ripens earl...

  5. Swine in Southern Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TYLER A. CAMPBELL; STEVEN J. LAPIDGE; DAVID B. LONG

    Few studies have evaluated oral delivery systems of pharmaceuticals (e.g., vaccines, fertility control agents, and toxicants) to feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States. Our objective was to assess, through a field trial, the percentage of feral swine and nontarget animals that remove and consume baits intended to transport pharmaceuticals to feral swine in southern Texas, USA. We hand-placed

  6. A serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine: studies in the Sudan to combat cerebrospinal meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis group A.

    PubMed

    Erwa, H H; Haseeb, M A; Idris, A A; Lapeyssonnie, L; Sanborn, W R; Sippel, J E

    1973-01-01

    Vaccination against cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) has regained interest with the use of capsular polysaccharides (or polyosides) of the meningococcus as specific immunizing agents. These compounds proved to be effective in the USA against meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serotype C. This study considers whether the polysaccharides of the serotype A meningococcus, which is prevalent in the African CSM belt, could be protective in epidemic conditions. Taking advantage of the usual seasonal peak of CSM cases, controlled field trials were undertaken in the Sudan early in 1973. 21 640 persons were vaccinated, half of them with a meningococcal polyoside A vaccine and the other half with tetanus toxoid as a placebo. In the former group there were no cases of meningitis, whereas in the latter 10 cases were reported, of which 7 were confirmed by laboratory tests. These studies indicate that the meningococcal polyoside A vaccine is efficient in epidemic conditions and could be used to control outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis. PMID:4211056

  7. Late Proterozoic evolution of the northern part of the Hamisana zone, northeast Sudan - Constraints on Pan-African accretionary tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. M.; Dixon, T. H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes deformation fabrics developed in the northern part of the Hamisana zone in northeast Sudan. New structural data are presented which establish a structural chronology that characterizes distinct events of accretion, folding, and thrust faulting and reactivation of accretion-related faults. The structural data point to an intraplate compressional origin for the Hamisana zone. A review of available isotopic age data is carried out, and it is concluded that Pan-African accretionary processes may have been analogous to Phanerozoic ophiolite and island arc accretion in the western North American Cordillera, where penetrative deformation occurred in response to periodic intraplate shortening events, rather than an ultimate collision of unrelated crustal fragments.

  8. Prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis along the Nile River north of Khartoum (Sudan) in the aftermath of an epidemic in 1985.

    PubMed

    Kadaro, A Y; Ghalib, H W; Ali, M S; Eltoum, I; Ismail, A; Gaafar, A; Kemp, M; Kordofani, A A; Reed, S G; el-Hassan, A M

    1993-01-01

    Based on a pilot clinical study of the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) among school children in villages on both banks of the Nile River north of Khartoum, Sudan in the aftermath of a 1985 epidemic, we studied a random sample (303 individuals) from one of these villages to determine the prevalence of infection and exposure to CL. Four percent of the population had active CL lesions, 47% had healed lesions, and another 43% reacted positively to sensitization with leishmanin in the absence of past or active CL lesions. Ninety-one percent of the total population reacted positively to leishmanin. The present status of CL in the area and possible reasons for the emergence of the epidemic are discussed, and gaps in our knowledge about the epidemic are identified. PMID:8427387

  9. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and isolation of Brucella abortus biovar 6 in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Gumaa, M M; Osman, H M; Omer, M M; El Sanousi, E M; Godfroid, J; Ahmed, A M

    2014-12-01

    Brucellosis is one of the important zoonotic diseases among livestock. This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and isolate Brucella spp. in sheep in Kassala State in the east of Sudan. Two thousand and five serum samples were randomly collected from nine different localities. All serum samples were examined by the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and the modified RBPT (mRBPT). Forty-three (2.15%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6,3.0) and 68 (3.4%, 95% CI: 2.6, 4.2) samples were positive with the RBPT and the mRBPT, respectively. According to a known diagnostic sensitivity of 86.6% and a known diagnostic specificity of 97.6% for the mRBPT, the true prevalence was estimated to be 1.2% (95% CI: 0.3, 2.2). Different tissue samples were collected from 41 mRBPT seropositive animals. Brucella abortus biovar 6 was isolated from a pyometra of a seropositive ewe. It is important to note that B. abortus biovar 6 cannot be differentiated from Brucella melitensis biovar 2 by routine bacteriology. Only phage typing performed in reference laboratories will allow accurate identification of the strain. The fact that B. abortus biovar 6 does not require CO2 for growth, combined with the fact that it has been isolated from a small ruminant in this study, could easily have led to misidentification (as B. melitensis biovar 2), to wrong epidemiological inferences and to the implementation of inappropriate control measures. The results presented here suggest that sheep are spillover hosts, as previously described for camels, and that the actual reservoir of B. abortus biovar 6 is cattle in Kassala State, Eastern Sudan. This study highlights the importance of isolating and identifying Brucella spp. in different livestock species in order to accurately decipher brucellosis epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25812219

