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1

Integrated Mapping of Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiological Findings and Control Implications for Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background There are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post-conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish which communities require mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapy (PCT), rather than to provide precise estimates of infection prevalence. Methods and Findings The integrated survey design used anecdotal reports of LF and proximity to water bodies (for schistosomiasis) to guide selection of survey sites. In total, 86 communities were surveyed for schistosomiasis and STH; 43 of these were also surveyed for LF and loiasis. From these, 4834 urine samples were tested for blood in urine using Hemastix reagent strips, 4438 stool samples were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique, and 5254 blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests (ICT). 4461 individuals were interviewed regarding a history of ‘eye worm’ (a proxy measure for loiasis) and 31 village chiefs were interviewed regarding the presence of clinical manifestations of LF in their community. At the village level, prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni ranged from 0 to 65.6% and from 0 to 9.3%, respectively. The main STH species was hookworm, ranging from 0 to 70% by village. Infection with LF and loiasis was extremely rare, with only four individuals testing positive or reporting symptoms, respectively. Questionnaire data on clinical signs of LF did not provide a reliable indication of endemicity. MDA intervention thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization were only exceeded for urinary schistosomiasis and hookworm in a few, yet distinct, communities. Conclusion This was the first attempt to use an integrated survey design for this group of infections and to generate detailed results to guide their control over a large area of Southern Sudan. The approach proved practical, but could be further simplified to reduce field work and costs. The results show that only a few areas need to be targeted with MDA of PCT, thus confirming the importance of detailed mapping for cost-effective control. PMID:19859537

Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Oguttu, David; Robinson, Emily; Lado, Mounir; Rumunu, John; Brooker, Simon; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

2009-01-01

2

31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532...Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods,...

2010-07-01

3

31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532...Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods,...

2011-07-01

4

Blinding Trachoma in Postconflict Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness. Reports from eye surgery camps and anecdotal data indicated that blinding trachoma is a serious cause of visual impairment in Mankien payam (district) of southern Sudan. We conducted this study to estimate the prevalence of trachoma, estimate targets for interventions, and establish a baseline for monitoring and evaluation. Methods and Findings A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2005. A two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample population. Participants were examined for trachoma by experienced graders using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme. A total of 3,567 persons were examined (89.7% of those enumerated) of whom 2,017 were children aged less than 15 y and 1,550 were aged 15 y and above. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1–9 y was: trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) = 57.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.5%–60.4%); trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) = 39.8% (95% CI, 36.3%–43.5%); and TF and/or TI (active trachoma) = 63.3% (95% CI, 60.1%–66.4%). Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis was 9.6% (95% CI, 8.4%–10.9%) in all ages, 2.3% (95% CI, 1.6%–3.2%) in children aged under 15 y, and 19.2% (95% CI, 17.0%–21.7%) in adults. Men were equally affected by trichiasis as women: odds ratio = 1.09 (95% CI, 0.81%–1.47%). It is estimated that there are up to 5,344 persons requiring trichiasis surgery in Mankien payam. Conclusions Trachoma is a serious public health problem in Mankien, and the high prevalence of trichiasis in children underscores the severity of blinding trachoma. There is an urgent need to implement the surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental change (SAFE) strategy for trachoma control in Mankien payam, and the end of the 21-y civil war affords an opportunity to do this. PMID:17177597

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ole-Sempele, Francis; Onsarigo, Alice; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul

2006-01-01

5

A DERMATOPHILOSIS OUTBREAK IN SOUTHERN SUDAN TREATMENT TRIAL WITH TERRAMYCINE LONG ACTIVITY  

E-print Network

A DERMATOPHILOSIS OUTBREAK IN SOUTHERN SUDAN TREATMENT TRIAL WITH TERRAMYCINE LONG ACTIVITY MARCHOT/UNDP/RMA) an experimental cross- breeding station close to Juba, capital of the Equatoria Province, Sudan. In March 1984

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Viewing the Reconstruction of Primary Schooling in Southern Sudan through Education Data, 2006-2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After one of the longest wars in the history of Africa, Southern Sudan accomplished one of the world's quickest education reconstruction programmes. Once the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005, the international donor community and the government and people of Southern Sudan united under a common goal: to increase access to…

Kim, HyeJin; Moses, Kurt D.; Jang, Bosun; Wils, Annababette

2011-01-01

7

The epidemiology of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in southern Sudan  

E-print Network

Abstract Background We investigated vision status associated with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) and explored age-sex patterns of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in Mankien district of southern Sudan where trachoma prevention...

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona E; Ole-Sempele, Francis; Onsarigo, Alice; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul M

2007-08-28

8

The Burden of Trachoma in Ayod County of Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Blindness due to trachoma is avoidable through Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial hygiene and Environmental improvements (SAFE). Recent surveys have shown trachoma to be a serious cause of blindness in Southern Sudan. We conducted this survey in Ayod County of Jonglei State to estimate the need for intervention activities to eliminate blinding trachoma. Methodology and Findings A cross-sectional two-stage cluster random survey was conducted in November 2006. All residents of selected households were clinically assessed for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading scheme. A total of 2,335 people from 392 households were examined, of whom 1,107 were over 14 years of age. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children 1–9 years of age was: trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF)?=?80.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73.9–86.3); trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)?=?60.7% (95% CI, 54.6–66.8); and TF and/or TI (active trachoma)?=?88.3% (95% CI, 83.7–92.9). Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was 14.6% (95% CI, 10.9–18.3) in adults over 14 years of age; 2.9% (95% CI, 0.4–5.3) in children 1–14 years of age; and 8.4% (95% CI, 5.5–11.3) overall. The prevalence of corneal opacity in persons over 14 years of age with TT was 6.4% (95% CI, 4.5–8.3). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of trachoma signs between genders. Trachoma affected almost all households surveyed: 384/392 (98.0%) had at least one person with active trachoma and 130 (33.2%) had at least one person with trichiasis. Conclusions Trachoma is an unnecessary public health problem in Ayod. The high prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis confirms the severe burden of blinding trachoma found in other post-conflict areas of Southern Sudan. Based on WHO recommended thresholds, all aspects of the SAFE strategy are indicated to eliminate blinding trachoma in Ayod. PMID:18820746

King, Jonathan D.; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Gatpan, Gideon; Lopidia, Ben; Becknell, Steve; Emerson, Paul M.

2008-01-01

9

Phylogenetic and ecologic perspectives of a monkeypox outbreak, southern Sudan, 2005.  

PubMed

Identification of human monkeypox cases during 2005 in southern Sudan (now South Sudan) raised several questions about the natural history of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in Africa. The outbreak area, characterized by seasonally dry riverine grasslands, is not identified as environmentally suitable for MPXV transmission. We examined possible origins of this outbreak by performing phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences of MPXV isolates from the outbreak in Sudan and from differing localities. We also compared the environmental suitability of study localities for monkeypox transmission. Phylogenetically, the viruses isolated from Sudan outbreak specimens belong to a clade identified in the Congo Basin. This finding, added to the political instability of the area during the time of the outbreak, supports the hypothesis of importation by infected animals or humans entering Sudan from the Congo Basin, and person-to-person transmission of virus, rather than transmission of indigenous virus from infected animals to humans. PMID:23347770

Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Reynolds, Mary G; Karem, Kevin L; Olson, Victoria A; Lash, R Ryan; Davidson, Whitni B; Smith, Scott K; Levine, Rebecca S; Regnery, Russell L; Sammons, Scott A; Frace, Michael A; Mutasim, Elmangory M; Karsani, Mubarak E M; Muntasir, Mohammed O; Babiker, Alimagboul A; Opoka, Langova; Chowdhary, Vipul; Damon, Inger K

2013-02-01

10

Training at the Grassroots: An Integrated Approach to Training Library Assistants in Southern Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of a library training program by the University of Juba Library in Southern Sudan, and describes three levels of courses offered to library staff. Details are given of the curriculum, training staff, selection of trainees, and teaching tools, as well as examples of problems encountered. (CLB)

Rosenberg, Diana; O'Connor, Brigid

1988-01-01

11

Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

2012-01-01

12

75 FR 30459 - Assistance to the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as...Southern Sudan under malaria and HIV/AIDS grants, thus triggering...other incurred expenses under HIV/AIDS and malaria grants. Under...

2010-06-01

13

Kala-azar in displaced people from southern Sudan: epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic findings.  

PubMed

Six hundred and ninety-three patients with kala-azar were seen in Khartoum, Sudan, from January 1989 to February 1990. They were almost exclusively from the Nuer tribe, originating from the western Upper Nile province in southern Sudan, an area not known previously to be endemic for kala-azar. Because of the civil war in southern Sudan no treatment was available locally and massive migration to northern Sudan occurred; many died on the way. All age groups were affected; there was a slight male preponderance (56%). In the clinical presentation, marked generalized lymphadenopathy was prominent (84%). Splenomegaly was absent in 4% of cases. Patients usually showed anaemia, leucopenia and/or thrombocytopenia. 623 patients were treated with sodium stibogluconate, 10 mg/kg for 30 d; relapse occurred in 4% and death in 12%. Latterly, 70 patients were treated with sodium stibogluconate at 2 x 10 mg/kg for 15 d, with relapse in 6% and death in 6%. The difference between the 2 regimens in the number of relapses and deaths was not significant. The outbreak may have been caused by a combination of factors: the introduction of the parasite from an endemic area to a non-immune population, the presence of malnutrition caused by loss of cattle and unavailability of other food sources, and possibly an ecological change in favour of the sandfly vector. PMID:1658990

Zijlstra, E E; Ali, M S; el-Hassan, A M; el-Toum, I A; Satti, M; Ghalib, H W; Sondorp, E; Winkler, A

1991-01-01

14

Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.  

PubMed

In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself. PMID:22309968

O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

2012-11-01

15

Jebel Moya (Sudan): new dates from a mortuary complex at the southern Meroitic frontier.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a new chronology for the burial complex at Jebel Moya, south-central Sudan. It reassesses the body of evidence from Sir Henry Wellcome's original 1911-1914 excavations in order to place the site within a firm chronological framework by: (a) applying an attribute-based approach to discern discrete pottery assemblages; and (b) applying initial OSL dates to facilitate the reliable dating of this site for the first time. Jebel Moya is re-interpreted as a burial complex situated on the southern periphery of the late Meroitic state, and its potential to serve as a chronological and cultural reference point for future studies in south-central and southern Sudan is outlined. PMID:25400300

Brass, Michael; Schwenniger, Jean-Luc

2013-12-01

16

Jebel Moya (Sudan): new dates from a mortuary complex at the southern Meroitic frontier  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a new chronology for the burial complex at Jebel Moya, south-central Sudan. It reassesses the body of evidence from Sir Henry Wellcome's original 1911–1914 excavations in order to place the site within a firm chronological framework by: (a) applying an attribute-based approach to discern discrete pottery assemblages; and (b) applying initial OSL dates to facilitate the reliable dating of this site for the first time. Jebel Moya is re-interpreted as a burial complex situated on the southern periphery of the late Meroitic state, and its potential to serve as a chronological and cultural reference point for future studies in south-central and southern Sudan is outlined. PMID:25400300

Brass, Michael; Schwenniger, Jean-Luc

2013-01-01

17

31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and...Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Sudan, Southern...

2011-07-01

18

31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and...Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Sudan, Southern...

2010-07-01

19

The epidemiology of trachoma in Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile States, southern Sudan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Limited surveys and anecdotal data indicate that trachoma is endemic in the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile in southern Sudan. However, its magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We conducted surveys to ascertain the prevalence and geographical distribution of trachoma, and to identify targets for control interventions. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in nine sites in southern Sudan between September 2001 and June 2004. Two-stage random cluster sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. FINDINGS: A total of 17 016 persons were examined, a response rate of 86.1% of the enumerated population. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years was: TF=53.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=52.1-55.3); TI=42.7% (95% CI=41.2-44.2); TF and/or TI=64.1% (95% CI=62.5-65.5). Prevalence of trichiasis (TT) in children aged less than 15 years was 1.2% (95% CI=0.9-1.4), while TT prevalence in persons aged 15 years and above was 9.2% (95% CI=8.6-9.9). Women were more likely to have trichiasis compared to men (odds ratio (OR)=1.57; 95% CI=1.34-1.84). Tentative extrapolation to the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile estimates that there is a backlog of 178,250 (lower and upper bounds=156,027-205,995) persons requiring surgery and the entire population, estimated to be over 3.9 million, is in need of the SAFE strategy to control blinding trachoma. CONCLUSION: Trachoma is a public health problem in all nine of the study sites surveyed. The unusually high prevalence of active trachoma and TT in children points to the severity of the problem. There is urgent need to implement trachoma control interventions in trachoma endemic regions of southern Sudan. PMID:16462982

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Onsarigo, Alice; Adamu, Liknaw; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Emerson, Paul; Zingeser, James

2005-01-01

20

Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Low Vision in Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Blindness and low vision are thought to be common in southern Sudan. However, the magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of blindness and low vision, identify the main causes of blindness and low vision, and estimate targets for blindness prevention programs in Mankien payam (district), southern Sudan. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey of the population aged 5 y and above was conducted in May 2005 using a two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size. The Snellen E chart was used to test visual acuity, and participants also underwent basic eye examination. Vision status was defined using World Health Organization categories of visual impairment based on presenting visual acuity (VA). A total of 2,954 persons were enumerated and 2,499 (84.6%) examined. Prevalence of blindness (presenting VA of less than 3/60 in the better eye) was 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4–4.8); prevalence of low vision (presenting VA of at least 3/60 but less than 18/60 in the better eye) was 7.7% (95% CI, 6.7–8.7); whereas prevalence of monocular visual impairment (presenting VA of at least 18/60 in better eye and VA of less than 18/60 in other eye) was 4.4% (95% CI, 3.6–5.3). The main causes of blindness were considered to be cataract (41.2%) and trachoma (35.3%), whereas low vision was mainly caused by trachoma (58.1%) and cataract (29.3%). It is estimated that in Mankien payam 1,154 persons aged 5 y and above (lower and upper bounds = 782–1,799) are blind, and 2,291 persons (lower and upper bounds = 1,820–2,898) have low vision. Conclusions Blindness is a serious public health problem in Mankien, and there is urgent need to implement comprehensive blindness prevention programs. Further surveys are essential to confirm these tragic findings and estimate prevalence of blindness and low vision in the entire region of southern Sudan in order to facilitate planning of VISION 2020 objectives. PMID:17177596

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Ole-Sempele, Francis; Onsarigo, Alice; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul M

2006-01-01

21

Tsetse and trypanosomiasis survey of Southern Darfur province, Sudan. II. Entomological aspects.  

PubMed

Atsetse survey of Southern Darfur province, Sudan showed that the distribution of the only species present, Glossina morsitans submorsitans, had not appreciably altered over 10 years. Fly populations are most dense south of the Wadi Umbelasha but light infestations are found in the woodlands north of this riverine system to a latitude of about 10 degrees 15' N. Data are given on host availability which is thought to be the major factor determining tsetse distribution. The relative importance of tsetse and of tabanids as transmitters of bovine trypanosomiasis in the province is discussed. The evidence indicates that tsetse are very much more important and that cattle are most at risk of contracting infections during their dry season southerly migrations to the tsetse belts especially during their "Rushash" migration at first rains. Possibilities of tsetse control are discussed but in the short term trypanosomiasis control is most likely best achieved by chemical prophylaxis/therapy of cattle at risk. PMID:6485102

Hall, M J; Kheir, S M; Rahman, A H; Noga, S

1984-08-01

22

3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Sudan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Presidential Determination on Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential...2010 Presidential Determination on Sudan Memorandum for the Secretary of State...to facilitate the referendum in Southern Sudan pursuant to the Comprehensive Peace...

2011-01-01

23

Wetland change detection in Nile swamps of southern Sudan using multitemporal satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the maximum likelihood supervised classification and the post-classification comparison change detection are applied in order to monitor the wetlands by assessing and quantifying the wetland cover changes in the Nile swamps of southern Sudan, called the Sudd, by using the ERDAS IMAGINE software. Three multispectral satellite imageries, acquired in the wet season from 1986 to 2006 by Landsat TM and Landsat ETM+ images, are classified into five main land cover classes namely water, vegetation, urban, wetland-vegetation, and wetland-no vegetation, by using the maximum likelihood supervised classification. A pixel-by-pixel comparison was then performed over the classified thematic map images. The post-classification change detection results show a 3.69% decrease in the wetland-vegetation areas and a 2.68% decrease in the wetland-no vegetation areas within the period 1986 to 1999. In addition, a noticeable increase is observed in the wetland-vegetation areas within the period 1999 to 2006 in the Sudd area as 14.95% of the land cover classes' areas, excluding the wetland-vegetation areas are changed into wetland-vegetation areas while there was a decrease of 5.18% in the wetland-no vegetation areas within the period 1999 to 2006. The objective of this paper is to introduce precedence in studying the wetland cover changes over the Sudd area which can help the output planners develop water resources management projects leading to enhance the life conditions in the Sudd region.

Soliman, Ghada; Soussa, Hoda

2011-01-01

24

Trachoma Rapid Assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Methods and Principal Findings Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1–9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Conclusions Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time. PMID:20957205

Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W.; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R. Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

2010-01-01

25

Integrated Surveys of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Southern Sudan: How Much Do They Cost and Can They Be Refined?  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing emphasis on integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires identification of co-endemic areas. Integrated surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection have been recommended for this purpose. Integrated survey designs inevitably involve balancing the costs of surveys against accuracy of classifying areas for treatment, so-called implementation units (IUs). This requires an understanding of the main cost drivers and of how operating procedures may affect both cost and accuracy of surveys. Here we report a detailed cost analysis of the first round of integrated NTD surveys in Southern Sudan. Methods and Findings Financial and economic costs were estimated from financial expenditure records and interviews with survey staff using an ingredients approach. The main outcome was cost per IU surveyed. Uncertain variables were subjected to univariate sensitivity analysis and the effects of modifying standard operating procedures were explored. The average economic cost per IU surveyed was USD 40,206 or USD 9,573, depending on the size of the IU. The major cost drivers were two key categories of recurrent costs: i) survey consumables, and ii) personnel. Conclusion The cost of integrated surveys in Southern Sudan could be reduced by surveying larger administrative areas for LF. If this approach was taken, the estimated economic cost of completing LF, schistosomiasis and STH mapping in Southern Sudan would amount to USD 1.6 million. The methodological detail and costing template provided here could be used to generate cost estimates in other settings and readily compare these to the present study, and may help budget for integrated and single NTDs surveys elsewhere. PMID:20644619

Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Hanson, Kara; Robinson, Emily; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Mpakateni, Martin; Lado, Mounir; Moore, Stephen; Petty, Nora; Brooker, Simon

2010-01-01

26

Contesting Miss South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As South Sudan prepares for a referendum on independence in 2011, heightened nationalist expression within popular and political discourse reveals a messier and more openly disputed conception of the ideal Southern Sudanese woman. In this article I examine one site for debate in the diaspora, the US based Miss South Sudan beauty pageant. Highlighting the perseverance and power of the

Caroline Faria

2010-01-01

27

31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and...Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Kordofan/Nuba...

2012-07-01

28

31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.  

... 2014-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and...Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Kordofan/Nuba...

2014-07-01

29

31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and...Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern Kordofan/Nuba...

2013-07-01

30

They Own This: Mother Tongue Instruction for Indigenous Kuku Children in Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details a pilot program of mother tongue instruction in five primary schools for classes one through three, in Kajokeji County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. The program was launched by teachers and volunteers with the support of the Jesuit Refugee Service, an international non-governmental organization. The research examines…

Laguarda, Ana Isabel; Woodward, Walter Pierce

2013-01-01

31

The Research Process in a Multi-Level Mixed-Methods Case Study: International Organization Headquarters and Field Employee Perspectives of a Program in Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the methods and data-collection process for a multi-level mixed-methods case study. Data for the study were gathered through phone interviews and electronic surveys from individuals working on the same educational program in Southern Sudan, though some were supporting the program from outside the country. The…

Eschenbacher, Heidi

2012-01-01

32

75 FR 75865 - Presidential Determination on Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2011-05 of November 19, 2010 Presidential Determination on Sudan Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and the] President...the United Nations to facilitate the referendum in Southern Sudan pursuant to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The...

2010-12-07

33

Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapse in Southern Sudan (1999–2007): A Retrospective Study of Risk Factors and Trends  

PubMed Central

Background Risk factors associated with L. donovani visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala azar) relapse are poorly characterized. Methods We investigated patient characteristics and drug regimens associated with VL relapse using data from Médecins Sans Frontières - Holland (MSF) treatment centres in Southern Sudan. We used MSF operational data to investigate trends in VL relapse and associated risk factors. Results We obtained data for 8,800 primary VL and 621 relapse VL patients treated between 1999 and 2007. Records of previous treatment for 166 VL relapse patients (26.7%) were compared with 7,924 primary VL patients who had no record of subsequent relapse. Primary VL patients who relapsed had larger spleens on admission (Hackett grade ?3 vs0, odds ratio (OR) for relapse?=?3.62 (95% CI 1.08, 12.12)) and on discharge (Hackett grade ?3 vs 0, OR?=?5.50 (1.84, 16.49)). Age, sex, malnutrition, mobility, and complications of treatment were not associated with risk of relapse, nor was there any trend over time. Treatment with 17-day sodium stibogluconate/paromomycin (SSG/PM) combination therapy vs 30-day SSG monotherapy was associated with increased risk of relapse (OR?=?2.08 (1.21, 3.58)) but reduced risk of death (OR?=?0.27 (0.20, 0.37)), although these estimates are likely to be residually confounded. MSF operational data showed a crude upward trend in the proportion of VL relapse patients (annual percentage change (APC)?=?11.4% (?3.4%, 28.5%)) and a downward trend in deaths (APC?=??18.1% (?22.5%, ?13.4%)). Conclusions Splenomegaly and 17-day SSG/PM vs 30-day SSG were associated with increased risk of VL relapse. The crude upward trend in VL relapses in Southern Sudan may be attributable to improved access to treatment and reduced mortality due to SSG/PM combination therapy. PMID:20544032

Gorski, Stanislaw; Collin, Simon M.; Ritmeijer, Koert; Keus, Kees; Gatluak, Francis; Mueller, Marius; Davidson, Robert N.

2010-01-01

34

Schistosomiasis infection among primary school students in a war zone, Southern Kordofan State, Sudan: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis is a major health problem adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations in Sudan. Methods We conducted a school-based survey to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in 36 villages in Southern Kordofan (SK) State. A total of 2,302 primary school students were recruited. Each student completed a questionnaire and submitted one urine and one stool sample. Results The prevalence of schistosomiasis haematobium was 23.7%, while schistosomiasis mansoni was not detected among the study participants. S. haematobium infection was identified in all areas, with the highest prevalence in the western locality of SK State. The infection was associated with the distance between home/school and open water sources. In addition, S. haematobium infection was associated with the existence of and distance to open water sources, higher frequency of contact with open water, absence of a health advocacy group in the school and history of schistosomiasis treatment. Conclusions This study highlights schistosomiasis as a public health problem in SK State. The findings will guide the schistosomiasis Control Program of the State Ministry of Health in developing and applying treatment plans for schistosomiasis in SK State. PMID:23845226

2013-01-01

35

The epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis in western Upper Nile, southern Sudan: course and impact from 1984 to 1994.  

PubMed

The syndrome of fever, wasting, and enlarged spleen or lymph glands resulting from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is usually fatal unless treated. While VL is endemic in parts of southern Sudan, it was first reported in Western Upper Nile (WUN) during a confirmed epidemic in 1989 among a population of mainly Nuer and Dinka people who had no immunity. Civil war has been a major contributing factor to the continuation and spread of the epidemic, and continues to impede the provision of treatment, data collection, and control measures. The first of three clinics to treat VL was established in WUN in 1989. Data have since been collected in seven retrospective surveys in villages and among patients. Survey death rates were used to estimate mortality from VL and excess mortality above expected levels. Mortality was high at all ages. The overall death rate is estimated at 38-57% since the epidemic started in 1984, and up to 70% in the most affected areas. Approximately 100,000 deaths, among approximately 280,000 people in the epidemic area, may be attributable to VL. PMID:8921468

Seaman, J; Mercer, A J; Sondorp, E

1996-08-01

36

Kala-azar in western Upper Nile province in the southern Sudan and its spread to a nomadic tribe from the north.  

PubMed

Since the start in 1988 of the present epidemic of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) in western Upper Nile state in southern Sudan, the epidemiology of the disease in all parts of the Sudan where kala-azar has been reported was reassessed by the Leishmaniasis Research Group in Khartoum. In this paper, the spread of the epidemic is described among a nomadic tribe originating from southern Kordofan state, who migrate every year with their cattle to the Bentiu area in western Upper Nile state where the epidemic is still raging. 200 cases from this tribe were seen in Khartoum; another 56 cases were found during a field trip to the area. In addition, the Bentiu area was visited, where 301 cases were under treatment and another 52 of 1120 individuals screened were confirmed parasitologically. 20 cases of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis were found. Parasites isolated from the nomadic tribe were of the same zymodeme as parasites isolated previously from the Nuer in western Upper Nile. The epidemiological findings in each state are discussed in relation to the tribes that were affected and the ecology of the area. PMID:8249061

el-Hassan, A M; Hashim, F A; Ali, M S; Ghalib, H W; Zijlstra, E E

1993-01-01

37

The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8) were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model) with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health), respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63), higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17), absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24), and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27) and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17). A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data). There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and mental health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan, and highlights the importance of addressing all these influences on overall health. PMID:20799956

2010-01-01

38

Sudan Grass.  

E-print Network

.3~1'1 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN No. 172 JANUARY, 1915 ? SUDAN GRASS ? '! POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS ? VON BOECKMANN-JONES CO., PRINTERS, AUSTIN, TEXAS 1915 BLANK PAGE IN ORIGINAL A42-f1 5-30m... TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT~ STATION BuLLETIN No. 172 JANUARY, 1915 SUDAN GRASS BY B. YOUNGBLOOD .AND A. B. CONNER POSTOFFICE: COLLI:GE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS VON BOECKMANN-JONES CO., PRINTERS, .\\. USTIN .. I'EXAS 1915 AGRICULTURAL...

Youngblood, B.; Conner, A. B.

1915-01-01

39

A sensitivity study on the role of the swamps of southern Sudan in the summer climate of North Africa using a regional climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the regional climate model RegCM3 to investigate the role of the swamps of southern Sudan in affecting the climate of the surrounding region. Towards this end, we first assessed the performance of a high resolution version of the model over northern Africa. RegCM3 shows a good skill in simulating the climatology of rainfall and temperature patterns as well as the related circulation features during the summer season, outperforming previous coarser resolution applications of the model over this region. Sensitivity experiments reveal that, relative to bare soil conditions, the swamps act to locally modify the surface energy budget primarily through an increase of surface latent heat flux. Existence of the swamps leads to lower ground temperature (up to 2 °C), a larger north-south temperature gradient, and increased local rainfall (up to 40 %). Of particular importance is the impact on rainfall in the surrounding regions. The swamps have almost no impact on the rainfall over the source region of the Nile in Ethiopia or in the Sahel region; however, they favor wetter conditions over central Sudan (up to 15 %) in comparison to the bare desert soil conditions.

Zaroug, Modathir A. H.; Sylla, M. B.; Giorgi, F.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Aggarwal, Pradeep K.

2013-07-01

40

Practices and beliefs of the traditional Dinka healer in relation to provision of modern medical and veterinary services for the Southern Sudan.  

PubMed

One class of traditional Dinka healers is a practical surgeon-bonesetter-obstetrician who practices (all but obstetrics) on both people and animals. His anatomical, physiological, and pathological knowledge and surmises, derived almost entirely from observations on cattle, are in some respects remarkable, especially those on the function of the kidney and nature of the circulatory system. He shares with ancient Egyptian healers the belief that sperm originate in the spinal cord and brain and performs a unique surgical operation on the horns of bulls that has been known in the Nile valley since the Egyptian 5th dynasty. With minimum training he might function effectively within the governmental health and veterinary services of the southern Sudan, an area populated mostly by transhumant cattle-culture peoples not easily reached through conventional health services. PMID:10252763

Schwabe, C W; Kuojok, I M

1981-01-01

41

The Birth of a New Nation: The Republic of South Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early July, the country of Sudan, wracked by civil war since the 1980s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan. Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or "Unity." For the…

Totten, Samuel

2011-01-01

42

Flood pulsing in the Sudd wetland: analysis of seasonal variations in 2 inundation and evapotranspiration in Southern Sudan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Located on the Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan, the Sudd is one of the largest floodplain wetlands in the world. Seasonal inundation drives the hydrologic, geomorphological, and ecological processes, and the annual flood pulse is essential to the functioning of the Sudd. Despite the importance of the flood pulse, various hydrological interventions are planned upstream of the Sudd to increase economic benefits and food security. These will not be without consequences, in particular for wetlands where the biological productivity, biodiversity, and human livelihoods are dependent on the flood pulse and both the costs and benefits need to be carefully evaluated. Many African countries still lack regional baseline information on the temporal extent, distribution, and characteristics of wetlands, making it hard to assess the consequences of development interventions. Because of political instability in Sudan and the inaccessible nature of the Sudd, recent measurements of flooding and seasonal dynamics are inadequate. Analyses of multitemporal and multisensor remote sensing datasets are presented in this paper, in order to investigate and characterize flood pulsing within the Sudd wetland over a 12-month period. Wetland area has been mapped along with dominant components of open water and flooded vegetation at five time periods over a single year. The total area of flooding (both rain and river fed) over the 12 months was 41 334 km2, with 9176 km2 of this constituting the permanent wetland. Mean annual total evaporation is shown to be higher and with narrower distribution of values from areas of open water (1718 mm) than from flooded vegetation (1641 mm). Although the exact figures require validation against ground-based measurements, the results highlight the relative differences in inundation patterns and evaporation across the Sudd.

Senay, Gabriel; Rebelo, L-M.; McCartney, M.P.

2012-01-01

43

Spectral P-wave magnitudes, magnitude spectra and other source parameters for the 1990 southern Sudan and the 2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teleseismic Broadband seismograms of P-waves from the May 1990 southern Sudan and the December, 2005 Lake Tanganyika earthquakes; the western branch of the East African Rift System at different azimuths have been investigated on the basis of magnitude spectra. The two earthquakes are the largest shocks in the East African Rift System and its extension in southern Sudan. Focal mechanism solutions along with geological evidences suggest that the first event represents a complex style of the deformation at the intersection of the northern branch of the western branch of the East African Rift and Aswa Shear Zone while the second one represents the current tensional stress on the East African Rift. The maximum average spectral magnitude for the first event is determined to be 6.79 at 4 s period compared to 6.33 at 4 s period for the second event. The other source parameters for the two earthquakes were also estimated. The first event had a seismic moment over fourth that of the second one. The two events are radiated from patches of faults having radii of 13.05 and 7.85 km, respectively. The average displacement and stress drop are estimated to be 0.56 m and 1.65 MPa for the first event and 0.43 m and 2.20 MPa for the second one. The source parameters that describe inhomogeneity of the fault are also determined from the magnitude spectra. These additional parameters are complexity, asperity radius, displacements across the asperity and ambient stress drop. Both events produce moderate rupture complexity. Compared to the second event, the first event is characterized by relatively higher complexity, a low average stress drop and a high ambient stress. A reasonable explanation for the variations in these parameters may suggest variation in the strength of the seismogenic fault which provides the relations between the different source parameters. The values of stress drops and the ambient stresses estimated for both events indicate that these earthquakes are of interplate type.

Moussa, Hesham Hussein Mohamed

2008-10-01

44

DEM-optical-radar data integration for palaeohydrological mapping in the northern Darfur, Sudan: implication for groundwater exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

North?western Sudan, as a part of the eastern Sahara, is among the driest places on earth. However, the region underwent drastic climatic changes through the alternation of dry and wet conditions in the past. During humid phases, when the rain was plentiful over a prolonged time period, the surface was veined by rivers and dotted by large lakes. The new

E. Ghoneim; F. El-Baz

2007-01-01

45

Sudan und Sd-Sudan. Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation?  

E-print Network

Sudan und Süd-Sudan. Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation? Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth (Fachbereich aktuellen Konflikte zwischen dem Sudan und dem Süd-Sudan haben, wie die Konflikte innerhalb der beiden internationalen Grenze zwischen Sudan und Süd-Sudan mobilisiert werden können. Schon vor der Unabhängigkeit des

Koenig, Friederike - Fachbereich 2 Biologie

46

A climate trend analysis of Sudan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summer rains in western and southern Sudan have declined by 10-20 percent since the mid-1970s. Observed warming of more than 1 degree Celsius is equivalent to another 10-20 percent reduction in rainfall for crops. The warming and drying have impacted southern Darfur and areas around Juba. Rainfall declines west of Juba threaten southern Sudan's future food production prospects. In many cases, areas with changing climate are coincident with zones of substantial conflict, suggesting some degree of association; however, the contribution of climate change to these conflicts is not currently understood. Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a more variable climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Sudan over the next 20 years.

Funk, Chris; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, Jim; Rowland, Jim; Marshall, Michael

2011-01-01

47

Al Jazirah, Sudan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

48

Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in southern Appalachian Mountain streams: implications for trout  

E-print Network

Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in southern Appalachian Mountain streams: implications invertebrate drift in six south-western North Carolina streams and their implications for trout production productivity. However, little is known about the contribution of terrestrial invertebrates entering drift

Hutchens, John

49

Aspects of Women's Political Participation in Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western preconceptions about the nature of the political process, the division between public and private spheres, and participation in the political process give an incomplete picture of political activity in places like the Sudan. Cultural differences between the northern and southern region further complicate our understanding of the country.…

El-Bakri, Z. B.; Kameir, E. M.

1983-01-01

50

Nodding syndrome - South Sudan, 2011.  

PubMed

In November 2010, the Ministry of Health of the proposed nation of South Sudan requested CDC assistance in investigating a recent increase and geographic clustering of an illness resulting in head nodding and seizures. The outbreak was suspected to be nodding syndrome, an unexplained neurologic condition characterized by episodes of repetitive dropping forward of the head, often accompanied by other seizure-like activity, such as convulsions or staring spells. The condition predominantly affects children aged 5-15 years and has been reported in South Sudan from the states of Western and Central Equatoria and in Northern Uganda and southern Tanzania. Because of visa and security concerns, CDC investigators did not travel to South Sudan until May 2011. On arrival, a case-control study was conducted that included collecting exposure information and biologic specimens to assess the association of nodding syndrome with suspected risk factors. A total of 38 matched case-control pairs were enrolled from two different communities: Maridi and Witto. Overall, current infection with Onchocerca volvulus diagnosed by skin snip was more prevalent among the 38 case-patients (76.3%) than the controls (47.4%) (matched odds ratio [mOR] = 3.2). This difference was driven by the 25 pairs in Maridi (88.0% among case-patients, 44.0% among controls, mOR=9.3); among the 13 pairs in Witto, no significant association with onchocerciasis (known as river blindness) was observed. Although onchocerciasis was more prevalent among case-patients, whether infection preceded or followed nodding syndrome onset was unknown. Priorities for nodding syndrome investigations include improving surveillance to monitor the number of cases and their geographic distribution and continued work to determine the etiology of the syndrome. PMID:22278159

2012-01-27

51

Biogas energy technology in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy in Sudan, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology in Sudan. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. Sudan is blessed with abundant solar, wind, hydro, and

A. M. Omer; Y. Fadalla

2003-01-01

52

The Politics of Writing Tribal Identities in the Sudan: The Case of the Colonial Nuba Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistics is implicated in the colonial project of the invention of "self-contained" "racial" and "tribal units" in the Sudan. This paper has two objectives. First, to historicise the notions of "language" in the postcolonial discourse of language planning in the Sudan by reviewing one of the significant colonial policies: the colonial Nuba…

Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal

2010-01-01

53

Demanding Divestment from Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard University in…

Asquith, Christina

2006-01-01

54

UNICEF and the Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coupled with poor infrastructure, vast distances, and harsh climatic conditions, the enormous physical obstacles in the Sudan (Africa's largest country) have combined to produce extremely serious problems for Sudanese children, who will soon constitute half of the 17 million people there. This booklet describes continuing projects implemented by…

United Nations Children's Fund, Nairobi (Kenya). Eastern Africa Regional Office.

55

Paleogeography and tectonic implications of the late Cretaceous to Middle Tertiary rocks of the southern Denver Basin, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Cretaceous to Oligocene siliciclastic sediments and volcanic rocks belonging to the Dawson Formation, the Wall Mountain Tuff, and the Castle Rock Conglomerate of the southern Denver Basin, Colorado, have been studied to determine the depositional history of the basin and the implications they carry for the tectonic history of the southern Front Range. The lower Dawson study indicates

1979-01-01

56

Geophysical Identification and Geological Implications of the Southern Alaska Magnetic Trough  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The southern Alaska magnetic trough (SAMT) is one of the fundamental, crustal-scale, magnetic features of Alaska. It is readily recognized on 10 km upward-continued aeromagnetic maps of the state. The arcuate SAMT ranges from 30 to 100 km wide and extends in two separate segments along the southern Alaska margin for about 1200 km onshore (from near the Alaska/Canada border at about 60 degrees north latitude to the Bering Sea) and may continue an additional 500 km or more offshore (in the southern Bering Sea). The SAMT is bordered to the south by the southern Alaska magnetic high (SAMH) produced by strongly magnetic crust and to the north by a magnetically quiet zone that reflects weakly magnetic interior Alaska crust. Geophysically, the SAMT is more than just the north-side dipole low associated with the SAMH. Several modes of analysis, including examination of magnetic potential (pseudogravity) and profile modeling, indicate that the source of this magnetic trough is a discrete, crustal-scale body. Geologically, the western portion of the SAMT coincides to a large degree with collapsed Mesozoic Kahiltna flysch basin. This poster presents our geophysical evidence for the extent and geometry of this magnetic feature as well as initial geological synthesis and combined geologic/geophysical modeling to examine the implications of this feature for the broad scale tectonic framework of southern Alaska.

Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, F.H.

