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1

Examining Media Habits: implications for health promotion programs among the Toposa in Southern Sudan.  

PubMed

Dissemination of appropriate health education messages is essential to any health promotion campaign. This cross-sectional study examined media ownership, access and media preferences by target groups in Kapoeta South County, Southern Sudan. The target groups were segmented into household heads (n = 368); women with children under five years (n = 580); and youth 11-16 years old (n = 349). Interviewees were selected at random from 49 villages. Overall, a small portion owned radios (6.8%) and television sets (0.2%); more had access to radio (27.1%), listened to cassettes (50.8%), and had access to television and movies (21.4%). The majority were interested in programs developed in the vernacular (89.0%). A very low literacy rate (1.3%) and difficulty in understanding signage (29.7%) posed potential obstacles for use of print media as a primary source of health communication. Heads of household were more likely to own radios (P < 0.001), watch TV outside of the home (P = 0.034), and see posters (P = 0.038) than other groups. Traditional entertainment was attended by 94.4% of respondents. Information from chiefs (61.5%) and elders (51.5%) was considered trustworthy by the majority of respondents. This research highlights the utility in understanding media access, habits and preferences of community members when designing a health promotion campaign. PMID:24036294

Heggen, Anne E; Valerio, Melissa A; Thoar, Gideon Gatpan; Rodgers, Ann F; King, Jonathan D; Kur, Lucia William; Becknell, Steven; Emerson, Paul M

2009-09-01

2

Integrated Mapping of Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiological Findings and Control Implications for Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background There are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post-conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish which communities require mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapy (PCT), rather than to provide precise estimates of infection prevalence. Methods and Findings The integrated survey design used anecdotal reports of LF and proximity to water bodies (for schistosomiasis) to guide selection of survey sites. In total, 86 communities were surveyed for schistosomiasis and STH; 43 of these were also surveyed for LF and loiasis. From these, 4834 urine samples were tested for blood in urine using Hemastix reagent strips, 4438 stool samples were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique, and 5254 blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests (ICT). 4461 individuals were interviewed regarding a history of ‘eye worm’ (a proxy measure for loiasis) and 31 village chiefs were interviewed regarding the presence of clinical manifestations of LF in their community. At the village level, prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni ranged from 0 to 65.6% and from 0 to 9.3%, respectively. The main STH species was hookworm, ranging from 0 to 70% by village. Infection with LF and loiasis was extremely rare, with only four individuals testing positive or reporting symptoms, respectively. Questionnaire data on clinical signs of LF did not provide a reliable indication of endemicity. MDA intervention thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization were only exceeded for urinary schistosomiasis and hookworm in a few, yet distinct, communities. Conclusion This was the first attempt to use an integrated survey design for this group of infections and to generate detailed results to guide their control over a large area of Southern Sudan. The approach proved practical, but could be further simplified to reduce field work and costs. The results show that only a few areas need to be targeted with MDA of PCT, thus confirming the importance of detailed mapping for cost-effective control. PMID:19859537

Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Oguttu, David; Robinson, Emily; Lado, Mounir; Rumunu, John; Brooker, Simon; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

2009-01-01

3

Nutrition and mortality assessment--southern Sudan, March 1993.  

PubMed

During the last 5 years of Sudan's decade-long civil war, increased fighting and food shortages in southern Sudan have led to displacement of large numbers of persons. In late 1992, the United Nations (UN), the government of Sudan, and factions of the Sudanese People's Liberation Army negotiated increased access for delivery of relief aid to civilians in southern Sudan. To assist in the targeting of food and other relief aid, CDC and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance conducted rapid assessments of nutritional status (children aged < 5 years) and mortality (persons of all ages) during March 7-19, 1993, at four sites in three states: Ame (Eastern Equatoria), Ayod and Kongor (Upper Nile), and Akon (Bahr el Ghazal) (Figure 1). This report summarizes findings of the assessments. PMID:8474423

1993-04-30

4

Sudan.  

PubMed

The Sudan's population characteristics, geographical features, history, political conditions, and foreign relations are profiled. The 1984 population of Sudan has been estimated at 21.1 million, with an estimated annual growth rate of 3.0%. Approximately 25% of the Sudanese population resides in urban areas. Major religions are Islam, indigenous beliefs (in southern Sudan), and Christianity. The official language is Arabic, although English and tribal languages are also spoken. Education is compulsory for 9 years, but the attendance rate is only 48%. The infant mortality rate is 118.0/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 47 years. 78.4% of the work force is engaged in agriculture, 9.8% in industry and commerce, and 6% in government. The estimated gross national product for 1981-83 was $27.36 billion, with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.7% in 1982-83. Per capit income was approximately $361 in 1982, with an average annual inflation rate of 20-30%. Sudan's population is composed of 2 distinct cultures, Arab and black African, and effective collaboration between them poses one of the nation's principal internal problems. The 5 northern regions cover almost 2/3 of Sudan and include most urban centers. Most of the 13 million Sudanese who live in this area are Arabic-speaking Muslims of several distinct tribal groups. The southern region has a population of about 5.5 million and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. The south also contains many tribal groups and uses many more languages than the north. Sudan's primary resources are agricultural. Although the country is trying to diversify its cash crops, cotton and cottonseed account for more than 50% of export earnings. Another large export crop is gum arabic. Grain sorghum is the principal food crop, and wheat is grown for domestic consumption. Livestock production has vast potential and many animals, particularly camels and sheep, are exported to other Arab countries. The inadequate transportation system is a major hindrance to economic development. PMID:12178062

1985-08-01

5

Blinding Trachoma in Postconflict Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness. Reports from eye surgery camps and anecdotal data indicated that blinding trachoma is a serious cause of visual impairment in Mankien payam (district) of southern Sudan. We conducted this study to estimate the prevalence of trachoma, estimate targets for interventions, and establish a baseline for monitoring and evaluation. Methods and Findings A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2005. A two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample population. Participants were examined for trachoma by experienced graders using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme. A total of 3,567 persons were examined (89.7% of those enumerated) of whom 2,017 were children aged less than 15 y and 1,550 were aged 15 y and above. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1–9 y was: trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) = 57.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.5%–60.4%); trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) = 39.8% (95% CI, 36.3%–43.5%); and TF and/or TI (active trachoma) = 63.3% (95% CI, 60.1%–66.4%). Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis was 9.6% (95% CI, 8.4%–10.9%) in all ages, 2.3% (95% CI, 1.6%–3.2%) in children aged under 15 y, and 19.2% (95% CI, 17.0%–21.7%) in adults. Men were equally affected by trichiasis as women: odds ratio = 1.09 (95% CI, 0.81%–1.47%). It is estimated that there are up to 5,344 persons requiring trichiasis surgery in Mankien payam. Conclusions Trachoma is a serious public health problem in Mankien, and the high prevalence of trichiasis in children underscores the severity of blinding trachoma. There is an urgent need to implement the surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental change (SAFE) strategy for trachoma control in Mankien payam, and the end of the 21-y civil war affords an opportunity to do this. PMID:17177597

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ole-Sempele, Francis; Onsarigo, Alice; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul

2006-01-01

6

The Burden of Trachoma in Ayod County of Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBlindness due to trachoma is avoidable through Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial hygiene and Environmental improvements (SAFE). Recent surveys have shown trachoma to be a serious cause of blindness in Southern Sudan. We conducted this survey in Ayod County of Jonglei State to estimate the need for intervention activities to eliminate blinding trachoma.Methodology and FindingsA cross-sectional two-stage cluster random survey was conducted

Jonathan D. King; Jeremiah Ngondi; Gideon Gatpan; Ben Lopidia; Steve Becknell; Paul M. Emerson

2008-01-01

7

The Burden of Trachoma in Ayod County of Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background: Blindness due to trachoma is avoidable through Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial hygiene and Environmental improvements,(SAFE). Recent surveys have shown,trachoma,to be a serious cause of blindness in Southern Sudan. We conducted this survey in Ayod County of Jonglei State to estimate the need for intervention activities to eliminate blinding trachoma. Methodology,and,Findings: A cross-sectional two-stage cluster random,survey was,conducted,in November,2006. All

Jonathan D. King; Jeremiah Ngondi; Gideon Gatpan; Ben Lopidia; Steve Becknell; Paul M. Emerson

2008-01-01

8

Viewing the Reconstruction of Primary Schooling in Southern Sudan through Education Data, 2006-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After one of the longest wars in the history of Africa, Southern Sudan accomplished one of the world's quickest education reconstruction programmes. Once the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005, the international donor community and the government and people of Southern Sudan united under a common goal: to increase access to…

Kim, HyeJin; Moses, Kurt D.; Jang, Bosun; Wils, Annababette

2011-01-01

9

A policing partnership for post-war Africa? Lessons from Liberia and southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines partnerships between the police and local groups engaged in policing in two fragile African states – southern Sudan and Liberia. There is a tendency in Africa for such partnerships to function as local policing activities assisted by the police. This is in contrast to the model more familiar in the West, where partnerships tend to function as

Bruce Baker

2009-01-01

10

The epidemiology of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We investigated vision status associated with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) and explored age-sex patterns of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in Mankien district of southern Sudan where trachoma prevention and trichiasis surgery were absent. METHODS: A population based survey was undertaken and eligible persons underwent eye examination. Visual acuity (VA) was tested using Snellen E chart and persons

Jeremiah Ngondi; Mark Reacher; Fiona Matthews; Francis Ole-Sempele; Alice Onsarigo; Ibrahim Matende; Samson Baba; Carol Brayne; Paul Emerson

2007-01-01

11

Jebel Moya (Sudan): new dates from a mortuary complex at the southern Meroitic frontier  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a new chronology for the burial complex at Jebel Moya, south-central Sudan. It reassesses the body of evidence from Sir Henry Wellcome's original 1911–1914 excavations in order to place the site within a firm chronological framework by: (a) applying an attribute-based approach to discern discrete pottery assemblages; and (b) applying initial OSL dates to facilitate the reliable dating of this site for the first time. Jebel Moya is re-interpreted as a burial complex situated on the southern periphery of the late Meroitic state, and its potential to serve as a chronological and cultural reference point for future studies in south-central and southern Sudan is outlined. PMID:25400300

Brass, Michael; Schwenniger, Jean-Luc

2013-01-01

12

Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.  

PubMed

In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself. PMID:22309968

O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

2012-11-01

13

South Sudan urban development strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Sudan - the ten southern provinces of Sudan - has attained autonomy and may soon achieve total independence from Sudan. Yet decades of civil war not only prevented development but destroyed the infrastructure left over from the colonial period. While Southern Sudan is fortunate to have oil resources that can finance building up the new nation, the task is

Vittorio Emmanuel Pareto

2008-01-01

14

What Will Happen If We Do Nothing To Control Trachoma: Health Expectancies for Blinding Trachoma in Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Uncontrolled trachoma is a leading cause of blindness. Current global trachoma burden summary measures are presented as disability adjusted life years but have limitations due to inconsistent methods and inadequate population- based data on trachomatous low vision and blindness. We aimed to describe more completely the burden of blinding trachoma in Southern Sudan using health expectancies. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: Age

Jeremiah M. Ngondi; Fiona E. Matthews; Mark H. Reacher; Jonathan King; Carol Brayne; Hebe Gouda; Paul M. Emerson

2009-01-01

15

Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Low Vision in Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Blindness and low vision are thought to be common in southern Sudan. However, the magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of blindness and low vision, identify the main causes of blindness and low vision, and estimate targets for blindness prevention programs in Mankien payam (district), southern Sudan. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey of the population aged 5 y and above was conducted in May 2005 using a two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size. The Snellen E chart was used to test visual acuity, and participants also underwent basic eye examination. Vision status was defined using World Health Organization categories of visual impairment based on presenting visual acuity (VA). A total of 2,954 persons were enumerated and 2,499 (84.6%) examined. Prevalence of blindness (presenting VA of less than 3/60 in the better eye) was 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4–4.8); prevalence of low vision (presenting VA of at least 3/60 but less than 18/60 in the better eye) was 7.7% (95% CI, 6.7–8.7); whereas prevalence of monocular visual impairment (presenting VA of at least 18/60 in better eye and VA of less than 18/60 in other eye) was 4.4% (95% CI, 3.6–5.3). The main causes of blindness were considered to be cataract (41.2%) and trachoma (35.3%), whereas low vision was mainly caused by trachoma (58.1%) and cataract (29.3%). It is estimated that in Mankien payam 1,154 persons aged 5 y and above (lower and upper bounds = 782–1,799) are blind, and 2,291 persons (lower and upper bounds = 1,820–2,898) have low vision. Conclusions Blindness is a serious public health problem in Mankien, and there is urgent need to implement comprehensive blindness prevention programs. Further surveys are essential to confirm these tragic findings and estimate prevalence of blindness and low vision in the entire region of southern Sudan in order to facilitate planning of VISION 2020 objectives. PMID:17177596

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ole-Sempele, Francis; Onsarigo, Alice; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul M

2006-01-01

16

Lessons learned from translators and interpreters from the Dinka tribe of southern Sudan.  

PubMed

This article discusses the methodological challenges associated with working with translators and interpreters from the Dinka tribe of southern Sudan during an ethnographic study with refugee Dinka women who were resettled with their children in the United States. Navigating the cultural differences between the researcher, the translator, and the interpreters provided a deeper understanding about the culture of the study population. The lessons learned included the importance of cultural congruence between the interpreters and participants; the education, training, and experience of the interpreters; and the difficulties encountered in preparing interpreters according to university institutional review board requirements. Cultural differences such as time perception and communication and literacy styles were negotiated throughout each phase of the study. The most valuable lesson learned from this experience was the importance of the relationship between the researcher, the translator, and the interpreters as well as between the interpreters and participants to achieve credibility and trustworthiness of the study results. PMID:21317404

Baird, Martha B

2011-04-01

17

Analyses of baseline survey data on rinderpest in bahr el ghazal province, with proposal of an improved vaccination strategy against rinderpest for southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from analyses of baseline surveilance data on rinderpest are used for proposing an improved vaccination strategy against rinderpest in southern Sudan. Sera from 4,074 (47%) of the total sample of 8,565 cattle collected in a series of cross-sectional surveys in 400 cattle camps in the Bahr el Ghazal Province of southern Sudan were tested for rinderpest antibodies using the

A. A. Majok; K. H. Zessin; M. P. O. Baumann; T. B. Farver

1991-01-01

18

What Will Happen If We Do Nothing To Control Trachoma: Health Expectancies for Blinding Trachoma in Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUncontrolled trachoma is a leading cause of blindness. Current global trachoma burden summary measures are presented as disability adjusted life years but have limitations due to inconsistent methods and inadequate population-based data on trachomatous low vision and blindness. We aimed to describe more completely the burden of blinding trachoma in Southern Sudan using health expectancies.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsAge and gender specific trachomatous

Jeremiah M. Ngondi; Fiona E. Matthews; Mark H. Reacher; Jonathan King; Carol Brayne; Hebe Gouda; Paul M. Emerson

2009-01-01

19

31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Sudan, Southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains State, Blue Nile State, Abyei, Darfur, and marginalized areas in and around Khartoum. (b) The term marginalized areas...

2011-07-01

20

31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Sudan, Southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains State, Blue Nile State, Abyei, Darfur, and marginalized areas in and around Khartoum. (b) The term marginalized areas...

2010-07-01

21

Wetland change detection in Nile swamps of southern Sudan using multitemporal satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the maximum likelihood supervised classification and the post-classification comparison change detection are applied in order to monitor the wetlands by assessing and quantifying the wetland cover changes in the Nile swamps of southern Sudan, called the Sudd, by using the ERDAS IMAGINE software. Three multispectral satellite imageries, acquired in the wet season from 1986 to 2006 by Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ images, are classified into five main land cover classes namely water, vegetation, urban, wetland-vegetation, and wetland-no vegetation, by using the maximum likelihood supervised classification. A pixel-by-pixel comparison was then performed over the classified thematic map images. The post-classification change detection results show a 3.69% decrease in the wetland-vegetation areas and a 2.68% decrease in the wetland-no vegetation areas within the period 1986 to 1999. In addition, a noticeable increase is observed in the wetland-vegetation areas within the period 1999 to 2006 in the Sudd area as 14.95% of the land cover classes' areas, excluding the wetland-vegetation areas are changed into wetland-vegetation areas while there was a decrease of 5.18% in the wetland-no vegetation areas within the period 1999 to 2006. The objective of this paper is to introduce precedence in studying the wetland cover changes over the Sudd area which can help the output planners develop water resources management projects leading to enhance the life conditions in the Sudd region.

Soliman, Ghada; Soussa, Hoda

2011-01-01

22

Ebola virus disease in southern Sudan: hospital dissemination and intrafamilial spread.  

PubMed

Between 31 July and 6 October 1979, 34 cases of Ebola virus disease (22 of which were fatal) occurred among five families in a rural district of southern Sudan; the disease was introduced into four of the families from a local hospital. Chains of secondary spread within the family units, accounting for 29 cases resulted from direct physical contact with an infected person. Among all persons with such contact in the family setting, those who provided nursing care had a 5.1-fold increased risk of infection, emphasizing the importance of intimate contact in the spread of this disease. The absence of illness among persons who were exposed to cases in confined spaces, but without physical contact, confirmed previous impressions that there is no risk of airborne transmission. While the ecology of Ebola virus is unknown, the presence of anti-Ebola antibodies in the sera of 18% of persons who were unassociated with the outbreak suggests that the region is an endemic focus of Ebola virus activity. PMID:6370486

Baron, R C; McCormick, J B; Zubeir, O A

1983-01-01

23

Contesting Miss South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As South Sudan prepares for a referendum on independence in 2011, heightened nationalist expression within popular and political discourse reveals a messier and more openly disputed conception of the ideal Southern Sudanese woman. In this article I examine one site for debate in the diaspora, the US based Miss South Sudan beauty pageant. Highlighting the perseverance and power of the

Caroline Faria

2010-01-01

24

Rapid appraisal of needs in reproductive health care in southern Sudan: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify the need for reproductive health care among a community affected by conflict, and to ascertain the priority given by the community to reproductive health issues. Design Rapid appraisal. This comprised interviews with key informants, in-depth interviews, and group discussions. Secondary data were collated. Freelisting, ranking, and scenarios were used to obtain information. Setting Communities affected by conflict in southern Sudan. Participants Interviews and group discussions were chosen purposively. Twenty interviews with key informants were undertaken, in-depth interviews were held with 14 women, and 23 group discussions were held. Main outcome measures Need for reproductive health care. Perceived priority afforded to reproductive health issues in comparison with other health problems. Results Reproductive health in general and sexually transmitted diseases in particular were important issues for these communities. Problems in reproductive health were ranked differently depending on the age and sex of the respondents. Perceptions about reproductive health issues in communities varied between service providers, and community leaders. Settled and displaced communities had different priorities and differing experiences of reproductive health problems and their treatment. Conclusion Rapid appraisal could be used as the first step to involving communities in assessing needs and planning service provision. Key messagesCommunity members are not routinely involved in assessing their needs or identifying priorities for humanitarian aidReproductive health needs were important to this population affected by conflictCommunity leaders and health service providers will not necessarily hold the same view of need as community membersPeople of different age, sex, and circumstance are likely to perceive community needs differentlyRapid appraisal may be a useful tool to involve communities living in these contexts to identify their needs and priorities PMID:10488000

Palmer, Celia A

1999-01-01

25

Prevalence of livestock diseases and their impact on livelihoods in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan.  

PubMed

A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted in Kajo Keji and Yei Counties, Central Equatoria State, southern Sudan to assess the impact of livestock diseases on livelihoods. A serological survey of tick-borne diseases was conducted to supplement the PE study. PE data collection tools consisted primarily of focus group interviews and key informant interviews supplemented by observation. Information was collected on the social context, history and species of livestock kept. Constraints in livestock keeping were explored through description and probing. Proportional piling on the importance of different diseases and relative incidence scoring were also conducted. 243 sera were collected from cattle and tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Theileria mutans and T. parva by ELISA. Additionally, 173 blood samples were collected for a PCR assay of T. parva. Livestock diseases were ranked as the most important constraint to livestock keeping. While East Coast fever was ranked as the most important disease in Kajo Keji, diarrhoea in small ruminants was reported as the most important disease in Yei. Serological analyses of the sera indicated that A. marginale, B. bigemina, T. mutans and T. parva were most prevalent. Prevalence of B. bovis was found to be low (4.0% and 7.4% in Kajo Keji and Yei, respectively). 35% of the samples screened with the T. parva p104 gene nested PCR assay were positive. The study concludes that while ECF is the most important disease in Kajo Keji, it was not the case in Yei. Additional epidemiological studies are proposed before control strategies are recommended. PMID:22244519

Malak, A K; Mpoke, L; Banak, J; Muriuki, S; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D; Sunter, J; Kiara, H

2012-05-01

26

Integrated Surveys of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Southern Sudan: How Much Do They Cost and Can They Be Refined?  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing emphasis on integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires identification of co-endemic areas. Integrated surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection have been recommended for this purpose. Integrated survey designs inevitably involve balancing the costs of surveys against accuracy of classifying areas for treatment, so-called implementation units (IUs). This requires an understanding of the main cost drivers and of how operating procedures may affect both cost and accuracy of surveys. Here we report a detailed cost analysis of the first round of integrated NTD surveys in Southern Sudan. Methods and Findings Financial and economic costs were estimated from financial expenditure records and interviews with survey staff using an ingredients approach. The main outcome was cost per IU surveyed. Uncertain variables were subjected to univariate sensitivity analysis and the effects of modifying standard operating procedures were explored. The average economic cost per IU surveyed was USD 40,206 or USD 9,573, depending on the size of the IU. The major cost drivers were two key categories of recurrent costs: i) survey consumables, and ii) personnel. Conclusion The cost of integrated surveys in Southern Sudan could be reduced by surveying larger administrative areas for LF. If this approach was taken, the estimated economic cost of completing LF, schistosomiasis and STH mapping in Southern Sudan would amount to USD 1.6 million. The methodological detail and costing template provided here could be used to generate cost estimates in other settings and readily compare these to the present study, and may help budget for integrated and single NTDs surveys elsewhere. PMID:20644619

Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Hanson, Kara; Robinson, Emily; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Mpakateni, Martin; Lado, Mounir; Moore, Stephen; Petty, Nora; Brooker, Simon

2010-01-01

27

They Own This: Mother Tongue Instruction for Indigenous Kuku Children in Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details a pilot program of mother tongue instruction in five primary schools for classes one through three, in Kajokeji County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. The program was launched by teachers and volunteers with the support of the Jesuit Refugee Service, an international non-governmental organization. The research examines…

Laguarda, Ana Isabel; Woodward, Walter Pierce

2013-01-01

28

Gendered citizenship in Sudan: competing debates on family laws among northern and southern elites in Khartoum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sudan, family laws are formed and applied by the religious communities – Islamic, Christian and traditional African beliefs –creating a gendered citizenship that has led to the absence of ‘equality before the law’ not only between men and women in general but also between Sudanese women across religious and tribal affiliations. In contrast to the general literature on women's

Liv Tønnessen

2008-01-01

29

The Research Process in a Multi-Level Mixed-Methods Case Study: International Organization Headquarters and Field Employee Perspectives of a Program in Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the methods and data-collection process for a multi-level mixed-methods case study. Data for the study were gathered through phone interviews and electronic surveys from individuals working on the same educational program in Southern Sudan, though some were supporting the program from outside the country. The…

Eschenbacher, Heidi

2012-01-01

30

Post-conflict mental health needs: a cross-sectional survey of trauma, depression and associated factors in Juba, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005 marked the end of the civil conflict in Sudan lasting over 20 years. The conflict was characterised by widespread violence and large-scale forced migration. Mental health is recognised as a key public health issue for conflict-affected populations. Studies revealed high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst populations from Southern Sudan during the conflict. However, no studies have been conducted on mental health in post-war Southern Sudan. The objective of this study was to measure PTSD and depression in the population in the town of Juba in Southern Sudan; and to investigate the association ofdemographic, displacement, and past and recent trauma exposure variables, on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Methods A cross-sectional, random cluster survey with a sample of 1242 adults (aged over 18 years) was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version), and levels of depression measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association ofdemographic, displacement and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was also conducted to investigate which demographic and displacement variables were associated with exposure to traumatic events. Results Over one third (36%) of respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD and half (50%) of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed strong associations of gender, marital status, forced displacement, and trauma exposure with outcomes of PTSD and depression. Men, IDPs, and refugees and persons displaced more than once were all significantly more likely to have experienced eight or more traumatic events. Conclusion This study provides evidence of high levels of mental distress in the population of Juba Town, and associated risk-factors. Comprehensive social and psychological assistance is urgently required in Juba. PMID:19261192

Roberts, Bayard; Damundu, Eliaba Yona; Lomoro, Olivia; Sondorp, Egbert

2009-01-01

31

Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapse in Southern Sudan (1999-2007): A Retrospective Study of Risk Factors and Trends  

PubMed Central

Background Risk factors associated with L. donovani visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala azar) relapse are poorly characterized. Methods We investigated patient characteristics and drug regimens associated with VL relapse using data from Médecins Sans Frontières - Holland (MSF) treatment centres in Southern Sudan. We used MSF operational data to investigate trends in VL relapse and associated risk factors. Results We obtained data for 8,800 primary VL and 621 relapse VL patients treated between 1999 and 2007. Records of previous treatment for 166 VL relapse patients (26.7%) were compared with 7,924 primary VL patients who had no record of subsequent relapse. Primary VL patients who relapsed had larger spleens on admission (Hackett grade ?3 vs0, odds ratio (OR) for relapse?=?3.62 (95% CI 1.08, 12.12)) and on discharge (Hackett grade ?3 vs 0, OR?=?5.50 (1.84, 16.49)). Age, sex, malnutrition, mobility, and complications of treatment were not associated with risk of relapse, nor was there any trend over time. Treatment with 17-day sodium stibogluconate/paromomycin (SSG/PM) combination therapy vs 30-day SSG monotherapy was associated with increased risk of relapse (OR?=?2.08 (1.21, 3.58)) but reduced risk of death (OR?=?0.27 (0.20, 0.37)), although these estimates are likely to be residually confounded. MSF operational data showed a crude upward trend in the proportion of VL relapse patients (annual percentage change (APC)?=?11.4% (?3.4%, 28.5%)) and a downward trend in deaths (APC?=??18.1% (?22.5%, ?13.4%)). Conclusions Splenomegaly and 17-day SSG/PM vs 30-day SSG were associated with increased risk of VL relapse. The crude upward trend in VL relapses in Southern Sudan may be attributable to improved access to treatment and reduced mortality due to SSG/PM combination therapy. PMID:20544032

Gorski, Stanislaw; Collin, Simon M.; Ritmeijer, Koert; Keus, Kees; Gatluak, Francis; Mueller, Marius; Davidson, Robert N.

2010-01-01

32

Social and public health implication of water supply in arid zones in the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity and physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of water from wells, tap and zeers in Port Sudan and from wells, rectified and unrectified hafirs in South Kordofan Province were investigated. The relationship between water quantity and quality and prevalence of water-related diseases was also assessed. Both areas are semi-arid and tragically suffer from shortage of water. The average per

M. A. Awad El Karim; B. M. El Hassan; K. K. Hussein

1985-01-01

33

Soil moisture characteristics and implications for vegetation regeneration in Sudan during the period 1965-2005.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at better understanding the soil moisture (SM) characteristics as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in Sudan during the period 1965-2005. The Mann Kendall (MK) analysis was used to test the trend in the average monthly soil moisture (SM), rainfall and temperature data. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was selected to study the SM, rainfall and temperature relations because it accounts for the local spatial variability and non-stationarity of these variables. To further understand dry and wet variations in terms of regeneration demand, the aridity index (AI) was used. The results of (MK) test showed that there were decreasing trends of SM on an annual and seasonal level and that the trend was less dramatic or softer in the dry season (November-April) than the wet season (May- October). That soil moisture variability followed closely that of rainfall and temperature, although there was a hint that SM variability followed temperature changes more closely than rainfall. The (GWR) model gave optimal results in semi-arid central Sudan. In the north due to lack of rainfall and in the south due to plant heterogeneity, the model did not perform so well. The spatio-temporal variability of the (AI) showed that the long-term average of (AI) was affected by the reported decline in rainfall during 1965-1985. The decadal (AI) average of 1995-2005 gave evidence of increases in rainfall that are reported since the mid-nineties. (AI) performed well in reflecting the wet conditions in Sudan. Very rare are the studies of soil moisture in Sudan, especially in the through way that is presented here.

El Haj El Tahir, M.; Xu, C.; Zengxin, Z.

2012-04-01

34

Social and public health implication of water supply in arid zones in the Sudan.  

PubMed

The quantity and physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of water from wells, tap and zeers in Port Sudan and from wells, rectified and unrectified hafirs in South Kordofan Province were investigated. The relationship between water quantity and quality and prevalence of water-related diseases was also assessed. Both areas are semi-arid and tragically suffer from shortage of water. The average per capita consumption in Port Sudan was about 1001, and about 301, in South Kordofan. All water sources in both areas were invariably contaminated with coliforms. In South Kordofan the provision of water was primarily the responsibility of women and children. Depending on the crowds and the distance of the water source people spend between 3-5 hours per day carrying water. 50% of the families have to cover more than 2 km to reach the water source. It was evident that hafirs rectification increased the amount of water stored. Tap and zeer (home pots) water in Port Sudan was also contaminated with coliforms. The content of suspended and dissolved solids and turbidity of hafirs water was exceptionally high, which warrants proper protection and water treatment before distribution to the public. Scarcity of water rather than bacterial contamination was the cause of alarmingly high prevalence of diarrhoeal, skin and eye communicable diseases (water-washed diseases) among children and adults of Port Sudan and South Kordofan Province. However, it is plausible to suggest that even minor improvements on the provided quantity of water will reduce the prevalence of water-washed diseases. PMID:3992283

Awad el Karim, M A; el Hassan, B M; Hussein, K K

1985-01-01

35

31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.  

...320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains State, Blue Nile State, Abyei, Darfur, and marginalized areas in and around Khartoum. (b) The term marginalized areas...

2014-07-01

36

31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains State, Blue Nile State, Abyei, Darfur, and marginalized areas in and around Khartoum. (b) The term marginalized areas...

2013-07-01

37

31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains State, Blue Nile State, Abyei, Darfur, and marginalized areas in and around Khartoum. (b) The term marginalized areas...

2012-07-01

38

The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan, and highlights the importance of addressing all these influences on overall health. PMID:20799956

2010-01-01

39

A sensitivity study on the role of the swamps of southern Sudan in the summer climate of North Africa using a regional climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the regional climate model RegCM3 to investigate the role of the swamps of southern Sudan in affecting the climate of the surrounding region. Towards this end, we first assessed the performance of a high resolution version of the model over northern Africa. RegCM3 shows a good skill in simulating the climatology of rainfall and temperature patterns as well as the related circulation features during the summer season, outperforming previous coarser resolution applications of the model over this region. Sensitivity experiments reveal that, relative to bare soil conditions, the swamps act to locally modify the surface energy budget primarily through an increase of surface latent heat flux. Existence of the swamps leads to lower ground temperature (up to 2 °C), a larger north-south temperature gradient, and increased local rainfall (up to 40 %). Of particular importance is the impact on rainfall in the surrounding regions. The swamps have almost no impact on the rainfall over the source region of the Nile in Ethiopia or in the Sahel region; however, they favor wetter conditions over central Sudan (up to 15 %) in comparison to the bare desert soil conditions.

Zaroug, Modathir A. H.; Sylla, M. B.; Giorgi, F.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Aggarwal, Pradeep K.

2013-07-01

40

A comparative study of strains of Ebola virus isolated from southern Sudan and northern Zaire in 1976.  

PubMed

During the 1976 Ebola virus outbreak in Sudan, the investigations team gained the impression that fewer haemorrhagic manifestations and few fatalities occurred during the later stages of the epidemic after the virus had undergone several generations in man. This impression was also noted in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Sudanese and Zairean strains of Ebola virus. The virulence of the Sudanese isolates was less intense than isolates emanating from Zaire. Similar findings were seen in monkeys; a Zairean isolated produced fatal infections, whereas monkeys inoculated with a Sudan strain generally recovered. Two monkeys, which had recovered from Sudanese strain infections and had developed high levels of antibody detectable by immunofluorescence, were challenged with the Zairean strain. Both developed viraemias and died. The mechanisms of this "failed protection" are discussed. PMID:6165800

Bowen, E T; Platt, G S; Lloyd, G; Raymond, R T; Simpson, D I

1980-01-01

41

The Birth of a New Nation: The Republic of South Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early July, the country of Sudan, wracked by civil war since the 1980s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan. Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or "Unity." For the…

Totten, Samuel

2011-01-01

42

The new state of South Sudan and the hydro-politics of the Nile Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the choice of the people of southern Sudan for secession during the January 2011 referendum, a number of difficult issues need to be addressed and resolved between the new state and the Sudan. Most of these issues are specified in the Southern Sudan Referendum Act 2009 and include water resources. The article identifies and discusses the

Salman M. A. Salman

2011-01-01

43

Flood pulsing in the Sudd wetland: analysis of seasonal variations in 2 inundation and evapotranspiration in Southern Sudan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Located on the Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan, the Sudd is one of the largest floodplain wetlands in the world. Seasonal inundation drives the hydrologic, geomorphological, and ecological processes, and the annual flood pulse is essential to the functioning of the Sudd. Despite the importance of the flood pulse, various hydrological interventions are planned upstream of the Sudd to increase economic benefits and food security. These will not be without consequences, in particular for wetlands where the biological productivity, biodiversity, and human livelihoods are dependent on the flood pulse and both the costs and benefits need to be carefully evaluated. Many African countries still lack regional baseline information on the temporal extent, distribution, and characteristics of wetlands, making it hard to assess the consequences of development interventions. Because of political instability in Sudan and the inaccessible nature of the Sudd, recent measurements of flooding and seasonal dynamics are inadequate. Analyses of multitemporal and multisensor remote sensing datasets are presented in this paper, in order to investigate and characterize flood pulsing within the Sudd wetland over a 12-month period. Wetland area has been mapped along with dominant components of open water and flooded vegetation at five time periods over a single year. The total area of flooding (both rain and river fed) over the 12 months was 41 334 km2, with 9176 km2 of this constituting the permanent wetland. Mean annual total evaporation is shown to be higher and with narrower distribution of values from areas of open water (1718 mm) than from flooded vegetation (1641 mm). Although the exact figures require validation against ground-based measurements, the results highlight the relative differences in inundation patterns and evaporation across the Sudd.

Senay, Gabriel; Rebelo, L-M.; McCartney, M.P.

2012-01-01

44

DEM-optical-radar data integration for palaeohydrological mapping in the northern Darfur, Sudan: implication for groundwater exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

North?western Sudan, as a part of the eastern Sahara, is among the driest places on earth. However, the region underwent drastic climatic changes through the alternation of dry and wet conditions in the past. During humid phases, when the rain was plentiful over a prolonged time period, the surface was veined by rivers and dotted by large lakes. The new

E. Ghoneim; F. El-Baz

2007-01-01

45

Spectral P-wave magnitudes, magnitude spectra and other source parameters for the 1990 southern Sudan and the 2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teleseismic Broadband seismograms of P-waves from the May 1990 southern Sudan and the December, 2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquakes; the western branch of the East African Rift System at different azimuths have been investigated on the basis of magnitude spectra. The two earthquakes are the largest shocks in the East African Rift System and its extension in southern Sudan. Focal mechanism solutions along with geological evidences suggest that the first event represents a complex style of the deformation at the intersection of the northern branch of the western branch of the East African Rift and Aswa Shear Zone while the second one represents the current tensional stress on the East African Rift. The maximum average spectral magnitude for the first event is determined to be 6.79 at 4 s period compared to 6.33 at 4 s period for the second event. The other source parameters for the two earthquakes were also estimated. The first event had a seismic moment over fourth that of the second one. The two events are radiated from patches of faults having radii of 13.05 and 7.85 km, respectively. The average displacement and stress drop are estimated to be 0.56 m and 1.65 MPa for the first event and 0.43 m and 2.20 MPa for the second one. The source parameters that describe inhomogeneity of the fault are also determined from the magnitude spectra. These additional parameters are complexity, asperity radius, displacements across the asperity and ambient stress drop. Both events produce moderate rupture complexity. Compared to the second event, the first event is characterized by relatively higher complexity, a low average stress drop and a high ambient stress. A reasonable explanation for the variations in these parameters may suggest variation in the strength of the seismogenic fault which provides the relations between the different source parameters. The values of stress drops and the ambient stresses estimated for both events indicate that these earthquakes are of interplate type.

Moussa, Hesham Hussein Mohamed

2008-10-01

46

Sudan Grass.  

E-print Network

results as follows: ROW SEEDING RATE TEST FOR HAY PRODUCTION. Seeding rate in pounds per acre. 1.3 2 . 1 3.9 6 . 9 Number of tests. 2 2 2 2 Yield cured hay per acre-pounds. *8803 8078 8490 8903 The results shown in this table indicate...) harvesting must be done early and before the formation of? seed; ( 2) the hay should be raked into windrows or cocks so as to prevent over-exposure to the sun; ( 3) it should be cured sufficiently not to mold when baled or stored. Yields.-Sudan grass does...

Youngblood, B.; Conner, A. B.

1915-01-01

47

Landscape wildfire interactions in Southern Europe: implications for landscape management.  

E-print Network

Landscape ­ wildfire interactions in Southern Europe: implications for landscape management, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avd/ Carlos III, s/n, 45071 Toledo, Spain c Department of Ecology, snc - 01100 Viterbo, Italy h National Agricultural Research Foundation, Institute of Mediterranean

Boyer, Edmond

48

Al Jazirah, Sudan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

49

Sudan und Sd-Sudan. Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation?  

E-print Network

Gebieten im Nord-Sudan (Provinz Blue Nile, Provinz South Kordofan und Region Abyei) zu Konflikten zwischenSudan und Süd-Sudan. Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation? Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth (Fachbereich aktuellen Konflikte zwischen dem Sudan und dem Süd-Sudan haben, wie die Konflikte innerhalb der beiden

Koenig, Friederike - Fachbereich 2 Biologie

50

Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River and its tributaries were not transformed upstream our sample points (Lavie et al., 2013, under press). Finally, we studied an urban drinking waters network, in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, one of the least developed countries, with chronic political crises. The nearly 6 million inhabitants of this settlement suffer many cuts and bad pressure at tap. Furthermore, Nile's waters that feed the network are summarily treated and then quite turbid, especially in summer during Nile's floods. This situation obliges the population to store and to decant water, transforming it into clear ones (Lavie and Hamza, 2013, under press). The results of our studies demonstrate that, generally, we can observe a correlation between increasing turbidity and bacteriology, and decreasing oximetry. This assumption is disproven in many cases: (1) the stagnant waters of Khartoum and (2) the clarified Mendoza River waters. Finally, (3) the seasonal anthropogenic uses of soil and waters in the Doubegue and Tunuyán Rivers have more impact on the bacteriological quality than the natural seasonality of the suspended solids because soil erosion has increased.

Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

2013-04-01

51

Sudan energy background; An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed briefly the potential of renewable energy resources in Sudan.Sudan possessed a relatively high abundance of sunshine, solar radiation, and moderate wind speeds. Sudan is also viewed as one of the potentially richest countries especially in water, land, agriculture and livestock.Sudan is blessed with abundant solar, wind hydro and biomass energy resources. Results, suggest that, renewable energy must

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

1998-01-01

52

Nodding syndrome - South Sudan, 2011.  

PubMed

In November 2010, the Ministry of Health of the proposed nation of South Sudan requested CDC assistance in investigating a recent increase and geographic clustering of an illness resulting in head nodding and seizures. The outbreak was suspected to be nodding syndrome, an unexplained neurologic condition characterized by episodes of repetitive dropping forward of the head, often accompanied by other seizure-like activity, such as convulsions or staring spells. The condition predominantly affects children aged 5-15 years and has been reported in South Sudan from the states of Western and Central Equatoria and in Northern Uganda and southern Tanzania. Because of visa and security concerns, CDC investigators did not travel to South Sudan until May 2011. On arrival, a case-control study was conducted that included collecting exposure information and biologic specimens to assess the association of nodding syndrome with suspected risk factors. A total of 38 matched case-control pairs were enrolled from two different communities: Maridi and Witto. Overall, current infection with Onchocerca volvulus diagnosed by skin snip was more prevalent among the 38 case-patients (76.3%) than the controls (47.4%) (matched odds ratio [mOR] = 3.2). This difference was driven by the 25 pairs in Maridi (88.0% among case-patients, 44.0% among controls, mOR=9.3); among the 13 pairs in Witto, no significant association with onchocerciasis (known as river blindness) was observed. Although onchocerciasis was more prevalent among case-patients, whether infection preceded or followed nodding syndrome onset was unknown. Priorities for nodding syndrome investigations include improving surveillance to monitor the number of cases and their geographic distribution and continued work to determine the etiology of the syndrome. PMID:22278159

2012-01-27

53

The Heglig oil dispute between Sudan and South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The armed forces of Sudan and newly independent South Sudan recently clashed over the border area called Heglig by Khartoum and Panthou by Juba, in a dispute involving security, ownership of land, and control of oil production. The clash triggered swift condemnation of South Sudan for occupying Sudanese national territory. However, such pronouncements risk pre-judging a dispute that has not

Douglas H. Johnson

2012-01-01

54

Biogas energy technology in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy in Sudan, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology in Sudan. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. Sudan is blessed with abundant solar, wind, hydro, and

A. M. Omer; Y. Fadalla

2003-01-01

55

Structural Implications of Walloomsac and Hartland Rocks of Southern Manhattan Island  

E-print Network

Structural Implications of Walloomsac and Hartland Rocks of Southern Manhattan Island Charles in the subsurface of southern Manhattan. To Cite This Abstract: Merguerian, Charles; and Moss, C. J., 2006b of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 38, no. 7, p. 20. Filename: CMCJM2006b.doc #12;

Merguerian, Charles

56

Prevalence of Trachoma in Unity State, South Sudan: Results from a Large-Scale Population-Based Survey and Potential Implications for Further Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLarge parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions.Methods and FindingsThe survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across

Tansy Edwards; Jennifer Smith; Hugh J. W. Sturrock; Lucia W. Kur; Anthony Sabasio; Timothy P. Finn; Mounir Lado; Danny Haddad; Jan H. Kolaczinski

2012-01-01

57

The Politics of Writing Tribal Identities in the Sudan: The Case of the Colonial Nuba Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistics is implicated in the colonial project of the invention of "self-contained" "racial" and "tribal units" in the Sudan. This paper has two objectives. First, to historicise the notions of "language" in the postcolonial discourse of language planning in the Sudan by reviewing one of the significant colonial policies: the colonial Nuba…

Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal

2010-01-01

58

UNICEF and the Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coupled with poor infrastructure, vast distances, and harsh climatic conditions, the enormous physical obstacles in the Sudan (Africa's largest country) have combined to produce extremely serious problems for Sudanese children, who will soon constitute half of the 17 million people there. This booklet describes continuing projects implemented by…

United Nations Children's Fund, Nairobi (Kenya). Eastern Africa Regional Office.

59

AFRICAN AMERICAN CHURCHES AND U.S. POLICY IN SUDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The black church has been particularly influential in shaping American efforts toend the conflicts in the southern and Darfur regions of Sudan. Though African American mobilization regarding these issues was initially part of and aided by a broader faith-based movement, it gained singular effectiveness by employing familiar strategies honed in the civil rights and anti-apartheid movements, including protests and boycotting.

Allen D. Hertzke

2008-01-01

60

Famine in Sudan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News covers the famine in Sudan. The seven resources discussed offer news, analysis, and commentary. The largest country in Africa, Sudan has been wracked by civil strife and violence since becoming an independent republic in 1956. Years of civil war have devastated the Sudanese economy and society, killing over 1.2 million since 1983 alone. Despite this tortured history, Sudan may now be facing its worst crisis. After two years of drought, bad harvests and renewed fighting, over 2.5 million people require emergency food aid and malnutrition rates exceed 60% of the population in some areas. While international relief agencies have scrambled to assist, many estimate that only about half of what is needed in terms of money and material is arriving. While the weather has played a role in the current crisis, it is also a product of the long-running conflict between the Islamic government in the north and the mainly Christian south. An attempt to institute strict Islamic law in the south in 1983 touched off a conflict between the government and numerous rebel groups in the south, most importantly the Sudan's Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA), which became a full-scale civil war by the mid-1980s. Since then some concessions have been made to the South and several peace talks were held. The present situation was touched off in February, 1998 when local warlord Kerubino Kuanyin Bol, who had been fighting for the government, rejoined the rebellion, reigniting the conflict. Two weeks ago the government and the SPLA announced a one-month cease-fire to allow aid to get through, but many aid workers believe it may be too late. The rainy season has finally arrived, one moth late, hampering communication and the transportation of much-needed food and medicine. In the meantime, Sudan has rapidly become a destination of choice for documentary news photographers eager for startling and powerful photos. Whether or not sufficient aid will arrive in their wake remains to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

61

South Sudan's infrastructure : a continental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly independent South Sudan faces a challenge in making its own way in infrastructure development. Despite earning $6 billion in oil revenues since 2005, South Sudan's spending has not been proportional to its income, but rather has lagged behind North Sudan's development of infrastructure and social support. South Sudan benefitted from strong donor support during 2004-10, the interim period defined

Rupa Ranganathan; Cecilia M. Briceno-Garmendia

2011-01-01

62

Sudan and the Lost Girls: Another Step  

E-print Network

Educational Fund. The participants will discuss life in South Sudan during the mass exodus of youth fromSudan and the Lost Girls: Another Step in the Journey-- Sudan to America Presented by Brandeis Journalism-- Panel discussion on "Sudan and the Lost Girls: Another Step in the Journey," present- ed

Fraden, Seth

63

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Leishmania parasites isolated from an endemic focus in eastern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve Leishmania isolates from visceral leishmaniasis patients in eastern Sudan were characterized using isoenzyme analysis, Southern blotting and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ‘fingerprinting’. Isoenzyme analysis revealed the presence of 3 zymodemes: mon-18, mon-30 and mon-82, corresponding to Leishmania donovani sensu stricto, L. infantum and L. archibaldi (still of uncertain taxonomic status), respectively. Southern blotting and PCR ‘fingerprinting’ revealed identical patterns

L. Oskam; F. Pratlong; E. E. Zijlstra; C. C. M. Kroon; J.-P. Dedet; P. A. Kager; G. Schönian; H. W. Ghalib; A. M. El-Hassan; S. E. O. Meredith

1998-01-01

64

Quaternary extension in southern Tibet: Field observations and tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize evidence for Quaternary and active faulting collected in the field during three Sino-French expeditions to southeastern Tibet (1980-1982). Detailed mapping of Quaternary and active faults as well as microtectonic measurements indicate that normal faulting has been the dominant tectonic regime north of the Himalayas in the last 2 ± 0.5 m.y. The maximum horizontal principal stress in south Tibet appears to be only the intermediate principal stress ?2, ?1 being vertical. South of the "chord" joining the eastern and western syntaxes of the Himalayan arc, extensional strains are principally localized within seven regularly spaced rift zones, three of which have been studied in some detail. The extension direction is determined to be N96° E ± 7° mainly from statistical averaging of strikes of newly formed normal faults. Throw rates on normal faults are evaluated for different time spans (2 ± 0.5 m.y., 60 ± 40 kyr, and 10 ± 2 kyr B.P.), using structural and topographic reliefs, as well as synglacial and postglacial vertical offsets. The rate of Quaternary extension is about 1% m.y.-1 along an 1100-km-long ESE traverse across south Tibet. This corresponds to a "spreading" rate of 1 ± 0.6 cm/yr. This rate and the divergent horizontal projections of slip vectors of earthquakes along the Himalayan front constrain the rate at which rigid India underthrusts southern Tibet to be 2 ± 1 cm/yr. Although most of the normal faults appear to be independent of, and nearly orthogonal to, the ?E-W Mesozoic-Tertiary tectonic fabric, the Yadong-Gulu rift appears to be guided for over 130 km by the older, oblique (?NE-SW) Nyainqentanglha range and fault zones along it. This reactivated zone is the most prominent left-lateral strike-slip fault system in SE Tibet. Excepting this zone, and the vicinity of the SE extremity of the Karakorum fault, Quaternary strike-slip faulting is rare in south Tibet, i.e., south of the chord between the syntaxes of the Himalayan arc. North of the chord, the tectonic style is different. There minor conjugate strike-slip faulting is widespread and appears to control Quaternary normal faulting, which is more diffuse and subdued than in south Tibet. Along the chord, the presence of a major zone of active right-lateral, en échelon strike-slip faults (Karakorum-Jiali fault zone) probably reflects the greater facility of eastward extrusion in north central Tibet, in response to the northward push of India. The eastern Himalayan syntaxis may be an obstacle to such extrusion movements south of the chord.