  10. Tracing Nile sediment sources by Sr and Nd isotope signatures (Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padoan, Marta; Garzanti, Eduardo; Harlavan, Yehudit; Villa, Igor Maria

    2011-06-01

    Strontium and neodymium isotopes, measured on diverse mud and sand fractions of sediment in transit along all major Nile branches, identify detritus sourced from Precambrian basements, Mesozoic strata, and Tertiary volcanic rocks exposed along the shoulders of the East African rift and in Ethiopian highlands. Sr and Nd isotopic ratios reflect the weighted average of detrital components generated in different catchments, allowing us to discriminate provenance, calculate sediment budgets, and investigate grain-size and hydraulic-sorting effects. 87Sr/ 86Sr and 143Nd/ 144Nd range, respectively, from as high as 0.722 and as low as 0.5108 for sediment derived from Archean gneisses in northern Uganda, to 0.705 and 0.5127 for sediment derived from Neoproterozoic Ethiopian and Eritrean basements. 87Sr/ 86Sr and 143Nd/ 144Nd, ranging 0.705-0.709 and 0.5124-0.5130 for Blue Nile tributaries, are 0.704-0.705 and 0.5127-0.5128 for largely volcaniclastic sediments of River Tekeze-Atbara, and 0.705-0.706 and 0.5126-0.5127 for main Nile sediments upstream Lake Nasser. Model mantle derivation ages ( tDM), oldest in Uganda where sediment is principally derived from the Congo Craton (3.4-3.0 Ga for Victoria and Albert Nile), progressively decrease northward across the Saharan Metacraton, from 2.6 Ga (Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan), to 2.4-2.2 Ga (Bahr ez Zeraf across the Sudd), and finally 1.6-1.3 Ga (White Nile upstream Khartoum). Instead, tDM ages of Sobat mud increase from 0.9 to 1.5 Ga across the Machar marshes. TDM ages are younger for sediments shed by Ethiopian (1.2-0.7 Ga) and Eritrean basements (1.5-1.2 Ga), and youngest for sediments shed from Ethiopian flood basalts (0.3-0.2 Ga). Integrated geochemical, mineralogical, and settling-equivalence analyses suggest influence on the Nd isotopic signal by volcanic lithic grains and titanite rather than by LREE-rich monazite or allanite. Because contributions by ultradense minerals is subordinate, intrasample variability of Sr and Nd ratios is minor. In Blue Nile, Atbara and main Nile sediments of mixed provenance, however, the Nd ratio tends to be higher and tDM ages lower in largely volcaniclastic mud than in mixed volcaniclastic/metamorphiclastic sand. The complete geochemical database presented here, coupled with high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral data, provides a key to reconstructing erosion patterns and detrital fluxes across the whole Nile basin, and to investigate and understand how sources of sediment have changed in the historical and pre-historical past in relation to shifting climatic zones across arid northern Africa.

  11. Library of Southern Literature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The well known Documenting the American South Project (discussed in the April 18, 1997 Scout Report) has recently added this section, highlighted by twenty-five full texts, available in SGML (standard generalized markup language) and HTML formats. Included are A Diary From Dixie, by Mary Boykin Miller Chesnut, five works by the African American writer Charles Waddell Chesnutt, two works by Ellen Anderson Gholson Glasgow, Tales, by Edgar Allen Poe, and Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington. Images of covers, title pages, frontispieces, and illustrations may be available, depending on the work. In addition, there are explanatory introductions for selected authors. The site also includes a list of "the one hundred most important Southern literary texts" compiled by the late Professor Robert Bain, and an article from the Encyclopedia of Southern Culture.

  12. Brushfires in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view of brushfires in Southern Africa, exact location unknown, raises questions concerning the overall global environmental effect of large scale biomass burning as an indicator of large scale conversion of tropical, closed canopy forests to pastoral and agricultural uses. Other concerns relate to the reduction of the biotic and genetic diversity in the global tropics and the relationship of biomass burning to atmospheric chemistries.

  13. Crustaceans of Southern Australia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This intriguing resource on the Crustaceans of Southern Australia is provided by Dr. Gary Poore of the Museum of Victoria. Hundreds of images offer a peak into the diverse and colorful underwaters of Australia; images are accompanied by concise text, offering solid introductory information on the biology of marine crustaceans. Users will find this a worthy educational tool to learn more about Australian crustaceans from barnacles to crabs, ghost shrimps to lobsters.