2003-01-01

57

Volume 7, Number 13 July 9, 2013 From One Sudan to Two Sudans  

E-print Network

1 Volume 7, Number 13 July 9, 2013 From One Sudan to Two Sudans: Dynamics of Partition of the establishment of the Republic of South Sudan, the 54th member state of the African Union. The partition of Sudan a twenty-year war between the central government in Khartoum and the South-based Sudan Peoples' Liberation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt & Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the evidence from two related movements: the contemporary Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, and the cluster of organisations that have been closely associated with Hasan al-Turabi in Sudan, in order to query the extent to which Islamism is compatible with liberal democratic politics. The answers suggested are, in the Egyptian case, hopeful, but for Sudan decidedly pessimistic. However,

Mohammed Zahid; Michael Medley

2006-01-01

59

Prevalence of Trachoma in Unity State, South Sudan: Results from a Large-Scale Population-Based Survey and Potential Implications for Further Surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Large parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions. Methods and Findings The survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across the area, 40 clusters (villages) were randomly selected proportional to the county population size in a population-based prevalence survey. The simplified grading scheme was used to classify clinical signs of trachoma. The unadjusted prevalence of trachoma inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1–9 years was 70.5% (95% CI: 68.6–72.3). After adjusting for age, sex, county and clustering of cases at household and village level the prevalence was 71.0% (95% CI: 69.9–72.1). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in adults was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.4–17.0) and 13.5% (95% CI: 12.0–15.1) before and after adjustment, respectively. We estimate that 700,000 people (the entire population of Unity State) require antibiotic treatment and approximately 54,178 people require TT surgery. Risk factor analyses confirmed child-level associations with TF and highlighted that older adults living in poverty are at higher risk of TT. Conditional simulations, testing the alternatives of sampling 20 or 60 villages over the same area, indicated that sampling of only 20 villages would have provided an acceptable level of precision for state-level prevalence estimation to inform intervention decisions in this hyperendemic setting. Conclusion Trachoma poses an enormous burden on the population of Unity State. Comprehensive control is urgently required to avoid preventable blindness and should be initiated across the state now. In other parts of South Sudan suspected to be highly trachoma endemic, counties should be combined into larger survey areas to generate the baseline data required to initiate interventions. PMID:22506082

Edwards, Tansy; Smith, Jennifer; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Kur, Lucia W.; Sabasio, Anthony; Finn, Timothy P.; Lado, Mounir; Haddad, Danny; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

2012-01-01

60

Sudan and the Lost Girls: Another Step  

E-print Network

Sudan and the Lost Girls: Another Step in the Journey-- Sudan to America Presented by Brandeis Journalism-- Panel discussion on "Sudan and the Lost Girls: Another Step in the Journey," present- ed Educational Fund. The participants will discuss life in South Sudan during the mass exodus of youth from

Fraden, Seth

61

Operation Lifeline Sudan  

PubMed Central

The provision of aid in war zones can be fraught with political difficulties and may itself foster inequalities, as it is rare to be allowed access to civilians on both sides of a conflict. Over the past decade, a United Nations (UN) brokered agreement has allowed Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS), a UN "umbrella" organisation, to provide the diplomatic cover and operational support to allow long term humanitarian and emergency food aid to both the government and the rebel sides in the long-running south Sudanese civil war. Over the years, the destruction of infrastructure in the country has meant that the provision of basic health care has been seriously hampered. Operation Lifeline Sudan has coordinated the work of most of the non-governmental organisations (NGOs), working in this part of Africa. Each NGO has had responsibility for a particular area of the country and has worked closely with the local Sudanese authorities on either side of the conflict, conforming to strict codes of conduct or "ground rules", based on neutrality. Operation Lifeline Sudan has provided an air-bridge for emergency relief supplies in regions where road access is impossible, either because of landmines, or simply because the roads do not exist. The war continues, however, and the underlying causes of war—economic exploitation, marginalisation of communities, lack of political representation, and systematic violence and abuse remain unsolved. The warring factions have brought some OLS operations in south Sudan to a standstill recently, for certain political reasons that could have compromised the neutrality of the OLS-coordinated humanitarian aid schemes. It would appear that the only resolution to the country's problems are external political pressure to get the respective combatants to negotiate and, less probably, an undertaking by countries of the developed world not to continue to supply arms. Nevertheless, OLS may serve as a model for how medical aid can be delivered in an even-handed way to the populations of countries where there is civil war, irrespective of where they may live. PMID:11834761

Taylor-Robinson, S

2002-01-01

62

Distance Teaching in the Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history, social climate, and country of Sudan as they relate to several educational projects. It is suggested that a satisfactory rate of development cannot be achieved while illiteracy remains at its present high level. (Author/JEG)

Badri, Hagga Kashif

1979-01-01

63

Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. Methods Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe) adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. Results Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6%) contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals – often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not evident in vector populations breeding in artificial water sources away from the river. Conclusion The GIS-based survey strategy developed in this study provides key data on the population dynamics of An. arabiensis in Northern State. Quantitative estimates of the contributions of various habitat types and their proximity to settlements provide a basis for planning a strategy for reducing malaria risk by elimination of the vector population. PMID:19500425

Ageep, Tellal B; Cox, Jonathan; Hassan, M'oawia M; Knols, Bart GJ; Benedict, Mark Q; Malcolm, Colin A; Babiker, Ahmed; El Sayed, Badria B

2009-01-01

64

Binding of Sudan II and Sudan IV to bovine serum albumin: comparison studies.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the interaction of Sudan II and Sudan IV to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Structural analysis showed that both Sudan II and Sudan IV interact mainly with BSA at the hydrophobic pocket and via Van der Waals forces. The number of bound Sudan molecule for each protein molecule was approximately 1. The overall binding constants at 293 K (20°C) estimated for Sudan II and Sudan IV were 1.22 × 10(4)M(-1) and 1.48 × 10(4)M(-1), respectively. BSA backbone structure was damaged by the dyes with more severe phenomenon observed for Sudan IV. For two Sudan dyes with the same concentration, Sudan IV could cause more alterations on CD spectra of BSA with slight decrease of ?-helical content and increase of ?-sheet content, suggesting a partial protein unfolding. PMID:21951948

Lu, Dawei; Zhao, Xingchen; Zhao, Yingcan; Zhang, Bingcong; Zhang, Bin; Geng, Mengyang; Liu, Rutao

2011-12-01

65

GURUSWAMI, H ASTAD, SUDAN, AND ZUCKERMAN 1  

E-print Network

GURUSWAMI, H Å¡ ASTAD, SUDAN, AND ZUCKERMAN 1 Combinatorial Bounds for List Decoding Venkatesan Guruswami Johan HÅ¡astad Madhu Sudan David Zuckerman Abstract--- Informally, an error­correcting code has@nada.kth.se. Supported in part by the GË?oran Gustafsson founda­ tion and NSF grant CCR­9987077. Madhu Sudan's address

Guruswami, Venkatesan

66

GURUSWAMI, H ASTAD, SUDAN, AND ZUCKERMAN 1  

E-print Network

GURUSWAMI, H Å¡ ASTAD, SUDAN, AND ZUCKERMAN 1 Combinatorial Bounds for List Decoding Venkatesan Guruswami Johan HÅ¡astad Madhu Sudan David Zuckerman Abstract--- Informally, an error­correcting code hasË?oran Gustafsson founda­ tion and NSF grant CCR­9987077. Madhu Sudan's address is Laboratory for Computer Science

HÃ¥stad, Johan

67

Physical limits of Communication Madhu Sudan1  

E-print Network

Physical limits of Communication Madhu Sudan1 1 Microsoft Research New England, One Memorial Drive by a particle may flip during transmission, and delay, where the particle's arrival time at a © Madhu Sudan, Germany #12;Madhu Sudan 5 destination may not correspond exactly to its departure time. In particular we

Sudan, Madhu

68

The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for  

E-print Network

The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Gala´pagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different

Naveira Garabato, Alberto

69

A Late Neoproterozoic (V630 Ma) high-magnesium andesite suite from southern Israel: implications for the consolidation  

E-print Network

A Late Neoproterozoic (V630 Ma) high-magnesium andesite suite from southern Israel: implications, when the dykes were emplaced. These magmas had compositions of basaltic andesites and andesites but had and depleted in heavy rare earth elements. They are high-magnesium andesites and are similar to low-Ca type 2

Basu, Asish R.

70

The Sudan Rural Television Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a rural education program, which was implemented in the Gezira Irrigated Area (as defined with a map) in Sudan. The aim of the project was the socioeconomic development of the Gezira tenant farmers through discussion of specifically designed educational programs in village viewing clubs. (JEG)

Low, John

1978-01-01

71

A molecular survey of cystic echinococcosis in Sudan.  

PubMed

A survey of cystic echinococcosis in livestock was conducted from May 2001 to July 2003 in central, western and southern Sudan. Hydatid cysts were present in 59% (466/779) of camels, 6% (299/4893) of cattle, 11% (1180/10,422) of sheep and 2% (106/5565) of goats, with little variation among different geographical areas. 532 of these cysts were examined by PCR and could be overwhelmingly (98.7%) allocated to Echinococcus canadensis G6/7 (all of 215 cysts from camels, 112 of 114 cysts from cattle, 134 of 138 cysts from sheep, and all of 65 cysts from goats); the genotype G6 was identified by sequencing 13 of these isolates. Only 2 cysts from cattle belonged to Echinococcus ortleppi. The mean number of cysts per infected animal was much higher in camels (5.1) than in the other species (1.0-1.3), and cyst fertility was higher in camels and cattle (74% and 77%) than in goats and sheep (31% and 19%). Fertile cysts from five human patients from hospitals in Khartoum and Juba belonged to E. canadensis (G6). This study confirms the predominance of the 'camel strain' in Sudan and the infectivity of this strain for humans. This is the first genetic characterization of human CE in Sudan. PMID:20138433

Omer, R A; Dinkel, A; Romig, T; Mackenstedt, U; Elnahas, A A; Aradaib, I E; Ahmed, M E; Elmalik, K H; Adam, A

2010-05-11

72

31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

2014-07-01

73

31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

2013-07-01

74

31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

2011-07-01

75

31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

2010-07-01

76

31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...

2012-07-01

77

Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture. PMID:25561845

Carter, Chris G.; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

2014-01-01

78

Declining sand dune activity in the southern Canadian prairies: Historical context, controls and ecosystem implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandhills are islands of biodiversity in the southern Canadian prairies that sustain habitat for many rare and endangered species. These unique areas consist of large expanses of dune fields now mostly stabilized by grassland vegetation. Historically, the number of active dunes has decreased significantly due to vegetation stabilization, resulting in a dramatic decline of open-sand habitat for a variety of dune-dependent species. Without a certain level of wind erosion, opportunities for establishment of early-stage, species-rich vegetation types are diminished and open-sand habitat decreases by encroachment of the surrounding grassland vegetation. The current trend of dune stabilization, however, implies that wind erosion is decreasing, thereby threatening the continued existence of a variety of dune-dependent plants, arthropods and vertebrates, as well as other less-specialized species that benefit indirectly from these habitats. By reviewing factors contributing to the historical decline of active dunes, as well as the ecological implications of dune stabilization, the aim of this paper is to establish the biophysical context for new land management strategies that conserve valued landscape components, such as active dunes, and the processes therein. As dune stabilization continues management interventions will be required to sustain or re-establish open sand and the species that rely on these habitats.

Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Bender, Darren; Wolfe, Stephen A.

2010-11-01

79

Inventory management support systems for emergency humanitarian relief operations in South Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To develop and test three different inventory management strategies as applied to the complex emergency in south Sudan. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Quantitative modeling, simulation, and statistics. Findings – This research identified critical system factors that contributed most significantly to inventory system performance, and identified strengths and weaknesses of each inventory management strategy. Research limitations\\/implications – This research represents a

Benita M. Beamon; Stephen A. Kotleba

2006-01-01

80

Human Resources for Information Development in Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the state of human resources development in Sudan's information industry. Training problems and the emigration of high level personnel are discussed, guidelines for human resource development are suggested, and national strategies to develop and retain Sudan's human resources are suggested. (EA)

Wesley, Cecile

1992-01-01

81

Patterns hidden from simple algorithms Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

Patterns hidden from simple algorithms Madhu Sudan February 7, 2011 Is the number nuclear power safety calculations made by a Monte-Carlo algorithm using randomness from the C++ rand the most notorious example. Madhu Sudan (madhu@mit.edu) is a Principal Researcher at Microsoft Research

Sudan, Madhu

82

Stratigraphic assessment of the Arcelia Teloloapan area, southern Mexico: implications for southern Mexico's post-Neocomian tectonic evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic assessment of the "Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex" (TCMC) between Arcelia and Teloloapan in southern Mexico, based on photo interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper images and field mapping at the 1:100,000 scale, tests different tectonic evolution scenarios that bear directly on the evolution of the southern North American plate margin. The regional geology, emphasizing the stratigraphy of a portion of the TCMC within the area between Arcelia and Teloloapan is presented. Stratigraphic relationships with units in adjacent areas are also described. The base of the stratigraphic section is a chlorite grade metamorphic sequence that includes the Taxco Schist, the Roca Verde Taxco Viejo Formation, and the Almoloya Phyllite Formation. These metamorphic units, as thick as 2.7 km, are covered disconformably by a sedimentary sequence, 2.9 km thick, composed of the Cretaceous marine Pochote, Morelos, and Mexcala Formations, as well as undifferentiated Tertiary continental red beds and volcanic rocks. The geology may be explained as the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary environments developed upon attenuated continental crust. Our results do not support accretion of the Guerrero terrane during Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene) time.

Cabral-Cano, E.; Lang, H. R.; Harrison, C. G. A.

2000-10-01

83

An assessment of the feasibility for oil substitution in the Sudan  

SciTech Connect

This paper attempts to assess the possibilities for oil substitution in the Sudan. The authors begin by analyzing the expected growth of energy demand between 1984 and 1990 basing their work on official reports and published statistics. They then turn to identifying the scope for oil use ratios at both the industry and industry subsector levels. The achieving of potential energy substitution is then examined in the light of available alternative technologies and fuel supplies. Finally they turn to discussing their findings' implications for public policy in the energy sector in the Sudan.

Perdikis, N.; Shibeika, M.H.E. (Univ. College of Wales (England))

1989-01-01

84

Not just about sunburn - the ozone hole's profound effect on climate has significant implications for Southern Hemisphere ecosystems.  

PubMed

Climate scientists have concluded that stratospheric ozone depletion has been a major driver of Southern Hemisphere climate processes since about 1980. The implications of these observed and modelled changes in climate are likely to be far more pervasive for both terrestrial and marine ecosystems than the increase in ultraviolet-B radiation due to ozone depletion; however, they have been largely overlooked in the biological literature. Here, we synthesize the current understanding of how ozone depletion has impacted Southern Hemisphere climate and highlight the relatively few documented impacts on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Reviewing the climate literature, we present examples of how ozone depletion changes atmospheric and oceanic circulation, with an emphasis on how these alterations in the physical climate system affect Southern Hemisphere weather, especially over the summer season (December-February). These potentially include increased incidence of extreme events, resulting in costly floods, drought, wildfires and serious environmental damage. The ecosystem impacts documented so far include changes to growth rates of South American and New Zealand trees, decreased growth of Antarctic mosses and changing biodiversity in Antarctic lakes. The objective of this synthesis was to stimulate the ecological community to look beyond ultraviolet-B radiation when considering the impacts of ozone depletion. Such widespread changes in Southern Hemisphere climate are likely to have had as much or more impact on natural ecosystems and food production over the past few decades, than the increased ultraviolet radiation due to ozone depletion. PMID:25402975

Robinson, Sharon A; Erickson, David J

2015-02-01

85

Effect of iron supply on Southern Ocean CO2 uptake and implications for glacial atmospheric CO2.  

PubMed

Photosynthesis by marine phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean, and the associated uptake of carbon, is thought to be currently limited by the availability of iron. One implication of this limitation is that a larger iron supply to the region in glacial times could have stimulated algal photosynthesis, leading to lower concentrations of atmospheric CO2. Similarly, it has been proposed that artificial iron fertilization of the oceans might increase future carbon sequestration. Here we report data from a whole-ecosystem test of the iron-limitation hypothesis in the Southern Ocean, which show that surface uptake of atmospheric CO2 and uptake ratios of silica to carbon by phytoplankton were strongly influenced by nanomolar increases of iron concentration. We use these results to inform a model of global carbon and ocean nutrients, forced with atmospheric iron fluxes to the region derived from the Vostok ice-core dust record. During glacial periods, predicted magnitudes and timings of atmospheric CO2 changes match ice-core records well. At glacial terminations, the model suggests that forcing of Southern Ocean biota by iron caused the initial approximately 40 p.p.m. of glacial-interglacial CO2 change, but other mechanisms must have accounted for the remaining 40 p.p.m. increase. The experiment also confirms that modest sequestration of atmospheric CO2 by artificial additions of iron to the Southern Ocean is in principle possible, although the period and geographical extent over which sequestration would be effective remain poorly known. PMID:11048716

Watson, A J; Bakker, D C; Ridgwell, A J; Boyd, P W; Law, C S

2000-10-12

86

Southern Mexican minnows of the genus Notropis (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae): genetic variation, phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme analyses were performed to determine patterns of genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Notropis in southern Mexico. Products of 28 gene loci were resolved in 24 geographic samples belonging to four putative species. These species represent the southern limit of the Cyprinidae in North America. Five loci were found monomorphic and 11 were diagnostic among species when

Susana Schönhuth; Adolfo De Sostoa; Emilio Martinez; Ignacio Doadrio

2001-01-01

87

7th International Sudan Studies Conference "Fifty Years After Independence : Sudan's Quest for Peace, Stability and Identity" April 6th  

E-print Network

7th International Sudan Studies Conference "Fifty Years After Independence : Sudan's Quest Do you speak Kordofanian ? In the very center of the Republic of the Sudan, the province of South in the whole Sudan in an area which represents fewer than 5 % of the country. This high ratio of languages per

Boyer, Edmond

88

Uutisen Sudan ja representaation politiikka : Sudan-uutiset kolmen maan päivälehdissä.  

E-print Network

??Tutkimuksen ensisijaisena tavoitteena on selvittää, miten Sudan representoidaan kolmen eri maan päivälehden sekä kahden suurimman uutistoimiston uutisaineistossa, ja miten media kuvaa, selittää ja jäsentää Sudanissa… (more)

Viitanen, Mirva

2008-01-01

89

Francisella tularensis Bacteremia: A Case Report from Sudan  

PubMed Central

Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent intracellular gram-negative bacterium. The organism is usually isolated from wild and domestic animals and invertebrate. Man gets infection by direct contact with those animals or their products but the most common mode of transmission is via arthropod vectors. The disease is endemic in North America, parts of Europe, and Asia but has never been reported in Africa. A 29-year old male living in a rural area of Southern Sudan has been maintained on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for two years. He presented to our center in May 2010 complaining of fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, and abdominal discomfort for four days. He was very ill, pale, and dehydrated. There were enlarged tender submandibular lymph nodes, but no mouth ulcers or other palpable lymph nodes. Peritonitis was excluded by effluent white blood cell count and culture. Empiric antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxon, and ciprofloxacin was started. Gram-negative coccobacilli were isolated by blood culture. The organism was identified as Francisella tularensis. We started him on a ten-day course of gentamicin after which he improved. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of bacteremia caused by Francisella tularensis in Sudan. PMID:22830063

Mohamed, Salma E. R.; Mubarak, Aymun I.; Alfarooq, Lamia O.

2012-01-01

90

The maxillary sinus of Paradolichopithecus sushkini (late Pliocene, southern Tajikistan) and its phyletic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paradolichopithecus sushkini is a large fossil cercopithecine from the late Pliocene discovered at Kuruk-Say, southern Tajikistan. Despite its rather long face and large size, many authorities regard Paradolichopithecus not as a baboon, but as a large macaque, mainly based on the cranial morphology of European specimens. Among Old World monkeys, macaques are the only species that possess a maxillary sinus.

Takeshi D. Nishimura; Masanaru Takai; Evgeny N. Maschenko

2007-01-01

91

Phylogeography and Spatial Genetic Structure of the Southern Torrent Salamander: Implications for Conservation and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endan- gered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include distur- bance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a

MARK P. MILLER; S. M. Haig; R. STEVEN WAGNER

2006-01-01

92

Dissertation Citations in Organismal Biology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Implications for Collection Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on a citation analysis of Ph.D. dissertations in plant biology and zoology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, undertaken to test the common assumption that scientists favor current research to such an extent that journal backfiles can be de-emphasized in academic library collections. Results demonstrate otherwise. The study is…

Nabe, Jonathan; Imre, Andrea

2008-01-01

93

Common dolphins subject to fisheries impacts in Southern Australia are genetically differentiated: implications for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis and the fishing industry of South Australia (SA) have lead to serious concerns over the long-term viability of the local dolphin population. Common dolphins are gregarious animals with high vagility and are expected to display limited genetic differentiation over large spatial scales. Here, we investigate population genetic structure of southern Australian common dolphins

K. Bilgmann; L. M. Möller; R. G. Harcourt; R. Gales; L. B. Beheregaray

2008-01-01

94

The majority legal status of women in Southern Africa: Implications for women and families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women in many countries of southern Africa do not have majority status or have only recently gained this right. Majority status grants individuals adult legal status and the right to bring matters to court, own and administer property, have legal custody of children, and contract for marriage. This article summarizes the legal status of women in Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa,

Mary P. Van Hook; Barbara N. Ngwenya

1996-01-01

95

Southern Mexican minnows of the genus Notropis (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae): genetic variation, phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical implications.  

PubMed

Allozyme analyses were performed to determine patterns of genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Notropis in southern Mexico. Products of 28 gene loci were resolved in 24 geographic samples belonging to four putative species. These species represent the southern limit of the Cyprinidae in North America. Five loci were found monomorphic and 11 were diagnostic among species when the outgroup, Phoxinus phoxinus, was not taken into account. Four groups were identified, but these do not correspond perfectly to the four nominal species. Notropis sallaei was identified by allozyme analyses being the most basal among southern Mexican Notropis and the most genetically divergent. Notropis imeldae, was also diagnosed on the basis of allozymic variation, however a population sample representing the Balsas drainage was genetically divergent and is considered as an undescribed new species (N. n. sp.). No genetic differences were found between the samples of N. boucardi and N. moralesi. Therefore, we recommend that N. moralesi should be considered as a junior synonym of N. boucardi. A broad geographic sampling strategy was employed across all the distribution range of N. boucardi representing rivers from three different drainages, which cover both Mexican slopes. The slight divergence found among the headwater populations of N. boucardi permitted us to predict a model of paleohydrographic relationships of these three drainages. Two alternative hypotheses are postulated to explain the current distribution pattern of populations of N. boucardi in southern Mexico. PMID:11182485

Schönhuth, S; De Sostoa, A; Martinez, E; Doadrio, I

2001-04-01

96

Recurrence, Rates, and Paleogeodetic Implications: Southern Cascadia Subduction Zone, Northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake and tsunami hazard for northern California and southern Oregon is dominated by estimates of recurrence for earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and upper plate thrust faults. Recurrence interval (RI)estimates derived from site based terrestrial data (270-1,370 years) are inconsistent with the regional marine record of great earthquakes (RI = ~240 years). Reconciling these differences reveals information regarding

T. H. Leroy; J. R. Patton

2010-01-01

97

Twinning in southern elephant seals: the implications of resource allocation by mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) typically give birth to a single pup and raise it over a short 24-day lactation period. Lactation is characterisedby: maternal fasting, rapid pup growth and abrupt weaning after which the weaned,pups rely on stored fat for growth and survival. Females are not able to transfer all of their stored resources to their pups because

Clive R. McMahon; Mark A. Hindell

2003-01-01

98

31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury...REGULATIONS Interpretations § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates...

2011-07-01

99

31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury...REGULATIONS Interpretations § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates...

2014-07-01

100

31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury...REGULATIONS Interpretations § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates...

2012-07-01

101

31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury...REGULATIONS Interpretations § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates...

2010-07-01

102

31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury...REGULATIONS Interpretations § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates...

2013-07-01

103

Savanna burning and convective mixing in southern Africa - Implications for CO emissions and transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric data from both remote and direct measurements were used to compute the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and mass transport from Africa south of the equator. The Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment flew on the Space Shuttle during October 5-13, 1984; the highest CO mixing ratios from the entire mission were measured over southern Africa. In addition to the MAPS data, surface CO mixing ratios were measured in the boundary layer at Cape Point, South Africa. A calibration factor for the remote MAPS CO measurements was determined by computing the ratio of the surface measurements from Cape Point during unpolluted periods to coincident MAPS measurements. The adjusted MAPS CO data were then used to compute the mass flux of CO from biomass burning in southern Africa during the MAPS mission. The transport calculations were compared to the estimated CO emissions from biomass burning to examine the efficiency in which the continental tropical clouds redistribute CO in the troposphere.

Connors, Vickie S.; Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Reichle, Henry G.; Brunke, Ernst-Gunther; Garstang, Michael; Seiler, Wolfgang; Scheel, H. E.

1991-01-01

104

Implications of the Species-Area Relationship on Sampling Effort for Marsh Birds in Southern Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal wetlands of southern Ontario are highly fragmented and exist as islands within a primarily urbanized and agricultural\\u000a matrix. Given the large variation in size of remaining fragments, it is important to determine if species-area relationships\\u000a exist for wetland birds, so that sampling effort can be adjusted for different sizes of wetlands and to develop appropriate\\u000a size criteria for conservation.

Lyndsay A. Smith; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2010-01-01

105

Age and origin of cold climate landforms from the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, southern Africa: palaeoclimatic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable dating is crucial for resolving the nature and timing of cold events in southern Africa and the associated cold climate landforms produced. Evidence for glaciation has been proposed for the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, based on the identification of moraines that were presumed to be of last glacial maximum age. Temperature depressions of 10-17°C have been proposed for this region, based on the presence of these moraines (Lewis and Illgner, 2001) and the identification of a relict rock glacier. Such large temperature depressions are, however, unsupported by other palaeoclimatic proxies in southern Africa. Debate regarding the occurrence of glaciation in southern Africa has been ongoing for several decades. There is good evidence for small-scale glaciation during the last glacial cycle in Lesotho, at elevations exceeding 3000 m a.s.l., but these sites are more than 1000 m higher in elevation than those identified in the Eastern Cape, and suggest a temperature depression of only ~6°C and a change to a winter dominated precipitation regime during the last glacial cycle. This paper presents preliminary cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages for the Eastern Cape 'moraines' and a periglacial blockstream in this region. We discuss potential alternative interpretations for the formation of the landforms and suggest that glaciers were absent in the Eastern Cape Drakensberg during the last glacial period. However, there is widespread evidence for periglacial activity down to an elevation of ~1700 m a.s.l., as illustrated by extensive blockstreams, stone garlands and solifluction deposits. These periglacial deposits suggest that the climate was much colder (~6ºC) during the last glacial cycle, in keeping with other proxy records, but not cold enough to initiate or sustain glaciers at low elevations. References Lewis C. A., Illgner, P. M., 2001. Late Quaternary glaciation in Southern Africa: moraine ridges and glacial deposits at Mount Enterprise in the Drakensberg of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Quaternary Science 16, 365-374.

Mills, Stephanie C.; Barrows, Timothy T.; Fifield, L. Keith

2014-05-01

106

Diving behaviour in relation to water temperature in the southern elephant seal: foraging implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-depth-temperature recorder provided a continuous record of diving by a female southern elephant seal in relation to water temperature for 27 days (1939 dives) after completion of moult. Mean maximum dive depth was 391±2.6 m and the overall maximum was 775 m. Dives lasted on average 17.5±0.09 min. Most dives showed a rapid descent to the discontinuity between the

I. L. Boyd; T. Arnbom

1991-01-01

107

Forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize: Implications for migrant land birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.

Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.

1993-01-01

108

Stratigraphy and tectonic development of the southern Ouachita thrust belt - implications of new subsurface data, Arkansas  

SciTech Connect

Recent drilling in southwest Arkansas has provided new constraints on the age, facies and tectonics of the buried Southern Ouachita thrust belt. Results are consistent with Pennsylvanian collision of the North American craton with an island arc/continental fragment via a south-dipping subduction zone. Reprocessing of the Ouachita COCORP seismic line further supports this geometry. Ouachita facies rocks south of the Benton Uplift consist of deformed Mississippian and Lower Morrowan clastics deposited in a forearc basin setting. Early to middle Ordovician flora found in core and cuttings suggest reworking and sourcing from an older terrane. A transgressive sequence up to 4500' thick that ranges from marginal marine clastics to open marine carbonates overlies the thrust belt. This sequence is significantly different from time-equivalent rocks of the Frontal Ouachitas where the Atoka consists of 15-20,000' of turbidites that have been involved in thrusting. This indicates that the Ouachita orogeny terminated much earlier to the south than to the north. Palynological analysis from this post-orogenic section identified marine acritarchs and scolecodonts with South American affinities. Their presence suggests deposition south of the North American craton on an exotic basement complex with both a northern and southern provenance. A remnant of this exotic southern terrane apparently remained attached to the North American craton following Triassic rifting and the opening of the Gulf of Mexico.

Kaygi, P.B.; O'Donnell, G.P.; Welland, M.J.

1985-01-01

109

Dynamics of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in rice and implication for virus acquisition.  

PubMed

A novel viral disease of rice caused by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread throughout East and Southeast Asia since the mid-2000s. Outbreaks of this viral disease occur yearly in southern parts of Japan concurrently with overseas migration of the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera from southern China during the rainy season (from late June to early July). We examined the dynamics (changes in titer and localization) of SRBSDV on rice using reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and determined the relationship between virus titer in plants and virus acquisition by S. furcifera. Under a constant temperature of 27°C, a substantial increase of SRBSDV titer in the leaf sheath together with typical symptoms (stunted growth and twisting of leaf tips) was observed at 20 days after the end of a 7-day exposure of viruliferous S. furcifera. Approximately 40% of S. furcifera acquired SRBSDV through feeding for 5 days on rice plants that were infected following exposure to viruliferous vectors for 10 to 15 days. These results suggest that rice infected by S. furcifera can be a source of SRBSDV before the next generation of S. furcifera emerges. PMID:23301813

Matsukura, Keiichiro; Towata, Tomomi; Sakai, Junichi; Onuki, Masatoshi; Okuda, Mitsuru; Matsumura, Masaya

2013-05-01

110

SMALL PCPS WITH LOW QUERY Prahladh Harsha and Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

SMALL PCPS WITH LOW QUERY COMPLEXITY Prahladh Harsha and Madhu Sudan Abstract. Most known;2 Harsha & Sudan Subsequently much success has been achieved in improving the parameters of PCPs of Friedl & Sudan (1995), who indicate that NP has PCPs with nearly quadratic size complexity and in which

Sudan, Madhu

111

31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.  

...2014-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417 Section 538.417 Money... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation...or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g)...

2014-07-01

112

31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538.418 Section 538.418 Money...538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with...depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of...

2013-07-01

113

31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417 Section 538.417 Money... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation...or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g)...

2012-07-01

114

31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section 538.305 Money and Finance...General Definitions § 538.305 Government of Sudan. The term Government of Sudan includes: (a) The state and the...

2013-07-01

115

31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.  

...2014-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538.418 Section 538.418 Money...538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with...depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of...

2014-07-01

116

31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section 538.305 Money and...General Definitions § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the...

2011-07-01

117

31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section 538.305 Money and...General Definitions § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the...

2010-07-01

118

SMALL PCPS WITH LOW QUERY Prahladh Harsha and Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

SMALL PCPS WITH LOW QUERY COMPLEXITY Prahladh Harsha and Madhu Sudan Abstract. Most known. #12; 2 Harsha & Sudan Subsequently much success has been achieved in improving the parameters of PCPs of Friedl & Sudan (1995), who indicate that NP has PCPs with nearly quadratic size complexity and in which

Harsha, Prahladh

119

31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538.418 Section 538.418 Money...538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with...depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of...

2010-07-01

120

31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538.418 Section 538.418 Money...538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with...depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of...

2011-07-01

121

31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417 Section 538.417 Money... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation...or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g)...

2010-07-01

122

On the work of Madhu Sudan Avi Wigderson  

E-print Network

On the work of Madhu Sudan Avi Wigderson Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, and The Hebrew University, Jerusalem September 28, 2002 1 Introduction Madhu Sudan is the recipient of the 2002 Nevanlinna Prize. Sudan has made fundamental contri- butions to two major areas of research, the connections

Wigderson, Avi

123

31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section 538.305 Money and Finance...General Definitions § 538.305 Government of Sudan. The term Government of Sudan includes: (a) The state and the...

2012-07-01

124

On the work of Madhu Sudan Avi Wigderson  

E-print Network

On the work of Madhu Sudan Avi Wigderson Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, and The Hebrew University, Jerusalem September 28, 2002 1 Introduction Madhu Sudan is the recipient of the 2002 Nevanlinna Prize. Sudan has made fundamental contri­ butions to two major areas of research, the connections

Wigderson, Avi

125

31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section 538.305 Money and Finance...General Definitions § 538.305 Government of Sudan. The term Government of Sudan includes: (a) The state and the...

2014-07-01

126

31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417 Section 538.417 Money... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation...or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g)...

2011-07-01

127

31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417 Section 538.417 Money... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation...or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g)...

2013-07-01

128

31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538.418 Section 538.418 Money...538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with...depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of...

2012-07-01

129

Testing Linear Properties: Some general themes Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

Testing Linear Properties: Some general themes Madhu Sudan January 20, 2011 Abstract The last two] and Babai, Fortnow and Lund [3]. The formal definition appeared later in the work of Rubinfeld and Sudan [43 as locally testable codes (defined in [43], studied systematically by Goldreich and Sudan [25

Sudan, Madhu

130

Quantifying export production in the Southern Ocean: Implications for the Baxs proxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water column and sedimentary Baxs distribution around the Crozet Plateau is used to decipher the controls and timing of barite formation and to evaluate how export production signals are recorded in sediments underlying a region of natural Fe fertilization within the Fe limited Southern Ocean. Export production estimated from preserved, vertical sedimentary Baxs accumulation rates are compared with published export fluxes assessed from an integrated study of the biological carbon pump to determine the validity of Baxs as a quantitative proxy under different Fe supply conditions typical of the Southern Ocean. Detailed assessment of the geochemical partitioning of Ba in sediments and the lithogenic end-member allows appropriate correction of the bulk Ba content and determination of the Baxs content of sediments and suspended particles. The upper water column distribution of Baxs is extremely heterogeneous spatially and temporally. Organic carbon/Baxs ratios in deep traps from the Fe fertilized region are similar to other oceanic settings allowing quantification of the inferred carbon export based on established algorithms. There appears to be some decoupling of POC and Ba export in the Fe limited region south of the Plateau. The export production across the Crozet Plateau inferred from the Baxs sedimentary proxy indicates that the Fe fertilized area to the north of the Plateau experiences enhanced export relative to equivalent Southern Ocean settings throughout the Holocene and that this influence may also have impacted the site to the south for significant periods. This interpretation is corroborated by alternative productivity proxies (opal accumulation, 231Paxs/230Thxs). Baxs can be used to quantify export production in complex settings such as naturally Fe-fertilized (volcanoclastic) areas, providing appropriate lithogenic correction is undertaken, and sediment focusing is corrected for along with evaluation of barite preservation.

Hernandez-Sanchez, Maria T.; Mills, Rachel A.; Planquette, HéLèNe; Pancost, Richard D.; Hepburn, Laura; Salter, Ian; Fitzgeorge-Balfour, Tania

2011-12-01

131

Structural development of the southern basin, onshore Trinidad: Implications for hydrocarbon entrapment  

SciTech Connect

Episodic compressional deformation across onshore southern Trinidad formed a complex spectrum of fold timing and fold types. Successful oil traps are not related to a specific time interval of structural formation, a specific oil expulsion event or a specific fold morphology. Traps that retained hydrocarbons may be related to seal facies. The tectono-stratigraphic section of onshore southern Trinidad, south of the Central Ranges, is comprised of three generalized depositional packages. Firstly, a southerly sourced Cretaceous to late Oligocene passive margin sequence of deepwater sands, shales and marls; secondly, a northerly sourced late Oligocene through middle Miocene syntectonic sequence of shallow to deep-water sands and shales; and thirdly, a west-southwesterly sourced late Miocene through Pleistocene shelfal sequence. Observations of compressional structures that folded these sediments during an early period of compressional deformation 25-10 million years before present suggest that all mudrock lithofacies could act as effective seals and trap hydrocarbons. Subsequent structural modification that occurred during a late period of compressional deformation between 5 million years and present day caused refolding and refaulting of these traps. Restructured traps that were sealed by brittle, Mesozoic deep-water facies failed and hydrocarbons migrated to shallower structural levels. Restructured folds that were sealed by ductile, Tertiary shallow-water facies retained trap fill.

Aden, L.J.; Bierley, R.E. [Exxon Exploration Company, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-08-01

132

Phylogeography and spatial genetic structure of the Southern torrent salamander: implications for conservation and management.  

PubMed

The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders. PMID:17135462

Miller, Mark P; Haig, Susan M; Wagner, R Steven

2006-01-01

133

Phylogeography and spatial genetic structure of the Southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders. ?? The American Genetic Association. 2006. All rights reserved.

Miller, M.P.; Haig, S.M.; Wagner, R.S.

2006-01-01

134

Spatial genetic structure and regional demography in the southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders.

Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.

2006-01-01

135

Humpback Whale Song on the Southern Ocean Feeding Grounds: Implications for Cultural Transmission  

PubMed Central

Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean. PMID:24278134

Garland, Ellen C.; Gedamke, Jason; Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Noad, Michael J.; Garrigue, Claire; Gales, Nick

2013-01-01

136

Humpback whale song on the Southern Ocean feeding grounds: implications for cultural transmission.  

PubMed

Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean. PMID:24278134

Garland, Ellen C; Gedamke, Jason; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Noad, Michael J; Garrigue, Claire; Gales, Nick

2013-01-01

137

Surface texture analysis of southern Tuli Basin sediments: Implications for Limpopo Valley geoarchaeological contexts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hackthorne 1 site (southern Tuli Basin, South Africa) is situated on a sand-covered plateau adjacent to the Limpopo River Valley. Although the site is well known for its Stone Age archaeology, the past environmental contexts (particularly sedimentological/geomorphological) are not well known. We examine the Hackthorne sand grain surface textures, so as to provide some insight on the site specific and regional depositional history. Quartz sands at Hackthorne were collected from surface sands and from underlying weathered calcrete. SEM analysis was performed on sand grains, through which several mechanical and chemical microtextures were identified. Microtextures typical of fluvial environments were found only on grains derived from the plateau calcrete host sediment, whilst the surface sands exhibited only textures associated with aeolian environments. The results indicate that the calcrete host sediment is composed of alluvium, and that the surface sands mantling the Hackthorne Plateau are not deflated from the alluvial deposits in the Limpopo Valley, but may rather be derived from distant aeolian sources. The deposition of aeolian sands is consistent with OSL dates which place sand deposition, or remobilization, at 23 and 15 kya, periods in southern Africa associated with increased aridity.

Le Baron, Joel C.; Grab, Stefan W.; Kuman, Kathleen

2011-03-01

138

Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976  

PubMed Central

A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory. The disease in Maridi was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital. Transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, it appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire. In this outbreak Ebola haemorrhagic fever was a unique clinical disease with a high mortality rate (53% overall) and a prolonged recovery period in those who survived. Beginning with an influenza-like syndrome, including fever, headache, and joint and muscle pains, the disease soon caused diarrhoea (81%), vomiting (59%), chest pain (83%), pain and dryness of the throat (63%), and rash (52%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were common (71%), being present in half of the recovered cases and in almost all the fatal cases. Two post mortems were carried out on patients in November 1976. The histopathological findings resembled those of an acute viral infection and although the features were characteristic they were not exclusively diagnostic. They closely resembled the features described in Marburg virus infection, with focal eosinophilic necrosis in the liver and destruction of lymphocytes and their replacement by plasma cells. One case had evidence of renal tubular necrosis. Two strains of Ebola virus were isolated from acute phase sera collected from acutely ill patients in Maridi hospital during the investigation in November 1976. Antibodies to Ebola virus were detected by immunofluorescence in 42 of 48 patients in Maridi who had been diagnosed clinically, but in only 6 of 31 patients in Nzara. The possibility of the indirect immunofluorescent test not being sufficiently sensitive is discussed. Of Maridi case contacts, in hospital and in the local community, 19% had antibodies. Very few of them gave any history of illness, indicating that Ebola virus can cause mild or even subclinical infections. Of the cloth room workers in the Nzara cotton factory, 37% appeared to have been infected, suggesting that the factory may have been the prime source of infection. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 3Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:307455

1978-01-01

139

Red Sea and Dust Pall, Sudan, Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This relatively small - 40 x 70 miles - dust storm, that reportedly lasted for at least three days, was photographed as it spread over the Red Sea from the Sudan coast near Port Sudan (21.0N, 38.0E). Several more diffuse dust palls may be seen in the distance farther north over both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The general haziness of the overall scene is because of atmospheric dust throughout the local atmosphere. See STS043-75-054 for overhead view.