Armijo, Rolando; Tapponnier, Paul; Mercier, J. L.; Han, Tong-Lin

1986-12-01

65

Volume 7, Number 13 July 9, 2013 From One Sudan to Two Sudans  

E-print Network

of the establishment of the Republic of South Sudan, the 54th member state of the African Union. The partition of Sudan a twenty-year war between the central government in Khartoum and the South-based Sudan Peoples' Liberation outcome of a cultural clash between a Muslim "Arab" North and a Christian-animist "African" South? Sudan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Victims of Discourse: Mobilizing Narratives of Fear and Insecurity in Post-Conflict South Sudan—The Case of Jonglei State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sign along the border to South Sudan that reads—“Our peace, our land, our oil, our liberty”—is a testament to the struggles recently fought by the South's Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) against the northern Khartoum Government. Such a seemingly apolitical expression of southern solidarity however obscures the often hostile relationships among the more than sixty ethnic groups in South

Ann Laudati

2011-01-01

67

Militarization and Gender Violence in South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses gender violence, domestic and beyond, in wartime South Sudan, particularly among the Dinka of southwestern Sudan. Furthermore, it discusses the efforts of rebel armies, fighting against the northern government of Sudan, to forge a women's role in the liberation struggle. The effort has focused on the women's reproductive roles as their contribution. This \\

Jok Madut Jok

1999-01-01

68

Orbital Radar Response of Near Surface Materials in Southern Egypt and Implications for Cenozoic History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the existence of "trunk" and tributary drainage channels beneath the sand in the northeast Sahara has been known for two decades, data from the SIR-C mission continues to be useful in solving geologic problems and understanding the radar response from specific types of near surface materials. In the Kiseiba Oasis region of southwest Egypt, SIR-C data revealed a complex tributary pattern of varying brightness that indicated the presence of paleodrainage not noted in the field. The orbital imaging radar uniquely specified key areas for detailed field studies that were not apparent in visible wavelengths. Twenty-two trenches up to 3 m deep, hundreds of shallow pits, several auger holes, and ground penetrating radar reveal that this area has had a history of fluctuating climatic conditions responsible for excavation and enlargement of the local depression by fluvial erosion and preservation of relict surfaces by aeolian blanketing of sand sheet deposits. The resulting near-surface stratigraphy is a complex mixture of fluvial pebble lags in the subsurface and on the surface, where aeolian mixing and local transport have modified the original geometry. In L-band (23 cm wavelength) SIR-C data, a hierarchy of returned signal strength and geometric patterns enables us to predict the type of surface and near-surface materials, sequentially from shallow bedrock to subsurface and surficial lags to sand sheet-veneered weathered anhydrite. Integrating the pattern of sedimentary deposits with relict channels and interfluves enables a better understanding of the origin of the Kiseiba-Dungul depression and its Cenozoic history. What was once thought to be a continuous deposit of Eocene limestone from southern Egypt into northern Sudan is cast in doubt as even the most optimistic estimates of scarp retreat don't permit hundred's of kms of retreat to the present position. Instead, the E-W pattern of the depression, the relict hills, and fracture zones all suggest structural control and erosion patterns that started with N-S compression in the latest Cretaceous. A humid climate during the Tertiary aided fluvial dissection of the broken surface, with drainage leading to the north into the present Kharga depression. The drainage patterns of the Quaternary seen now in orbital radar result from remnants of large-scale structural patterns and Tertiary drainage, confused by alternating hyperarid and semiarid climatic cycles that inverted topography, protected former erosion surfaces, and reversed drainage.

Maxwell, T. A.; Grant, J. A.; Johnston, A. K.

2004-05-01

69

Strife and Secession in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2011, South Sudan voted to declare the independence. This article argues that the impending emergence of two new nation-states has been influenced by two developments: the rise of political Islam and the failure of democratization, and flaws with the implementation of the 2005 peace agreement. Drawing on the literature on secession and conflict resolution, the article focuses on

Khalid Mustafa Medani

2011-01-01

70

Strife and Secession in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In January 2011, South Sudan voted to declare the independence. This article argues that the impending emergence of two new nation-states has been influenced by two developments: the rise of political Islam and the failure of democratization, and flaws with the implementation of the 2005 peace agreement. Drawing on the literature on secession and conflict resolution, the article focuses on

Khalid Mustafa Medani

2011-01-01

71

Goat pox in the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of goat pox occurred among 60 adult and young goats in the Sudan. Among the findings of special interest was the extensive and wide distribution of pox lesions on the bodies of the animals. The severe involvement of the mucous membranes of the muzzle, eyes and nostrils gave rise to acute respiratory distress and systemic reaction. The suppression

K. A. Mohamed; B. E. D. Hago; W. P. Taylor; A. A. Nayil; M. T. Abu-Samra

1982-01-01

72

78 FR 1872 - Extension and Redesignation of Sudan for Temporary Protected Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Secretary has redesignated South Sudan for TPS. Some individuals who...of Sudan may now be nationals of South Sudan, and may now qualify for TPS under South Sudan. The South Sudan notice sets...

2013-01-09

73

Post-War Development and the Land Question in South Sudan 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Question (LQ) was one of the core issues behind the protracted war between the Government of Sudan (GOS) and the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement\\/Army (SPLM\\/A) in the southern regions of the country. The positions of the two protagonists on the LQ seemed irreconcilable, as one was statist and the other communitarian. According to the GOS, all land in

N. Shanmugaratnam

74

Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling  

E-print Network

of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from...

Samy, Abdallah Mohammed; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A. Townsend

2014-10-16

75

Seismicity and fault interaction, Southern San Jacinto Fault Zone and adjacent faults, southern California: Implications for seismic hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern San Jacinto fault zone is characterized by high seismicity and a complex fault pattern that offers an excellent setting for investigating interactions between distinct faults. This fault zone is roughly outlined by two subparallel master fault strands, the Coyote Creek and Clark-San Felipe Hills faults, that are located 2 to 10 km apart and are intersected by a series of secondary cross faults. Seismicity is intense on both master faults and secondary cross faults in the southern San Jacinto fault zone. The seismicity on the two master strands occurs primarily below 10 km; the upper 10 km of the master faults are now mostly quiescent and appear to rupture mainly or solely in large earthquakes. Our results also indicate that a considerable portion of recent background activity near the April 9, 1968, Borrego Mountain rupture zone (ML=6.4) is located on secondary faults outside the fault zone. We name and describe the Palm Wash fault, a very active secondary structure located about 25 km northeast of Borrego Mountain that is oriented subparallel to the San Jacinto fault system, dips approximately 70° to the northeast, and accommodates right-lateral shear motion. The Vallecito Mountain cluster is another secondary feature delineated by the recent seismicity and is characterized by swarming activity prior to nearby large events on the master strand. The 1968 Borrego Mountain and the April 28, 1969, Coyote Mountain (ML=5.8) events are examples of earthquakes with aftershocks and subevents on these secondary and master faults. Mechanisms from those earthquakes and recent seismic data for the period 1981 to 1986 are not simply restricted to strike-slip motion; dipslip motion is also indicated. Teleseismic body waves (long-period P and SH) of the 1968 and 1969 earthquakes were inverted simultaneously for source mechanism, seismic moment, rupture history, and centroid depth. The complicated waveforms of the 1968 event (Mo=1.2 × 1019 N m) are interpreted in terms of two subevents; the first caused by right-lateral strike-slip motion in the mainshock along the Coyote Creek fault and the second by a rupture located about 25 km away from the master fault. Our waveform inversion of the 1969 event indicates that strike-slip motion predominated, releasing a seismic moment of 2.5 × 1017 N m. Nevertheless, the right-lateral nodal plane of the focal mechanism is significantly misoriented (20°) with respect to the master fault, and hence the event is not likely to be associated with a rupture on that fault. From this and other examples in southern California, we conclude that cross faults may contribute significantly to seismic hazard and that interaction between faults has important implications for earthquake prediction.

Petersen, Mark D.; Seeber, Leonardo; Sykes, Lynn R.; NáB?Lek, John L.; Armbruster, John G.; Pacheco, Javier; Hudnut, Kenneth W.

1991-12-01

76

A molecular survey of cystic echinococcosis in Sudan.  

PubMed

A survey of cystic echinococcosis in livestock was conducted from May 2001 to July 2003 in central, western and southern Sudan. Hydatid cysts were present in 59% (466/779) of camels, 6% (299/4893) of cattle, 11% (1180/10,422) of sheep and 2% (106/5565) of goats, with little variation among different geographical areas. 532 of these cysts were examined by PCR and could be overwhelmingly (98.7%) allocated to Echinococcus canadensis G6/7 (all of 215 cysts from camels, 112 of 114 cysts from cattle, 134 of 138 cysts from sheep, and all of 65 cysts from goats); the genotype G6 was identified by sequencing 13 of these isolates. Only 2 cysts from cattle belonged to Echinococcus ortleppi. The mean number of cysts per infected animal was much higher in camels (5.1) than in the other species (1.0-1.3), and cyst fertility was higher in camels and cattle (74% and 77%) than in goats and sheep (31% and 19%). Fertile cysts from five human patients from hospitals in Khartoum and Juba belonged to E. canadensis (G6). This study confirms the predominance of the 'camel strain' in Sudan and the infectivity of this strain for humans. This is the first genetic characterization of human CE in Sudan. PMID:20138433

Omer, R A; Dinkel, A; Romig, T; Mackenstedt, U; Elnahas, A A; Aradaib, I E; Ahmed, M E; Elmalik, K H; Adam, A

2010-05-11

77

Current situation of tropical theileriosis in the Sudan.  

PubMed

Tropical theileriosis has long been recognized as a hindrance to the development of sound dairy industry in the Sudan and is a cause of major economic losses. Serological surveys indicated that Theileria annulata infection is widespread in the country but the disease mostly affects exotic dairy breeds and their crosses with indigenous breeds. The disease has recently been identified in Darfur and southern parts of Blue Nile State in dairy farms around large urban areas where it has never been detected before. These new introductions were accompanied by the establishment of Hyalomma anatolicum tick which is the main vector of the parasite in the Sudan. The disease is routinely diagnosed using microscopic examination of stained blood and lymph node biopsy smears. More advanced techniques are mainly used for research purposes. Tropical theileriosis in the Sudan is mainly controlled by using anti-theilerial drugs and acaricide application. It is recommended that live attenuated schizont vaccines developed from locally isolated T. annulata strains be used to control the disease. In addition, every care should be taken to prevent introduction of the disease into new areas. PMID:22565402

El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Hassan, Shawgi M; Salih, Diaeldin A

2012-08-01

78

Nile River, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view shows the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile rivers to form the Nile River at Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan (15.5N, 32.5E). The White Nile comes from the south and drains the Sudd swamp and African Rift Valley while the Blue Nile comes from the southeast draining the Ethiopian highlands. The herringbone field patterns to the south of the city are agricultural fields where cotton is the main crop.

1983-01-01

79

Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) is very distinctive in both size and shape. The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects. See also STS049-96-003.

1992-01-01

80

Progress toward poliomyelitis and dracunculiasis eradication--Sudan, 1999-2000.  

PubMed

Sudan began poliomyelitis and dracunculiasis eradication activities in 1994 and 1995, respectively, in response to resolutions by the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO). Sudan poses special obstacles to global eradication campaigns as a result of the disruption caused by ongoing civil war in the vast southern part of the country. The activities of both programs are summarized in this report, which indicated that substantial progress was made to eradicate polio and control of dracunculiasis improved slightly. Continued commitment of resources, access to persons in areas of conflict, and a peaceful resolution of civil unrest are needed to eradicate both diseases. PMID:11411832

2001-04-13

81

Effect of iron supply on Southern Ocean CO2 uptake and implications for glacial atmospheric CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis by marine phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean, and the associated uptake of carbon, is thought to be currently limited by the availability of iron. One implication of this limitation is that a larger iron supply to the region in glacial times could have stimulated algal photosynthesis, leading to lower concentrations of atmospheric CO 2. Similarly, it has been proposed

A. J. Watson; D. C. E. Bakker; A. J. Ridgwell; P. W. Boyd; C. S. Law

2000-01-01

82

The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for  

E-print Network

The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Gala´pagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North

Naveira Garabato, Alberto

83

A Late Neoproterozoic (V630 Ma) high-magnesium andesite suite from southern Israel: implications for the consolidation  

E-print Network

A Late Neoproterozoic (V630 Ma) high-magnesium andesite suite from southern Israel: implications and depleted in heavy rare earth elements. They are high-magnesium andesites and are similar to low-Ca type 2; Neoproterozoic; high-magnesium andesite 1. Introduction The Arabian^Nubian Shield (ANS) comprises 0012-821X / 03

Basu, Asish R.

84

Inventory management support systems for emergency humanitarian relief operations in South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To develop and test three different inventory management strategies as applied to the complex emergency in south Sudan. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Quantitative modeling, simulation, and statistics. Findings – This research identified critical system factors that contributed most significantly to inventory system performance, and identified strengths and weaknesses of each inventory management strategy. Research limitations\\/implications – This research represents a

Benita M. Beamon; Stephen A. Kotleba

2006-01-01

85

31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.  

...area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan. Note 1 to § 538.417: See § 538.537...transshipment of goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan, and related transactions. Note 2 to §...

2014-07-01

86

31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan. Note 1 to § 538.417: See § 538.537...transshipment of goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan, and related transactions. Note 2 to §...

2013-07-01

87

Chiefs, state-building, and development in independent South Sudan  

E-print Network

Chiefs, state-building, and development in independent South Sudan Independent South Sudan In 2005 2011, South Sudan finally became independent. The process of establishing executive, legislative, and judicial institutions and administrative structures is now under way in South Sudan. But these new

Richner, Heinz

88

The Birth of South Sudan and the Challenges of Statebuilding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some key statebuilding challenges confronting South Sudan in the aftermath of the January 2011 referendum that separated this region from the Republic of Sudan. Following the referendum, the two states—the Republic of Sudan and South Sudan—face the immediate challenge of negotiating the terms of their relationship over a number of critical issues, including: the future of the

Roberto Belloni

2011-01-01

89

31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan. Note 1 to § 538.417: See § 538.537...transshipment of goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan, and related transactions. Note 2 to §...

2012-07-01

90

Declining sand dune activity in the southern Canadian prairies: Historical context, controls and ecosystem implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandhills are islands of biodiversity in the southern Canadian prairies that sustain habitat for many rare and endangered species. These unique areas consist of large expanses of dune fields now mostly stabilized by grassland vegetation. Historically, the number of active dunes has decreased significantly due to vegetation stabilization, resulting in a dramatic decline of open-sand habitat for a variety of dune-dependent species. Without a certain level of wind erosion, opportunities for establishment of early-stage, species-rich vegetation types are diminished and open-sand habitat decreases by encroachment of the surrounding grassland vegetation. The current trend of dune stabilization, however, implies that wind erosion is decreasing, thereby threatening the continued existence of a variety of dune-dependent plants, arthropods and vertebrates, as well as other less-specialized species that benefit indirectly from these habitats. By reviewing factors contributing to the historical decline of active dunes, as well as the ecological implications of dune stabilization, the aim of this paper is to establish the biophysical context for new land management strategies that conserve valued landscape components, such as active dunes, and the processes therein. As dune stabilization continues management interventions will be required to sustain or re-establish open sand and the species that rely on these habitats.

Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Bender, Darren; Wolfe, Stephen A.

2010-11-01

91

76 FR 69612 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...does not apply to the Republic of South Sudan. DATES: Effective Date: This...July 9, 2011, the Republic of South Sudan declared independence from Sudan...does not apply to the Republic of South Sudan. Licenses or other approvals...

2011-11-09

92

Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010  

PubMed Central

To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006–2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas. PMID:23347790

Aradaib, Imadeldin E.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Elageb, Rehab M.; Khristova, Marina L.; Carroll, Serena A.; Elkhidir, Isam M.; Karsany, Mubarak E.; Karrar, AbdelRahim E.; Elbashir, Mustafa I.

2013-01-01

93

Average Pleistocene Climatic Patterns in the Southern Central Andes: Controls on Mountain Glaciation and Paleoclimate Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite elevations of 5000-6800 m, modern glaciers occur along the southern Puna Plateau and the northern Sierras Pampeanas in the southern central Andes. The modern snowline rises from 5100 m in Sierra Aconquija to 5800 m in the Puna as a result of a westward decrease in precipitation from 450 to less than 100 mm\\/yr. During the Pleistocene these arid

Kirk Haselton; George Hilley; Manfred R. Strecker

2002-01-01

94

31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...305: The term Government of Sudan does not include the Government of the Republic of South Sudan or the central bank of the Republic of South Sudan. Note 2 to § 538.305: Please refer to the Office of Foreign Assets Control's...

2012-07-01

95

31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.  

...305: The term Government of Sudan does not include the Government of the Republic of South Sudan or the central bank of the Republic of South Sudan. Note 2 to § 538.305: Please refer to the Office of Foreign Assets Control's...

2014-07-01

96

31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...305: The term Government of Sudan does not include the Government of the Republic of South Sudan or the central bank of the Republic of South Sudan. Note 2 to § 538.305: Please refer to the Office of Foreign Assets Control's...

2013-07-01

97

Biomass energy potential and future prospect in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudan is an agricultural country with fertile land, plenty of water resources, livestock, forestry resources, and agricultural residues. Sudan is an energy importing country and the energy requirements have been supplied through imports that have caused financial problems. Because of the economical problems in Sudan today, the Sudanese energy policy should be concentrated on assurance of energy supply, reliability, domestic

Abdeen M. Omer

2005-01-01

98

Major climate indicators of ongoing drought in Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThere has been a rigorous debate during the 2000s about the recovery of the African Sahel from the long-lasting drought. To examine the situation in Sudan, this paper develops the standardized anomaly indices (SAIs) of mean annual temperature and annual rainfall, and accordingly, establishes the Pedj drought index (PDI) since the 1940s to 2008 for 14 stations spread over the country. There has been a drastic increase in temperatures (maximum, minimum, and mean) over the whole country in line with a significant decline of rainfall over the northern half of the country. Evidence of a correlation between temperature and rainfall anomalies has been reported, emphasizing the concurrence of dry and hot periods. These results suggest less effective rainfall. Contrary to the postulation of recovery from the long-lasting drought in the African Sahel, the results for Sudan indicate intensifying drought evidenced by significant rising trends in PDI. The 2000s depict a widespread and prolonged drought (mild to severe), except for the extreme southern and south-western parts of the country which displayed excess of humidity. The frequency of occurrence of drought classes during 1975-2008 ranged from 44.1% to 70.6% compared to a frequency extending from 8.8% to 40.0% for 1941-1974. The PDI succeeded to represent satisfactorily drought episodes captured by other drought indices recommended worldwide. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index has a significant footprint on the PDI, strongly affecting the country south of latitude 15°N.

Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Elhag, Muna M.

2011-11-01

99

The question of Sudan: a hydroeconomic optimization model for the Sudanese Nile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in East Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications within the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resources infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

2014-10-01

100

7th International Sudan Studies Conference "Fifty Years After Independence : Sudan's Quest for Peace, Stability and Identity" April 6th  

E-print Network

Do you speak Kordofanian ? In the very center of the Republic of the Sudan, the province of South7th International Sudan Studies Conference "Fifty Years After Independence : Sudan's Quest in and around the cities of Delami, Umm Berembeita and Abri, in the Eastern Jebels of South Kordofan. I

Boyer, Edmond

101

Fire Regimes of the Southern Appalachian Mountains: Temporal and Spatial Variability and Implications for Vegetation Dynamics  

E-print Network

Ecologists continue to debate the role of fire in forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains. How does climate influence fire in these humid, temperate forests? Did fire regimes change during the transition from Native American settlement to Euro...

Flatley, William 1977-

2012-08-31

102

The ethnic distribution of sickle cell disease in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited disorders of haemoglobin in Africa and it is expected that sickle cell trait varies in frequency in different areas in Sudan. An extensive literature search was carried out accessing the US National Library of Medicine, the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region resources, the Catalogue for Transmission Genetics in Arabs and papers and documents published in Sudan that included data on the prevalence of sickle cell anaemia and trait. Rates of SCA and trait varied in different areas in Sudan with the highest rates reported from Western and Eastern Sudan where one in every 123 children born in Messeryia tribe in Western Sudan is at risk of having SCD. High consanguinity rates and malaria endemicity are strong related factors with sickle cell gene in Sudan. This review will present what is known about the rates of sickle cell gene in different ethnic groups in Sudan. PMID:25360197

Sabahelzain, Majdi Mohammed; Hamamy, Hanan

2014-01-01

103

Water resources and freshwater ecosystems in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudan is a large country with varying standards of living, culture and climate. When this is superimposed on the multi-sectoral nature of water, coordination of activities in water resources planning, management and development becomes essential. The spirit of cooperation and close cooperation with countries sharing the same water resources should continue, preferably through an institutional cooperative framework for each shared

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

2008-01-01

104

Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

2013-01-01

105

TRANSBOUNDARY AQUIFER WATER CRISIS: CHALLENGES AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR SOUTHERN AFRICAN REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supplies of fresh water are dwindling creating conflict among competing users of this resource. Its quality is corrupted by contamination. The growth in population, urbanization and industrialization are increasingly fierce competition for this depleting resource among its incompatible users. The climate change has increased water stress. Increase in agricultural land under irrigation has demand for more water. In Southern

Shastry Njeru

106

Paleomagnetic Evidence For A 80 Ccw Rotation of The Apenninic Platform (southern Apennines): Geodynamic Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic evolution of the Apennine belt / southern Tyrrhenian Sea system is addressed through a paleomagnetic study of Lias to Langhian sediments from the Apenninic carbonate platform (southern Apennines). Paleomagnetic data from 21 sites document a regional-scale 80 counterclockwise (CCW) rotation occurring after Langhian. Since previous studies of the Plio-Pleistocene clays spread over the oro- genic belt had previously documented a ~20 CCW rotation, we conclude that the southern Apennines rotated by 60 during Middle-Late Miocene. Our data prove that the southeastward drift of Calabrian block (and synchronous spreading of the south- ern Tyrrhenian Sea) induced saloon-door like deformation of the southern Apennines and Sicily which underwent similar-magnitude (although opposite in sign) orogenic rotations. Our paleogeographic reconstruction shows that at 15 Ma (Late Langhian) the Alpine-Apennine belt collided with a NNE-oriented carbonate platform corridor surrounded by oceanic basins. We speculate that both the end of the Corsica-Sardinia rotation and the eastward jump of the locus of back-arc extension (from the Liguro- Provençal to the Tyrrhenian Sea) may have been consequences of this event.

Gattacceca, J.; Speranza, F.

107

Dissertation Citations in Organismal Biology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Implications for Collection Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a citation analysis of Ph.D. dissertations in plant biology and zoology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, undertaken to test the common assumption that scientists favor current research to such an extent that journal backfiles can be de-emphasized in academic library collections. Results demonstrate otherwise. The study is…

Nabe, Jonathan; Imre, Andrea

2008-01-01

108

Southern Mexican minnows of the genus Notropis (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae): genetic variation, phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical implications.  

PubMed

Allozyme analyses were performed to determine patterns of genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Notropis in southern Mexico. Products of 28 gene loci were resolved in 24 geographic samples belonging to four putative species. These species represent the southern limit of the Cyprinidae in North America. Five loci were found monomorphic and 11 were diagnostic among species when the outgroup, Phoxinus phoxinus, was not taken into account. Four groups were identified, but these do not correspond perfectly to the four nominal species. Notropis sallaei was identified by allozyme analyses being the most basal among southern Mexican Notropis and the most genetically divergent. Notropis imeldae, was also diagnosed on the basis of allozymic variation, however a population sample representing the Balsas drainage was genetically divergent and is considered as an undescribed new species (N. n. sp.). No genetic differences were found between the samples of N. boucardi and N. moralesi. Therefore, we recommend that N. moralesi should be considered as a junior synonym of N. boucardi. A broad geographic sampling strategy was employed across all the distribution range of N. boucardi representing rivers from three different drainages, which cover both Mexican slopes. The slight divergence found among the headwater populations of N. boucardi permitted us to predict a model of paleohydrographic relationships of these three drainages. Two alternative hypotheses are postulated to explain the current distribution pattern of populations of N. boucardi in southern Mexico. PMID:11182485

Schönhuth, S; De Sostoa, A; Martinez, E; Doadrio, I

2001-04-01

109

A new fossil mammal assemblage from the southern Chilean Andes: implications for geology, geochronology, and tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diverse (36 taxa), new fossil terrestrial mammal assemblage has been recovered from the Santacrucian South American Land Mammal ‘Age’ (SALMA; latest Early Miocene) in the southern Andes of Chile. This is the westernmost high latitude mammal fauna known in South America and the first in a string of new mammal assemblages discovered in Chile after a lapse of nearly

John J. Flynn; Michael J. Novacek; Holly E. Dodson; Daniel Frassinetti; Malcolm C. McKenna; Mark A. Norell; Karen E. Sears; Carl C. Swisher; André R. Wyss

2002-01-01

110

Energy, Product, and Economic Implications of Environmental Compliance Options- A Southern California Case Study  

E-print Network

to selecting an option to implement. We discuss how the options are assembled into an array of coping strategies for environmental compliance. This work is part of an ongoing project to develop a database of regulations and technology options. (A major Southern...

Kyricopoulos, P. F.; Dennison, W. J.

111

Hydrochemical implications of groundwater mixing: An example from the Southern Laramie Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern Laramie Basin groundwater system was studied to explore how standard thermodynamic chemical calculations can produce misleading results with respect to water-rock interactions when groundwaters with different chemical compositions mix. Geological and hydrological data determined the direction of flow to be NW in the Casper aquifers, as well as in the Redbeds aquifers. Hydrological and structural data were used

E. Mazor; J. I. Drever; J. Finley; P. W. Huntoon; D. A. Lundy

1993-01-01

112

Hydrochemical implications of groundwater mixing: an example from the southern Laramie Basin, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern Laramie Basin groundwater system was studied to explore how standard thermodynamic chemical calculations can produce misleading results with respect to water-rock interactions when groundwaters with different chemical compositions mix. Geological and hydrological data determined the direction of flow to be NW in the Casper aquifers, as well as in the Redbeds aquifers. Hydrological and structural data were used

E. Mazor; J. I. Drever; J. Finley; P. W. Huntoon; D. A. Lundy

1993-01-01

113

The maxillary sinus of Paradolichopithecus sushkini (late Pliocene, southern Tajikistan) and its phyletic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paradolichopithecus sushkini is a large fossil cercopithecine from the late Pliocene discovered at Kuruk-Say, southern Tajikistan. Despite its rather long face and large size, many authorities regard Paradolichopithecus not as a baboon, but as a large macaque, mainly based on the cranial morphology of European specimens. Among Old World monkeys, macaques are the only species that possess a maxillary sinus.

Takeshi D. Nishimura; Masanaru Takai; Evgeny N. Maschenko

2007-01-01

114

Sudan dyes: are they dangerous for human health?  

PubMed

Azo and diazo compounds include Sudan dyes, which were widely used in industry. Although they are not permitted in food, they had been found contaminating different food products and their presence is investigated regularly (since 2003) in these products. Sudan III, as well as Sudan Black B, was included in different laboratory techniques for tissue ceroid and lipofucsin analysis and blood-cell staining. Also, Sudan Black B has been recently included in in vivo evaluations in human beings (through oral intake), and Sudan III is still allowed in cosmetics. These azo dyes were metabolized to possible carcinogenic colorless amines, both in the liver of mammalians and by the micro flora present in human skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Both human and laboratory animal cytochrome P450s (CYPs) were able to oxidize Sudan I, whereas Sudan III modified CYP activities. In vitro genotoxic effects were reported for Sudan I, and some DNA adducts formed through exposure to its metabolites were identified. Sudan I was also found to be carcinogenic in the rat, but not in the mouse. The aim of the present review is to put together the most relevant information concerning Sudan dye uses and toxicity to provide some tools for the identification of the risk they represent for human health. PMID:22947042

Fonovich, Teresa M

2013-07-01

115

Savanna burning and convective mixing in southern Africa - Implications for CO emissions and transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric data from both remote and direct measurements were used to compute the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and mass transport from Africa south of the equator. The Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment flew on the Space Shuttle during October 5-13, 1984; the highest CO mixing ratios from the entire mission were measured over southern Africa. In addition to the MAPS data, surface CO mixing ratios were measured in the boundary layer at Cape Point, South Africa. A calibration factor for the remote MAPS CO measurements was determined by computing the ratio of the surface measurements from Cape Point during unpolluted periods to coincident MAPS measurements. The adjusted MAPS CO data were then used to compute the mass flux of CO from biomass burning in southern Africa during the MAPS mission. The transport calculations were compared to the estimated CO emissions from biomass burning to examine the efficiency in which the continental tropical clouds redistribute CO in the troposphere.

Connors, Vickie S.; Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Reichle, Henry G.; Brunke, Ernst-Gunther; Garstang, Michael; Seiler, Wolfgang; Scheel, H. E.

1991-01-01

116

Projected strengthening of the Southern Ocean winds: some implications for the deep ocean circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the strong zonal winds in the Southern Ocean are predicted to become even stronger. The associated northward Ekman transport across the open latitudes of Drake Passage intensifies by (5-10)×106m3\\/s. This is balanced by a stronger southward geostrophic transport in the deep ocean. Since the flow of Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is

O. A. Saenko

2006-01-01

117

Deuterium excess record in a southern Tibetan ice core and its potential climatic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 55-m long ice core, drilled close to bedrock from Mt. Noijin Kangsang on the southern Tibetan Plateau in summer 2007, was\\u000a annually dated covering the period of 1864–2006 AD. The stable isotope ratios (?\\u000a 18O and ?D) of the ice core were measured and thereby the deuterium excess (d) was calculated by d = ?D ? 8*?\\u000a 18O for the individual ice samples.

Huabiao Zhao; Baiqing Xu; Tandong Yao; Guangjian Wu; Shubiao Lin; Jing Gao; Mo Wang

2011-01-01

118

Diving behaviour in relation to water temperature in the southern elephant seal: foraging implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-depth-temperature recorder provided a continuous record of diving by a female southern elephant seal in relation to water temperature for 27 days (1939 dives) after completion of moult. Mean maximum dive depth was 391±2.6 m and the overall maximum was 775 m. Dives lasted on average 17.5±0.09 min. Most dives showed a rapid descent to the discontinuity between the

I. L. Boyd; T. Arnbom

1991-01-01

119

Southern limit of mantle-derived geothermal helium emissions in Tibet: implications for lithospheric structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic composition of helium emitted from geothermal springs in the southern Tibetan plateau, reported as Rc\\/RA (Rc=air corrected sample 3He\\/4He, RA=air 3He\\/4He), ranges from 0.013 to 0.38, and defines two principal domains. In southernmost central Tibet, helium isotope ratios are typical of radiogenic helium production in the crust (Rc\\/RA<0.05, crustal helium domain). Further north, there is a resolvable 3He

Leonore Hoke; Simon Lamb; David R. Hilton; Robert J. Poreda

2000-01-01

120

3 CFR - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...defense services to the Republic of South Sudan will strengthen the security...

2013-01-01

121

78 FR 1866 - Extension and Redesignation of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Extension and Redesignation of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status...extending the existing designation of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status...November 2, 2014, and redesignating South Sudan for TPS for 18 months,...

2013-01-09

122

76 FR 63629 - Designation of Republic of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCIS-2011-0012] RIN 1615-ZB08 Designation of Republic of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship...Security (Secretary) has designated the Republic of South Sudan (South Sudan) for Temporary Protected Status (TPS)...

2011-10-13

123

Three-dimensional lithospheric electrical structure of Southern Granulite Terrain, India and its tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

crustal as well as the upper mantle lithospheric electrical structure of the Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) is evaluated, using the magnetotelluric (MT) data from two parallel traverses: one is an ~ 500 km long N-S trending traverse across SGT and another a 200 km long traverse. Data space Occam 3-D inversion was used to invert the MT data. The electrical characterization of lithospheric structure in SGT shows basically a highly resistive (several thousands of Ohm meters) upper crustal layer overlying a moderately resistive (a few hundred Ohm meters) lower crustal layer which in turn is underlain by the upper mantle lithosphere whose resistivity shows significant changes along the traverse. The highly resistive upper crustal layer is interspersed with four major conductive features with three of them cutting across the crustal column, bringing out a well-defined crustal block structure in SGT with individual highly resistive blocks showing correspondence to the geologically demarcated Salem, Madurai, and Trivandrum blocks. The 3-D model also brought out a well-defined major crustal conductor located in the northern half of the Madurai block. The electrical characteristics of this south dipping conductor and its close spatial correlation with two of the major structural elements, viz., Karur-Oddanchatram-Kodaikanal Shear Zone and Karur-Kamban-Painavu-Trichur Shear Zone, suggest that this conductive feature is closely linked to the subduction-collision tectonic processes in the SGT, and it is inferred that the Archean Dharwar craton/neoproterozoic SGT terrain boundary lies south of the Palghat-Cauvery shear zone. The results also showed that the Achankovil shear zone is characterized by a well-defined north dipping conductive feature. The resistive block adjoining this conductor on the southern side, representing the Trivandrum block, is shown to be downthrown along this north dipping crustal conductor relative to the Madurai block, suggesting a northward movement of Trivandrum block colliding against the Madurai block. The lithospheric upper mantle electrical structure of the SGT up to a depth of 100 km may be broadly divided into two distinctly different segments, viz., northern and southern segments. The northern lithospheric segment, over a major part, is characterized by a thick resistive upper mantle, while the southern one is characterized by a dominantly conductive medium suggesting a relatively thinned lithosphere in the southern segment.

Patro, Prasanta K.; Sarma, S. V. S.; Naganjaneyulu, K.

2014-01-01

124

The electric field in northern England and southern Scotland: implications for geomagnetically induced currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotelluric (MT) data, in the form of MT tensors, are used to estimate directly the size and spatial distribution of the electric field in northern England and southern Scotland with the aim of predicting the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in power networks in the region. MT and Geomagnetic Deep Sounding data from a number of different field campaigns, at a period of 750 s, are employed. The MT data are cast in the form of telluric vectors, which allow a joint hypothetical event analysis (HEA) of both Geomagnetic Deep Sounding and MT data. This analysis reveals qualitatively the pervasive effects of electric field distortion in the region. Two approaches are taken to understand how the spatial structure of the regional electromagnetic field is affected by local distortions, and what the origin of these distortions might be. The dimensionality, and form of electric field distortion, of the MT tensors is investigated using the Weaver et al. and Bahr classification schemes, and by examining the misfit of a galvanic distortion model as a function of rotation angle. At sites where the galvanic distortion model is found to be appropriate the regional MT tensors are recovered using tensor decomposition techniques. It is found that recovering the regional MT response reconciles the geometry of induced currents implied by the MT data with that of the Magnetic Variation anomalies. Lilley's central impedances are used to calculate rotationally invariant effective telluric responses. In the Southern Uplands the magnitude of the effective telluric response is approximately 0.25-0.5 mV km-1 nT-1, but as the Southern Uplands Fault is approached it rises steadily to 3 mV km-1 nT-1. In the Midland Valley, the effective telluric response is approximately 0.5 mV km-1 nT-1 which rises steadily to 2.5 mV km-1 nT-1 as the Southern Uplands and Highland Boundary Faults are approached to the southeast and northwest, respectively. Therefore, the increase in the magnitude of the effective telluric response correlates with the approach of a major tectonic boundary such as the Southern Uplands Fault. These results show that the induced electric field strength varies considerably throughout the central Scotland region. In addition, the HEA indicates that due to lateral changes in conductivity structure the direction of the electric field deviates significantly from the regional direction implied by the polarization azimuth of the primary geomagnetic induction. Therefore, any attempts to model the flow of GIC in the region need to account for the spatial variation of both the magnitude and azimuth of the electric field.

McKay, A. J.; Whaler, K. A.

2006-11-01

125

Three-dimensional resistivity structure of Southern Alberta, Canada: implications for Precambrian tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Precambrian basement rocks in southern Alberta are hidden beneath the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, making studies of these rocks dependent on geophysical measurements. Magnetotelluric (MT) data were used to study the structure of these basement rocks through measurements of electrical resistivity. Long-period MT data collected in Southern Alberta during the Lithoprobe project were combined with new data to produce a grid of data that permitted a 3-D approach to data analysis. Dimensionality analysis suggested that data at periods less than 1000 s were relatively 2-D. However, 2-D inversion models of MT data in Alberta resulted in low resistivity features in the crust which moved dependant on the data included in the inversion. These features were previously attributed to crustal anisotropy. 3-D inversion yielded a resistivity model that fit the measured MT data and was well correlated with both the Precambrian domain boundaries and interpretations of other geophysical data. This MT data set defines a major upper-mantle conductor coincident with the Archean Loverna Block of the Hearne Domain. This anomaly is called the Loverna Conductor, and its southern boundary is defined by a pronounced increase in upper-mantle resistivity along the Vulcan Structure, which is an approximately 300-km-long linear potential field anomaly completely buried beneath the western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Since the lithosphere in this region was assembled ca. 1.9-1.8 Ga, the low resistivity anomaly in the upper mantle is not associated with recent tectonic activity. The Loverna Conductor was likely formed by the enrichment of the lithospheric mantle through subduction along the Vulcan Structure during the Proterozoic assembly of Laurentia. In particular, this model is consistent with recent interpretations which attribute the origin of the Vulcan Structure to collision along a north dipping subduction zone.

Nieuwenhuis, Greg; Unsworth, Martyn J.; Pana, Dinu; Craven, Jim; Bertrand, Edward

2014-05-01

126

Humpback Whale Song on the Southern Ocean Feeding Grounds: Implications for Cultural Transmission  

PubMed Central

Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean. PMID:24278134

Garland, Ellen C.; Gedamke, Jason; Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Noad, Michael J.; Garrigue, Claire; Gales, Nick

2013-01-01

127

Spatial genetic structure and regional demography in the southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders.

Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.

2006-01-01

128

Salp/krill interactions in the Southern Ocean: spatial segregation and implications for the carbon flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available data on the spatial distribution and feeding ecophysiology of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, and the tunicate, Salpa thompsoni, in the Southern Ocean are summarized in this study. Antarctic krill and salps generally display pronounced spatial segregation at all spatial scales. This appears to be the result of a clear biotopical separation of these key species in the Antarctic pelagic food web. Krill and salps are found in different water masses or water mass modifications, which are separated by primary or secondary frontal features. On the small-scale (<100 km), Antarctic krill and salps are usually restricted to the specific water parcels, or are well segregated vertically. Krill and salp grazing rates estimated using the in situ gut fluorescence technique are among the highest recorded in the Antarctic pelagic food web. Although krill and salps at times may remove the entire daily primary production, generally their grazing impact is moderate (?50% of primary production). The regional ecological consequences of years of high salp densities may be dramatic. If the warming trend, which is observed around the Antarctic Peninsula and in the Southern Ocean, continues, salps may become a more prominent player in the trophic structure of the Antarctic marine ecosystem. This likely would be coupled with a dramatic decrease in krill productivity, because of a parallel decrease in the spatial extension of the krill biotope. The high Antarctic regions, particularly the Marginal Ice Zone, have, however, effective physiological mechanisms that may provide protection against the salp invasion.

Pakhomov, E. A.; Froneman, P. W.; Perissinotto, R.

129

An increase of dry season length over southern Amazonia, its causes and implication to climate projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from several independent sources suggest that the dry season length (DSL) has increased over southern Amazonia since 1979, primarily due to a delay of its ending dates (DSE). Whether such a change is entirely due to natural climate variability or a result of combine natural variability and anthropogenic forced change will be assessed through a process-based analysis. The observed changes appear to be greater than those simulated by the global climate models that participated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) forced by both historical and future anthropogenic and natural forcing. Such a discrepancy is unlikely due to under-representation of natural variability and more likely due to underestimate the sensitivity of the dry season length to external forcing. Consequently, the climate projections of these models may underestimate the future changes of the dry season length and its impact on rainforests. Our study suggests that it is imperative that monitoring, quantification, and understanding of changes of rainfall seasonality over southern Amazonia be improved.

Fu, R.; Yin, L.

2013-05-01

130

Internal Structure of the Southern Polar Cap of Mars and Formation Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surfaces of the Martian polar caps have been studied in detail but little is known about their internal structure. Exposures of the cap interior can be seen in the many troughs and scarps which incise them. The layered sequences visible in these topographic features have been known to exist for many years, however first order questions concerning the internal stratigraphy remain. We have identified a prominent bench forming layer near the top of the southern layered deposits. We have mapped its exposure in high-resolution MOC images on the eastern and western scarps. These images have been carefully registered to a MOLA derived DEM so topographic measurements along this bench can be extracted along with the location of each trace. What results are a set of measurements of the top of the bench forming layer in three dimensions. The top of this layer represents a distinct stratigraphic horizon. The prominent bench outcrops on both the eastern and western scarps which bound the highest portion of the southern layered deposits. Confirmation that these are two benches are indeed the same stratigraphic surface comes from the similarity of surrounding (nonbench forming) layers.

Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.

2004-01-01

131

Identification of congenital rubella syndrome in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological data about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) are scarce and rubella vaccine is not yet included in the childhood immunization schedule in Sudan. This study aimed to identify and describe CRS cases among Sudanese infants with congenital eye or heart defects. Methods Between February and September 2010, paired oral fluid and dried blood spot samples were collected from 98 infants aged up to 12 months. These infants were enrolled during their visits to five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan. Clinical samples were screened for rubella IgM and for???6 months old infants also for IgG antibodies by ELISA. The oral fluid of IgM and/or IgG positive patients was tested for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. Results Our findings revealed that two children (2.0%) were IgM positive and another five children (5.1%) were positive for IgG antibodies. None of the five infants of which enough oral fluid was available for RNA investigation was PCR positive. Conclusions This study documented the presence of CRS in Sudan and highlighted the importance of rubella vaccine introduction for preventing future CRS cases in the country. PMID:24898017

2014-01-01

132

Tectonic implications of a paleomagnetic study of the Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex, southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A paleomagnetic study was carried out on the Late Jurassic Sarmiento Ophiolitic Complex (SOC) exposed in the Magallanes fold and thrust belt in the southern Patagonian Andes (southern Chile). This complex, mainly consisting of a thick succession of pillow-lavas, sheeted dikes and gabbros, is a seafloor remnant of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin that developed along the south-western margin of South America. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization permitted the isolation of a post-folding characteristic remanence, apparently carried by fine grain (SD?) magnetite, both in the pillow-lavas and dikes. The mean "in situ" direction for the SOC is Dec: 286.9°, Inc: - 58.5°, ?95: 6.9°, N: 11 (sites). Rock magnetic properties, petrography and whole-rock K-Ar ages in the same rocks are interpreted as evidence of correlation between remanence acquisition and a greenschist facies metamorphic overprint that must have occurred during latest stages or after closure and tectonic inversion of the basin in the Late Cretaceous. The mean remanence direction is anomalous relative to the expected Late Cretaceous direction from stable South America. Particularly, a declination anomaly over 50° is suggestively similar to paleomagnetically interpreted counter clockwise rotations found in thrust slices of the Jurassic El Quemado Fm. located over 100 km north of the study area in Argentina. Nevertheless, a significant ccw rotation of the whole SOC is difficult to reconcile with geologic evidence and paleogeographic models that suggest a narrow back-arc basin sub-parallel to the continental margin. A rigid-body 30° westward tilting of the SOC block around a horizontal axis trending NNW, is considered a much simpler explanation, being consistent with geologic evidence. This may have occurred as a consequence of inverse reactivation of old normal faults, which limit both the SOC exposures and the Cordillera Sarmiento to the East. The age of tilting is unknown but it must postdate remanence acquisition in the Late Cretaceous. Two major orogenic events of the southern Patagonian Andes, in the Eocene (ca. 42 Ma) and Middle Miocene (ca. 12 Ma), respectively, could have caused the proposed tilting.

Rapalini, A. E.; Calderón, M.; Singer, S.; Hervé, F.; Cordani, U.

2008-06-01

133

Oxygen in the Southern California Bight: Multidecadal trends and implications for demersal fisheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reports of hypoxic conditions (oxygen <1.5 ml L-1) off the U.S. west coast over the last two decades led us to investigate hypoxia in the Southern California Bight (SCB) and its potential impacts on fisheries. The secular trend in hypoxia in the SCB over the last 57 years is not monotonic, and reversed trend in the mid-1980s, bringing oxygen concentrations back to levels measured in the late 1950s to early 1960s. Thirty-seven percent of the rockfish (Sebastes spp.) habitat in the Cowcod Conservation Area at 240-350 m depths suffers exposure to hypoxia in the summer of normal years. If current trends in shoaling of low oxygen water continue for another 20 years, rather than reversing as happened previously, we predict loss of 18% of the habitat with 55% of the total habitat exposed to hypoxia.

McClatchie, S.; Goericke, R.; Cosgrove, R.; Auad, G.; Vetter, R.

2010-10-01

134

Heat flow anomaly in Lesotho - implications for the southern boundary of the Kaapvaal craton  

SciTech Connect

Heat flow studies in southern Africa reveal a pattern of low heat flow in Archean cratons compared with Proterozoic mobile belts that provides grounds for modeling in which cratons have lower mantle heat flux and greater lithospheric thickness. Measurements at nine locations in a 90-km-long north-south traverse show an increase of heat flow from typically cratonic values of about 45 mW/sq m in the north to about 80 mW/sq m where the craton abuts on the Natal belt in the south. The change occurs within 30 km, suggesting that the anomaly largely reflects an increase in radioactive heat from the upper crust in the orogenic front. The change in mantle heat flux across the boundary is probably considerably smaller. These and other results suggest that the surficial craton boundary is further north than usually depicted. 20 refs.