  14. Southern Mars: It's Spring!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions.

    The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  15. Smoke in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS true-color image acquired over Southern Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the southern half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in Southern Africa. Data from both the SeaWiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using SeaWiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, SeaWiFS Project and Orbital Sciences

  16. Solving Slavery in Sudan: Solving a Social Problem Through Nation Building

    E-print Network

    Krueger, Brandon

    2006-08-16

    (Metz “Meroe”). By 350 A.D., however, the kingdom’s power had declined to the point that it became a buffer state for Roman-controlled Egypt and was formally ended by an Axumite army from modern Ethiopia, which destroyed the kingdom’s capital city... in this southern region and was documented by a Portuguese embassy to Ethiopia from 1520-26, which cited 150 churches in ‘Alwa. This large number was soon to decline, though, as Christian Nubians took on Arab protectors while Nubia entered into an age...

  17. The Blue Nile Health Project: a comprehensive approach to the prevention and control of water-associated diseases in irrigated schemes of the Sudan.

    PubMed

    el Gaddal, A A

    1985-04-01

    This is a general report on the Blue Nile Health Project in the Sudan. The project was initiated in 1979 to develop better strategies for controlling the major water-associated diseases in tropical irrigation schemes. The 10-year programme will cost about $154 million (1978 prices). The Gezira, Managil and Rahad irrigation systems, all irrigated from the Blue Nile River, were selected for the project area as typical of irrigation systems throughout Africa and the Middle East where malaria, diarrhoeal diseases and schistosomiasis are endemic, and as the areas most urgently in need of disease control in the Sudan. The methods used for control of the water-associated diseases emphasize permanent improvements in water supply and sanitation, in environmental and agricultural practices, in health education, community participation and primary health services, and a reduction in dependence on pesticides and drugs. PMID:4032529

  18. Rainfall and vegetation monitoring in the Savanna Zone of the Democratic Republic of Sudan using the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. U. HIELKEMA; S. D. PRINCE; W. L. ASTLE

    1986-01-01

    NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) global-area coverage (4?km ground resolution) data were obtained at three-day intervals throughout each of the four-month periods covering the 1980, 1983 and 1984 growing seasons, between latitudes 10° and 22° North in the Democratic Republic of Sudan. Daily rainfall data for twelve meteorological stations spanning the Savanna Zone were analysed. Rainfall

  19. Determination of Sudan dyes in chili pepper powder by online solid-phase extraction with a butyl methacrylate monolithic column coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Wang, Man-Man; Ai, Lian-Feng; Zhang, Chang-Kun; Li, Xin; Wang, Xue-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was fabricated and used as a novel sorbent for online solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of Sudan I-IV in chili pepper powder. The prepared columns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and pressure drop measurements. Online solid-phase extraction was performed on the synthesized monolithic column using 10 mM ammonium acetate solution as the loading solution with the aid of an online cleanup chromatography system. The desorption of Sudan I-IV was achieved with acetonitrile as the eluting solution at the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The extracted analytes were subsequently eluted into a C18 analytical column for chromatographic separation using a mixture of 10% acetonitrile/90% formic acid (0.5%) solution as the mobile phase. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method had linear range of 1.0-50 ?g/kg, a detection limit of 0.3 ?g/kg, and a quantification limit of 1.0 ?g/kg for each analyte. The intraday and interday recoveries of Sudan I-IV in chili pepper powder samples ranged from 94.8 to 100.9% and 94.9 to 99.4%, respectively. The intraday and interday precision were between 3.37-7.01% and 5.01-7.68%, respectively. PMID:24723310

  20. Swarming and mating behavior of male Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in an area of the Sterile Insect Technique Project in Dongola, northern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mo'awia M; Zain, Hussam M; Basheer, Mohammed A; Elhaj, Hassab-Elrasoul F; El-Sayed, Badria B

    2014-04-01

    The problems facing the conventional mosquito control methods including resistance to insecticides have led to the development of alternative methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to suppress populations of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan. This method entails the release of large numbers of irradiated males to compete against wild conspecifics for mating with virgin females in the field. The swarming and mating behaviors of this species were conducted at two field sites during the period 2009-2012 in Dongola, northern Sudan. Observations were made in the field sites and in a contained semi-field enclosure. In addition, participation of released irradiated-marked males in the swarms of wild mosquito was investigated. Swarms were observed on sunset in the vicinity of larval habitats around irrigation channel and stopped with the onset of the darkness about 21-25 min after the start. Swarms were observed above visual markers such as palm trees, bare ground, and manure. Several couples were observed leaving the swarms in copula in the direction of the sunlight. The majority of copulations were observed within 12-15 min of the start of swarming. Relatively low insemination rates (28%) of females collected from coupling pairs were observed. Irradiated-marked males were observed to join the natural swarms regularly, indicating their probable competitiveness with the other wild males. These findings enhance the feasibility of staging an SIT campaign against malaria vector in Northern State-Sudan. PMID:24291461