1991-01-01

140

An ultrasensitive and selective fluorescence assay for Sudan I and III against the influence of Sudan II and IV.  

PubMed

We report on an ultrasensitive and selective fluorescence assay for Sudan I and III against the influence of Sudan II and IV based on ligand exchange mechanism. Calcein as a fluorescence indicator and Sudan I-IV as model analytes were employed to investigate the analytical feature of this assay platform. Results show that the fluorescence of calcein can be efficiently quenched by Cu(II). When the ligand exchange reaction proceeds, calcein is deprived of Cu(II) by Sudan I and III, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of calcein. However, the ligand exchange reaction does not happen in the presence of Sudan II or IV due to the 2-methyl steric effects, which is favorable for selective determination of Sudan I and III against the influence of Sudan II and IV. It was found that the fluorescence enhancement efficiency (FEE) against the concentration of Sudan (c(Sudan), nmol L?¹) shows a linear relationship. The calibration equations are FEE(Sudan I)=0.0032 c(Sudan I)-0.02613, and FEE(Sudan III)=0.0033 c(Sudan III)-0.02467 over the corresponding linear range of 11.25-2078.29 and 9.44-1035.78 nmol L?¹ with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9984 and 0.9955, respectively. And the detection limits (3?/slope) are calculated to be 211.3 and 208.5 pmol L?¹ for Sudan I and III, respectively, showing ultralow detection limit. The Sudan dye in a commercial chilli powder sample was assayed with satisfactory results. PMID:23202343

Huang, Sheng Tian; Yang, Ling Feng; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

2013-04-15

141

The ethnic distribution of sickle cell disease in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited disorders of haemoglobin in Africa and it is expected that sickle cell trait varies in frequency in different areas in Sudan. An extensive literature search was carried out accessing the US National Library of Medicine, the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region resources, the Catalogue for Transmission Genetics in Arabs and papers and documents published in Sudan that included data on the prevalence of sickle cell anaemia and trait. Rates of SCA and trait varied in different areas in Sudan with the highest rates reported from Western and Eastern Sudan where one in every 123 children born in Messeryia tribe in Western Sudan is at risk of having SCD. High consanguinity rates and malaria endemicity are strong related factors with sickle cell gene in Sudan. This review will present what is known about the rates of sickle cell gene in different ethnic groups in Sudan. PMID:25360197

Sabahelzain, Majdi Mohammed; Hamamy, Hanan

2014-01-01

142

Lateral extrusion of Tunisia : Contribution of Jeffara Fault (southern branch) and Petroleum Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrasting to the northward African plate motion toward Eurasia and due to its geographic position in the North African margin, since early cretaceous, Tunisia seems to be submitted to an eastward migration. The aim of this work is to study the southern branch of this inferred tectonic splay that may guide the Tunisian extrusion characterised to the east by the Mediterranean sea as a free eastern boundary. The Jeffara Fault zone (southern Tunisia), represent a case example of such deformation faced by Tunisia. Helped by the results of previous researchers (Bouaziz, 1995 ; Rabiaa, 1998 ; Touati et Rodgers, 1998 ; Sokoutis D. et al., 2000 ; Bouaziz et al., 2002 ; Jallouli et al., 2005 ; Deffontaines et al., 2008…), and new evidences developed in this study, we propose a geodynamic Tunisian east extrusion model, due to such the northern African plate migration to the Eurasian one. In this subject, structural geomorphology is undertaken herein based on both geomorphometric drainage network analysis (Deffontaines et al., 1990), the Digital Terrain Model photo-interpretation (SRTM) combined with photo-interpretation of detailed optical images (Landsat ETM+), and confirmed by field work and numerous seismic profiles at depth. All these informations were then integrated within a GIS (Geodatabase) (Deffontaines 1990 ; Deffontaines et al. 1994 ; Deffontaines, 2000 ; Slama, 2008 ; Deffontaines, 2008) and are coherent with the eastern extrusion of the Sahel block. We infer that the NW-SE Gafsa-Tozeur, which continue to the Jeffara major fault zone acting as a transtensive right lateral motion since early cretaceous is the southern branch of the Sahel block extrusion. Our structural analyses prove the presence of NW-SE right lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so on that parallel this major NW-SE transtensive extrusion fault zone.These evidences confirm the fact that the NW-SE Jeffara faults correspond to the tectonic accident, located in the south of the Tunisian extrusion, in favour of the eastern migration of the Sahel block toward the free Mediterranean sea boundary. Therefore this geodynamic movement explains the presence, in offshore area, of small elongated NW-SE, N-S &NE-SW petroleum transtensive basins and grabens. To conclude, at the regional scale, the structural geomorphologic approach combined with both field work and reflexion seismic profile analyses appear to be an excellent tool to prove & confirm the east Sahel block extrusion of the central Tunisian part caused by the northward migration of African plate. _______________________________________ Keywords : Geodynamics, Neotectonics, right lateral transtensive fault, Extrusion, Petroleum exploration, Geomorphometry, Digital Elevation Model, Geographic Information System (GIS), Geodatabase, Jeffara, South Tunisia.

Ghedhoui, R.; Deffontaines, B.; Rabia, M. C.

2012-04-01

143

Footprints of large theropod dinosaurs and implications on the age of Triassic biotas from Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dinosaur footprints found in an outcrop of the Caturrita Formation (Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil), associated with a diverse and well preserved record of fauna and flora, reopen the debate about its exclusive Triassic age. The studied footprints were identified as Eubrontes isp. and are interpreted as having been produced by large theropod dinosaurs. The morphological characteristics and dimensions of the footprints are more derived than those commonly found in the Carnian-Norian, and are more consistent with those found during the Rhaetian-Jurassic. The trackmaker does not correspond to any type of dinosaur yet known from Triassic rocks of Brazil. Recent studies with the paleofloristic content of this unit also support a more advanced Rhaetian or even Jurassic age for this unit.

da Silva, Rafael Costa; Barboni, Ronaldo; Dutra, Tânia; Godoy, Michel Marques; Binotto, Raquel Barros

2012-11-01

144

Heat flow anomaly in Lesotho - implications for the southern boundary of the Kaapvaal craton  

SciTech Connect

Heat flow studies in southern Africa reveal a pattern of low heat flow in Archean cratons compared with Proterozoic mobile belts that provides grounds for modeling in which cratons have lower mantle heat flux and greater lithospheric thickness. Measurements at nine locations in a 90-km-long north-south traverse show an increase of heat flow from typically cratonic values of about 45 mW/sq m in the north to about 80 mW/sq m where the craton abuts on the Natal belt in the south. The change occurs within 30 km, suggesting that the anomaly largely reflects an increase in radioactive heat from the upper crust in the orogenic front. The change in mantle heat flux across the boundary is probably considerably smaller. These and other results suggest that the surficial craton boundary is further north than usually depicted. 20 refs.

Jones, M.Q.W. (Witwatersrand Univ., Johannesburg (South Africa))

1992-10-01

145

Oxygen in the Southern California Bight: Multidecadal trends and implications for demersal fisheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reports of hypoxic conditions (oxygen <1.5 ml L-1) off the U.S. west coast over the last two decades led us to investigate hypoxia in the Southern California Bight (SCB) and its potential impacts on fisheries. The secular trend in hypoxia in the SCB over the last 57 years is not monotonic, and reversed trend in the mid-1980s, bringing oxygen concentrations back to levels measured in the late 1950s to early 1960s. Thirty-seven percent of the rockfish (Sebastes spp.) habitat in the Cowcod Conservation Area at 240-350 m depths suffers exposure to hypoxia in the summer of normal years. If current trends in shoaling of low oxygen water continue for another 20 years, rather than reversing as happened previously, we predict loss of 18% of the habitat with 55% of the total habitat exposed to hypoxia.

McClatchie, S.; Goericke, R.; Cosgrove, R.; Auad, G.; Vetter, R.

2010-10-01

146

The 2001 seismic activity near Isernia (Italy): Implications for the seismotectonics of the Central Southern Apennines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the seismic activity that occurred in 2001 near the city of Isernia (Southern Apennines) with the aim to add information on the seismotectonics of the transition zone between Central and Southern Apennines. Seismic activity lasted for 9 months showing the typical behaviour of swarms: a large number of events of low magnitude without a distinct main shock and clustered in space and time. The maximum magnitude MD of the events was 3.3, comparable with the magnitude MD of the background seismicity of the area. Hypocentral distribution of the events (maximum depth = 15 km) suggests that seismic activity took place along a best fitting plane striking N33°E and steeply dipping eastward. The results of the strain analysis performed on selected, well-constrained focal mechanisms indicate that most of the ruptures associated to the 2001 seismic sequence occurred along N-S to NE-SW-striking faults characterized by strike-slip to normal movements. This kinematics is consistent with a prevailing NW-SE extension. This direction of extension, already observed in the 1997-98 seismic sequence, which occurred at about 35 km toward SE from the 2001 epicentral area, is not consistent with that one assumed at regional scale on the basis of the analysis of focal mechanisms of stronger earthquakes. The results of the 1997-98 and 2001 seismic sequences, discussed in light of the available geological and geophysical data, evidence that: (i) in this portion of the Apennine Chain low magnitude seismic sequences cluster along NE-SW striking faults that move in response to a NW-SE extension and (ii) the NE-SW striking faults along which the 1997-98 and the 2001 seismic sequences occurred mark the Southeastern and Northwestern tips of the NW-SE fault segment responsible for the 1805 earthquake.

Milano, Girolamo; Di Giovambattista, Rita; Ventura, Guido

2005-06-01

147

Production of the polyclonal antibody against Sudan 3 and Immunoassay of Sudan dyes in food samples.  

PubMed

In this study, 4-aminophenylacetic acid was covalently coupled to aniline to synthesize an intermediate hapten and the intermediate hapten was coupled to ?-naphthol to synthesize a tentative hapten of Sudan 3. The hapten was coupled to bovine serum albumin as the immunogen to produce the polyclonal antibody. The obtained antibody was highly specific to Sudan 3, Sudan 1, and Para red, but showed relative low binding ability to Sudan 2, Sudan 4, and Sudan red G. After evaluation of different coating antigens, a heterologous indirect competitive immunoassay was developed to multidetermine the six red dyes in food samples. The cross reactivities to the six analytes were in a range of 21-105%, and the limits of detection were in a range of 0.1-0.8 ng/mL depending on the compound. Intra- and interassay recoveries from the standard fortified blank samples were in a range of 74.5-96.3% with coefficients of variation lower than 15.1%. PMID:22329681

Qi, Yong Hua; Shan, Wen Chong; Liu, Yan Zheng; Zhang, Yu Jie; Wang, Jian Ping

2012-03-01

148

A Grammar of Northern and Southern Gumuz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern…

Ahland, Colleen Anne

2012-01-01

149

Information on Current Research in the Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and illustrates the main characteristics and methods of data collection and analysis used in compiling the National Register of Current Research, a major element of the Unesco pilot project initiated in the Sudan for the creation of an information service on research in progress. Eight sources are given. (EJS)

Wesley, Cecile

1985-01-01

150

Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

2013-01-01

151

Status of leatherback turtles in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the coast is bordered by fringing reefs 1 - 3 km wide, and not favourable nesting habitat for leatherback turtles, even though the reefs are separated by deep channels from a barrier reef of 1 - 14 km offshore, and the outer barrier drops steeply to several hundred metres depth. Port Sudan is the largest coastal city with

IOSEA Marine Turtle

2006-01-01

152

List decoding: algorithms and applications Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

List decoding: algorithms and applications Madhu Sudan August 14, 2010 Abstract Over the years, Cambridge, MA 02139. madhu@mit.edu. Supported in part by a Sloan Foundation Fellowship and NSF Career Award-correcting code C is a collection of strings called codewords, all of which have the same length, over some finite

Sudan, Madhu

153

Cointegration growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analytical review explores the links between growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan for the period 1956-2003. This paper build upon different models to investigate empirically the relationship between economic growth – as measured by GDP per capita growth- and inequality as measured by Gini coefficient (the growth, inequality and poverty triangle hypotheses), using data from the national and international

Hisham Mohamed Hassan

2008-01-01

154

Cointegration Growth, Poverty and Inequality in Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analytical review explores the links between growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan for the period 1956-2003. This paper build upon different models to investigate empirically the relationship between economic growth - as measured by GDP per capita growth- and inequality as measured by Gini coefficient (the growth, inequality and poverty triangle hypotheses), using data from the national and international

Hisham Mohamed Hassan Ali

2012-01-01

155

Implications of Stratigraphic and Structural Data from the Bitter Spring Region, Southern Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition of the Tertiary Horse Spring Formation (HSF) in southern Nevada has been used to infer varying styles of extensional and strike-slip basin formation. Beard (1996) proposes an initial large contiguous basin of Rainbow Gardens age (ca. 26-18 Ma) that is subsequently broken up into sub-basins during Thumb time (16-14 Ma). A key locality to test this hypothesis is near the southern end of East and West Longwell Ridges, on the Bitter Spring USGS 1:24000 quadrangle (BSQ). However, the stratigraphic framework in this area is poorly defined. The BSQ is located west of the Overton arm of Lake Mead near the junction of the Las Vegas Valley Shear Zone and the Lake Mead Fault System. By mapping a portion of the quadrangle at 1:5000 scale, measuring detailed sections, and collecting ash samples from key localities, we investigated the structural and sedimentary framework of the area and have begun to clarify the stratigraphic relationships between members of the HSF. Faults fall into three categories: one set strikes north and dips moderately to the west; another strikes east-northeast and dips shallowly to the northwest; and the last strikes north and dips to the east. Many of these faults show an oblique sense of movement and may be related to movement on the White Basin (WBF) and Rodgers Spring Faults (Bohannon, 1983). A distinctive resistant limestone caps gypsiferous and clastic units on both sides of the north-south trending WBF. To the west of the WBF, this limestone is mapped as the Bitter Ridge Limestone Member of the HSF, whereas to the east it is mapped as the Thumb Member by Beard (unpub) and as the Rainbow Gardens Member by Bohannon (1983). We suspect that these limestones may be correlative; geochemical and petrographic fingerprinting of numerous ashes from our sections should allow correlation of these units across the WBF. In addition, sections from the east side of the WBF spaced over 1.5 km show conglomerate at the base, overlain by a sequence of red sandstone, gypsum, and carbonates (mainly oncolitic and peloidal limestone). These units show rapid lateral facies changes and thickness variation suggesting comparable changes in accommodation-space creation, possibly related to extensionally-induced subsidence. Paleocurrent data from the central portion of the mapping area indicate that flow was east- to southeast-directed, indicating that West Longwell Ridge may have been a topographic high during Thumb time. This interpretation is further supported by stratigraphic relationships near the basin margin, where conglomerate was deposited in buttress contact against Paleozoic limestones at the southern end of the ridge. Future work in this area includes continued mapping, Ar-Ar dating of ash mineral phases, and provenance analysis of sedimentary units.

Donatelle, A.; Goeden, J.; Hannon, M.; Hickson, T.; Holter, S.; Johnson, T.; Lamb, M.; Lindberg, J.

2004-05-01

156

UAVSAR and GPS Observations of Crustal Deformation in Southern California and Implications for Earthquake Risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2010 El-Mayor Cucapah earthquake was the first earthquake to be observed with UAVSAR. UAVSAR observations, GPS time series analysis, and simulations suggest that the fault that ruptured in the earthquake is coupled to the Elsinore, San Jacinto, and San Andreas faults to the north. GPS and UAVSAR observations indicate a zone of shear that extends southward from the Big Bend of the San Andreas fault near Gorman through the San Fernando Valley towards the Newport-Inglewood fault. The zone steps over to the region of the Elsinore or San Jacinto faults, though the partitioning of strain between the two faults is not as clear. State changes in GPS time series data fall in line with the shear zone through the San Fernando Valley and extend northward from the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake rupture. Seismicity hotspots also indicate elevated earthquake hazard near the San Fernando Valley and in the Inland Empire near the Elsinore and San Jacinto faults. Inversions of GPS velocity vectors favor a fault underlying the shear zone extending from the Big Bend to the Newport-Inglewood fault over substantial slip on the San Andreas fault under north of Los Angeles. Virtual California simulations of southern California are being analyzed for fault activity associated with the identified shear zone and for subsequent earthquakes that may be related to El Mayor-Cucapah type earthquakes in Baja.

Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Lyzenga, G. A.; Rundle, J. B.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Granat, R. A.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Heflin, M. B.

2010-12-01

157

Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science.  

PubMed

Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925

Ceríaco, Luis M P; Marques, Mariana P; Madeira, Natália C; Vila-Viçosa, Carlos M; Mendes, Paula

2011-01-01

158

Shear-wave splitting beneath southern Korea and its tectonic implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic anisotropy beneath the southern Korean Peninsula (SKP) was investigated based on the ScS waves of deep-focused earthquakes recorded at 35 broadband stations. The most striking feature of the observed splitting patterns is the preference of the fast directions (NW-SE) that are nearly parallel to the direction of the absolute plate motion in the region. However, the splitting patterns over the region show significant variation in splitting parameters indicating a complex anisotropic structure. Variations of the splitting directions and dissimilarity in the source domains of basaltic volcanisms suggest that the asthenospheric mantle flow since at least the late Cenozoic cannot explain the seismic anisotropy beneath the region. Comparison to shear-wave splitting measurements from eastern China revealed that the NW-SE fast direction of splitting measurements in the SKP is close to that in the North China block (NCB) while the NE-SW fast direction might be related to that in the South China block (SCB). The shallow mantle lithosphere beneath the SKP retains the fossil anisotropy amalgamated prior to the late Paleozoic before the collision between the NCB and SCB, and the anisotropic structure was not completely realigned by the major orogenic events during the late Paleozoic to Mesozoic eras.

Kang, Tae-Seob; Shin, Jin Soo

2009-06-01

159

Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science  

PubMed Central

Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925

2011-01-01

160

Clinical and pharmacogenomic implications of genetic variation in a Southern Ethiopian population.  

PubMed

Africa is home to genetically diverse human populations. We compared the genetic structure of the Wolaita ethnic population from Southern Ethiopia (WETH, n=120) with HapMap populations using genome-wide variants. We investigated allele frequencies of 443 clinically and pharmacogenomically relevant genetic variants in WETH compared with HapMap populations. We found that WETH were genetically most similar to the Kenya Maasai and least similar to the Japanese in HapMap. Variant alleles associated with increased risk of adverse reactions to drugs used for treating tuberculosis (rs1799929 and rs1495741 in NAT2), thromboembolism (rs7294, rs9923231 and rs9934438 in VKORC1), and HIV/AIDS and solid tumors (rs2242046 in SLC28A1) had significantly higher frequencies in WETH compared with African ancestry HapMap populations. Our results illustrate that clinically relevant pharmacogenomic loci display allele frequency differences among African populations. We conclude that drug dosage guidelines for important global health diseases should be validated in genetically diverse African populations. PMID:25069476

Tekola-Ayele, F; Adeyemo, A; Aseffa, A; Hailu, E; Finan, C; Davey, G; Rotimi, C N; Newport, M J

2015-02-01

161

Snow-avalanche impact landforms in Breheimen, southern Norway: Origin, age, and paleoclimatic implications  

SciTech Connect

Twelve snow-avalanche ramparts in Jostedalen and Sprongdalen (Breheimen, southern Norway) are investigated to elucidate processes of formation, the history of avalanche activity, and their potential for paleoclimatic reconstruction. Variation in the form of these riverbank boulder ramparts reflects local patterns of avalanche impact. Differences in clast roundness between ramparts, avalanche tracks, and river beds indicate that, on average, 50 to 60% of the clasts in the ramparts originate from river bedload as opposed to avalanche source areas or tracks. Rampart clasts increase in roundness downstream over a distance of 12 km, and the contribution from the river bed varies from 26 to 80% depending on local factors. Conventional lichenometric dating suggests ages for the initiation of rampart formation of 250 to 2000 yr, but they probably have a much longer history. Lichen-size frequency distributions, using the largest lichen from each of n boulders, reflect the age-frequency of surface boulders, providing a record of late Holocene avalanche activity. A simulation model suggests that maximum avalanche activity affected nine of the ramparts during the 19th century, after the peak of the Little Ice Age. The pattern of avalanche activity differs from the pattern of glacier variations but is in close agreement with that of debris-flow activity. The ramparts may yield a valuable proxy record of winter snowfall. 48 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Matthews, J.A.; McCarroll, D. (Univ. of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom))

1994-05-01

162

A New Oviraptorosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleoecological Implications  

PubMed Central

A new oviraptorosaur Nankangia jiangxiensis gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of a partial postcranial skeleton with a partial lower jaw collected from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou, in Jiangxi Province of southern China. The new taxon is diagnosed by: (1) a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down; (2) neural spines of the cranial caudal vertebrae that are wider transversely than anteroposteriorly, forming a large posterior fossa with rugose central areas; (3) a femoral neck extending at an angle of about 90 to the shaft; and (4) a ratio of femur to tibia length of 0.95. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Nankangia as basal to the oviraptorid Yulong, but more derived than Caenagnathus, which also has a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down. The coexistence of Nankangia jiangxiensis, Ganzhousaurus nankangensis, Jiangxisaurus ganzhouensis, an unnamed oviraptorid from Nanxiong Basin and Banji long suggests that they occupied distinct ecological niches. Nankangia may have been more herbivorous than carnivorous. PMID:24312233

Lü, Junchang; Yi, Laiping; Zhong, Hui; Wei, Xuefang

2013-01-01

163

Seismic chimneys in the Southern Viking Graben - Implications for palaeo fluid migration and overpressure evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed understanding of natural fluid migration systems is essential to minimize risks during hydrocarbon exploration and to evaluate the long-term efficiency of the subsurface storage of waste water and gas from hydrocarbon production as well as CO2. The Southern Viking Graben (SVG) hosts numerous focused fluid flow structures in the shallow (<1000 m) subsurface. The seismic expressions of vertical fluid conduits are variously known as seismic chimneys or pipes. Seismic pipes are known to form large clusters. Seismic chimneys have so far been described as solitary structures. Here, we show that the study area in the SVG hosts more than 46 large-scale vertical chimney structures, which can be divided in three categories implying different formation processes. Our analysis reveals that seal-weakening, formation-wide overpressure and the presence of free gas are required to initiate the formation of vertical fluid conduits in the SVG. The presence of numerous vertical fluid conduits implies inter-stratigraphic hydraulic connectivity, which significantly affects the migration of fluids in the subsurface. Chimney structures are important for understanding the transfer of pore pressure anomalies to the shallow parts of the basin.

Karstens, Jens; Berndt, Christian

2015-02-01

164

Sudan dyes: are they dangerous for human health?  

PubMed

Azo and diazo compounds include Sudan dyes, which were widely used in industry. Although they are not permitted in food, they had been found contaminating different food products and their presence is investigated regularly (since 2003) in these products. Sudan III, as well as Sudan Black B, was included in different laboratory techniques for tissue ceroid and lipofucsin analysis and blood-cell staining. Also, Sudan Black B has been recently included in in vivo evaluations in human beings (through oral intake), and Sudan III is still allowed in cosmetics. These azo dyes were metabolized to possible carcinogenic colorless amines, both in the liver of mammalians and by the micro flora present in human skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Both human and laboratory animal cytochrome P450s (CYPs) were able to oxidize Sudan I, whereas Sudan III modified CYP activities. In vitro genotoxic effects were reported for Sudan I, and some DNA adducts formed through exposure to its metabolites were identified. Sudan I was also found to be carcinogenic in the rat, but not in the mouse. The aim of the present review is to put together the most relevant information concerning Sudan dye uses and toxicity to provide some tools for the identification of the risk they represent for human health. PMID:22947042

Fonovich, Teresa M

2013-07-01

165

Genetic variation in insecticide tolerance in a population of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala): Implications for amphibian conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Currently, conservation efforts are devoted to determining the extent and the causes of the decline of many amphibian species worldwide. Human impacts frequently degrade amphibian habitat and have been implicated in many declines. Because genetic variance is critical in determining the persistence of a species in a changing environment, we examined the amount of genetic variability present in a single population for tolerance to an environmental stressor. We examined the amount of genetic variability among full- and half-sib families in a single population of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) with respect to their tolerance to lethal concentrations of the agricultural chemical, carbaryl. Analysis of time-to-death data indicated significant differences among full-sib families and suggests a large amount of variability present in the responses to this environmental stressor. Significant differences in responses among half-sib families indicated that there is additive genetic variance. These data suggest that this population may have the ability to adapt to environmental stressors. It is possible that declines of amphibian populations in the western United States may be attributed to low genetic variability resulting from limited migration among populations and small population sizes.

Bridges, C.M.; Semlitsch, R.D.

2001-01-01

166

Southern Ocean wind response to North Atlantic cooling and the rise in atmospheric CO2: Modeling perspective and paleoceanographic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Atlantic cooling teleconnected to strengthen the southern westerliesTropical circulation mediates this N-S teleconnectionAtmospheric CO2 rises in response to strengthening of the southern westerlies

Shih-Yu Lee; John C. H. Chiang; Katsumi Matsumoto; Kathy S. Tokos

2011-01-01

167

Shear wave velocity mapping of Hat Yai district, southern Thailand: implication for seismic site classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil characteristics play an important role in the degree of ground shaking due to local site amplification during an earthquake. The objectives of this work are to study shear wave velocity (Vs) distribution in the near surface, and to develop a seismic site classification map for soil effect characterization and seismic hazard assessment in Hat Yai district, southern Thailand. The Vs determination based on the multichannel analysis of surface waves technique, has been carried out and analyzed at 70 measuring sites throughout the district. On the basis of the weighted-average Vs in the upper 30?m depth (Vs30), a seismic site classification map, based on the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) standard has been developed. It is found that the NEHRP site class in Hat Yai can be classified into four groups in accordance with the value of Vs30 within the range of about 150 to 1160?m?s?1. Most parts of the study area are typically classified as site class C and D. Site class C is mostly found within the colluvial and terrace deposits in the western and eastern part of the area, whereas site class D is concentrated in the alluvial sediment of the middle and northern flood plain areas. A small portion of site class B is observed in the western mountain ranges, where there is a thin overburden on the firm rock. There is a remarkably low Vs30 value at only one site, located near the main stream in the northern part of the study area. The results imply that the soil characteristics in the central and northern Hat Yai district pose a medium to high amplification rate with respect to the other regions. Although Vs data alone are insufficient to verify the potential of the amplification of ground shaking, this study provides an initial attempt to understand seismic hazards in the study area.

Yordkayhun, Sawasdee; Sujitapan, Chedtaporn; Chalermyanont, Tanit

2015-02-01

168

Reconstructing Younger Dryas plateau icefields in the Tweedsmuir Hills, Southern Uplands, Scotland: Style, dynamics and palaeo-climatic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Britain, the glacial geomorphological record has been widely utilised to infer palaeo-glacier geometries and ice dynamics, with much of this work focusing on the Scottish Highlands during the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT), in particular the Younger Dryas (YD; c. 12.9 - 11.7 ka BP). The Southern Uplands represents the largest upland area south of the Highlands but has received limited research attention over the last century. The Tweedsmuir Hills are located in the central Southern Uplands, which form an area of dissected plateau approximately 320 km2. Early research in the 1800s identified moraines thought to be associated with the YD. However, the majority of previous work has focussed on isolated valleys and ignored the potential for plateau icefield glaciation, which has significant implications for the understanding of ice dynamics and geometries. Recent numerical modelling experiments covering the period 38 - 10.4 ka BP (Hubbard et al., 2008 cf. E109B8 and E102b2) have predicted a significant body of ice for the Southern Uplands at the onset of and throughout the YD, which cannot be verified at present due to a lack of empirical data. This research aims to provide the first systematic geomorphological mapping and Lateglacial climate reconstruction for the Tweedsmuir Hills. The results of air-photo interpretation and field mapping, which utilised a morphostratigraphic approach, have demonstrated a more extensive glaciation than previously mapped, reflecting more closely the Hubbard et al. (2009) modelled extent than earlier research. This consists of two separate icefields over the southern and northern Tweedsmuir Hills covering an area c. 45 km2 and 25 km2 respectively with Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) calculated to have ranged from c.419 m to 634 m. For both icefields ELAs of individual outlets reflect topographic controls rather than steep precipitation gradients similar to those derived for other icefields in Scotland (e.g., the Monadhliath Mountains and Beinn Dearg). New radiocarbon dating of basal contact organics place the ice-mass within the context of the YD but new Cosmogenic Nuclide Analysis (CNA) of bedrock and in situ boulders are inconclusive, implying limited erosion and limited resetting during the YD. Landform evidence also indicates smaller independent glaciers occupied some of the south-easterly catchments until the end of the YD. All of these results differ significantly from the traditional paradigm which suggests that due to low accumulation rates, only restricted ice masses developed in the Tweedsmuir Hills during this time. References: Hubbard, A. et al., (2009). Dynamic cycles, ice streams and their impact on the extent, chronology and deglaciation of the British-Irish ice sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, (28), 7-8, 758-776

Pearce, Danni; Rea, Brice; Bradwell, Tom; Barr, Iestyn; Small, David; McDougall, Des

2014-05-01

169

Circulation and seasonal evolution of polar waters south of Australia: implications for iron fertilization of the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Ocean Iron Release Experiment (SOIREE) was carried out in late summer (February 1999) south of Australia (61°S, 140°E). This region of the southern Antarctic Zone (AZ-S), between the southern branch of the Polar Front (PF) and the southern front of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SAACF), is characterized by weak currents and is remote from the influence of sea-ice

Tom Trull; Stephen R. Rintoul; Mark Hadfield; Edward R Abraham

2001-01-01

170

31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the...relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of...

2013-07-01

171

31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the...relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of...

2011-07-01

172

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the...

2014-01-01

173

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

2012-01-01

174

31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.  

...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the...relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of...

2014-07-01

175

48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a)...

2013-10-01

176

76 FR 69612 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sudan AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION...Regulations to include the Republic of the Sudan as a proscribed destination, pursuant...does not apply to the Republic of South Sudan. DATES: Effective Date: This rule...

2011-11-09

177

31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the...relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of...

2012-07-01

178

76 FR 68053 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Federal Register...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

2011-11-02

179

78 FR 65865 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Federal Register...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International...

2013-11-01

180

48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a)...

2012-10-01

181

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

2011-01-01

182

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the...

2013-01-01

183

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential...of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

2010-01-01

184

75 FR 67585 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Federal Register...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

2010-11-02

185

77 FR 66357 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan Presidential Documents Federal Register...the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order...declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan and, pursuant to the International...

2012-11-02

186

48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.  

...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a)...

2014-10-01

187

48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25...Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a)...

2011-10-01

188

31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money...transportation-related transactions involving Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the...relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of...

2010-07-01

189

A sediment budget for the southern reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: implications for habitat restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the southern reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with this uncertainty provides a more statistically rigorous method of quantifying this uncertainty than the more typical “sum of errors” approach. The results of this study reinforce the need for measurement of estuarine sediment fluxes over multiple years (multiple hydrologic conditions) to adequately detail the variability in flux. Additionally, the timing of breaching events for the restoration project could be tied to annual hydrologic conditions to capitalize on increased regional sediment supply.

Shellenbarger, Gregory G.; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

2013-01-01

190

An Extreme Precipitation Event in Southern Morocco in Spring 2002 and some Hydrological Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an extreme rain event in the semiarid to arid region south of the High Atlas in northwest Africa on 31 March and 01 April 2002. Apart from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses, satellite, radiosonde and synoptic weather station data, half-hourly observations from 12 climate stations that have been recently installed in the Drâa valley in southern Morocco as part of the IMPETUS project ("An Integrated Approach to the Efficient Management of Scarce Water Resources in West Africa") are considered. Precipitation totals (of up to 77 mm in 23 hours) range in the order of magnitude of more than half of an average annual sum and constitute the heaviest storm of the last 25 years in this region. The immediate run-off caused flooding and damage to buildings. Besides, a substantial filling of water reservoirs (+23.6% of the total capacity of the great storage lake Mansour Eddahbi) and a storage of water in the High Atlas snow cover (up to 1 m) and in the soil was observed, which positively impacted on the region's water supply until the summer. The precipitation event was connected to a "tropical plume" (TP) that formed on the eastern side of an quasi-stationary upper-level subtropical trough to the west of northwestern Africa during the previous days. The large positive potential vorticity (PV) anomaly associated with this trough suggests an intrusion of dry stratospheric air connected to an anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking event. This PV anomaly interacted with the low-level temperature front connected to the TP, initiating the development of a Mediterranean cyclone on the poleward side of the TP over the course of the following days. On 01 April, the merging of the TP with the cold air cloud feature resulted in the formation of a lambda-shaped cloud system, sometimes referred to as an "instant occlusion". A trajectory and integrated water vapour flux analysis reveals that on the equatorward side of the TP, mid-level moisture transports from tropical West Africa occurred, while the high clouds connected to the actual TP originated close to tropical South America. The strong dynamically induced upper-level divergence at the inflection point of the trough and the associated synoptic-scale uplift appear to be crucial factors for the formation of the extraordinarily heavy rainfalls. Orographic forcing might have played an additional role. In contrast to cases of tropical-extratropical interactions causing precipitation in the Atlas region in late summer/early autumn, large-scale dynamical and frontogenetic effects seem to dominate over local factors as for example the triggering of convection in the moist tropical air through the daytime heating of elevated terrain. The results are contrasted to a simultaneous extreme event on the nearby Canary Island of Tenerife (up to 240 mm in three hours), which is identified as a localised thunderstorm in the unstable air underneath the axis of the upper-level cold trough that initiated the TP, potentially enhanced locally by the steep orography of the island.

Knippertz, P.; Fink, A. H.

2003-04-01

191

Crustal Structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Khartoum basin is one of several Mesozoic rift basins in Sudan associated with the Central Africa Rift System. Little is known about the deep crustal structure of this basin, and this limited knowledge hampers the development of a more detailed understanding of its origin and evolution. Constraints on crustal structure in Sudan are only available through regional gravity studies and continental-scale tomography models, but these studies have poor resolution in the Khartoum basin. Here, we investigate the crustal structure of the northern part of the Khartoum basin beneath 3 permanent seismic stations in Khartoum, Sudan through the H-k stacking of receiver functions and the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave group velocities. Our H-k-stacking results indicate that crustal thickness beneath the Khartoum basin ranges between 33 and 37 km, with an average of 35 km and that crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges from 1.74 to 1.81, with an average of 1.78. These results are consistent with 1D velocity models developed from the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave group velocities, which display similar estimates for crustal thickness and an average shear-wave velocity of 3.7 km/s for the basin's crust. Our results provide the first seismic estimate of Moho depth for a basin in Sudan and, when compared to average crustal thickness for the unrifted Proterozoic crust in eastern Africa, reveal that at most a few kilometers of crustal thinning has occurred beneath the Khartoum basin. Keywords: Teleseismic P-waveforms; Moho depth; Shear wave velocity; Khartoum Basin.

El Tahir, Nada; Nyblade, Andrew; Julia, Jordi; Durrheim, Raymond

2013-04-01

192

Late Quaternary tectonics in the inner Northern Apennines (Siena Basin, southern Tuscany, Italy) and their seismotectonic implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defining the most recent Quaternary tectonics represents a challenging task for neotectonic, palaeoseismological and seismotectonic studies. This paper focuses on an integrated approach to reconstructing the latest Quaternary deformation affecting the northern part of the Siena Basin (inner Northern Apennines, i.e., southern Tuscany, Italy) near the town of Siena, and to discuss the seismological implications. Field work and structural and stratigraphic analyses, coupled with the interpretation of reflection seismic lines, have been combined to define the geometry, kinematics and age of mesoscopic to map-scale faults which have affected the mainly Quaternary continental and Pliocene marine deposits. The resulting dataset describes a tectonic setting characterized by coeval SW- and NW-trending transtensional and normal faults, respectively, dissecting alluvial sediments younger than 23.9 ± 0.23 ka. Seismic interpretation sheds light on the geometrical setting of the faults at deeper levels, down to 1-2 km, and provides support for the presence of a wide brittle shear zone defined by conjugated fault segments, locally giving rise to an asymmetrical negative flower-like structure. Faults and their damage zones have controlled (and still control) the discharge of gas vents (mainly CO2 and H2S) and hydrothermal circulation (which deposits travertine) since at least 23.216 ± 0.124 ka. The resulting complete data set provides support for our description of the Neogene-Quaternary tectonics which were active until the late Quaternary, providing additional information about the seismotectonic framework of an area characterized by low seismicity and generally low-magnitude earthquakes (M < 4), but having experienced significant seismic events over the last few centuries.

Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Martini, Ivan; Picozzi, Matteo; Sandrelli, Fabio

2014-05-01

193

Exploitation and recovery of a sea urchin predator has implications for the resilience of southern California kelp forests.  