Jones, M.Q.W. (Witwatersrand Univ., Johannesburg (South Africa))

1992-10-01

135

Hydrochemical implications of groundwater mixing: An example from the Southern Laramie Basin, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Laramie Basin groundwater system was studied to explore how standard thermodynamic chemical calculations can produce misleading results with respect to water-rock interactions when groundwaters with different chemical compositions mix. Geological and hydrological data determined the direction of flow to be NW in the Casper aquifers, as well as in the Redbeds aquifers. Hydrological and structural data were used to identify wells having mixtures of groundwater. The chemical data revealed that waters in the different aquifers are distinguishable by their chemical compositions and that mixtures have intermediate compositions. The different chemistries of the mixed groundwater samples are identical to those predicted by geochemical evolution paths, including calcite precipitation, evolution toward equilibration with gypsum, and Ca-Mg ion exchange.

Mazor, E.; Drever, J. I.; Finley, J.; Huntoon, P. W.; Lundy, D. A.

1993-01-01

136

Paleoseismology along the Cittanova fault: Implications for seismotectonics and earthquake recurrence in Calabria (southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the seismogenic structure responsible for the 5 February 1783 earthquake (M > 7, Calabria, southern Italy), in particular the slip rate and recurrence time along the Cittanova fault, thus giving new insights on the seismic hazards and seismotectonics of the region. The 1783 earthquake, one of the strongest earthquake of the Mediterranean area, caused more than 30,000 casualties and radically changed the physiography of the local landscape. Until now, the Cittanova fault (or Aspromonte fault) has been generally identified as the surficial expression of the seismogenetic structure, even though its youthful activity has never been demonstrated. Recently, the shortage of geologic evidence of middle-upper Pleistocene activity on this fault led some authors to locate the 1783 fault elsewhere. In our study we used a multidisciplinary approach (paleoseismology, geomorphology, historical seismology, archaeoseismology); our analysis of contemporary literary sources strengthened our interpretation of the coseismic origin of many geological features and, sometimes, oriented our field research toward specific areas. In particular, we excavated trenches and pits at three different sites along the trace of the Cittanova fault for paleoseismological analysis and 14C dating. Our data document the Holocene and present activity of the Cittanova fault, providing a minimum vertical slip rate of 0.44 mm/yr and a possible return time of 1350-1800 years for earthquakes similar to 1783. The penultimate event has been dated to the 4th century A.D., a time when southern Calabria and eastern Sicily were devastated by an earthquake documented by archaeoseismic analyses.

Galli, Paolo; Bosi, Vittorio

2002-03-01

137

Seismic signatures of the Pan-African orogeny: implications for southern Indian high-grade terranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a study designed to investigate and compare the seismic characteristics of the once contiguous terranes of eastern Gondwanaland, now incorporated in five separated continental masses, which, during the Neoproterozoic (~600Ma) Pan-African orogeny, suffered a high degree of thermal stress and deformation. Receiver functions and surface wave data from stations located in East Antarctica, Sri Lanka, the southern-Indian high-grade terranes, Madagascar and the Tanzania-Mozambique belt, were used to determine the shear-wave velocity structure, Moho depth and VP/VS values of the respective crustal segments. This study provides an additional dimension to the otherwise well-documented characteristic petrology of their surface exposures and other geological signatures such as their extensive granulitization and gem formation during the Pan-African event. Analysis of the receiver functions and surface wave data for these seismic stations located on their present day widely distributed continental fragments have been made. It is observed that with the exception of KOD (at Kodaikanal hill), situated on the southern Indian granulites having the thickest crust (~43.5 km), most of the Pan-African granulitic terranes have a crustal thicknesses of ~37 +/- 0.8km, with a transition to higher velocity at mid-crustal depths, and that their bulk composition is felsic. Average crustal VP/VS values (1.704 +/- 0.03) and thicknesses (37.8 +/- 0.8km), for four stations (SYO, PALK, TRV and ABPO), now located in East Antarctica, Sri Lanka, India and Madagascar, respectively, show remarkable similarity, indicating that the Pan-African orogeny was extensive enough to reorder the crustal structure of a wide region with a broadly similar stamp.

Rai, Abhishek; Gaur, V. K.; Rai, S. S.; Priestley, K.

2009-02-01

138

Thermochronometric analysis of the North Lunggar Rift: Implications for the timing of extension initiation and structural style of deformation in southern Tibet  

E-print Network

and crustal evolution of the central Lhasa terrane (S-Tibet) revealed by investigations in the Xainza rift. Harrison, T., Copeland, P., Kidd, W., and Lovera, O., 1995, Activation of the Nyainqentanghla shear zone: Implications for uplift of the southern... Tibetan Plateau: Tectonics, v. 14, p. 658-676. Kapp, J.L.D., Harrison, T.M., Kapp, P., Grove, M., Lovera, O.M., and Lin, D., 2005, Nyainqentanglha Shan: A window into the tectonic, thermal, and geochemical evolution of the Lhasa block, southern Tibet...

Sundell, Kurt Eric

2011-01-01

139

Evidence of much more intense land convection in the Southern than in the Northern tropics and implications for climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective overshooting over tropical land areas is key contributor to the troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange, shown to inject in the lower stratosphere adiabatically cooled air (Pommereau and Held 2007, Khaykin et al., 2012), trace and chemically active gases (Ricaud et al 2007, 2010), ice crystals (Corti et al 2007, Nielsen et al. 2007, Khaykin et al. 2009) and tropospheric clean air diluting the aerosols (Vernier et al., 2011). However, the altitude reached by those events differs dramatically with the hemisphere. They are observed to reach 20-21 km on average in the Southern tropics during the southern summer in contrast to the Northern tropics where they are limited to the tropopause level., indicating that convective overshoots are far less intense in the North. This difference is consistent with the indirect aerosols effect due to the known larger anthropogenic aerosols and desert dust concentrations in the northern hemisphere troposphere, shown by Cloud Resolving Models (CRM) to increase the number and reducing the size of droplets or growlers, resulting in lighter rainfall and reduced convective vertical velocity, that is weaker overshooting. Asides from the reduced cross-tropopause transport reported by all above observations, the lighter rainfall due to the increase anthropogenic pollution and desertification in the industrial era in the North has strong implications for climate change differences between the two hemispheres. Shown in the presentation will be the evidence of the large difference of convective intensity between the two hemispheres from the various satellite observations, followed by an illustration of the difference in tropospheric aerosols loading, and a short discussion on the impact of such contrast between the two hemispheres on their respective past climate evolution.

Pommereau, J.; Khaykin, S.; Vernier, J.; Ricaud, P.

2012-12-01

140

The 2013 severe haze over the southern Hebei, China: model evaluation, source apportionment, and policy implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely severe and persistent haze occurred in January 2013 over the eastern and northern China. The record-breaking high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of more than 700 ?g m-3 on hourly average and the persistence of the episodes have raised widespread, considerable public concerns. During that period, seven of the top ten polluted cities in China were within Hebei Province. The three cities in southern Hebei, Shijiazhuang, Xingtai, and Handan, have been listed as the top three polluted cities according to the statistics for the first half year of 2013. In this study, the Mesoscale Modeling System Generation 5 (MM5) and the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system are applied to simulate the 2013 severe winter regional hazes in East Asia and the northern China at horizontal grid resolutions of 36 and 12 km, respectively, using the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory of China (MEIC). The source contributions of major source regions and sectors to PM2.5 concentrations in the three most-polluted cities in southern Hebei are quantified aiming at the understanding of the sources of the severe haze pollution in this region, and the results are compared with December 2007, the haziest month in 2001-2010. Model evaluation against meteorological and air quality observations indicates an overall acceptable performance and the model tends to underpredict PM2.5 and coarse particulate matter (PM10) concentrations during the extremely severe polluted episodes. The MEIC inventory is proved to be a good estimation in terms of total emissions of cities but uncertainties exist in the spatial allocations of emissions into fine grid resolutions within cities. The source apportionment shows that emissions from the northern Hebei and the Beijing-Tianjin city cluster are two major regional contributors to the pollution in January 2013 in Shijiazhuang, comparing with those from Shanxi and the northern Hebei for December 2007. For Xingtai and Handan, the emissions from the northern Hebei and Henan are important. The industrial and domestic sources are the most significant local contributors, and the domestic and agricultural emissions from Shandong and Henan are unnegligible regional sources, especially for Xingtai and Handan. Even in the top two haziest months (i.e., January 2013 and December 2007), a large fraction of PM2.5 in the three cities may originate from quite different regional sources. These results indicate the importance of establishing a regional joint framework of policymaking and action system to effectively mitigate air pollution in this area, not only over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area, but also surrounding provinces such as Henan, Shandong, and Shanxi.

Wang, L. T.; Wei, Z.; Yang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, F. F.; Su, J.; Meng, C. C.; Zhang, Q.

2013-11-01

141

The 2013 severe haze over southern Hebei, China: model evaluation, source apportionment, and policy implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely severe and persistent haze occurred in January 2013 over eastern and northern China. The record-breaking high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of more than 700 ?g m-3 on hourly average and the persistence of the episodes have raised widespread, considerable public concerns. During that period, 7 of the top 10 polluted cities in China were within the Hebei Province. The three cities in southern Hebei (Shijiazhuang, Xingtai, and Handan) have been listed as the top three polluted cities according to the statistics for the first half of the year 2013. In this study, the Mesoscale Modeling System Generation 5 (MM5) and the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system are applied to simulate the 2013 severe winter regional hazes in East Asia and northern China at horizontal grid resolutions of 36 and 12 km, respectively, using the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). The source contributions of major source regions and sectors to PM2.5 concentrations in the three most polluted cities in southern Hebei are quantified by aiming at the understanding of the sources of the severe haze pollution in this region, and the results are compared with December 2007, the haziest month in the period 2001-2010. Model evaluation against meteorological and air quality observations indicates an overall acceptable performance and the model tends to underpredict PM2.5 and coarse particulate matter (PM10) concentrations during the extremely polluted episodes. The MEIC inventory is proven to be a good estimation in terms of total emissions of cities but uncertainties exist in the spatial allocations of emissions into fine grid resolutions within cities. The source apportionment shows that emissions from northern Hebei and the Beijing-Tianjin city cluster are two major regional contributors to the pollution in January 2013 in Shijiazhuang, compared with those from Shanxi and northern Hebei for December 2007. For Xingtai and Handan, the emissions from northern Hebei and Henan are important. The industrial and domestic sources are the most significant local contributors, and the domestic and agricultural emissions from Shandong and Henan are non-negligible regional sources, especially for Xingtai and Handan. Even in the top two haziest months (i.e., January 2013 and December 2007), a large fraction of PM2.5 in the three cities may originate from quite different regional sources. These results indicate the importance of establishing a regional joint framework of policymaking and action system to effectively mitigate air pollution in this area, not only over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area, but also surrounding provinces such as Henan, Shandong, and Shanxi.

Wang, L. T.; Wei, Z.; Yang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, F. F.; Su, J.; Meng, C. C.; Zhang, Q.

2014-03-01

142

The crustal structure of southern Baffin Bay: implications from a seismic refraction experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baffin Bay represents the northern extension of the extinct rift system in the Labrador Sea. While the extent of oceanic crust and magnetic spreading anomalies are well constrained in the Labrador Sea, no magnetic spreading anomalies have yet been identified in Baffin Bay. Thus, the nature and evolution of the Baffin Bay crust remain uncertain. To clearly characterize the crust in southern Baffin Bay, 42 ocean bottom seismographs were deployed along a 710-km-long seismic refraction line, from Baffin Island to Greenland. Multichannel seismic reflection, gravity and magnetic anomaly data were recorded along the same transect. Using forward modelling and inversion of observed traveltimes from dense airgun shots, a P-wave velocity model was obtained. The detailed morphology of the basement was constrained using the seismic reflection data. A 2-D density model supports and complements the P-wave modelling. Sediments of up to 6 km in thickness with P-wave velocities of 1.8-4.0 km s-1 are imaged in the centre of Baffin Bay. Oceanic crust underlies at least 305 km of the profile. The oceanic crust is 7.5 km thick on average and is modelled as three layers. Oceanic layer 2 ranges in P-wave velocity from 4.8 to 6.4 km s-1 and is divided into basalts and dykes. Oceanic layer 3 displays P-wave velocities of 6.4-7.2 km s-1. The Greenland continental crust is up to 25 km thick along the line and divided into an upper, middle and lower crust with P-wave velocities from 5.3 to 7.0 km s-1. The upper and middle continental crust thin over a 120-km-wide continent-ocean transition zone. We classify this margin as a volcanic continental margin as seaward dipping reflectors are imaged from the seismic reflection data and mafic intrusions in the lower crust can be inferred from the seismic refraction data. The profile did not reach continental crust on the Baffin Island margin, which implies a transition zone of 150 km length at most. The new information on the extent of oceanic crust is used with published poles of rotation to develop a new kinematic model of the evolution of oceanic crust in southern Baffin Bay.

Suckro, Sonja K.; Gohl, Karsten; Funck, Thomas; Heyde, Ingo; Ehrhardt, Axel; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Gerlings, Joanna; Damm, Volkmar; Jokat, Wilfried

2012-07-01

143

A review of the rotifer fauna of the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of rotifers contained in samples from the Blue, White and joint Niles in the Sudan, the Red Sea Hills, and Jebel Marra mountains is studied, and the previous literature on the rotifera of Sudan is reviewed. A total of 145 rotifer taxa are now known from this country. Ecological and distributional notes on selected species are added. Besides

M. de Ridder

1984-01-01

144

The Dinka of Sudan: Family Traditions in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the core values of the Dinka tribe of Sudan, focusing on the most prominent aspects of their family life. The paper also examines how the Dinka family is changing in the face of Sudan's civil war and modernization. It concludes with suggestions for new directions that social work can take to facilitate the transition of the…

Singleton, Kate

145

Snow-avalanche impact landforms in Breheimen, southern Norway: Origin, age, and paleoclimatic implications  

SciTech Connect

Twelve snow-avalanche ramparts in Jostedalen and Sprongdalen (Breheimen, southern Norway) are investigated to elucidate processes of formation, the history of avalanche activity, and their potential for paleoclimatic reconstruction. Variation in the form of these riverbank boulder ramparts reflects local patterns of avalanche impact. Differences in clast roundness between ramparts, avalanche tracks, and river beds indicate that, on average, 50 to 60% of the clasts in the ramparts originate from river bedload as opposed to avalanche source areas or tracks. Rampart clasts increase in roundness downstream over a distance of 12 km, and the contribution from the river bed varies from 26 to 80% depending on local factors. Conventional lichenometric dating suggests ages for the initiation of rampart formation of 250 to 2000 yr, but they probably have a much longer history. Lichen-size frequency distributions, using the largest lichen from each of n boulders, reflect the age-frequency of surface boulders, providing a record of late Holocene avalanche activity. A simulation model suggests that maximum avalanche activity affected nine of the ramparts during the 19th century, after the peak of the Little Ice Age. The pattern of avalanche activity differs from the pattern of glacier variations but is in close agreement with that of debris-flow activity. The ramparts may yield a valuable proxy record of winter snowfall. 48 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Matthews, J.A.; McCarroll, D. (Univ. of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom))

1994-05-01

146

Short Communication: New HIV Infections at Southern New England Academic Institutions: Implications for Prevention  

PubMed Central

Abstract New HIV infections among younger men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are escalating. Data on HIV infections in college students are limited. In 2010, three MSM college students presented to our clinic with primary HIV infection (PHI) in a single month. To determine the number of college students among new HIV diagnoses, we reviewed clinical characteristics and molecular epidemiology of HIV-diagnosed individuals from January to December 2010 at the largest HIV clinic in Southern New England. PHI was defined as acute HIV infection or seroconversion within the last 6 months. Of 66 individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2010, 62% were MSM and 17% were academic students (12% college or university, 5% other). Seventy-three percent of students were MSM. Compared to nonstudents, students were more likely to be younger (24 versus 39 years), born in the United States (91% versus 56%), have another sexually transmitted disease (45% versus 11%), and present with PHI (73% versus 16%, all p-values<0.05). Thirty percent of individuals formed eight transmission clusters including four students. MSM were more likely to be part of clusters. Department of Health contact tracing of cluster participants allowed further identification of epidemiological linkages. Given these high rates of PHI in recently diagnosed students, institutions of higher education should be aware of acute HIV presentation and the need for rapid diagnosis. Prevention strategies should focus on younger MSM, specifically college-age students who may be at increased risk of HIV infection. PMID:22724920

Kazi, Shahzeb; Rana, Amaad; Blazar, Ilyse; Dejong, Colette C.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Huard, Thomas K.; Carleton, Kim; Gillani, Fizza; Alexander, Nicole; Parillo, Zoanne; Flanigan, Timothy P.; Kantor, Rami

2013-01-01

147

Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science  

PubMed Central

Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925

2011-01-01

148

A New Oviraptorosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleoecological Implications  

PubMed Central

A new oviraptorosaur Nankangia jiangxiensis gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of a partial postcranial skeleton with a partial lower jaw collected from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou, in Jiangxi Province of southern China. The new taxon is diagnosed by: (1) a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down; (2) neural spines of the cranial caudal vertebrae that are wider transversely than anteroposteriorly, forming a large posterior fossa with rugose central areas; (3) a femoral neck extending at an angle of about 90 to the shaft; and (4) a ratio of femur to tibia length of 0.95. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Nankangia as basal to the oviraptorid Yulong, but more derived than Caenagnathus, which also has a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down. The coexistence of Nankangia jiangxiensis, Ganzhousaurus nankangensis, Jiangxisaurus ganzhouensis, an unnamed oviraptorid from Nanxiong Basin and Banji long suggests that they occupied distinct ecological niches. Nankangia may have been more herbivorous than carnivorous. PMID:24312233

Lu, Junchang; Yi, Laiping; Zhong, Hui; Wei, Xuefang

2013-01-01

149

Environmental and Archaeological Implications of a Late Quaternary Palynological Sequence, Poyang Lake, Southern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoecological data from Poyang Lake, southern China, indicate that significant natural and human-induced vegetational changes have occurred during the Late Quaternary in the Middle Yangtze River valley, the likely location of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) domestication. During the late Pleistocene (from ca. 12,830 to ca. 10,500 yr B.P.), the climate was cooler and drier than today's. The subtropical, mixed deciduous-evergreen broad-leaved forest which constitutes the modern, potential vegetation was reduced and herbaceous vegetative cover expanded. A hiatus in sedimentation occurred in Poyang Lake, beginning sometime after ca. 10,500 yr B.P. and lasting until the middle Holocene (ca. 4000 yr B.P.). At ca. 4000 yr B.P., the regional vegetation was a diverse, broad-leaved forest dominated by many of the same arboreal elements (e.g., Quercus, Castanopsis, Liquidambar) that grow in the area today. A significant reduction of arboreal pollen and an increase of herbaceous pollen at ca. 2000 yr B.P. probably reflect human influence on the vegetation and the expansion of intensive rice agriculture into the dryland forests near the river valleys.

Jiang, Qinhua; Piperno, Dolores R.

1999-09-01

150

A new oviraptorosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the late cretaceous of southern China and its paleoecological implications.  

PubMed

A new oviraptorosaur Nankangia jiangxiensis gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of a partial postcranial skeleton with a partial lower jaw collected from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou, in Jiangxi Province of southern China. The new taxon is diagnosed by: (1) a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down; (2) neural spines of the cranial caudal vertebrae that are wider transversely than anteroposteriorly, forming a large posterior fossa with rugose central areas; (3) a femoral neck extending at an angle of about 90 to the shaft; and (4) a ratio of femur to tibia length of 0.95. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Nankangia as basal to the oviraptorid Yulong, but more derived than Caenagnathus, which also has a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down. The coexistence of Nankangia jiangxiensis, Ganzhousaurus nankangensis, Jiangxisaurus ganzhouensis, an unnamed oviraptorid from Nanxiong Basin and Banji long suggests that they occupied distinct ecological niches. Nankangia may have been more herbivorous than carnivorous. PMID:24312233

Lü, Junchang; Yi, Laiping; Zhong, Hui; Wei, Xuefang

2013-01-01

151

Holocene Pacific - North American plate interaction in southern Alaska: implications for the Yakataga seismic gap.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The St. Elias, Alaska, earthquake (magnitude 7.1 MS) on February 28, 1979, occurred along the complex Pacific-North American plate boundary between Yakutat Bay and Prince William Sound, rupturing only a fraction of the seismic gap identified in that region. To aid in evaluating the potential for, and likely site of, a future earthquake occurring in the remainder of the gap, we have formulated a kinematic model of neotectonic deformation in southern Alaska from available geologic and seismic data. In this model the part of the North American plate bordering on the Gulf of Alaska is divided into three subblocks, which are partially coupled to the Pacific plate. On the basis of the model, the gap-filling rupture or ruptures would most likely be along the north-dipping thrust faults of the Pamplona zone between Icy Bay and the eastern end of the Aleutian Trench. If the accumulated strain of 3.8 m postulated for this region were released suddenly in one event involving the remainder of the gap, the result would be an earthquake as large as magnitude 8. -Authors

Lahr, J. C.; Plafker, G.

1980-01-01

152

New geological studies of the most southern part of the Brevard zone, Alabama: Tectonic implications  

SciTech Connect

Mapping in east-central Alabama documents connection of Brevard zone lithologies (i.e., Jacksons Gap Group) with rocks of the Opelika Complex (previously assigned to the Inner Piedmont) through the hinge zone of the Tallassee synform, requiring a re-evaluation of the structural configuration of the southern end of the Brevard zone. Distinctive quartzite marker units of the Opelika Complex (Saugahatchee Quartzite) on the east limb of the synform have been mapped westward into quartzites previously assigned to the Jacksons Gap Group (Tallassee or Devils Backbone) along the west limb. The quartzites occur together with structurally interleaved garnet-kyanite schist, graphite schist, and felsic gneiss. This lithologic package is bounded above by the Ropes Creek Amphibolite of the Inner Piedmont's Dadeville Complex but below gives way to Eastern Blue Ridge units. Retrogressive, greenschist-facies, right-slip mylonite zones that characterize the Brevard zone along much of its trace north of this area do not accompany the Jacksons Gap/Opelika Complex lithologies eastward through the Tallassee synform hinge zone. Higher-temperature, amphibolite-facies metamorphic and annealed mylonitic fabrics characterize these units in the hinge zone and the eastern limb. The otherwise linear, retrogressive Brevard structural zone therefore does not simply bend south near Jacksons Gap, Alabama, as was previously thought, but rather diverges from the Jacksons Gap Group lithologies and continues southwestward through several narrow right-slip splays which appear to merge with the Alexander City fault.

Grimes, J.E.; Steltenpohl, M.G.; Keefer, W.D.; Cook, R.B. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

153

Exploratory analysis of rain days in central Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes in six rain-day categories occurring since the 1940s have been explored in central Sudan, considering two case studies representing important productive agricultural regions under semi-arid rain-fed and arid irrigated schemes. Drought conditions have persisted in Kosti (arid) in the form of a decline in rain-day frequencies, with significant trends in trace, weak and moderate falls. El Gedaref (semi-arid) exhibited both positive and negative trends, though significance characterizes the sequences of trace (falling) and weak and very strong (both rising) falls. The total annual rainfall in El Gedaref behaves depending solely on the heaviest falls contrary to Kosti, the annual values of which follow five fall categories, but with the heaviest events also have the strongest strength. Trace events occur more frequently in the arid area than in the semi-arid one, whereas weak to very strong events have opposite behaviour. Although El Niño-Southern Oscillation is one potential forcing of the variability of rainfall events, especially in Kosti, the paper arguably proposes a complex combination of factors at smaller scale that may also contribute to the large non-uniformity in rainfall patterns between the two areas, including local moisture recycling and convective activity, natural and anthropogenic aerosol loadings in the atmosphere and influence of the Ethiopian highlands.

Elagib, Nadir Ahmed

2010-11-01

154

As an eye witness to the celebrated independence of South Sudan, how  

E-print Network

As an eye witness to the celebrated independence of South Sudan, how would you describe the event and ambivalence. The saddest moment for many was when the flag of the Sudan was lowered and that of South Sudan split from the SPLM (Sudan Liberation Movement) prior to secession. I was in direct contact with many

Edwards, Paul N.

155

78 FR 8360 - Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2012-0278] RIN 3150-AJ21 Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations...and import regulations by adding South Sudan to the list of restricted destinations...Government law and policy on South Sudan. South Sudan is an...

2013-02-06

156

Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling.  

PubMed

In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease. PMID:25330098

Samy, Abdallah M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A Townsend

2014-10-01

157

Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling  

PubMed Central

In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease. PMID:25330098

Samy, Abdallah M.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A. Townsend

2014-01-01

158

Landscape formation at the Deuteronilus contact in southern Isidis Planitia, Mars: Implications for an Isidis Sea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two of the most widely studied landforms that are associated with a putative ocean that filled the northern hemisphere of Mars are (1) the Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF), plain units that cover a larger portion of the northern lowlands of Mars, and (2) a candidate paleoshoreline, e.g., the Deuteronilus contact, which represents the outer margin of the VBF. The VBF and the Deuteronilus contact are interpreted to result from a short-lived Late Hesperian ocean that readily froze and sublimated. Similar landforms are also present in the impact basin of Isidis Planitia and suggest formation processes comparable to those that formed the VBF and the Deuteronilus contact in the northern lowlands. Our study of the Deuteronilus contact in Isidis revealed geologic evidence that possibly supports the existence of a Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian Isidis Sea. For example, numerous valleys that are incised into the plains of the southern Isidis basin rim between 82°/90°E and 3°/6°N and trend a few tens of kilometers to the north following the general topographic gradient toward the center of Isidis Planitia. A few of them reach the Deuteronilus contact and continue as sinuous ridges in the Isidis Interior Plains (IIP). Based on our findings we conclude that the geologic setting along the Deuteronilus contact, including the valleys and ridges is a result of (1) Late Hesperian short-term fluvial activity, (2) a Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian short-lived Isidis Sea that readily froze, (3) subglacial drainage and esker formation, and (4) subsequent sublimation of the proposed Isidis ice sheet. Although the fluvio-glacial model we introduce in our manuscript cannot fully explain the geologic setting, possible alternative formation models, including relief inversion and fluvio-volcanic scenarios are even less capable in explaining the observed geologic setting along the Deuteronilus contact.

Erkeling, G.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Ivanov, M. A.; Hauber, E.; Bernhardt, H.

2014-11-01

159

Stratigraphy of the Younger Dryas Chronozone and paleoenvironmental implications: Central and Southern Great Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Great Plains of the United States was the setting for some of the earliest research in North America into patterns and changes in the character of late Pleistocene environments and their effects on contemporary human populations. Many localities in the region have well-stratified records of terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene human (Paleoindian) activity and past environments. These have proven important in debates over the character of the Younger Dryas Chronozone (YDC; 11,000-10,000 14C BP; 12,900-11,700 cal BP) in the continental interior. This paper reviews the lithostratigraphic record of the YDC on the Central and Southern Great Plains and summarizes paleobiological records (largely isotopic). The goal is to determine if there is any uniformity in the timing, character, direction and/or magnitude of changes in depositional environments or broader geomorphic systems before, during or after the YDC in order to address the question of the character of environments through this time. The stratigraphic records of the late Pleistocene to early Holocene transition, and in particular, the stratigraphic records of the YDC vary through time and space. The data clearly show that a host of geomorphic processes produced the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene stratigraphic records of the Great Plains. Moreover, the YDC is not necessarily manifest as a distinct lithostratigraphic or biostratigraphic entity in these different types of deposits and soils. The various geomorphic systems of the Great Plains did not behave synchronously in response to any common climate driver. These stratigraphic records reflect local environmental conditions and probably a complex response to the reorganization of mid-latitude climates in the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Holliday, V.T.; Meltzer, D.J.; Mandel, R.

2011-01-01

160

Floristic Relationships Among Vegetation Types of New Zealand and the Southern Andes: Similarities and Biogeographic Implications  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Similarities between the floras of geographically comparable regions of New Zealand (NZ) and the southern Andes (SA) have interested biologists for over 150 years. The present work selects vegetation types that are physiognomically similar between the two regions, compares their floristic composition, assesses the environmental factors that characterize these matching vegetation types, and determines whether phylogenetic groups of ancestral versus modern origin are represented in different proportions in their floras, in the context of their biogeographic history. Methods Floristic relationships based on 369 genera of ten vegetation types present in both regions were investigated with correspondence analysis (CA) and ascending hierarchical clustering (AHC). The resulting ordination and classification were related to the environmental characteristics of the different vegetation types. The proportions of different phylogenetic groups between the regions (NZ, SA) were also compared, and between forest and non-forest communities. Key Results Floristic similarities between NZ and SA tend to increase from forest to non-forest vegetation, and are highest in coastal vegetation and bog. The floras of NZ and SA also differ in their phylogenetic origin, NZ being characterized by an ‘excess’ of genera of basal origin, especially in forests. Conclusions The relatively low similarities between forests of SA and NZ are related to the former being largely of in situ South American and Gondwanan origin, whereas the latter have been mostly reconstituted though transoceanic dispersal of propagules since the Oligocene. The greater similarities among non-forest plant communities of the two regions result from varied dispersal routes, including relatively recent transoceanic dispersal for coastal vegetation, possible dispersal via a still-vegetated Antarctica especially for bog plants, and independent immigration from Northern Hemisphere sources for many genera of alpine vegetation and grassland. PMID:18390564

Ezcurra, Cecilia; Baccalá, Nora; Wardle, Peter

2008-01-01

161

Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian Sudan moisture sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sahelian Sudan, 10° to 16°N, is an arid to semi-arid zone that separates the Saharan to the north and the wet Savannah to the south. The region is characterized by, relatively, limited water resources, and hence has a high dependency on the annual rainfall. According to the latest IPCC report, regions that have such limited water resources are highly vulnerable to the ongoing climate change and variability. Taking into account that the agriculture is the main economical activity, the variability in annual rainfall is of direct soci-economical relevance. Similar to the rest of the African Sahel, the rainy season, June through September, across Sahelian Sudan is connected to the annual march of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). However, there still a limited understanding of the actual sources of moisture that supplies this region with water vapor during the rainy season. Broadly speaking, the Atlantic, the Congo rain forest, the Read Sea and the Indian Ocean are the main potential sources. In this study we use Lagrangian tracing technique to indentify the sources of moisture of Sahelian Sudan and attempt quantifying their contribution to the total annual moisture convergence. For this we utilized output from the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by the meteorological fields from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast ERA-interim for period of ten years 2000 to 2009. We trace back, for ten days each mass element to indentify the source region. The models also accounts for precipitation and moisture uptakes through the course of the transport of the air parcel from source to destination. Identifying the sources of moisture is of great importance, and can help in two connected directions. First, identifying sources of moisture will help in understanding the variability and will provide insight about the drought causes and mechanisms. Second, revealing the moisture sources would enhance ongoing efforts in seasonal forecasting.

Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael

2013-04-01

162

Southern Ocean wind response to North Atlantic cooling and the rise in atmospheric CO2: Modeling perspective and paleoceanographic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Atlantic cooling teleconnected to strengthen the southern westerliesTropical circulation mediates this N-S teleconnectionAtmospheric CO2 rises in response to strengthening of the southern westerlies

Shih-Yu Lee; John C. H. Chiang; Katsumi Matsumoto; Kathy S. Tokos

2011-01-01

163

Reconstructing Younger Dryas plateau icefields in the Tweedsmuir Hills, Southern Uplands, Scotland: Style, dynamics and palaeo-climatic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Britain, the glacial geomorphological record has been widely utilised to infer palaeo-glacier geometries and ice dynamics, with much of this work focusing on the Scottish Highlands during the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT), in particular the Younger Dryas (YD; c. 12.9 - 11.7 ka BP). The Southern Uplands represents the largest upland area south of the Highlands but has received limited research attention over the last century. The Tweedsmuir Hills are located in the central Southern Uplands, which form an area of dissected plateau approximately 320 km2. Early research in the 1800s identified moraines thought to be associated with the YD. However, the majority of previous work has focussed on isolated valleys and ignored the potential for plateau icefield glaciation, which has significant implications for the understanding of ice dynamics and geometries. Recent numerical modelling experiments covering the period 38 - 10.4 ka BP (Hubbard et al., 2008 cf. E109B8 and E102b2) have predicted a significant body of ice for the Southern Uplands at the onset of and throughout the YD, which cannot be verified at present due to a lack of empirical data. This research aims to provide the first systematic geomorphological mapping and Lateglacial climate reconstruction for the Tweedsmuir Hills. The results of air-photo interpretation and field mapping, which utilised a morphostratigraphic approach, have demonstrated a more extensive glaciation than previously mapped, reflecting more closely the Hubbard et al. (2009) modelled extent than earlier research. This consists of two separate icefields over the southern and northern Tweedsmuir Hills covering an area c. 45 km2 and 25 km2 respectively with Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) calculated to have ranged from c.419 m to 634 m. For both icefields ELAs of individual outlets reflect topographic controls rather than steep precipitation gradients similar to those derived for other icefields in Scotland (e.g., the Monadhliath Mountains and Beinn Dearg). New radiocarbon dating of basal contact organics place the ice-mass within the context of the YD but new Cosmogenic Nuclide Analysis (CNA) of bedrock and in situ boulders are inconclusive, implying limited erosion and limited resetting during the YD. Landform evidence also indicates smaller independent glaciers occupied some of the south-easterly catchments until the end of the YD. All of these results differ significantly from the traditional paradigm which suggests that due to low accumulation rates, only restricted ice masses developed in the Tweedsmuir Hills during this time. References: Hubbard, A. et al., (2009). Dynamic cycles, ice streams and their impact on the extent, chronology and deglaciation of the British-Irish ice sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, (28), 7-8, 758-776

Pearce, Danni; Rea, Brice; Bradwell, Tom; Barr, Iestyn; Small, David; McDougall, Des

2014-05-01

164

Dracunculiasis eradication: and now, South Sudan.  

PubMed

This report summarizes the status of the global Dracunculiasis Eradication Program as of the end of 2012. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) has been eliminated from 17 of 21 countries where it was endemic in 1986, when an estimated 3.5 million cases occurred worldwide. Only 542 cases were reported from four countries in 2012, and 103 villages still had indigenous transmission. Most remaining cases were reported from the new Republic of South Sudan, whereas Chad, Ethiopia, and Mali each reported 10 cases or less. Political instability and insecurity in Mali may become the main obstacles to interrupting dracunculiasis transmission forever. PMID:23843492

Hopkins, Donald R; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Weiss, Adam; Withers, P Craig; Eberhard, Mark L; Roy, Sharon L

2013-07-01

165

A sediment budget for the southern reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: implications for habitat restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the southern reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with this uncertainty provides a more statistically rigorous method of quantifying this uncertainty than the more typical “sum of errors” approach. The results of this study reinforce the need for measurement of estuarine sediment fluxes over multiple years (multiple hydrologic conditions) to adequately detail the variability in flux. Additionally, the timing of breaching events for the restoration project could be tied to annual hydrologic conditions to capitalize on increased regional sediment supply.

Shellenbarger, Gregory G.; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

2013-01-01

166

Prediction of temperature and precipitation in Sudan and South Sudan by using LARS-WG in future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming has brought great pressure on the environment and livelihood conditions in Sudan and South Sudan. It is desirable to analyze and predict the change of critical climatic variables, such as temperature and precipitation, which will provide valuable reference results for future water resources planning and management in the region. The aims of this study are to test the applicability of the Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) model in downscaling daily precipitation and daily maximum (Tmax) and daily minimum (Tmin) temperatures in Sudan and South Sudan and use it to predict future changes of precipitation; Tmin and Tmax for nine stations in Sudan and South Sudan are based on the SRA2 scenario of seven General Circulation Models (GCMs) outputs for the periods of 2011-2030, 2046-2065, and 2080-2099. The results showed that (1) the LARS-WG model produces good performance in downscaling daily precipitation and excellent performance in downscaling Tmax and Tmin in the study region; (2) downscaled precipitation from the prediction of seven GCMs showed great inconsistency in these two regions, which illustrates the great uncertainty in GCMs' results in the regions; (3) predicted precipitation in rainy season JJA (June, July, and August) based on the ensemble mean of seven GCMs showed a decreasing trend in the periods of 2011-2030, 2046-2065, and 2080-2099 in Sudan; however, an increasing trend can be found in SON (September, October, and November) in the future; (4) precipitation in South Sudan has an increasing trend in most seasons in the future except in MAM (March, April, and May) season in 2011-2030; and (5) predictions from seven GCMs showed a similar and continuous increasing trend for Tmax and Tmin in all three future periods, which will bring severe negative influence on improving livelihoods and reducing poverty in Sudan and South Sudan.

Chen, Hua; Guo, Jiali; Zhang, Zengxin; Xu, Chong-Yu

2013-08-01

167

Trachoma in the Sudan. An epidemiological study.  

PubMed

The prevalence and distribution of trachoma in the Sudan has been studied. The morbidity rate of 83.2 per 1000 in the Northern Province decreases southwards until it reaches 0.94 in the extreme south (Equatoria Province). 2. In endemic areas infection starts very early--in the first year of life. 3. There is a marked difference between the prevalence of trachoma in towns and villages--71.3 per cent for the age group 1-4 years in villages, and 56.7 per cent for the same age group in the towns. This is probably due to better standards of living and hygiene in the towns. 4. Some relationship has been found between the rainfall, the relative humidity, and the incidence of trachoma, but this does not necessarily apply in other countries. 5. The factors that may explain the high prevalence of trachoma in the northern Sudan are: a. Mechanical trauma caused by frequent sandstorms. b. Irritation of the eyes by dust particles, leading to excessive watering and discharge, and rubbing with the fingers. c. The habit of frequent hand-shaking. d. Poor personal hygiene in pre-schoolchildren. e. Associated bacterial conjunctivitis. f. The presence of eye-seeking flies. PMID:1191619

Salim, A R; Sheikh, H A

1975-10-01

168

Trachoma in the Sudan. An epidemiological study.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and distribution of trachoma in the Sudan has been studied. The morbidity rate of 83.2 per 1000 in the Northern Province decreases southwards until it reaches 0.94 in the extreme south (Equatoria Province). 2. In endemic areas infection starts very early--in the first year of life. 3. There is a marked difference between the prevalence of trachoma in towns and villages--71.3 per cent for the age group 1-4 years in villages, and 56.7 per cent for the same age group in the towns. This is probably due to better standards of living and hygiene in the towns. 4. Some relationship has been found between the rainfall, the relative humidity, and the incidence of trachoma, but this does not necessarily apply in other countries. 5. The factors that may explain the high prevalence of trachoma in the northern Sudan are: a. Mechanical trauma caused by frequent sandstorms. b. Irritation of the eyes by dust particles, leading to excessive watering and discharge, and rubbing with the fingers. c. The habit of frequent hand-shaking. d. Poor personal hygiene in pre-schoolchildren. e. Associated bacterial conjunctivitis. f. The presence of eye-seeking flies. PMID:1191619

Salim, A R; Sheikh, H A

1975-01-01

169

76 FR 63635 - Extension of the Designation of Sudan for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designated the newly formed Republic of South Sudan for TPS. Some individuals who...of Sudan may now be nationals of South Sudan, calling into question their continued...however, now qualify for TPS under South Sudan. The South Sudan Notice sets...

2011-10-13

170

Evidence for genetic differentiation at the microgeographic scale in Phlebotomus papatasi populations from Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Sudan. It is caused by Leishmania major parasites and transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi sandflies. Recently, uncommon clinical manifestations of CL have been reported. Moreover, L. donovani parasites that cause Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) have been isolated from CL lesions of some patients who contracted the disease in Khartoum State, Central Sudan with no history of travelling to VL endemic sites on south-eastern Sudan. Because different clinical manifestations and the parasite behaviour could be related to genetic differentiation, or even sub-structuring within sandfly vector populations, a population genetic study was conducted on P. papatasi populations collected from different localities in Khartoum State known for their uncommon CL cases and characterized by contrasting environmental conditions. Methods A set of seven microsatellite loci was used to investigate the population structure of P. papatasi samples collected from different localities in Khartoum State, Central Sudan. Populations from Kassala State, Eastern Sudan and Egypt were also included in the analyses as outgroups. The level of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among natural populations of P. papatasi was determined using FST statistics and Bayesian assignments. Results Genetic analyses revealed significant genetic differentiation (FST) between the Sudanese and the Egyptian populations. Within the Sudanese P. papatasi populations, one population from Gerif West, Khartoum State, exhibited significant genetic differentiation from all other populations including those collected as near as 22 km. Conclusion The significant genetic differentiation of Gerif West P. papatasi population from other Sudanese populations may have important implication for the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Khartoum State and needs to be further investigated. Primarily, it could be linked to the unique location of Gerif West which is confined by the River Nile and its tributaries that may act as a natural barrier for gene flow between this site and the other rural sites. The observed high migration rates and lack of genetic differentiation among the other P. papatasi populations could be attributed to the continuous human and cattle movement between these localities. PMID:23146340

2012-01-01

171

Late Quaternary tectonics in the inner Northern Apennines (Siena Basin, southern Tuscany, Italy) and their seismotectonic implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defining the most recent Quaternary tectonics represents a challenging task for neotectonic, palaeoseismological and seismotectonic studies. This paper focuses on an integrated approach to reconstructing the latest Quaternary deformation affecting the northern part of the Siena Basin (inner Northern Apennines, i.e., southern Tuscany, Italy) near the town of Siena, and to discuss the seismological implications. Field work and structural and stratigraphic analyses, coupled with the interpretation of reflection seismic lines, have been combined to define the geometry, kinematics and age of mesoscopic to map-scale faults which have affected the mainly Quaternary continental and Pliocene marine deposits. The resulting dataset describes a tectonic setting characterized by coeval SW- and NW-trending transtensional and normal faults, respectively, dissecting alluvial sediments younger than 23.9 ± 0.23 ka. Seismic interpretation sheds light on the geometrical setting of the faults at deeper levels, down to 1-2 km, and provides support for the presence of a wide brittle shear zone defined by conjugated fault segments, locally giving rise to an asymmetrical negative flower-like structure. Faults and their damage zones have controlled (and still control) the discharge of gas vents (mainly CO2 and H2S) and hydrothermal circulation (which deposits travertine) since at least 23.216 ± 0.124 ka. The resulting complete data set provides support for our description of the Neogene-Quaternary tectonics which were active until the late Quaternary, providing additional information about the seismotectonic framework of an area characterized by low seismicity and generally low-magnitude earthquakes (M < 4), but having experienced significant seismic events over the last few centuries.

Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Martini, Ivan; Picozzi, Matteo; Sandrelli, Fabio

2014-05-01

172

Kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotope variation on a latitudinal transect in southern Australia: implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.  

PubMed

Tooth enamel apatite carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of modern kangaroos (Macropus spp.) collected on a 900-km latitudinal transect spanning a C(3)-C(4) transition zone were analysed to create a reference set for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in southern Australia. The carbon isotope composition of enamel carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C(3) and C(4) vegetation, and its oxygen isotope composition reflects that of ingested water. Tooth enamel forms incrementally, recording dietary and environmental changes during mineralisation. Analyses show only weak correlations between climate records and latitudinal changes in ?(13)C and ?(18)O. No species achieved the ?(13)C values (~-1.0 ‰) expected for 100 % C(4) grazing diets; kangaroos at low latitudes that are classified as feeding primarily on C(4) grasses (grazers) have ?(13)C of up to -3.5 ‰. In these areas, ?(13)C below -12 ‰ suggests a 100 % C(3) grass and/or leafy plant (browse) diet while animals from higher latitude have lower ?(13)C. Animals from semi-arid areas have ?(18)O of 34-40 ‰, while grazers from temperate areas have lower values (~28-30 ‰). Three patterns with implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction emerge: (1) all species in semi-arid areas regularly browse to supplement limited grass resources; (2) all species within an environmental zone have similar carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, meaning data from different kangaroo species can be pooled for palaeoenvironmental investigations; (3) relatively small regional environmental differences can be distinguished when ?(13)C and ?(18)O data are used together. These data demonstrate that diet-isotope and climate-isotope relationships should be evaluated in modern ecosystems before application to the regional fossil record. PMID:22915330

Brookman, Tom H; Ambrose, Stanley H

2013-02-01

173

Paleomagnetism and biostratigraphy of sediments from Southern Ocean ODP Site 744 (southern Kerguelen Plateau): Implications for early-to-middle Miocene climate in Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New paleomagnetic results from lower-to-middle Miocene samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Holes 744A and 744B, cored during ODP Leg 119 on the southern Kerguelen Plateau (Indian Ocean sector; Southern Ocean), provide a chronostratigraphic framework for an existing and under-utilized paleoclimate archive during a key period of Antarctic climate and ice sheet evolution. Site 744 is strategically positioned for high-latitude paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic studies because it lies within the southern domain of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and in proximity to the large and active Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf drainage system of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Magnetostratigraphic results were reported previously for this site, but technical difficulties and limited sampling prevented confident correlation of the magnetic polarity record with the geomagnetic polarity timescale. Our results, which are constrained by new semi-quantitative analyses of diatom assemblages and radiolarian first and last appearance events that are evaluated within a regional Southern Ocean biostratigraphic dataset through Constrained Optimization (CONOP) model runs, permit significant refinement of previous age models for the lower-to-middle Miocene sequence recovered at Site 744 (spanning the interval from ~ 21 to 13.7 Ma). An extended record of sediment accumulation, with average sedimentation rates of ~ 0.7-0.9 cm/kyr, is interrupted by a series of hiatuses in the middle Miocene. These disruptions in sediment supply, or erosional events, could mark a local response of north-south fluctuations in the location and/or strength of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current during transient glacial events within the Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO; ~ 17 to 14.45 Ma). With the enhanced age control provided by this study, combined with a refined chronostratigraphy for the underlying upper Eocene to Oligocene strata, Site 744 becomes a good candidate for future high-resolution stable isotope and microfossil paleoecological work, which will further elucidate the late Paleogene and early Neogene paleoenvironmental history of the Southern Ocean.

Florindo, Fabio; Farmer, Ryan K.; Harwood, David M.; Cody, Rosemary D.; Levy, Richard; Bohaty, Steven M.; Carter, Lionel; Winkler, Aldo

2013-11-01

174

A seroepidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever among Cattle in North Kordufan State, Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), caused by CCHF virus (CCFV), may cause a fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans with mortality rate of approximately 30%. However, in animals the disease is typically asymptomatic and no clinical hemorrhagic infections appears to be associated with CCHFV. Recently, CCHF activity has been detected in western and southern Kordufan region, Sudan. Currently, no information is available in regard to previous exposure of livestock to CCHFV infection in the region. Aims In the present study, a seroepidemiological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of CCHF and to identify the potential risk factors associated with the disease among cattle in North Kordufan State, Sudan. Methods In this survey, 299 blood samples were collected randomly from six localities in North Kordufan State and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Results The result of the study indicated that the prevalence rate of CCHF was relatively high among cattle, where serological evidence of the infection was observed in 21 (7.0%) of 299 animals. Older cattle were eight times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=8.0824, CI=1.174-66.317, p-value=0.034). Cross breeds were at 37 time higher at risk compared to endogenous breed (OR=37.06, CI=1.455-944, p-value=0.029). Highly tick-infested cattle are 6 times higher at risk for CCHF when compared to tick-free animals (OR=6.532, CI=1.042-10.852, p-value=0.030). Conclusion It is recommended that surveillance of CCHF should be extended to include other ruminant animals and to study the distribution of ticks in the region to better predict and respond to CCHF outbreak in the State of North Kordufan, Sudan. PMID:23738961

2013-01-01

175

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. 538.536 Section 538.536...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan are authorized, including...