PubMed

Size-structured predator-prey interactions can be altered by the history of exploitation, if that exploitation is itself size-selective. For example, selective harvesting of larger sized predators can release prey populations in cases where only large individuals are capable of consuming a particular prey species. In this study, we examined how the history of exploitation and recovery (inside marine reserves and due to fisheries management) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has affected size-structured interactions with sea urchin prey in southern California. We show that fishing changes size structure by reducing sizes and alters life histories of sheephead, while management measures that lessen or remove fishing impacts (e.g. marine reserves, effort restrictions) reverse these effects and result in increases in density, size and biomass. We show that predation on sea urchins is size-dependent, such that the diet of larger sheephead is composed of more and larger sized urchins than the diet of smaller fish. These results have implications for kelp forest resilience, because urchins can overgraze kelp in the absence of top-down control. From surveys in a network of marine reserves, we report negative relationships between the abundance of sheephead and urchins and the abundance of urchins and fleshy macroalgae (including giant kelp), indicating the potential for cascading indirect positive effects of top predators on the abundance of primary producers. Management measures such as increased minimum size limits and marine reserves may serve to restore historical trophic roles of key predators and thereby enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems. PMID:25500572

Hamilton, Scott L; Caselle, Jennifer E

2015-01-22

194

Identification of congenital rubella syndrome in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological data about congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) are scarce and rubella vaccine is not yet included in the childhood immunization schedule in Sudan. This study aimed to identify and describe CRS cases among Sudanese infants with congenital eye or heart defects. Methods Between February and September 2010, paired oral fluid and dried blood spot samples were collected from 98 infants aged up to 12 months. These infants were enrolled during their visits to five hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan. Clinical samples were screened for rubella IgM and for???6 months old infants also for IgG antibodies by ELISA. The oral fluid of IgM and/or IgG positive patients was tested for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. Results Our findings revealed that two children (2.0%) were IgM positive and another five children (5.1%) were positive for IgG antibodies. None of the five infants of which enough oral fluid was available for RNA investigation was PCR positive. Conclusions This study documented the presence of CRS in Sudan and highlighted the importance of rubella vaccine introduction for preventing future CRS cases in the country. PMID:24898017

2014-01-01

195

Paleomagnetism and biostratigraphy of sediments from Southern Ocean ODP Site 744 (southern Kerguelen Plateau): Implications for early-to-middle Miocene climate in Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New paleomagnetic results from lower-to-middle Miocene samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Holes 744A and 744B, cored during ODP Leg 119 on the southern Kerguelen Plateau (Indian Ocean sector; Southern Ocean), provide a chronostratigraphic framework for an existing and under-utilized paleoclimate archive during a key period of Antarctic climate and ice sheet evolution. Site 744 is strategically positioned for high-latitude paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic studies because it lies within the southern domain of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and in proximity to the large and active Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf drainage system of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Magnetostratigraphic results were reported previously for this site, but technical difficulties and limited sampling prevented confident correlation of the magnetic polarity record with the geomagnetic polarity timescale. Our results, which are constrained by new semi-quantitative analyses of diatom assemblages and radiolarian first and last appearance events that are evaluated within a regional Southern Ocean biostratigraphic dataset through Constrained Optimization (CONOP) model runs, permit significant refinement of previous age models for the lower-to-middle Miocene sequence recovered at Site 744 (spanning the interval from ~ 21 to 13.7 Ma). An extended record of sediment accumulation, with average sedimentation rates of ~ 0.7-0.9 cm/kyr, is interrupted by a series of hiatuses in the middle Miocene. These disruptions in sediment supply, or erosional events, could mark a local response of north-south fluctuations in the location and/or strength of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current during transient glacial events within the Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO; ~ 17 to 14.45 Ma). With the enhanced age control provided by this study, combined with a refined chronostratigraphy for the underlying upper Eocene to Oligocene strata, Site 744 becomes a good candidate for future high-resolution stable isotope and microfossil paleoecological work, which will further elucidate the late Paleogene and early Neogene paleoenvironmental history of the Southern Ocean.

Florindo, Fabio; Farmer, Ryan K.; Harwood, David M.; Cody, Rosemary D.; Levy, Richard; Bohaty, Steven M.; Carter, Lionel; Winkler, Aldo

2013-11-01

196

Habitat overlap between southern bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna in the east coast longline fishery implications for present and future  

E-print Network

Habitat overlap between southern bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna in the east coast longline fishery 2010 Accepted 15 June 2010 Available online 1 July 2010 Keywords: Southern bluefin tuna Yellowfin tuna tuna (SBT) are presently a quota-managed species in the multi-species eastern Australian tuna

Feng, Ming

197

Education in the Sudan: The Privileging of an Islamic Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the educational discourse in the part of the Sudan administered by the Government of the Sudan. It first analyses the value system upon which the Sudanese education is based by focusing on the nature of Islamism. Such a discussion is necessary because the dominant discourse is a discourse where power and Islamic theocracy…

Breidlid, Anders

2005-01-01

198

The Dinka of Sudan: Family Traditions in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the core values of the Dinka tribe of Sudan, focusing on the most prominent aspects of their family life. The paper also examines how the Dinka family is changing in the face of Sudan's civil war and modernization. It concludes with suggestions for new directions that social work can take to facilitate the transition of the…

Singleton, Kate

199

Solar water pumping clean water for Sudan rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Republic of Sudan in Eastern Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in Africa. However, its remotely isolated rural areas pose problems to rural energy management and development because of poor road links with the urban centres, and remoteness from the national electrical transmission grid. Development of renewable energy sources, therefore, has a vast potential in Sudan. Solar

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

2001-01-01

200

On the Roth and Ruckenstein Equations for the Guruswami-Sudan Algorithm  

E-print Network

1 On the Roth and Ruckenstein Equations for the Guruswami-Sudan Algorithm Daniel Augot in the Sudan decoding algorithm. Generalizing their idea, a sequence of key equations for the Guruswami-Sudan matrices and thus solving the GS-interpolation step efficiently. Index Terms--Guruswami-Sudan algorithm

Boyer, Edmond

201

As an eye witness to the celebrated independence of South Sudan, how  

E-print Network

As an eye witness to the celebrated independence of South Sudan, how would you describe the event split from the SPLM (Sudan Liberation Movement) prior to secession. I was in direct contact with many and ambivalence. The saddest moment for many was when the flag of the Sudan was lowered and that of South Sudan

Edwards, Paul N.

202

Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling.  

PubMed

In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease. PMID:25330098

Samy, Abdallah M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A Townsend

2014-10-01

203

Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling  

PubMed Central

In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease. PMID:25330098

Samy, Abdallah M.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A. Townsend

2014-01-01

204

Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian Sudan moisture sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sahelian Sudan, 10° to 16°N, is an arid to semi-arid zone that separates the Saharan to the north and the wet Savannah to the south. The region is characterized by, relatively, limited water resources, and hence has a high dependency on the annual rainfall. According to the latest IPCC report, regions that have such limited water resources are highly vulnerable to the ongoing climate change and variability. Taking into account that the agriculture is the main economical activity, the variability in annual rainfall is of direct soci-economical relevance. Similar to the rest of the African Sahel, the rainy season, June through September, across Sahelian Sudan is connected to the annual march of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). However, there still a limited understanding of the actual sources of moisture that supplies this region with water vapor during the rainy season. Broadly speaking, the Atlantic, the Congo rain forest, the Read Sea and the Indian Ocean are the main potential sources. In this study we use Lagrangian tracing technique to indentify the sources of moisture of Sahelian Sudan and attempt quantifying their contribution to the total annual moisture convergence. For this we utilized output from the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by the meteorological fields from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast ERA-interim for period of ten years 2000 to 2009. We trace back, for ten days each mass element to indentify the source region. The models also accounts for precipitation and moisture uptakes through the course of the transport of the air parcel from source to destination. Identifying the sources of moisture is of great importance, and can help in two connected directions. First, identifying sources of moisture will help in understanding the variability and will provide insight about the drought causes and mechanisms. Second, revealing the moisture sources would enhance ongoing efforts in seasonal forecasting.

Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael

2013-04-01

205

Dracunculiasis Eradication: And Now, South Sudan  

PubMed Central

This report summarizes the status of the global Dracunculiasis Eradication Program as of the end of 2012. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) has been eliminated from 17 of 21 countries where it was endemic in 1986, when an estimated 3.5 million cases occurred worldwide. Only 542 cases were reported from four countries in 2012, and 103 villages still had indigenous transmission. Most remaining cases were reported from the new Republic of South Sudan, whereas Chad, Ethiopia, and Mali each reported 10 cases or less. Political instability and insecurity in Mali may become the main obstacles to interrupting dracunculiasis transmission forever. PMID:23843492

Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Weiss, Adam; Withers Jr., P. Craig; Eberhard, Mark L.; Roy, Sharon L.

2013-01-01

206

Sudan Grass for Hay, Seed and Pasture.  

E-print Network

where planted in rows that the seedbed be loose and free from clods so that the stand will not be injured at the time of first cultivation, which must be done early when. weed seeds germinate and come up in the row with the Sudan grass. Row plantings... plantings, especially if the season be unfavorable. Growing in rows for pasture also allows cultivation to control weeds. Heavier rates of seeding than are necessary for hay production are desirable when planting for pasture, since thicker planting...

Quinby, John Roy; Jones, D. L. (Don L.); Karper, R. E. (Robert Earl)

1929-01-01

207

Islands of Education: Schooling, Civil War and the Southern Sudanese (1983-2004)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Victims of warfare, famine, slavery, and isolation, the Southern Sudanese are one of the most undereducated populations in the world. Since the inception of formal education in southern Sudan a century ago, schooling has largely consisted of island-like entities surrounded by oceans of educational emptiness. Islands of Education is the first book…

Sommers, Marc

2005-01-01

208

Prediction of temperature and precipitation in Sudan and South Sudan by using LARS-WG in future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming has brought great pressure on the environment and livelihood conditions in Sudan and South Sudan. It is desirable to analyze and predict the change of critical climatic variables, such as temperature and precipitation, which will provide valuable reference results for future water resources planning and management in the region. The aims of this study are to test the applicability of the Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) model in downscaling daily precipitation and daily maximum (Tmax) and daily minimum (Tmin) temperatures in Sudan and South Sudan and use it to predict future changes of precipitation; Tmin and Tmax for nine stations in Sudan and South Sudan are based on the SRA2 scenario of seven General Circulation Models (GCMs) outputs for the periods of 2011-2030, 2046-2065, and 2080-2099. The results showed that (1) the LARS-WG model produces good performance in downscaling daily precipitation and excellent performance in downscaling Tmax and Tmin in the study region; (2) downscaled precipitation from the prediction of seven GCMs showed great inconsistency in these two regions, which illustrates the great uncertainty in GCMs' results in the regions; (3) predicted precipitation in rainy season JJA (June, July, and August) based on the ensemble mean of seven GCMs showed a decreasing trend in the periods of 2011-2030, 2046-2065, and 2080-2099 in Sudan; however, an increasing trend can be found in SON (September, October, and November) in the future; (4) precipitation in South Sudan has an increasing trend in most seasons in the future except in MAM (March, April, and May) season in 2011-2030; and (5) predictions from seven GCMs showed a similar and continuous increasing trend for Tmax and Tmin in all three future periods, which will bring severe negative influence on improving livelihoods and reducing poverty in Sudan and South Sudan.

Chen, Hua; Guo, Jiali; Zhang, Zengxin; Xu, Chong-Yu

2013-08-01

209

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM VEGETATION IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: EMISSION RATES AND SOME POTENTIAL REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVO...

210

Sudan's Islamic revolutions as a cause of foreign intervention in its wars: Insights from balance of threat theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudan experienced a highly radical Islamic revolution in 1885 and a moderately radical Islamic revolution in 1989. Each time, Ethiopia intervened in a war that Sudan was fighting: in 1885 Mahdist Sudan was fighting a war of national liberation against Egypt, and in the 1990s Sudan was in the midst of a civil war. Egypt also intervened in Sudan's affairs

William Rose; Eliza van Dusen

2002-01-01

211

Evidence for genetic differentiation at the microgeographic scale in Phlebotomus papatasi populations from Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Sudan. It is caused by Leishmania major parasites and transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi sandflies. Recently, uncommon clinical manifestations of CL have been reported. Moreover, L. donovani parasites that cause Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) have been isolated from CL lesions of some patients who contracted the disease in Khartoum State, Central Sudan with no history of travelling to VL endemic sites on south-eastern Sudan. Because different clinical manifestations and the parasite behaviour could be related to genetic differentiation, or even sub-structuring within sandfly vector populations, a population genetic study was conducted on P. papatasi populations collected from different localities in Khartoum State known for their uncommon CL cases and characterized by contrasting environmental conditions. Methods A set of seven microsatellite loci was used to investigate the population structure of P. papatasi samples collected from different localities in Khartoum State, Central Sudan. Populations from Kassala State, Eastern Sudan and Egypt were also included in the analyses as outgroups. The level of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among natural populations of P. papatasi was determined using FST statistics and Bayesian assignments. Results Genetic analyses revealed significant genetic differentiation (FST) between the Sudanese and the Egyptian populations. Within the Sudanese P. papatasi populations, one population from Gerif West, Khartoum State, exhibited significant genetic differentiation from all other populations including those collected as near as 22 km. Conclusion The significant genetic differentiation of Gerif West P. papatasi population from other Sudanese populations may have important implication for the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Khartoum State and needs to be further investigated. Primarily, it could be linked to the unique location of Gerif West which is confined by the River Nile and its tributaries that may act as a natural barrier for gene flow between this site and the other rural sites. The observed high migration rates and lack of genetic differentiation among the other P. papatasi populations could be attributed to the continuous human and cattle movement between these localities. PMID:23146340

2012-01-01

212

Mammalian body size changes and Plio-Pleistocene environmental shifts: implications for understanding hominin evolution in eastern and southern Africa.  

PubMed

This study examines geographic and temporal variation in three mammalian taxa co-occurring in eastern and southern Africa. The selected taxa-the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), the plains zebra (Equus burchellii), and the impala (Aepyceros melampus)--are geographically widespread in modern times and are abundant in eastern and southern African Plio-Pleistocene fossil sites. Craniodental measurements of modern conspecifics from known geographic locations are compared using multivariate statistical methods to discern patterns of modern geographic variation within taxa. Modern and fossil samples are statistically compared to assess the nature and extent of inferred shifts in body size, both between modern samples and through time in each region. These results indicate that modern spotted hyenas and plains zebras exhibit mainly size variation between regions, with southern African samples possessing statistically larger craniodental metrics than eastern African samples. Comparison of fossil and modern samples reveals that the fossil assemblages do not show the same pattern of geographic variation. Significant temporal changes are more numerous between fossil and modern eastern African samples, and these changes are not mirrored by similar changes in the southern African samples. The changes experienced by taxa in eastern Africa appear to have been more extreme and wide-ranging than those in southern Africa, a presumed refugium. This result accords well with genetic studies of several large mammal species and paleoenvironmental studies suggesting that eastern African localized environments were more affected by tectonism and volcanism than were those in southern Africa. This study suggests that different evolutionary scenarios may have existed within Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene, but that both regions played unique and complementary roles in the evolution of African hominins and the broader faunal community. PMID:17915290

Reynolds, Sally Christine

2007-11-01

213

Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.  

PubMed

Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. PMID:25466000

Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

2015-04-15

214

Work-Oriented Adult Literacy Project in the Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the illiteracy problem and the adult literacy program undertaken by the government of the Sudan. In addition, it describes a survey undertaken to discover the main shortcomings and mistakes of the labor force which could be corrected. (AN)

Sammak, A.

1971-01-01

215

76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...impact of doing business with that offeror...the offeror's business operations in Sudan...13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both...requirements on small businesses. IV. Paperwork...this offeror that conducts restricted business...45 am] BILLING CODE...

2011-11-02

216

A GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO BETWEENNESS BENNY CHOR AND MADHU SUDAN  

E-print Network

A GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO BETWEENNESS BENNY CHOR AND MADHU SUDAN SIAM J. DISCRETE MATH. c 1998 of Technology, 545 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (madhu@lcs.mit.edu). Part of this work was done while

Chor, Benny

217

A GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO BETWEENNESS # BENNY CHOR + AND MADHU SUDAN #  

E-print Network

A GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO BETWEENNESS # BENNY CHOR + AND MADHU SUDAN # SIAM J. DISCRETE MATH. c, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 545 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (madhu@lcs.mit.edu). Part

Chor, Benny

218

Habitat selection by the pale-headed brush-finch (Atlapetes pallidiceps) in southern Ecuador: implications for conservation  

E-print Network

Habitat selection by the pale-headed brush-finch (Atlapetes pallidiceps) in southern Ecuador-headed brush-finch (Atlapetes pallidiceps) is threatened with extinction due to habitat loss, but very little management. Habitat selection by the sympatric stripe-headed brush-finch (Buarremon torquatus) was examined

Schaefer, Martin

219

Habitat Associations of Hypogeous Fungi in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the Endangered Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

gporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi (truffles) are the major food of northern flying squirrels (Gluucomys satinus). The two subspecies of northern flying squir- rels that occur in the southern Appalachians, G. s. colmatus and G. s. fuscus, are endangered species which are primarily found in the ecotone between high-elevation spruce-fir and northern hardwood forests. Our objective was to determine the

SUSAN C. LOEB; FRANK H. TAINTER; EFREN CÁZARES

2000-01-01

220

Crustal structure beneath southern Africa and its implications for the formation and evolution of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of Archean crust appears to involve processes unique to early earth history. Initial results from receiver function analysis of crustal structure beneath 81 broadband stations deployed across southern Africa reveal significant differences in the nature of the crust and the crust-mantle boundary between Archean and post-Archean geologic terranes. With the notable exception of the collisional Limpopo belt, where

T. K. Nguuri; J. Gore; D. E. James; S. J. Webb; C. Wright; T. G. Zengeni; O. Gwavava; J. A. Snoke

2001-01-01

221

Late Holocene Marsh Expansion in Southern San Francisco Bay, California: Implications for the Use of Historic Baselines as Restoration Targets  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, the largest tidal wetlands restoration project on the US Pacific Coast is being planned and implemented in southern San Francisco Bay; however, knowledge of baseline conditions of salt marsh extent in the region prior to European settlement is limited. Here, analysis o...

222

Vertical stratification of fatty acids in the blubber of southern elephant seals ( Mirounga leonina): implications for diet analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid signature analysis (FASA) is a powerful ecological tool that uses essential fatty acids (FA) from the tissues of animals to indicate aspects of diet. However, the presence of vertical stratification in FA distribution throughout blubber complicates the application of FASA to marine mammals. Blubber biopsy samples were collected from adult female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) from Macquarie

Narelle J. Best; Corey J. A. Bradshaw; Mark A. Hindell; Peter D. Nichols

2003-01-01

223

Gender and alliance in central Sudan.  

PubMed

Sudanese women have a stock of mother-in-law/daughter-in-law stories, documenting specific sources of tension inherent in this society where marriages are traditionally arranged and local endogamy is preferred within the patriline. In recent years, however, socio-economic developments within the Sudan have led to changes in both family composition and the range of opportunities available to women, which are mitigating this particular relationship and leading to new alliances between women. Drawing on data from the town of Sennar, Blue Nile Province, this paper looks at some of the factors contributing to these changes, as well as considers the various networks of relationships in which women participate when they move to an urban area. PMID:24390047

Kenyon, S M

1994-04-01

224

Crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crustal structure of the northern part of the Khartoum Basin has been investigated using data from 3 permanent seismic stations within 40 km of Khartoum and two modeling methods, H-k stacking of receiver functions and a joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities. The Khartoum Basin is one of several Mesozoic rift basins in Sudan associated with the Central African Rift System. Results from the H-k-stacking indicate that crustal thickness beneath the Khartoum Basin ranges between 33 and 37 km, with an average of 35 km, and that the crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges from 1.74 to 1.81, with an average of 1.78. From the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities, we obtained similar results for Moho depth, as well as an average shear wave velocity of 3.7 km/s for the crust. These results provide the first seismic estimates of Moho depth for a basin in Sudan. When compared to average crustal thickness for unrifted Proterozoic crust in eastern Africa, our results indicate that at most only a few km of crustal thinning may have occurred beneath the Khartoum Basin. This finding is consistent with estimates of effective elastic plate thickness, which indicate little modification of the Proterozoic lithosphere beneath the basin, and suggests that there may be insufficient topography on the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the Sudanese basins to channel plume material westward from Ethiopia. We found the average crustal thickness beneath the Khartoum basin is 35 km. We found the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.78. We obtained the average shear wave velocities of 3.7 km/s for the crust. We found small amount of thinning beneath the Khartoum basin. Insufficient topography beneath the basin to channel plume material from Ethiopia.

El Tahir, Nada; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi; Durrheim, Raymond

2013-05-01

225

Application of Raman spectroscopy technology to studying Sudan I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being an industrial dye, the Sudan I may have a toxic effect after oral intake on the body, and has recently been shown to cause cancer in rats, mice and rabbits. Because China and some other countries have detected the Sudan I in samples of the hot chilli powder and the chilli products, it is necessary to study the characteristics of this dye. As one kind of molecule scattering spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is characterized by the frequency excursion caused by interactions of molecules and photons. The frequency excursion reflects the margin between certain two vibrational or rotational energy states, and shows the information of the molecule. Because Raman spectroscopy can provides quick, easy, reproducible, and non-destructive analysis, both qualitative and quantitative, with no sample preparation required, Raman spectroscopy has been a particularly promising technique for analyzing the characteristics and structures of molecules, especially organic ones. Now, it has a broad application in biological, chemical, environmental and industrial applications. This paper firstly introduces Sudan I dye and the Raman spectroscopy technology, and then describes its application to the Sudan I. Secondly, the fingerprint spectra of the Sudan I are respectively assigned and analyzed in detail. Finally, the conclusion that the Raman spectroscopy technology is a powerful tool to determine the Sudan I is drawn.

Li, Gang; Zhang, Guoping; Chen, Chen

2006-06-01

226

Base- and precious-metal deposits in the Basin and Range of Southern California and Southern Nevada - Metallogenic implications of lead isotope studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southern California and southern Nevada contain abundant lead-zinc deposits with strikingly different characteristics. On the west, the Darwin Terrane contains abundant Jurassic and Cretaceous intrusions surrounded by lead-zinc skarn and replacement deposits rich in pyrite and manganese minerals. The Tecopa Terrane is east of the Darwin Terrane and contains some lead deposits that are hosted by the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite. These lead deposits have no consistent relation to igneous rocks; they contain mainly galena, and are devoid of pyrite and manganese minerals. Other skarn and vein deposits in the Ivanpah and Tecopa districts are more closely associated with igneous rocks. Mississippi Valley type lead-zinc deposits are present still farther to the east in the Goodsprings Terrane in Nevada. These deposits are hosted by breccias formed below the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity and are unrelated to igneous rocks. Deposits in the Darwin Terrane have lead isotopic signatures that lie along a mantle-sediment mixing line indicating that they formed in a continental arc setting analogous to that for the plutons in the Sierra Nevada batholith [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Encroachment of this continental arc on the North American continent in the eastern part of the Darwin Terrane resulted in a lead isotopic signature that is like that of the strongly contaminated plutons [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Many deposits from the Inyo Mountains on east side of the Owens Valley have lead isotopic signatures that reflect this encroachment. To the east in the Tecopa Terrane, encroachment of the continental arc on the Mojave crust resulted in partial melting of 1.7 Ga amphibolite and granulite facies rocks to produce the plutons and mineral deposits associated with plutons in this terrane. Lead from deposits in this terrane hosted in the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite and associated rocks have a lead isotope signature that reflects hydrothermal circulation of fluids in the Mojave supracrustal rocks. The boundary between the Darwin Terrane and the Tecopa Terrane lies just west of the Ash Valley-Panamint Range Fault and is bounded by the Towne Fault on the north and the Garlock Fault on the south. Lead isotopic data from the Goodsprings district in southwestern Nevada, east of the Tecopa Terrane, form a 1.45 Ga linear array that is indicative of Mississippi Valley type mineralization. Although we have no independent evidence of the timing of the tectonic events that formed these deposits, it is likely that all formed as a result of the Mesozoic collision of the Panthalassen crust with the North American continent. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Church, S.E.; Cox, D.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Tingley, J.V.; Vaughn, R.B.

2005-01-01

227

Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Yambio, Sudan, 2004.  

PubMed

Between the months of April and June 2004, an Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak was reported in Yambio county, southern Sudan. Blood samples were collected from a total of 36 patients with suspected EHF and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G and M antibodies, antigen ELISA, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a segment of the Ebolavirus (EBOV) polymerase gene. A total of 13 patients were confirmed to be infected with EBOV. In addition, 4 fatal cases were classified as probable cases, because no samples were collected. Another 12 patients were confirmed to have acute measles infection during the same period that EBOV was circulating. Genetic analysis of PCR-positive samples indicated that the virus was similar to but distinct from Sudan EBOV Maleo 1979. In response, case management, social mobilization, and follow-up of contacts were set up as means of surveillance. The outbreak was declared to be over on 7 August 2004. PMID:17940949

Onyango, Clayton O; Opoka, Martin L; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Formenty, Pierre; Ahmed, Abdullahi; Tukei, Peter M; Sang, Rosemary C; Ofula, Victor O; Konongoi, Samson L; Coldren, Rodney L; Grein, Thomas; Legros, Dominique; Bell, Mike; De Cock, Kevin M; Bellini, William J; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

2007-11-15

228

Development of sedimentary cycles on the east Sahara craton since Silurian time (northwest Sudan/southwest Egypt)  

SciTech Connect

The sedimentary succession of southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan, formerly called the Nubia(n) Sandstone, has been subdivided into a number of formations. The predominantly fluvial sediments which characterize Silurian to Upper Cretaceous strata of this region were repeatedly interrupted by marine transgressions that rapidly progressed toward the south since Ordovician time. Thin, shallow marine sequences of different ages can be traced for more than 1,000 km within the studied area. The development of the sedimentary cycles will be pointed out by surface and subsurface data along a cross section from the southern Dakhla basin in the north to the Misaha trough and Abyad basin in the south.

Wycisk, P. (Technical Univ., Berlin (West Germany))

1988-08-01

229

Lessons learned from post-wildfire monitoring and implications for land management and regional drinking water treatability in Southern Rockies of Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like many areas of the Rocky Mountains, Alberta's forests on the eastern slopes of the Rockies have been shaped by decades of successful fire suppression. These forests are at high risk to fire and large scale insect infestation, and climate change will continue to increase these risks. These headwaters forests provide the vast majority of usable surface water supplies to large region of the province, and large scale natural disasters can have dramatic effects on water quality and water availability. The population in the region has steadily increased and now this area is the main source water for many Alberta municipalities, including the City of Calgary, which has a population of over one million. In 2003 a fire burned 21,000 ha in the southern foothills area. The government land managers were concerned about the downstream implications of the fire and salvage operations, however there was very limited scientific information to guide the decision making. This led to establishment of the Southern Rockies Watershed Project, which is a partnership between Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, the provincial government department responsible for land management and the University of Alberta. After five years of data collection, the project has produced quantitative information that was not previously available about the effects of fire and management interventions such as salvage logging on headwaters and regional water quality. This information can be used to make decisions on forest operations, fire suppression, and post-fire salvage operations. In the past few years this project has captured the interest of large municipalities and water treatment researchers who are keen to investigate the potential implications of large natural disturbances to large and small drinking water treatment facilities. Examples from this project will be used to highlight the challenges and successes encountered while bridging the gap between science and land management policy.

Diiwu, J.; Silins, U.; Kevin, B.; Anderson, A.

2008-12-01

230

Epidemiology of multimorbidity in China and implications for the healthcare system: cross-sectional survey among 162,464 community household residents in southern China.  

PubMed

BackgroundChina, like other countries, is facing a growing burden of chronic disease but the prevalence of multimorbidity and implications for the healthcare system have been little researched. We examined the epidemiology of multimorbidity in southern China in a large representative sample. The effects of multimorbidity and other factors on usual source of healthcare were also examined.MethodsWe conducted a large cross-sectional survey among approximately 5% (N =162,464) of the resident population in three prefectures in Guangdong province, southern China in 2011. A multistage, stratified random sampling was adopted. The study population had many similar characteristics to the national census population. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect self-report data on demographics, socio-economics, lifestyles, healthcare use, and health characteristics from paper-based medical reports.ResultsMore than one in ten of the total study population (11.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.6 to 11.6) had two or more chronic conditions from a selection of 40 morbidities. The prevalence of multimorbidity increased with age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) =1.36, 95%CI 1.35 to 1.38 per five years). Female gender (aOR =1.70, 95%CI 1.64 to 1.76), low education (aOR =1.26, 95%CI 1.23 to 1.29), lack of medical insurance (aOR =1.79, 95%CI 1.71 to 1.89), and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were independent predictors of multimorbidity. Multimorbidity was associated with the regular use of secondary outpatient care in preference to primary care.ConclusionsMultimorbidity is now common in China. The reported preferential use of secondary care over primary care by patients with multimorbidity has many major implications. There is an urgent need to further develop a strong and equitable primary care system. PMID:25338506

Wang, Harry; Wang, Jia; Wong, Samuel; Wong, Martin; Li, Fang; Wang, Pei; Zhou, Zhi; Zhu, Chun; Griffiths, Sian M; Mercer, Stewart W

2014-10-23

231

Timing of emplacement and deformation of the Tia Granodiorite, southern New England Fold Belt, NSW: Implications for the metamorphic history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tia Granodiorite, a Hillgrove Suite pluton in the southern New England Fold Belt, intruded complexly deformed metasediment and metabasite belonging to the Tia Complex, which at the time of intrusion had already been affected by two deformation events at low?T moderate?P metamorphic conditions and two overprinting deformation events at high?T low?P metamorphic conditions. Emplacement took place during D5 thrusting

P. H. G. M. Dirks; R. Offler; W. J. Collins

1993-01-01

232

Geochemical evidence of melt intrusions along lithospheric faults of the Southern Apennines, Italy: Geodynamic and seismogenic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several gas emissions, distributed along 200 km of the Southern Apennine axial zone, have been investigated. This portion of the sedimentary chain, which constitutes the accretionary prism of the westward subduction of the Adriatic plate, is subjected to a tensile stress field responsible of high-magnitude earthquakes. The studied emissions are generally CO2-dominated, have 3He\\/4He ratios in the range of 0.09-2.84

Francesco Italiano; Mauro Martelli; Giovanni Martinelli; P. Mario Nuccio

2000-01-01

233

Submarine canyon morphologies in the Gulf of Palermo (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) and possible implications for geo-hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental shelf and the upper slope of the Gulf of Palermo (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) in the depth interval ranging from\\u000a 50 to 1,500 m were mapped for the first time with Multi Beam echosounder and high resolution seismic. Seven submarine canyons\\u000a are confined to the upper slope or indent the shelf-edge and enter the Palermo intraslope basin at a depth

Claudio Lo Iacono; Attilio Sulli; Mauro Agate; Valeria Lo Presti; Fabrizio Pepe; Raimondo Catalano

2011-01-01

234

Recent developments in understanding the tectonic evolution of the Southern California offshore area: Implications for earthquake-hazard analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During late Mesozoic and Cenozoic time, three main tectonic episodes affected the Southern California offshore area. Each episode imposed its unique structural imprint such that early-formed structures controlled or at least influenced the location and development of later ones. This cascaded structural inheritance greatly complicates analysis of the extent, orientation, and activity of modern faults. These fault attributes play key roles in estimates of earthquake magnitude and recurrence interval. Hence, understanding the earthquake hazard posed by offshore and coastal faults requires an understanding of the history of structural inheritance and modifi-cation. In this report we review recent (mainly since 1987) findings about the tectonic development of the Southern California offshore area and use analog models of fault deformation as guides to comprehend the bewildering variety of offshore structures that developed over time. This report also provides a background in regional tectonics for other chapters in this section that deal with the threat from offshore geologic hazards in Southern California. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

Fisher, M.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Nicholson, C.; Ryan, H.F.; Sliter, R.W.

2009-01-01

235

Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.  

PubMed

The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region. PMID:22458224

Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

2012-03-01

236

Reexamination of the Near-Surface Airflow over the Antarctic Continent and Implications on Atmospheric Circulations at High Southern Latitudes*  

E-print Network

Reexamination of the Near-Surface Airflow over the Antarctic Continent and Implications) ABSTRACT Previous work has shown that winds in the lower atmosphere over the Antarctic continent are among the mean annual and seasonal airflow patterns over the Antarctic continent to compare with previous

Howat, Ian M.

237

Effects of Data Uncertainties on Estimated Soil Organic Carbon in the Sudan  

E-print Network

Effects of Data Uncertainties on Estimated Soil Organic Carbon in the Sudan JEAN-NICOLAS POUSSART was situated in central Sudan and dominated by subsistence agroecosystems. Uncertainties in the modeling

Ardö, Jonas

238

77 FR 3369 - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012 Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign...defense articles and defense services to the Republic of South Sudan will strengthen the security of the United States and...

2012-01-24

239

31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section...of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise...including technical data, software, or other information) or services from the United States...

2010-07-01

240

3 CFR - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961...Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the...

2013-01-01

241

Interseismic Strain Accumulation in the Imperial Valley and Implications for Triggering of Large Earthquakes in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From February, 2008 to March, 2009, we performed three rapid-static Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of 115 geodetic monuments stretching from the United States-Mexico border into the Coachella Valley using the method of instantaneous positioning. The monuments are located in key areas near the Imperial, Superstition Hills, San Jacinto, San Andreas and Brawley Faults with nominal baselines generally less than 10 km. We perform a bicubic spline interpolation on the crustal motion vectors from the campaign measurements and 1005 continuous GPS monuments in western North America and solve for the velocity gradient tensor to look at the maximum shear strain, dilatation and rotation rates in the Imperial Valley. We then compare our computed strain field to that computed using the Southern California Earthquake Center Crustal Motion Map 3.0, which extends through 2003 and includes 840 measurements. We show that there is an interseismic strain transient that corresponds to an increase in the maximum shear strain rate of 0.7 ?strain/yr near Obsidian Buttes since 2003 along a fault referred to as the Obsidian Buttes Fault (OBF). A strong subsidence signal of 27 mm/yr and a left-lateral increase of 10 mm/yr are centered along the OBF. Changes in the dilatation and rotation rates confirm the increase in left-lateral motion, as well as infer a strong increase in spreading rate in the southern Salton Sea. The increase in spreading rate has caused an accelerated slip rate along the southern San Andreas near Durmid Hill as evidenced by continuous GPS, which has the potential for earthquake triggering.

Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.; Sandwell, D. T.

2009-12-01

242

PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological implications.  

PubMed

Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the Southern Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from southern oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs to black-footed and Laysan albatrosses of the North Pacific Ocean may be suspected from TEQ levels. PMID:14750714

Tanabe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Ono, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

2004-01-15

243

The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography  

PubMed Central

Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

2012-01-01

244

Geochemistry of basalts from the Dumisseau Formation, southern Haiti: implications for the origin of the Caribbean Sea crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basalt and diabase from the Cretaceous Dumisseau Formation, southern Haiti have Mg-numbers of 43-63, TiO2 contents of 1.6-3.9% and La abundances of 3.6-15.3 ppm. La\\/Ta ratios average 10, and indicate that the basalts are oceanic in character, distinct from the arc associations forming the northern part of Haiti. Oldest lavas have low TiO2 (1.6%) and are LREE-depleted, similar to N-MORBs,

Gautam Sen; Rosemary Hickey-Vargas; David Guy Waggoner; Florentin Maurrasse

1988-01-01

245

Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics of southern African peridotite xenoliths - Implications for the chemical evolution of subcontinental mantle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isotope analyses of Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb elements were caried out on twelve peridotite xenoliths from the Jagersfontein, Letseng-la-terae, Thaba Patsoa, Mothae, and Premier kimberlites of southern Africa, to investigate the timing and the nature of melt extraction from the continental lithosphere and its relation to the continent formation and stabilization. The distinct Os and Pb isotopic characteristics found in these samples suggested that both the low- and the high-temperature peridotites reside in an ancient stable lithospheric 'keel' to the craton that has been isolated from chemical exchange with the sublithospheric mantle for time periods in excess of 2 Ga.

Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R. W.; Shirey, S. B.; Boyd, F. R.

1989-01-01

246

Mesozoic faults in the NE Tarim (western China) and the implications on collisions in the southern Eurasian margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleozoic and Cenozoic deformation events responding to the continental growth in the southern Eurasian margin since the Paleozoic have been well documented in surface and subsurface geology; in contrast, Mesozoic deformation remains poorly known. Based on interpretation of numerous seismic profiles carried out for oil and gas exploration, a Mesozoic transpressional linked fault system has been identified in the NE Tarim, which is composed of (1) the NW-SE-trending Longkou, Ying-S, Ying-N, and Tienan strike-slip faults to the west, (2) the NE-SW-trending and NW-dipping Ying-E 1 and Ying-E 2 thrust faults as well as their branches to the southeast, and (3) to the north, the Weimak fault which can be divided into NW-SE-trending dextral strike-slip segments and NE-SW-trending, SE-verging segments. The unconformity and growth strata related to activity of these faults occurred from the Jurassic to the Cretaceous. This transpressional linked fault system in the NE Tarim block is a kind of intracontinental deformation, attributed to the collisions of the Qiangtang and Lhasa blocks to the southern Eurasian margin from the Jurassic through the Cretaceous.

Wang, Sheng-Li; Shu, Liang-Shu; Zhu, Wen-Bin; Xu, Ming-Jie; Lu, Hua-Fu; Xiao, Zhong-Yao; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhu, Chang-Jian

2012-08-01

247

Late Pleistocene and Holocene uplift history of Cyprus: implications for active tectonics along the southern margin of the Anatolian microplate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nature of the southern margin of the Anatolian microplate during the Neogene is complex, controversial and fundamental in understanding active plate-margin tectonics and natural hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our investigation provides new insights into the Late Pleistocene uplift history of Cyprus and the Troodos Ophiolite. We provide isotopic (14C) and radiogenic (luminescence) dates of outcropping marine sediments in eastern Cyprus that identify periods of deposition during marine isotope stages (MIS) 3, 4, 5 and 6. Past sea-levels indicated by these deposits are c. 95±25 m higher in elevation than estimates of worldwide eustatic sea-level. An uplift rate of c. 1.8 mm/year and possibly as much as c. 4.1 mm/year in the past c. 26–40 ka is indicated. Holocene marine deposits also occur at elevations higher than those expected for past SL and suggest uplift rates of c. 1.2–2.1 mm/year. MIS-3 marine deposits that crop out in southern and western Cyprus indicate uniform island-wide uplift. We propose a model of tectonic wedging at a plate-bounding restraining bend as a mechanism for Late Pleistocene to Holocene uplift of Cyprus; uplift is accommodated by deformation and seismicity along the margins of the Troodos Ophiolite and re-activation of its low-angle, basal shear zone.

Harrison, R.W.; Tsiolakis, E.; Stone, B.D.; Lord, A.; McGeehin, J.P.; Mahan, S.A.; Chirico, P.

2013-01-01

248

Extensional deformation along the southern boundary of the Gyeonggi Massif, South Korea: structural characteristics, age constraints, and tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Permo-Triassic collision of the North and South China blocks caused the development of the Dabie-Sulu Orogen in China and Songrim Orogen in the Korean Peninsula. Extension after this collision is known from the Dabie-Sulu Orogen, but post-orogenic extension is not well defined in the Korean Peninsula. Extensional deformation along the southern boundary of the Gyeonggi Massif in Korea is characterized by top-down-to-the-south ductile shearing and subsequent brittle normal faulting, and was predated by regional metamorphism and north-vergent contractional deformation. Extension occurred between ~220 and 185 Ma based on the ages of pre-extensional regional metamorphism and post-extensional pluton emplacement. 40Ar/39Ar dating of syn-extensional muscovite in quartz-mica mylonite yields an age of 187.8 ± 5.6 (2 ?) Ma, in agreement with constraints from structural relationships. Together with the extensional deformation identified along the northern boundary of the Gyeonggi Massif (~226 Ma), the extension along the southern boundary is probably related to the exhumation of the massif during late-orogenic or post-orogenic extension associated with the Songrim Orogeny of the Korean Peninsula and forms an important event in the Phanerozoic crustal evolution of East Asia.

Han, Raehee; Min, Kyoungwon; Ree, Jin-Han; Foster, David A.

2014-04-01

249

Thrust faults of southern Diamond Mountains, central Nevada: Implications for hydrocarbons in Diamond Valley and at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Overmature Mississippian hydrocarbon source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains have been interpreted to be a klippe overlying less mature source rocks and represented as an analogy to similar conditions near Yucca Mountain (Chamberlain, 1991). Geologic evidence indicates an alternative interpretation. Paleogeologic mapping indicates the presence of a thrust fault, referred to here as the Moritz Nager Thrust Fault, with Devonian rocks emplaced over Permian to Mississippian strata folded into an upright to overturned syncline, and that the overmature rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in the footwall of this thrust. The upper plate has been eroded from most of the Diamond Mountains but remnants are present at the head of Moritz Nager Canyon and at Sentinel Mountain. Devonian rocks of the upper plate comprised the earliest landslide megabreccia. Later, megabreccias of Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks of the overturned syncline of the lower plate were deposited. By this interpretation the maturity of lower-plate source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains, which have been increased by tectonic burial, is not indicative of conditions in Diamond Valley, adjacent to the west, where upper-plate source rocks might be present in generating conditions. The interpretation that overmature source rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in a lower plate rather than in a klippe means that this area is an inappropriate model for the Eleana Range near Yucca Mountain.

French, D.E.

1993-04-01

250

Vertical stratification of fatty acids in the blubber of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina): implications for diet analysis.  

PubMed

Fatty acid signature analysis (FASA) is a powerful ecological tool that uses essential fatty acids (FA) from the tissues of animals to indicate aspects of diet. However, the presence of vertical stratification in FA distribution throughout blubber complicates the application of FASA to marine mammals. Blubber biopsy samples were collected from adult female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) from Macquarie Island (n=11), and blubber cores were divided into inner and outer sections to determine the degree to which the blubber layer was stratified in FA composition, we found 19 FA from both blubber layers in greater than trace amounts (>0.5%). The inner and outer blubber layers could be separated using principal components analysis based on the relative proportion of FA in each layer. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were also observed in significantly higher proportions in the inner blubber layer. Due to the degree of FA stratification in southern elephant seals, we concur with other marine mammal studies that sampling only the outer blubber layer will result in a loss of recently accumulated information regarding diet structure (as indicated by 'surplus' PUFA from the diet). This finding suggests that differential mobilization/deposition of certain FA may result in a modified signature from prey to predator. Thus, sampling animals to recover the inner blubber layer is important for studies attempting to describe aspects of marine mammal diet. This can be achieved in animals such as pinnipeds where the whole blubber layer can be readily sampled. PMID:12568803

Best, Narelle J; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Hindell, Mark A; Nichols, Peter D

2003-02-01

251

31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money...transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services...

2013-07-01

252

Bribery and Identity: Evidence from Sudan Alexander Hamilton and John Hudson  

E-print Network

1 Bribery and Identity: Evidence from Sudan Alexander Hamilton and John Hudson No. 30/14 BATH ECONOMICS RESEARCH PAPERS Department of Economics #12;2 Bribery and Identity: Evidence from Sudan Alexander identification in Sudan. We find that social identification is high, with little evidence that such identities

Burton, Geoffrey R.

253

31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.  

...transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money...transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services...

2014-07-01

254

Assessment of soil organic carbon in semi-arid Sudan using GIS and the CENTURY model  

E-print Network

Assessment of soil organic carbon in semi-arid Sudan using GIS and the CENTURY model Jonas Ardo of climate, land cover and soil texture was compiled for a 262,000 km2 region in semi-arid Sudan. The area with measurements (r2 = 0?70, n = 13). # 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. Keywords: SOC; Sudan; semi-arid; carbon

Ardö, Jonas

255

31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily incident to the routine...

2010-07-01

256

31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily incident to the routine...

2011-07-01

257

SUDAN: ANATOMY OF A CONFLICT Escalation: SAF and SPLA Force Deployment Within and Around Abyei  

E-print Network

SUDAN: ANATOMY OF A CONFLICT Chapter I Escalation: SAF and SPLA Force Deployment Within and Around Abyei Mid-2010 to January 2011 1 Harvard Humanitarian Initiative Sudan: Anatomy of a Conflict Executive in Sudan Since January 2011, humanitarian actors and international observers, including United Nations

Chou, James

258

Decoding ReedSolomon Codes up to the Sudan Radius with the Euclidean Algorithm  

E-print Network

Decoding Reed­Solomon Codes up to the Sudan Radius with the Euclidean Algorithm Alexander Zeh Reed­Solomon (RS) codes up to the Sudan radius. The basic steps are the virtual extension specifically a virtual extension to an IRS code that has an equivalent error­correcting capability as Sudan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.  

...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily incident to the routine...

2014-07-01

260

Small PCPs with Low Query Complexity Prahladh Harsha and Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

Small PCPs with Low Query Complexity Prahladh Harsha and Madhu Sudan Laboratory for Computer of Friedl and Sudan [8], who indicate that NP has PCPs with nearly quadratic size complexity and in which been substantially improved. Raz and Safra [13] and Arora and Sudan [3] have given highly efficient

Sudan, Madhu

261

A Theory of Goal-Oriented Communication Oded Goldreich Brendan Juba Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

A Theory of Goal-Oriented Communication Oded Goldreich Brendan Juba Madhu Sudan December 18, 2009 significantly extend the scope of the investigation started by Juba and Sudan (STOC 2008) who studied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Relation to related works of Juba and Sudan [9, 10

Goldreich, Oded

262

31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the...reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology...

2012-07-01

263

31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily incident to the routine...

2012-07-01

264

31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money...transshipments to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan. The transit or transshipment to or from the Specified Areas of Sudan of goods, technology, or services...

2012-07-01

265

``Softdecision'' Decoding of Chinese Remainder Codes Venkatesan Guruswami Amit Sahai y Madhu Sudan z  

E-print Network

Madhu Sudan #3; z Abstract Given n relatively prime integers p 1 Code were given recently by Goldreich, Ron, and Sudan [5], and improved by Boneh [1]. Their algorithms gave a decoding algorithm for this code, correcting n k 2 errors. 1 Recently, Goldreich, Ron, and Sudan

Guruswami, Venkatesan

266

On the Average List Size for the Guruswami-Sudan Decoder R. J. McEliece  

E-print Network

On the Average List Size for the Guruswami-Sudan Decoder R. J. McEliece California Institute of Technology rjm@systems.caltech.edu Abstract: In this paper we will show that the (hard- decision) Guruswami-Sudan to the Guruswami-Sudan list decoder for Reed­Solomon codes, for which the number of codewords on the list is indeed

Abu-Mostafa, Yaser S.

267

A Theory of Goal-Oriented Communication Oded Goldreich Brendan Juba Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

A Theory of Goal-Oriented Communication Oded Goldreich Brendan Juba Madhu Sudan February 12, 2011 significantly extend the scope of the investigation started by Juba and Sudan (STOC 2008) who studied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Relation to related works of Juba and Sudan [10, 11

Goldreich, Oded

268

31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.  

...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the...reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology...

2014-07-01

269

GURUSWAMI, H ASTAD, SUDAN, AND ZUCKERMAN 1 Combinatorial Bounds for List Decoding  

E-print Network

GURUSWAMI, H °ASTAD, SUDAN, AND ZUCKERMAN 1 Combinatorial Bounds for List Decoding Venkatesan Guruswami Johan H°astad Madhu Sudan David Zuckerman Abstract--Informally, an error-correcting code has "nice. Madhu Sudan's address is Laboratory for Computer Science, 200 Tech- nology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139

Sudan, Madhu

270

"Soft-decision"Decoding of Chinese Remainder Codes Venkatesan Guruswami* Amit Sahai * t Madhu Sudan * 3  

E-print Network

"Soft-decision"Decoding of Chinese Remainder Codes Venkatesan Guruswami* Amit Sahai * t Madhu Sudan Code were given recently by Goldreich, Ron, and Sudan 151, and im- proved by Bonkh [I, Goldreich, Ron, and Sudan [5] gave a "list de- coding" algorithm for this code. Formally,the list decoding

Sahai, Amit

271

31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the...reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology...

2011-07-01

272

31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money...related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily incident to the routine...

2013-07-01

273

GURUSWAMI, H ASTAD, SUDAN, AND ZUCKERMAN 1 Combinatorial Bounds for List Decoding  

E-print Network

GURUSWAMI, H °ASTAD, SUDAN, AND ZUCKERMAN 1 Combinatorial Bounds for List Decoding Venkatesan Guruswami Johan H°astad Madhu Sudan David Zuckerman Abstract-- Informally, an error-correcting code has. Madhu Sudan's address is Laboratory for Computer Science, 200 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139

HÃ¥stad, Johan

274

31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money...reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the...reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology...

2013-07-01

275

Mid-to-Lower-level Plutonic Rocks From Crust of the Southern Mariana Forearc: Implications for Growth of Continental Crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tonalitic plutonic rocks dredged from the southern Mariana forearc are similar in terms of major element composition to tonalitic plutonic rocks of the Tanzawa Mountains on the Izu Peninsula of Japan. The tonalites of the Tanzawa Mountains have been interpreted to represent mid-lower crustal plutonic rocks that make up the 6.0 to 6.3 km/s layer identified in seismic velocity profiles of the Izu arc at 32°N. The tonalities of the southern Mariana forearc may be analogous to the Tanzawa tonalities in terms of lithology and presumably seismic velocities, but have distinctive trace element and isotopic compositions. The exposure of these rocks on the southern Mariana forearc in a location where it is narrower by up to 80 km than elsewhere along its strike indicates a truncation of the arc lithosphere by tectonic erosion in the southern Mariana forearc. If tectonic processes in the forearc have exposed silicic plutonic rock of the arc lithosphere within 150 km of the volcanic front, then the structure of the Mariana arc and forearc is likely similar to that of the Izu arc, where seismic velocity structure suggests 25% of the arc/forearc lithosphere is comprised of a mid-crustal level tonalitic plutonic complex. The trace element and Sr isotopic compositions of the tonalities dredged from the Mariana forearc links them to a suprasubduction-zone environment. The Pb isotopic compositions, however, are consistent with crystallization ages that may be as old as Cretaceous. The compositions of these tonalites differ markedly from those of silicic volcanic rocks that have erupted throughout the history of the IBM arc and suggest that they represent a minor component of the arc. Nevertheless, the presence of Cretaceous tonalites in the Mariana forearc suggests that a portion of its crust may predate subduction initiation. The presence of silicic mid-to-lower crustal level plutonics beneath the Mariana arc as well as Eocene rhyolites on Saipan indicate that average major element composition of the arc crust may be comparable with average continental crust. This is consistent with estimates of the average composition of the Izu arc crust from seismic velocity studies and petrologic studies of exposures of the Izu arc crust in southern Japan's Izu peninsula. These data imply that the island arc that developed along the entire margin of the Philippine Sea plate may have had a generally similar structure and composition. Most components of the IBM arc crust, however, have relatively flat rare-earth patterns and low rare-earth concentrations compared with average continental crust. The averaged composition of the IBM crust, as a whole, differs markedly from that suggested by studies of the velocity structure of the central Aleutian arc. If the continental crust was generated in oceanic island arc settings throughout the history of the Earth, then its sources were significantly more enriched in LREE than the sources for the Cenozoic IBM arcs.

Fryer, P.; Reagan, M.

2006-12-01

276

Evidence for and implications of sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism in the southern Utopia highland-lowland boundary plain, Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several types of spatially associated landforms in the southern Utopia Planitia highland-lowland boundary (HLB) plain appear to have resulted from localized geologic activity, including (1) fractured rises, (2) elliptical mounds, (3) pitted cones with emanating lobate materials, and (4) isolated and coalesced cavi (depressions). Stratigraphic analysis indicates these features are Hesperian or younger and may be associated with resurfacing that preferentially destroyed smaller (< 8 ?? km diameter) impact craters. Based on landform geomorphologies and spatial distributions, the documented features do not appear to be specifically related to igneous or periglacial processes or the back-wasting and erosion of the HLB scarp. We propose that these features are genetically related to and formed by sedimentary (mud) diapirs that ascended from zones of regionally confined, poorly consolidated, and mechanically weak material. We note morphologic similarities between the mounds and pitted cones of the southern Utopia boundary plain and terrestrial mud volcanoes in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan. These analogs provide a context for understanding the geological environments and processes that supported mud diapir-related modification of the HLB. In southern Utopia, mud diapirs near the Elysium volcanic edifice may have resulted in laccolith-like intrusions that produced the fractured rises, while in the central boundary plain mud diapirs could have extruded to form pitted cones, mounds, and lobate flows, perhaps related to compressional stresses that account for wrinkle ridges. The removal of material a few kilometers deep by diapiric processes may have resulted in subsidence and deformation of surface materials to form widespread cavi. Collectively, these inferences suggest that sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism as well as related surface deformations could have been the dominant Hesperian mechanisms that altered the regional boundary plain. We discuss a model in which detritus would have accumulated thickly in the annular spaces between impact-generated structural rings of Utopia basin. We envision that these materials, and perhaps buried ejecta of Utopia basin, contained volatile-rich, low-density material that could provide the source material for the postulated sedimentary diapirs. Thick, water-rich, low-density sediments buried elsewhere along the HLB and within the lowland plains may account for similar landforms and resurfacing histories. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Tanaka, K.L.

2007-01-01

277

Crustal velocity model along the southern Cuban margin: implications for the tectonic regime at an active plate boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new 1-D velocity model along the southern Cuban margin has been determined using local earthquake data, which are the result of the merged Cuban and Jamaican catalogues. Simultaneous inversion using joint-hypocentre determination was applied to solve the coupled hypocentre-velocity model problem. We obtained a seven-layer model with an average Moho interface at 20 km. The average velocity was found to be 7.6 km s-1 on the top of the crust-mantle transition zone and 6.9 km s-1 in the basaltic layer of the crust. The improvement in the earthquake locations allowed us for the first time to use local seismicity to characterize the activity on local faults and the stress regime in the area. For this purpose, 34 earthquake focal mechanisms were determined along the eastern segments of the Oriente Fault. These solutions are consistent with the known left-lateral strike-slip motion along this major structure as well as with the stress regime of two local structures: (1) the Cabo Cruz Basin and (2) the Santiago deformed belt. The first structure is dominated by normal faults with minor strike-slip components and the second by reverse faults. The shallow seismicity in the Cabo Cruz Basin is associated with fault planes trending N55°-58°E and dipping 38°-45° to the north. The Santiago deformed belt, on the other hand, exhibits diverse fault plane orientations. These local structures account for most of the earthquake activity along the southern Cuban margin. Deep seismicity observed in the Santiago deformed belt, supported by focal mechanisms, suggests underthrusting of the Gonave Microplate beneath the Cuban Block in this area. The principal stress orientations obtained from stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms suggest a thrust faulting regime along the Southern Cuban margin. We obtained a nearly horizontal ?1 and nearly vertical ?3, which indicates active compressional deformation along the major Oriente transcurrent fault in agreement with the dominant structural trend associated with the Santiago deformed belt.

Moreno, Bladimir; Grandison, Margaret; Atakan, Kuvvet

2002-11-01

278

Occurrence of Theropithecus sp. in the Late Villafranchian of Southern Italy and implication for Early Pleistocene "out of Africa" dispersals.  

PubMed

Three cervical vertebrae of a large primate have been identified in the revision of the faunal assemblage collected during the late '70s from fissure fillings in the area known as Pirro Nord in southern Italy. By size the three vertebrae are comparable to the large fossil species Theropithecus oswaldi, however we prefer here to attribute the remains to Theropithecus sp. The Pirro Nord Theropithecus represents the second finding outside of Africa of this genus in association with Megantereon whitei, after the site of 'Ubeidiya. The biochronology of Pirro Nord faunal assemblage demonstrates that the arrival into Europe of Theropithecus occurred earlier than thought: in the range of approx 1.6-1.3 Ma. The identification of an European "African assemblage" (Theropithecus associated with Megantereon whitei) has consequences for interpretation of an "out of Africa" (genus Homo) event around the Plio-Pleistocene transition. PMID:15454337

Rook, Lorenzo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Clark Howell, F

2004-10-01

279

Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands.  

PubMed

Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo) are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved) and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal) lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world where carnivore conservation is being attempted on private lands. PMID:23326333

Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Havemann, Carl Peter; Lines, Robin; Palazy, Lucille; Price, Aaron Ernest; Retief, Tarryn Anne; Rhebergen, Tiemen; Van der Waal, Cornelis

2013-01-01

280

Determinants of Persistence and Tolerance of Carnivores on Namibian Ranches: Implications for Conservation on Southern African Private Lands  

PubMed Central

Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo) are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved) and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal) lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world where carnivore conservation is being attempted on private lands. PMID:23326333

Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Havemann, Carl Peter; Lines, Robin; Palazy, Lucille; Price, Aaron Ernest; Retief, Tarryn Anne; Rhebergen, Tiemen; Van der Waal, Cornelis

2013-01-01

281

Peleolakes and impact basins in southern Arabia Terra, including Meridiani Planum: Implications for the formation of hematite deposits on Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hematite deposit in Meridiani Planum was selected for a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing site because water could be involved in the formation of hematite, and water is a key ingredient in the search for life. Our discovery of a chain of paleolake basins and channels along the southern margin of the hematite deposits in Meridiani Planum with the presence of the strongest hematite signature adjacent to a paleolake basin, supports the possible role of water in the formation of the hematite and the deposition of other layered materials in the region. The hematite may have formed by direct precipitation from lake water, as coatings precipitated from groundwater, or by oxidation of preexisting iron oxide minerals. The paleolake basins were fed by an extensive channel system, originating from an area larger than Texas and located south of the Schiaparelli impact basin. On the basis of stratigraphic relationships, the formation of channels in the region occurred over much of Mars' history, from before the layered materials in Meridiani Planum were deposited until recently. The location of the paleolake basins and channels is connected with the impact cratering history of the region. The earliest structure identified in this study is an ancient circular multiringed basin (800-1600 km diameter) that underlies the entire Meridiani Planum region. The MER landing site is located on the buried northern rim of a later 150 km diameter crater. This crater is partially filled with layered deposits that contained a paleolake in its southern portion. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

Newsom, H.E.; Barber, C.A.; Hare, T.M.; Schelble, R.T.; Sutherland, V.A.; Feldman, W.C.

2003-01-01

282

Historical land-use and landscape change in southern Sweden and implications for present and future biodiversity.  

PubMed

The two major aims of this study are (1) To test the performance of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to quantify past landscape changes using historical maps and related written sources, and (2) to use the LRA and map reconstructions for a better understanding of the origin of landscape diversity and the recent loss of species diversity. Southern Sweden, hemiboreal vegetation zone. The LRA was applied on pollen records from three small bogs for four time windows between AD 1700 and 2010. The LRA estimates of % cover for woodland/forest, grassland, wetland, and cultivated land were compared with those extracted from historical maps within 3-km radius around each bog. Map-extracted land-use categories and pollen-based LRA estimates (in % cover) of the same land-use categories show a reasonable agreement in several cases; when they do not agree, the assumptions used in the data (maps)-model (LRA) comparison are a better explanation of the discrepancies between the two than possible biases of the LRA modeling approach. Both the LRA reconstructions and the historical maps reveal between-site differences in landscape characteristics through time, but they demonstrate comparable, profound transformations of the regional and local landscapes over time and space due to the agrarian reforms in southern Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries. The LRA was found to be the most reasonable approach so far to reconstruct quantitatively past landscape changes from fossil pollen data. The existing landscape diversity in the region at the beginning of the 18th century had its origin in the long-term regional and local vegetation and land-use history over millennia. Agrarian reforms since the 18th century resulted in a dramatic loss of landscape diversity and evenness in both time and space over the last two centuries leading to a similarly dramatic loss of species (e.g., beetles). PMID:25478148

Cui, Qiao-Yu; Gaillard, Marie-José; Lemdahl, Geoffrey; Stenberg, Li; Sugita, Shinya; Zernova, Ganna

2014-09-01

283

The Neoproterozoic Keraf Suture in NE Sudan: Sinistral Transpression along the Eastern Margin of West Gondwana1  

E-print Network

The Neoproterozoic Keraf Suture in NE Sudan: Sinistral Transpression along the Eastern Margin Sudan remains poorly under-2 University of Houston Department of Geosciences, Hous- stood because of its Geological Research Authority of the Sudan, Regional Ge- ology Administration, Box 410, Khartoum, Sudan

Stern, Robert J.

284

Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 ?g C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 ?g-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC-emitting species in the genera Bambusa, Elaeis, Eucalyptus, Hevea, Pinus, and Populus (among others). This could result in profound changes in atmospheric chemistry in these regions, for instance, terpene emissions from H. brasiliensis could increase wet season biogenic organic aerosol burdens by approximately a factor of 2 in the Xishuangbanna region. Increases in plantation area established with high isoprene emitting species, (e.g. Bambusa spp. and Eucalyptus spp.) are also projected for China and other parts of Southeast Asia in the near future. Thus, landcover change in South Asian landscapes is usually associated with large increases in BVOC flux with the potential to alter the atmospheric chemical composition and air quality over this rapidly developing region.

Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

285

Beryllium-10 exposure ages of erratic boulders in southern Norway and implications for the history of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The margins of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are fairly well constrained, yet the thickness of the FIS and its temporal evolution are poorly known. Here, we use beryllium-10 ( 10Be) exposure ages of glacially transported boulders along three vertical transects in southern Norway to determine past ice-sheet elevations. The ice surface elevation during the LGM at our westernmost site, Skåla, was likely at approximately 1440 m, coinciding with a previously mapped trimline. At our central site, Blåhø, the ice surface elevation at the LGM was at least at ˜1620 m, likely closer to 1800 m. At Elgåhogna, our easternmost site, LGM ice was above the summit elevation of 1460 m. Rapid deglaciation began at Skåla and Blåhø at approximately 13.5-14.5 10Be ka and at approximately 12 10Be ka at Elgåhogna. By approximately 9 10Be ka, the FIS had thinned to below our lowest sample at each location. Periods of rapid thinning correlate with an exposure dated ice-margin history, as well as the glaciation curve for western Scandinavia. Our data, when combined with previous bedrock and blockfield (highly weathered bedrock on summits) exposure ages, resolve a long-standing debate over the age and geomorphic interpretation of blockfields and weathering zones in southern Norway. Frozen-bed, low-erosive ice clearly covered the summit blockfields at Blåhø, and especially at Elgåhogna, where we find a large and progressive divergence between boulder and bedrock exposure ages with elevation. We conclude that the lower limit of blockfields in these areas should be interpreted as an englacial thermal boundary, rather than the upper limit of the LGM FIS, and that blockfields have survived multiple glacial cycles. We also compare our deglaciation record with several models of the FIS. Models that predict how the FIS changed during deglaciation, either through inversion of crustal rebound or through climate-dependent forward modeling, generally match our exposure ages reasonably well during deglaciation, but predict larger LGM surface elevations than our data indicate. On the other hand, the CLIMAP maximum model, which provides LGM elevations only, agrees with our results fairly well.

Goehring, Brent M.; Brook, Edward J.; Linge, Henriette; Raisbeck, Grant M.; Yiou, Francoise

2008-02-01

286

Insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan: temporal trends and underlying mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria vector control in Sudan relies mainly on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and the use of long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs). Monitoring insecticide resistance in the main Sudanese malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, is essential for planning and implementing an effective vector control program in this country. Methods WHO susceptibility tests were used to monitor resistance to insecticides from all four WHO-approved classes of insecticide at four sentinel sites in Gezira state over a three year period. Insecticide resistance mechanisms were studied using PCR and microarray analyses. Results WHO susceptibility tests showed that Anopheles arabiensis from all sites were fully susceptible to bendiocarb and fenitrothion for the duration of the study (2008–2011). However, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was detected at three sites, with strong seasonal variations evident at all sites. The 1014 F kdr allele was significantly associated with resistance to pyrethroids and DDT (P??7 in allelic tests). The 1014S allele was not detected in any of the populations tested. Microarray analysis of the permethrin-resistant population of An. arabiensis from Wad Medani identified a number of metabolic genes that were significantly over-transcribed in the field-collected resistant samples when compared to the susceptible Sudanese An. arabiensis Dongola strain. These included CYP6M2 and CYP6P3, two genes previously implicated in pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s, and the epsilon-class glutathione-S-transferase, GSTe4. Conclusions These data suggest that both target-site mechanisms and metabolic mechanisms play an important role in conferring pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis from Sudan. Identification in An. arabiensis of candidate loci that have been implicated in the resistance phenotype in An. gambiae requires further investigation to confirm the role of these genes. PMID:24886129

2014-01-01

287

Deposits of the most recent eruption in the Southern Mono Craters, California: Description, interpretation and implications for regional marker tephras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The penultimate eruption in the Mono Craters, Mono County, CA, USA, occurred in the southern section of the volcanic chain, and is herein named the South Mono eruption. The South Mono eruption occurred in 594-648cal A.D., and its products consist of widespread Plinian and phreatomagmatic fall, surge and pyroclastic flow deposits. The explosive deposits can be broken into Basal, Orange-Brown (surge dominated) and Upper subunits. The eruptive phase represented by the Upper beds was the most intense and voluminous, dispersing tephra over a wide region of eastern CA and western NV. South Coulee was the only effusive product of the eruption, and comprises the vast majority of the c. 0.4 cu km dense-rock equivalent (DRE) volume. The tephra overlies the deposits of Wilson Butte to the south, and is correlated herein with Wood's Tephra 2, and Walker Lake and Turupah Flats regional marker tephra layers. Other dates for these regional tephras may be the result of dating ash redeposited in debris flow events following fire.

Bursik, Marcus; Sieh, Kerry; Meltzner, Aron

2014-04-01

288

Paleoecological and Taphonomic Implications of Insect-Damaged Pleistocene Vertebrate Remains from Rancho La Brea, Southern California  

PubMed Central

The La Brea Tar Pits, the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into southern California’s past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects serve as sensitive and valuable paleoecological and taphonomic indicators. Of the thousands of fossil bird and mammal bones recovered from the Tar Pits, insect trace damage is thus far almost exclusively confined to the foot bones of large herbivores, especially bison, camel, and horse species. Our laboratory experiments with dermestid and tenebrionid beetles establish that the larvae of both consume bone, producing different characteristic feeding traces and providing the first documentation that tenebrionids consume bone. The presence of carcass-exploiting insects in the Rancho La Brea biota provides insight into the taphonomy of the asphaltic bone masses and the environmental conditions under which they accumulated. The succession of dermestids, tenebrionids, and indeterminate traces on many of the foot elements, combined with the climate restrictions and life cycles of these insects, indicate that carcasses could remain unsubmerged for at least 17–20 weeks, thus providing the most reliable estimate to date. Attribution of these traces also suggests that the asphaltic fossils only accumulated during warmer intervals of the Late Pleistocene. Forensic studies need to reevaluate the role of tenebrionids in carcass decomposition and other additional insects that modify bone. PMID:23843988

Holden, Anna R.; Harris, John M.; Timm, Robert M.

2013-01-01

289

Possible detachment zone in Precambrian rocks of Kanjamalai Hills, Cauvery Suture Zone, Southern India: Implications to accretionary tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existence of a possible detachment zone at Elampillai region, NW margin of Kanjamalai Hills, located in the northern part of Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ), Southern India, is reported here for the first time. Detailed structural mapping provides anatomy of the zone, which are rarely preserved in Precambrian high grade terranes. The detachment surface separates two distinct rock units of contrasting lithological and structural characters: the upper and lower units. The detachment zone is characterized by a variety of fold styles with the predominance of tight isoclinal folds with varied plunge directions, limb rotations and the hinge line variations often leading to lift-off fold like geometries and deformed sheath folds. Presence of parasitic folding and associated penetrative strains seem to be controlled by differences in mechanical stratigraphy, relative thicknesses of the competent and incompetent units, and the structural relief of the underlying basement. Our present study in conjunction with other available geological, geochemical and geochronological data from the region indicates that the structures of the detachment zone are genetically related to thrust tectonics forming a part of subduction-accretion-collision tectonic history of the Neoproterozoic Gondwana suture.

Mohanty, D. P.; Chetty, T. R. K.

2014-07-01

290

Geophysical interpretation of the gneiss terrane of northern Washington and southern British Columbia, and its implications for uranium exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Omineca crystalline belt of northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia has a regional Bouguer gravity high, and individual gneiss domes within the terrane are marked by local gravity highs. Models of crustal structure that satisfy the limited available seismic-refraction data and explain the gravity high over the gneiss terrane permit the hypothesis that the core metamorphic complexes are the surface expression of a zone of dense infrastructure that makes up the upper 20 km (kilometers) of the crust within the crystalline belt. The Omineca crystalline belt is characterized regionally by low aeromagnetic relief. The gneiss domes and biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites are generally marked by low magnetic relief, whereas hornblende-biotite granites often cause magnetic highs. Exceptional magnetic highs mark zones of magnetic rock within the biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites and the gneiss domes; these areas are worthy of study, both to determine the origin and disposition of the magnetite and to explore the possible existence of uraniferous magnetite deposits.

Cady, John W.; Fox, Kenneth F.

1984-01-01

291

A 130 year record of pollution in the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay): implications for environmental management.  

PubMed

Geochemical composition (Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr and As) and foraminiferal assemblages in surface and core sediments were determined to assess the current situation and the recent environmental transformation of the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay, Spain). Dating of the historical record has been achieved using isotopic analysis ((210)Pb, (137)Cs) and two benchmark events such as the beginning of the mineral exploitation in the Reocín Pb-Zn deposits and the evolution of the chlor-alkali industry (inputs of Hg). Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in both surface and core samples are remarkably higher than background values, reflecting the existence of significant amounts of polluted materials. The dramatic environmental impact of this pollution is clearly recorded by the change of the foraminiferal assemblages that even reach an afaunal stage during recent decades. Application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines confirm that they exert potential risk to the environment, and therefore if dredged they should need specific management measures. The results provide a reference database to monitor future environmental changes in the Suances estuary, particularly as regards the contaminated sediment storage and the re-colonization by autochtonous meiofauna. PMID:18760425

Irabien, M J; Cearreta, A; Leorri, E; Gómez, J; Viguri, J

2008-10-01

292

Last glacial-interglacial environments in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA and implications for Younger Dryas-age human occupation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last glacial-interglacial transition (LGIT; 19-9 ka) was characterized by rapid climate changes and significant ecosystem reorganizations worldwide. In western Colorado, one of the coldest locations in the continental US today, mountain environments during the late-glacial period are poorly known. Yet, archaeological evidence from the Mountaineer site (2625 m elev.) indicates that Folsom-age Paleoindians were over-wintering in the Gunnison Basin during the Younger Dryas Chronozone (YDC; 12.9-11.7 ka). To determine the vegetation and fire history during the LGIT, and possible explanations for occupation during a period thought to be harsher than today, a 17-ka-old sediment core from Lily Pond (3208 m elev.) was analyzed for pollen and charcoal and compared with other high-resolution records from the southern Rocky Mountains. Widespread tundra and Picea parkland and low fire activity in the cold wet late-glacial period transitioned to open subalpine forest and increased fire activity in the Bølling-Allerød period as conditions became warmer and drier. During the YDC, greater winter snowpack than today and prolonged wet springs likely expanded subalpine forest to lower elevations than today, providing construction material and fuel for the early inhabitants. In the early to middle Holocene, arid conditions resulted in xerophytic vegetation and frequent fire.

Briles, Christy E.; Whitlock, Cathy; Meltzer, David J.

2012-01-01

293

Inorganic contaminants from diffuse pollution in shallow groundwater of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy). Implications for geochemical survey.  

PubMed

The Campanian Plain (CP) shallow aquifer (Southern Italy) represents a natural laboratory to validate geochemical methods for differentiating diffuse anthropogenic pollution from natural water-rock interaction processes. The CP is an appropriate study area because of numerous potential anthropogenic pollution vectors including agriculture, animal husbandry, septic/drainage sewage systems, and industry. In order to evaluate the potential for geochemical methods to differentiate various contamination vectors, 538 groundwater wells from the shallow aquifer in Campanian Plain (CP) were sampled. The dataset includes both major and trace elements. Natural water-rock interactions, which primarily depend on local lithology, control the majority of geochemical parameters, including most of the major and trace elements. Using prospective statistical methods in combination with the traditional geochemical techniques, we determined the chemical variables that are enriched by anthropogenic contamination (i.e. NO3, SO4 and U) by using NO3 as the diagnostic variable for detecting polluted groundwater. Synthetic agricultural fertilizers are responsible for the majority of SO4 and U pollution throughout the CP area. Both SO4 and U are present in the groundmass of synthetic fertilizers; the uranium concentration is specifically applicable as a tracer for non-point source agricultural fertilizer contamination. The recognition of non-geological (anthropogenic) inputs of these elements has to be considered in the geochemical investigations of contaminated aquifers. PMID:25638062

Cuoco, E; Darrah, T H; Buono, G; Verrengia, G; De Francesco, S; Eymold, W K; Tedesco, D

2015-02-01

294

Limited MHC polymorphism in the southern elephant seal: implications for MHC evolution and marine mammal population biology.  

PubMed

Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic in most terrestrial mammal populations so far studied. Exceptions to this are typically populations that lack genome-wide diversity. Here I show that two populations of the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) have low DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism at MHC loci when compared with terrestrial mammals. Limited studies on MHC polymorphism in two cetacean species suggest this is a feature of marine mammal populations in general. MHC polymorphism is thought to be maintained by balancing selection, and several types of disease-based and reproductive-based mechanisms have been proposed. For the three marine mammal species examined, the low MHC polymorphism cannot be explained by low genome-wide diversity, or by any reproductive-based selection pressure. It can, however, be explained by diminished exposure to pathogenic selection pressure compared with terrestrial mammals. Reduced exposure to pathogens would also mean that marine mammal populations may be susceptible to occasional pathogen-induced mass mortalities. PMID:1360677

Slade, R W

1992-08-22

295

Differences between seven measures of self-reported numbers of clients of female sex workers in southern India: implications for individual- and population-level analysis.  

PubMed

Quantifying sexual activity of sub-populations with high-risk sexual behaviour is important in understanding HIV epidemiology. This study examined inconsistency of seven outcomes measuring self-reported clients per month (CPM) of female sex workers (FSWs) in southern India and implications for individual/population-level analysis. Multivariate negative binomial regression was used to compare key social/environmental factors associated with each outcome. A transmission dynamics model was used to assess the impact of differences between outcomes on population-level FSW/client HIV prevalence. Outcomes based on 'clients per last working day' produced lower estimates than those based on 'clients per typical day'. Although the outcomes were strongly correlated, their averages differed by approximately two-fold (range 39.0-79.1 CPM). The CPM measure chosen did not greatly influence standard epidemiological 'risk factor' analysis. Differences across outcomes influenced HIV prevalence predictions. Due to this uncertainty, we recommend basing population-based estimates on the range of outcomes, particularly when assessing the impact of interventions. PMID:22886176

Deering, Kathleen N; Vickerman, P; Pickles, M; Moses, S; Blanchard, J F; Ramesh, B M; Isac, S; Boily, M-C

2013-02-01

296

Alluvial terraces on the Ionian coast of northern Calabria, southern Italy: Implications for tectonic and sea level controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the results of an integrated geomorphological, pedological and stratigraphical study carried out along the Ionian coast of northern Calabria (southern Italy). This area is characterised by the occurrence of five orders of alluvial terraces that are striking features of the landscape, where large and steep catchments debouch from the mountain front to the hilly coastal belt. Field investigations indicate that the deposits of all five terraces are suggestive of shallow gravel-bed braided streams. On the basis of the age of the Pleistocene substratum and morphostratigraphic correlation with marine terraces cropping out in the nearby areas, each order has been associated to specific marine oxygen isotope stages. Consequently, we focused on the interplay of allocyclic factors influencing stream aggradation/degradation. Soil features and other climatic proxies suggest that climate didn't play an important role with respect to tectonic and base-level changes in controlling fluvial dynamics. In particular, we recognised that during the middle Pleistocene the study area experienced a period of subaerial landscape modelling, as suggested by the thick and complex alluvial sequence of the highest terrace (T1). The onset of regional uplift marks a change in the geomorphic scenario, with tectonic and eustatically driven changes in base-level working together in causing switches in fluvial aggradational/erosional phases (T2-T5 terraces). Because of the uplift, river dissection occurred during phases of sea level fall, whereas aggradation phases occurred during periods of climate amelioration (sea level rise) just before highstands were attained. As a consequence, the stepped terraces in the study area reflect the interplay between tectonics (uplift) and sea level changes, in which terraces define episodes of relative sea level fall during the late Quaternary.

Robustelli, Gaetano; Lucà, Federica; Corbi, Fabio; Pelle, Teresa; Dramis, Francesco; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Scarciglia, Fabio; Muto, Francesco; Cugliari, Domenico

2009-05-01

297

Data assimilative hindcast on the Southern Flank of Georges Bank during May 1999: frontal circulation and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The circulation of the tidal front along the Southern Flank of the Georges Bank region during May 1999 is examined for the purpose of understanding the transport of larval fish for periods of days to a week. Assimilation of shipboard ADCP data from several Georges Bank cruises into 3-D models is used to produce the hindcast circulation. Adjustments to boundary nodal elevations are estimated to minimize the misfit between model and observations both in frequency and time domains as described in Lynch and Hannah (J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol 18 (2001) 962) and Lynch and Naimie (Cont. Shelf Res. 22 (2002) 2191). An intercomparison of different methods of applying the adjustments is completed using drifter records and dye patch trajectories to provide a measure of skill. The computed flow fields show a skill of 2.4kmday-1 when compared to (unassimilated) drifter trajectories. The tracking of a dye-patch recovers an observed near-bottom cross-bank flow component that is not present without assimilation. Using these flow fields we then investigate the importance of the front as a retention mechanism using passive particle simulations. Wind, heat flux, and tides control the circulation across and along the tidal mixing front. Three 3-day time periods, before, during and after a wind event during May 1999 were studied. Model simulations suggest a highly variable cell-like circulation in the frontal region (onshore near the bottom, upwelling shoalward of the front, offshore at mid-depth and downwelling seaward of the front) that controls the exchange and retention of particles. During the periods when the cell-like circulation is active the highest accumulation of particles occurs in the areas surrounding the front.

Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Manning, James; Werner, Francisco E.; Smith, Keston; Blanton, Brian O.; Lynch, Daniel R.

2005-05-01

298

Climatic Implications of the Observed Temperature Dependence of the Liquid Water Path of Low Clouds in the Southern Great Plains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite observations of low-level clouds have challenged the assumption that adiabatic liquid water content combined with constant physical thickness will lead to a negative cloud optics feedback in a decadal climate change. We explore the reasons for the satellite results using four years of surface remote sensing data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. We find that low cloud liquid water path is approximately invariant with temperature in winter but decreases strongly with temperature in summer, consistent with the satellite inferences at this latitude. This behavior occurs because liquid water content shows no detectable temperature dependence while cloud physical thickness decreases with warming. Thinning of clouds with warming is observed on seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales; it is most obvious in the warm sectors of baroclinic waves. Although cloud top is observed to slightly descend with warming, the primary cause of thinning, is the ascent of cloud base due to the reduction in surface relative humidity and the concomitant increase in the lifting condensation level of surface air. Low cloud liquid water path is not observed to be a continuous function of temperature. Rather, the behavior we observe is best explained as a transition in the frequency of occurrence of different boundary layer types. At cold temperatures, a mixture of stratified and convective boundary layers is observed, leading to a broad distribution of liquid water path values, while at warm temperatures, only convective boundary layers with small liquid water paths, some of them decoupled, are observed. Our results, combined with the earlier satellite inferences, imply that the commonly quoted 1.5C lower limit for the equilibrium global climate sensitivity to a doubling of CO2 which is based on models with near-adiabatic liquid water behavior and constant physical thickness, should be revised upward.