2012-07-01

176

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. 538.536 Section 538.536...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan are authorized, including...

2014-07-01

177

31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. 538.536 Section 538.536...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they...petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan are authorized, including...

2013-07-01

178

Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Yambio, Sudan, 2004.  

PubMed

Between the months of April and June 2004, an Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak was reported in Yambio county, southern Sudan. Blood samples were collected from a total of 36 patients with suspected EHF and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G and M antibodies, antigen ELISA, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a segment of the Ebolavirus (EBOV) polymerase gene. A total of 13 patients were confirmed to be infected with EBOV. In addition, 4 fatal cases were classified as probable cases, because no samples were collected. Another 12 patients were confirmed to have acute measles infection during the same period that EBOV was circulating. Genetic analysis of PCR-positive samples indicated that the virus was similar to but distinct from Sudan EBOV Maleo 1979. In response, case management, social mobilization, and follow-up of contacts were set up as means of surveillance. The outbreak was declared to be over on 7 August 2004. PMID:17940949

Onyango, Clayton O; Opoka, Martin L; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Formenty, Pierre; Ahmed, Abdullahi; Tukei, Peter M; Sang, Rosemary C; Ofula, Victor O; Konongoi, Samson L; Coldren, Rodney L; Grein, Thomas; Legros, Dominique; Bell, Mike; De Cock, Kevin M; Bellini, William J; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

2007-11-15

179

Superficial Cancer in the Sudan. A Study of 1225 Primary Malignant Superficial Tumours  

PubMed Central

Superficial cancer in the Sudan accounted for 17·2% of all malignant tumours examined histologically during the period 1962-72 inclusive. Of the 4 pathological types studied, squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest (63·3% of all superficial cancers) followed by malignant melanoma (18·8%) and basal cell carcinoma (14·9%) whilst Kaposi's sarcoma formed only 3% of the total. Generally, twice as many cases occurred in males as in females, with the exception of Kaposi's sarcoma where all the patients were males. Although a relatively high proportion of cases occurred in the young age groups, the age-specific incidence was noted to increase with age. Similarities and differences in the anatomical site of tumours compared with European and African series were noted. Certain differences emerged in the geographical distribution of these tumours in the Northern and Southern regions of the Sudan—regions which differ both ethnologically and geographically—thus suggesting possible roles played by racial and environmental factors in this respect. PMID:4447778

Malik, M. O. A.; Hidaytalla, A.; Daoud, E. H.; el Hassan, A. M.

1974-01-01

180

Proterozoic deformation of the East Saharan Craton in Southeast Libya, South Egypt and North Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basement areas in Southeast Libya, South Egypt and North Sudan, west of the Nile, between Gebel Uweinat and the Bayuda Desert, are part of an approximately 1000-km-wide, complexly folded, polymetamorphic zone with a regional N-NNE-NE-ENE trend of foliation and fold axis. Since this belt extends southwestward into the area of Zalingei in the southern Darfur block (West Sudan), it is named the Northern Zalingei fold zone. Sr and Nd isotopic studies suggest that this zone is older than Pan-African and further indicate that, apart from Archean rocks in the Gebel Uweinat area, this belt is of Early-Middle Proterozoic age. An Early-Middle Proterozoic three-stage deformational and anatectic event established the present-day fold and fault geometry in the western parts of this zone in the Gebel Uweinat—Gebel Kamil area. The Pan-African tectono-thermal episode was most effective in the eastern part of the belt, near the boundary with the Nubian Shield volcano-sedimentary-ophiolite-granitoid assemblages. It caused migmatization, granite emplacement, mylonitization and large-scale wrench faulting which was related to Late Proterozoic accretionary and collisional events of the Arabian-Nubian Shield with the margin of the East Saharan Craton.

Schandelmeier, H.; Richter, A.; Harms, U.

1987-09-01

181

Determining the effect of climate change and development on water resources management in the Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of development and the uncertainty of climate change in East Africa provide a myriad of challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. The construction of the Grand renaissance dam (GRD), as well as the unknown trajectory of precipitation trends in the Ethiopian highlands may greatly affect the countries that rely on the Nile. Sudan's huge irrigation potential and dams that feed multiple current irrigation schemes as well as its location within the basin means that Sudan's water management decisions may reverberate and have social, economic and political implications within the east African sub-region. Here, we apply a suite of state-of-the-art hydrology and climate analysis tools to evaluate the sensitivity of Sudan's optimal hydropower and irrigation development pathways to hydrologic variability and climate change. Present day hydrologic conditions are derived from a gridded implementation of the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) that includes representation of typical irrigation practices in the region. Noah is implemented using the NASA Land Information System (LIS), and draws forcing data from a combination of reanalysis and satellite meteorological products. Additional satellite inputs are used to provide a constraint on Noah evapotranspiration estimates and to acquire parameters such as crop water requirements that are crucial in determining yield and agricultural production. Future climate conditions are projected using statistical downscaling techniques trained to historical meteorological records and projected forward using inputs from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulation database. These climatic and hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to drive an optimization model developed within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). By using output and results from climate, hydrologic and optimization models this research aims to show how these models can be integrated to aid decision makers in the quest to better manage their water resources.

Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

2013-12-01

182

Development of sedimentary cycles on the east Sahara craton since Silurian time (northwest Sudan/southwest Egypt)  

SciTech Connect

The sedimentary succession of southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan, formerly called the Nubia(n) Sandstone, has been subdivided into a number of formations. The predominantly fluvial sediments which characterize Silurian to Upper Cretaceous strata of this region were repeatedly interrupted by marine transgressions that rapidly progressed toward the south since Ordovician time. Thin, shallow marine sequences of different ages can be traced for more than 1,000 km within the studied area. The development of the sedimentary cycles will be pointed out by surface and subsurface data along a cross section from the southern Dakhla basin in the north to the Misaha trough and Abyad basin in the south.

Wycisk, P. (Technical Univ., Berlin (West Germany))

1988-08-01

183

Paleoecological and taphonomic implications of insect-damaged Pleistocene vertebrate remains from Rancho La Brea, southern California  

E-print Network

The La Brea Tar Pits, the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into southern California’s past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects ...

Holden, Anna R.; Harris, John H.; Timm, Robert M.

2013-07-03

184

Habitat use and spatial behaviour of the endangered Southern river otter ( Lontra provocax) in riparian habitats of Chile: Conservation implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial behaviour of 10 Southern river otters Lontra provocax was analysed using radio-tracking data collected in the Queule River, Southern Chile. The estimated otter density was 0.25 individuals km?1. Females with cubs and adult otters displaying mating behaviours were the only social group recorded. Studied otters were solitary and observed behaviour patterns suggest an intrasexual territoriality. No home range

Maximiliano A. Sepúlveda; José Luis Bartheld; René Monsalve; Vicente Gómez; Gonzalo Medina-Vogel

2007-01-01

185

78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to South Sudan, and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

2013-03-13

186

77 FR 3369 - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012 Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under...defense articles and defense services to the Republic of South Sudan will strengthen the security of the United States...

2012-01-24

187

The Secession of South Sudan: A Case Study in African Sovereignty and International Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on the recent secession of South Sudan. The primary research questions include an examination of whether or not South Sudan’s 2011 secession signaled a break from the O.A.U.’s traditional doctrines of African stability and noninterference. Additionally, this thesis asks: why did the United States and the international community at large confer recognition to South Sudan immediately upon

Christian Knox

2012-01-01

188

Paleogeographic evolution and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Sudd area during the Early-Mid Holocene, Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty-five diatom species were identified from five localities within the top Umm Ruwaba Formation (namely Bara A, Bara B, Binaya, Sayal and Kosti). The recovered diatoms have been used here to confirm the existence of the so-called Lake Sudd, which once covered parts of central and southern Sudan, and lasted from 5.253 to 11.300 Ka B.P. The diatom assemblage indicates deposition in fresh to slightly saline water. The distribution of large-sized diatoms, noted within the study material, is attributed to the presence of spots characterized by high nutrition which correspond to the beach of the ancient lake. Integration of the paleontological results and remote sensing data permits the delineation of the lake boundary.

El Shafie, Abdel Gadir A. I.; Elsayed Zeinelabdein, Khalid A.; Eisawi, Ali A. M.

2011-04-01

189

An outbreak of suspected tick paralysis in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) in the Sudan.  

PubMed

An outbreak of suspected tick paralysis occurred in one-humped camels in Southern Darfur, the Sudan, between latitudes 11-12 degrees N and longitudes 24-25 degrees E, when the camels were herded in tick infested areas. It involved 251 camels of different ages, in ten herds causing 34.3% mortality. The symptoms were incoordination of movements, unsteady gait and recumbency followed by death or recovery. Hyalomma adults and/or Rhipicephalus nymphs and adults were incriminated to be the cause of the disease. Transient paralysis in a guinea pig was produced after experimental feeding of ticks. Removal of the camels from the tick infested areas and treatment against the ectoparasites with Lindane at the concentration of 0.23% contributed to controlling the disease. PMID:2132792

Musa, M T; Osman, O M

1990-01-01

190

3 CFR - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section 2005 of...in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section 2005 of...in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan are without risk of criminal...

2013-01-01

191

Impacts of Tribal and Economic Factors on Civil Conflict between North and South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crisis of Greater Darfur Region of Sudan extends to other regions as the South Sudan prepares for secession next July 2011. In the past eight years Sudan's crisis in Darfur was amplified by global news media all over the world. Civil conflict erupted, developed into armed rebellions and open uncontrolled war that enveloped the whole region. The current inflamed

Issam A. W. Mohamed

2010-01-01

192

Energy Supply Potentials and Needs, and the Environmental Impact of their Use in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudan is an agricultural country with fertile land, plenty of water resources, livestock, forestry resources, and agricultural residues. An overview of the energy situation in Sudan is introduced with reference to the end uses and regional distribution. Energy sources are divided into two main types; conventional energy (biomass, petroleum products, and electricity); and non-conventional energy (solar, wind, hydro-electricity, etc.). Sudan

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

2002-01-01

193

An outbreak of hepatitis E and high maternal mortality at Port Sudan, Eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

During 4 months (November 2010–March 2011) of an outbreak of hepatitis E virus (HEV), 39 pregnant women presented at Port Sudan Hospital, Sudan, with various symptoms of viral hepatitis. The diagnosis of viral hepatitis was confirmed by serology using ELISA anti-HEV IgG and IgM. The mean (SD) maternal age and gestational age were 24.0 (4.2) years and 33.6 (3.7) weeks, respectively. Eight (20.5%) women were primigravidae. There were 11 (28.2%) maternal deaths, 14 (36.0%) intrauterine fetal deaths, and eight (20.5%) cases of postpartum haemorrhage. There were nine (23.0%) cases of preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) deliveries. Fulminant hepatitis with hepatic encephalopathy was the most common cause of death among these patients. Nine of these women died before delivery and the other two died immediately following the delivery due to severe haemorrhage. There were no significant differences in clinical and biochemical data between the women who died (11) and those who survived. PMID:23683332

Rayis, Duria A; Jumaa, Ammar M; Gasim, Gasim I; Karsany, Mubark S; Adam, Ishag

2013-01-01

194

31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they...Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan are authorized. (b)...

2012-07-01

195

31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they...Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan are authorized. (b)...

2013-07-01

196

31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.  

...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they...Sudan to or from the Republic of South Sudan are authorized. (b)...

2014-07-01

197

Late Holocene Marsh Expansion in Southern San Francisco Bay, California: Implications for the Use of Historic Baselines as Restoration Targets  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, the largest tidal wetlands restoration project on the US Pacific Coast is being planned and implemented in southern San Francisco Bay; however, knowledge of baseline conditions of salt marsh extent in the region prior to European settlement is limited. Here, analysis o...

198

Long-term and recent changes in southern Lake Michigan water quality with implications for present trophic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Lake Michigan has changed in response to alterations in nutrients and invasive species. NOAA and EPA monitoring results are used to examine those changes. NOAA provides detailed seasonal resolution, but limited spatial coverage, whereas the EPA provides more spatial coverage, but limited seasonal resolution. We compare changes in total phosphorus (TP), silica, nitrate plus nitrite, and chlorophyll concentrations from

Julia L. Mida; Donald Scavia; Gary L. Fahnenstiel; Steven A. Pothoven; Henry A. Vanderploeg; David M. Dolan

2010-01-01

199

Variations in Physicochemical Properties and Productivity Implications for Four Soils in the Derived Savannah of Southern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Studies were carried out on four pre-classified soils in the Derived Savannah of Southern Nigeria to assess their productivity based on their physicochemical attributes. Inherent soil constraints which could affect their productivity were identified and consequently appropriate management practices were recommended to maximize their productive potential. For soils of Itagunmodi, Apomu and Iwo series liming was recommended to

M. A. Nwachokor; F. O. Uzu; W. A. Molindo

200

Habitat Associations of Hypogeous Fungi in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the Endangered Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

gporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi (truffles) are the major food of northern flying squirrels (Gluucomys satinus). The two subspecies of northern flying squir- rels that occur in the southern Appalachians, G. s. colmatus and G. s. fuscus, are endangered species which are primarily found in the ecotone between high-elevation spruce-fir and northern hardwood forests. Our objective was to determine the

SUSAN C. LOEB; FRANK H. TAINTER; EFREN CÁZARES

2000-01-01

201

Complex Faulting in the Pacific-North America Transform Offshore Southern California And Implications on Plate Boundary Tectonics and Tsunamigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexity in the tectonic model for Pacific-North America transform motion in the offshore southern California region is demonstrated by earthquakes near San Clemente Island and Fortymile Bank. Observed focal mechanisms show movements opposite to those predicted by the plate tectonic theory for right-slip on NW- trending transform faults and observed in other parts of the California Continental Borderland. Also, there

M. R. Legg; A. Barberopoulou

2007-01-01

202

Paleoseismology along the 1980 surface rupture of the Irpinia fault - Implications for earthquake recurrence in the southern Apennines, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of trenching across the scarp of the Irpinia fault, 5 km from the epicenter of the 1980 earthquake, are described. The trenches provide data on earthquake recurrence intervals, slip per event, and slip rate on the Irpinia fault, a major normal fault in the Southern Apennines fault zone. Evidence was found of four paleoearthquakes that occurred in the

Daniela Pantosti; David P. Schwartz; Gianluca Valensise

1993-01-01

203

Crustal structure beneath southern Africa and its implications for the formation and evolution of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of Archean crust appears to involve processes unique to early earth history. Initial results from receiver function analysis of crustal structure beneath 81 broadband stations deployed across southern Africa reveal significant differences in the nature of the crust and the crust-mantle boundary between Archean and post-Archean geologic terranes. With the notable exception of the collisional Limpopo belt, where

T. K. Nguuri; J. Gore; D. E. James; S. J. Webb; C. Wright; T. G. Zengeni; O. Gwavava; J. A. Snoke

2001-01-01

204

Nearshore, temperate, carbonate depositional systems (lower Tortonian, Agua Amarga Basin, southern Spain): implications for carbonate sequence stratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bryozoan-rich lower Tortonian carbonates of the Agua Amarga Basin in southern Spain (Province of Almeria) provide an example of sediments formed in a nearshore, non-tropical depositional setting. Based on data derived from logging of sections and from field mapping, these lower Tortonian carbonates form a depositional sequence, which is subdivided into several depositional systems. A lowstand systems tract, which

C. Betzler; T. C. Brachert; J.-C. Braga; J. M. Martin

1997-01-01

205

Cutaneous emergence of Eustrongylides in two persons from South Sudan.  

PubMed

Two large, living worms were collected as they emerged from the lower limb of each of two persons in South Sudan. The worms were observed by staff of the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program during surveillance activities in communities at-risk for cases of Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis). The worms measured 7 and 8 cm in length and were identified as fourth-stage larvae of Eustrongylides. This is the first report of such worms emerging from the skin; all five previous reports of human infection involved surgical removal of worms from the peritoneal cavity. PMID:24379241

Eberhard, Mark L; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

2014-02-01

206

Base- and precious-metal deposits in the Basin and Range of Southern California and Southern Nevada—Metallogenic implications of lead isotope studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern California and southern Nevada contain abundant lead-zinc deposits with strikingly different characteristics. On the west, the Darwin Terrane contains abundant Jurassic and Cretaceous intrusions surrounded by lead-zinc skarn and replacement deposits rich in pyrite and manganese minerals. The Tecopa Terrane is east of the Darwin Terrane and contains some lead deposits that are hosted by the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite. These lead deposits have no consistent relation to igneous rocks; they contain mainly galena, and are devoid of pyrite and manganese minerals. Other skarn and vein deposits in the Ivanpah and Tecopa districts are more closely associated with igneous rocks. Mississippi Valley type lead-zinc deposits are present still farther to the east in the Goodsprings Terrane in Nevada. These deposits are hosted by breccias formed below the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity and are unrelated to igneous rocks. Deposits in the Darwin Terrane have lead isotopic signatures that lie along a mantle-sediment mixing line indicating that they formed in a continental arc setting analogous to that for the plutons in the Sierra Nevada batholith [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Encroachment of this continental arc on the North American continent in the eastern part of the Darwin Terrane resulted in a lead isotopic signature that is like that of the strongly contaminated plutons [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Many deposits from the Inyo Mountains on east side of the Owens Valley have lead isotopic signatures that reflect this encroachment. To the east in the Tecopa Terrane, encroachment of the continental arc on the Mojave crust resulted in partial melting of 1.7 Ga amphibolite and granulite facies rocks to produce the plutons and mineral deposits associated with plutons in this terrane. Lead from deposits in this terrane hosted in the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite and associated rocks have a lead isotope signature that reflects hydrothermal circulation of fluids in the Mojave supracrustal rocks. The boundary between the Darwin Terrane and the Tecopa Terrane lies just west of the Ash Valley-Panamint Range Fault and is bounded by the Towne Fault on the north and the Garlock Fault on the south. Lead isotopic data from the Goodsprings district in southwestern Nevada, east of the Tecopa Terrane, form a 1.45 Ga linear array that is indicative of Mississippi Valley type mineralization. Although we have no independent evidence of the timing of the tectonic events that formed these deposits, it is likely that all formed as a result of the Mesozoic collision of the Panthalassen crust with the North American continent.

Church, Stanley E.; Cox, Dennis P.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Tingley, Joseph V.; Vaughn, Robert B.

2005-12-01

207

Base- and precious-metal deposits in the Basin and Range of Southern California and Southern Nevada - Metallogenic implications of lead isotope studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southern California and southern Nevada contain abundant lead-zinc deposits with strikingly different characteristics. On the west, the Darwin Terrane contains abundant Jurassic and Cretaceous intrusions surrounded by lead-zinc skarn and replacement deposits rich in pyrite and manganese minerals. The Tecopa Terrane is east of the Darwin Terrane and contains some lead deposits that are hosted by the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite. These lead deposits have no consistent relation to igneous rocks; they contain mainly galena, and are devoid of pyrite and manganese minerals. Other skarn and vein deposits in the Ivanpah and Tecopa districts are more closely associated with igneous rocks. Mississippi Valley type lead-zinc deposits are present still farther to the east in the Goodsprings Terrane in Nevada. These deposits are hosted by breccias formed below the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity and are unrelated to igneous rocks. Deposits in the Darwin Terrane have lead isotopic signatures that lie along a mantle-sediment mixing line indicating that they formed in a continental arc setting analogous to that for the plutons in the Sierra Nevada batholith [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Encroachment of this continental arc on the North American continent in the eastern part of the Darwin Terrane resulted in a lead isotopic signature that is like that of the strongly contaminated plutons [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Many deposits from the Inyo Mountains on east side of the Owens Valley have lead isotopic signatures that reflect this encroachment. To the east in the Tecopa Terrane, encroachment of the continental arc on the Mojave crust resulted in partial melting of 1.7 Ga amphibolite and granulite facies rocks to produce the plutons and mineral deposits associated with plutons in this terrane. Lead from deposits in this terrane hosted in the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite and associated rocks have a lead isotope signature that reflects hydrothermal circulation of fluids in the Mojave supracrustal rocks. The boundary between the Darwin Terrane and the Tecopa Terrane lies just west of the Ash Valley-Panamint Range Fault and is bounded by the Towne Fault on the north and the Garlock Fault on the south. Lead isotopic data from the Goodsprings district in southwestern Nevada, east of the Tecopa Terrane, form a 1.45 Ga linear array that is indicative of Mississippi Valley type mineralization. Although we have no independent evidence of the timing of the tectonic events that formed these deposits, it is likely that all formed as a result of the Mesozoic collision of the Panthalassen crust with the North American continent. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Church, S.E.; Cox, D.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Tingley, J.V.; Vaughn, R.B.

2005-01-01

208

Female genital mutilation in Kenya and Sudan.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation is still practiced in 28 African countries despite international calls for its abolishment. A 1991 survey of 1365 14-year-old girls undertaken by a nongovernmental organization in Kenya revealed that 90% had suffered mutilation ranging from the least mutilating form, "sunna" to excision to infibulation. Most of the procedures had taken place when the girls were aged 10-14 years as part of a ritual where the same unsterile knife was used on several girls. Whereas 65% of respondents stated that they approved of female genital mutilation, a little more than a third would abolish the practice. In Sudan, a 1989-90 Demographic and Health Survey of 5860 ever married women aged 15-49 included a number of questions related to female genital mutilation. 89% of respondents were mutilated, and 82% of these had suffered infibulation. This prevalence rate showed a decrease from the 96% level recorded in 1977-78. Among younger women, the incidence of sunna is increasing. Most of these procedures were performed by medical workers such as trained midwives or traditional birth attendants. 79% of the respondents favored continuation of the procedure, but women with a secondary-level education and urban women showed strong opposition. Most women cite tradition as the reason for their approval, and almost half of the women who disapprove cite medical complications. This survey provided the necessary data to implement a policy of eradication of this harmful practice through increasing women's education and provoking open discussion about the procedure. PMID:12319535

1995-01-01

209

Source parameters of small earthquakes recorded at 2.5 km depth, Cajon Pass, southern California - Implications for earthquake scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.5-km deep triaxial seismometer at Cajon Pass in southern California has recorded several hundred earthquakes less than M(L)4.0 occurring within the San Andreas fault system. At 2.5-km seismic background noise is below amplifier sensitivity, and the 2-250 Hz spectral range of recorded seismic motion is wider and higher than that of most natural event catalogs. Compared with downhole recorded

Rachel Abercrombie; Peter Leary

1993-01-01

210

Calc-silicate assemblages from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: implications for pressure-temperature-fluid histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports several new localities of wollastonite- and scapolite-bearing calc-silicate assemblages from the granulite-facies supracrustal Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India. Based on mineralogy, these calc-silicate rocks are classified into four types: Type I, lacking wollastonite and grossular; Type II, wollastonite-bearing but grossular-absent; Type III, wollastonite- and grossular-bearing; and Type IV, dolomitic marbles. Detailed petrographic studies reveal a variety

M. Satish-Kumar; M. Santosh; S. L. Harley; M. Yoshida

1996-01-01

211

Source parameters of small earthquakes recorded at 2.5 km depth, Cajon Pass, southern California: Implications for earthquake scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.5 km deep triaxial seismometer at Cajon Pass in southern California has recorded several hundred earthquakes

Rachel Abercrombie; Peter Leary

1993-01-01

212

Ductile deformation within upper Himalaya crystalline sequence and geological implications, in1 Nyalam area, Southern Tibet2  

E-print Network

Nyalam area, Southern Tibet2 Liu Xiao-bing1-3 , Liu Xiaohan1 , P.H. Leloup2 , G. Mahéo2 , J.-L. Paquette des sciences de la terre de Lyon, Terre, Planètes, Environement, CNRS UMR 5276,7 Université Lyon1 France11 12 Abstract13 The South Tibet detachment system (STDS) is a flat normal fault that separates

213

Circulation and seasonal evolution of polar waters south of Australia: implications for iron fertilization of the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Ocean Iron Release Experiment (SOIREE) was carried out in late summer (February 1999) south of Australia (61°S, 140°E). This region of the southern Antarctic Zone (AZ-S), between the southern branch of the Polar Front (PF) and the southern front of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SAACF), is characterized by weak currents and is remote from the influence of sea-ice or coastal waters. The SOIREE site exhibits high nutrient concentrations year-round (phosphate, nitrate and silicate remain above 10 ?M), low chlorophyll accumulations (<0.5 ?g/l), and moderate summer mixed-layer depths (50-70 m). The SOIREE iron fertilization led to a large increase in algal biomass, particularly large diatoms, and persisted into March well after normal seasonal production is complete. No increase in carbon export occurred during the SOIREE 13-day observation period. The seasonal cycles of mixed-layer development and low biomass accumulation at the SOIREE site are representative of most of the region between the PF and the SACCF, i.e. between ˜54 and ˜62°S, and to a lesser extent the Polar Frontal Zone. However, north of ˜59°S surface waters are depleted in silica by mid-summer (as occurs year-round north of the Subantarctic Front). A different response to iron fertilization is likely under these conditions, possibly the promotion of lightly silicified diatoms and non-siliceous organisms, whose ability to export carbon is uncertain. The SOIREE fertilized waters are likely to have remained at the surface in the AZ-S throughout the winter. In general, carbon sequestration by subduction of iron-enhanced biomass accumulations is unlikely south of the SAF, except in very limited regions. Moreover, intermediate water masses formed in the Southern Ocean sink with little pre-formed silicate, so that the "silica pump" is already working at close to maximal capacity. Therefore, in the absence of significant changes in community structure or algal physiology, which increase the ratio of carbon export to silicate export, increased iron supply is unlikely to increase the magnitude of carbon sequestration.

Trull, Tom; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Hadfield, Mark; Abraham, Edward R.

214

Conflict and the conceptions of identities in the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

My native Sudan has been ravaged by conflicts over identity and socioeconomic marginalization since independence from Britain in 1956. Elitist debates confined the country’s diverse identities to two dichotomous categorizations: Arabism, associated with Islam and Arabic descent and culture, and Africanism, linked to Christianity, indigenous beliefs and African culture. These polarized views, along with the dominant ideology of the imposition

Amal Ibrahim Madibbo

2012-01-01

215

Reemerging Sudan Ebola virus disease in Uganda, 2011.  

PubMed

Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

Shoemaker, Trevor; MacNeil, Adam; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

2012-09-01

216

Do UN troops secure crops? Evidence from South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we analyse the relationship between the deployment of United Nations Blue Helmets and cereal production, using the 78 South Sudan counties over 2007-2011 as a test ground. We find a negative effect of the UN troops\\/area ratio, but their effect is positive in areas that are badly damaged by conflict.

Raul Caruso; Prabin B. Khadka; Roberto Ricciuti

2012-01-01

217

The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

Breidlid, Anders

2013-01-01

218

Security promotion seen from below: experiences from South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report is based on 8 weeks of field research in South Sudan between March and April 2011, and looks at the linkages between security interventions such as DDR, SALW control and SSR in relation to community security. It opens with an analysis of what security constitutes and assesses what various actors’ capacities and limitations for security promotion at the

R. C. Willems; H. Rouw

2011-01-01

219

Sudanese Images of the Other: Education and Conflict in Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education can contribute to peace and reconciliation as well as to conflict and strife. The complex, often contradictory role of education in conflict is explored in this article in relation to Sudan. The focus of the article is the North-South conflict, bearing in mind that other, "minor" wars and military clashes in both the North and South have…

Breidlid, Anders

2010-01-01

220

Secession and South Sudan: an African precedent for the future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secession of South Sudan marks a significant milestone in the political evolution of the African continent. The new state has no separate colonial heritage, and hence no recognised boundary, and has been formed as the result of a struggle for independence waged against the government of an independent state. International law on the subject of secession has been highly

Anthony J. Christopher

2011-01-01

221

Child Prodigy in Astronomy: A Biographical Study from the Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many studies have been conducted in the West regarding child prodigies, no such studies have taken place in indigenous Arab cultures--particularly not in Sudan. The present study attempts to bridge the existing gap in this area by focusing on a Sudanese child prodigy with extraordinary inclination towards astronomy. It is a qualitative…

Khaleefa, Omar

2009-01-01

222

When Sharia Governs: The Impasse of Religious Relations in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid political rise of the National Islamic Front is examined within a broader and more complex context, particularly as it pertains to relations between Muslims and non-Muslims in Sudan during the period from 1989 to the present. The regime's decision to change the nature of the South–North conflict into a jihad confrontation was determinative for the future of Islam

Mohamed Mahmoud

2007-01-01

223

Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011  

PubMed Central

Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Stroher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

2012-01-01

224

Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis in Omdurman, Sudan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One-hundred nineteen patients (cases) at least 13 years of age with acute hepatitis were studied to determine the viral etiology of acute hepatitis in Omdurman, Sudan. Ninety-eight control subjects controls were also evaluated to determine the risk factor...

M. A. Al-Arabi, K. C. Hyams, M. Mahgoub, A. A. Al-Hag, N. El-Ghorab

1987-01-01

225

Nosocomial Outbreak of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan  

PubMed Central

To confirm the presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Sudan, we tested serum of 8 patients with hemorrhagic fever in a rural hospital in 2008. Reverse transcription–PCR identified Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Its identification as group III lineage indicated links to virus strains from South Africa, Mauritania, and Nigeria. PMID:20409377

Aradaib, Imadeldin E.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Mustafa, Mubarak E.; Khristova, Marina L.; Saeed, Nageeb S.; Elageb, Rehab M.

2010-01-01

226

Diabetic Heel Ulcer in the Sudan: Determinants of Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heel ulceration, on average, costs 1.5 times more than metatarsal ulceration. The aim of this study was to analyze the determinant factors of healing in diabetic patients with heel ulcers and the late outcomes at Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Centre Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. Data were collected prospectively for 96 of 100 diabetic patients presenting with heel ulcers at the Jabir Abu

Haseeb E. Bakheit; Mohamed F. Mohamed; Seif ElDin I. Mahadi; Abu Bakr H. Widatalla; Mohamed A. Shawer; Amar H. Khamis; Mohamed E. Ahmed

227

Clinical zinc and copper deficiencies in cattle of western Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical cases of both Zn and Cu deficiencies are reported in a cattle farm in Kordofan Region of the Sudan after drought. The animals showed general weakness, stunted growth, infertility, parakeratosis and achromotrichia. There was macrocytic hypochromic anaemia and low Cu and Zn concentrations in sera. The condition was more prevalent in zebu-Friesian crosses than the local breeds. Drought and

H. Abu Damir; M. E. S. Barri; S. M. Hassan; M. H. Tageldin; A. A. Wahbi; O. F. Idris

1988-01-01

228

A case of Cornelia de Lange syndrome from Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Brachmann de Lange syndrome (BDLS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, psychomotor delay, behavioral problems, and malformations of the upper extremities. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present for the first time a case of BDLS from Sudan, a 7-month-old female infant, who was referred as a case of malnutrition.

Mona Ellaithi; David Gisselsson; Therese Nilsson; Atif Elagib; Imad Fadl-Elmula; Mashair Abdelgadir

2007-01-01

229

Arabic in the Sudan: Current Problems and Future Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using as a framework Ferguson's diglossia model with its division into a high and a low variety of the language used, the linguistic situation in the Sudan in described as a continuum. At one end is found the very formal classical Arabic, used for special occasions. At the other end is a casual form which dominates meetings and social gatherings…

Hurreiz, Sayyid Hamid

1975-01-01

230

The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.  

PubMed

Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

Rogers, Alex D; Tyler, Paul A; Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jon T; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D; Pearce, David A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; German, Christopher R; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Alker, Belinda J; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J J; Graham, Alastair G C; Green, Darryl R H; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D K; Roterman, Christopher N; Sweeting, Christopher J; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

2012-01-01

231

The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography  

PubMed Central

Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

2012-01-01

232

Paleomagnetism of an east-west transect across the Cascade arc in southern Washington: Implications for regional tectonism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleomagnetic data from a transect across the Cascade arc in southern Washington were collected to test models of vertical axis rotations for this part of the Pacific Northwest and to provide information on the tectonic history of the St. Helens seismic zone. The 75 site-mean directions are divided into three groups based on isotopic, fission track, and stratigraphic ages. Group 1 consists of samples from rocks deposited between 39 and 30 Ma and shows a mean clockwise vertical axis rotation of 34?? ?? 13??, group 2 consists of samples from rocks deposited be-tween 30 and 24 Ma and shows a mean clockwise rotation of 17?? ?? 11??, and group 3 consists of samples from rocks between 24 and 16 Ma and shows a mean clockwise rotation of 20?? ?? 12??. Although these three values of rotation are statistically indistinguishable at the 95% confidence level, we interpret them in combination with other data to indicate differential rotation across the St. Helens seismic zone (SHZ). The available paleomagnetic data for Eocene-Oligocene rocks west of the seismic zone show clockwise vertical axis rotations of 30?? ?? 8?? and 35?? ?? 9?? consistent with the value for group 1. The rotational values for groups 2 and 3 and the intrusive suite of Kidd Creek (13 Ma), despite their different ages, have similar values east of the SHZ. Comparing these groups of data east and west of the seismic zone indicates a differential rotation of 10?? ?? 3?? across it. In addition, the rates of rotation in southern Washington are similar to those for rocks in the western Cascades of Oregon and indicate that rotational deformation of Miocene age extends northward into southern Washington and eastward into the axis of the arc.

Hagstrum, J.T.; Swanson, D.A.; Evarts, R.C.

1999-01-01

233

Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics of southern African peridotite xenoliths - Implications for the chemical evolution of subcontinental mantle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isotope analyses of Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb elements were caried out on twelve peridotite xenoliths from the Jagersfontein, Letseng-la-terae, Thaba Patsoa, Mothae, and Premier kimberlites of southern Africa, to investigate the timing and the nature of melt extraction from the continental lithosphere and its relation to the continent formation and stabilization. The distinct Os and Pb isotopic characteristics found in these samples suggested that both the low- and the high-temperature peridotites reside in an ancient stable lithospheric 'keel' to the craton that has been isolated from chemical exchange with the sublithospheric mantle for time periods in excess of 2 Ga.

Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R. W.; Shirey, S. B.; Boyd, F. R.

1989-01-01

234

Thrust faults of southern Diamond Mountains, central Nevada: Implications for hydrocarbons in Diamond Valley and at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Overmature Mississippian hydrocarbon source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains have been interpreted to be a klippe overlying less mature source rocks and represented as an analogy to similar conditions near Yucca Mountain (Chamberlain, 1991). Geologic evidence indicates an alternative interpretation. Paleogeologic mapping indicates the presence of a thrust fault, referred to here as the Moritz Nager Thrust Fault, with Devonian rocks emplaced over Permian to Mississippian strata folded into an upright to overturned syncline, and that the overmature rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in the footwall of this thrust. The upper plate has been eroded from most of the Diamond Mountains but remnants are present at the head of Moritz Nager Canyon and at Sentinel Mountain. Devonian rocks of the upper plate comprised the earliest landslide megabreccia. Later, megabreccias of Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks of the overturned syncline of the lower plate were deposited. By this interpretation the maturity of lower-plate source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains, which have been increased by tectonic burial, is not indicative of conditions in Diamond Valley, adjacent to the west, where upper-plate source rocks might be present in generating conditions. The interpretation that overmature source rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in a lower plate rather than in a klippe means that this area is an inappropriate model for the Eleana Range near Yucca Mountain.

French, D.E.

1993-04-01

235

Middle Permian brachiopods from the Tumenling Formation in the Wuchang area, southern Heilongjiang, NE China, and their palaeobiogeographical implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes nine brachiopod species in eight genera from the Tumenling Formation in the Wuchang area, southern Heilongjiang, northeast China. The Tumenling fauna is constrained to a Wordian-Capitanian (Guadalupian, Middle Permian) age, based on the correlation of the faunas, and previously published data from the same horizons in the same area. This Middle Permian brachiopod fauna is characterized by an admixture of elements of Boreal affinity ( Kochiproductus sp., Yakovlevia sp., Stenoscisma margaritovi, Gypospirifer volatilis, Spiriferella keilhavii, Spiriferella lita and Alispiriferella neimongolensis), with Palaeoequatorial forms ( Spinomarginifera sp., Vediproductus sp., and Leptodus nobilis). The Wuchang fauna, as a whole, is comparable to several contemporaneous faunas described from Inner Mongolia in northern China, Jilin in Northeast China, South Primorye in eastern Russia, and the Hida Gaien Belt of Japan, in terms of its index elements and its Boreal-Palaeoequatorial mixture. During the Middle Permian these areas (or blocks) were referred to the Inner Mongolia-Japan transition zone or the northern transition zone between the Palaeoequatorial and Boreal Realms. The overwhelming majority of the Boreal elements reveal that the Wuchang area was probably situated in the northern subzone of this transitional zone, which belongs to the southern margin of the Bureya Block. These east and northeast Asian blocks acted as migratory stepping stones bridging faunal migration between the Palaeoequatorial and Boreal realms during the Middle Permian.

Tazawa, J.; Chen, Z. Q.

2006-03-01

236

Late Pleistocene and Holocene uplift history of Cyprus: implications for active tectonics along the southern margin of the Anatolian microplate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nature of the southern margin of the Anatolian microplate during the Neogene is complex, controversial and fundamental in understanding active plate-margin tectonics and natural hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our investigation provides new insights into the Late Pleistocene uplift history of Cyprus and the Troodos Ophiolite. We provide isotopic (14C) and radiogenic (luminescence) dates of outcropping marine sediments in eastern Cyprus that identify periods of deposition during marine isotope stages (MIS) 3, 4, 5 and 6. Past sea-levels indicated by these deposits are c. 95±25 m higher in elevation than estimates of worldwide eustatic sea-level. An uplift rate of c. 1.8 mm/year and possibly as much as c. 4.1 mm/year in the past c. 26–40 ka is indicated. Holocene marine deposits also occur at elevations higher than those expected for past SL and suggest uplift rates of c. 1.2–2.1 mm/year. MIS-3 marine deposits that crop out in southern and western Cyprus indicate uniform island-wide uplift. We propose a model of tectonic wedging at a plate-bounding restraining bend as a mechanism for Late Pleistocene to Holocene uplift of Cyprus; uplift is accommodated by deformation and seismicity along the margins of the Troodos Ophiolite and re-activation of its low-angle, basal shear zone.

Harrison, R.W.; Tsiolakis, E.; Stone, B.D.; Lord, A.; McGeehin, J.P.; Mahan, S.A.; Chirico, P.

2013-01-01

237

A comparison of observed and modeled surface waves in southern Lake Michigan and the implications for models of sediment resuspension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface pressure sensors were used to make measurements of surface waves during 18 deployments in southern Lake Michigan between 1998 and 2000. Most of the observations were made during the unstratified period (November-May) in water depths between 10 and 55 m. The observations (as well as those obtained from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy 45007, which is located in the middle of the southern basin of the lake) were compared to the results obtained from the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)-Donelan wave model implemented on a 2-km grid. The results show that the wave model does a good job of calculating the wave heights, but consistently underestimates the wave periods. In over 80% of the cases the bottom stresses calculated from both the observations and the wave model results agree as to whether or not resuspension occurs, but over 70% of this agreement is for cases when resuspension does not occur; both stresses predict resuspension about 6% of the time. Since the bottom stresses calculated from the model results are usually lower than those calculated from the observations, resuspension estimates based on the wave model parameters are also lower than those calculated from the observed waves.

Hawley, Nathan; Lesht, Barry M.; Schwab, David J.

2004-10-01

238

Variability in transport pathways on and around the South Georgia shelf, Southern Ocean: Implications for recruitment and retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waters around South Georgia are among the most productive in the Southern Ocean, with zooplankton populations close to the island, in particular Antarctic krill, supporting vast colonies of higher predators. However, our understanding of the processes governing variability in the supply of these food resources is limited by the poor spatial and temporal resolution of available data. Here, we use a numerical modeling approach to examine the underlying physical processes driving the recruitment and retention of zooplankton to the South Georgia shelf. Variability in the magnitude and spatial distribution of recruitment was dominated by the proximity and orientation of the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current front to the shelf edge. Shelf retention was highest for source sites on the southwest shelf, with the main transport routes off the shelf to the north and northwest. Retention was lowest in the austral summer and winter; in summer increased glacial melt drives stronger off-shelf near-surface currents, while in winter, stronger winds lead to an increase in off-shelf transport. Of particular note was the prediction of a significant increase in retention for particles released throughout the shelf in April and July 2000. This period coincided with the development of pronounced anticlockwise shelf flows, associated with horizontal density gradients due to reduced wind mixing of shelf waters, and differences between shelf and oceanic waters, which significantly reduced off-shelf transport rates. Such findings are crucial for understanding the influence of variability in physical processes on the ecosystem at South Georgia.

Young, Emma F.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Banglawala, Neelofer; Murphy, Eugene J.

2014-01-01

239

Evidence for a Nascent Rift in South Sudan: Westward Extension of the East African Rift System?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint inversion of seismic and gravity data of eastern Africa reveals a low seismic wave velocity arm stretching from the southern Main Ethiopian rift westward in an east-west direction that has not been noticed in earlier work. The zone of low velocities is located in the upper mantle and is not overlain by a known structural rift expression. We analyzed the local pattern of seismicity and the stresses in the African plate to interpret this low velocity arm. The zone of low velocities is located within the Central African Fold Belt, which dissects the northern and southern portions of the African continent. It is seismically active with small to intermediate sized earthquakes occurring in the crust. Seven earthquake solutions indicate (oblique) normal faulting and low-angle normal faulting with a NS to NNW-SSE opening direction, as well as strike-slip faulting. This pattern of deformation is typically associated with rifting. The present day stress field in northeastern Africa reveals a tensional state of stress at the location of the low velocity arm with an opening direction that corresponds to the earthquake data. We propose that the South Sudan low velocity zone and seismic center are part of an undeveloped, nascent rift arm. The arm stretches from the East African Rift system westward.

Maceira, M.; Van Wijk, J. W.; Coblentz, D. D.; Modrak, R. T.

2013-12-01

240

Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks - implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini-Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW-SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE-SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east-west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW-SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except in volcanic areas, where both appear to be unrelated, and in the forearc where compressional principal stresses are very well aligned with compressional principal strain rates. This finding indicates that, except for volcanic areas, microseismic activity in the southern Aegean is not controlled by small-scale local stresses but rather reflects the regional stress field. The lateral and depth variations of the stress field reflect the various agents that influence tectonics in the Aegean: subduction of the Hellenic slab, incipient collision with continental African lithosphere, roll back of the slab in the southeast, segmentation of the slab, arc volcanism and extension of the Aegean crust.

Friederich, W.; Brüstle, A.; Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lamara, S.; Egelados Working Group

2014-05-01

241

Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh.; Shamkhali, A. N.

2014-06-01

242

Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes.  

PubMed

Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents. PMID:24637272

Zakerhamidi, M S; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh; Shamkhali, A N

2014-06-01

243

Earthquake locations using single-station deep borehole recordings: Implications for microseismicity on the San Andreas fault in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have located and estimated source parameters of 109 earthquakes (0 to 5 M) using seismograms recorded at 2.5 km depth in the Cajon Pass borehole, southern California. The borehole is about 4 km from the San Andreas fault, at the boundary between the locked, almost aseismic Mojave and San Bernardino segments, where the San Jacinto fault approaches the San Andreas. This area is of interest both on account of its tectonic complexity and its high potential seismic hazard. The clear, relatively unattenuated downhole recordings are rotated to determine the incoming azimuth of the P wave, and the delay time between the P and S arrivals is used to estimate the hypocentral distance. The difference between the hypocenters located this way and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) locations of the same earthquakes increases with hypocentral distance from the borehole. Of the earthquakes within 20 km of the borehole, 95% are within 1-2 km of the SCSN epicenters and all are within 5 km of the SCSN depths. All but three of the 58 earthquakes located here which the SCSN did not record were within 20 km of the borehole and so the location errors are similar to those of SCSN A and B quality events. Most of the small earthquakes occurred within the relatively active San Jacinto fault zone, but at least eight are located close to or within the San Andreas fault zone. The stress drops for these events range from 0.1 to 18 MPa. These earthquakes appear similar to the other events in this study suggesting that the San Andreas fault is similar to other faults at the scale of these small earthquakes. The variation in stress drop and slip orientation of these small earthquakes suggests that larger scale heterogeneity continues to these small scales. Also, the location of these small earthquakes in major established fault zones implies that earthquake source dimensions are not geometrically controlled by fault zone width.

Abercrombie, Rachel E.

1995-12-01

244

Determinants of Persistence and Tolerance of Carnivores on Namibian Ranches: Implications for Conservation on Southern African Private Lands  

PubMed Central

Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo) are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved) and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal) lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world where carnivore conservation is being attempted on private lands. PMID:23326333

Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Havemann, Carl Peter; Lines, Robin; Palazy, Lucille; Price, Aaron Ernest; Retief, Tarryn Anne; Rhebergen, Tiemen; Van der Waal, Cornelis

2013-01-01

245

Geochronology, geochemistry and petrogenesis of Early Permian alkaline magmatism in the Eastern Tianshan: Implications for tectonics of the Southern Altaids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early Permian large volumes of volcanic rocks developed in the Eastern Tianshan of the southern Altaids. The Shaerhu alkaline complex, which occurs along a NW-trending transcurrent fault in the Dananhu arc, is composed of alkaline gabbro intrusions, granites and rhyolites; the gabbros and rhyolites have similar zircon crystallization ages of 286.5 ± 2.1 Ma and 286.7 ± 2.1 Ma, respectively. The granitic and rhyolitic rocks have typical A-type granite geochemical signatures, i.e. high oxide ratios (in wt.%): K2O + Na2O, (K2O + Na2O)/CaO, K2O/MgO, and SiO2, high trace element values: Zr, Nb, Ga, Ce, Y, and REE, and high Zr + Ce + Y, and 10,000 ? Ga/Al ratios. However, spidergrams and REE patterns indicate major depletions in Ba, Sr, P, Ti and Eu. The presence of positive ?Nd(t) values of + 7.0 to + 11.2 and low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.70148-0.70416) indicates that these alkaline rocks were derived from a depleted mantle, and not from old continental crust. The geochemical characters indicate that the rocks of the complex have the same source and that fractionation was important in their generation. A-type granitic rocks are the most highly fractionated of alkaline basic rocks. In summary, the Shaerhu complex is a product of mantle-derived alkaline magma fractionation, which is one of the main mechanisms of A-type granite genesis. The felsic rocks of the Shaerhu complex have the geochemical signature of an A2-type granite, and thus were not derived from a rift or mantle plume. In the early Permian, oblique subduction in the southern Altaids gave rise to strike-slip extensional faults, which controlled the emplacement of large volumes of mantle-derived melts.