DelGenio, Anthony

1999-01-01

299

Climatic Implications of the Observed Temperature Dependence of the Liquid Water Path of Low Clouds in the Southern Great Plains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite observations of low-level clouds have challenged the assumption that adiabatic liquid water content combined with constant physical thickness will lead to a negative cloud optics feedback in a decadal climate change. We explore the reasons for the satellite results using four years of surface remote sensing data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. We find that low cloud liquid water path is approximately invariant with temperature in winter but decreases strongly with temperature in summer, consistent with the satellite inferences at this latitude. This behavior occurs because liquid water content shows no detectable temperature dependence while cloud physical thickness decreases with warming. Thinning of clouds with warming is observed on seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales; it is most obvious in the warm sectors of baroclinic waves. Although cloud top is observed to slightly descend with warming, the primary cause of thinning is the ascent of cloud base due to the reduction in surface relative humidity and the concomitant increase in the lifting condensation level of surface air. Low cloud liquid water path is not observed to be a continuous function of temperature. Rather, the behavior we observe is best explained as a transition in the frequency of occurrence of different boundary layer types: At cold temperatures, a mixture of stratified and convective boundary layers is observed, leading to a broad distribution of liquid water path values, while at warm temperatures, only convective boundary layers with small liquid water paths, some of them decoupled, are observed. Our results, combined with the earlier satellite inferences, imply that the commonly quoted 1.50 C lower limit for the equilibrium global climate sensitivity to a doubling of CO2, which is based on models with near-adiabatic liquid water behavior and constant physical thickness, should be revised upward.

DelGenio, Anthony D.; Wolf, Audrey B.

1999-01-01

300

Fabric analysis in rocks of the Gadag region (southern India) - Implications for time relationship between regional deformation and gold mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the fabric in Archaean age massive metabasalts and granite from the Gadag region (Western Dharwar Craton, southern India) are identified using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). The magnetic foliation in the rocks is dominantly NW-SE striking. This is inferred to have developed during regional D1/D2 deformation known to have affected the region, which was on account of NE-SW shortening. The plunge of the magnetic lineation varies from NW to SE. This doubly plunging orientation is inferred to be a consequence of superimposition of NW-SE shortening (D3 deformation) over the earlier structure that is known to have resulted in dome-basin geometry in the surrounding metapelitic rocks of the region. Thus it is concluded that the massive rocks preserve evidence of superposed deformation that affected the region, which can be deciphered from the orientation of magnetic fabric data. The Gadag region comprises lode gold deposit (~ 2500 Ma in age), and field investigations show that the quartz veins are dilational with dominantly NW-SE (strike) orientation. The veins are inferred to have formed by dilation under NW-SE shortening during D3. It is envisaged that the NW-SE oriented fabric that formed in the metabasalt during D1/D2, channelized fluid flow, thus leading to vein emplacement during D3. It is concluded that gold deposition in the veins took place during D3, which is related to the final stages of cratonization of the Dharwar craton at ~ 2500 Ma.

Mondal, Tridib Kumar; Mamtani, Manish A.

2014-08-01

301

Size of distal radial and distal ulnar arteries in adults of southern Rajasthan and their implications for percutaneous coronary interventions  

PubMed Central

Aims and objectives Transradial interventions are gaining popularity in recent years. However the radial artery being small, there is a limitation in using interventional devices through this route. We have measured radial and ulnar arteries size in adult patients at our tertiary care cardiology center in southern Rajasthan. Method Adult patients >30 years, who came for Echocardiography at a tertiary care center were included. Radial and ulnar arteries inner diameters were measured 2–3 cm above the Styloid process in both forearms with the Ultrasonography. Patient information about weight, height, diabetes and hypertension were collected. Body mass index and Body surface area were calculated. Results We studied 204 patients, which includes 60.8% males. Mean diameter was 2.325 ± 0.4 mm mm for radial arteries and 2.358 ± 0.39 mm for ulnar arteries (p = 0.24). Hypertensive and male patients had larger mean radial artery diameter than non hypertensive (2.383 mm v/s 2.272 mm, p = 0.006) and female patients (2.37 mm v/s 2.26 mm, p = 0.008) respectively. Diabetic patients (2.305 mm) had nonsignificantly smaller radial arteries diameters than nondiabetics (2.329 mm, p = 0.6). We calculated correlations between radial arteries diameters and Body surface area, Body mass index, height and weight of patients, none of these correlations were statistically significant (r = 0.30, r = 0.28, r = 0.07, r = 0.031 respectively). Conclusion Mean radial artery diameter (2.325 ± 0.4 mm) in the study was slightly smaller than ulnar artery (2.358 ± 0.39 mm). Males and hypertensives had a larger mean radial artery diameter than females and non hypertensives. Radial artery inner diameter measurement by Ultrasonography may be more helpful than Allen's test for ideal selection of cases. PMID:25443603

Beniwal, Sunil; Bhargava, Kapil; Kausik, Satish K.

2014-01-01

302

Submarine canyon morphologies in the Gulf of Palermo (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) and possible implications for geo-hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental shelf and the upper slope of the Gulf of Palermo (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) in the depth interval ranging from 50 to 1,500 m were mapped for the first time with Multi Beam echosounder and high resolution seismic. Seven submarine canyons are confined to the upper slope or indent the shelf-edge and enter the Palermo intraslope basin at a depth of around 1,300 m. The canyons evolved through concurrent top-down turbiditic processes and bottom-up retrogressive mass failures. Most of the mass failure features of the area are related to canyon-shaping processes and only few of them are not confined to the upper slope. In general, these features probably do not represent a significant tsunami hazard along the coast. The geological element that controls the evolution of the canyons and induces sediment instability corresponds to the steep slope gradient, especially in the western sector of the Gulf, where the steepest canyons are located. The structural features mapped in the Palermo offshore contributed to the regulation of mass failure processes in the area, with direct faults and antiform structures coinciding with some of the canyon heads. Furthermore, the occurrence of pockmarks and highs that probably consist of authigenic carbonates above faulted and folded strata suggests a local relationship between structural control, fluid escape processes and mass failure. This paper presents a valuable high-resolution morphologic dataset of the Gulf of Palermo, which constitutes a reliable base for evaluating the geo-hazard potential related to slope failure in the area.

Lo Iacono, Claudio; Sulli, Attilio; Agate, Mauro; Lo Presti, Valeria; Pepe, Fabrizio; Catalano, Raimondo

2011-03-01

303

Controls on large landslide distribution and implications for the geomorphic evolution of the southern interior Columbia River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large landslides (>0.1 km2) are important agents of geomorphic change. While most common in rugged mountain ranges, large landslides can also be widespread in relatively low-relief (several 100 m) terrain, where their distribution has been relatively little studied. A fuller understanding of the role of large landslides in landscape evolution requires addressing this gap, since the distribution of large landslides may affect broad regions through interactions with channel processes, and since the dominant controls on landslide distribution might be expected to vary with tectonic setting. We documented >400 landslides between 0.1 and ~40 km2 across ~140,000 km2 of eastern Oregon, in the semiarid, southern interior Columbia River basin. The mapped landslides cluster in a NW-SE-trending band that is 50-100 km wide. Landslides predominantly occur where even modest local relief (~100 m) exists near key contacts between weak sedimentary or volcaniclastic rock and coherent cap rock. Fault density exerts no control on landslide distribution, while ~10% of mapped landslides cluster within 3-10 km of mapped fold axes. Landslide occurrence is curtailed to the NE by thick packages of coherent basalt and to the SW by limited local relief. Our results suggest that future mass movements will localize in areas stratigraphically preconditioned for landsliding by a geologic history of fluviolacustrine and volcaniclastic sedimentation and episodic capping by coherent lava flows. In such areas, episodic landsliding may persist for hundreds of thousands of years or more, producing valley wall slopes of ~7??-13?? and impacting local channels with an evolving array of mass movement styles. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

Safran, E.B.; Anderson, S.W.; Mills-Novoa, M.; House, P.K.; Ely, L.

2011-01-01

304

Anomalous crustal and lithospheric mantle structure of southern part of the Vindhyan Basin and its geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonically active Vindhyan intracratonic basin situated in central India, forms one of the largest Proterozoic sedimentary basins of the world. Possibility of hydrocarbon occurrences in thick sediments of the southern part of this basin, has led to surge in geological and geophysical investigations by various agencies. An attempt to synthesize such multiparametric data in an integrated manner, has provided a new understanding to the prevailing crustal configuration, thermal regime and nature of its geodynamic evolution. Apparently, this region has been subjected to sustained uplift, erosion and magmatism followed by crustal extension, rifting and subsidence due to episodic thermal interaction of the crust with the hot underlying mantle. Almost 5-6 km thick sedimentation took place in the deep faulted Jabera Basin, either directly over the Bijawar/Mahakoshal group of mafic rocks or high velocity-high density exhumed middle part of the crust. Detailed gravity observations indicate further extension of the basin probably beyond NSL rift in the south. A high heat flow of about 78 mW/m2 has also been estimated for this basin, which is characterized by extremely high Moho temperatures (exceeding 1000 °C) and mantle heat flow (56 mW/m2) besides a very thin lithospheric lid of only about 50 km. Many areas of this terrain are thickly underplated by infused magmas and from some segments, granitic-gneissic upper crust has either been completely eroded or now only a thin veneer of such rocks exists due to sustained exhumation of deep seated rocks. A 5-8 km thick retrogressed metasomatized zone, with significantly reduced velocities, has also been identified around mid to lower crustal transition.

Pandey, O. P.; Srivastava, R. P.; Vedanti, N.; Dutta, S.; Dimri, V. P.

2014-09-01

305

Sudanese Images of the Other: Education and Conflict in Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education can contribute to peace and reconciliation as well as to conflict and strife. The complex, often contradictory role of education in conflict is explored in this article in relation to Sudan. The focus of the article is the North-South conflict, bearing in mind that other, "minor" wars and military clashes in both the North and South have…

Breidlid, Anders

2010-01-01

306

Child Prodigy in Astronomy: A Biographical Study from the Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many studies have been conducted in the West regarding child prodigies, no such studies have taken place in indigenous Arab cultures--particularly not in Sudan. The present study attempts to bridge the existing gap in this area by focusing on a Sudanese child prodigy with extraordinary inclination towards astronomy. It is a qualitative…

Khaleefa, Omar

2009-01-01

307

Educational Change and the "Khalwa" in the Sudan: Reform Reformed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Sudan's New Educational Policy, a top-down educational reform plan promulgated by the Nimeiri Government during 1970-85. The plan attempted to increase enrollments dramatically and change a colonial British curriculum to a modern, authentically Sudanese curriculum. Fortunately, the plan ignored the Khalawi, alternative institutions that…

Lynch, Patrick D.; And Others

1992-01-01

308

The Development of an Environmental Education Curriculum for Sudan, Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of three environmental education workshops held in Sudan between 1983 and 1985. Explains the participants' involvement with curriculum design, curriculum structure development, and activity selection. Suggests that this program can serve as a model for national environmental education program development. (ML)

Stapp, William B.

1986-01-01

309

Tertiary age for upper Nubian sandstone formation, central Sudan  

SciTech Connect

In central and northern Sudan, oil exploration is now active in the basins containing sediments of the Nubian Sandstone Formation. On the evidence of planned pipeline construction, significant volumes of oil appear to have been discovered in southwestern Sudan. A newly discovered flora from the upper Nubian Sandstone Formation near Khartoum in central Sudan is Tertiary in age. The flora is well preserved, and comprises leaves, flowers, and fruits, many not yet described. At the generic level, they are comparable to forms that are known fro the Eocene to Miocene. Aquatic plants indicate a lacustrine paleoenvironment; humid tropical forests thrived on the lakeshores. The Nubian Sandstone Formation of Sudan had been considered to be entirely of Cretaceous age; this new flora shifts the upper boundary into the Tertiary. The Tertiary Hudi Chert, found in scattered outcrops in the region of Atbara, was considered to overlie the Nubian Sandstone Formation. The authors suggest that the Hudi Chert is partly age equivalent to the Tertiary upper Nubian Sandstone at Jebel Mudaha.

Prasad, G.; Lejal-Nicol, A.; Vaudois-Mieja, N.

1986-02-01

310

Optical limiting behavior of Sudan III dye doped polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical limiting performance of Sudan III dye doped into ethylene propylene diene polymethylene polymer (EPDM) is investigated using 532 nm, 10 ns pulses from a frequency-doubled Nd-YAG laser. The optical limiting behavior is investigated by transmission measurement through the sample at different concentrations. Our results show that the optical limiting efficiency is concentration dependent.

Zidan, M. D.; Allaf, A. W.; Ajji, Z.; Allahham, A.

2010-04-01

311

Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011  

PubMed Central

Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

2012-01-01

312

New sources of grain mold resistance among accessions from Sudan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from Sudan were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold. The environmental conditions during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for gra...

313

Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Reed Solomon Codes Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Reed Solomon Codes Madhu Sudan Abstract We present a randomized.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA. email: madhu@watson.ibm.com. The above problem, and close n, k, and a collection of symbols , an [n, k, ]-code over is a collection C n of n-letter words

Sudan, Madhu

314

A Geometric Approach to Betweenness ? Benny Chor?? and Madhu Sudan???  

E-print Network

A Geometric Approach to Betweenness ? Benny Chor?? and Madhu Sudan??? Abstract. An input.P.R. funds. ??? IBM Thomas J. watson Research Center, P.O.Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (madhu the line. The probability that a speci c constraint is satis ed by such a randomly chosen order is 1

Sudan, Madhu

315

Pseudorandom generators without the XOR Lemma Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

Pseudorandom generators without the XOR Lemma Madhu Sudan y Luca Trevisan z Salil Vadhan x May 18, Cambridge, MA 02141. E-mail: madhu@theory.lcs.mit.edu. Research supported in part by a Sloan Foundation Fellowship, an MIT-NEC Research Initiation Grant and NSF Career Award C-CR-9875511. zDepartment of Computer

Sudan, Madhu

316

Causes of conflict in Sudan: Testing the Black Book  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Book of Sudan claims to identify a pattern of political control - by people of its northern regions - which is unbroken during the post-independence period. This is the basis for the view of many of the rebels in the south and west of the country that the conflicts are the result not of racial or religious discrimination

Alex Cobham

2005-01-01

317

Geophysical exploration of an active pockmark field in the Bay of Concarneau, southern Brittany, and implications for resident suspension feeders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About a decade ago, a large field of pockmarks (individual features up to 30 m in diameter and <2 m deep) was discovered in water depths of 15-40 m in the Bay of Concarneau in southern Brittany along the French Atlantic coast, covering an overall area of 36 km2 and characterised by unusually high pockmark densities in places reaching 2,500 per square kilometre. As revealed by geophysical swath and subbottom profile data ground-truthed by sediment cores collected during two campaigns in 2005 and 2009, the confines of the pockmark field show a spectacular spatial association with those of a vast expanse of tube mats formed by a benthic community of the suspension-feeding amphipod Haploops nirae. The present study complements those findings with subbottom chirp profiles, seabed sonar imagery and ultrasonic backscatter data from the water column acquired in April 2011. Results show that pockmark distribution is influenced by the thickness of Holocene deposits covering an Oligocene palaeo-valley system. Two groups of pockmarks were identified: (1) a group of large (>10 m diameter), more widely scattered pockmarks deeply rooted (up to 8 ms two-way travel time, TWTT) in the Holocene palaeo-valley infills, and (2) a group of smaller, more densely spaced pockmarks shallowly rooted (up to 2 ms TWTT) in interfluve deposits. Pockmark pore water analyses revealed high methane concentrations peaking at ca. 400 ?l/l at 22 and 30 cm core depth in silty sediments immediately above Haploops-bearing layers. Water column data indicate acoustic plumes above pockmarks, implying ongoing pockmark activity. Pockmark gas and/or fluid expulsion resulting in increased turbidity (resuspension of, amongst others, freshly settled phytoplankton) could at least partly account for the strong spatial association with the phytoplankton-feeding H. nirae in the Bay of Concarneau, exacerbating impacts of anthropogenically induced eutrophication and growing offshore trawling activities. Tidally driven hydraulic pumping in gas-charged pockmarks represents a good candidate as large-scale short-term triggering mechanism of pockmark activation, in addition to episodic regional seismic activity.

Baltzer, Agnès; Ehrhold, Axel; Rigolet, Carinne; Souron, Aurélie; Cordier, Céline; Clouet, Hélène; Dubois, Stanislas F.

2014-06-01

318

Origin of 226Ra- 230Th disequilibria in arc lavas from southern Chile and implications for magma transfer time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved understanding of mantle melting processes and melt transport requires knowledge of how fast magma is generated and transferred from source region to surface. The rate of magma transfer can in favorable cases be estimated from radioactive disequilibria between nuclides of the 238U series. Young lavas from southern Chile, in which 238U- 230Th disequilibria have been measured [Sigmarsson et al., Nature 346 (1990) 163-165; Sigmarsson et al., Nature 394 (1998) 566-569], were analyzed for 226Ra abundances. The disequilibrium between 226Ra and 230Th in these lavas is found to correlate with 238U- 230Th disequilibria and 10Be/Be [Morris et al., Nature 344 (1990) 31-36]. These correlations strongly suggest that the excess of 226Ra over 230Th is due to the addition of a slab-derived fluid to the magma source, since Ra and U are fluid-mobile elements and the cosmogenic 10Be is most likely derived from the subducting Nazca plate beneath the Andes. The largest slab signature is observed in the lavas of Villarrica volcano, which is the most active volcano in South America. A model for subduction fluxing is discussed, in which the U series disequilibria in arc lavas will reflect the integrated dehydration process during metamorphism of the subducting plate and the metasomatized mantle, but be principally controlled by the latest hydrous mineral breakdown in the mantle wedge. Repeated precipitation and dehydration mineral reactions of the hydrated mantle could be the homogenization process of the slab input needed to explain the 10Be/Be-B/Be correlation for different arcs [Morris et al., Nature 344 (1990) 31-36]. The fact that excesses of 226Ra and 238U over 230Th are correlated indicates that linear arrays on the ( 230Th/ 232Th)-( 238U/ 232Th) diagram are not isochrons reflecting time elapsed since a fluid addition but rather mixing lines between a fluid phase and melts. The 226Ra- 230Th disequilibrium in arc lavas suggests significantly shorter timescales for magma transfer, or less than 8000 years. This disequilibrium is consistent with minimum magma transfer rate through the mantle wedge on the order of 10 m/year. Finally, the correlations of ( 226Ra /230Th) with ( 238U/ 232Th) and 10Be/Be in Andean magmas imply that magma chamber residence time is of the same order of magnitude beneath the stratovolcanoes studied.

Sigmarsson, O.; Chmeleff, J.; Morris, J.; Lopez-Escobar, L.

2002-03-01

319

Deglaciation Chronology of the Southern Laurentide Ice Sheet and Implications for Meltwater Routing bracketing the Younger Dryas Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last glacial hemicycle the intricate interplay of ice sheet margin geometry, isostatic rebound, and topography dictated the locations of meltwater storage and routing. Perhaps the least well understood of these is the ice margin chronology. Consequently, we have developed ice margin chronologies at three potential outlets of the large meltwater reservoir in the center of North America known as glacial Lake Agassiz. At the southern outlet of Lake Agassiz, several channels cut across the Big Stone Moraine. Radiocarbon dates from depressions and an intermediate level meltwater channels indicate initial lake formation after 13,680 cal yr. Coupled with regional data this implies a minimum ice margin retreat of ~270 m/yr at the beginning of Bölling/Alleröd warm interval. The chronology of subsequent events and the location of the ice margin at the beginning of the Younger Dryas is still being studied. However, in order for the ice margin to retreat sufficiently to produce a volume of Lake Agassiz suggested in prior reconstructions for the start of the Younger Dryas requires retreat rates comparable to those of present day catastrophic collapse of the Columbia Glacier (~570 m/yr). The northwest outlet is via the Clearwater spillway of northern Alberta. New geomorphic mapping confirmed fluvial activity within the spillway, but also revealed several unrecognized ice margin positions. According to our reconstructions retreat rates from 15,000 cal yr to 12,400 cal yr average some 25 m/yr then increase to ~200 to 300 m/yr as the ice margin calving into water. The ice margin position could not allow for northward drainage until about 11,000 cal yr, well after the start of the Younger Dryas. The eastern outlet is of interest as the suggested location of meltwater change (flood or simple diversion) from the Gulf of Mexico to the North Atlantic. However, the lack of a clear geomorphic meltwater route is problematic. About 14,000 cal yr the ice sheet retreat rate increased to ~63 m/yr and continued at that pace until 12,100 cal yr at which time the ice margin crossed the lowest topographic pathway out of the Lake Agassiz basin. In this reconstruction the lowest pathway would not be available for meltwater flow until after the start of the Younger Dryas.

Lowell, T. V.; Fisher, T. G.; Waterson, N.; Hajdas, I.

2007-05-01

320

Volcanic risk and tourism in southern Iceland: Implications for hazard, risk and emergency response education and training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the relationship between volcanic risk and the tourism sector in southern Iceland and the complex challenge emergency management officials face in developing effective volcanic risk mitigation strategies. An early warning system and emergency response procedures were developed for communities surrounding Katla, the volcano underlying the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. However, prior to and during the 2007 tourist season these mitigation efforts were not effectively communicated to stakeholders located in the tourist destination of Þórsmörk despite its location within the hazard zone of Katla. The hazard zone represents the potential extent of a catastrophic jökulhlaup (glacial outburst flood). Furthermore, volcanic risk mitigation efforts in Þórsmörk were based solely on information derived from physical investigations of volcanic hazards. They did not consider the human dimension of risk. In order to address this gap and provide support to current risk mitigation efforts, questionnaire surveys were used to investigate tourists' and tourism employees' hazard knowledge, risk perception, adoption of personal preparedness measures, predicted behaviour if faced with a Katla eruption and views on education. Results indicate that tourists lack hazard knowledge and they do not adopt preparedness measures to deal with the consequences of an eruption. Despite a high level of risk perception, tourism employees lack knowledge about the early warning system and emergency response procedures. Results show that tourists are positive about receiving information concerning Katla and its hazards and therefore, the reticence of tourism employees with respect to disseminating hazard information is unjustified. In order to improve the tourism sector's collective capacity to positively respond during a future eruption, recommendations are made to ensure adequate dissemination of hazard, risk and emergency response information. Most importantly education campaigns should focus on: (a) increasing tourists' knowledge of Katla, jökulhlaup and other volcanic hazards and (b) increasing tourist and employee awareness of the early warning and information system and appropriate behavioural response if a warning is issued. Further, tourism employees should be required to participate in emergency training and evacuation exercises annually. These efforts are timely given that Katla is expected to erupt in the near future and international tourism is an expanding industry in Þórsmörk.

Bird, Deanne K.; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Dominey-Howes, Dale

2010-01-01

321

A temporary pond in the Early Cretaceous of southern England: palaeoclimatic implications of nonmarine "Purbeck-Wealden" ostracod faunas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excavation of the partial skeleton of an Iguanodon from the Upper Weald Clay (Barremian, Early Cretaceous) at Smokejacks Brickworks near Ockley, Surrey, UK included detailed sampling for micropalaeontological and palynological and studies (Nye et al., 2008). Rich and well-preserved non-marine assemblages of pollen and spores include early angiosperms as well as freshwater green algae. Taphonomic analyses show the ostracod assemblages to be autochthonous thanatocoenoses, indicative of local environment at the time of deposition. Using a palaeobiological approach, the ostracods and palynomorphs demonstrate temporary / ephemeral freshwater conditions at the time when the Iguanodon died and the carcase was buried. Ostracod "faunicycles" in "Purbeck-Wealden" deposits may represent salinity variations in non-marine water-bodies, influenced by the balance between precipitation and evaporation, and/or the relative abundance of permanent and temporary waterbodies in the landscape; many assemblages resulted from post-mortem mixing, perhaps during flood events (Horne, 2002). Faunal alternations may therefore reflect shifts of the boundary between warm temperate and paratropical climate in the Early Cretaceous of NW Europe. The previously rejected suggestion that such assemblage variations record Milankovitch cyclicity deserves to be reconsidered, as does the possibility that they reflect changes on sub-Milankovitch timescales. Climate variability may have influenced the differential evolutionary success of sexual, mixed and parthenogenetic reproductive strategies in nonmarine ostracods. Latitudinally restricted distribution patterns and wind dispersal of resting eggs offer potential for inferring global climate patterns from ostracod palaeobiogeography, although dispersal by large animals (e.g., crocodiles, pterosaurs) is likely to have confused any aeolian transport patterns. References Horne, D. J. 2002. Ostracod biostratigraphy and palaeoecology of the Purbeck Limestone Group in southern England. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 68, 1-18, 2 pls. Nye, E., Feist-Burkhardt, S., Horne, D. J., Ross, A. J. & Whittaker, J. E. (2008) The palaeoenvironment associated with a partial Iguanodon skeleton from the Upper Weald Clay (Barremian, Early Cretaceous) at Smokejacks Brickworks (Ockley, Surrey, UK), based on palynomorphs and ostracods. Cretaceous Research, 29, 417-444.

Horne, D. J.

2009-04-01

322

Evidence for a Nascent Rift in South Sudan: Westward Extension of the East African Rift System?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joint inversion of seismic and gravity data of eastern Africa reveals a low seismic wave velocity arm stretching from the southern Main Ethiopian rift westward in an east-west direction that has not been noticed in earlier work. The zone of low velocities is located in the upper mantle and is not overlain by a known structural rift expression. We analyzed the local pattern of seismicity and the stresses in the African plate to interpret this low velocity arm. The zone of low velocities is located within the Central African Fold Belt, which dissects the northern and southern portions of the African continent. It is seismically active with small to intermediate sized earthquakes occurring in the crust. Seven earthquake solutions indicate (oblique) normal faulting and low-angle normal faulting with a NS to NNW-SSE opening direction, as well as strike-slip faulting. This pattern of deformation is typically associated with rifting. The present day stress field in northeastern Africa reveals a tensional state of stress at the location of the low velocity arm with an opening direction that corresponds to the earthquake data. We propose that the South Sudan low velocity zone and seismic center are part of an undeveloped, nascent rift arm. The arm stretches from the East African Rift system westward.

Maceira, M.; Van Wijk, J. W.; Coblentz, D. D.; Modrak, R. T.

2013-12-01

323

Guns, Southernness, and gun control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southerners have been found to have higher levels of gun ownership than persons who reside elsewhere. This may be due to cultural factors peculiar to the Southern region. If so, this would have interesting implications for gun control initiatives. Although the differential in gun ownership has been linked to varying support or opposition to gun control, the relationship between this

Pauline Gasdow Brennan; Alan J. Lizotte; David McDowall

1993-01-01

324

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables.  

PubMed

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed. PMID:10206264

Thomson, M C; Elnaiem, D A; Ashford, R W; Connor, S J

1999-02-01

325

Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh.; Shamkhali, A. N.

2014-06-01

326

Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes.  

PubMed

Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents. PMID:24637272

Zakerhamidi, M S; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh; Shamkhali, A N

2014-06-01

327

The Use of Sudan Grass Pastures and Other Feeds for Beef Production.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY. : a & EiI COCtECE* TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 599 MARCH 1941 THE USE OF SUDAN GRASS PASTURES AND OTHER FEEDS FOR BEEF PRODUCTION J. H. JONES, J. M. JONES, R. A... of sudan pasturage in farm beef production, it has not been profit- able to supply yearling steers with concentrate supplements while they were being grazed on the sudan. Thin yearling steers made rapid gains on sudan pasturage with or without...

Jones, John H.

1941-01-01

328

Occurrence of Sudan I in Paprika Fruits Caused by Agricultural Environmental Contamination.  

PubMed

Current research has demonstrated the presence of sub parts per billion levels of Sudan dye in paprika fruits during the vegetation process, which is difficult to understand on the basis of the conventional concept of cross-contamination or malicious addition. Detailed surveys on Sudan dyes I-IV in paprika fruits, soils, and agronomic materials used from seven fields of Xinjiang (China) were conducted to investigate the natural contamination. Results revealed that Sudan dyes II-IV were never detected and that Sudan I existed in almost all samples except for the mulching film and irrigation water. The higher total amount of Sudan I in soils, pesticides, and fertilizers compared to coated seeds indicated the combination of Sudan I-contaminated soils and application of Sudan I-containing agronomic materials constitutes a major source of 0.18-2.52 ?g/kg levels of Sudan I in fruits during the growth period. The study offers a more reasonable explanation for the previously observed Sudan I in paprika fruits. PMID:24766082

Lian, Yunhe; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Wu, Naiying; Lu, Qingguo; Han, Wenjie; Tie, Xiaowei

2014-04-25

329

Solving Slavery in Sudan: Solving a Social Problem Through Nation Building  

E-print Network

to solving slavery in Sudan. 3 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SUDAN 4 The Cush and Meroitae: ca. 2180 B.C. to 642 A.D. The slave trade in the Sudan began as early as 2180 B.C., which was propagated with Egypt along with ivory, incense, and stones used... for jewelry and weapons in exchange for grain from Egypt. These slaves served in Egypt as domestic servants, soldiers, and concubines of very much value. The supplier of these slaves in present day Sudan was the Cushite people, who were later annexed...

Krueger, Brandon

2006-08-16

330

Tylenchida associated with different crops in Sennar State (Sudan).  

PubMed

A study was done on the taxonomy and morphology of plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) found in Sennar State (Sudan). Sixty samples of different crops were collected in the sugarcane area. Thirty samples originated from soil around the roots of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) from different ratoons and thirty samples were collected from other crops (Mangifera indica; Citrus limon; Citrus aurantifolia; Citrus paradisi; Citrus sinensis, Phoenix dactylifera, Musa sapentium; Cassia italica, Capsicum annuum, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum sudanensis, Gossypium barbadense, Ficus nitida, Khaya senegalensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Azardichta indica, Cajanus cajana, Caltropsis spp. and Liguster ovalifolium). Seven species belonging to seven different genera of Tylenchida were identified: Paratrophurus lobatus, Scutellonema clathricaudatum, Hoplolaimus aegypti and Filenchus cylindricus. Helicotylenchus plumariae, Pratylenchus thornei and Malenchus andrassyi are new records for Sudan. These seven species were compared with the descriptions given in the literature and differences and variations were discussed. Additional morphological data were described by means of SEM microscopy. PMID:12425088

Elbadri, G A; Bert, W; Geraert, E

2001-01-01

331

Seroprevalence of rubella among pregnant women in Khartoum state, Sudan.  

PubMed

Rubella vaccine is not included in the Sudanese national immunization programme, and data on prevalence of rubella among women of childbearing age are inadequate. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the seroprevalence of rubella among pregnant women in Khartoum state, Sudan. A total of 500 pregnant women who visited 7 antenatal clinics from November 2008 to March 2009 were examined for the presence of rubella IgG antibodies using ELISA. Rubella IgG antibodies were detected in 95.1% (95% Cl: 93.2%-97.0%) of women. This seroprevalence was significantly associated with education level, but not with age, residence area, occupation or parity. We presume this high seroprevalence indicates a high circulation of wild rubella virus in Khartoum state. Similar studies in other Sudanese states would be important for informing a decision to introduce rubella vaccine to Sudan. PMID:24313044

Adam, O; Makkawi, T; Kannan, A; Osman, M E

2013-09-01

332

Clinical zinc and copper deficiencies in cattle of western Sudan.  

PubMed

Clinical cases of both Zn and Cu deficiencies are reported in a cattle farm in Kordofan Region of the Sudan after drought. The animals showed general weakness, stunted growth, infertility, parakeratosis and achromotrichia. There was macrocytic hypochromic anaemia and low Cu and Zn concentrations in sera. The condition was more prevalent in zebu-Friesian crosses than the local breeds. Drought and marginal or low Cu and Zn content in pasture may be the predisposing factors. PMID:3354060

Damir, H A; Barri, M E; el Hassan, S M; Tageldin, M H; Wahbi, A A; Idris, O F

1988-02-01

333

Mitochondrial discrimination of honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) of Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudanese honeybee populations are surrounded by a suite of various subspecies with different mitochondrial haplotypes, including\\u000a the O-lineage in the north (Egypt), the Y-lineage in the east (Ethiopia) and the A-lineage in the south and west. Using Dra I analyses and the partial sequence of the tRNAleu COII region of 75 sampled colonies throughout Sudan, we never found the\\u000a Y-lineage

Mogbel A. A. El-Niweiri; Robin F. A. Moritz

2008-01-01

334

Nasopharyngeal Cancer in Sudan: Epidemiology, Clinical and Histological Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the epidemiology, clinical features, staging, etiology and pathology of nasopharyngeal cancer in Sudan. Study design: This is a retrospective study. Setting: Ear, Nose and Throat Department Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Khartoum City, Sudan. Subjects and methods: Patients suspected to have nasopharyngeal cancer were assessed during the period March 2004 to May 2010. Data from confirmed cases was obtained; it included clinical and epidemiological information. Results: Three hundred and eighty five cases were studied. Bimodal age distribution of the disease was noted with two peaks, one at 15–19 years and one at 50–54 years. The male to female ratio was 2.6:1 and a distinct geographical distribution of the disease was noted, with clustering of cases in the towns of Dilling, Kadogli and the surrounding rural area of the Nuba Mountains. These areas in the Western States were reported to be of high background radiation due to naturally produced radioactive uranium. The Nuba tribe headed the list among other tribes, demonstrating a clear ethnic predilection. Sixty-eight cases presented at stage IV. There was a predominance of Type II (15.58%) and Type III (65.97%). Patients were treated by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusions: NPC is an important form of cancer in Sudan. Some tribes are significantly more affected than others. Patients present with advanced disease. Environmental and genetic factors need further studies. Screening at risk populations that aim at early diagnosis and management of patients is recommended. PMID:24179400

Abdullah, Nazik E.; Adam, Ameera A.M.; Khalifa, Eman H.; EL Hassan, Lamyaa A.M.; Ibrahim, M.E.; Hamad, K.M.; El Hassan, A.M.

2011-01-01

335

N Isotopes in Nile Sediments (ethiopia, Sudan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nile is the most important river of the Eastern Mediterranean. Its water and sediment fluxes have greatly influenced marine circulation throughout the Quaternary, and are widely considered as possible causes for stagnation and formation of sapropel (Krom et al., 1999a; 2002; Talbot et al., 2000; Freydier et al., 2001; Weldeab et al., 2002; Scrivner et al., 2004). Variations in annual flooding and baseflow of the river Nile, controlled by climate changes, had major impact on the rise and demise of Egyptian dynasties (Stanley et al., 2003). In order to better define sedimentary sources of the Nile system and to obtain more robust results, we have analyzed Nd isotopes in sediments of all its major Sudanese and Ethiopian tributaries (Atbara, Gash, Abay, Didesa, Dabus, White Nile, Bahr Ez Zeraf) in several replicate samples. Analyses were carried out on distinct mud and sand fractions (<40 microns and 125-180 microns) of 30 samples, and systematic changes related to grain size and hydraulic-sorting processes could thus be investigated. On the same samples, companion studies are being carried out on Sr isotopes (Padoan et al., 2007) and on Pb isotopes at the Geological Survey of Israel (Harlavan et al., in preparation). Overall, isotopic signals are markedly different between the White Nile system, derived from largely Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement rocks, and Ethiopian tributaries, derived in diverse proportions from largely Neoproterozoic rift-shoulder basements and overlying Oligocene flood basalts. Isotopic signals of Main Nile sediments downstream of the Atbara confluence are close to those of Blue Nile sediments, indicating that detritus is mainly provided by the latter (Garzanti et al., 2006). In the White Nile branch, the 143Nd/144Nd ratio of the mud fraction is lower in the Bahr Ez Zeraf (0.51167) than in the White Nile downstrean of the Sobat confluence (0.51219), revealing significant sediment influx from the latter. In Blue Nile and Atbara branches, values vary from 0.51240-0.51242 for tributaries draining basement rocks only (e.g., Gash, wadi Guba) to 0.51275-0.51280 for tributaries draining mostly basaltic rocks (Atbara); tributaries draining both record mixed signals (e.g., 0.51259; Beles). Nd ratios for Atbara sediments correspond closely with signatures of volcanic source rocks (0.51271-0.51298; Pik et al., 1999), revealing involvement of various mantle and crustal components in petrogenesis of flood basalts. Corresponding Nd model ages (tDM) cluster around 0.84 Ga for the mostly volcanic-derived Blue Nile, Atbara, and Main Nile muds, range 1.2 - 1.5 Ga for tributaries draining Ethiopian basement rocks, and reach as high as 2.4 Ga for the Bahr Ez Zeraf. The different Nd isotopic signal between mud and sand samples is closely controlled by mineralogical composition, Nd and other REE being chiefly contributed by ultradense minerals (e.g., monazite), and consequently concentrated in the finest size fractions of each sample (Garzanti et al., 2008). FREYDIER, R., MICHARD, A., DE LANGE G., THOMSON, J., 2001. Nd isotopic composition of Eastern Mediterranean sediments: tracers of the Nile influence during sapropel S1 formation. Mar. Geol., 177, 45-62. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., ABDEL MEGID, A.A., EL KAMMAR, A., 2006. Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopian and Sudan): Sediment budgets and erosion patterns. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 252, 327-341. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., 2008. Settling-equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 273, 138-151. HARLAVAN Y., GARZANTI, E., PADOAN, M., EL KAMMAR, A. Geochemical characterization of Nile River sands; Rare earth elements, Pb and Sr isotopes of the fine fraction. In preparation. KROM, M.D., CLIFF, R.A., EIJSINK, L.M., HERUT, B., CHESTER, R., 1999a. The characterisation of Saharan dusts and Nile particulate matter in surface sediments from the Levantine basin using Sr isotopes. Mar. Geol., 155, 319-330. KROM, M.D., STANLEY, J.D., CLIFF, R.A., WOODWARD, J.C., 2002. Nile River s

Padoan, M.; Villa, I. M.; Garzanti, E.; Galbusera, M.; Quistini, S.; Peruta, L.; El Kammar, A.

2009-04-01

336

Review of SISA Student Dissertations on Library and Information Systems and Services in Eastern and Southern Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and southern African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)

Chowdhury, G. G.; Tadesse, Taye T.

1995-01-01

337

New insights into the origin of the subduction component in Late Oligocene magmatism in the Ronda peridotite (southern Spain): geodynamic implications for the western Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several tectonic scenarios have been proposed for the Tertiary evolution of the Betic-Rif chain in the westernmost Mediterranean. Recent studies on late, mantle-derived Cr-rich websterite dykes in the Ronda peridotite have revealed recycling the involvement of sources of continental detrital sediments in the waning magmatic stage of the Ronda peridotite (Marchesi et al., 2012). This new data are consistent with a subduction-related setting for the late evolution of the Alboran lithospheric mantle before its final intracrustal emplacement in the early Miocene (Garrido et al., 2011). Detailed structural studies of Ronda plagioclase peridotites show that large-scale, ductile folding of peridotites-associated to the development of LT-LP plagioclase peridotite tectonites and ultramylonites-occurred during a contractional event before intracrustal emplacement of peridotites (Hidas et al., 2013). These authors have proposed that this event was related to inversion of a back-arc basin, followed by failed subduction initiation that ended into the intracrustal emplacement of peridotite into the Alboran wedge. This new structural data leads us to hypothesize that the crustal component observed in late, Cr-rich websterite might come from fluids produced by dehydration of underthrusted crustal units in the earliest stages of subduction initiation. Here we present new trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data in whole rocks from Flysch sediments from the Betic cordillera and the underlying crustal units of the Ronda massif, which may account for the timing and geochemical signature of the Ronda Cr-rich pyroxenites dykes. These units correspond to the Flysch trough composed of turbiditic deposits, formed in the region between Iberia and Africa during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, and the underlying crustal unit of the Ronda peridotite known as the Blanca unit. These new data are used to constrain the potential role of different crustal sources in the generation of the Late Oligocene subduction-related magmatism in the Ronda peridotite, and its implications for geodynamic models of the western Mediterranean in the Cenozoic. REFERENCES Garrido, C. J., F. Gueydan, G. Booth-Rea, J. Precigout, K. Hidas, J. A. Padrón-Navarta, and Marchesi C. . (2011) Garnet lherzolite and garnet-spinel mylonite in the Ronda peridotite: Vestiges of Oligocene backarc mantle lithospheric extension in the western Mediterranean, Geology, 39(10), 927-930. Hidas, K., Booth-Rea, G, Garrido, C. J., Martínez-Martínez, J. M., Padrón-Navarta, J. A., Konc, Z., Giaconia, F., Frets, E., and Marchesi, C. (2013) . Backarc basin inversion and subcontinental mantle emplacement in the crust: kilometre-scale folding and shearing at the base of the proto-Alborán lithospheric mantle (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain): Journal of the Geological Society, London. Marchesi, C., Garrido, C. J., Bosch, D., Bodinier, J.-L., Hidas, K., Padrón-Navarta, J. A., and Gervilla, F. (2012) A Late Oligocene Suprasubduction Setting in the Westernmost Mediterranean Revealed by Intrusive Pyroxenite Dikes in the Ronda Peridotite (Southern Spain): The Journal of Geology, 120 (2), 237-247.

Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Károly; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio

2013-04-01

338

31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre-existing trade contracts...owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

2013-07-01

339

31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized...United States person to the Government of Sudan is...

2010-07-01

340

Boyeldieu Pascal, 2007, Compound Verbs and Modalities of Process in Yulu (Central Sudanic), Advances in Nilo-Saharan Linguistics. Proceedings  

E-print Network

Boyeldieu Pascal, 2007, Compound Verbs and Modalities of Process in Yulu (Central Sudanic-Saharan 22), 25-39. 1 Compound Verbs and Modalities of Process in Yulu (Central Sudanic) Pascal Boyeldieu (CNRS, France) 1. Introduction Yulu is a Central Sudanic language (Bongo-Bagirmi group) which is spoken

Boyer, Edmond

341

31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.  

...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre-existing trade contracts...owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

2014-07-01

342

31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.  

...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they are not...goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South...

2014-07-01

343

Robust local testability of tensor products of LDPC Irit Dinur 1 , Madhu Sudan 2 , and Avi Wigderson 3  

E-print Network

Robust local testability of tensor products of LDPC codes # Irit Dinur 1 , Madhu Sudan 2 , and Avi­Sasson and Sudan [6]): Pick a random row (or column) and check if the received word is in R (or C). Robustness and Sudan [12], who describe them as the ``combi­ natorial core of PCPs''. They constructed LTCs relying

Wigderson, Avi

344

31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United...payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts within the...

2011-07-01

345

31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre-existing trade contracts...owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

2011-07-01

346

The Tribes that Bind: Attitudes to the Tribe and Tribal Leader in the Sudan Alexander Hamilton and John Hudson  

E-print Network

1 The Tribes that Bind: Attitudes to the Tribe and Tribal Leader in the Sudan Alexander Hamilton: Attitudes to the Tribe and Tribal Leader in Sudan Alexander Hamilton* and John Hudson** ABSTRACT Using a unique dataset we are able to examine the determinants of attitudes to the tribal leader in Sudan. We

Burton, Geoffrey R.

347

31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United...payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts within the...

2013-07-01

348

31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized...United States person to the Government of Sudan is...

2011-07-01

349

PARAMETER CHOICES AND A BETTER BOUND ON THE LIST SIZE IN THE GURUSWAMI-SUDAN ALGORITHM FOR  

E-print Network

PARAMETER CHOICES AND A BETTER BOUND ON THE LIST SIZE IN THE GURUSWAMI-SUDAN ALGORITHM an algebraic geometry code CL(D, P), the Guruswami- Sudan algorithm produces a list of all codewords in CL(D, P fields to provide improved parameter choices for the Guruswami-Sudan list decoding algorithm

Matthews, Gretchen L.

350

31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they are not...goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South...

2013-07-01

351

31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized...United States person to the Government of Sudan is...

2012-07-01

352

31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United...payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts within the...

2010-07-01

353

31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.  

...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized...United States person to the Government of Sudan is...

2014-07-01

354

31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United...payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts within the...

2012-07-01

355

see 2010, January 18 -21, 2010, Siegen, Germany Paper 4 On the Equivalence of Sudan-Decoding and  

E-print Network

see 2010, January 18 - 21, 2010, Siegen, Germany Paper 4 On the Equivalence of Sudan schemes for Reed-Solomon codes, which allow to decode beyond half the minimum distance. One is Sudan show a syndrome-based approach of it. We compare Sudan's procedure with a scheme that is based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

31 CFR 538.537 - Transshipment of goods, technology, and services to or from the Republic of South Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. 538.537 Section 538.537 Money...services to or from the Republic of South Sudan. (a) To the extent they are not...goods, technology, and services through Sudan to or from the Republic of South...

2012-07-01

357

77 FR 3371 - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section 2005 of the American...in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan are without risk of criminal prosecution...Court (ICC) because the Republic of South Sudan is not a party to the ICC and has not...

2012-01-24

358

31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre-existing trade contracts...owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

2010-07-01

359

31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...  

... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United... Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United...payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts within the...

2014-07-01

360

31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money...pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre-existing trade contracts...owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

2012-07-01

361

31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money...of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized...United States person to the Government of Sudan is...

2013-07-01

362

Radiocarbon dating and paleoclimatic significance of subfossil Limicolaria in northwestern Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery, identification, and radiocarbon dating of the large achatinid land snail Limicolaria kambeul chudeaui at six places in northwestern Sudan, north of the 100-mm isohyet, provide convincing evidence that at least 300 mm annual rainfall existed there 6000 yr ago. Since then the rainfall north of ca. 20°N lat in the eastern Sahara has certainly been <300 mm and probably <200 mm. Accelerator mass spectrometry has allowed the organic fraction, presumably conchiolin, to be accurately radiocarbon dated whereas carbonate fractions are ca. 600 yr too old. Comparative studies show the subfossil form, L. k. chudeaui, to be the most primitive in its species complex and to occupy a narrow east-west belt across Africa north of 15°N and west of 35°E. The northern limit of living forms lies within the southern part of the Sahelian zone in forest or forest-savanna. They cannot live in open grassland. Therefore, the distribution of L. k. chudeaui marks the former northern position of this zone during the middle Holocene, indicating a latitudinal shift of at least 5° (500 km).

Haynes, C. Vance; Mead, Albert R.

1987-07-01

363

78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to South Sudan, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

2013-03-13

364

Overcoming Structural Adjustment Policies in Africa: Strategies for Vocational Education and Training in the Sudan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most developing countries have been debt ridden since the mid-1970s. This continuing debt burden has resulted in increasing prices and inflation, growing unemployment, and daily life difficulties. This problem has been acute for the Sudan. Sudan received help from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1978 and negotiated new credit terms. By…

Washi, Sidiga; Pitamber, Sunita

365

31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury...538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the importation into...

2013-07-01

366

Sudan. A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information on the education system of the Democratic Republic of Sudan, and is designed to assist college admissions officers and registrars in the United States with the admission and placement of students from that country. The report contains general information on the geography, history, and people of Sudan, as well as…

O'Neill, Holly A.

367

31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.  

...2014-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury...538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the importation into...

2014-07-01

368

31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury...538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the importation into...

2010-07-01

369

31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury...538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the importation into...

2012-07-01

370

31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury...538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the importation into...

2011-07-01

371

Removal of water-insoluble Sudan dyes by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.  

PubMed

Decolorization of water-insoluble Sudan dyes was studied with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which removed 66.8%, 43.4%, 56.0% and 33.7% Sudan I-IV in 104 h, respectively and reduced Sudan I to aniline and 1-amino-2-naphthol. Lactate was identified as the most efficient electron donor for Sudan I reduction. Improved reduction performance was obtained in the presence of higher lactate or biomass concentration. The correlation between specific reduction rate and initial Sudan I concentration could be described with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (V(max)=1.8 mg Sudan I mg cell(-1) h(-1) and K(m)=5.3 mg l(-1)). The addition of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate stimulated the reduction significantly whereas the presence of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone had little enhancing effect. The main azoreductase activity was found with membrane-bound proteins of MR-1 and no reduction occurred when Sudan I was incubated with cell extracts. These data indicated for the first time that Shewanella could reduce solid-phase Sudan dye particles. PMID:22456237

Ji, Qiuyan; Liu, Guangfei; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei; Lv, Hong

2012-06-01

372

Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy making via gameplay. It…

Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

2013-01-01

373

The Birth of a Nation Is Only the Beginning: The Travails of South Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just three years since it broke away from Sudan, the new country of South Sudan is embroiled in a violent civil war. This article examines what went wrong and why, by discussing the incredible difficulty of building a new nation from scratch following years of conflict, war, suspicion, and great expectations. How this tragedy will end is…

Totten, Samuel

2014-01-01

374

Boyeldieu Pascal, 2006, Reflexes of a Labiovelar Series in Central Sudanic, Insights into Nilo-Saharan Language, History and Culture. Proceedings of the  

E-print Network

Boyeldieu Pascal, 2006, Reflexes of a Labiovelar Series in Central Sudanic, Insights into Nilo in Central Sudanic Pascal Boyeldieu (CNRS/LLACAN, France) 1. INTRODUCTION The Central Sudanic [CSD] languages are spoken in central Africa over parts of the D.R.C., Uganda, Sudan, C.A.R. and Chad. They comprise six

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Efficient Interpolation in the Guruswami-Sudan Algorithm  

E-print Network

A novel algorithm is proposed for the interpolation step of the Guruswami-Sudan list decoding algorithm. The proposed method is based on the binary exponentiation algorithm, and can be considered as an extension of the Lee-O'Sullivan algorithm. The algorithm is shown to achieve both asymptotical and practical performance gain compared to the case of iterative interpolation algorithm. Further complexity reduction is achieved by integrating the proposed method with re-encoding. The key contribution of the paper, which enables the complexity reduction, is a novel randomized ideal multiplication algorithm.

Trifonov, Peter

2010-01-01

376

Preliminary field trials of acrolein in the Sudan*  

PubMed Central

Field trials of acrolein for the simultaneous control of aquatic weeds and snails were conducted in the Sudan. Phytotoxicity studies at 25 and 50 ppm showed minor or no damage to furrow-irrigated crops, but flood irrigation of vegetable seedlings at 15 ppm was toxic. Effective downstream carriage of acrolein was demonstrated for a distance of 1.6 km at a concentration of 25 ppm. Planorbid snails (Bulinus and Biomphalaria) were almost completely eliminated (98-99% kills). All submersed aquatic weeds were destroyed. PMID:14310912

Ferguson, Frederick F.; Dawood, Ismail K.; Blondeau, René

1965-01-01

377

Sudan General Petroleum Corporation: a study of the evolution of its organization  

SciTech Connect

This study is of an exploratory nature, with the purpose of investigating the evolution of the organization, macro and micro, of Sudan General Petroleum Corporation (SGPC) and how it relates to government strategy toward the petroleum sector. The study addresses the following questions: what changes took place in the organization of SGPC for the period 1900-1983. What changes took place in the government strategy toward the petroleum industry for the corresponding period. How did the changes in SGPC organization relate to the changes in government strategy. What generalizations can be made about the relationship between government strategy toward the petroleum industry and the structure of state petroleum enterprises in developing countries. What are the implications for the future organizational structure of SGPC and its relationships to external entities. The study shows that the organization of SGPC, macro and micro, tends to change in response to the changes in government strategy toward the petroleum sector. Certain political and economic factors shaped the government strategy, which in turn influenced the structure of SGPC. The SGPC organization, in its most complex form in 1983, is the result of the concatenation of several basic strategies.

Ali, A.E.

1984-01-01

378

Oil exploration in nonmarine rift basins of interior Sudan  

SciTech Connect

In early 1975 Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc. commenced a major petroleum exploration effort in previously unexplored interior Sudan. With the complete cooperation of the Sudanese Government, Chevron has acquired a vast amount of geologic and geophysical data during the past 9 years. These data include extensive aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, 25,000 mi (40,200 km) of seismic data, and the results of 66 wells. This information has defined several large rift basins which are now recognized as a major part of the Central African rift system. The sedimentary basins of interior Sudan are characterized by thick Cretaceous and Tertiary nonmarine clastic sequences. Over 35,000 ft (10,600 m) of sediment have been deposited in the deepest trough, and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6100 m) of sediment. The depositional sequence includes thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones which were deposited in an anoxic environment provide oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism which formed these basins began in the Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history which led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasin high trends, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps.

Schull, T.J.

1984-04-01

379

Seasonal variation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in eastern Sudan.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in eastern Sudan, in the period between January 2008 and December 2010. The medical files of women attending at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan with hypertension, with or without proteinuria were retrospectively retrieved. The data of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were compared with a similar number of controls that were normotensive and non-proteinuric. During the study period, there were 9,578 deliveries; 153 patients had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, yielding an incidence rate of 1.6%. Of all cases and controls (306), there were 183 (59.8%) deliveries in winter, 84 (27.5%) in summer and 39 (12.7%) in autumn. The highest rate of pre-eclampsia was in winter (1.1%) (CI = 1.1-2.7, OR = 1.7, p = 0.004) and the lowest rate was in autumn (0.2%) (CI = 0.4-1.8, OR = 0.8, p = 0.758.). Our study revealed significant association between the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the winter season (103 (67.3%) vs 80 (52.3%), p = 0.001). Thus, more attention in the winter season might reduce the morbidity and mortality of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. PMID:25141293

Ali, A A; Adam, G K; Abdallah, T M

2015-02-01

380

Palliative care for cancer patients in Sudan: an overview  

PubMed Central

Sudan is facing an increasing number of cancer patients every year, and cancer is now among the top ten killer diseases in the country. The majority of cancer patients are diagnosed with an advanced type of cancer where curative treatment has little, if any, effect. The need for palliative care (PC) is urgent. In spite of this, there is no established programme for comprehensive cancer control in the country. In this article we review the state of PC services available for cancer patients. A PC service started in 2010 as an outpatient service at the main oncology centre in Sudan. With the help of international bodies, several training activities in PC were held. Currently the service includes an outpatient clinic, a nine-bed ward, and a limited home-care service. PC has started to reach two other hospitals in the country. Unfortunately, the need is still great; the services provided are not fully supported by the hospital administration. And even now, thousands of patients outside the cities of Khartoum and Medani have no access to oral morphine.

Gafer, Nahla; Elhaj, Ahmed

2014-01-01

381

A climate distribution model of malaria transmission in Sudan.  

PubMed

Malaria remains a major health problem in Sudan. With a population exceeding 39 million, there are around 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year. The predicted distribution of malaria derived from climate factors such as maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity was compared with the actual number of malaria cases in Sudan for the period 2004 to 2010. The predictive calculations were done by fuzzy logic suitability (FLS) applied to the numerical distribution of malaria transmission based on the life cycle characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito accounting for the impact of climate factors on malaria transmission. This information is visualized as a series of maps (presented in video format) using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach. The climate factors were found to be suitable for malaria transmission in the period of May to October, whereas the actual case rates of malaria were high from June to November indicating a positive correlation. While comparisons between the prediction model for June and the case rate model for July did not show a high degree of association (18%), the results later in the year were better, reaching the highest level (55%) for October prediction and November case rate. PMID:23242678

Musa, Mohammed I; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Hashim, Nor R; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy

2012-11-01

382

Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To assess participants' knowledge about HIV/AIDS and to identify the factors associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan. Methods. Observational cross-sectional study carried out at Omdurman National Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre, Sudan covered 870 participants. Sociodemographic data as well as information related to sexual behavior were collected. Results. Most of the respondents were knowledgeable about the true transmission modes for AIDS virus. Very few respondents knew someone infected with AIDS (4.5%), died of AIDS (8.1%), accepted to live with someone infected with AIDS (4.7%) or to work with someone infected with AIDS (2.1%). Regarding sexual behavior, 96.5% had reported their first sexual experience between 20 and 30 years, with 85.7% reporting one or two partners, and only 1.8% reported using condom. Multivariate logistic regression showed that circumcision, religion, marital status, age at first sex, number of sexual partners, education level, and misconception of knowledge are the main risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. Our results showed that a number of diversity risk factors were associated with HIV/AIDS. It is unlikely that a holistic approach will be found to immediately change sexual-risk-relating behavior. Interventions including sustained educational programs, promotion of condom, and encouragement of voluntary testing and active involvement of the country's political and religious leaders will be needed to alleviate this problem. PMID:23957014

Mohamed, Badreldin Abdelrhman; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

2013-01-01

383

Onchocerciasis in Sudan: the distribution of the disease and its vectors.  

PubMed

The distribution of onchocerciasis and its vectors in Sudan has been reviewed with special emphasis on the hyperendemic foci where there is serious visual handicap caused by the disease. These blinding foci lie primarily in the south-west of the country, along the rivers flowing north and east from the borders with Central African Republic and Zaire, though at least one such focus is known from the eastern part of the country close to the Ethiopian border. In the blinding foci, often small villages localized to short stretches of the rivers, ocular onchocerciasis is as severe as that found in any other African foci. Only the S. damnosum s.l. species complex has been implicated in disease transmission and only the two dangerous, morphologically similar, savanna cytospecies, S. damnosum s.s. and S. sirbanum, have been identified from breeding sites close to known onchocerciasis foci. Near to the Uganda and Zaire borders it is very likely that other, less anthropophilic, cytospecies occur. Different Onchocerca-Simulium complexes (different strains of parasite with different pathogenicities transmitted by different vector species) may be responsible for the different severities of disease found in the 3 main areas of onchocerciasis in North, East and South-West Sudan. The localized, focal distribution of the communities seriously blinded by onchocerciasis, suggests that a strategy of tackling the disease on a focus basis may prove optimal. A control scheme, planned to treat all the vector breeding sites with insecticide, as in West Africa, would receive extensive invasion from the Zaire/Congo River Basin and the headwaters of the White and Blue Niles in neighbouring countries. While some foci are situated beside major river rapids, with vector breeding only controllable by regular insecticide treatments, several foci have been identified as lying close to removable man-made objects which provide excellent breeding sites at certain water levels e.g. causeways. The destruction of such breeding sites should be considered since localized vector control may produce substantial reductions in onchocerciasis transmission. PMID:3551025

Baker, R H; Abdelnur, O M

1986-12-01

384

Active continental rifting in southern Baja California, Mexico: Implications for plate motion partitioning and the transition to seafloor spreading in the Gulf of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three major earthquake series have occurred during the past 30 years on fault systems that are spatially and kinematically distinct from oceanic spreading centers and transform faults in the southern Gulf of California. Focal mechanism solutions for earthquakes of the April 1969 and June 1995 series indicate nearly pure normal displacement across NNW striking planes. This seismicity falls along different

John M. Fletcher; Luis Munguía

2000-01-01

385

Ignimbrite flare-up and deformation in the southern Sierra Madre Occidental, western Mexico: Implications for the late subduction history of the Farallon plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) of western Mexico is one of the largest silicic volcanic provinces on Earth, but the mechanism for the generation of such a large volume of ignimbrites has never been clearly defined. We present new 40Ar\\/39Ar ages, geologic mapping, and structural data for the southern part of the SMO demonstrating that most of this volcanic province

Luca Ferrari; Margarita López-Martínez; José Rosas-Elguera

2002-01-01

386

Electrochemical Determination of Trace Sudan I Contamination in Chili Powder at Carbon Nanotube Modified Electrodes  

PubMed Central

We have developed a simple, convenient and inexpensive voltammetric method for determining trace Sudan I contamination in chili powder, based on the catalyzed electrochemical reduction of Sudan I at the carbon nanotube modified electrode. Under optimized conditions, the method exhibited acceptable analytical performance in terms of linearity (over the concentration range 6.0×10?7 to 7.5×10?5 M, r = 0.9967), detection limit (2.0×10?7 M) and reproducibility (RSD = 4.6%, n=10, for 2.0×10?5 M Sudan I).

Ming, Liang; Xi, Xia; Chen, Tingting; Liu, Jie

2008-01-01

387

A comparison of the physics of the northern and southern shelves of the eastern Bering Sea and some implications for the ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sufficient oceanographic measurements have been made in recent years to describe the latitudinal variation in the physics of the eastern Bering Sea shelf and the potential impact of climate change on the species assemblages in the two ecosystems (north and south). Many of the predicted ecosystem changes will result from alterations in the timing and extent of sea ice. It is predicted that the sea ice in the northern Bering Sea will be less common in May, but will continue to be extensive through April. In contrast, the southern shelf will have, on average, much less sea ice than currently observed, but with large interannual and multiyear variability until at least 2050. Thus, even under current climate warming scenarios, bottom temperatures on the northern shelf will remain cold. Based on biophysical measurements, the southern and northern ecosystems were divided by a North-South Transition at ˜60°N. The northern middle shelf was characterized by a freshwater lens at the surface, cold bottom temperatures, and a thicker pycnocline than found on the southern shelf. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms were common. In contrast, the southern shelf stratification was largely determined by temperature alone; the pycnocline was thin (often<3 m) and subsurface blooms were uncommon. Biological responses to climate warming could include greater north-south differences in zooplankton community structure, the transport of large Outer Shelf Domain crustacean zooplankton to the middle shelf, and the disappearance of two principal prey taxa (Calanus spp. and Thysanoessa spp.) of planktivorous fish, seabirds and whales. The response of commercially and ecologically important fish species is predicted to vary. Some species of fish (e.g., juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka) may expand their summer range into the northern Bering Sea; some (e.g., pink salmon, O. gorbuscha) may increase in abundance while still other species (e.g., walleye pollock and arrowtooth flounder; Theragra chalcogramma and Atheresthes stomias, respectively) are unlikely to become common in the north. The projected warming of the southern shelf will limit the distribution of arctic species (e.g., snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio) to the northern shelf and will likely permit expansion of subarctic species into the southern Bering Sea. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales will respond to shifts in prey availability; for instance, if prey are advected northward from the southeastern Bering Sea, an extension of range and an increase in seasonally migratory baleen whale numbers is anticipated. Thus, alteration of this ecosystem in response to climate change is expected to result in something other than a simple northward shift in the distribution of all species.

Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Kachel, Nancy B.; Moore, Sue; Mordy, Calvin W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Overland, James E.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Sigler, Michael F.

2012-06-01

388

Humanitarian crisis continues to grow in the Sudan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week the already grave situation in the western region of the Sudan (known as Darfur) continued to grow even worse, as the United Nations called for a larger international monitoring force to quell attacks on civilians by members of the Arab militia in the country. In a report made to the U.N. Security Council this week, Secretary-General Kofi Annan remarked that such a monitoring force was necessary in order to help "decrease the level of violence and enhance the protection of the civilian population". The origins of the crisis date back to February 2003 when two African rebel factions brought arms in order to protest alleged discrimination by the largely Arab-dominated government located in the nation's capital at Khartoum. The tension has complex roots, but some of the problems are centered around disputes dealing with land and grazing rights between the nomadic Arabs in the region and farmers from the Fur, Massaleet and Zagawa ethnic groups. Since the conflict started last year, close to one million people have fled their homes and approximately 50,000 people have been killed.The first link will take visitors to a news article from the Guardian that offers a report on the recent call from the United Nations to increase the international monitoring force in the Sudan. The second link leads to a news brief from the U.N. News Centre that talks about the precarious situation of those displaced residents of the Darfur region. The third link provided by the BBC answers a host of questions about the current situation in the Darfur region, including helpful background information about the various groups involved. The fourth link leads to the homepage of the Sudanese Media Centre, where visitors may find editorial pieces, browse through special reports, and read their various press releases. The fifth link leads to an informative report from June 2004 prepared for the House of Commons in the British Parliament on the conflict in Darfur. The final link will take visitors to the transcript of a recent interview conducted by the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs with Al Zhawi Ibrahim, who serves as the Minister for Information and Communications for the Sudan. In the interview, he speaks about the postwar challenges that will face the country, and of course, the situation in Darfur.

389

The first report on the prevalence of pestivirus infection in camels in Sudan.  

PubMed

The role of pestivirus particularly bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in causing respiratory infections in camels was studied in four different localities in Sudan. The evaluation was carried out using ELISA, and positive specimens were further tested using direct fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for confirmation. The overall detected seroprevalence of BVD in camel sera was 84.6% with the highest prevalence in Western Sudan (92.5%) and with most of positives showing 2+ and 3+ titer. Out of 186 lung specimens examined for BVDV antigen, 13 were found positive (7%) with the highest prevalence in Central Sudan. All ELISA-positive specimens were positive using FAT and RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the detection of BVDV antigen and antibodies in camels in Sudan. PMID:20376559

Intisar, Kamil Saeed; Ali, Yahia H; Khalafalla, Abdelmelik I; Mahasin, E A Rahman; Amin, Adil S; Taha, Khalid M

2010-08-01

390

48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...business operations do not include business operations that the person...Act of 2007) conducting the business can demonstrate— (1) Are...certifies that the offeror does not conduct any restricted business operations in Sudan....

2010-10-01

391

6.893 Approximability of Optimization Problems December 6, 1999 Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Prahladh Harsha  

E-print Network

6.893 Approximability of Optimization Problems December 6, 1999 Lecture 24 Lecturer: Madhu Sudan the hardness of approximating Max­Sat and the c=s ratio for Clique, we shall employ MIP with 2 provers

Goldwasser, Shafi

392

6.S897 Algebra and Computation May 9, 2012 Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Zachary Abel  

E-print Network

6.S897 Algebra and Computation May 9, 2012 Lecture 24 Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Zachary Abel 1 coefficients. We may assume p(0) = 0 by replacing the constant term c0 with c0xm . Let u1, . . . , un

Goldwasser, Shafi

393

Self-Testing Polynomial Functions Efficiently and over Rational Domains Ronitt Rubinfeld Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

£Madhu Sudan Ý Abstract In this paper we give the first self-testers and checkers for polynomials over done while the author was visiting Bellcore. ÝU.C. Berkeley. Research supported by NSF PYI Grant CCR

Sudan, Madhu

394

6.966 Algebra and Computation October 8, 1998 Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Amos Beimel  

E-print Network

6.966 Algebra and Computation October 8, 1998 Lecture 9 Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Amos Beimel polynomial are not good enough since over algebraically closed fields (e.g., C ) every univariate polynomial

Goldwasser, Shafi

395

6.966 Algebra and Computation December 7, 1998 Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Amit Sahai  

E-print Network

6.966 Algebra and Computation December 7, 1998 Lecture 25 Lecturer: Madhu Sudan Scribe: Amit Sahai Programming, cannot be solved in time c p n with 2 c p n processors for some positive constant c, where n

Goldwasser, Shafi

396

Detection of Five Rare Cystic Fibrosis Mutations Peculiar to Southern Italy: Implications in Screening for the Disease and Phenotype Characterization for Patients with Homozygote Mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The search for the eight most frequent mutations (i.e., DF508, G542X, W1282X, N1303K, 1717- 1G3 A, R553X, 2183AA3 G, and I148T) by allele-spe- cific oligonucleotide dot-blot analysis revealed 78% of 396 cystic fibrosis alleles in Southern Italy. The obser- vation of frequent haplotypes on the unidentified cystic fibrosis alleles suggested that a few mutations could account for a large

Giuseppe Castaldo; Antonella Fuccio; Cecile Cazeneuve; Luigi Picci; Donatello Salvatore; Valeria Raia; Maurizio Scarpa; Michel Goossens; Francesco Salvatore

397

Modeling the bloom evolution and carbon flows during SOIREE: Implications for future in situ iron-enrichments in the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a mesoscale in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SOIREE) on the planktonic ecosystem and biological pump in the Australasian-Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean was investigated through model simulations over a period of 60-d following an initial iron infusion. For this purpose we used a revised version of the biogeochemical SWAMCO model (Lancelot et al., 2000), which describes the

E. Hannon; P. W. Boyd; M. Silvoso; C. Lancelot

2001-01-01

398

Evidence for late-paleozoic brine migration in Cambrian carbonate rocks of the central and southern Appalachians: implications for Mississippi Valley-type sulfide mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Lower Paleozoic limestones and dolostones in the Valley and Ridge province of the central and southern Appalachians contain 10 to 25 weight percent authigenic potassium feldspar. This was considered to be a product of early diagenesis, however, ⁴°Ar\\/³⁹Ar analyses of overgrowths on detrital K-feldspar in Cambrian carbonate rocks from Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee yield Late Carboniferous-Early Permian ages

P. P. Jr Hearn; J. F. Sutter; H. E. Belkin

1987-01-01

399

Diagnosis of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in horses in Sudan using ELISA and PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Sudan. The presence of antibodies against\\u000a Babesia caballi and Theileria equi was determined in serum samples obtained from 158 horses raised in different locations in Sudan by enzyme-linked immunosorbent\\u000a assay (ELISA). The B. caballi 48-kDa and the T. equi EMA-2 purified recombinant proteins were used as

B. O. M. Salim; S. M. Hassan; M. A. Bakheit; A. Alhassan; I. Igarashi; P. Karanis; M. B. Abdelrahman

2008-01-01

400

Investigation of natural radioactivity levels in water around Kadugli, Sudan.  

PubMed

Surface water from Miri Lake and groundwater from around Kadugli (West-Central Sudan) obtained by means of hand-pumps was analysed for (238)U, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, and (232)Th activity concentrations. The surface water showed very low levels of radionuclide concentrations: <1.0-7.5, 8.5-16.5, <1.6, and <0.1-0.39 mBq L(-1) for (238)U, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, and (232)Th, respectively. Groundwater revealed a significant amount of natural radioactivity (16.1-1720, 7.7-14.3, 3000-139,000, <0.1-39 mBq L(-1)) respectively. The overall annual effective dose was below the WHO reference dose level of 0.1 mSv yr(-1) except in one groundwater sample with an associated dose of 0.7 mSv yr(-1). PMID:18513978

Osman, Alfatih A A; Salih, Isam; Shaddad, Ibrahim A; El Din, Saif; Siddeeg, M B; Eltayeb, Hatem; Idriss, Hajo; Hamza, Walid; Yousif, E H

2008-11-01

401

Education in Emergencies and Early Reconstruction: UNICEF Interventions in Colombia, Liberia, and Southern Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broad access to quality, child-friendly education in emergencies is a critical component of early reconstruction and development. As a class of graduate students at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, our goal is to make a modest contribution to the field of education in emergencies by working…

Beleli, Ozsel; Chang, Victoria; Feigelson, Michael J.; Kopel-Bailey, Jules A.; Maak, Sheila A.; Mnookin, Jacob P.; Nguyen, Thu H.; Salazar, Mariana; Sinderbrand, Joy E.; Tafoya, Simon N.

2007-01-01

402

Onchocerciasis in southwestern Sudan: parasitological and clinical characteristics.  

PubMed

Parasitological and clinical observations were made on residents of Pongo Nuer, a village in the province of Bahr El Ghazal, southwestern Sudan. Of 202 skin biopsies, 189 (94%) were positive for microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. Nodules were most common around the pelvic girdle and rare on the limbs or head. Microfilarial intensities, ranging up to 1,094 mf/mg of skin, were highest at the iliac crest and shoulder; they increased rapidly in childhood but then appeared to reach a plateau maintained through adult life. Nodule presence and number, especially at multiple sites, was significantly related to skin microfilarial intensity. Dermal manifestations of O. volvulus infection were widespread and severe, ranging from acute maculopapular eruptions to chronic, diffuse, and degenerative changes, even in young adults. However, high skin microfilarial intensities were found in asymptomatic individuals; conversely, lowest intensities were in those with severest maculopapular lesions, suggesting that host response was a major determinant of disease outcome. Microfilariae were detected in the cornea or anterior chamber of the eyes of one third of those examined in all age groups, but lesions of the posterior segment, including optic neuritis, chorioretinitis, and pigmentary abnormalities, were considered responsible for visual deficits in the population sample. Some pathologic changes in the anterior segment attributable to microfilariae were more common in the young than in adults but there was no preponderance of sclerosing keratitis in adults, contrary to expectations in hyperexposed individuals in a Sudan savannah zone. The best correlate of the presence of microfilariae in the eye was the intensity of infection in shoulder skin snips. Little value could be derived from data on outer canthus samples, either in terms of severity of ocular infection or disease. Microfilaremia was common (76%) but in only one case was attributed to O. volvulus; the remainder were due to Mansonella perstans. PMID:3826496

Mackenzie, C D; Williams, J F; O'Day, J; Ghalal, I; Flockhart, H A; Sisley, B M

1987-03-01

403

Southern Africa  

article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...

2013-04-16

404

A seismicity burst following the 2010 M6.4 Jiashian earthquake -implications1 for short-term seismic hazards in southern Taiwan2  

E-print Network

earthquake, located 40 km west of Christchurch. The earthquake caused the largest47 recorded peak ground1 A seismicity burst following the 2010 M6.4 Jiashian earthquake - implications1 14 15 #12;2 Abstract. Following the 4 March 2010 Mw 6.4 Jiashian earthquake

Wu, Yih-Min

405

A seismicity burst following the 2010 M 6.4 Jiashian earthquake implications for short-term seismic hazards in southern Taiwan  

E-print Network

, located 40 km west of Christchurch. The earthquake caused the largest recorded peak ground accelerationA seismicity burst following the 2010 M 6.4 Jiashian earthquake ­ implications for short hazard assessment Taiwan a b s t r a c t Following the 4 March 2010 MW 6.4 Jiashian earthquake

Wu, Yih-Min

406

Phytoplankton size structure in the southern Bay of Bengal modified by the Summer Monsoon Current and associated eddies: Implications on the vertical biogenic flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study combines field and satellite observations to investigate how hydrographical transformations influence phytoplankton size structure in the southern Bay of Bengal during the peak Southwest Monsoon/Summer Monsoon (July-August). The intrusion of the Summer Monsoon Current (SMC) into the Bay of Bengal and associated changes in sea surface chemistry, traceable eastward up to 90°E along 8°N, seems to influence biology of the region significantly. Both insitu and satellite (MODIS) data revealed low surface chlorophyll except in the area influenced by the SMC. During the study period, two well-developed cyclonic eddies (north) and an anti-cyclonic eddy (south), closely linked to the main eastward flow of the SMC, were sampled. Considering the capping effect of the low-saline surface water that is characteristic of the Bay of Bengal, the impact of the cyclonic eddy, estimated in terms of enhanced nutrients and chlorophyll, was mostly restricted to the subsurface waters (below 20 m depth). Conversely, the anti-cyclonic eddy aided by the SMC was characterized by considerably higher nutrient concentration and chlorophyll in the upper water column (upper 60 m), which was contrary to the general characteristic of such eddies. Albeit smaller phytoplankton predominated the southern Bay of Bengal (60-95% of the total chlorophyll), the contribution of large phytoplankton was double in the regions influenced by the SMC and associated eddies. Multivariate analysis revealed the extent to which SMC-associated eddies spatially influence phytoplankton community structure. The study presents the first direct quantification of the size structure of phytoplankton from the southern Bay of Bengal and demonstrates that the SMC-associated hydrographical ramifications significantly increase the phytoplankton biomass contributed by larger phytoplankton and thereby influence the vertical opal and organic carbon flux in the region.

Jyothibabu, R.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Madhu, N. V.; Robin, R. S.; Karnan, C.; Jagadeesan, L.; Anjusha, A.

2015-03-01

407

Paleocene-Eocene foreland basin evolution in the Himalaya of southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for the age of initial India-Asia collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

sedimentary rocks derived from the southern Lhasa terrane, sitting depositionally upon rocks of the northern Indian passive continental margin, provide an estimate of the age of initial contact between the continental parts of the Indian and Asian plates. We report sedimentological, sedimentary petrological, and geochronological data from Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene strata in the Sangdanlin section, located along the southern flank of the Indus-Yarlung suture zone in southern Tibet. This is probably the most proximal, and therefore the oldest, record of the India-Asia collision. These strata were deposited by high-density turbidity currents (or concentrated density flows) and suspension settling of pelagic biogenic debris in a deep-marine setting. An abrupt change from quartz-arenitic to feldspatholithic sandstone compositions marks the transition from Indian to Asian sediment provenance. The abrupt compositional change is accompanied by changes in U-Pb ages of detrital zircons diagnostic of a sediment provenance reversal, from Indian to Asian sources. The timing of the transition is bracketed between ~60 Ma and 58.5 ± 0.6 Ma by detrital zircon U-Pb ages and zircon U-Pb ages from a tuffaceous bed in the upper part of the section. In the context of a palinspastically restored regional paleogeographic framework, data from the Sangdanlin section combined with previously published data from the northern Tethyan Himalaya and the frontal Nepalese Lesser Himalaya and Subhimalaya suggest that a flexural wave migrated ~1300 km southward across what is now the Himalayan thrust belt from Paleocene time to the present.

DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P.; Gehrels, G. E.; Ding, L.

2014-05-01

408

Spatio-temporal spawning and larval dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in a North Texas Reservoir: implications for invasions in the southern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zebra mussels were first observed in Texas in 2009 in a reservoir (Lake Texoma) on the Texas-Oklahoma border. In 2012, an established population was found in a near-by reservoir, Ray Roberts Lake, and in June 2013, settled mussels were detected in a third north Texas reservoir, Lake Lewisville. An established population was detected in Belton Lake in September 2013. With the exception of Louisiana, these occurrences in Texas mark the current southern extent of the range of this species in the United States. Previous studies indicate that zebra mussel populations could be affected by environmental conditions, especially increased temperatures and extreme droughts, which are characteristic of surface waters of the southern and southwestern United States. Data collected during the first three years (2010–12) of a long-term monitoring program were analyzed to determine if spatio-temporal zebra mussel spawning and larval dynamics were related to physicochemical water properties in Lake Texoma. Reproductive output of the local population was significantly related to water temperature and lake elevation. Estimated mean date of first spawn in Lake Texoma was approximately 1.5 months earlier and peak veliger densities were observed two months earlier than in Lake Erie. Annual maximum veliger density declined significantly during the study period (p < 0.0001). A population crash occurred as a result of thermal stress and variability of lake elevation. In summer 2011, water temperatures peaked at 34.3°C and lake elevation declined to the lowest level recorded during the previous 18 years, which resulted in desiccation of substantial numbers of settled mussels in littoral zones. Veliger spatial distributions were associated with physicochemical stratification characteristics. Veligers were observed in the deepest oxygenated water after lake stratification, which occurred in late spring. Results of this study indicate environmental conditions can influence variability of population sizes and spatial distributions of zebra mussels along the current southern frontier of their geographic range. Although the future population size trajectory and geographic range are uncertain, increased temperatures and intermittent, extreme droughts likely will affect spatio-temporal dynamics of established populations if zebra mussels spread farther into the southern and southwestern United States.