Mao, Qigui; Xiao, Wenjiao; Fang, Tonghui; Windley, Brian F.; Sun, Min; Ao, Songjian; Zhang, Ji'en; Huang, Xingkai

2014-03-01

246

Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands.  

PubMed

Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo) are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved) and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal) lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world where carnivore conservation is being attempted on private lands. PMID:23326333

Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Havemann, Carl Peter; Lines, Robin; Palazy, Lucille; Price, Aaron Ernest; Retief, Tarryn Anne; Rhebergen, Tiemen; Van der Waal, Cornelis

2013-01-01

247

Increased dry-season length over southern Amazonia in recent decades and its implication for future climate projection  

PubMed Central

We have observed that the dry-season length (DSL) has increased over southern Amazonia since 1979, primarily owing to a delay of its ending dates (dry-season end, DSE), and is accompanied by a prolonged fire season. A poleward shift of the subtropical jet over South America and an increase of local convective inhibition energy in austral winter (June–August) seem to cause the delay of the DSE in austral spring (September–November). These changes cannot be simply linked to the variability of the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Although they show some resemblance to the effects of anthropogenic forcings reported in the literature, we cannot attribute them to this cause because of inadequate representation of these processes in the global climate models that were presented in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report. These models significantly underestimate the variability of the DSE and DSL and their controlling processes. Such biases imply that the future change of the DSE and DSL may be underestimated by the climate projections provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report models. Although it is not clear whether the observed increase of the DSL will continue in the future, were it to continue at half the rate of that observed, the long DSL and fire season that contributed to the 2005 drought would become the new norm by the late 21st century. The large uncertainty shown in this study highlights the need for a focused effort to better understand and simulate these changes over southern Amazonia. PMID:24145443

Fu, Rong; Yin, Lei; Li, Wenhong; Arias, Paola A.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Huang, Lei; Chakraborty, Sudip; Fernandes, Katia; Liebmann, Brant; Fisher, Rosie; Myneni, Ranga B.

2013-01-01

248

Reproductive biology and implications for management of the spangled emperor Lethrinus nebulosus in the southern Arabian Gulf.  

PubMed

The reproductive biology of the spangled emperor Lethrinus nebulosus in the southern Arabian Gulf was determined from the examination of 781 individuals collected between September 2008 and August 2009. There was no histological evidence of adult sex change, and sex ratios did not differ significantly from unity across all size and age classes. Testes had an ovarian structure and a remnant lumen which was not used for sperm transport; furthermore, residual oocytes were observed in the testes of some immature, resting and developing males. A dramatic change in the sex ratio of the smallest and youngest size and age classes suggested that juvenile female to male sex change occurred between 21·0 cm fork length (L(F)) and 24·0 cm L(F) at 1 year of age. The combination of histological evidence with the sexual composition of the size and age structures suggests a non-functional protogynous hermaphroditic sexual pattern, which is analogous to functional gonochorism. The spawning season was well defined, occurring once a year during March, April and early May. Peaks in spawning occurred after full moons, there was a cessation in spawning activity after new moons and spawning was completed within three lunar cycles. The distribution of males over the entire size and age ranges and the absence of inactive mature females during the spawning season suggested that the population was not constrained by sperm limitation. Size-specific and age-specific reproductive potential indicated that conventional regulations that equate the mean size at first capture to sexual maturation are unsuitable for the management of L. nebulosus. The maximum recorded age (11 years), small mean size and young age at sexual maturation (L(m50) = 26·7 cm L(F), 2·1 years, for females and 19·4 cm L(F), 0·5 years, for males) may be a direct result of intensive demersal fishing in the southern Arabian Gulf. PMID:21155780

Grandcourt, E M; Al Abdessalaam, T Z; Francis, F; Al Shamsi, A T

2010-12-01

249

The Status of Women in Physics in Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progress of women in physics education in the last five years was surveyed in the six top universities in Sudan. The data reveal great increases in the number of females studying undergraduate physics. Most were studying experimental physics rather than theoretical physics, especially the laser and electronics fields. It appears undergraduate laboratory experiments are an important factor in attracting women to physics. Our survey found that girls are encouraged to study physics at the high school level. However, the data also showed that the fewer tendencies to study physics among the women after high school are due to the limited job opportunities and low income of teachers. Postgraduate physics study is handicapped by lack of institutions, financial constraints, and lack of qualified advisors. Improvement of education systems and new ways of teaching will have great influences on attracting women to physics in Sudan.

Abdelbagi, Abdrazig M.; Sirelkhatim, Amna H.; Abdelrahman, Wafaa S.; Osman, Mai E.; Shatir, Tahani S.

2009-04-01

250

Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.  

PubMed

From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

2014-03-01

251

Bacteriological quality of drinking water in Nyala, South Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water in Nyala city, South Darfur, Sudan\\u000a with special reference to the internally displaced people camps (IDPs). Two hundred and forty water samples from different\\u000a sites and sources including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers\\u000a were collected in 2009.

Amira Ahmed Abdelrahman; Yassir Mohammed Eltahir

2011-01-01

252

Deposits of the most recent eruption in the Southern Mono Craters, California: Description, interpretation and implications for regional marker tephras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The penultimate eruption in the Mono Craters, Mono County, CA, USA, occurred in the southern section of the volcanic chain, and is herein named the South Mono eruption. The South Mono eruption occurred in 594-648cal A.D., and its products consist of widespread Plinian and phreatomagmatic fall, surge and pyroclastic flow deposits. The explosive deposits can be broken into Basal, Orange-Brown (surge dominated) and Upper subunits. The eruptive phase represented by the Upper beds was the most intense and voluminous, dispersing tephra over a wide region of eastern CA and western NV. South Coulee was the only effusive product of the eruption, and comprises the vast majority of the c. 0.4 cu km dense-rock equivalent (DRE) volume. The tephra overlies the deposits of Wilson Butte to the south, and is correlated herein with Wood's Tephra 2, and Walker Lake and Turupah Flats regional marker tephra layers. Other dates for these regional tephras may be the result of dating ash redeposited in debris flow events following fire.

Bursik, Marcus; Sieh, Kerry; Meltzner, Aron

2014-04-01

253

Evidence for Alleghenian brine migration in the central and southern Appalachians: implications for Mississippi valley-type sulfide mineralization  

SciTech Connect

Authigenic K-feldspar has been found in rocks near Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) sulfide mineralization in lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee. Synthetic /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectra for the authigenic K-feldspar yield Carboniferous ages. Mass balance calculations indicate that the formation of the K-feldspar involved the flux of multiple pore volumes of fluid through the rocks. Estimates of vapor-liquid ratios and microthermometric homogenization temperatures of primary fluid inclusions in K-feldspar overgrowths, the presence of halite daughter crystals in some associated carbonate-hosted inclusions, and low whole-rock Cl/Br ratios indicate the K-feldspar formed by the interaction of connate brines with siliciclastic debris at temperatures between 100/sup 0/ and 200/sup 0/C. The common occurrence of feldspathized rocks stratigraphically below mineralized zones and the similarity of primary fluid inclusions in K-feldspar overgrowths to those observed in ore and qanque minerals suggest the authigenic K-feldspar and mineralization are coeval. The Carboniferous age suggested by /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectra is consistent with estimates based on (1) paleomagnetic studies and (2) analyses of sphalerite deformation fabrics. Accordingly, the authors suggest that MVT sulfide deposits in the central and southern Appalachians were emplaced by the migration of heated connate brines along structural pathways developed during the Alleghenian Orogeny.

Hearn, P.P.; Sutter, J.F.; Kunk, M.J.; Belkin, H.E.

1985-01-01

254

Last glacial-interglacial environments in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA and implications for Younger Dryas-age human occupation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last glacial-interglacial transition (LGIT; 19-9 ka) was characterized by rapid climate changes and significant ecosystem reorganizations worldwide. In western Colorado, one of the coldest locations in the continental US today, mountain environments during the late-glacial period are poorly known. Yet, archaeological evidence from the Mountaineer site (2625 m elev.) indicates that Folsom-age Paleoindians were over-wintering in the Gunnison Basin during the Younger Dryas Chronozone (YDC; 12.9-11.7 ka). To determine the vegetation and fire history during the LGIT, and possible explanations for occupation during a period thought to be harsher than today, a 17-ka-old sediment core from Lily Pond (3208 m elev.) was analyzed for pollen and charcoal and compared with other high-resolution records from the southern Rocky Mountains. Widespread tundra and Picea parkland and low fire activity in the cold wet late-glacial period transitioned to open subalpine forest and increased fire activity in the Bølling-Allerød period as conditions became warmer and drier. During the YDC, greater winter snowpack than today and prolonged wet springs likely expanded subalpine forest to lower elevations than today, providing construction material and fuel for the early inhabitants. In the early to middle Holocene, arid conditions resulted in xerophytic vegetation and frequent fire.

Briles, Christy E.; Whitlock, Cathy; Meltzer, David J.

2012-01-01

255

Biological Implications of Internal Waves and Internal Tidal Bores in the Southern Part of the California Current System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal waves and internal tidal bores have been shown to cause rapid changes in temperature associated with vertical and horizontal displacements of water masses in many settings. Their role in the cross-shore transport of matter and energy implies that internal motions have important biological ramifications, particularly in biogeographic transition zones, such as the Southern California Current. Benthic invertebrates and macroalgae depend greatly on the nearshore pelagic environment for the transport of larvae and nutrients. We present 2 examples of how internal motions may modulate benthic populations in this transition zone by enhancing the transport of larvae or the provision of nutrients from offshore sites to the coast. At two sites along the Baja California peninsula, high-frequency variability in thermal structure and horizontal flows were observed. Physical observations show episodes (lasting about 1 h) of rapid variations (every 1 to 5 min) in horizontal flows and temperature in the nearshore water column. We show that the timing and intensity of larval settlement, as well as the residence of cold nutrient - rich water on the shelf, is related with internal motions just offshore. Variability in the direction from which these perturbations propagate may determine small-scale spatial patterns in demography of benthic populations. We discuss the importance of these events in modulating benthic invertebrate and macroalgal populations and how climate change in this transition zone may have important biological consequences via changes in thermocline depth and its subsequent impact on the occurrence of internal motions.

Ladah, L. B.; Leichter, J. J.; Tapia, F. J.

2007-05-01

256

Formation of cycloidal dust devil tracks by redeposition of coarse sands in southern Peru: Implications for Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeolian processes are the most active processes modifying the surface of Mars under present day climatic conditions. Besides wind streak changes and dune and ripple migrations, active dust devils occur frequently leaving numerous tracks on the Martian surface. These dust devil tracks (DDTs) are characterized by albedo changes with respect to their surroundings and are suggested to be caused by erosion of dust exposing coarser grained material. Here we show that DDTs with a cycloidal pattern analyzed in situ in southern Peru are formed by erosion of very coarse sands at the outer margins and its subsequent annular deposition in the central parts of dust devils. Field observations are supported by large-eddy simulations using typical dust devil parameters resembling the cycloidal morphology of the DDTs. Cycloidal DDTs observed on Mars resembling the Peruvian DDTs suggest an equivalent formation mechanism. Our results imply that the formation of DDTs on Mars are not solely due to dust erosion but also depositional processes and dust devils are strong enough to redistribute coarser grained material such as sands; hence they might contribute to the modification of the present day Martian landscape.

Reiss, Dennis; Zimmerman, Michael I.; Lewellen, David C.

2013-12-01

257

The Extent and Nature of Fluidity in Typologies of Female Sex Work in Southern India: Implications for HIV Prevention Programs  

PubMed Central

These authors examine the nature and extent of fluidity in defining the typology of female sex work based on the place of solicitation or place of sex or both places together, and whether sex workers belonging to a particular typology are at increased risk of HIV in southern India. Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted during 2007–2008 among mobile female sex workers (N = 5301) in four Indian states. Findings from this study address an important policy issue: Should programmatic prevention interventions be spread to cover all places of sex work or be focused on a few places that cover a large majority of sex workers? Results indicate that most female sex workers, including those who are usually hard to reach such as those who are mobile or who use homes for soliciting clients or sex, can be reached programmatically multiple times by concentrating on a smaller number of categories, such as street-, lodge-, and brothel-based sex workers. PMID:22745597

Saggurti, Niranjan

2012-01-01

258

Jurassic-Cretaceous history of Cuba: implications for the evolution of the southern margin of the North American plate  

SciTech Connect

The oldest Cuban sedimentary rocks, clastics of the Bajocian San Cayetano Fm. provide the earliest record of North American-Gondwana rifting as seen in Cuba. A similar clastic sequence is seen below the carbonates of the Bahamas platform. In the Pinar del Rio area, the San Cayetano is succeeded by Oxfordian limestones, the shallow water Jagua Fm. to the south and deeper water Francisco Fm. to the north. Both contain basaltic pillow lavas, related either to rifting or to leaky transform motion parallel to the margin. The Oxfordian units are overlain by Kimmeridgian to Tithonian pelagic limestones, the Guasasa and Artemisa Fms. The later interfingers with northerly derived calci-turbidites. North of the Escambray, silici-clastic fragments in late Jurassic pelagic limestones suggests that a basement high existed south of the platform until the Berriasian. The carbonate platform continues to shed debris along its southern edge throughout the Cretaceous. To the south an Aptian-Albian episode of turbidite deposition suggests that South America-Africa rifting caused tectonic disturbances in the Caribbean. Southerly derived volcanoclastics deposited during the Maastrichtian marks the start of the Cuban orogeny.

Barros, J.A.; Rosencrantz, E.

1985-01-01

259

Malaria Risk Mapping for Control in the Republic of Sudan  

PubMed Central

Evidence shows that malaria risk maps are rarely tailored to address national control program ambitions. Here, we generate a malaria risk map adapted for malaria control in Sudan. Community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data from 2000 to 2010 were assembled and were standardized to 2–10 years of age (PfPR2–10). Space-time Bayesian geostatistical methods were used to generate a map of malaria risk for 2010. Surfaces of aridity, urbanization, irrigation schemes, and refugee camps were combined with the PfPR2–10 map to tailor the epidemiological stratification for appropriate intervention design. In 2010, a majority of the geographical area of the Sudan had risk of < 1% PfPR2–10. Areas of meso- and hyperendemic risk were located in the south. About 80% of Sudan's population in 2011 was in the areas in the desert, urban centers, or where risk was < 1% PfPR2–10. Aggregated data suggest reducing risks in some high transmission areas since the 1960s. PMID:23033400

Noor, Abdisalan M.; ElMardi, Khalid A.; Abdelgader, Tarig M.; Patil, Anand P.; Amine, Ahmed A. A.; Bakhiet, Sahar; Mukhtar, Maowia M.; Snow, Robert W.

2012-01-01

260

Source parameters of small earthquakes recorded at 2.5 km depth, Cajon Pass, southern California - Implications for earthquake scaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2.5-km deep triaxial seismometer at Cajon Pass in southern California has recorded several hundred earthquakes less than M(L)4.0 occurring within the San Andreas fault system. At 2.5-km seismic background noise is below amplifier sensitivity, and the 2-250 Hz spectral range of recorded seismic motion is wider and higher than that of most natural event catalogs. Compared with downhole recorded motion, seismic amplitudes at the surface are amplified below 10 Hz and severely attenuated above 30 Hz. We estimate that Q(S) is at least 1000 for wave motion at 2.5 km and below and Q(P) is over 2000. The range of source dimensions in the downhole recorded catalog is about 10 m to about 70 m (M(L) about -2.0, M(0) about 10 exp 8 Nm to M(L) about 2.7, M(0) about 10 exp 13 Nm). The plot of log(source-radius) vs. log(moment) has a straight line trend compatible with earthquake scaling at constant stress drop; inferred stress drops are scattered between 1 and 500 bars. There is no evidence in the catalog for the proposed minimum source dimension at about 100 m. When the Cajon Pass borehole catalog, containing some of the smallest recorded natural earthquakes, is combined with 800 larger events from previous studies, the moment-radius trend suggests that natural earthquakes are self-similar over a magnitude range M about -2 to about 8. We suggest that inferences of minimum source dimension are more likely due to bias in band-limited individual catalogs than to properties of the seismic crust.

Abercrombie, Rachel; Leary, Peter

1993-07-01

261

Compositional diversity of Late Cenozoic basalts in a transect across the southern Washington Cascades: Implications for subduction zone magmatism  

SciTech Connect

Major volcanoes of the Southern Washington Cascades (SWC) include the large quaternary stratovolcanoes of Mount St. Helens (MSH) and Mount Adams (MA) and the Indian Heaven (IH) and Simcoe Mountain (SIM) volcanic fields. There are significant differences among these volcanic centers in terms of their composition and evolutionary history. The authors conclude that subducted fluids and sediments do not play an essential role in producing these magmas. Rather, they infer that they formed by variable degree melting of a mixed mantle source consisting mainly of heterogeneously distributed OIB and mid-ocean ridge basalt source domains. Relatively minor occurrences of high field strength element (HFSE) depleted arclike basalts may reflect the presence of a small proportion of slab-metasomatized subarc mantle. The juxtaposition of such different mantle domains within the lithospheric mantle is viewed as a consequence of (1) tectonic mixing associated with accretion of oceanic and island arc terranes along the Pacific margin of North America prior to Neogene time, and possibly (2) a seaward jump in the locus of subduction at about 40 Ma. The Cascades arc is unusual in that the subducting oceanic plate is very young and hot. They suggest that slab dehydration outboard of the volcanic front resulted in a diminished role of aqueous fluids in generating or subsequently modifying SWC magmas compared to the situation at most convergent margins. Furthermore, with low fluid flux conditions, basalt generation is presumably triggered by other processes that increase the temperature of the mantle wedge (e.g., convective mantle flow, shear heating, etc.).

Leeman, W.P. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA)); Smith, D.R. (Trinity Univ., San Antonio, TX (USA)); Hildreth, W. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Palacz, Z.; Rogers, N. (Open Univ., Milton Keynes (England))

1990-11-10

262

Hillslope response to knickpoint migration in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the evolution of post-orogenic landscapes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The southern Appalachians represent a landscape characterized by locally high topographic relief, steep slopes, and frequent mass movement in the absence of significant tectonic forcing for at least the last 200 Ma. The fundamental processes responsible for landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape remain enigmatic. The non-glaciated Cullasaja River basin of south-western North Carolina, with uniform lithology, frequent debris flows, and the availability of high-resolution airborne lidar DEMs, is an ideal natural setting to study landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape through the lens of hillslope-channel coupling. This investigation is limited to channels with upslope contributing areas >2.7 km2, a conservative estimate of the transition from fluvial to debris-flow dominated channel processes. Values of normalized hypsometry, hypsometric integral, and mean slope vs elevation are used for 14 tributary basins and the Cullasaja basin as a whole to characterize landscape evolution following upstream knickpoint migration. Results highlight the existence of a transient spatial relationship between knickpoints present along the fluvial network of the Cullasaja basin and adjacent hillslopes. Metrics of topography (relief, slope gradient) and hillslope activity (landslide frequency) exhibit significant downstream increases below the current position of major knickpoints. The transient effect of knickpoint-driven channel incision on basin hillslopes is captured by measuring the relief, mean slope steepness, and mass movement frequency of tributary basins and comparing these results with the distance from major knickpoints along the Cullasaja River. A conceptual model of area-elevation and slope distributions is presented that may be representative of post-orogenic landscape evolution in analogous geologic settings. Importantly, the model explains how knickpoint migration and channel- hillslope coupling is an important factor in tectonically-inactive (i.e. post-orogenic) orogens for the maintenance of significant relief, steep slopes, and weathering-limited hillslopes. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wegmann, S.F.G.; Franke, K.L.; Hughes, S.; Lewis, R.Q.; Lyons, N.; Paris, P.; Ross, K.; Bauer, J.B.; Witt, A.C.

2011-01-01

263

Geochemical studies of hotspot volcanism in the Southern Pacific and its implications for mantle structure and dynamics  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation dedicates to geochemical investigations of hotspot volcanism in the Southern Pacific, by means of detailed, combined major, trace element and isotope studies of individual islands and island/seamount chains. Chapter 2 describes Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic studies of the whole Louisville Seamount Chain (LSC), to investigate long term evolution of hotspot source. Leaching experiments were conducted to study seawater alteration effects on both Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. Chapter 3 studies the Easter Island-Seamount Chain (EISC). Results from this study are most consistent with a hotspot origin for the EISC. Chapter 4 involves detailed geochemical studies of Tahiti, including Teahitia and Mehetia, from Society Islands. Both major and trace element compositions change systematically with time, indicating a progressive decrease in both the extent of partial melting and the amount of plume component. Isotope data are well correlated on the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr vs. {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd diagram, suggesting mixing between two distinct end-members. Secular isotopic variation pattern records volcanic activities on Tahiti, which links geochemical characteristics to mantle processes of hotspot volcanism. A mantle blob model is preferred for island formation. Most existing OIB isotopic data can be explained by mixing of a small amount of sediments with MORB-like sources. These findings provide further geochemical evidence for a subducted slab origin of OIB sources. Chapter 5 synthesizes the author's own data and those from the literature, to evaluate mantle heterogeneities, origin and evolution of hotspot sources, and mantle structure and dynamics.

Cheng, Q.C.

1989-01-01

264

Short- and long-term deformation and the earthquake cycle in the southern Bolivia Subandes: Implications for orogenic wedge processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of critical taper wedge mechanics, we analyze a new GPS-derived surface velocity field from the southern Subandean (SSA) range on the east flank of the central Andean Plateau. The SSA is one of the few active orogenic wedges located far enough from a plate boundary so that the geodetic signature of contractional processes may be isolated. We observe and model a strong strike-perpendicular surface velocity gradient as arising from the change in frictional behaviour of the SSA basal decollement from freely slipping to locked. The estimated width of the locked zone is ~130 km, a value that is significantly larger than in other similar wedges in Nepal or Taiwan and implies the SSA thrust front could host great (larger than M 8) intraplate thrust earthquakes. In support of this, topographic data (individual scarps and landslide scars) are consistent with the surface expression of the ~500 km long Mandeyepecua thrust fault resulting from large earthquake ruptures with long recurrence intervals. In comparison to other similar wedges (the northern Subandes, Nepal, and Taiwan) precipitation rates in the SSA are significantly lower and thus a wider orogenic wedge width is predicted by critical taper theory. We explore the hypothesis that the geodetically-determined width is equivalent to the orogenic wedge width by using earthquake scaling relations for individual faults and surface displacements predicted from decollement ruptures to model the velocity profile derived from published, sequentially restored balanced cross-sections in the region. Our work provides two new important insights on the interaction between climate and tectonics in orogenic wedges: 1) a drier climate favours increased size of potential thrust-front earthquakes by permitting the width of the active wedge to increase; 2) frictional variations on a decollement may be spatially persistent over geologic time-scales and so should be taken into account in surface process models of orogenic wedges.

Brooks, B. A.; Bevis, M. G.; Whipple, K. X.; Kendrick, E. C.; Smalley, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Zapata, T.

2009-12-01

265

Climatic Implications of the Observed Temperature Dependence of the Liquid Water Path of Low Clouds in the Southern Great Plains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite observations of low-level clouds have challenged the assumption that adiabatic liquid water content combined with constant physical thickness will lead to a negative cloud optics feedback in a decadal climate change. We explore the reasons for the satellite results using four years of surface remote sensing data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. We find that low cloud liquid water path is approximately invariant with temperature in winter but decreases strongly with temperature in summer, consistent with the satellite inferences at this latitude. This behavior occurs because liquid water content shows no detectable temperature dependence while cloud physical thickness decreases with warming. Thinning of clouds with warming is observed on seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales; it is most obvious in the warm sectors of baroclinic waves. Although cloud top is observed to slightly descend with warming, the primary cause of thinning, is the ascent of cloud base due to the reduction in surface relative humidity and the concomitant increase in the lifting condensation level of surface air. Low cloud liquid water path is not observed to be a continuous function of temperature. Rather, the behavior we observe is best explained as a transition in the frequency of occurrence of different boundary layer types. At cold temperatures, a mixture of stratified and convective boundary layers is observed, leading to a broad distribution of liquid water path values, while at warm temperatures, only convective boundary layers with small liquid water paths, some of them decoupled, are observed. Our results, combined with the earlier satellite inferences, imply that the commonly quoted 1.5C lower limit for the equilibrium global climate sensitivity to a doubling of CO2 which is based on models with near-adiabatic liquid water behavior and constant physical thickness, should be revised upward.

DelGenio, Anthony

1999-01-01

266

Climatic Implications of the Observed Temperature Dependence of the Liquid Water Path of Low Clouds in the Southern Great Plains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite observations of low-level clouds have challenged the assumption that adiabatic liquid water content combined with constant physical thickness will lead to a negative cloud optics feedback in a decadal climate change. We explore the reasons for the satellite results using four years of surface remote sensing data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. We find that low cloud liquid water path is approximately invariant with temperature in winter but decreases strongly with temperature in summer, consistent with the satellite inferences at this latitude. This behavior occurs because liquid water content shows no detectable temperature dependence while cloud physical thickness decreases with warming. Thinning of clouds with warming is observed on seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales; it is most obvious in the warm sectors of baroclinic waves. Although cloud top is observed to slightly descend with warming, the primary cause of thinning is the ascent of cloud base due to the reduction in surface relative humidity and the concomitant increase in the lifting condensation level of surface air. Low cloud liquid water path is not observed to be a continuous function of temperature. Rather, the behavior we observe is best explained as a transition in the frequency of occurrence of different boundary layer types: At cold temperatures, a mixture of stratified and convective boundary layers is observed, leading to a broad distribution of liquid water path values, while at warm temperatures, only convective boundary layers with small liquid water paths, some of them decoupled, are observed. Our results, combined with the earlier satellite inferences, imply that the commonly quoted 1.50 C lower limit for the equilibrium global climate sensitivity to a doubling of CO2, which is based on models with near-adiabatic liquid water behavior and constant physical thickness, should be revised upward.

DelGenio, Anthony D.; Wolf, Audrey B.

1999-01-01

267

Simulated Damping of Periodic Fluctuations in Net Infiltration Within a Thick Unsaturated Zone in Southern Nevada: Implications For Radionuclide Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arid and semiarid regions are historically preferred sites for radionuclide generating activities and waste disposal, in part because their unsaturated zones, typically having large thickness and low water content, are expected to inhibit the transport of contaminants to groundwater supplies. Through portions of the unsaturated zone that are heavily fractured, however, there is concern that transport in preferential flow paths might be relatively rapid on an episodic basis. Even so, fractured zones are commonly interrupted by lithologic units without substantial fractures, through which unsaturated flow might always be diffuse so as to damp out episodic fluctuations. In unsaturated-zone fractured units below such damping units, the initiation of preferential flow theoretically hinges on reaching a threshold moisture state, which depends on the magnitude of pressure and flux signals resulting from natural periodic variations in net infiltration. In diffuse unsaturated flow, periodic oscillations are damped to a quasi-steady state at sufficient distance from the inflow boundary. The resulting matric potential may be insufficient to trigger or sustain fracture flow through unsaturated media lying beneath those that facilitate damping. In general, shorter-period oscillations, longer distances of diffuse flow, and drier matrix conditions are conducive to damping. In this work we examine the damping of periodic recharge signals to a quasi-steady value, using analytical solutions for diffuse unsaturated flow, at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in southern Nevada. Underground nuclear tests in previous decades introduced radionuclides into the unsaturated subsurface at these sites. Both sites have possible damping units greater than 100 m thick that are believed to be dominated by diffuse flow. Below these damping units lie fractured rocks in which preferential flow could resume, especially if the damping units are not sufficiently thick or dry. Effective damping of periodic recharge variations has the potential to suppress preferential flow initiation. Our simulations suggest that annual to decadal variations in net infiltration at these semiarid locations are damped to quasi-steady fluxes if diffuse unsaturated flow dominates within the thickness of the selected damping units. Sensitivity analysis shows that the estimated period to achieve damping is most sensitive to the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the media.

Ebel, B. A.; Nimmo, J. R.

2009-12-01

268

Calc-silicate assemblages from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: implications for pressure-temperature-fluid histories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports several new localities of wollastonite- and scapolite-bearing calc-silicate assemblages from the granulite-facies supracrustal Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India. Based on mineralogy, these calc-silicate rocks are classified into four types: Type I, lacking wollastonite and grossular; Type II, wollastonite-bearing but grossular-absent; Type III, wollastonite- and grossular-bearing; and Type IV, dolomitic marbles. Detailed petrographic studies reveal a variety of reaction textures overprinting the polygonal granoblastic peak metamorphic assemblages in these rocks. The Type II calc-silicate rocks preserve reaction textures, including meionite breaking down to anorthite-calcite-quartz, wollastonite breaking down to calcite-quartz and meionite-quartz symplectites after K-feldspar and wollastonite. Type III calc-silicate rocks have porphyroblastic and coronal grossular. Grossular-quartz coronas separating wollastonite and anorthite and the development of grossular within the anorthite-calcite-quartz pseudomorphs of meionite form important retrograde reaction textures in this type. In Type IV dolomitic marble assemblages, meionite forming in grain boundaries of calcite and feldspars, forsterite rimmed by diopside-dolomite and the formation of grossular in feldspar-rich zones are the important textures. Calculated partial petrogenetic grids in the CaO?Al 2O 3?SiO 2?CO 2 system are used to deduce the pressure-temperature-fluid evolution of the calc-silicate rocks. The Type II assemblages provide CO 2 activity estimates of > 0.5, with a peak metamorphic temperature of about 790°C. Initial cooling followed by later CO 2 influx can be deduced from reaction modelling in these calc-silicate rocks. Type III assemblages are characterized by internal fluid buffering throughout their tectonic history. The formation of coronal grossular indicates an initial cooling from peak metamorphic temperatures of about 830°C deduced from vapour-absent meionite and grossular equilibria. Type IV marble assemblages also indicate internal fluid buffering followed by localized CO 2 influx. Overall, the calc-silicate rocks of the KKB define peak metamorphic temperatures in the range of 790-850°C, with an internally buffered fluid composition during the peak conditions. Initial cooling was followed by localized carbonic fluid influx that also post-dated decompression deduced from other rock types in the KKB.

Satish-Kumar, M.; Santosh, M.; Harley, S. L.; Yoshida, M.

269

Vertical fault mapping within the Gutingkeng Formation of southern Taiwan: implications for sub-aerial mud diapir tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical faults were mapped around the periphery of the mudstone-rich Plio-Pleistocene Gutingkeng Formation (Gtk) in southern Taiwan. The faults are manifested as black colored, penetrating shear bands that intersect bedding planes of the Gtk (shear band dips range from 60 - 90 degrees; shear band thicknesses range from several centimeters to several meters). Thin (1-2cm), friable calcite veins were found locally within the shear bands and often contain weakly developed slickensides. Where available, the sense of shear of these faults show consistent interior upward motion of the Gtk. The Chishan Fault is the southeastern bounding structure of the Gtk and where exposed, near-vertical shear bands were observed with a normal sense of shear (west-side-up). In addition, three exploratory cores drilled in 2010 along the western edge of the hanging wall of the Chishan Fault did not intersect the fault or the Gtk after nearly 200 meters of drilling. This suggests that the main Chishan Fault may not be a typical top-to-the-west reverse fault as previously mapped and does not fit the typical fold and thrust geometry that is prevalent in the western foothills of Taiwan. Instead, we interpret the collective field evidence to suggest that the Chishan Fault is a near vertical structure that is accommodating uplift of the Gtk, similar to mechanism by which sub-aqueous mud diapirs grow. A chain of mud diapirs is located off the southeastern coast of Taiwan and the Gtk may be the onshore extension of this chain. The sub-aerial mud diapir hypothesis is further supported by recent leveling data collected across the Gtk that shows the largest vertical uplift in the region to be centered within the Gtk. Finally, observations at the western end of the Highway 3 tunnel through the Chishan fault and overlying Wushan Formation indicate that there is recent west side (footwall) uplift along the Chishan Fault. The vertical faults mapped within the Gtk are significant for they may provide evidence for a long-term history of vertical tectonics in this region that has shaped the structural geometries and geologic patterns of southwestern Taiwan.

Gourley, J. R.; Lee, Y.; Ching, K.

2012-12-01

270

New tectonic data from sw iberian variscan fold belt (ossa morena zone-southern portugal): implications for geodynamic models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New detailed structural mapping of the Alvito-Viana key sector, in SW Ossa Morena Zone (Southern Iberian Variscan Fold Belt), revealed the following tectonic imbrication of units of unknown age (from bottom to top): Gneiss unit (composed mostly of quartz-feldspar orthogneisses); Marbles unit; Água de Peixe metapelites unit (micaschists and disperse interbedded bodies - boudins? - of marbles and amphibolites); and Monte das Pereiras metapelites unit (mainly comprising micaschists and metabasalts).These units were intruded, to the North and to the West, by two main igneous complexes: the granitoid Évora massif (EM, ca. 318Ma), and the dioritic/gabbroic Beja igneous complex (BIC, ca. 340Ma), respectively. The study of metamorphic and geometric overprint relationships, between several types of structures, at different scales, revealed a chronological succession of tectonometamorphic events, comprising: a) An early high pressure metamorphic event (D_n) producing eclogites (Fonseca, et al., 1993), and blueschists (Rosas et al., in prep.). b) A retrogressive event (Dn+1 and Dn+2), affecting the HP rocks in lower grade metamorphic conditions and refolding the previous tectonic fabrics. c) A thermal event (T_n), related with an early stage of the BIC intrusions, represented by the strong static recrystallisation of the previous tectonic fabrics. d) An episode (Dn+3) represented by the tectonic reactivation of the prevoius metamorphic layering inducing a top to the NNW sense of shear. e) A N-S folding of all previous structures and fabrics as a response to the space problems imposed by the late intrusion of the BIC igneous rocks. f) A thermal episode (n+1) responsible for a late strong static recrystallisation of all previously formed tectonic fabrics, as a consequence of the granitic EM intrusions. Interpretation of this sequence of events includes the recognition, during the Variscan evolution of the SW Ossa-Morena zone, of northwards oblique subduction and HP metamorphism during D_n, exhumation during Dn+1 and Dn+2, orogenic magmatism associated to the BIC early intrusions during T_n, northwards (left-lateral) tectonic imbrication during Dn+3, accommodation to space problems imposed by the late BIC intrusions during Dn+4, and late orogenic magmatism associated to the EM intrusion during Tn+2. Following the contributions of Mancktelow (1995) and Petrini &Podladchikov (2000), the occurrence of tectonic ovepressure associated with the development of a tectonic wedge (flake geometry) is proposed.

Rosas, F.; Marques, F.; Ribeiro, A.

2003-04-01

271

Origin of 226Ra- 230Th disequilibria in arc lavas from southern Chile and implications for magma transfer time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved understanding of mantle melting processes and melt transport requires knowledge of how fast magma is generated and transferred from source region to surface. The rate of magma transfer can in favorable cases be estimated from radioactive disequilibria between nuclides of the 238U series. Young lavas from southern Chile, in which 238U- 230Th disequilibria have been measured [Sigmarsson et al., Nature 346 (1990) 163-165; Sigmarsson et al., Nature 394 (1998) 566-569], were analyzed for 226Ra abundances. The disequilibrium between 226Ra and 230Th in these lavas is found to correlate with 238U- 230Th disequilibria and 10Be/Be [Morris et al., Nature 344 (1990) 31-36]. These correlations strongly suggest that the excess of 226Ra over 230Th is due to the addition of a slab-derived fluid to the magma source, since Ra and U are fluid-mobile elements and the cosmogenic 10Be is most likely derived from the subducting Nazca plate beneath the Andes. The largest slab signature is observed in the lavas of Villarrica volcano, which is the most active volcano in South America. A model for subduction fluxing is discussed, in which the U series disequilibria in arc lavas will reflect the integrated dehydration process during metamorphism of the subducting plate and the metasomatized mantle, but be principally controlled by the latest hydrous mineral breakdown in the mantle wedge. Repeated precipitation and dehydration mineral reactions of the hydrated mantle could be the homogenization process of the slab input needed to explain the 10Be/Be-B/Be correlation for different arcs [Morris et al., Nature 344 (1990) 31-36]. The fact that excesses of 226Ra and 238U over 230Th are correlated indicates that linear arrays on the ( 230Th/ 232Th)-( 238U/ 232Th) diagram are not isochrons reflecting time elapsed since a fluid addition but rather mixing lines between a fluid phase and melts. The 226Ra- 230Th disequilibrium in arc lavas suggests significantly shorter timescales for magma transfer, or less than 8000 years. This disequilibrium is consistent with minimum magma transfer rate through the mantle wedge on the order of 10 m/year. Finally, the correlations of ( 226Ra /230Th) with ( 238U/ 232Th) and 10Be/Be in Andean magmas imply that magma chamber residence time is of the same order of magnitude beneath the stratovolcanoes studied.

Sigmarsson, O.; Chmeleff, J.; Morris, J.; Lopez-Escobar, L.

2002-03-01

272

LANGUAGE, IDENTITIES AND IDEOLOGIES : A NEW ERA FOR SUDAN ? Catherine Miller, CNRS-IREMAM, Aix en Provence  

E-print Network

to many « Northern » Sudanese Areas (Darfur, South Kordofan, Ingessana, Eastern Sudan etc.), linguisticLANGUAGE, IDENTITIES AND IDEOLOGIES : A NEW ERA FOR SUDAN ? Catherine Miller, CNRS-IREMAM, Aix en in the Sudan have accompanied the Sudanese political life since the early 20th century. Until the mid 1980s

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

77 FR 3371 - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section 2005 of...in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan are without risk of criminal prosecution...ICC) because the Republic of South Sudan is not a party to the ICC and...

2012-01-24

274

76 FR 41046 - Addition of the New State of the Republic of South Sudan to the Export Administration Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the New State of the Republic of South Sudan to the Export Administration Regulations...a new nation, the Republic of South Sudan. In January 2011, a referendum...formally recognize the Republic of South Sudan as a sovereign state in...

2011-07-13

275

Overcoming Structural Adjustment Policies in Africa: Strategies for Vocational Education and Training in the Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most developing countries have been debt ridden since the mid-1970s. This continuing debt burden has resulted in increasing prices and inflation, growing unemployment, and daily life difficulties. This problem has been acute for the Sudan. Sudan received help from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1978 and negotiated new credit terms. By…

Washi, Sidiga; Pitamber, Sunita

276

The sociolinguistics of nationalism in the Sudan: the politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This monograph describes the historiography of language ideologies that led to the politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of politics in the Sudan, starting from British colonial rule until the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that was a precursor to the separation of the South as an independent state. The monograph shows that the politicisation of Arabic in the Sudan is largely

Ashraf Abdelhay; Busi Makoni; Sinfree Makoni; Abdel Rahim Mugaddam

2011-01-01

277

The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences of…

Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

2008-01-01

278

South Sudan: institutional legacy of colonialism and the making of a new state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues that the post-colonial crisis of citizenship demands a rethinking of the paradigm of viewing colonialism simply as a system of economic exploitation to viewing colonialism as a political project that is anchored in law. The paper provides a historical and post-referendum analysis of the political division between North and South Sudan. As South Sudan seeks to build

Christopher Zambakari

2012-01-01

279

Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy making via gameplay. It…

Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

2013-01-01

280

Large Glacitectonic structures on the Dogger Bank, southern North Sea; Implications for glacial dynamics, glacial limits, and interplay between the British and Fennoscandinavian Ice Sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently acquired 2D seismic data (sparker) acquired over the Dogger Bank (DB) reveal large glacitectonic structures associated with late-Pleistocene glacial incursion into the southern North Sea. The densely populated survey data (100m line spacing) collected for the purposes of offshore windfarm development on the DB, allow for pseudo-3D interpretation. The sparker data show discrete thrust faults extending from within ~5 m of the seabed to ~200 m depth, and consistently terminate at one of two décollement surfaces. Preliminary mapping and amplitude extraction maps reveal the thrusts to occur in a series of thrust blocks (5-8 faults), with each set encompassing an area of approximately 6 km along-strike and 2 km at right angles. The overall zone of thrusting is up to 16 x 6 km on the western edge of the DB. The strike of the faults indicates ice-flow from the west. Other deformation structures include: open, recumbent, and fault propagation folds, as well as back thrusts, and pop-up structures. The relief of the DB (dimensions) is entirely accounted for by what has historically been termed the 'DB Formation'. These new data reveal that this seismostratigraphic unit likely consists of deposits from a variety of glacially influenced depositional regimes. The observed thrusts penetrate through the 'DB formation', indicating this phase of intense deformation post-dated the initial construction of the bank. Less pronounced glacial deformation affects much of the rest of the DB, and the products of this deformation (push-moraine complexes?) were possibly integral to the construction of the bank itself. While the style and fabric (NS?) of this deformation is less clear, it is likely there were multiple incursions of glacial ice, from different directions (and sources?), into this area where late-Pleistocene glaciation limits are poorly understood. Several mechanisms for forming such glacitectonic features have been proposed, and the thrust blocks here may have been caused by sub-glacial (gravitational spreading), ice-marginal (push-moraine complex), or pro-glacial (ice-push) processes, or a combination of the three at an oscillating ice-margin. The thrusts appear to have no surface expression, suggesting the topography was removed either by late-stage glacial erosion or Holocene marine transgression. Work to date on the paleoenvironmental implications of the data has been preliminary. The exact style, pattern, and timing glacial deformation (and associated sedimentation) on the Dogger Bank and circum-southern North Sea, and glacial history of the region, will be the focus of a Ph.D studentship which commenced Sept. 2012.

Dove, Dayton; Cotterill, Carol; Long, Dave; Ruiter, Astrid; Phillips, Emrys; James, Leo; Forsberg, Carl Fredrik

2013-04-01

281

Struggling for social justice in the capitalist world system: the cases of African Americans, Oromos, and Southern and Western Sudanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies and examines the processes through which the social justice movements of African Americans in the US, Oromos in Ethiopia, and Southern and Western Sudanese in Sudan emerged, and the successes and failures of these movements in a global and comparative perspective. It specifically explores four interrelated issues. First, the paper deals with some theoretical and methodological insights.

Asafa Jalata

2008-01-01

282

Molecular detection of equine trypanosomes in the Sudan.  

PubMed

Equine trypanosomosis (ET) is a protozoan disease affecting equines in many parts of the world. We examined 509 samples collected from geographically distinct regions in eastern, central and western Sudan to estimate the endemicity of ET using the generic ITS1-PCR diagnostic methods. Results revealed that horses and donkeys were infected by Trypanosoma brucei subgroup, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma simiae and Trypanosoma congolense. The prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. was higher in horses (12.7%, n=393) than in donkeys (3.4%, n=116). The highest prevalence was observed in South Darfur State (19.3%, n=202), followed by Kassala State (15.1%, n=86), Gadaref State (3.7%, n=82), and Khartoum State (2.6%, n=76). No trypanosomes were detected in the 63 samples collected from North Kurdofan State. We report for the first time the presence of T. simiae and T. congolense in horses in the Sudan. This study should alert veterinary services, authorized bodies to take action toward ET by undertaking countrywide epidemiological studies of the disease and adopting control strategies. PMID:24439848

Salim, Bashir; Bakheit, Mohammed Ahmed; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2014-03-01

283

First evidence of high-pressure metamorphism in the “Cover Series” of the southern Menderes Massif. Tectonic and metamorphic implications for the evolution of SW Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Menderes Massif occupies a large part of western Turkey. It is tectonically overlain by nappes of the Izmir–Ankara Suture Zone (including the Bornova Flysch Zone) on its northern flank, the Afyon Zone on its eastern border, and the Lycian Nappes on its southern flank. The discovery of magnesiocarpholite–kyanite assemblages in the Mesozoic ‘cover’ sequence of the southern Menderes Massif

Gaëtan Rimmelé; Roland Oberhänsli; Bruno Goffé; Laurent Jolivet; Osman Candan; Mete Çetinkaplan

2003-01-01

284

Solving Slavery in Sudan: Solving a Social Problem Through Nation Building  

E-print Network

://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/africa/sudan_rel00.jpg> 1 INTRODUCTION Slavery exists in the 21st century. It exists in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the United States. Slavery in Sudan is distinct from slavery in all other parts of the world outside of Mauritania because it is chattel... control of trade was stringent to the extent that at Taqwi, just south of the modern northern border of Sudan, boats headed south were stopped and required to obtain the governor’s permission to continue. Violators received the death penalty. Ibn...

Krueger, Brandon

2006-08-16

285

New insights into the origin of the subduction component in Late Oligocene magmatism in the Ronda peridotite (southern Spain): geodynamic implications for the western Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several tectonic scenarios have been proposed for the Tertiary evolution of the Betic-Rif chain in the westernmost Mediterranean. Recent studies on late, mantle-derived Cr-rich websterite dykes in the Ronda peridotite have revealed recycling the involvement of sources of continental detrital sediments in the waning magmatic stage of the Ronda peridotite (Marchesi et al., 2012). This new data are consistent with a subduction-related setting for the late evolution of the Alboran lithospheric mantle before its final intracrustal emplacement in the early Miocene (Garrido et al., 2011). Detailed structural studies of Ronda plagioclase peridotites show that large-scale, ductile folding of peridotites-associated to the development of LT-LP plagioclase peridotite tectonites and ultramylonites-occurred during a contractional event before intracrustal emplacement of peridotites (Hidas et al., 2013). These authors have proposed that this event was related to inversion of a back-arc basin, followed by failed subduction initiation that ended into the intracrustal emplacement of peridotite into the Alboran wedge. This new structural data leads us to hypothesize that the crustal component observed in late, Cr-rich websterite might come from fluids produced by dehydration of underthrusted crustal units in the earliest stages of subduction initiation. Here we present new trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data in whole rocks from Flysch sediments from the Betic cordillera and the underlying crustal units of the Ronda massif, which may account for the timing and geochemical signature of the Ronda Cr-rich pyroxenites dykes. These units correspond to the Flysch trough composed of turbiditic deposits, formed in the region between Iberia and Africa during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, and the underlying crustal unit of the Ronda peridotite known as the Blanca unit. These new data are used to constrain the potential role of different crustal sources in the generation of the Late Oligocene subduction-related magmatism in the Ronda peridotite, and its implications for geodynamic models of the western Mediterranean in the Cenozoic. REFERENCES Garrido, C. J., F. Gueydan, G. Booth-Rea, J. Precigout, K. Hidas, J. A. Padrón-Navarta, and Marchesi C. . (2011) Garnet lherzolite and garnet-spinel mylonite in the Ronda peridotite: Vestiges of Oligocene backarc mantle lithospheric extension in the western Mediterranean, Geology, 39(10), 927-930. Hidas, K., Booth-Rea, G, Garrido, C. J., Martínez-Martínez, J. M., Padrón-Navarta, J. A., Konc, Z., Giaconia, F., Frets, E., and Marchesi, C. (2013) . Backarc basin inversion and subcontinental mantle emplacement in the crust: kilometre-scale folding and shearing at the base of the proto-Alborán lithospheric mantle (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain): Journal of the Geological Society, London. Marchesi, C., Garrido, C. J., Bosch, D., Bodinier, J.-L., Hidas, K., Padrón-Navarta, J. A., and Gervilla, F. (2012) A Late Oligocene Suprasubduction Setting in the Westernmost Mediterranean Revealed by Intrusive Pyroxenite Dikes in the Ronda Peridotite (Southern Spain): The Journal of Geology, 120 (2), 237-247.

Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Károly; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio

2013-04-01

286

[Fertility as the outcome of the length of exposure. Methodology and application to Sudan, Syria, and Tunisia].  

PubMed

A graduate student applied World Fertility Survey data from Syria, Sudan, and Tunisia to a fertility model that takes into account duration of exposure to risk of pregnancy. The 11 variables of this model have been grouped into three categories: nuptiality, maternal period, and birth spacing variables. Syria had the youngest age at first birth. The interval between marriage and first birth was only 11 months in Syria, but 16 months in Tunisia and 24 months in Sudan. The researcher thought that it was relatively improbable that new brides used contraception in Sudan, so it appears that involuntary subfecundity occurred in Sudan. After 15 years of marriage, marriage stability was much lower for Sudan. Fertility was the lowest in Sudan (6.23 vs. 6.81 for Tunisia and 7.7 for Syria). Remarried Sudanese women had lower fertility than those in a first union, while this was the opposite in Tunisia and Syria. Women from Syria had a longer maternal period (by about two years) and a shorter birth interval (by 6 months compared to Sudan and by 9 months compared to Tunisia), so they had the highest total fertility (7.03 vs. 5.17 for Tunisia and 5.7 for Sudan). Fertility levels determined by the model corresponded with those of national reports. Tunisia had the lowest breast feeding levels (33% vs. 47% in Syria and 62% in Sudan) and contraceptive use was rather high (37% vs. 16% for Sudan and 34% for Syria). The sterilization level was highest in Tunisia (8.1% vs. 0.3% in Sudan and 0.4% in Syria). Subfecundity was more or less the same in Syria and Tunisia (18% and 20%, respectively) while it was 64% in Sudan. This high rate of subfecundity was probably due to female genital mutilation practices. True infertility was 20% for Sudan and Tunisia and 15% for Syria. PMID:12346231

Kouaouci, A

1993-01-01

287

Primary investigation of 31 infants with suspected congenital rubella syndrome in Sudan.  

PubMed

Between 2005 and 2006, clinical specimens were collected from 31 infants with suspected congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) who presented at six hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan. Eleven (35.5%) were laboratory confirmed as CRS cases by testing for anti-rubella IgM, IgG and viral genome. For the first time in Sudan, the rubella virus genome was directly detected in clinical specimens of six CRS cases and two viruses were isolated in cell culture. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that three genotypes of rubella virus (RV; 1E, 2B and 1G) were co-circulating in Sudan. The study introduced the methodology for CRS confirmation and surveillance in Sudan and provides preliminary data. PMID:19732080

Omer, A; Abdel Rahim, E-H; Ali, E-E; Jin, L

2010-06-01

288

Enhancing effect of pyrrolidone derivatives on the transdermal penetration of sulfaguanidine, aminopyrine and Sudan III.  

PubMed

The enhancing effect of pyrrolidone derivatives on the percutaneous penetration of sulfaguanidine, aminopyrine and sudan III was investigated using in vitro technique and excised rat skin. 1-Methyl (MP), 1-hexyl (HP) and 1-lauryl-2-pyrrolidone (LP) were used as penetration enhancers. Aminopyrine showed high penetration through skin although sulfaguanidine and sudan III showed little penetration. Pyrrolidone derivatives enhanced their penetrations. Especially HP and LP enhanced the penetration of sulfaguanidine to a high extent. Sudan III was not detected in the receptor phase regardless of the presence of enhancer. Pyrrolidone derivatives significantly increased the skin accumulation of sulfaguanidine, aminopyrine and sudan III. Penetration of pyrrolidone derivatives was also determined. MP and HP showed high penetrations. LP was not detectable in the receptor phase. MP, HP and LP showed high skin accumulations. These results suggested the usefulness of pyrrolidone derivatives as percutaneous penetration enhancers. PMID:2374089

Sasaki, H; Kojima, M; Nakamura, J; Shibasaki, J

1990-03-01

289

48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-20...operations in Sudan that include power production activities, mineral extraction activities, oil-related activities, or the production of military equipment, as...

2010-10-01

290

Population Genetics of Trypanosoma evansi from Camel in the Sudan  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation of microsatellite loci is a widely used method for the analysis of population genetic structure of microorganisms. We have investigated genetic variation at 15 microsatellite loci of T. evansi isolated from camels in Sudan and Kenya to evaluate the genetic information partitioned within and between individuals and between sites. We detected a strong signal of isolation by distance across the area sampled. The results also indicate that either, and as expected, T. evansi is purely clonal and structured in small units at very local scales and that there are numerous allelic dropouts in the data, or that this species often sexually recombines without the need of the “normal” definitive host, the tsetse fly or as the recurrent immigration from sexually recombined T. brucei brucei. Though the first hypothesis is the most likely, discriminating between these two incompatible hypotheses will require further studies at much localized scales. PMID:21666799

Salim, Bashir; de Meeus, Thierry; Bakheit, Mohammed A.; Kamau, Joseph; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2011-01-01

291

Comprehensive impurity profiling and quantification of Sudan III dyes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel analysis strategy was created for comprehensive qualitative and quantitative impurity profiling of the coloring agent Sudan III by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The identification of impurities in commercial Sudan III was performed by GC/MS combined with trimethylsilylation (TMS). A total of 24 impurities were identified or tentatively characterized in commercial Sudan III dyes by GC/MS and were mainly classified as phenylazo and naphtholazo analogs. Four new impurities with coplanar structures, suspected of being toxic compounds, were observed in commercial Sudan III dyes. For further identification and sensitive detection of polar impurities, an extract was trimethylsilyl-derivatized to improve the GC chromatographic properties and mass spectrometric detection sensitivity. On the basis of the impurities identified by GC/MS, pathways for the formation of the major impurities during the manufacture of Sudan III were suggested. Four impurities regulated by the EU commission and the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in Sudan III were quantified by GC/MS-scan mode. Method validation was conducted to determine linearity, precision, accuracy, and limit of quantification (LOQ). The linear dynamic range extended from 0.001 to 4.0%, with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) greater than 0.997 for GC/MS. The LOQs of the impurities ranged from 2.73 to 4.39?g/g for GC/MS. Based on the established method, the levels of regulated impurities in five commercial Sudan III dyes manufactured by different chemical companies were successfully determined. This study provides very useful information for the quality control of Sudan III and evaluation of its manufacture. PMID:23726074

Hong, Ji Yeon; Park, Na Hyun; Yoo, Kyung Ho; Hong, Jongki

2013-07-01

292

Spatio-temporal water body and vegetation changes in the Nile swamps of southern Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment to describe and quantify the extent of changes in the channel and lagoon system of the Sudd was carried out using Landsat satellite images of 1973, 1979, 1997 and 2002. Using supervised classification and visual interpretation after referencing the images, the water bodies for a representative area between Bor and Shambe (a stretch of 150 km) were delineated. The resulting files were compared to establish and quantify changes in-between the years and as well compared to Lake Victoria outflow data to assess a likely correlation which was found for the largely water level dependent lagoon system. Changes in the channel system were interpreted to happen in a certain pattern but the extent of changes could not be correlated to the outflow data as they are influenced by other, here not considered factors like wind drift and channel blockages by vegetation.

Petersen, G.; Abeya, J. A.; Fohrer, N.

2007-06-01

293

Education in Emergencies and Early Reconstruction: UNICEF Interventions in Colombia, Liberia, and Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broad access to quality, child-friendly education in emergencies is a critical component of early reconstruction and development. As a class of graduate students at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, our goal is to make a modest contribution to the field of education in emergencies by working…

Beleli, Ozsel; Chang, Victoria; Feigelson, Michael J.; Kopel-Bailey, Jules A.; Maak, Sheila A.; Mnookin, Jacob P.; Nguyen, Thu H.; Salazar, Mariana; Sinderbrand, Joy E.; Tafoya, Simon N.

2007-01-01

294

International Aid as Informal Educator: Exploring Political Attitudes and Engagement in Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholarship has isolated internal economic conditions and political institutions as essential factors in political development and democracy-building, this research suggests that external influences are at play. During times of civil war and post-conflict reconstruction, governmental and socioeconomic structures are likely weak or nonexistent, and…

Pagen, Christine Mary

2010-01-01

295

Lithospheric extension northwest of the Central African Shear Zone in Sudan from potential field studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central African Shear Zone (CASZ) is a 4000-km-long, NE-striking wrench fault system, along which motion occurred during the break-up of Gondwanaland, but its location in central Sudan was poorly defined. Prior to this study, it was thought that Mesozoic extension was restricted to Sudan south of the mapped and proposed location of the CASZ. We use nearly all gravity data from Sudan, including 1894 unpublished gravity points in eastern Sudan to (1) clarify the position of the CASZ in central and eastern Sudan and to (2) interpret anomalies northwest of the CASZ with similar trends and amplitudes as those basins known to occur southeast of the CASZ. Considering the dimensions of these gravity minima and existing geological, aeromagnetic, magneto-telluric, seismic and well data, we suggest that fault-bounded sedimentary basins lie north of the CASZ in central and eastern Sudan. We construct geological models of the Bara, Bagbag, Humar, Gilif and Abu Dulu rift basins to investigate the subsurface geometry of these previously undetected basins, constraining models with existing geological and geophysical data. The detrended gravity profiles can be fit by 40-60-km-wide basins bounded on one or both sides by normal fault systems, and with depths of 1.5-3.5 km. These patterns suggest that the CASZ in central and eastern Sudan is a broader zone of deformation than had previously been considered. The < 10 km cumulative Mesozoic extension within the African plate north of the CASZ implied by these studies, however, will not change significantly current plate models for the break-up of Africa and South America.

Ibrahim, A. E.; Ebinger, C. J.; Fairhead, J. D.

1996-04-01

296

The migration patterns of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pleuronectidae, Pisces) at the southern limit of its distribution range: Ecological implications and fishery management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to determine the diversity of migration patterns of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)) present in the Minho estuary and in the adjacent coastal area (NW-Iberian Peninsula). Assessing the diversity of flounder migration patterns at the southern limit of its distribution allows the determination of characteristics of the species' ecology and provides useful information for fishery

Pedro Morais; Ester Dias; John Babaluk; Carlos Antunes

2011-01-01

297

The development and demise of a Medieval forest-meadow system at Linnaeus' birthplace in southern Sweden: implications for conservation and forest history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid industrialisation of agriculture and forestry during the last century has contributed to a transformation of the forested landscape in southern Sweden. Palaeoecological investigation revealed how the Medieval forest-meadow system was created about 900 years ago from a deciduous forest type that had been rather stable for the previous 3000 years. The study site was a forest hollow close

Matts Lindbladh; Richard Bradshaw

1995-01-01

298

Ecology of the native and introduced crayfishes Austropotamobius pallipes and Procambarus clarkii in southern Spain and implications for conservation of the native species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The former and present distribution of white clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes) in the province of Granada (southern Spain) is studied. Before 1980 it was widely distributed but at present only 16 populations exist. The decline is related to the presence of the freshwater red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), an American species, vector of the aphanomycosis disease, introduced to the Iberian Peninsula

José M. Gil-Sánchez; Javier Alba-Tercedor

2002-01-01

299

Evidence for Late-Paleozoic brine migration in Cambrian carbonate rocks of the central and southern Appalachians: Implications for Mississippi Valley-type sulfide mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Lower Paleozoic limestones and dolostones in the Valley and Ridge province of the central and southern Appalachians contain 10 to 25 weight percent authigenic potassium feldspar. This was considered to be a product of early diagenesis, however, 40 Ar \\/ 39 Ar analyses of overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar in Cambrian carbonate rocks from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee yield

Paul P. Hearn Jr.; John F. Sutter; Harvey E. Belkin

1987-01-01

300

Age and tectonic evolution of Neoproterozoic ductile shear zones in the Southern Granulite Terrain of India, with implications for Gondwana studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-grade rocks of the Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) of Peninsular India are bounded to the north by the Archean Dharwar Craton. Another high-grade terrane, the Mesoproterozoic Eastern Ghats, occurs to the northeast of the SGT. The tectonic relationship between these crustal domains is complex. We present new geochronological and structural data that indicate a continuation of the Dharwar Craton

Joy Gopal Ghosh; Maarten J. de Wit; R. E. Zartman

2004-01-01

301

Crustal deformation during 1994-1998 due to oblique continental collision in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand, and implications for seismic potential of the Alpine fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positions of 115 ground marks in a 150×100km area of oblique continental collision in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand, have been measured by Global Positioning System (GPS) two to four times between 1994 and 1998. Contemporary velocity and strain rate fields derived from these observations are largely invariant along the northeasterly strike of the mountains and Alpine fault.

John Beavan; Margaret Moore; Chris Pearson; Mark Henderson; Barry Parsons; Stephen Bourne; Philip England; Dick Walcott; Graeme Blick; Desmond Darby; Kathleen Hodgkinson

1999-01-01

302

Age and deformation of Early Proterozoic quartzites in the southern Lake Superior region: Implications for extent of foreland deformation during final assembly of Laurentia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bedrock mineral cooling dates in the southern Lake Superior region establish a sharp ca. 1630 Ma thermal front that separates basement having typical post-Penokean (1750 1700 Ma) cooling ages to the north from basement having thermally reset (<= 1630 Ma) ages to the south. The thermal front coincides spatially with an apparent deformational front in overlying post-Penokean quartzites. Subhorizontal quartzite

Daniel Holm; David Schneider; Christopher D. Coath

1998-01-01

303

Plio-Pleistocene intra-plate magmatism from the southern Sulu Arc, Semporna peninsula, Sabah, Borneo: Implications for high-Nb basalt in subduction zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

New analyses of major and trace element concentrations and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios are presented for Plio-Pleistocene basalts and basaltic andesites from the Semporna peninsula in Sabah, Borneo, at the southern end of the Sulu Arc. Depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE), which is characteristic of many subduction-related magmatic suites, is present in more evolved Semporna rocks

Colin G. Macpherson; Kai Kim Chiang; Robert Hall; Geoff M. Nowell; Paterno R. Castillo; Matthew F. Thirlwall

2010-01-01

304

Micro-tectonic constraints on the evolution of the Barles half-window (Digne Nappe, southern Alps). Implications for the timing of folding in the Valensole foreland basin  

E-print Network

Micro-tectonic constraints on the evolution of the Barles half-window (Digne Nappe, southern Alps 179 (2008) 551-568" #12;2 Keywords: Barles tectonic half-window, Digne Nappe, Valensole foreland basin Cenozoic at the front of the Digne Nappe. Microstructural analyses reveal that mesoscale faulting

305

Right-lateral displacements and the Holocene slip rate associated with prehistoric earthquakes along the southern Panamint Valley fault zone: Implications for southern Basin and Range tectonics and coastal California deformation  

SciTech Connect

The N 20{degree}W-trending Panamint Valley fault zone is linked to the N 60{degree}W-trending Hunter Mountain strike-slip fault and the Saline Valley fault system, which represents on of the three major fault systems accommodating active crustal extension in the southern Great Basin. The displacement associated with the most recent event, determined through six detailed topographic maps of offset features, is 3.2 {plus minus} 0.5 m, and a number of larger offsets, in range of 6-7 m and 12 m, are also observed. If the larger displacements represent, respectively, two and three events, each of {approximately} 3 m, then the fault zone appears to be associated with a characteristic earthquake, which the authors estimate from the length of the rupture zone and the displacement to be between (Ms) 6.5 and 7.2. The Holocene slip rate is 2.36 {plus minus} 0.79 mm/yr, is determined from the displacement of two alluvial features whose maximum age is estimated from pluvial shorelines. Assuming a characterisitc earthquake model, the recurrence interval is between 860 and 2,360 years. The total slip vector of the southern Panamint Valley fault system is oriented toward {approximately} N 35{degree}W, making this a predominately strike-slip fault. In conjunction with the N 60{degree}W orientation of the Hunter mountain strike-slip fault, the authors suggest that the displacement vector for the southern Great Basin is toward the NW, consistent with results from VLBI data, rather than WNW as determined by combining VLBI and geological data. This is turn suggests that the coastal California deformation component involves, respectively, less shortening and more strike-slip displacement perpendicular and parallel to the San Andreas fault than is currently proposed.

Peizhen Zhang; Ellis, M.; Slemmons, D.B.; Fengying Mao (Univ. of Nevada, Reno (United States))

1990-04-10

306

A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat: insights from South Sudan 89 A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat  

E-print Network

#12;A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat: insights from South Sudan 89 A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat: insights from South Sudan DeeAnn M. Reeder1, , Kristofer M. Helgen2, for more work in western South Sudan, which has received very little scientific attention. New country

Reeder, DeeAnn M.

307

Extraction of Sudan dyes from environmental water by hemimicelles-based magnetic titanium dioxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A novel method for the extraction of Sudan dyes including Sudan I, II, III, and IV from environmental water by magnetic titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4@TiO2) coated with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as adsorbent was reported. Fe3O4@TiO2 was synthesized by a simple method and was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic separation was quite efficient for the adsorption and desorption of Sudan dyes. The effect of the amount of SDS, extraction time, pH, desorption condition, maximal extraction volume, and humic acid on the extraction process were investigated. This method was employed to analyze three environmental water samples. The results demonstrated that our proposed method had wide linear range (25-5,000 ng L(-1)) with a good linearity (R (2)?>?0.999) and low detection limits (2.9-7.3 ng L(-1)). An enrichment factor of 1,000 was achieved. In all three spiked levels (25, 250, and 2,500 ng L(-1)), the recoveries of Sudan dyes were in the range of 86.9-93.6 %. The relative standard deviations obtained were ranging from 2.5 to 9.3 %. That is to say, the new method was fast and effective for the extraction of Sudan dye from environmental water. PMID:24938811

Li, Chenyu; Chen, Ligang; You, Xiaoxiao

2014-11-01

308

Genetic Diversity of the Outer Surface Protein C Gene of Southern Borrelia Isolates and Its Possible Epidemiological, Clinical, and Pathogenetic Implications  

PubMed Central

The ospC genes of 20 southern Borrelia strains were sequenced. The strains consisted of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. andersonii, B. bissettii, one undescribed genospecies, MI-8, and one probably new Borrelia species, TXW-1. A high degree of similarity exists between B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. bissettii and between B. bissettii and B. andersonii. Lateral transfers of the ospC gene probably occurred between B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. bissettii and between B. bissettii and B. andersonii. Internal gene recombination appears to occur among them. The highest degree of genetic diversity among them was observed in the two variable domains (V1 and V2), semivariable domain (SV), and the species-specific epitopes (between amino acids 28 and 31). Differences in ospC sequences among southern strains reflect diversity at the strain and genospecies levels. MI-8, which was recognized as an undescribed genospecies in our previous reports, remains distinguishable in our current analysis of ospC genes and is distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Interestingly, another undescribed southern isolate, TXW-1, was not amplified under various PCR conditions. Compared to European B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains, American B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains show greater genetic heterogeneity. Southern B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. andersonii, and B. bissettii isolates were intermixed with each other in the phylogenetic trees. In the derived trees in our work, at least one southeastern strain of B. burgdorferi, MI-2, most closely aligns with a so-called invasive cluster that possesses many proven human-invasive strains. Transmission experiments show that MI-2 and the strains in this group of southern spirochetes are able to infect mice and hamsters and that the typical vector of Lyme disease, Ixodes scapularis, can acquire the spirochetes from infected mammals. Currently, strain MI-2 appears to be the only southern isolate among the 20 we analyzed that clusters with an OspC invasive group and thus might be invasive for humans. PMID:12089279

Lin, Tao; Oliver, Jr., James H.; Gao, Lihui

2002-01-01

309

A comparison of the physics of the northern and southern shelves of the eastern Bering Sea and some implications for the ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sufficient oceanographic measurements have been made in recent years to describe the latitudinal variation in the physics of the eastern Bering Sea shelf and the potential impact of climate change on the species assemblages in the two ecosystems (north and south). Many of the predicted ecosystem changes will result from alterations in the timing and extent of sea ice. It is predicted that the sea ice in the northern Bering Sea will be less common in May, but will continue to be extensive through April. In contrast, the southern shelf will have, on average, much less sea ice than currently observed, but with large interannual and multiyear variability until at least 2050. Thus, even under current climate warming scenarios, bottom temperatures on the northern shelf will remain cold. Based on biophysical measurements, the southern and northern ecosystems were divided by a North-South Transition at ˜60°N. The northern middle shelf was characterized by a freshwater lens at the surface, cold bottom temperatures, and a thicker pycnocline than found on the southern shelf. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms were common. In contrast, the southern shelf stratification was largely determined by temperature alone; the pycnocline was thin (often<3 m) and subsurface blooms were uncommon. Biological responses to climate warming could include greater north-south differences in zooplankton community structure, the transport of large Outer Shelf Domain crustacean zooplankton to the middle shelf, and the disappearance of two principal prey taxa (Calanus spp. and Thysanoessa spp.) of planktivorous fish, seabirds and whales. The response of commercially and ecologically important fish species is predicted to vary. Some species of fish (e.g., juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka) may expand their summer range into the northern Bering Sea; some (e.g., pink salmon, O. gorbuscha) may increase in abundance while still other species (e.g., walleye pollock and arrowtooth flounder; Theragra chalcogramma and Atheresthes stomias, respectively) are unlikely to become common in the north. The projected warming of the southern shelf will limit the distribution of arctic species (e.g., snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio) to the northern shelf and will likely permit expansion of subarctic species into the southern Bering Sea. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales will respond to shifts in prey availability; for instance, if prey are advected northward from the southeastern Bering Sea, an extension of range and an increase in seasonally migratory baleen whale numbers is anticipated. Thus, alteration of this ecosystem in response to climate change is expected to result in something other than a simple northward shift in the distribution of all species.

Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Kachel, Nancy B.; Moore, Sue; Mordy, Calvin W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Overland, James E.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Sigler, Michael F.

2012-06-01

310

Cystic echinococcosis in Mundari tribe-members of South Sudan.  

PubMed

Many neglected tropical diseases, including the zoonotic disease cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), are endemic to East Africa. However, their geographical distribution is heterogenous and incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if Mundari pastoralists harbor endemic human hydatidosis. The survey was conducted in cattle camps randomly selected from accessible sites provided by officials in Terekeka, South Sudan. Following informed consent, a questionnaire collected demographic data and hydatid exposure risk. A systematic sonographic abdominal exam was performed using General Electric's LOGIQ Book XP with a 3C-RS 2-5 MHz curvilinear transducer. Six hundred and ten individuals were screened from 13 camps. Four infections were identified, all in women. The prevalence of abdominal hydatid disease in the Mundari tribe-members in cattle camps was 0·7% and all individuals reporting at least one high-risk exposure to hydatid disease. Cystic echinococcosis is endemic among Mundari pastoralists; however, it would appear to be less endemic than in neighboring tribes. PMID:24139620

Stewart, Barclay T; Jacob, Joseph; Finn, Timothy; Lado, Mounir; Napoleon, Robert; Brooker, Simon; Sidhu, Paul S; Kolaczinski, Jan

2013-09-01

311

Correlation of measles and dengue infection in Kassala, Eastern Sudan.  

PubMed

Using the clinical case definition adopted by the World Health Organization, a total of 275 suspected cases of measles were enrolled in this study during January-March 2012 in Kassala Teaching Hospital, Eastern Sudan. Various clinical manifestations (fever, headache, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, skin rash, vomiting, diarrhoea, convulsion, and hemorrhagic manifestations) were reported among these patients. Blood was withdrawn from the first 64 (23.3%) patients. Two samples were hemolyzed and only 60 samples (21.8%) were investigated for measles and dengue IgM antibodies. Antibodies for measles, dengue, and co-infection were detected in the plasma of 12 (20%), seven (11.7%), and 10 (16.7%) samples, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in age, residence, occupation, and vaccination status among the different groups, a high proportion of male patients (P?=?0.011), severe cases (P?=?0.004), and death ((P?=?0.001) were reported among co-infected cases. J. Med. Virol. 87: 76-78, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24980486

Abdalla, Tajeldin M; Karsany, Mubarak S; Ali, AbdelAziem A

2015-01-01

312

[Sudan and other illegal dyes--food adulteration].  

PubMed

As foodstuffs adulterated by illegal dyes, such as Sudan I, II, III IIV, para-Red, have appeared on the European Union market, the emergency measures to eliminate this problem have been taken. The illegal dyes are added to dried, ground chilli, curry, curcuma and to palm oil. These products are imported from countries outside the E.U. The adulteration concerns also ready to eat products which contain the ingredients mentioned above. Apart from the adulteration, the presence of illegal dyes in foodstuffs can be a threat to consumer's health. In 2003-2005 three Commission Decisions on emergency measures regarding some products which can contain illegal dyes were published. Since May 2003 to March 2006, 651 notifications on food adulteration by illegal dyes were sent to the RASFF system. As a result of the taken measures, the number of notifications have decreased. The possibility of food adulteration by illegal dyes different from the ones which are used now are considered. This is the reason why the continuation of food control and cooperation between official control authorities and food producers are necessary. PMID:17713194

Gajda, Joanna; Switka, Agnieszka; Ku?ma, Katarzyna; Jarecka, Jolanta

2006-01-01

313

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Northern Sudan.  

PubMed

Monthly total body tick collections from 13-20 camels were conducted for 2 consecutive years (2000-2001) in Northern Sudan. Tick populations were correlated with locality, season, predeliction site, sex and coat colour. Hyalomma dromedarii was found to be the predominant (89%) tick species infesting the camels. Other tick species found in very low numbers were Hyalomma impeltatum (7.7%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (3.3%), Hyalomma truncatum (0.29%), Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (0.25%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (0.30%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (0.09%). Nymphs of the genus Hyalomma were collected in significant numbers. Adult ticks significantly preferred to attach to the lower parts of the camel's body for feeding while the nymphs preferred the back of the animal. Female camels harboured more ticks than males while higher infestations were recorded on camels with a grey coat colour compared to those with a brown coat colour. Ticks were found on camels throughout the year and increased in numbers during March to October with a peak in September. PMID:20698438

Elghali, A; Hassan, S M

2009-06-01

314

Epidemiology of hepatitis B in the Gezira region of Sudan.  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis B infection in rural Sudan, 2 villages in the Gezira were surveyed. There were 851 subjects (age 1-89 years; mean age 24.6 years) of equal sex distribution, 408 from Khalawaat and 443 from Saleim. HBsAg was found in 18.7%, and seropositivity for any hepatitis marker (HBsAg, anti-HBs, or anti-HBc) was found in 63.9%. The prevalence of HBsAg was highest in subjects less than 5 years of age (32.3%). Seropositivity for any hepatitis marker increased from 48.4% in subjects less than 5 years to 88.5% in persons greater than or equal to 50 years of age. HBeAg was present in 70% of HBsAg-positive women of childbearing age. Residence in Khalawaat and parenteral therapy for malaria were found to be independent risk factors for HBsAg-positivity. Age, residence in Khalawaat, crowding, and having had a tattoo were predictive of seropositivity for any hepatitis marker. The reason for increased markers of hepatitis B in Khalawaat compared to Saleim was not apparent. PMID:2919728

Hyams, K C; al-Arabi, M A; al-Tagani, A A; Messiter, J F; al-Gaali, A A; George, J F

1989-02-01

315

The Neoproterozoic Keraf Suture in NE Sudan: Sinistral Transpression along the Eastern Margin of West Gondwana1  

E-print Network

The Neoproterozoic Keraf Suture in NE Sudan: Sinistral Transpression along the Eastern Margin Mozambique Belt to the south (Stern 1994). Continental collision occurred in the south along and granitic Sudan remains poorly under-2 University of Houston Department of Geosciences, Hous- stood because of its

Stern, Robert J.

316

The Relationship between Leadership Style and Motivation among Faculty Members in Two Public Universities in the Republic of South Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership style and motivation among faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of the South Sudan. The researcher examined this issue by surveying and interviewing faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of South Sudan, a total of 67 for…

Malok, Malok N.

2012-01-01

317

Complete genome sequence of an Ebola virus (Sudan species) responsible for a 2000 outbreak of human disease in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entire genomic RNA of the Gulu (Uganda 2000) strain of Ebola virus was sequenced and compared to the genomes of other filoviruses. This data represents the first comprehensive genetic analysis for a representative isolate of the Sudan species of Ebola virus. The genome organization of the Sudan species is nearly identical to that of the Zaire species, but the

Anthony Sanchez; Pierre E. Rollin

2005-01-01

318

First record of the family Dromaeosauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) in the Cretaceous of Gondwana (Wadi Milk Formation, northern Sudan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Kurzfassung  Die cenomane Wadi Milk Formation des Sudan lieferte eine reiche kontinentale Wirbeltierfauna. Neben Fragmenten von großen\\u000a Theropoden verweisen disartikulierte Fußphalangen-Elemente und ein Zahn auf die Existenz von dromaeosauriden Theropoden in\\u000a der Oberkreide des Sudan; damit ist diese Theropodenfamilie zum ersten Mal auf den Gondwana-Kontinenten nachgewiesen.

Oliver W. M. Rauhut; Christa Werner

1995-01-01

319

Articulated sponges from the Lower Cambrian Hetang Formation in southern Anhui, South China: their age and implications for the early evolution of sponges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-preserved benthic, epifaunal assemblage of articulated sponges is described from the stone coal beds of the Lower Cambrian Hetang Formation at Lantian, southern Anhui Province, South China. These sponges are Meishucunian–Qiongzhusian (=Diandongian–early Qiandongian) in age. In Siberian terminology, they are probably Tommotian–Atdabanian, approximately 535–520 Ma. The Hetang sponge fauna is taxonomically diverse and morphologically complex. Eleven species of both

Shuhai Xiao; Jie Hu; Xunlai Yuan; Ronald L. Parsley; Ruiji Cao

2005-01-01

320

Early Permian post-collisional high-K granitoids from Liuyuan area in southern Beishan orogen, NW China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Permian magmatism is one of the most important tectonothermal events in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Early Permian granitic magmatism has been recognized from southern Beishan, NW China and they were emplaced between 275 Ma and 279 Ma according to LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating. They are mainly metaluminous I-type and belong to the high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic series. The granitoids have calc-alkalic and alkali-calcic features. Their Sri values range from 0.7028 to 0.7047, ?Nd(t) values from - 2.5 to + 1.2 with Nd model ages (TDM) of 1.06-1.25 Ga, suggesting a mixed magma source of juvenile material with old continental crust. Furthermore, some granitoids have weak heterogeneous zircon ?Hf(t) values (- 1.7 to + 9.6) and Hf model ages (TDM2 = 0.84-1.57 Ga) that are also indicative of juvenile components with a small involvement of old continental crust. Based on geochemical and isotopic features, these high-K granitoids were derived from melting of heterogeneous crustal sources or through mixing of old continental crust with juvenile components and minor AFC (assimilation and fractional crystallization). The juvenile components probably originated from underplated basaltic magmas in response to asthenospheric upwelling. These Early Permian high-K calc-alkaline granitoids in the southern Beishan orogen were probably emplaced in a post-collisional extensional setting and suggest vertical continental crustal growth in the southern CAOB, which is the same or similar to most granitoids in CAOB. This study provides new evidence for determining the post-accretionary evolution of the southern CAOB.

Li, Shan; Wilde, Simon A.; Wang, Tao

2013-10-01

321

Nd and Sr-isotopic compositions of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs: implications for the origin of island arc melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nd- and Sr-isotopic data are reported for lavas from 23 submarine and 3 subaerial volcanoes in the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs. Values of eNd range from +2.4 to +9.5 whereas 87Sr\\/86Sr ranges from 0.70319 to 0.70392; these vary systematically between and sometimes within arc segments. The Nd-and Sr-isotopic compositions fall in the field of ocean island basalt (OIB)

P. N. Lin; R. J. Stern; J. Morris; S. H. Bloomer

1990-01-01

322

Nd and Sr-isotopic compositions of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs: implications for the origin of island arc melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nd- and Sr-isotopic data are reported for lavas from 23 submarine and 3 subaerial volcanoes in the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs. Values of ?Nd range from +2.4 to +9.5 whereas 87Sr\\/86Sr ranges from 0.70319 to 0.70392; these vary systematically between and sometimes within arc segments. The Nd-and Sr-isotopic compositions fall in the field of ocean island basalt (OIB)

P. N. Lin; R. J. Stern; J. Morris; S. H. Bloomer

1990-01-01

323

Evidence for late-paleozoic brine migration in Cambrian carbonate rocks of the central and southern Appalachians: implications for Mississippi Valley-type sulfide mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Lower Paleozoic limestones and dolostones in the Valley and Ridge province of the central and southern Appalachians contain 10 to 25 weight percent authigenic potassium feldspar. This was considered to be a product of early diagenesis, however, ⁴°Ar\\/³⁹Ar analyses of overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar in Cambrian carbonate rocks from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee yield Late Carboniferous-Early Permian ages

P. P. Jr Hearn; J. F. Sutter; H. E. Belkin

1987-01-01

324

Geochemistry of TTG and TTG-like gneisses from Lushan-Taihua complex in the southern North China Craton: Implications for late Archean crustal accretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Archean Taihua complex, mainly composed of amphibolite and TTG and TTG-like gneisses, is volumetrically most important metamorphic rock suites scattered along the southern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). Zircon SHRIMP U–Pb dating shows two episodes (2765±13 and 2723±9Ma) of Archean magmatism in the Lushan area with distinct geochemical features. The early (2765±13Ma) suite (TTG-like gneisses) has

Xiao-Long Huang; Yaoling Niu; Yi-Gang Xu; Qi-Jun Yang; Jun-Wei Zhong

2010-01-01

325

Retrograde alteration of chromian kyanite in metachert and amphibolite whiteschist from the Southern Alps, New Zealand, with implications for uplift on the Alpine Fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromian kyanites with a maximum content of 2.88 wt.% Cr2O3 occur in metachert and amphibolite from the Southern Alps, New Zealand. The presence of the whiteschist assemblage kyanite-talc, together with kyanite-zoisite assemblages in calc silicate bands imply high pressure metamorphism, with climactic conditions of approximately 10 kb at 650°–700° C. Mylonitization caused by a change to oblique-slip movements on the

A. F. Cooper

1980-01-01

326

Ponderosa pine mortality during a severe bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) outbreak in southern British Columbia and implications for wildlife habitat management  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the extent and severity of bark beetle (Dendroctonus sp.) attack in ponderosa pine forests in southern British Columbia using stand monitoring plots and forest insect overview survey data, and relate these results to vertebrate wildlife habitat conditions. Monitoring plots established in ponderosa pine stands in 2007 indicate overall mortality levels of 77.8% for trees >7.5cm dbh by 2008,

Walt Klenner; André Arsenault

2009-01-01

327

Crustal thickness and affinity in the southern Beaufort Sea from old deep seismic reflection profiles and gravity modelling and implications for Canada Basin evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rifting and break-up of continental crust to form oceanic basins is a fundamental process in geodynamics that generates passive continental margins. While rifting itself is fairly extensively studied, the transition from continental extension through break-up into seafloor spreading is more poorly understood. In this study we focus on the southern Beaufort Sea where a propagating seafloor spreading centre ceased activity probably sometime in the Cretaceous. We have reinterpreteda series of deep seismic reflection profiles and modelled gravity data to elucidate the variations in crustal and mantle geometry in the marginal parts of the southern Beaufort Sea adjacent to that part of the Canada Basin considered to have formed as a result of seafloor spreading. We find that the sub-sedimentary crustal layer is very thin in parts of the Beaufort Sea margin and interpret this as representing hyperextended continental crust (overlying hyperextended continental lithosphere) rather than oceanic crust as has been proposed previously. We use this result in an extensional strain distribution analysis, which indicatesthat total crustal extension is evidently much higher than upper crustal extension alone.The subsidence analysis suggests that the lithospheric hyperextension occurred in front of the seafloor spreading domain at the same time that seafloor spreading was occurring and that the continental margin crust continued to extend even after the end of the seafloor spreading in the adjacent ocean basin, consistent with amodel of very weak lithosphere in the area of the southern Beaufort Sea shelf.

Li, L.; Stephenson, R.

2013-12-01

328

A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat: insights from South Sudan  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new genus is proposed for the strikingly patterned African vespertilionid “Glauconycteris” superba Hayman, 1939 on the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons. A review of the attributes of a newly collected specimen from South Sudan (a new country record) and other museum specimens of “Glauconycteris” superba suggests that “Glauconycteris” superba is markedly distinct ecomorphologically from other species classified in Glauconycteris and is likely the sister taxon to Glauconycteris sensu stricto. The recent capture of this rarely collected but widespread bat highlights the need for continued research in tropical sub-Saharan Africa and in particular, for more work in western South Sudan, which has received very little scientific attention. New country records for Glauconycteris cf. poensis (South Sudan) and Glauconycteris curryae (Gabon) are also reported. PMID:23805046

Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Vodzak, Megan E.; Lunde, Darrin P.; Ejotre, Imran

2013-01-01

329

Seasonal variation of carbon fluxes in a sparse savanna in semi arid Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Large spatial, seasonal and annual variability of major drivers of the carbon cycle (precipitation, temperature, fire regime and nutrient availability) are common in the Sahel region. This causes large variability in net ecosystem exchange and in vegetation productivity, the subsistence basis for a major part of the rural population in Sahel. This study compares the 2005 dry and wet season fluxes of CO2 for a grass land/sparse savanna site in semi arid Sudan and relates these fluxes to water availability and incoming photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). Data from this site could complement the current sparse observation network in Africa, a continent where climatic change could significantly impact the future and which constitute a weak link in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Results The dry season (represented by Julian day 35–46, February 2005) was characterized by low soil moisture availability, low evapotranspiration and a high vapor pressure deficit. The mean daily NEE (net ecosystem exchange, Eq. 1) was -14.7 mmol d-1 for the 12 day period (negative numbers denote sinks, i.e. flux from the atmosphere to the biosphere). The water use efficiency (WUE) was 1.6 mmol CO2 mol H2O-1 and the light use efficiency (LUE) was 0.95 mmol CO2 mol PPFD-1. Photosynthesis is a weak, but linear function of PPFD. The wet season (represented by Julian day 266–273, September 2005) was, compared to the dry season, characterized by slightly higher soil moisture availability, higher evapotranspiration and a slightly lower vapor pressure deficit. The mean daily NEE was -152 mmol d-1 for the 8 day period. The WUE was lower, 0.97 mmol CO2 mol H2O-1 and the LUE was higher, 7.2 ?mol CO2 mmol PPFD-1 during the wet season compared to the dry season. During the wet season photosynthesis increases with PPFD to about 1600 ?mol m-2s-1 and then levels off. Conclusion Based on data collected during two short periods, the studied ecosystem was a sink of carbon both during the dry and wet season 2005. The small sink during the dry season is surprising and similar dry season sinks have not to our knowledge been reported from other similar savanna ecosystems and could have potential management implications for agroforestry. A strong response of NEE versus small changes in plant available soil water content was found. Collection and analysis of flux data for several consecutive years including variations in precipitation, available soil moisture and labile soil carbon are needed for understanding the year to year variation of the carbon budget of this grass land/sparse savanna site in semi arid Sudan. PMID:19046418

Ardo, Jonas; Molder, Meelis; El-Tahir, Bashir Awad; Elkhidir, Hatim Abdalla Mohammed

2008-01-01

330

Southern Africa  

article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... visibility of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. ... MISR Team. Aug 25, 2000 - South Africa to Zambia including the Okavango Delta. project:  ...

2013-04-16

331

The Use of Sudan Grass Pastures and Other Feeds for Beef Production.  

E-print Network

It was not possible to make a strict evaluation of the financial results of the sudan grazing period since the steers were not appraised at the close of the period. Lots 2 and 3 had definite advantage in finish over Lot 1 yet could not have been described... It was not possible to make a strict evaluation of the financial results of the sudan grazing period since the steers were not appraised at the close of the period. Lots 2 and 3 had definite advantage in finish over Lot 1 yet could not have been described...

Jones, John H.

1941-01-01

332

Paleocene-Eocene foreland basin evolution in the Himalaya of southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for the age of initial India-Asia collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

sedimentary rocks derived from the southern Lhasa terrane, sitting depositionally upon rocks of the northern Indian passive continental margin, provide an estimate of the age of initial contact between the continental parts of the Indian and Asian plates. We report sedimentological, sedimentary petrological, and geochronological data from Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene strata in the Sangdanlin section, located along the southern flank of the Indus-Yarlung suture zone in southern Tibet. This is probably the most proximal, and therefore the oldest, record of the India-Asia collision. These strata were deposited by high-density turbidity currents (or concentrated density flows) and suspension settling of pelagic biogenic debris in a deep-marine setting. An abrupt change from quartz-arenitic to feldspatholithic sandstone compositions marks the transition from Indian to Asian sediment provenance. The abrupt compositional change is accompanied by changes in U-Pb ages of detrital zircons diagnostic of a sediment provenance reversal, from Indian to Asian sources. The timing of the transition is bracketed between ~60 Ma and 58.5 ± 0.6 Ma by detrital zircon U-Pb ages and zircon U-Pb ages from a tuffaceous bed in the upper part of the section. In the context of a palinspastically restored regional paleogeographic framework, data from the Sangdanlin section combined with previously published data from the northern Tethyan Himalaya and the frontal Nepalese Lesser Himalaya and Subhimalaya suggest that a flexural wave migrated ~1300 km southward across what is now the Himalayan thrust belt from Paleocene time to the present.

DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P.; Gehrels, G. E.; Ding, L.

2014-05-01

333

Mycetoma herbal treatment: the Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan experience.  

PubMed

It is still challenging and difficult to treat patients with eumycetoma; the current treatment has many side effects and has proven to be expensive and characterized by high recurrence rate, hence the poor patients' treatment compliance. Most of the patients are of low socio-economic status, have many financial constraints and hence, many of them rely on alternative and herbal medicine for the treatment of their disease. With this background, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine usage among patients with eumycetoma. This cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Mycetoma Research Center, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. A convenience cohort of 311 patients with confirmed eumycetoma was invited to participate in the study after informed consent. The study showed that 42.4% of the study population used herbal medicine for the treatment of eumycetoma at some stage of their illness. The commonly used herbs were Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuminum cyminum. Most of the patients claimed no benefits from the herbal treatment. Ninety one patients (29.3%) had encountered complications with herbal treatment. The high prevalence of herbal treatment encountered in the study can be explained by the patients' dissatisfaction with the current medical therapeutic modalities. To reduce the high prevalence of herbal medicine usage, governmental control and health policies are mandatory; likewise, native healers need to be educated in that. Moringa oleifera was the commonly used herb in this study and many reports claimed medicinal properties of this tree; hence, further in-depth studies to determine the active ingredients in the different parts of the tree and its effect are required. PMID:23991244

Ezaldeen, Eshraga A; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Osman, Anjom

2013-01-01

334

Mycetoma Herbal Treatment: The Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan Experience  

PubMed Central

It is still challenging and difficult to treat patients with eumycetoma; the current treatment has many side effects and has proven to be expensive and characterized by high recurrence rate, hence the poor patients' treatment compliance. Most of the patients are of low socio-economic status, have many financial constraints and hence, many of them rely on alternative and herbal medicine for the treatment of their disease. With this background, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine usage among patients with eumycetoma. This cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Mycetoma Research Center, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. A convenience cohort of 311 patients with confirmed eumycetoma was invited to participate in the study after informed consent. The study showed that 42.4% of the study population used herbal medicine for the treatment of eumycetoma at some stage of their illness. The commonly used herbs were Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuminum cyminum. Most of the patients claimed no benefits from the herbal treatment. Ninety one patients (29.3%) had encountered complications with herbal treatment. The high prevalence of herbal treatment encountered in the study can be explained by the patients' dissatisfaction with the current medical therapeutic modalities. To reduce the high prevalence of herbal medicine usage, governmental control and health policies are mandatory; likewise, native healers need to be educated in that. Moringa oleifera was the commonly used herb in this study and many reports claimed medicinal properties of this tree; hence, further in-depth studies to determine the active ingredients in the different parts of the tree and its effect are required. PMID:23991244

Ezaldeen, Eshraga A.; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Osman, Anjom

2013-01-01

335

A New Model for Management of Mycetoma in the Sudan  

PubMed Central

Patients with mycetoma usually present late with advanced disease, which is attributed to lack of medical and health facilities in endemic areas, poor health education and low socio-economic status. With this background, an integrated patient management model at the village level was designed to address the various problems associated with mycetoma. The model was launched in an endemic village in the Sudan, between 2010 and 2013. This model is described in a prospective, descriptive, community-based study, aimed to collect epidemiological, ecological, and clinical data and to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in order to design effective and efficient management measures. In this study, the prevalence of mycetoma was 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The patients were farmers, housewives and children of low socio-economic status, and no obvious risk group was detected. All had surgery performed in a mobile surgical unit in the village which encouraged patients to present early with small early lesion leading to a good clinical outcome. The close contact with the Acacia tree thorns, animals and animal dung, walking bare footed and practising poor hygiene may all have contributed to the development of mycetoma in the village. Knowledge of mycetoma was poor in 96.3% of the study population, 70% had appropriate attitudes and beliefs towards interaction with mycetoma patients and treatment methods, and 49% used satisfactory or good practices in the management of mycetoma. Knowledge and practices on mycetoma were found to be significantly associated with age. Based on the KAP and epidemiological data, several health education sessions were conducted in the village for different target groups. The integrated management approach adopted in this study is unique and appeared successful and seems suitable as an immediate intervention. While for the longer term, establishment of local health facilities with trained health staff remains a priority. PMID:25356640

Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; EL Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh; Alshambaty, Yassir; Hashim, Ahmed; Hago, Ali; Zijlstra, Eduard E.

2014-01-01

336

A new model for management of mycetoma in the Sudan.  

PubMed

Patients with mycetoma usually present late with advanced disease, which is attributed to lack of medical and health facilities in endemic areas, poor health education and low socio-economic status. With this background, an integrated patient management model at the village level was designed to address the various problems associated with mycetoma. The model was launched in an endemic village in the Sudan, between 2010 and 2013. This model is described in a prospective, descriptive, community-based study, aimed to collect epidemiological, ecological, and clinical data and to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in order to design effective and efficient management measures. In this study, the prevalence of mycetoma was 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The patients were farmers, housewives and children of low socio-economic status, and no obvious risk group was detected. All had surgery performed in a mobile surgical unit in the village which encouraged patients to present early with small early lesion leading to a good clinical outcome. The close contact with the Acacia tree thorns, animals and animal dung, walking bare footed and practising poor hygiene may all have contributed to the development of mycetoma in the village. Knowledge of mycetoma was poor in 96.3% of the study population, 70% had appropriate attitudes and beliefs towards interaction with mycetoma patients and treatment methods, and 49% used satisfactory or good practices in the management of mycetoma. Knowledge and practices on mycetoma were found to be significantly associated with age. Based on the KAP and epidemiological data, several health education sessions were conducted in the village for different target groups. The integrated management approach adopted in this study is unique and appeared successful and seems suitable as an immediate intervention. While for the longer term, establishment of local health facilities with trained health staff remains a priority. PMID:25356640

Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh; Alshambaty, Yassir; Hashim, Ahmed; Hago, Ali; Zijlstra, Eduard E

2014-10-01

337

Record of Cenozoic sedimentation from the Amanos Mountains, Southern Turkey: implications for the inception and evolution of the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sedimentary succession of the southern Amanos Mountains, bordering the eastern margin of the Karasu Rift in south central Turkey, provides a record of environmental change from the Eocene (Lutetian) to the Upper Miocene (Tortonian) charting the final evolution of the northern Arabian plate margin prior to, and during, continental collision. Eocene shallow-marine carbonates (Hac?da?? Formation) are interpreted as the youngest unit of the Arabian passive margin succession deposited on a northwards facing carbonate ramp. Subsequent deformation and uplift took place during the Oligocene represented by folding of the Eocene and older strata. Unconformably overlying the Eocene limestone are Lower Miocene conglomerates, sandstones and palaeosols up to 150 m thick (K?c? Formation). These were deposited in a range of marginal marine settings consisting of alluvial fan, flood plain and shallow marine/lower shoreface environments interpreted as a ‘fan-delta' prograding from the uplifted proto-Amanos into a marine embayment. Subsequently, during the Middle Miocene, local patch reefs developed in restricted areas (Kepez Formation) followed by Upper Miocene sediments (Gökdere Formation) composed of deeper water marine marl, with clastic interbeds, which represents a transgression during this period. The Upper Miocene becomes sandier upwards, this records the regression from the relatively deep water facies to coastal sediments. Water depth gradually became shallower until during the Pliocene the area became continental. By the Quaternary rifting had resulted in the development of the Karasu Rift with active alluvial fans along the margins and braided rivers depositing coarse conglomerates in the axial zone. These conglomerates are interbedded with basaltic lava flows that resulted from the regional extension across the area. This research shows that initial continental collision occurred in this area after the Lutetian (40.4 Ma) and before the Aquitanian (23.03 Ma), represented by deformation and a sedimentary hiatus during this period. This supports the hypothesis that the southern Neotethys Ocean closed during the Late Eocene to Oligocene. This was a time of climatic change including the onset of southern hemisphere glaciation, in which the closure of the southern Neotethys may have had played an important role.

Boulton, S. J.

2009-04-01

338

Record of Cenozoic sedimentation from the Amanos Mountains, Southern Turkey: Implications for the inception and evolution of the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sedimentary succession of the southern Amanos Mountains, bordering the eastern margin of the Karasu Rift in south central Turkey, provides a record of environmental change from the Eocene (Lutetian) to the Upper Miocene (Tortonian) that charts the final evolution of the northern margin of the Arabian plate prior to and during continental collision. Eocene shallow-marine carbonates (Hac?da?? Formation) are interpreted as the youngest unit of the Arabian passive margin succession deposited on a northwards facing carbonate ramp. Subsequent deformation and uplift took place during the Oligocene represented by folding of the Eocene and older strata. This is interpreted to be the result of initial continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. Unconformably overlying the Eocene limestone are Lower Miocene conglomerates, sandstones and palaeosols up to 150 m thick (K?c? Formation). These were deposited in a range of marginal marine settings consisting of alluvial fan/fan delta facies, flood plain as well as basinal facies. Subsequently, during the Middle Miocene, local patch reefs developed in restricted areas (Kepez Formation) followed by Upper Miocene sediments (Gökdere Formation) composed of relatively deep water hemipelagic marl, with clastic interbeds, which represent a transgression during this period. The Upper Miocene becomes sandier upwards, this records the regression from the relatively deep water facies to coastal sediments. Water depth gradually became shallower until during Pliocene time the area became continental in nature. By the Quaternary rifting had resulted in the development of the Karasu Rift with active alluvial fans along the margins and braided rivers depositing coarse conglomerates in the axial zone. These conglomerates are interbedded with basaltic lava flows that resulted from the region extension across the area. This research shows that initial continental collision occurred in this area after the Lutetian (40.4 Ma) and before the Aquitanian (23.03 Ma) supporting the hypothesis that the southern Neotethys Ocean closed during the Late Eocene to Oligocene. This was a time of climatic change including the onset of southern hemisphere glaciation, in which the closure of the southern Neotethys may have had played an important role.

Boulton, Sarah J.

2009-04-01

339

Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopia and Sudan): Sediment budgets and erosion patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital modes of modern Nile sands, together with estimates of sediment volumes trapped in Sudanese reservoirs, allow us to calculate sediment loads of major tributaries (Blue Nile, White Nile, Atbara) and erosion rates in the Nile catchment. A tridimensional array of high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral data was obtained on both levee (suspended load) and bar (bedload) deposits, analysed separately for each grain-size subclass at 0.5 ? intervals. From available information on sediments stored in the Roseires, Khashm el Girba and Lake Nasser reservoirs between 1964 and 1990, the total Nile load is reassessed at 230 ± 20 10 6 t/a, an estimate two to four times higher than figures reported so far, on which previous estimates of sediment yields and erosion rates were based. Of such huge amount of detritus, 82 ± 10 10 6 t/a are contributed by River Atbara, which carries more volcanic rock fragments, brown augite and olivine from basaltic rocks, and 140 ± 20 10 6 t/a by the Blue Nile, which carries more K-feldspar and hornblende from amphibolite-facies basement rocks. The additional ? 10 7 t/a of almost purely quartzose sediments supplied by the rest of the Nile catchment, corresponding to insignificant average yields and erosion rates, represent the stable residue which survived extreme subequatorial weathering in southern Sudan swamps (White Nile, Bahr ez Zeraf, and Sobat sands) or fluvial and eolian recycling of ancient quartzarenites in hyperarid climates (Nubian sands). Sediment production is thus markedly focused on Ethiopian rift highlands, where rainfall is concentrated in a single July-August peak. High average yields and erosion rates (800 ± 150 t/km 2 a, 0.29 ± 0.05 mm/a) partly reflect anthropically-accelerated erosion caused by deforestation and intensive land use, and cannot be extrapolated far in the past. Erosion patterns may have changed repeatedly during Quaternary climatic oscillations, and possibly also in the longer term during the multistage rift-related events which, since impingement of the Afar plume and eruption of flood basalts in the Oligocene, caused elevated topography and monsoonal climate in Ethiopia.

Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Ali Abdel Megid, Ada; El Kammar, Ahmed

2006-12-01

340

Radiative forcing associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative forcing due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP). We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006) of an intense and long-lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne operations were conducted at the regional scale, from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea. Profiles of heating rates are computed from airborne LEANDRE 2 and space-borne CALIOP lidar observations using two mineral dust model constrained by airborne in situ data and ground-based sunphotometer obtained during the campaign. Complementary space-borne observations (from MODIS) and in-situ observations such as dropsondes are also used to take into account a realistic infrared contribution of the water vapour. We investigate the variability of the heating rate on the vertical within a dust plume, as well as the contribution of longwave radiation to the heating rate and the radiative forcing of dust during the nighttime. The sensitivity of the so-derived heating rate is also analyzed for some key variables for which the associated uncertainties are quite large. During daytime, the warming associated with the presence of dust was found to be between 1.5 K day-1 and 4 K day-1, on average, depending on altitude and latitude. Strong warming (i.e. heating rates as high as 8 K day-1) was also observed locally in some limited part of the dust plumes. Obviously, during nighttime much smaller values of heating/cooling are retrieved (less than ±1 K day-1) but large enough to modify the low tropospheric equilibrium. Furthermore, cooling is observed as the result of the longwave forcing in the dust layer, while warming is observed below the dust layer, in the monsoon layer.

Lemaètre, C.; Flamant, C.; Cuesta, J.; Raut, J.-C.; Chazette, P.; Formenti, P.; Pelon, J.

2010-04-01

341

Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976. Report of a WHO/International Study Team.  

PubMed

A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire.In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases.Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis.Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who had been diagnosed clinically, but in only 6 of 31 patients in Nzara. The possibility of the indirect immunofluorescent test not being sufficiently sensitive is discussed.Of Maridi case contacts, in hospital and in the local community, 19% had antibodies. Very few of them gave any history of illness, indicating that Ebola virus can cause mild or even subclinical infections. Of the cloth room workers in the Nzara cotton factory, 37% appeared to have been infected, suggesting that the factory may have been the prime source of infection. PMID:307455

1978-01-01

342

Late Cretaceous protolith age and provenance of the Pelona and Orocopia Schists, southern California: Implications for evolution of the Cordilleran margin  

SciTech Connect

The Pelona and Orocopia Schists are southern members of a eugeoclinal terrane that structurally underlies a large part of southwestern North America. Ion-microprobe U-Pb ages of >100 detrital zircons from three widely spaced samples of these two units indicate that deposition occurred after 70--80 Ma. Moreover, the distribution of zircon ages, including a significant peak centered ca. 1.7 Ga, implies a major contribution f detritus from the Mojave Desert and Transverse Ranges of southern California. Recrystallization of the schists at depths of 20--35 km occurred within 10--15 m.y. of deposition, which requires underthrusting at minimum rates of {approximately}4--12 mm/yr for reasonable thrust dips. Considering that similar processes formed the more northern Rand Schist at somewhat earlier times, results indicate a southward progression in timing of deformation for the schists' protoliths. This result is at odds with northward migration of deformation implied by the Baja British Columbia hypothesis. The age and provenance of the schist's protoliths are consistent with models that derive the schists from either the Franciscan Complex or Great Valley Group.

Jacobson, C.E.; Barth, A.P.; Grove, M.

2000-03-01

343

New c. 270 kyr strike-slip and uplift rates for the southern Alpine Fault and implications for the New Zealand plate boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along 100 km of the Alpine Fault, major valleys and glacial deposits can be matched across an 8000 m dextral offset. We use paleontologic and stratigraphic age constraints to date c. 270 ka marine sediments uplifted to 600 m elevation and overlying c. 270 ka glacial deposits related to the 8000 m dextral offset. These constraints yield a fault-proximal Australian plate uplift rate of 2.6 (-0.5/+0.4) mm/yr and an Alpine Fault dextral slip rate of 29.6 (-2.5/+4.5) mm/yr. Our rates resolve an apparent along-strike drop in strike-slip rate and instead support a relatively constant along-strike dextral slip rate of ˜28 mm/yr (˜80% of current Australian-Pacific plate boundary motion). We argue that the rate of dextral slip on the southern Alpine Fault has been relatively constant over the last ?3.5 myr, and that ductile fault processes may rate-limit the fault from accommodating a progressively higher percentage of plate boundary motion through time (i.e., the fault reached maturity long ago). The spatiotemporally constant strike-slip rate of the southern Alpine Fault and a previously published paleoseismic record of near-regular earthquake recurrence both characterize the Alpine Fault as a mature plate boundary fault zone that behaves in a constant way with behavior predictable over timescales of thousands and hundreds of thousands of years.

Barth, N. C.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Beu, A. G.; Murray-Wallace, C. V.; Hayward, B. W.; Mildenhall, D. C.; Lee, D. E.

2014-07-01

344

Combined structural interventions for gender equality and livelihood security: a critical review of the evidence from southern and eastern Africa and the implications for young people  

PubMed Central

Background Young people in southern and eastern Africa remain disproportionately vulnerable to HIV with gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities being key drivers of this. Behavioural HIV prevention interventions have had weak outcomes and a new generation of structural interventions have emerged seeking to challenge the wider drivers of the HIV epidemic, including gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities. Methods We searched key academic data bases to identify interventions that simultaneously sought to strengthen people's livelihoods and transform gender relationships that had been evaluated in southern and eastern Africa. Our initial search identified 468 articles. We manually reviewed these and identified nine interventions that met our criteria for inclusion. Results We clustered the nine interventions into three groups: microfinance and gender empowerment interventions; supporting greater participation of women and girls in primary and secondary education; and gender empowerment and financial literacy interventions. We summarise the strengths and limitations of these interventions, with a particular focus on what lessons may be learnt for young people (18–24). Conclusions Our review identified three major lessons for structural interventions that sought to transform gender relationships and strengthen livelihoods: 1) interventions have a narrow conceptualisation of livelihoods, 2) there is limited involvement of men and boys in such interventions, 3) studies have typically been done in stable populations. We discuss what this means for future interventions that target young people through these methods. PMID:22713350

Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha; Misselhorn, Alison; Mangoma, Jaqualine

2012-01-01

345

Petrogenesis of Cretaceous adakite-like intrusions of the Gangdese Plutonic Belt, southern Tibet: Implications for mid-ocean ridge subduction and crustal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a whole-rock geochemical, U-Pb zircon geochronological, and in situ zircon Hf-O isotopic compositional study of rocks in southern Tibet from the Langxian igneous suite (including a lamprophyre dyke, mafic enclaves, a granodiorite, and a two-mica granite) and the Nuri igneous suite (a quartz-diorite). U-Pb zircon dating indicates that the timing of crystallization of the mafic enclaves and host granodiorite of the Langxian suite are ca. 105 Ma and 102 Ma, respectively, that the Langxian lamprophyre dyke and the two-mica granite were emplaced at ca. 96 Ma and 80-76 Ma, respectively, and that the Nuri quartz-diorite was emplaced at ca. 95 Ma. With the exception of the lamprophyre dyke and mafic enclaves in the Langxian area, felsic rocks from the Langxian and Nuri igneous suites all show signs of a geochemical affinity with adakite-like rocks. The high Mg-numbers, high abundance of compatible elements, high ?Nd(t) (2.7 and 2.8) and ?18O (8.9 and 9.2‰) values, elevated zircon ?Hf(t) (11.0-17.0) values, and low 87Sr/86Sr(i) ratios (0.7040), collectively indicate that the Nuri adakite-like quartz-diorite was derived from partial melting of the low temperature altered Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust, and that these dioritic magmas subsequently interacted with peridotite as they rose upwards through the overlying mantle wedge. The observation of identical differentiation trends, similar whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions, and consistently low (Dy/Yb)N ratios among the Langxian igneous suite rocks, indicates that the adakite-like granodiorite was produced by low-pressure fractional crystallization of precursor magmas now represented by the (relict) mafic enclaves. However, relatively high Al2O3 contents, low MgO, Cr and Ni contents, and low (La/Yb)N and (Dy/Yb)N values indicate that the two-mica granite was derived from partial melting of the southern Tibetan mafic lower crust in the absence of garnet, while isotopic data suggest that at least 70% of the magma source region was juvenile materials. Combined with the presence of HT (high temperature) charnockitic magmatism, HT granulite facies metamorphism, and large volumes of Late Cretaceous batholiths, the oceanic-slab-derived Nuri adakitic rocks indicate a substantial high heat flux in the Gangdese batholith belt during the Late Cretaceous, which may have been related to subduction of a Neo-Tethyan mid-ocean ridge system. According to this model, hot asthenosphere would rise up through the corresponding slab window, and come into direct contact with both the oceanic slab and the base of the overlying plate. This would cause melting of both the oceanic slab and the overlying plate by the addition of heat that was ultimately linked with peak magmatism and the significant growth and chemical differentiation of juvenile crust in southern Tibet during the Late Cretaceous (105-76 Ma). In addition, the petrogenesis of the Langxian adakite-like two-mica granite indicates that the southern Tibetan crust was still of normal thickness prior to the emplacement of these intrusions at ca. 76 Ma. This probably means that large parts of southern Tibet were not very highly elevated prior to the Indian-Asian collision.

Zheng, Yuan-chuan; Hou, Zeng-qian; Gong, Ying-li; Liang, Wei; Sun, Qing-Zhong; Zhang, Song; Fu, Qiang; Huang, Ke-Xian; Li, Qiu-Yun; Li, Wei

2014-03-01

346

Gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11 - 17 years) in Sudan and South Sudan  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco use is one of the leading and preventable causes of global morbidities and premature mortalities. The study explores gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11-17years) in Sudan and South Sudan. Methods The study utilized the national Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected in 2005 for Sudan (4,277 unweighted; 131,631 weighted). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the dependent (tobacco use status) and independent variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the key factors which influence tobacco consumption among adolescents in the 2 Sudans for ever cigarette users, current cigarette users, and users of noncigarette tobacco products. Results There were significant gender differences in the prevalence of ever cigarette users (21.8%; male=13.1%, female=6.5%, p<0.05) and current cigarette users (6.9%; male=4.9%, female = 1.3%, p<0.05) but not among users of noncigarette tobacco products (14.7%; male=6.8%, female=6.1%). Adolescent tobacco use was significantly associated with availability of monthly income or allowance, exposure to tobacco industry promotions, and tobacco-use behavior of familial relations. Knowledge about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke was related with decreased likelihood of tobacco use. Conclusion School programs that focus on health messages alone may not work for the adolescent population. Legislations that ban all types of tobacco advertisements, promotions, and sponsorships among adolescents are needed in the 2 countries.

Atari, Dominic Odwa

2014-01-01

347

Disability associated with exposure to traumatic events: results from a cross-sectional community survey in South Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background There is a general lack of knowledge regarding disability and especially factors that are associated with disability in low-income countries. We aimed to study the overall and gender-specific prevalence of disability, and the association between exposure to traumatic events and disability in a post-conflict setting. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional community based study of four Greater Bahr el Ghazal States, South Sudan (n = 1200). The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) was applied to investigate exposure to trauma events. Disability was measured using the Washington Group Short Measurement Set on Disability, which is an activity-based scale derived from the WHO’s International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Results The estimated prevalence of disability (with severe difficulty) was 3.6% and 13.4% for disability with moderate difficulties. No gender differences were found in disability prevalence. Almost all participants reported exposure to at least one war-related traumatic event. The result of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that, for both men and women, exposure to traumatic events, older age and living in a polygamous marriage increased the likelihood of having a disability. Conclusions The finding of association between traumatic experience and disability underlines the precariousness of the human rights situation for individuals with disability in low-income countries. It also has possible implications for the construction of disability services and for the provision of health services to individuals exposed to traumatic events. PMID:23672785

2013-01-01

348

Late Holocene Environmental Change at Amara West: A New Kingdom Town on the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amara West is a well-preserved town of the late New Kingdom downstream of Sai Island in Northern Sudan. The town has being identified as the seat of the pharaonic administration of Kush (Upper Nubia) in the Ramesside Period (c. 1306-1070 BC). This region fell under Egyptian control after about 1500 BC. The modern Nile (flowing eastwards in this reach) lies to the south of the town and a well preserved palaeochannel lies immediately to the north. Following the Egypt Exploration Society excavations of 1938-39 and 1947-48, it was argued that the ancient town was once located upon an island in the Nile. Renewed archaeological excavations allied to geomorphological work on the ancient river environment are attempting to establish the nature of the local and regional landscape before, during, and after the occupation of the town. This paper presents new OSL and radiocarbon dates on the sedimentary fill from the palaeochannel system to establish when the channel system ceased to flow on a permanent basis. Micromorphological work on the sedimentary records within the town provide additional insights into the nature of the local environment during the period of occupation. We discuss the implications of the new palaeoenvironmental data for our understanding of Amara West and we set out the wider significance of these new geoarchaeological data.

Spencer, Neal; Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Dalton, Matthew

2014-05-01

349

Concomitant Infection with Leishmania donovani and L. major in Single Ulcers of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients from Sudan  

PubMed Central

In Sudan human leishmaniasis occurs in different clinical forms, that is, visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Clinical samples from 69 Sudanese patients with different clinical manifestations were subjected to a PCR targeting the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene for Leishmania species identification. Mixed infections were suspected due to multiple overlapping peaks presented in some sequences of the COII amplicons. Cloning these amplicons and alignment of sequences from randomly selected clones confirmed the presence of two different Leishmania species, L. donovani and L. major, in three out of five CL patients. Findings were further confirmed by cloning the ITS gene. Regarding other samples no significant genetic variations were found in patients with VL (62 patients), PKDL (one patient), or ML (one patient). The sequences clustered in a single homogeneous group within L. donovani genetic group, with the exception of one sequence clustering with L. infantum genetic group. Findings of this study open discussion on the synergetic/antagonistic interaction between divergent Leishmania species both in mammalian and vector hosts, their clinical implications with respect to parasite fitness and response to treatment, and the route of transmission with respect to vector distribution and or adaptation. PMID:24744788

Babiker, A. M.; Ravagnan, S.; Fusaro, A.; Hassan, M. M.; Bakheit, S. M.; Mukhtar, M. M.; Cattoli, G.; Capelli, G.

2014-01-01

350

Sedimentary characteristics of Cenozoic strata in central-southern Ningxia, NW China: Implications for the evolution of the NE Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cenozoic sedimentary deposits in central-southern Ningxia province, NW China are an important record of Tertiary tectonic events along the evolving Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau's northeast margin. Shortly after the onset of the Indo-Eurasia collision to the south, a thrust belt and adjoining foreland basin began to form during 40-30 Ma. The Eocene Sikouzi Formation developed in a distal setting to this basin, in normal fault-bound basins that may have formed in a forebulge setting. Subsequent deposition of the Oligocene Qingshuiying Formation occurred during a phase of apparently less intense tectonism and the previous underfilled foreland basin became overfilled. During the Early Miocene, contractional deformation was mainly distributed to the west of the Liupan Shan. This resulted in deformation of the Qingshuiying Formation as indicated by an unconformity with the overlying Miocene Hongliugou Formation. The unconformity occurs proximal to the Haiyuan Fault suggesting that the Haiyuan Fault may have begun movement in the Early Miocene. In the Late Miocene, thrusting occurred west of the southern Helan Shan and an unconformity developed between the Hongliugou and Qingshuiying Formations proximal to the the Cha-Gu Fault. Relationships between the Miocene stratigraphy and major faults in the region imply that during the Late Miocene the deformation front of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau had migrated to the Cha-Gu Fault along the western Ordos Margin, and the Xiang Shan was uplifted. Central-southern Ningxia was then incorporated into the northeast propagating thrust wedge. The driving force for NE propagation of the thrust wedge was most likely pronounced uplift of the northeastern plateau at the same time. Analysis of the sedimentary record coupled with consideration of the topographic evolution of the region suggests that the evolving fold-and-thrust belt experienced both forward-breaking fold-and-thrust belt development, and out-of-sequence fault displacements as the thrust wedge evolved and the foreland basin became compartmentalised. The documented sedimentary facies and structural relationship also place constraints on the Miocene-Recent evolution of the Yellow River and its tributaries.

Jin, Zhang; Cunningham, Dickson; Hongyi, Cheng

2010-11-01

351

Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Os isotopic compositions of Miocene ultrapotassic rocks in southern Tibet: Petrogenesis and implications for the regional tectonic history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrapotassic lavas are widespread throughout southern Tibet and are generally thought to have formed from magmas generated by partial melting of an enriched mantle source that was metasomatized during earlier subduction events. Here, we report new geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Os isotope data for Miocene ultrapotassic rocks within the Sailipu area of the western Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet. The Sailipu ultrapotassic rocks are enriched in the large ion lithophile elements relative to the high field strength elements, and have extremely radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.714480-0.727323), Pb (206Pb/204Pb = 18.414-18.787, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.693-15.749, 208Pb/204Pb = 39.439-39.765), and Os isotopic signatures (187Os/188Os(i) = 0.1095-0.37454), and unradiogenic Nd (?Nd(t) = - 11.5 to - 15.2) isotopic compositions. These geochemical and isotopic characteristics, coupled with high K2O (> 5 wt.%) and MgO (5.20-13.70 wt.%) concentrations, Mg# values of 68-76, high Rb/Sr (0.13-0.95) and low Ba/Rb (3.33-12.3) ratios, and the relatively low Os contents and radiogenic Os isotopic compositions of the Sailipu ultrapotassic rocks, do not support any significant crustal contamination. Instead, we consider these rocks to be analogous to the Cenozoic ultrapotassic rocks from Italy and the Balkans, suggesting that they were produced by interaction between melts derived from phlogopite-rich clinopyroxene veins and surrounding peridotitic mantle material. The Sailipu ultrapotassic rocks can be divided into type-1 and type-2 suites based on differences in major and trace element concentrations, and isotopic compositions. Type-1 ultrapotassic rocks are relatively enriched in the heavy rare earth elements, most likely as a result of interaction between melts derived from phlogopite-rich clinopyroxene veins and the surrounding spinel-bearing peridotite material, whereas the type-2 rocks are enriched in rare earth elements and have high (Gd/Yb)N values (8.3-12.2), both of which are indicative of interaction between melts derived from phlogopite-rich clinopyroxene veins and surrounding garnet-bearing peridotite material that also contained carbonates. Although both the existing convective removal and oblique subduction models can explain some of the geological observations associated with the formation of the Tibetan Plateau, we suggest that the former more accurately explains the spatial and temporal distributions of ultrapotassic rocks and other Cenozoic lavas in this area and the associated topographic uplift recorded in southern Tibet.

Wang, BaoDi; Chen, JianLin; Xu, JiFeng; Wang, LiQuan

2014-11-01

352

Evidence for large-magnitude paleo-earthquakes on the Ventura fault: Implications for earthquake recurrence, fault slip rate, and seismic hazard assessment in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New borehole, high-resolution seismic reflection, and geochronologic data reveal the ages and displacements of the two most recent large-magnitude earthquakes on the Ventura fault, the central segment of a large, multi-fault reverse fault system that extends for >200 km along the southern edge of the central and western Transverse Ranges fault system. Based on geomorphology and analysis of high-resolution seismic data acquired in 2010, we drilled 17 hollow stem auger boreholes and cone penetrometer tests along two transects across the locus of most recent folding above the Ventura fault. At Day Road in downtown Ventura, our 23-m-deep boreholes revealed a well-bedded alluvial section with many units that are traceable continuously along the entire 375 m length of the transect. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that the prominent topographic scarp at this site records ~6 m of uplift during fold growth in the most-recent earthquake on the underlying Ventura blind thrust ramp. Similarly, sedimentary growth observed in the borehole cross section indicates ~4.5 m of growth during the penultimate event, with an event horizon located at the base of a growth interval between 4 and 8.5 m depth south of the scarp. Six 14C and 14 OSL ages collected from the four hollow-stem auger boreholes at this site constrain the timing of the two most recent events on the Ventura blind thrust fault to post-2900 B.P. and 4700 × 350 to 5460 × 330 years before present; dating of additional shallow luminescence samples should help narrow the age range of the MRE. The large amounts of uplift in the two folding events indicate that they formed in response to large-displacement, and therefore large-magnitude earthquakes, likely involving rupture of the Ventura fault together with thrust ramps to both the west (e.g., Pitas Point fault) and east (Southern San Cayetano and eastern San Cayetano faults). These thrust faults form the middle section of a >200-km-long, east-west belt of large, interconnected reverse faults that extends along the southern edge of the Transverse Ranges. Although each of these faults represents a major seismic source in its own right, we are exploring the possibility of even larger-magnitude, multi-segment ruptures that may link these faults to other major faults to the east and west. The proximity of this large reverse-fault system to several major population centers, including the metropolitan Los Angeles region, and the potential for tsunami generation during offshore ruptures of the western parts of the system, emphasize the importance of understanding the behavior of these faults for seismic hazard assessment.

Mcauliffe, L. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Pratt, T. L.; Rhodes, E. J.

2013-12-01

353

Petrogenesis of the early Cretaceous intermediate and felsic intrusions at the southern margin of the North China Craton: Implications for crust-mantle interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New major and trace element, whole rock Sr and Nd isotopes and zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data are presented for rocks from the early Cretaceous Tianqiaogou dioritic and Taishanmiao granitic plutons at the southern margin of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to investigate their petrogenesis and geological evolution. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses for zircons from these two plutons yield similar 206Pb/238U ages of 122 Ma and 115-125 Ma, respectively. Monzodiorites from the Tianqiaogou pluton have whole rock ?Nd(t) values ranging from -6.2 to - 1.3 and zircon ?Hf(t) values from + 2.9 to + 6.2. They are variably enriched in Ra, Ba, and Sr, and depleted in Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and Ti, indicating that they were derived from a depleted mantle and underwent subsequent magma differentiation and crustal contamination. The Taishanmiao pluton is composed of metaluminous to peraluminous highly fractionated I-type granites that have high SiO2, Na2O, K2O, Rb, Th, and U, and low P, Ba, Sr, Ti and Eu contents. The granites have strong negative whole rock ?Nd(t) values (- 16.1 to - 7.5) and zircon ?Hf(t) values (- 20.9 to - 6.1). Their Nd TDM ages (1.19 to 2.01 Ga) and zircon Hf TC DM ages (1565 to 2490 Ma) are much younger than the basement rocks beneath the southern margin of the NCC, suggesting derivation from an ancient crustal source with minor involvement of mantle-derived components. Therefore, rocks from the Tianqiaogou dioritic pluton were partial melts of the mantle source. Underplating of the mafic magmas initiated partial melting of the ancient continental crust, resulting in the formation of the Taishanmiao granitic pluton. Their complex petrogenesis reflects a strong crust-mantle interaction process related to lithospheric thinning beneath the southern margin of the NCC in early Cretaceous.

Gao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Tai-Ping; Bao, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Alexandra Yang

2014-10-01

354

Some aspects of the value of Sudan Black B in lipid histochemistry.  

PubMed

The lipid dye Sudan Black B, as generally used to demonstrate lipids in the interior of the cell nucleus, was studied with regard to its staining properties for isolated nuclei in relation with its chromatographic characteristics in solution, as well as with a model system consisting of lipid containing polyacrylamide films. Isolated nuclei are stained with Sudan Black B dissolved in ethylalcohol, only when the dye-solution is at least one month old. Extraction with chloroform-methanol (2:1) before staining resulted in a decrease of 35% in intensity. Treatment with proteolytic enzymes and DNA-se caused a complete disappearance of the staining capacity. The binding of Sudan Black B with phospholipids enclosed in the form of liposomes in modelfilms when stained with this dye in ethylene glycol obeys the law of Lamber-Beer, Proteins were however, also coloured by the dye. The chromatographic experiments showed that the dye is built up from two main and a number of secondary products. The secondary products which increase by aging of the dye-solution, change the spectrophotometric properties of the total dye and show a specific binding. The conclusion was reached that on the basis of a positive reaction with Sudan Black B no definite conclusions can be drawn about the presence of lipids in the interior of the cell nucleus. PMID:72059

Frederiks, W M

1977-10-01

355

The impact of indoor residual spraying with malathion on malaria in refugee camps in eastern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory trial of the efficacy of indoor spraying with malathion on morbidity and mortality in refugee camps in eastern Sudan was conducted during the rainy season of 1997. The interior walls of houses from a randomly selected group of five camps were sprayed with malathion in mid-September and morbidity and mortality rates in the camps for the months October

J. D. Charlwood; M. Qassim; E. I. Elnsur; M. Donnelly; V. Petrarca; P. F. Billingsley; J. Pinto; T. Smith

2001-01-01

356

‘This gun is our food’: Disarming the White Army militias of South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued presence of ‘other armed groups’ poses a significant challenge to furthering peace and stability in post-conflict environments. A good example of this was ‘White Army’ militias, which maintained an armed presence after the signing of Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005. This article presents an empirical mapping of the White Army militias as well as a detailed analysis

Matthew B. Arnold; Chris Alden

2007-01-01

357

Adult Literacy in Africa--Nigeria, Rhodesia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania. Literacy Bibliographies 23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 200 items are listed in this bibliography of materials pertaining to adult literacy in Nigeria, Rhodesia, South Africa, the Sudan, and Tanzania. The listed materials are categorized according to country and deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) adult education and adaptation to change in Nigeria; (2) adult…

International Inst. for Adult Literacy Methods, Teheran (Iran).

358

The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

2011-01-01

359

The Sociolinguistics of Nationalism in the Sudan: The Politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of Politics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph describes the historiography of language ideologies that led to the politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of politics in the Sudan, starting from British colonial rule until the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that was a precursor to the separation of the South as an independent state. The monograph shows that the…

Abdelhay, Ashraf; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree; Mugaddam, Abdel Rahim

2011-01-01

360

Geologic assessment of the fossil energy and geothermal potential of the Sudan  

SciTech Connect

This preliminary report provides geological input to the consideration of appropriate activities that can enhance the exploration and development of fossil-fuel and possible geothermal energy resources of the Sudan, and is based on study of available literature in early 1982. 59 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.

Setlow, L.W.

1983-01-01

361

Fluorescent nanomicelles for selective detection of Sudan dye in Pluronic F127 aqueous media.  

PubMed

Novel self-assembled water-soluble nanomicelles that contain fluorescent conjugated polymers (poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) or poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-alt-4,4'-phenylether] (PF-PE)) have been obtained and used as the highly sensitive/selective platform for Sudan dye detection. The Fluorescent nanomicelles exhibited a highly selective fluorescence quenching by the prohibited food additive Sudan I, while not for the natural pigments: Capsanthin and Beta-carotene, due to the more suitable matching of the LUMOs (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of the conjugated polymers with that of Sudan I molecules. The Stern-Volmer constants (K(SV)) of PF-PE/F127 and PFO/F127 for Sudan I were 1,040,480 and 665,000 M(-1), respectively, which were more than 100 times higher than those of the same conjugated polymers in the orgainc solvents. The significantly enhanced sensitivity was due to the collective effect of the F127 micelles to both chromophore and analyte, through which the fluorophone-analyte binding interaction is significantly strengthened and efficient photoinduced charge transfer occurs. The as-proposed materials and approach may be potentially applied in the real-time food safety screening. PMID:24625370

Ye, Xinliang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui; Wang, Xiaohui; Huang, Fei

2014-04-01

362

Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis E virus in Darfur, Sudan, and neighboring Chad  

Microsoft Academic Search

The within-outbreak diversity of hepatitis E virus (HEV) was studied during the outbreak of hepa- titis E that occurred in Sudan in 2004. Specimens were collected from internally displaced persons living in a Sudanese refugee camp and two camps implanted in Chad. A comparison of the sequences in the ORF2 region of 23 Sudanese isolates and five HEV samples from

Elisabeth Nicand; Gregory L. Armstrong; Vincent Enouf; Jean Paul Guthmann; Jean-Philippe Guerin; Mélanie Caron; Jacques Yves Nizou; Roberta Andraghetti

2005-01-01

363

Female circumcision: the view from Sudan. Interview [with Ikhlas Nouh Osman].  

PubMed

Female circumcision involves removing either all or part of the clitoris, labia minora, and/or labia majora. The practice is therefore increasingly being described as female genital mutilation. More than 90% of women in Sudan have undergone female genital mutilation. Pharonic circumcision is the most prevalent in Sudan. This form of mutilation involves the full removal of the clitoris and the labia. The two sides of the wound are then sewn together, leaving a small hole through which urine and menstrual blood may pass. Female genital mutilation occurs because women believe that the resultant narrow vaginal entrance will give pleasure to a future husband, due to tradition, uncircumcised women have great difficulty finding a spouse, and from the belief that the practice is mentioned in Islam. Koranic law is widely respected and followed in the Islamic areas of Sudan. Contrary to the belief of women that female circumcision keeps the vagina very clean, considerable health and psychological problems may result following the operation and throughout the woman's life. An activist against female genital mutilation describes her experience undergoing the operation, the trauma of first penile penetration with her husband, giving birth, and how women have their genital orifice restitched after delivery to the size before penetration. Nongovernmental organization efforts in Sudan against female circumcision are described. PMID:12290600

Mulholland, L

1992-12-01

364

Prevalence and risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant women of eastern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which is associated with serious adverse effects on pregnancy. The presentation of malaria during pregnancy varies according to the level of transmission in the area. Our study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and risk factors for malaria (age, parity and gestational age) among pregnant women of eastern Sudan, which is characterized by

Ishag Adam; Amar H Khamis; Mustafa I Elbashir

2005-01-01

365

FENCES IN URBAN AND PERI-URBAN GARDENS OF KHARTOUM, SUDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city of Greater Khartoum, capital of the Republic of the Sudan, is an example of a rapidly expanding Sub-Saharan Africa city where urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) plays an important role in the livelihoods of farm households and urban consumers. This study was conducted in 120 gardens, covering 160 ha in three UPA locations of Khartoum, to determine the

JAMES L. THOMPSON; JENS GEBAUER; ANDREAS BUERKERT

2010-01-01

366

Civic Education and Peacebuilding: Examples from Iraq and Sudan. Special Report 254  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 2006 and 2010, the United States Institute of Peace developed several civic education programs for Iraq and Sudan as part of broader efforts to promote postconflict stability and development and help prevent a return to violence. This report describes those programs after first examining the conceptual bases for civic education and how…

Levine, Daniel H.; Bishai, Linda S.

2010-01-01

367

On the Roth and Ruckenstein Equations for the Guruswami-Sudan Algorithm  

E-print Network

1 On the Roth and Ruckenstein Equations for the Guruswami-Sudan Algorithm Daniel Augot--In 2000 Roth and Ruckenstein proposed an Ex- tended Key Equation for solving the interpolation step method Roth and Ruckenstein [2] have also derived a so-called Extended Key Equation (EKE), which

Boyer, Edmond

368

Chironomid Haemoglobins: Their Detection and Role in Allergy to Midges in the Sudan and Elsewhere.  

E-print Network

f' Chironomid Haemoglobins: Their Detection and Role in Allergy to Midges in the Sudan. London SW7 5BD. ROSEMARYD. TEE Department ofAllergy and Clinical Immunology Cardiothoracic Institute University of London Regent's Park, London NWI 4NS. A.B. KAY Department of Allergy and Clinical

Cranston, Peter S.

369

Mothers and militias: Islamic state construction of the women citizens of Northern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the only Sunni Islamic Republic in the world, Sudan's middle?class, modernist Islamist revolution can be seen as a model for the mobilization of public consciousness about citizenship in an Islamic state. That this citizenship is consciously and conspicuously gendered is the main theme of this paper. In the north, where mobilization has been most successful, Sudanese women have both

Sondra Hale

1999-01-01

370

Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vector Mediates Postexposure Protection against Sudan Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in Nonhuman Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing homologous filoviral glycoproteins can completely protect rhesus monkeys against Marburg virus when administered after exposure and can partially protect macaques after challenge with Zaire ebolavirus. Here, we administered a VSV vector expressing the Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV) glycoprotein to four rhesus macaques shortly after exposure to SEBOV. All four animals survived SEBOV challenge, while

Thomas W. Geisbert; Kathleen M. Daddario-DiCaprio; Kinola J. N. Williams; Joan B. Geisbert; Anders Leung; Friederike Feldmann; Lisa E. Hensley; Heinz Feldmann; Steven M. Jones

2008-01-01

371

Research Note: Hassan al-Turabi, Osama bin Laden, and Al Qaeda in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research note explores the events and circumstances surrounding Osama bin Laden's stay in Sudan from 1991 to 1996. In particular, it discusses the role that the Sudanese politician, Hassan al-Turabi may have played in the development of bin Laden and al Qaeda. It draws particular attention to the role of the Popular Arab and Islamic Congress (PAIC) in the

Max Taylor; Mohamed E. Elbushra

2006-01-01

372

Compilation and evaluation of solar and wind energy resources in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of years worth of data concerning the solar radiation on a horizontal surface, sunshine duration and wind speed in Sudan have been compiled, evaluated and presented in this article.Measurements of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface at 16 stations for several years are compared with predictions made by several independent methods. In the first method the Angstrom

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

1997-01-01

373

Report on Animal Husbandry among the Ngok Dinka of the Sudan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Among the Ngok Dinka in Abyei, Sudan, cattle fulfill various sociocultural needs as well as contributing economically, primarily through milk production. Reported here are the findings and recommendations from a 4/80-4/81 survey examining the Ngok Dinka l...

M. Niamir

1982-01-01

374

A Basic Hybrid Library Support Model to Distance Learners in Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance learning has flourished in Sudan during the last two decades; more and more higher education institutions offer distance learning programmes to off-campus students. Like on-campus students, distance learners should have access to appropriate library and information support services. They also have specific needs for library and…

Abdelrahman, Omer Hassan

2012-01-01

375

Self-Testing Polynomial Functions Efficiently and over Rational Domains Ronitt Rubinfeld Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Self-Testing Polynomial Functions Efficiently and over Rational Domains Ronitt Rubinfeld £Madhu Sudan Ý Abstract In this paper we give the first self-testers and checkers for polynomials over rational and integer domains. We also show significantly stronger bounds on the efficiency of a simple

Sudan, Madhu

376

Distribution of the lactase phenotypes in the population of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the adult lactase phenotypes, lactose absorption, and lactose malabsorption, was determined by a field version of the hydrogen breath test for disaccharide absorption in a sample of 563 subjects residing in the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. Relatively high proportions of lactose absorption were found in the northern nomadic groups who rely heavily on dairying for their

R. A. L. Bayoumi; N. Saha; A. S. Salih; A. E. Bakkar; G. Flatz

1981-01-01

377

Cenozoic normal faulting and regional doming in the southern Hangay region, Central Mongolia: implications for the origin of the Baikal rift province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hangay Dome in central Mongolia is a mountainous region covering more than 200,000 km 2 with numerous flat-topped peaks over 3000 m that preserve a Late Cretaceous-Paleogene erosion surface. Doming began in the middle Oligocene producing more than 2000 m of regional topographic uplift. The range represents an important kinematic link between the Baikal rift province to the north and Altai transpressional ranges to the south and west. Structural field investigations of major faults visible on satellite imagery indicate that the southern Hangay Dome region is dominated by Late Cenozoic normal faults that bound small half-graben. Most faults are NE-striking and faults at the highest elevations are the most recently active. Most graben appear to be isolated systems that constitute small sediment sinks perched on the flanks and crests of the dome. The first-order feature is the dome itself and most sediment eroded off of the dome is deposited in the Mongolian Valley of Lakes or is carried northwards by the Selenga river and its extensive tributaries. The basement of the dome is a Precambrian craton although the shape and dimensions of the craton are poorly constrained to the north and east. Late Cenozoic uplift of the southern dome region appears to be confined to the area underlain by cratonic basement whereas the Altai region to the south and west is underlain by mechanically weaker Palaeozoic arc and accretionary belts. With respect to the regional northeast directed SHmax, the Hangay craton appears to have acted as a rigid passive indentor focusing Late Cenozoic transpressional deformation around its west and southern margins. Models invoking a Late Cenozoic plume as the driving force for doming and widespread alkaline volcanism on the dome are not strongly supported by geochemical and isotopic data on Neogene-Recent volcanics and the spatial correlation between areas that are domed and older cratonic crust appears too coincidental to be ignored. Convective removal of an overthickened lithospheric root leading to adiabatically decompressed asthenosphere could explain regional doming and volcanism, however major crustal thickening last occurred in the Permian in the southern Hangay region and the time lag between thickening and postulated root removal and plateau uplift (>200 Myr) appears too long. An alternative model is explored based on speculated lithospheric mantle flow patterns driven by India's continued northeastward indentation. It is suggested that lithospheric mantle flow diversion around the overthickened Hangay craton crustal keel could cause lithospheric thinning beneath the craton and passive asthenospheric upwarp leading to regional topographic uplift and decompression melting/alkali volcanism. In general, the angular relationship between Precambrian craton boundaries and the prevailing northeasterly SHmax appears to control the kinematics of late Cenozoic deformation throughout the Hangay, Altai, Sayan and Baikal regions.

Cunningham, W. D.

2001-02-01

378

Petrogenesis of the early Cretaceous Funiushan granites on the southern margin of the North China Craton: Implications for the Mesozoic geological evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Mesozoic granitoids are ubiquitous in the southern margin of the North China Craton and are keys to the understanding of the Mesozoic geological evolution. The early Cretaceous Funiushan granitic pluton in the southern margin of the North China Craton is composed of porphyritic biotite monzogranites. Rocks from the Funiushan pluton have high SiO2 (64.45-73.98 wt.%), Na2O (3.19-4.67 wt.%) and K2O (3.76-7.95 wt.%) and low MgO (0.11-1.34 wt.%). They are enriched in Rb, Ba, Th, U and LREE ((La/Yb)N = 9.63-45.0), and depleted in Nb, Ta, Ti and P, and have negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.29-0.72). This geochemical feature is similar to those of typical I-type granites. Zircons from the granites were dated using LA-ICP-MS and SIMS, and yielded 206Pb/238U ages of 115-131 Ma. They have ?Hf(t) values mainly vary from -17.7 to +0.9 and TDMC ages mainly from 2301 to 1118 Ma. Whole rock ?Nd(t) values range from -20.3 to -9.6 and TDM ages from 1.49 to 2.29 Ga, indicating that the magma was produced by partial melting of the Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic crustal rocks, as represented by the Taihua Group basement rocks, with minor involvement of mantle-derived melts. The Funiushan pluton is considered to have been formed through a strong crust-mantle interaction process under a low pressure condition in an extensional setting, due to the lithospheric thinning caused by westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific oceanic crust.

Gao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Tai-Ping; Chen, Wei-Terry

2014-11-01

379

Nd- and Sr-isotopic compositions of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs: implications for the origin of island arc melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nd- and Sr-isotopic data are reported for lavas from 23 submarine and 3 subaerial volcanoes in the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs. Values of ?Nd range from +2.4 to +9.5 whereas 87Sr/86Sr ranges from 0.70319 to 0.70392; these vary systematically between and sometimes within arc segments. The Nd-and Sr-isotopic compositions fall in the field of ocean island basalt (OIB) and extend along the mantle array. Lavas from the Volcano arc, Mariana Central Island Province and the southern part of the Northern Seamount Province have ?Nd to +10 and 87Sr/86Sr=0.7032 to 0.7039. These are often slightly displaced toward higher 87Sr/86Sr at similar ?Nd. In contrast, those lavas from the northern part of the Mariana Northern Seamount Province as far north as Iwo Jima show OIB isotopic characteristics, with ?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr=0.7035 to 0.7039. Plots of 87Sr/86Sr and ?Nd versus Ba/La and (La/Yb)n support a model in which melts from the Mariana and Volcano arcs are derived by mixing of OIB-type mantle (or melts therefrom) and a metasomatized MORB-type mantle (or melts therefrom). An alternate interpretation is that anomalous trends on the plots of Nd- and Sr-isotopic composition versus incompatible-element ratios, found in some S-NSP lavas, suggest that the addition of a sedimentary component may be locally superimposed on the two-component mixing of mantle end-members.

Lin, P. N.; Stern, R. J.; Morris, J.; Bloomer, S. H.

1990-09-01

380

Geochronology and geochemistry of the Sangri Group Volcanic Rocks, Southern Lhasa Terrane: Implications for the early subduction history of the Neo-Tethys and Gangdese Magmatic Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sangri Group volcanic rocks are distributed along the southern margin of the Lhasa Terrane on the northern side of the Indus-Yarlung Zangbo suture zone. This Group consists of the Mamuxia and Bima formations and has long been considered to be Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous in age. In this paper, we report for the first time zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages, whole-rock major and trace element geochemistry, as well as Sr-Nd isotope data of the Bima Formation volcanic rocks in the Sangri County, Tibet. Two samples collected from the Bima Formation volcanic rocks yield zircon U-Pb ages of 195 ± 3 Ma and 189 ± 3 Ma, respectively. These data suggest that the Bima Formation volcanic rocks formed during the Early Jurassic rather than the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous as previously reported. The volcanic rocks of the Bima Formation are dominantly composed of basalt and andesite that are enriched in LILEs and LREEs, but depleted in HFSEs, showing typical characteristics of arc volcanic rocks. They also show positive ?Nd (t) (+ 4.09 to + 7.02) values and low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7032 to 0.7050) ratios, similar to the MORB of the Indus-Yarlung Zangbo ophiolites, indicating that the Bima Formation volcanic rocks were derived from a depleted mantle wedge. The magmas subsequently experienced juvenile crust contamination and fractional crystallization during ascent. Geochemical features of magmas of the Bima Formation volcanic rocks are interpreted to be generated by the northward subduction of Neo-Tethys beneath the southern Lhasa Terrane as early as ~ 195 Ma. Coeval with a large volume of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic felsic intrusions within the Gangdese arc, the Gangdese magmatic arc is interpreted to be initiated at a juvenile continental margin during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, although a possible intra-oceanic arc setting cannot be excluded.

Kang, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Feng; Wilde, Simon A.; Feng, Zuo-Hai; Chen, Jian-Lin; Wang, Bao-Di; Fu, Wen-Chun; Pan, Hui-Bin

2014-07-01

381

Malaria control in South Sudan, 2006-2013: strategies, progress and challenges  

PubMed Central

Background South Sudan has borne the brunt of years of chronic warfare and probably has the highest malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective malaria control in post-conflict settings is hampered by a multiplicity of challenges. This manuscript reports on the strategies, progress and challenges of malaria control in South Sudan and serves as an example epitome for programmes operating in similar environments and provides a window for leveraging resources. Case description To evaluate progress and challenges of the national malaria control programme an in-depth appraisal was undertaken according to the World Health Organization standard procedures for malaria programme performance review. Methodical analysis of published and unpublished documents on malaria control in South Sudan was conducted. To ensure completeness, findings of internal thematic desk assessments were triangulated in the field and updated by external review teams. Discussion and evaluation South Sudan has strived to make progress in implementing the WHO recommended malaria control interventions as set out in the 2006–2013 National Malaria Strategic Plan. The country has faced enormous programmatic constraints including infrastructure, human and financial resource and a weak health system compounded by an increasing number of refugees, returnees and internally displaced people. The findings present a platform on which to tailor an evidence-based 2014–2018 national malaria strategic plan for the country and a unique opportunity for providing a model for countries in a post-conflict situation. Conclusions The prospects for effective malaria control and elimination are huge in South Sudan. Nevertheless, strengthened coordination, infrastructure and human resource capacity, monitoring and evaluation are required. To achieve all this, allocation of adequate local funding would be critical. PMID:24160336

2013-01-01

382

Representation of drought frequency in Southern South America performed by 14 CMIP5 models. Drought risk implications and perspectives towards future projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought frequency estimation is a key variable for drought risk assessment. The aim of this research is to evaluate how well the global climate models (GCMs) represent the drought frequencies in Southern South America (south of 20°S). For that purpose, we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which quantifies the number of standard deviations that the accumulated rainfall in a given time scale deviates from the average value of a location in a particular period. The SPI is one of the drought indices most widely used worldwide, and one of the best suited for the study area. In order to build this index, monthly rainfall data were obtained from the CLARIS LPB Data Base for 120 of its stations, which were subjected to quality control procedures and have less than 10% of missing values. The SPI was computed for the period 1979-2008 on a time scale of 12 months, which represents long-term droughts. This procedure was also applied to the simulated precipitation from 14 CMIP5 GCMs over the study area. Two types of comparisons were performed, the first one for drought frequencies without taking into account the different drought classes and the second one for the frequencies of moderate, severe and extreme drought events. This second comparison is important given that drought risk was evaluated through a weighted index based in drought frequencies, which was constructed as a sum of drought classes -moderate, severe and extreme- with a weighting scheme. Most of the regions with moderate to high observed drought frequencies are located in the western and southern portions of La Plata Basin and over Patagonia region, while lower observed drought frequencies were obtained for Northern Argentina, Southern Brazil and Paraguay. This spatial pattern is barely reproduced by the modeled frequencies, and in some cases major differences exist. In order to analyze these differences, we performed a regional assessment of the SPI time series, which showed that the time series of the model outputs are inconsistent with the variabilities based on observed precipitation data. This also indicates that monthly and seasonal variabilities of precipitation are misrepresented by the models and this result contributes to the poor representation of the drought frequency patterns. These are the kind of variabilities that could be important for the forecasting of droughts on seasonal scales and could help to a seasonal risk assessment, which is important for the agricultural and hydrological sectors. Moreover, the spatial pattern of annual precipitation are poorly reproduced, with a subestimation of precipitation over La Plata Basin and an overestimation over Patagonia, leeward the Andes. These results prove that GCMs outputs are far to be used for drought risk assessment in the region, given the substantial differences in the frequency patterns. Also, future projections must be evaluated carefully in longer time scale resolutions.

Rivera, J. A.; Penalba, O. C.

2012-12-01

383

Geochronology and geochemistry of late Paleozoic magmatic rocks in the Yinwaxia area, Beishan: Implications for rift magmatism in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mafic-ultramafic rocks are distributed widely in the Beishan rift, which is located in the southern Beishan, central southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The Yinwaxia study area is located in eastern Beishan rift, where mafic-ultramafic rocks occur along major faults. The zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age obtained of a gabbro is 281 ± 11 Ma, and the age of the basalt is constrained by the youngest xenocrystal with an age of 265 Ma, which substantiate that these mafic rocks formed in Permian. Basalts and gabbros exhibit similar geochemical characteristics including: high SiO2, total Fe2O3 and TiO2 contents; low MgO contents and Mg# values; and tholeiitic characteristics. Yinwaxia mafic rocks have relatively high total rare earth element contents, enrichment in light rare earth elements, enrichments in the high field strength elements, and obvious negative Nb-Ta-Ti anomalies. Basalts exhibit low (87Sr/86Sr)i and high ?Nd(t) values, while gabbros exhibit relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i and low ?Nd(t) values. Isotopic compositions of these mafic rocks display a mixed trend between depleted and enriched mantles. Meanwhile, differing ?Nd(t) values show that basalts were intensively contaminated by juvenile crustal materials, but gabbros were contaminated by older continental crust. We conclude that Yinwaxia mafic rocks were derived from lithospheric mantle metasomatized by fluids and/or melts from subducted slab; parental magmas underwent AFC processes, then emplaced along faults in a continental rift. We collected geochemical and geochronological data in the study area, and collated geochronological data from previous workers in the Beishan orogenic belt to develop a geochronological frequency diagram. From these data and analyses we deduced a model of tectonic evolution for the Beishan orogenic belt. Considering the geochemistry, sedimentological evidence for rifting, and the geochronological frequency diagram, we propose that the Beishan rift had entered a post-collision stage since Early Devonian, and then changed into a continental rift stage around late Carboniferous-early Permian.

Zheng, Rongguo; Wu, Tairan; Zhang, Wen; Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Zhaoyu

2014-09-01

384

Modeling the bloom evolution and carbon flows during SOIREE: Implications for future in situ iron-enrichments in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of a mesoscale in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SOIREE) on the planktonic ecosystem and biological pump in the Australasian-Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean was investigated through model simulations over a period of 60-d following an initial iron infusion. For this purpose we used a revised version of the biogeochemical SWAMCO model ( Lancelot et al., 2000), which describes the cycling of C, N, P, Si, Fe through aggregated chemical and biological components of the planktonic ecosystem in the high nitrate low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean. Model runs were conducted for both the iron-fertilized waters and the surrounding HNLC waters, using in situ meteorological forcing. Validation was performed by comparing model predictions with observations recorded during the 13-d site occupation of SOIREE. Considerable agreement was found for the magnitude and temporal trends in most chemical and biological variables (the microbial food web excepted). Comparison of simulations run for 13- and 60-d showed that the effects of iron fertilization on the biota were incomplete over the 13-d monitoring of the SOIREE bloom. The model results indicate that after the vessel departed the SOIREE site there were further iron-mediated increases in properties such as phytoplankton biomass, production, export production, and uptake of atmospheric CO 2, which peaked 20-30 days after the initial iron infusion. Based on model simulations, the increase in net carbon production at the scale of the fertilized patch (assuming an area of 150 km2) was estimated to 9725 t C by day 60. Much of this production accumulated in the upper ocean, so that the predicted downward export of particulate organic carbon (POC) only represented 22% of the accumulated C in the upper ocean. Further model runs that implemented improved parameterization of diatom sedimentation (i.e. including iron-mediated diatom sinking rate, diatom chain-forming and aggregation) suggested that the downward POC flux predicted by the standard run might have been underestimated by a factor of up to 3. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the biological response to iron-enrichment at locales with different initial oceanographic conditions (such as mixed-layer depth) or using different iron fertilization strategies (single vs. pulsed additions) was conducted. The outcomes of this analysis offer insights in the design and location of future in situ iron-enrichments.

Hannon, E.; Boyd, P. W.; Silvoso, M.; Lancelot, C.

385

Iron enrichment and photoreduction of iron under UV and PAR in the presence of hydroxycarboxylic acid: implications for phytoplankton growth in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron(III) photoreduction and the responses of phytoplankton under ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) were investigated with the presence of hydroxycarboxylic acid (glucaric acid (GA), a model compound for organic acids excreted by phytoplankton). The incubation experiments were carried out on board using seawater samples collected in the location of the winter ice edge (WIE) and the spring ice edge (SIE) of the Southern Ocean. In this paper, we focus on the results of experiment in WIE. Throughout the experiments, dissolved Fe(II), major nutrients and in vivo fluorescence were monitored regularly. In addition, Chl- a, POC/PON, cell densities of phytoplankton and bacteria, bacterial production, organic peroxide, hydrogen peroxide and total CO 2 were measured. The results from the WIE show that iron enrichment had a substantial effect on phytoplankton growth rate. Fe(III) addition in the presence of GA (FeGA) gave higher Fe(II) concentration and higher growth rate of phytoplankton than those in controls. Our results suggest that hydroxycarboxylic acid had a significant chemical and biological impact. The presence of GA influenced iron photochemistry and iron availability to phytoplankton. Phytoplankton growth responses to iron enrichments in incubations under UV and PAR were completely dissimilar. It seems that FeGA addition prominently changes the harmful effect of UV on the phytoplankton population. This study provides preliminary information on how the photoreduction of iron(III) and the phytoplankton growth are affected by iron enrichment in the presence of hydroxycarboxylic acid.

Öztürk, Murat; Croot, Peter L.; Bertilsson, Stefan; Abrahamsson, Katarina; Karlson, Bengt; David, Roland; Fransson, Agneta; Sakshaug, Egil

2004-11-01

386

Migration of growth axial surfaces and its implications for multiphase tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Zhangwu fault depression, southern Songliao Basin, NE China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The normal fault-bend folding theory uses active axial surfaces, inactive axial surfaces, and growth axial surfaces to describe the geometric relationship between faults and deformation of a hanging wall. The dip of a growth axial surface is related to the fault slip rate and the basin sedimentation rate: higher fault slip rates result in smaller dips of growth axial surfaces, whereas higher basin sedimentation rates produce larger dips of growth axial surfaces. Moreover, the growth axial surface will be a straight line if both the fault slip and sedimentation rates remain relatively unchanged, but will become curved if both rates are variable. Therefore, the characteristics of growth axial surfaces can provide clear information on the evolution of faulting and deposition. By studying the seismic profiles of the Zhangwu fault depression of the southern Songliao Basin, we show that the migration of growth axial surfaces and unconformities can be used as indicators of basin development. Multiphase tectonic activity will not only produce unconformities but also result in migration of growth axial surfaces or inactive axial surfaces. Therefore, the normal fault-bend folding theory, particularly with regard to the evolution of growth axial surfaces, can be applied to the interpretation of geometric and kinematic evolutions of half-grabens and the exploration of related tectono-sedimentary processes.

Gui, Baoling; He, Dengfa; Chen, Weijia; Zhang, Wenjun

2014-04-01

387

The migration patterns of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pleuronectidae, Pisces) at the southern limit of its distribution range: Ecological implications and fishery management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the diversity of migration patterns of the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)) present in the Minho estuary and in the adjacent coastal area (NW-Iberian Peninsula). Assessing the diversity of flounder migration patterns at the southern limit of its distribution allows the determination of characteristics of the species' ecology and provides useful information for fishery managers, since it is a regionally important estuarine fishery. An unexpected result of our study was that flounder appears to spawn in both estuarine and coastal areas and not just in coastal areas as was previously widely accepted. Our interpretation of otolith strontium distribution patterns from flounder specimens collected in the freshwater tidal area of the Minho estuary and in the lower estuary suggested that the flounders hatched in the estuary, while only 6.7% of those captured in the coastal area hatched in the coastal area. Ultimately, studies aimed at collecting larval stages and adult flounders must be made to confirm that flounders spawn in the estuary and to define new and better scientifically supported fishing policies, or simply to confirm the existing ones regarding temporal and spatial closures for each gear used in the Minho estuary.

Morais, Pedro; Dias, Ester; Babaluk, John; Antunes, Carlos

2011-02-01

388

Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: Implications of an individual-based model  

SciTech Connect

We used an individual-based model to examine possible explanations for the dominance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in southern Appalachian streams. Model simulations were used to quantify the effects on interspecific competition of (1) competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout, (2) latitudinal differences in stream temperatures, flows, and daylight, (3) year-class failures, (4) lower fecundity of brook trout, and (5) reductions in spawning habitat. The model tracks the daily spawning, growth, and survival of individuals of both species throughout their lifetime in a series of connected stream habitat units (pools, runs, or riffles). Average densities of each species based on 100-year simulations were compared for several levels of each of the five factors and for sympatric and allopatric conditions. Based on model results and empirical information, we conclude that more frequent year-class failures and the lower fecundity of brook trout are both possible and likely explanations for rainbow trout dominance, that warmer temperatures due to latitude and limited spawning habitat are possible but unlikely explanations, and that competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout is an unlikely explanation. Additional field work should focus on comparative studies of the reproductive success and the early life stage mortalities of brook and rainbow trout among Appalachian streams with varying rainbow trout dominance. 53 refs., 11 figs.

Clark, M.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rose, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-01-01

389

Risk maps for the presence and absence of Phlebotomus perniciosus in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in southern Spain: implications for the control of the disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to construct risk maps for the presence of the dominant Leishmania infantum vector, P. perniciosus, and check its usefulness (a) to predict the risk of canine leishmaniasis and (b) to define effective leishmaniasis control measures. We obtained data for the presence/absence of P. perniciosus at 167 sampling sites in southern Spain, from which we also took a series of ecological and climate-related data. The probability of P. perniciosus presence was estimated as a function of these environmental variables and generated spatial risk maps. Altitude, land use and drainage hole features (with or without PVC piping) were retained as the only predictors for the distribution of this vector species. Drainage hole features in retaining walls, with or without PVC piping, produce significant variations in the probability of P. perniciosus presence, varying from 2·3 to 91·8% if PVC piping is absent and from 0·4 to 66·5% if all holes have PVC piping. It was concluded that the use of PVC piping in drainage holes could help to reduce leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:21854702

Barón, S D; Morillas-Márquez, F; Morales-Yuste, M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Irigaray, C; Martín-Sánchez, J

2011-09-01

390

Implications and concerns of deep-seated disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water using three-dimensional contaminant transport model in Bhit Area, Dadu District of Southern Pakistan.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional contaminant transport model has been developed to simulate and monitor the migration of disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water in Injection well at 2,100 m depth in the Upper Cretaceous Pab sandstone, Bhit area in Dadu district of Southern Pakistan. The regional stratigraphic and structural geological framework of the area, landform characteristics, meteorological parameters, and hydrogeological milieu have been used in the model to generate the initial simulation of steady-state flow condition in the underlying aquifer's layers. The geometry of the shallow and deep-seated characteristics of the geological formations was obtained from the drilling data, electrical resistivity sounding surveys, and geophysical well-logging information. The modeling process comprised of steady-state simulation and transient simulation of the prolific groundwater system of contamination transport after 1, 10, 30 years of injection. The contaminant transport was evaluated from the bottom of the injection well, and its short- and long-term effects were determined on aquifer system lying in varying hydrogeological and geological conditions. PMID:19936954

Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Akhter, Gulraiz; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan

2010-11-01

391

Isotopic composition of a calcite-cemented layer in the Lower Jurassic Bridport Sands, southern England: Implications for formation of laterally extensive calcite-cemented layers  

SciTech Connect

[delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] and [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values have been measured on 107 calcite cement samples from a laterally extensive (> 3 km) and continuous calcite-cemented layer 0.5 m thick in the coastal exposures of the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine Bridport Sands in Dorset, southern England. The samples were taken from a two-dimensional grid with 10-cm horizontal and vertical spacing between samples and along individual vertical lines across the calcite-cemented layer, [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values vary between [minus]4.8% and [minus]9.2% and decrease radially outwards from points with lateral spacings on the order of 0.5-1 m in the middle of the calcite-cemented layer. The [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values therefore indicate that the calcite-cemented layer was formed by merging of concretions. All [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values measured are in the narrow range [minus]2.2% to [minus]0.5%, which suggests that the dominant source of calcite cement in the layer was biogenic carbonate.

Bjoerkum, P.A. (Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)); Walderhaug, O. (Rogaland Research, Stavanger (Norway))

1993-07-01

392

Polymerase Chain Reaction Pool Screening Used To Compare Prevalence of Infective Black Flies in Two Onchocerciasis Foci in Northern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Onchocerciasis remains an important debilitating disease in many areas of Africa, including Sudan. The status of infection transmission in 2007 was assessed in the vectors of two disease foci in Sudan: Abu Hamed in northern Sudan, which has received at least 10 years of annual treatment and Galabat focus in eastern Sudan, where only minor, largely undocumented treatment activity has occurred. Assessment of more than 30,000 black flies for Onchocerca volvulus infectious stage L3 larvae by using an O-150 polymerase chain reaction protocol showed that black fly infectivity rates were 0.84 (95% confidence interval = 0.0497–1.88) per 10,000 flies for Abu Hamed and 6.9 (95% confidence interval = 1.1–16.4) infective flies per 10,000 for Galabat. These results provide entomologic evidence for suppressed Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Abu Hamed focus and a moderate transmission rate of the parasite in the Galabat focus. PMID:21540385

Higazi, Tarig B.; Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Mohamed, Hanan A.; Mohamed, Wigdan A.; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Richards, Frank

2011-01-01

393

Chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine efficacy for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Upper Nile, South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current first-line and second-line drugs for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in South Sudan, chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), were evaluated and compared with amodiaquine, in an MSF-Holland-run clinic in eastern Upper Nile, South Sudan from June to December 2001. Patients with uncomplicated malaria and fever were stratified by age group and randomly allocated to one of 3 treatment regimes. A total

T. Gatkoi; B. Lowoko; A. Nzila; E. Ochong; K. Keus

2003-01-01

394

Evolving transpressional strain fields along the San Andreas fault in southern California: implications for fault branching, fault dip segmentation and strain partitioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Andreas fault in southern California records only few large-magnitude earthquakes in historic time, and the recent activity is confined primarily on irregular and discontinuous strike-slip and thrust fault strands at shallow depths of ~5-20 km. Despite this fact, slip along the San Andreas fault is calculated to c. 35 mm/yr based on c.160 km total right lateral displacement for the southern segment of the fault in the last c. 8 Ma. Field observations also reveal complex fault strands and multiple events of deformation. The presently diffuse high-magnitude crustal movements may be explained by the deformation being largely distributed along more gently dipping reverse faults in fold-thrust belts, in contrast to regions to the north where deformation is less partitioned and localized to narrow strike-slip fault zones. In the Mecca Hills of the Salton trough transpressional deformation of an uplifted segment of the San Andreas fault in the last ca. 4.0 My is expressed by very complex fault-oblique and fault-parallel (en echelon) folding, and zones of uplift (fold-thrust belts), basement-involved reverse and strike-slip faults and accompanying multiple and pervasive cataclasis and conjugate fracturing of Miocene to Pleistocene sedimentary strata. Our structural analysis of the Mecca Hills addresses the kinematic nature of the San Andreas fault and mechanisms of uplift and strain-stress distribution along bent fault strands. The San Andreas fault and subsidiary faults define a wide spectrum of kinematic styles, from steep localized strike-slip faults, to moderate dipping faults related to oblique en echelon folds, and gently dipping faults distributed in fold-thrust belt domains. Therefore, the San Andreas fault is not a through-going, steep strike-slip crustal structure, which is commonly the basis for crustal modeling and earthquake rupture models. The fault trace was steep initially, but was later multiphase deformed/modified by oblique en echelon folding, renewed strike-slip movements and contractile fold-thrust belt structures. Notably, the strike-slip movements on the San Andreas fault were transformed outward into the surrounding rocks as oblique-reverse faults to link up with the subsidiary Skeleton Canyon fault in the Mecca Hills. Instead of a classic flower structure model for this transpressional uplift, the San Andreas fault strands were segmented into domains that record; (i) early strike-slip motion, (ii) later oblique shortening with distributed deformation (en echelon fold domains), followed by (iii) localized fault-parallel deformation (strike-slip) and (iv) superposed out-of-sequence faulting and fault-normal, partitioned deformation (fold-thrust belt domains). These results contribute well to the question if spatial and temporal fold-fault branching and migration patterns evolving along non-vertical strike-slip fault segments can play a role in the localization of earthquakes along the San Andreas fault.

Bergh, Steffen; Sylvester, Arthur; Damte, Alula; Indrevær, Kjetil

2014-05-01

395

Evidence for Late-Paleozoic brine migration in Cambrian carbonate rocks of the central and southern Appalachians: Implications for Mississippi Valley-type sulfide mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many Lower Paleozoic limestones and dolostones in the Valley and Ridge province of the central and southern Appalachians contain 10 to 25 weight percent authigenic potassium feldspar. This was considered to be a product of early diagenesis, however, 40Ar /39Ar analyses of overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar in Cambrian carbonate rocks from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee yield Late Carboniferous-Early Permian ages (278-322 Ma). Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the feldspar could not have formed isochemically, but required the flux of multiple pore volumes of fluid through the rocks, reflecting regional fluid migration events during the Late-Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar and quartz grains from unmineralized rocks throughout the study area indicate homogenization temperatures from 100° to 200°C and freezing point depressions of -14° to -18.5°C (18-21 wt.% NaCl equiv). The apparent similarity of these fluids to fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals of nearby Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits suggests that the regional occurrences of authigenic K-feldspar and MVT mineralization may be genetically related. This hypothesis is supported by the discovery of authigenic K-feldspar intergrown with sphalerite in several mines of the Mascot-Jefferson City District, E. Tennessee. Regional potassic alteration in unmineralized carbonate rocks and localized occurrences of MVT mineralization are both explainable by a gravity-driven flow model, in which deep brines migrate towards the basin margin under a hydraulic gradient established during the Alleghanian orogeny. The authigenic K-feldspar may reflect the loss of K during disequilibrium cooling of the ascending brines. MVT deposits are probably localized manifestations of the same migrating fluids, occurring where the necessary physical and chemical traps are present.

Hearn, Paul P., Jr.; Sutter, John F.; Belkin, Harvey E.

1987-05-01

396

Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene geologic history of Eastern Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia: implications for the evolution of the southern Afar Depression and hominin paleoenvironments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (~ 3-2.5 Ma), the Afar region of Ethiopia was undergoing major structural reorganization (e.g., change in extension direction, increased spreading rate) leading to significant landscape modification. Concurrent with these changes in paleogeography, regional trends towards a cooler and drier climate coincide with a clustering of first appearance and extinction events in the faunal record, including the diversification of the early hominin genus Australopithecus and the emergence of our own genus, Homo. However, sediments that span the 3 to 2.5 Ma interval are sparse in eastern Africa, and are especially rare at paleoanthropological sites in the Afar. Here we present new geologic mapping results that indicate extensive deposits of late Pliocene sediments in a previously unmapped region of the lower Awash Valley referred to as the Eastern Ledi-Geraru (ELG). Numerous interbedded airfall tephras enable geochemical comparisons to the existing regional tephrostratigraphic framework as well as high precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephras with suitable feldspars. Feldspars from 8 such tephra deposits span the time period of 3.0 to 2.8 Ma, providing the first glimpse of depositional environments and associated landscapes that existed at that time. Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analysis shows that over a 100 meter thick section of lacustrine to fluvial sediments are exposed along faulted basalt flows following both the Red Sea Rift and Main Ethiopian Rift structural trends. We interpret the geology at ELG to reflect a northeastern migration of paleo Lake Hadar, possibly into a series of smaller basins responding to the migration of the triple junction, a thinning lithosphere, and an increased period of volcanism. Combined with recently collected paleontological assemblages this work provides an opportunity to test proposed links between biotic events, global/regional climate change, and local tectonic events during a critical interval of evolutionary and structural change in southern Afar.

DiMaggio, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Campisano, C. J.; Reed, K.; Deino, A.

2012-12-01

397

Basin geometry and cumulative offsets in the Eastern Transverse Ranges, southern California: Implications for transrotational deformation along the San Andreas fault system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Eastern Transverse Ranges, adjacent to and southeast of the big left bend of the San Andreas fault, southern California, form a crustal block that has rotated clockwise in response to dextral shear within the San Andreas system. Previous studies have indicated a discrepancy between the measured magnitudes of left slip on through-going east-striking fault zones of the Eastern Transverse Ranges and those predicted by simple geometric models using paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations of basalts distributed along the faults. To assess the magnitude and source of this discrepancy, we apply new gravity and magnetic data in combination with geologic data to better constrain cumulative fault offsets and to define basin structure for the block between the Pinto Mountain and Chiriaco fault zones. Estimates of offset from using the length of pull-apart basins developed within left-stepping strands of the sinistral faults are consistent with those derived by matching offset magnetic anomalies and bedrock patterns, indicating a cumulative offset of at most ???40 km. The upper limit of displacements constrained by the geophysical and geologic data overlaps with the lower limit of those predicted at the 95% confidence level by models of conservative slip located on margins of rigid rotating blocks and the clockwise rotation of the paleomagnetic vectors. Any discrepancy is likely resolved by internal deformation within the blocks, such as intense deformation adjacent to the San Andreas fault (that can account for the absence of basins there as predicted by rigid-block models) and linkage via subsidiary faults between the main faults. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

Langenheim, V. E.; Powell, R. E.

2009-01-01

398

Evidence for late-paleozoic brine migration in Cambrian carbonate rocks of the central and southern Appalachians: implications for Mississippi Valley-type sulfide mineralization  

SciTech Connect

Many Lower Paleozoic limestones and dolostones in the Valley and Ridge province of the central and southern Appalachians contain 10 to 25 weight percent authigenic potassium feldspar. This was considered to be a product of early diagenesis, however, /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar analyses of overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar in Cambrian carbonate rocks from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee yield Late Carboniferous-Early Permian ages (278-322 Ma). Simple mass balance calculations suggest the feldspar could not have formed isochemically, but required the flux of multiple pore volumes of fluid through the rocks, reflecting regional fluid migration events during the Late-Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar and quartz grains from unmineralized rocks throughout the study area indicate homogenization temperatures from 100/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C and freezing point depressions of -14/sup 0/ to -18.5/sup 0/C. The apparent similarity of these fluids to fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals of nearby Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits suggests that the regional occurrences of authigenic K-feldspar and MVT mineralization may be genetically related. This hypothesis is supported by the discovery of authigenic K-feldspar intergrown with sphalerite in several mines of the Mascot-Jefferson City District, E. Tennessee. Regional potassic alteration in unmineralized carbonate rocks and localized occurrences of MVT mineralization are both explainable by a gravity-driven flow model, in which deep brines migrate towards the basin margin under a hydraulic gradient established during the Alleghanian orogeny.

Hearn, P.P. Jr; Sutter, J.F.; Belkin, H.E.

1987-05-01

399

Evidence for Late-Paleozoic brine migration in Cambrian carbonate rocks of the central and southern Appalachians: Implications for Mississippi Valley-type sulfide mineralization  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many Lower Paleozoic limestones and dolostones in the Valley and Ridge province of the central and southern Appalachians contain 10 to 25 weight percent authigenic potassium feldspar. This was considered to be a product of early diagenesis, however, 40Ar 39Ar analyses of overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar in Cambrian carbonate rocks from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee yield Late Carboniferous-Early Permian ages (278-322 Ma). Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the feldspar could not have formed isochemically, but required the flux of multiple pore volumes of fluid through the rocks, reflecting regional fluid migration events during the Late-Paleozoic Alleghanian orogeny. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar and quartz grains from unmineralized rocks throughout the study area indicate homogenization temperatures from 100?? to 200??C and freezing point depressions of -14?? to -18.5??C (18-21 wt.% NaCl equiv). The apparent similarity of these fluids to fluid inclusions in ore and gangue minerals of nearby Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits suggests that the regional occurrences of authigenic K-feldspar and MVT mineralization may be genetically related. This hypothesis is supported by the discovery of authigenic K-feldspar intergrown with sphalerite in several mines of the Mascot-Jefferson City District, E. Tennessee. Regional potassic alteration in unmineralized carbonate rocks and localized occurrences of MVT mineralization are both explainable by a gravity-driven flow model, in which deep brines migrate towards the basin margin under a hydraulic gradient established during the Alleghanian orogeny. The authigenic K-feldspar may reflect the loss of K during disequilibrium cooling of the ascending brines. MVT deposits are probably localized manifestations of the same migrating fluids, occurring where the necessary physical and chemical traps are present. ?? 1987.

Hearn, Jr. , P. P.; Sutter, J. F.; Belkin, H. E.

1987-01-01

400

Families of choice and noncollegiate sororities and fraternities among lesbian and bisexual African-American women in a southern community: implications for sexual and reproductive health research.  

PubMed

Background Self-identified lesbian and bisexual African-American women living in the southern United States are a relatively hidden subpopulation within the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community. Existing research suggests that African-American lesbian and bisexual women are at high risk for sexually transmissible infections (STIs), but the sexual and reproductive health needs of this population are just beginning to be understood. Methods: We conducted four focus groups and five individual interviews with 24 lesbian and bisexual African-American women living in the Jackson, Mississippi, metropolitan area, recruited through the local STI clinic and through word of mouth. We aimed to characterise the role of two types of social organisations (lesbian families and noncollegiate lesbian sororities and fraternities) among the local LGBT community, and their influence on the sexual health of their members. Results: Both types of social organisations serve positive functions for their members. Lesbian families provide support and stability; this appears beneficial for younger individuals, who may lack support from biological families. Lesbian sororities and fraternities are visible due to their emphasis on community service, and offer a strong sense of solidarity and belonging. In both organisation types, discussions about sex were common, although members acknowledged a lack of information regarding safer sex among lesbian and bisexual women. Conclusions: Existing social organisations within the LGBT community, such as lesbian families and lesbian sororities and fraternities, should be incorporated into community-based popular opinion leader or lay heath advisor interventions in an effort to meet the sexual and reproductive health needs of marginalised populations. PMID:24438825

Austin, Erika L; Lindley, Lisa L; Mena, Leandro A; Crosby, Richard A; Muzny, Christina A

2014-03-01

401

Stable isotope composition of suspended particulate organic matter in twenty reservoirs from Guangdong, southern China: implications for pelagic carbon and nitrogen cycling.  

PubMed

We studied seasonal variations in the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (?(13)C and ?(15)N) of particulate organic matter (POM) in the surface water of 20 man-made reservoirs in southern China during March, August and December 2010. These reservoirs are located from subtropical to tropical region, varied in trophic states and were influenced by several types of human activities. The geomorphometric and biogeochemical gradients in tropical/subtropical regions are complicated and poorly understood because of low variation in temperature and high variation in hydrological processes. The POM samples were collected from all the reservoirs to assess the seasonal variation patterns of ?(13)CPOM and ?(15)NPOM. Variation in ?(13)CPOM followed seasonal thermal and hydrological cycles. By contrast, ?(15)NPOM did not seasonally differ, which may have been complicated by phytoplankton assimilation of N originating in agricultural waste entering the reservoirs and of atmospheric nitrogen during the wet season as well as an increased relative contribution of animal waste in the reservoirs in the dry season. Within each sampling period, nutrient availability is more important than thermal and solar radiation inputs in the summer, and these physical drivers are more important during the dry and cold winter month in controlling ?(13)CPOM and ?(15)NPOM. On an annual basis, trophic states (total P, total N and chlorophyll a) are the primary drivers for the changes in both ?(13)CPOM and ?(15)NPOM across reservoirs. When the seasonal effect is removed using annual averages from each reservoir, we found that latitude, trophic states, pH, rainfall, water temperature, reservoir age, catchment area to reservoir area (CA:RA) ratio and together explained about 80% of the variance in both ?(13)CPOM and ?(15)NPOM. Our findings also suggest that the trend of ?(15)NPOM is less predictable than ?(13)CPOM. The consistent (15)N depletion and enrichment of POM in different reservoirs point to the importance of different anthropogenic sources of nitrogen in the reservoirs. PMID:23726697

Hou, Wei; Gu, Binhe; Lin, Qiuqi; Gu, Jiguang; Han, Bo-Ping

2013-07-01

402

A 250,000-year record of lunette dune accumulation on the Southern High Plains, USA and implications for past climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concentration of lake/playa basins occurs on the Southern High Plains (SHP) of northwest Texas and eastern New Mexico. Associated with these lake/playas are lee-side lunettes positioned on their southeast margins ranging in height from 1.5 to >10 m. An OSL dating program was applied to 30 samples from lunettes associated with large lakes and small playa basins. Samples were extracted from trenched dune sections or from deep cores. Earlier SHP lunette investigations show depositional ages primarily in the late Wisconsin and Holocene. This research extends the timing of lunette accretion to the middle Pleistocene, the earliest recorded deposition for these features. The expanded chronology permitted investigation into dune morphology on nested lunettes built on contracting lake margins. Outer lunettes formed prior to inner dunes, but simultaneous deposition occurred on downwind ridges as younger lee-side dunes were constructed. Large lake lunettes were inactive during discreet SHP pluvial episodes from early Wisconsin to LGM. Conversely, these lunettes accreted when climatic conditions promoted basin desiccation and aeolian deflation. This suggests their mode of formation contrasts with lunette models recognized for other regions. From post LGM to earliest Holocene, active lunette accretion occurred from 16 to 11 ka followed by a significant period of lunette construction during the mid-Holocene. Late Holocene-lunette deposition was interrupted by intervals of landscape stability. Lunette deposition between 1300s and 1700s corresponds with drought intervals recognized in tree-ring records from adjacent regions. Recent lunette activity on the plateau is contemporary with the 1930's 'dust bowl'. Further insight into SHP response to changing climatic conditions was given by comparing lunette depositional events with previous investigations on sedimentation intervals for draws, lake/playa basins, and sand sheets.

Rich, Julie

2013-02-01

403

Low-grade metamorphism in the eastern Southern Alps: Distribution, conditions, timing and implications for the tectonics of the Alps and NW Dinarides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of newly-grown syntectonic metamorphic white mica (sericite), we recognize for the first time the timing of Alpine low-grade metamorphism in the eastern part of the Southalpine unit: (1) A Silurian phyllite of Seeberg inlier located to the south of the Periadriatic fault yields a plateau age at c. 75 Ma suggesting a Late Cretaceous age of previously recognized low-grade (Rantitsch & Rainer, 2003) metamorphism. (2) Within the Tolmin nappe, four sericite plateau ages of mainly Middle Triassic volcanics are at c. 51 Ma (Early Eocene). The Late Cretaceous age in the Seeberg inlier is considered to record ductile deformation during formation of a retro-wedge related to the Eo-Alpine orogeny in the Austroalpine units in the Eastern Alps exposed north of the future Periadriatic fault. The Eocene age at the boundary of very low-grade to low-grade metamorphism in the Tolmin nappe (Rainer et al., 2009) relates to the emplacement of the Southalpine nappe complex onto the Dinarides and is contemporaneous with the initial ductile deformation in the Dinarides during Adria-directed shortening and formation of a siliciclastic flysch belt in front of the SW-directed growing fold-thrust belt (Placer, 2008). Similar rare Late Cretaceous and dominant Eocene ages within post-Variscan units are virtually more widespread in the Southalpine unit and Dinarides as considered before. These regions include the Collio basin (Feijth, 2002) and the Eder unit (Läufer et al., 1996) in the western and central Southern Alps, in the internal NW Dinarides (Borojevi? Šoštari? et al., 2012) and the Mid Bosnian Schist Mountains (Pami? et al., 2004) and Lim Paleozoic unit in the central Dinarides (Ilic et al., submitted). Consequently, the Southalpine unit and Dinarides were affected by two stages of metamorphism, Late Cretaceous (ca. 80 to 75 Ma) and Eocene (ca. 51 - 40 Ma), both stages are related to back-thrusting. The ages of metamorphism are different from those in the main body of the Alpine orogen exposed north of the E-trending Periadriatic fault. In previous interpretations, the eastern Southalpine unit was considered to differ in many respects from Alpine units north of the Periadriatic fault including (1) no Alpine metamorphic overprint and, therefore, (2) also no Alpine ductile deformation in contrast to amphibolite- and even eclogite- grade metamorphism (ca. 100 - 85 Ma) in Austroalpine units north of the fault, and by (3) S- to SW-, Adria-directed vergency of the deformation of mostly Eocene to Neogene age in contrast to all units basically directed to the north and northwest, towards the stable European plate. The Southalpine unit is considered as back-thrust of the Middle-Late Eocene plate collision between Stable Europe and the Alpine thrust wedge (Doglioni & Bosellini, 1987). The new data from the eastern part of the Southalpine unit challenge this view and imply a steadily but slowly growing Adria-directed thrust wedge between Maastrichtian and Early Eocene times. Acknowledement: The work has been supported by the Austrian Science Fund (project no. 22,110). References Borojevi? Šoštari?, S. Neubauer, F., Handler, R., Palinkaš, L. A., 2012. Variscan vs. Alpine tectonothermal events in NW-Dinarides: constraints from 40Ar/39Ar dating. Geologica Carpathica, 63, 441-452. Doglioni, C., Bosellini, A., 1987. Eoalpine and mesoalpine tectonics in the Southern Alps. Geologische Rundschaus, 76, 735-754. Feijth, J., 2002. Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonometamorphic development and geochronology of the Orobic chain (Southern Alps, Lombardy, Italy). PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Berlin, 136 p. Ili?, A., Neubauer, F., Handler, R. (submitted). Formation of a structural dome due to transpression: The Lim unit in Central Dinarides. Journal of Structural Geology. Läufer, A.L., Frisch, W., Steinitz, G., Loeschke, J., 1997. Exhumed fault-bounded Alpine blocks along the Periadriatic lineament: the Eder unit (Carnic Alps, Austria). Geologische Rundschau, 86, 612-626. P

Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann; Friedl, Getrude

2014-05-01

404

Rational design and application of molecularly imprinted sol–gel polymer for the electrochemically selective and sensitive determination of Sudan I  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical strategy on the basis of rationally designed molecularly imprinted sol–gel polymer embedded with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is developed for the specific and sensitive determination of Sudan I. The rationally designed sensing Sudan I imprinted sol–gel was prepared by mixing Sudan I with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, tetraethoxysilane, chitosan, and AuNPs, followed by copolymerization and extraction of the template molecules. The hybrid

Shizhen Chen; Dan Du; Jing Huang; Aiqing Zhang; Haiyang Tu; Aidong Zhang

2011-01-01

405

Paleomagnetism of early Paleogene marine sediments in southern Tibet, China: Implications to onset of the India-Asia collision and size of Greater India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a paleomagnetic study of Paleocene marine sediments in the Gamba area of the Tethyan Himalayan terrane, southern Tibet, which aims to accurately locate the position of the northern margin of Greater India and further constrain timing of initial contact between India and Asia. Following detailed rock magnetic and paleomagnetic experiments on a total of 675 drill-core samples collected from the Zongpu and Upper Jidula formations, characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRMs) were successfully isolated from most samples following alternating field (AF) or integrated thermal and AF demagnetization. The ChRMs are of dual polarity and pass fold and reversal tests indicating a pre-folding origin. Together with detailed biostratigraphic investigation of the sampling section, a magnetic polarity sequence is constructed from data at 167 sampled horizons and satisfactorily correlates with polarity chrons C24r to C27r dating the Zongpu Formation between ~ 56.2 and 61.8 Ma on the geomagnetic polarity time scale. The ChRM directions from the Zongpu Formation are grouped stratigraphically into 33 sites and yield two paleopoles of 71.6°N, 277.8°E (A 95 = 2.5°) and 67.3°N, 266.3°E (A 95 = 3.5°) for the time intervals comprising 56 to 59 Ma and 59 to 62 Ma, respectively. These new paleopoles imply that the Tethyan Himalayan terrane was sited at low latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere during the interval ~ 62-56 Ma, suggesting that initial contact between the Tethyan Himalaya and Lhasa terranes was established before 60.5 ± 1.5 Ma, and very likely occurred near the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, at least in the central part of the suture zone. The results also indicate that at least 1500 ± 480 km of post-collisional crustal shortening occurred within the Himalayas. From the analysis of available paleomagnetic data obtained on both sides of the suture zone, we propose a conceptional collision model for the India-Asia collision.

Yi, Zhiyu; Huang, Baochun; Chen, Junshan; Chen, Liwei; Wang, Hailong

2011-09-01

406

Formation of Cretaceous Cordilleran and post-orogenic granites and their microgranular enclaves from the Dalat zone, southern Vietnam: Tectonic implications for the evolution of Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cordilleran-type batholiths are useful in understanding the duration, cyclicity and tectonic evolution of continental margins. The Dalat zone of southern Vietnam preserves evidence of Late Mesozoic convergent zone magmatism superimposed on Precambrian rocks of the Indochina Block. The Dinhquan, Deoca and Ankroet plutons and their enclaves indicate that the Dalat zone transitioned from an active continental margin producing Cordilleran-type batholiths to highly extended crust producing within-plate plutons. The Deoca and Dinhquan plutons are compositionally similar to Cordilleran I-type granitic rocks and yield mean zircon U/Pb ages between 118 ± 1.4 Ma and 115 ± 1.2 Ma. Their Sr-Nd whole rock isotopes (ISr = 0.7044 to 0.7062; ?Nd(T) = - 2.4 to + 0.2) and zircon Hf isotopes (?Hf(T) = + 8.2 ± 1.2 and + 6.4 ± 0.9) indicate that they were derived by mixing between a mantle component and an enriched component (i.e. GLOSS). The Ankroet pluton is chemically similar to post-orogenic/within-plate granitic rocks and has a zircon U/Pb age of 87 ± 1.6 Ma. Geobarometric calculations indicate that amphibole within the Ankroet pluton crystallized at a depth of ~ 6 kbar which is consistent with the somewhat more depleted Sr-Nd isotope (ISr = 0.7017 to 0.7111; ?Nd(T) = - 2.8 to + 0.6) and variable ?Hf(T) compositions suggesting a stronger influence of crustal material in the parental magma. The compositional change of the Dalat zone granitic rocks during the middle to late Cretaceous indicates that the tectonic regime evolved from a continental arc environment to one of post-orogenic extension. The appearance of sporadic post-90 Ma magmatism in the Dalat zone and along the eastern margin of Eurasian indicates that there was no subsequent orogenic event and the region was likely one of highly extended crust that facilitated the opening of the South China Sea during the latter half of the Cenozoic.

Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Lan, Ching-Ying; Van Long, Trinh; Usuki, Tadashi; Yang, Huai-Jen; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Iizuka, Yoshi; Chung, Sun-Lin; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Hsu, Wen-Yu

2013-12-01

407

Variations in rock-fragment abundance and bulk geochemistry of soils across the Southern Sierra Nevada CZO: Implications for hillslope-channel coupling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the interface between air and rock, the critical zone integrates everything from the biologically-mediated breakdown of minerals to the effects of climate change and tectonics on soil formation and sediment transport. River incision into rock provides a crucial, first-order link between extrinsic forcing factors (such as climate change and tectonic uplift) and the hillslope processes that shape the critical zone by changing soil thickness, geochemistry, and ultimately topographic form. Theoretical considerations and experimental studies indicate that there is great potential for feedbacks between hillslope and channel processes. For example, bedrock river incision should be regulated in part by both the quantity and caliber (i.e., grain-size distribution) of sediment supply, which together affect the availability and persistence of bed-scouring tools in channels. Although sediment supply rates and grain-size distributions can be readily measured in many landscapes (e.g., using cosmogenic nuclides and traditional soil sampling techniques), the importance of measuring them together, to help unravel and understand the complex linkages among hillslope and channel processes, has been overlooked until recently. Here we compile and analyze data from nearly 200 soil pits arrayed across a nearly uniform grid of sampling localities within the Southern Sierra Nevada Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). The CZO is part of the Kings River Experimental Watershed, where measurements of sediment and solute yields are an integral part of an ongoing, multi-decadal effort to monitor stocks and flows of biogeochemical cycles. Our quantitative data on rock fragment abundance, regolith density, and bulk geochemistry represents a range of topographic conditions, from convex ridgelines to positions at the toes of slopes, next to stream channels. Our results indicate that the percentage of coarse (>2 mm) material—which presumably becomes the bedload that abrades and thus lowers channels—varies significantly in soils across the 4 CZO watersheds, from an average of 15% in one extreme case to 50% in another. Rock fragment abundance is lowest in the catchment that also exhibits both the highest sediment yield and the lowest percent coverage by bare rock outcrops. This may indicate that both sediment yield and the physical breakdown of rock are limited by percent coverage of bare rock, consistent with a decades-old hypothesis that was developed to explain relationships among weathering, erosion, outcrop density, and topographic form in the region.

Riebe, C. S.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Johnson, D. W.; Jessup, B.

2009-12-01

408

Implications of the transition from magma-poor to volcanic margin for the understanding of early spreading and break-up of the southern South Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Atlantic has been generally recognized as a prime example for continental break-up with accompanying volcanic activity reflected today in massive seaward dipping reflector sequences (SDRS) in reflection as well as high velocity lower crust in refraction seismic data. The southern South Atlantic conjugated margins of Uruguay / Argentina and Namibia / South Africa have been previously investigated with the volcanic segments receiving most of the attention and less focus on the magma-poor margin segments in the southernmost South Atlantic. In our study we show that the southernmost segments on either side of the South Atlantic are indeed magma-poor, with a sharp transition to a volcanic margin type northwards. As the Atlantic opened from South to North, the magma-poor segments of the southernmost South Atlantic are also the oldest segments of the Ocean. Therefore, the magma-poor segments on the conjugated margins must be considered crucial in the understanding of the initial phase of spreading and rifting concluding in the opening of the South Atlantic. Understanding what led to the magma-poor beginning of the spreading phase and what triggered the subsequent change towards the volcanic margin type is therefore the aim of our research. Reflection, refraction seismic and potential field data show that while the two conjugated margins share much of their structural features such as segmentation and abundant volcanism, they are by no means perfectly symmetrical. This is for example shown in shelf width, strength of the magnetic anomalies or orientation of break-up related sedimentary basins. From our data, we suggest changes in spreading and later rifting direction to be the cause of for these asymmetries. This directional change is also suggested to be responsible for the change in margin character from magma-poor to volcanic rather than solely a sponta