Churchill, Christopher John

2013-01-01

409

Elemental and Sr–Nd isotopic systematics of the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: petrogenesis and tectonic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental and Sr–Nd isotopic results are presented for the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence (~172 Ma) in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. The sequence is voluminously composed of ~45% subalkaline basaltic rocks (group 1), mg andesite–dacites (group 2) and ~50% rhyolites (group 3). The group 1 rocks are characterized by (La\\/Yb)cn = 3.8–7.2, Eu\\/Eu* = 0.65–1.15, Nb\\/La = 0.64–0.99, 87Sr\\/86Sr(t) = 0.70602~0.70822 and eNd(t) = -1.63 to +0.11, similar to those of

Yuejun Wang; Weiming Fan; Touping Peng; Feng Guo

2005-01-01

410

Ignimbrite flare-up and deformation in the southern Sierra Madre Occidental, western Mexico: Implications for the late subduction history of the Farallon plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) of western Mexico is one of the largest silicic volcanic provinces on Earth, but the mechanism for the generation of such a large volume of ignimbrites has never been clearly defined. We present new 40Ar/39Ar ages, geologic mapping, and structural data for the southern part of the SMO demonstrating that most of this volcanic province was built in two episodes of ignimbrite flare-up in Oligocene (31.5-28 Ma) and early Miocene (23.5-20 Ma) time, and that extensional deformation occurred mostly before the transfer of Baja California to the Pacific plate. Extensive ignimbrite successions, with 40Ar/39Ar ages clustering at ~23 and ~21 Ma, cover most of the southern SMO, thus correlating in age with ignimbrites exposed in southern Baja California and central Mexico. Grabens with a 020° to N-S orientation developed in the east almost concurrently with this volcanic episode. Half grabens and NNW striking listric normal fault systems formed at the end of middle Miocene as far as 150 km from the present coast. A belt of left-lateral transpressional structures formed along the southern boundary of the SMO during the same period. We link these magmatic and tectonic events to the evolution and dynamics of the Farallon and North America plates during the Miocene. Particularly, we propose that a first detachment of the lower part of the Farallon plate in early Miocene time produced a transient thermal event and partial melting of the crust via mafic underplating. Middle Miocene extension would be related to a second detachment event, resulting from the slowing subduction that preceded the final capture of the Magdalena microplate by the Pacific plate at 12.5 Ma. Transpression at the southernmost end of the SMO occurred along the inland projection of the Magdalena-Cocos plate boundary and may be explained by a difference in subduction rate and by a temporal convergence between the two plates in the eve of the end of subduction of the Magdalena plate.

Ferrari, Luca; López-Martínez, Margarita; Rosas-Elguera, José

2002-08-01

411

48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25...Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in...

2010-10-01

412

Combined structural interventions for gender equality and livelihood security: a critical review of the evidence from southern and eastern Africa and the implications for young people  

PubMed Central

Background Young people in southern and eastern Africa remain disproportionately vulnerable to HIV with gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities being key drivers of this. Behavioural HIV prevention interventions have had weak outcomes and a new generation of structural interventions have emerged seeking to challenge the wider drivers of the HIV epidemic, including gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities. Methods We searched key academic data bases to identify interventions that simultaneously sought to strengthen people's livelihoods and transform gender relationships that had been evaluated in southern and eastern Africa. Our initial search identified 468 articles. We manually reviewed these and identified nine interventions that met our criteria for inclusion. Results We clustered the nine interventions into three groups: microfinance and gender empowerment interventions; supporting greater participation of women and girls in primary and secondary education; and gender empowerment and financial literacy interventions. We summarise the strengths and limitations of these interventions, with a particular focus on what lessons may be learnt for young people (18–24). Conclusions Our review identified three major lessons for structural interventions that sought to transform gender relationships and strengthen livelihoods: 1) interventions have a narrow conceptualisation of livelihoods, 2) there is limited involvement of men and boys in such interventions, 3) studies have typically been done in stable populations. We discuss what this means for future interventions that target young people through these methods. PMID:22713350

Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha; Misselhorn, Alison; Mangoma, Jaqualine

2012-01-01

413

New c. 270 kyr strike-slip and uplift rates for the southern Alpine Fault and implications for the New Zealand plate boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along 100 km of the Alpine Fault, major valleys and glacial deposits can be matched across an 8000 m dextral offset. We use paleontologic and stratigraphic age constraints to date c. 270 ka marine sediments uplifted to 600 m elevation and overlying c. 270 ka glacial deposits related to the 8000 m dextral offset. These constraints yield a fault-proximal Australian plate uplift rate of 2.6 (-0.5/+0.4) mm/yr and an Alpine Fault dextral slip rate of 29.6 (-2.5/+4.5) mm/yr. Our rates resolve an apparent along-strike drop in strike-slip rate and instead support a relatively constant along-strike dextral slip rate of ˜28 mm/yr (˜80% of current Australian-Pacific plate boundary motion). We argue that the rate of dextral slip on the southern Alpine Fault has been relatively constant over the last ?3.5 myr, and that ductile fault processes may rate-limit the fault from accommodating a progressively higher percentage of plate boundary motion through time (i.e., the fault reached maturity long ago). The spatiotemporally constant strike-slip rate of the southern Alpine Fault and a previously published paleoseismic record of near-regular earthquake recurrence both characterize the Alpine Fault as a mature plate boundary fault zone that behaves in a constant way with behavior predictable over timescales of thousands and hundreds of thousands of years.

Barth, N. C.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Beu, A. G.; Murray-Wallace, C. V.; Hayward, B. W.; Mildenhall, D. C.; Lee, D. E.

2014-07-01

414

Petrogenesis of Cretaceous adakite-like intrusions of the Gangdese Plutonic Belt, southern Tibet: Implications for mid-ocean ridge subduction and crustal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a whole-rock geochemical, U-Pb zircon geochronological, and in situ zircon Hf-O isotopic compositional study of rocks in southern Tibet from the Langxian igneous suite (including a lamprophyre dyke, mafic enclaves, a granodiorite, and a two-mica granite) and the Nuri igneous suite (a quartz-diorite). U-Pb zircon dating indicates that the timing of crystallization of the mafic enclaves and host granodiorite of the Langxian suite are ca. 105 Ma and 102 Ma, respectively, that the Langxian lamprophyre dyke and the two-mica granite were emplaced at ca. 96 Ma and 80-76 Ma, respectively, and that the Nuri quartz-diorite was emplaced at ca. 95 Ma. With the exception of the lamprophyre dyke and mafic enclaves in the Langxian area, felsic rocks from the Langxian and Nuri igneous suites all show signs of a geochemical affinity with adakite-like rocks. The high Mg-numbers, high abundance of compatible elements, high ?Nd(t) (2.7 and 2.8) and ?18O (8.9 and 9.2‰) values, elevated zircon ?Hf(t) (11.0-17.0) values, and low 87Sr/86Sr(i) ratios (0.7040), collectively indicate that the Nuri adakite-like quartz-diorite was derived from partial melting of the low temperature altered Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust, and that these dioritic magmas subsequently interacted with peridotite as they rose upwards through the overlying mantle wedge. The observation of identical differentiation trends, similar whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions, and consistently low (Dy/Yb)N ratios among the Langxian igneous suite rocks, indicates that the adakite-like granodiorite was produced by low-pressure fractional crystallization of precursor magmas now represented by the (relict) mafic enclaves. However, relatively high Al2O3 contents, low MgO, Cr and Ni contents, and low (La/Yb)N and (Dy/Yb)N values indicate that the two-mica granite was derived from partial melting of the southern Tibetan mafic lower crust in the absence of garnet, while isotopic data suggest that at least 70% of the magma source region was juvenile materials. Combined with the presence of HT (high temperature) charnockitic magmatism, HT granulite facies metamorphism, and large volumes of Late Cretaceous batholiths, the oceanic-slab-derived Nuri adakitic rocks indicate a substantial high heat flux in the Gangdese batholith belt during the Late Cretaceous, which may have been related to subduction of a Neo-Tethyan mid-ocean ridge system. According to this model, hot asthenosphere would rise up through the corresponding slab window, and come into direct contact with both the oceanic slab and the base of the overlying plate. This would cause melting of both the oceanic slab and the overlying plate by the addition of heat that was ultimately linked with peak magmatism and the significant growth and chemical differentiation of juvenile crust in southern Tibet during the Late Cretaceous (105-76 Ma). In addition, the petrogenesis of the Langxian adakite-like two-mica granite indicates that the southern Tibetan crust was still of normal thickness prior to the emplacement of these intrusions at ca. 76 Ma. This probably means that large parts of southern Tibet were not very highly elevated prior to the Indian-Asian collision.

Zheng, Yuan-chuan; Hou, Zeng-qian; Gong, Ying-li; Liang, Wei; Sun, Qing-Zhong; Zhang, Song; Fu, Qiang; Huang, Ke-Xian; Li, Qiu-Yun; Li, Wei

2014-03-01

415

Evaluation of impact of exposure of Sudan azo dyes and their metabolites on human intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed

Sudan azo dyes are banned for food usage in most countries, but they are illegally used to maintain or enhance the color of food products due to low cost, bright staining, and wide availability of the dyes. In this report, we examined the toxic effects of these azo dyes and their potential reduction metabolites on 11 prevalent human intestinal bacterial strains. Among the tested bacteria, cell growth of 2, 3, 5, 5, and 1 strains was inhibited by Sudan I, II, III, IV, and Para Red, respectively. At the tested concentration of 100 ?M, Sudan I and II inhibited growth of Clostridium perfringens and Lactobacillus rhamnosus with decrease of growth rates from 14 to 47%. Sudan II also affected growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, C. perfringens, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Peptostreptococcus magnus was affected by Sudan III and IV with decrease in growth rates from 11 to 67%. C. perfringens was the only strain in which growth was affected by Para Red with 47 and 26% growth decreases at 6 and 10 h, respectively. 1-Amino-2-naphthol, a common metabolite of the dyes, was capable of inhibiting growth of most of the tested bacteria with inhibition rates from 8 to 46%. However, the other metabolites of the dyes had no effect on growth of the bacterial strains. The dyes and their metabolites had less effect on cell viability than on cell growth of the tested bacterial strains. Clostridium indolis and Clostridium ramosum were the only two strains with about a 10 % decrease in cell viability in the presence of Sudan azo dyes. The present results suggested that Sudan azo dyes and their metabolites potentially affect the human intestinal bacterial ecology by selectively inhibiting some bacterial species, which may have an adverse effect on human health. PMID:22634331

Pan, Hongmiao; Feng, Jinhui; He, Gui-Xin; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

2012-08-01

416

Linearity Testing in Characteristic Two \\Lambda M. Bellare y D. Coppersmith z J. H astad x M. Kiwi --M. Sudan k  

E-print Network

-- M. Sudan k Abstract Let Dist(f; g) = Pr u [ f(u) 6=g(u) ] denote the relative distance between, a connection which may be of independent interest. Our results are used by Bellare, Goldreich and Sudan

Kiwi, Marcos

417

Petrogenesis of the early Cretaceous intermediate and felsic intrusions at the southern margin of the North China Craton: Implications for crust-mantle interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New major and trace element, whole rock Sr and Nd isotopes and zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data are presented for rocks from the early Cretaceous Tianqiaogou dioritic and Taishanmiao granitic plutons at the southern margin of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to investigate their petrogenesis and geological evolution. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses for zircons from these two plutons yield similar 206Pb/238U ages of 122 Ma and 115-125 Ma, respectively. Monzodiorites from the Tianqiaogou pluton have whole rock ?Nd(t) values ranging from -6.2 to - 1.3 and zircon ?Hf(t) values from + 2.9 to + 6.2. They are variably enriched in Ra, Ba, and Sr, and depleted in Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and Ti, indicating that they were derived from a depleted mantle and underwent subsequent magma differentiation and crustal contamination. The Taishanmiao pluton is composed of metaluminous to peraluminous highly fractionated I-type granites that have high SiO2, Na2O, K2O, Rb, Th, and U, and low P, Ba, Sr, Ti and Eu contents. The granites have strong negative whole rock ?Nd(t) values (- 16.1 to - 7.5) and zircon ?Hf(t) values (- 20.9 to - 6.1). Their Nd TDM ages (1.19 to 2.01 Ga) and zircon Hf TC DM ages (1565 to 2490 Ma) are much younger than the basement rocks beneath the southern margin of the NCC, suggesting derivation from an ancient crustal source with minor involvement of mantle-derived components. Therefore, rocks from the Tianqiaogou dioritic pluton were partial melts of the mantle source. Underplating of the mafic magmas initiated partial melting of the ancient continental crust, resulting in the formation of the Taishanmiao granitic pluton. Their complex petrogenesis reflects a strong crust-mantle interaction process related to lithospheric thinning beneath the southern margin of the NCC in early Cretaceous.

Gao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Tai-Ping; Bao, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Alexandra Yang

2014-10-01

418

Evidence for large-magnitude paleo-earthquakes on the Ventura fault: Implications for earthquake recurrence, fault slip rate, and seismic hazard assessment in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New borehole, high-resolution seismic reflection, and geochronologic data reveal the ages and displacements of the two most recent large-magnitude earthquakes on the Ventura fault, the central segment of a large, multi-fault reverse fault system that extends for >200 km along the southern edge of the central and western Transverse Ranges fault system. Based on geomorphology and analysis of high-resolution seismic data acquired in 2010, we drilled 17 hollow stem auger boreholes and cone penetrometer tests along two transects across the locus of most recent folding above the Ventura fault. At Day Road in downtown Ventura, our 23-m-deep boreholes revealed a well-bedded alluvial section with many units that are traceable continuously along the entire 375 m length of the transect. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that the prominent topographic scarp at this site records ~6 m of uplift during fold growth in the most-recent earthquake on the underlying Ventura blind thrust ramp. Similarly, sedimentary growth observed in the borehole cross section indicates ~4.5 m of growth during the penultimate event, with an event horizon located at the base of a growth interval between 4 and 8.5 m depth south of the scarp. Six 14C and 14 OSL ages collected from the four hollow-stem auger boreholes at this site constrain the timing of the two most recent events on the Ventura blind thrust fault to post-2900 B.P. and 4700 × 350 to 5460 × 330 years before present; dating of additional shallow luminescence samples should help narrow the age range of the MRE. The large amounts of uplift in the two folding events indicate that they formed in response to large-displacement, and therefore large-magnitude earthquakes, likely involving rupture of the Ventura fault together with thrust ramps to both the west (e.g., Pitas Point fault) and east (Southern San Cayetano and eastern San Cayetano faults). These thrust faults form the middle section of a >200-km-long, east-west belt of large, interconnected reverse faults that extends along the southern edge of the Transverse Ranges. Although each of these faults represents a major seismic source in its own right, we are exploring the possibility of even larger-magnitude, multi-segment ruptures that may link these faults to other major faults to the east and west. The proximity of this large reverse-fault system to several major population centers, including the metropolitan Los Angeles region, and the potential for tsunami generation during offshore ruptures of the western parts of the system, emphasize the importance of understanding the behavior of these faults for seismic hazard assessment.

Mcauliffe, L. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Pratt, T. L.; Rhodes, E. J.

2013-12-01

419

New paleomagnetic data from Late Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions in Southern Urals, Russia: implications for the Late Neoproterozoic paleogeography of the Iapetan realm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of paleomagnetic study of Ediacaran sedimentary successions from the Southern Urals. The analysis of the sedimentary rocks of the Krivaya Luka, Kurgashlya and Bakeevo Formations reveal stable mid-temperature and high-temperature remanence components. Mid-temperature components were acquired during Devonian (Bakeevo Formation) and Late Carboniferous-Early Permian remagnetization events. The high-temperature components in Kurgashlya and Bakeevo Formations are interpreted to be primary, because they are supported by a positive conglomerate test (Bakeevo Formation) and magnetostratigraphic pattern (Kurgashlya Formation). The high-temperature component in the Krivaya Luka Formation is interpreted to be a Late Ediacaran overprint. Our new paleomagnetic poles together with some previously published Ediacaran poles from Baltica and Laurentia are used herein to produce a series of paleogeographic reconstructions of the opening of the Iapetus Ocean.

Lubnina, Natalia V.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.; Puchkov, Victor N.; Kozlov, Vjacheslav I.; Sergeeva, Nina D.

2014-07-01

420

Two-stage Early Cretaceous rifting of the Otway Basin margin of southeastern Australia: Implications for rifting of the Australian southern margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Otway Basin of southeastern Australia rifted from Antarctica in two distinct stages in the Early Cretaceous. The first stage began around 140 Ma and ended between 110 and 120 Ma and formed an onshore rift; the rift faults typically detached within basement and were oriented between east-west and east-northeast. On the Crayfish Platform, these first-stage rift structures are preserved. The second stage of rifting at about 95 Ma, just prior to sea-floor spreading, had fault trends between east-southeast and southeast. It was less extensive in area, and the zone of highest extension was localized near the junction with oceanic crust. Geohistory and tectonic analyses indicate that both stages of rifting affected the whole southern margin. In the west, however, the first rift began at about 160 Ma, and first-stage trends persisted during the second rift.

Williamson, P. E.; Swift, M. G.; O'Brien, G. W.; Falvey, D. A.

1990-01-01

421

Geology of the Eel River basin and adjacent region: Implications for late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and Mendocino triple junction  

SciTech Connect

Two upper Cenozoic depositional sequences of principally marine strata about 4,000 m thick overlie accreted basement terranes of the Central and Coastal belts of the Franciscan Complex in the onshore-offshore Eel River basin of northwestern California. The older depositional sequence is early to middle Miocene in age and represents slope basin and slope-blanket deposition, whereas the younger sequence, later Miocene to middle Pleistocene in age, consists largely of forearc basin deposits. Youthful tectonic activity related to Gorda-North American plate convergence indicates an active Cascadia subduction zone and strong partial coupling between these plates. Structures of the northeastern margin of the Eel River basin are principally north-northwest-trending, east-northeast-dipping thrust and reverse faults that form imbricate thrust fans. The Coastal belt fault, the early Tertiary accretionary suture between the Franciscan Central and Coastal belts, can be traced from Arcata Bay northward offshore to the southern Oregon border. It is tentatively extended farther northward based on aeromagnetic data to an offshore position west of Cape Blanco. Thereafter, it may coincide with the offshore Fulmar fault. The Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) does not join the Mendocino transform fault at the commonly depicted offshore location of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ). Instead, the CSZ extends southeastward around the southern Eel River basin and shoreward along Mendocino Canyon to join the Petrolia shear zone. Similarly, the Mendocino fault may extend shoreward via Mattole Canyon and join the Cooskie shear zone. These two shear zones intersect onshore north of the King Range, and the area of their intersection is the probable location of the MTJ.

Clarke, S.H. Jr. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1992-02-01

422

Geochronology and geochemistry of the Sangri Group Volcanic Rocks, Southern Lhasa Terrane: Implications for the early subduction history of the Neo-Tethys and Gangdese Magmatic Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sangri Group volcanic rocks are distributed along the southern margin of the Lhasa Terrane on the northern side of the Indus-Yarlung Zangbo suture zone. This Group consists of the Mamuxia and Bima formations and has long been considered to be Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous in age. In this paper, we report for the first time zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages, whole-rock major and trace element geochemistry, as well as Sr-Nd isotope data of the Bima Formation volcanic rocks in the Sangri County, Tibet. Two samples collected from the Bima Formation volcanic rocks yield zircon U-Pb ages of 195 ± 3 Ma and 189 ± 3 Ma, respectively. These data suggest that the Bima Formation volcanic rocks formed during the Early Jurassic rather than the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous as previously reported. The volcanic rocks of the Bima Formation are dominantly composed of basalt and andesite that are enriched in LILEs and LREEs, but depleted in HFSEs, showing typical characteristics of arc volcanic rocks. They also show positive ?Nd (t) (+ 4.09 to + 7.02) values and low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7032 to 0.7050) ratios, similar to the MORB of the Indus-Yarlung Zangbo ophiolites, indicating that the Bima Formation volcanic rocks were derived from a depleted mantle wedge. The magmas subsequently experienced juvenile crust contamination and fractional crystallization during ascent. Geochemical features of magmas of the Bima Formation volcanic rocks are interpreted to be generated by the northward subduction of Neo-Tethys beneath the southern Lhasa Terrane as early as ~ 195 Ma. Coeval with a large volume of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic felsic intrusions within the Gangdese arc, the Gangdese magmatic arc is interpreted to be initiated at a juvenile continental margin during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, although a possible intra-oceanic arc setting cannot be excluded.

Kang, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Feng; Wilde, Simon A.; Feng, Zuo-Hai; Chen, Jian-Lin; Wang, Bao-Di; Fu, Wen-Chun; Pan, Hui-Bin

2014-07-01

423

Petrogenesis of the early Cretaceous Funiushan granites on the southern margin of the North China Craton: Implications for the Mesozoic geological evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Mesozoic granitoids are ubiquitous in the southern margin of the North China Craton and are keys to the understanding of the Mesozoic geological evolution. The early Cretaceous Funiushan granitic pluton in the southern margin of the North China Craton is composed of porphyritic biotite monzogranites. Rocks from the Funiushan pluton have high SiO2 (64.45-73.98 wt.%), Na2O (3.19-4.67 wt.%) and K2O (3.76-7.95 wt.%) and low MgO (0.11-1.34 wt.%). They are enriched in Rb, Ba, Th, U and LREE ((La/Yb)N = 9.63-45.0), and depleted in Nb, Ta, Ti and P, and have negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.29-0.72). This geochemical feature is similar to those of typical I-type granites. Zircons from the granites were dated using LA-ICP-MS and SIMS, and yielded 206Pb/238U ages of 115-131 Ma. They have ?Hf(t) values mainly vary from -17.7 to +0.9 and TDMC ages mainly from 2301 to 1118 Ma. Whole rock ?Nd(t) values range from -20.3 to -9.6 and TDM ages from 1.49 to 2.29 Ga, indicating that the magma was produced by partial melting of the Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic crustal rocks, as represented by the Taihua Group basement rocks, with minor involvement of mantle-derived melts. The Funiushan pluton is considered to have been formed through a strong crust-mantle interaction process under a low pressure condition in an extensional setting, due to the lithospheric thinning caused by westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific oceanic crust.

Gao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Tai-Ping; Chen, Wei-Terry

2014-11-01

424

The upper lithostratigraphic unit of ANDRILL AND-2A core (Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica): local Pleistocene volcanic sources, paleoenvironmental implications and subsidence in the southern Victoria Land Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results from the study of the uppermost 37 meters of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) AND-2A drillcore, corresponding to the lithostratigraphic unit 1 (LSU 1), the most volcanogenic unit within the core. Nearly all of LSU 1 consists of volcanic breccia and sandstone that is a mixture of near primary volcanic material dominated by lava and vitric clasts with minor exotic material derived from distal basement sources. Lava clasts and glass are mafic and range from strongly alkaline (basanite, tephrite) to moderately alkaline (alkali basalt, hawaiite) compositions that are similar to nearby land deposits. 40Ar-39Ar laser step-heating analyses on groundmass separated from lava clasts yield Pleistocene ages (692±38 and 793±63, ±2? internal errors). Volcanoes of the Dailey Island group, located ~13 km SW of the drillsite, are a possible source for the volcanic materials based on their close proximity, similar composition and age. A basanite lava flow on Juergens Island yields a comparable Pleistocene age of 775±22 ka. Yet there is evidence to suggest that the volcanic source is much closer to the drillsite and that the sediments were deposited in much shallower water relative to the present-day water depth of 384 mbsl. Evidence for local volcanic activity is based in part on the common occurrence of delicate vitriclasts (e.g. glass shards and Pele’s hair) and a minimally reworked ~2 meter thick monomict breccia that is interpreted to have formed by autobrecciating lava. In addition, conical-shaped seamounts and high frequency magnetic anomalies encompass the drillsite and extend south including the volcanoes of the Dailey Islands. Sedimentary features and structures indicate shallow water sedimentation for the whole of LSU 1. Rippled asymmetric cross-laminated sands and hummocky cross-stratification occur intermittently throughout LSU 1 and indicate water depths shallower than 100 meters. The occurrence of ooliths and layers containing siderite and Fe-rich cement, along with the occurrence of shallow water diatoms, all indicate deposition in shallow waters agitated by waves. These results contrast strikingly with the present water depth, and let us infer rapid recent tectonic subsidence within this segment of the Victoria Land Basin (Terror Rift).

Del Carlo, P.; Panter, K. S.; Bassett, K. N.; Bracciali, L.; di Vincenzo, G.; Rocchi, S.

2009-12-01

425

Draft of 16 Apr 2003 3:30 a.m. The Guruswam-Sudan Decoding Algorithm for Reed-Solomon Codes.  

E-print Network

Draft of 16 Apr 2003 3:30 a.m. The Guruswam-Sudan Decoding Algorithm for Reed-Solomon Codes. R. J. McEliece Abstract: This paper is a tutorial discussion of the Guruswami-Sudan Reed-Solomon de- coding of the interpolation multiplicity. Table of Contents: Section 1. Introduction. Section 2. A First Look at the Guruswami-Sudan

Adolphs, Ralph

426

The edited version was Published in 2005 In C. Miller (ed.) 2005, Land, ethnicity and political legitimacy in Eastern Sudan.Le Caire, Cedej,  

E-print Network

legitimacy in Eastern Sudan.Le Caire, Cedej, 375-424 The West African (Fallata) Communities in Gedaref State (W.A.) origin living in Gedaref State make up one of the most important W.A. communities in Sudan networks and ongoing ethnic clustering. While forming a Diaspora network throughout Sudan, they consider

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

427

A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat: insights from South Sudan 89 A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat  

E-print Network

#12;A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat: insights from South Sudan 89 A new genus for a rare African vespertilionid bat: insights from South Sudan DeeAnn M. Reeder1, , Kristofer M. Helgen2 Sudan. ZooKeys 285: 89­115. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.285.4892 Abstract A new genus is proposed

Reeder, DeeAnn M.

428

2006. Proceedings of the 7th International Sudan Studies Conference April 6th 8th 2006. Bergen, Norway. CD Rom, Bergen: University of Bergen.  

E-print Network

2006. Proceedings of the 7th International Sudan Studies Conference April 6th ­ 8th 2006. Bergen, Norway. CD Rom, Bergen: University of Bergen. THE BEJA LANGUAGE TODAY IN SUDAN: THE STATE OF THE ART in the eastern part of the Sudan by some 1,100,000 Muslim people, according to the 1998 census. It belongs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

429

Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 150, 1993, pp. 1065-1074, 13 figs. Printed in Northern Ireland Structure of the late Proterozoic Nakasib suture, Sudan  

E-print Network

in Northern Ireland Structure of the late Proterozoic Nakasib suture, Sudan M. G. ABDELSALAM & R. J. STERN-0688, USA Abstract: The Nakasib suture is a prominent structural belt in the central Red Sea Hills, Sudan Sea Hills of the Sudan (Fig. 1). It is left-laterally offset by the younger, north to NNW-trending Oko

Stern, Robert J.

430

A review of analytical techniques for determination of Sudan I-IV dyes in food matrixes.  

PubMed

Sudan dyes are a family of lipophilic azo dyes, extensively used in industrial and scientific applications but banned for use as food colorants due to their carcinogenicity. Due to the continuing illicit use of Sudan dyes as food colorants their determination in different food matrices--especially in different chilli and tomato sauces and related products--has during the recent years received increasing attention all over the world. This paper critically reviews the published determination methods of Sudan I-IV dyes. LC-UV-vis and LC-MS are the dominating methods for analysis of Sudan I-IV dyes. Sudan dyes are usually found in food at mg kg(-1) levels at which it may be necessary to use a preconcentration step in order to attain the desired detection limits. Liquid-solid extraction is the dominating sample preparation procedure. In recent years it has been supplemented by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. Various solid phase extraction types have been used for sample cleanup. The large majority of works use conventional C18 columns and conventional LC eluents. Traditionally the UV-vis absorbance detection has been the most frequently used. In the recent years MS detection is applied more and more often as it offers more reliable identification possibilities. PMID:20299022

Rebane, Riin; Leito, Ivo; Yurchenko, Sergei; Herodes, Koit

2010-04-23

431

Human African Trypanosomiasis in South Sudan: How Can We Prevent a New Epidemic?  

PubMed Central

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has been a major public health problem in South Sudan for the last century. Recurrent outbreaks with a repetitive pattern of responding-scaling down activities have been observed. Control measures for outbreak response were reduced when the prevalence decreased and/or socio-political crisis erupted, leading to a new increase in the number of cases. This paper aims to raise international awareness of the threat of another outbreak of sleeping sickness in South Sudan. It is a review of the available data, interventions over time, and current reports on the status of HAT in South Sudan. Since 2006, control interventions and treatments providing services for sleeping sickness have been reduced. Access to HAT diagnosis and treatment has been considerably diminished. The current status of control activities for HAT in South Sudan could lead to a new outbreak of the disease unless 1) the remaining competent personnel are used to train younger staff to resume surveillance and treatment in the centers where HAT activities have stopped, and 2) control of HAT continues to be given priority even when the number of cases has been substantially reduced. Failure to implement an effective and sustainable system for HAT control and surveillance will increase the risk of a new epidemic. That would cause considerable suffering for the affected population and would be an impediment to the socioeconomic development of South Sudan. PMID:22666506

Ruiz-Postigo, José A.; Franco, José R.; Lado, Mounir; Simarro, Pere P.

2012-01-01

432

Economic development and the allocation of petroleum products in Sudan  

SciTech Connect

The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future.

Cain, M. (U.C.W., Aberystwyth (United Kingdom)); Yousif, M.A.R. (General Petroleum Corp., Khartoum (Sudan))

1991-01-01

433

Rift basins of interior Sudan: petroleum exploration and discovery  

SciTech Connect

The sedimentary basins of interior Sudan are characterized by thick nonmarine clastic sequences of Jurassic(.)-Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Over 45,000 ft (13,716 m) of sediment was deposited in the deepest trough and extensive basinal areas are underlain by more than 20,000 ft (6096 m) of sedimentary rocks. The depositional sequences include thick lacustrine shales and claystones, flood plain claystones, and lacustrine, fluvial, and alluvial sandstones and conglomerates. Those lacustrine claystones deposited in a suboxic environment provide good oil-prone source rocks. Reservoir sandstones have been found in a wide variety of nonmarine sandstone facies. The extensional tectonism that formed these basins began in the Jurassic(.)-Early Cretaceous. Movement along major fault trends continued intermittently into the Miocene. This deformation resulted in a complex structural history that led to the formation of several deep fault-bounded troughs, major interbasinal highs, and complex basin flanks. This tectonism has created a wide variety of structures, many of which have become effective hydrocarbon traps. During the past eight years, several important oil discoveries have been made. Significant accumulations have been delineated in the Heglig and Unity areas, where estimated recoverable reserves are 250-300 million bbl of oil. 14 figures.

Schull, T.J.

1988-10-01

434

Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations  

PubMed Central

Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM) strategic plan 2007–2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements. PMID:23394124

2013-01-01

435

Cystic echinococcosis in Mundari tribe-members of South Sudan  

PubMed Central

Many neglected tropical diseases, including the zoonotic disease cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis), are endemic to East Africa. However, their geographical distribution is heterogenous and incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if Mundari pastoralists harbor endemic human hydatidosis. The survey was conducted in cattle camps randomly selected from accessible sites provided by officials in Terekeka, South Sudan. Following informed consent, a questionnaire collected demographic data and hydatid exposure risk. A systematic sonographic abdominal exam was performed using General Electric’s LOGIQ Book XP with a 3C-RS 2–5 MHz curvilinear transducer. Six hundred and ten individuals were screened from 13 camps. Four infections were identified, all in women. The prevalence of abdominal hydatid disease in the Mundari tribe-members in cattle camps was 0.7% and all individuals reporting at least one high-risk exposure to hydatid disease. Cystic echinococcosis is endemic among Mundari pastoralists; however, it would appear to be less endemic than in neighboring tribes. PMID:24139620

Stewart, Barclay T; Jacob, Joseph; Finn, Timothy; Lado, Mounir; Napoleon, Robert; Brooker, Simon; Sidhu, Paul S; Kolaczinski, Jan

2013-01-01

436

Development and validation of a confirmatory HPLC method for simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes in animal tissues and eggs.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method for the simultaneous determination of six Sudan dyes (Sudan Red G, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan IV) in animal tissues and eggs was developed. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile followed by a cleanup using a C(18) solid-phase extraction column. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-C(18) column under gradient conditions. The analytes were detected at 510 nm by HPLC with diode array detection. Specificity, decision limit (CCalpha), detection capacity (CCbeta), accuracy, and precision were determined during validation process. Recoveries for six Sudan dyes from three animal tissues and eggs were 77.2-98.0% with excellent relative standard deviations. CCalpha and CCbeta were in the range of 7.7-9.0 microg/kg and 9.1-10.3 microg/kg, respectively. The limits of quantitations were between 12.8 microg/kg and 15.0 microg/kg. PMID:20056039

Wu, Yin-Liang; Li, Cun; Xia, Xi; Liu, Yong-Jun; Shen, Jian-Zhong

2010-01-01

437

The Relationship between Leadership Style and Motivation among Faculty Members in Two Public Universities in the Republic of South Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership style and motivation among faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of the South Sudan. The researcher examined this issue by surveying and interviewing faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of South Sudan, a total of 67 for…

Malok, Malok N.

2012-01-01

438

Oral health status of 12-year-old school children in Khartoum state, the Sudan; a school-based survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the prevalence of dental caries among school children in the past decades in Sudan rendering it difficult to understand the status and pattern of oral health. METHODS: A school-based survey was conducted using stratified random cluster sampling in Khartoum state, Sudan. Data was collected through interviews and clinical examination by a single examiner. DMFT was

Nazik Mostafa Nurelhuda; Tordis Agnete Trovik; Raouf Wahab Ali; Mutaz Faisal Ahmed

2009-01-01

439

1.4 kyrs of flash flood events in the Southern European Alps: implications for extreme precipitation patterns and forcing over the north-western Mediterranean area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme precipitation events trigger flash floods causing large human and economic losses. Their frequency and/or intensity are expected to increase in the context of global warming, especially in the Mediterranean region. However, the relationship between such events and past climate change remains difficult to assess. Indeed, the stochastic nature of extreme event occurrence precludes the identification of trends. This is reinforced by a lack in long-term instrumental data. It is hence essential to reconstruct long-term geological records of intense events to extend documented records beyond the observational data. This will enable a better understanding of local to regional flood hazard patterns in the context of global warming and hence improve predictive models. In the framework of Pygmalion research program, a multiproxy investigation of the Lake Allos (2230 m a.s.l., Southern French Alps) sediment sequence revealed the presence of 160 flood-triggered interbedded layers within a 1400-long sequence. Owing to sedimentary and geochemical characteristics and the frequent occurrence, such deposits were interpreted as the result of high-energy sediment inputs during intense torrential floods (i.e. flash-floods), related to extreme precipitation events. Furthermore the significant relationship between the thickness and the basal grain size of the graded beds allowed using the thickness as a proxy of the flood intensity. Trough the comparison with local historic flood reconstructions over the last 400 years, we argue that these flash floods were mostly triggered by autumnal meso-scale intense precipitation events. Since the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the absence of major change in erosion processes and local vegetation dynamics linked to anthropogenic impact led us to interpret the Allos flood record as the proxy for the occurrence of such extreme precipitation events over the last millennium. The frequency of Allos flash-flood events appeared consistent with the general moisture, the hydrology of large rivers and temperature patterns of the south-western European region, i.e. a low flood activity during the warm/dry MCA and conversely during the cold/wet Little Ice Age (LIA). At a sub-centennial scale, a high variability of the flood frequency is superimposed to the general increase during the LIA and appeared in phase with solar maximum. Moreover peaks of flood frequency seem to be correlated with negative autumnal NAO phases, in agreement with previous paleoflood reconstructions of Mediterranean Spanish rivers. Finally the comparison of flood frequency patterns from north-western Mediterranean sites suggests a 50-150 years oscillation mode, probably related to a NAO-like pattern, in two main NW Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns triggering extreme precipitations either over the Southern Alps or the Cevennes-Vivarais region.

Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Sabatier, P.; Crouzet, C.; Brisset, E.; Guiter, F.; Reyss, J. L.; Chaumillon, E.; Tachikawa, K.; Bard, E.; Delannoy, J. J.

2012-04-01

440

Habitat overlap between southern bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna in the east coast longline fishery - implications for present and future spatial management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern bluefin tuna (SBT) are presently a quota-managed species in the multi-species eastern Australian tuna and billfish longline fishery (ETBF). Capture of SBT is regulated by quota, as is access to regions likely to contain SBT. A habitat prediction model combining data from an ocean model and pop-up satellite archival tags is used to define habitat zones based on the probability of SBT occurrence. These habitat zones are used by fishery managers to restrict access by ETBF fishers to SBT habitat during a May-November management season. The zones display a distinct seasonal cycle driven by the seasonal southward expansion and northward contraction of the East Australia Current (EAC) and as a result access by fishers to particular ocean regions changes seasonally. This species also overlaps with the commercially valuable yellowfin tuna (YFT), thus, we modified the SBT model to generate YFT habitat predictions in order to investigate habitat overlap between SBT and YFT. There is seasonal variation in the overlap of the core habitat between these two species, with overlap early (May-Jul) in the management season and habitat separation occurring towards the end (Aug-Nov). The EAC is one of the fastest warming ocean regions in the southern hemisphere. To consider the future change in distribution of these two species compared to the present and to explore the potential impact on fishers and managers of the future, we use future ocean predictions from the CSIRO Bluelink ocean model for the year 2064 to generate habitat predictions. As the ocean warms on the east coast of Australia and the EAC extends southward, our model predicts the suitable habitat for SBT and YFT will move further south. There was an increase in the overlap of SBT and YFT habitat throughout the management season, due to regional variation of each species' habitat. These results illustrate that a management tradeoff exists between restricting fisher access to SBT habitat and allowing access to YFT habitat. We suggest that some options to address this tradeoff are possible by identifying the seasonal variability of the overlap.

Hartog, Jason R.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Matear, Richard; Feng, Ming

2011-03-01

441

Elemental and Sr Nd isotopic systematics of the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: petrogenesis and tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elemental and Sr Nd isotopic results are presented for the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence (~172 Ma) in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. The sequence is voluminously composed of ~45% subalkaline basaltic rocks (group 1), <5% high-mg andesite dacites (group 2) and ~50% rhyolites (group 3). The group 1 rocks are characterized by (La/Yb)cn = 3.8 7.2, Eu/Eu* = 0.65 1.15, Nb/La = 0.64 0.99, 87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.70602~0.70822 and ?Nd(t) = -1.63 to +0.11, similar to those of an EMII-like source. The group 2 rocks have mg=0.42~0.60, SiO2=60.24~66.71%, MgO=2.65~ 5.54%, Ni=24~102 ppm and Cr=84~266 ppm, classified as high-mg andesitic rocks. These rocks are more enriched in LILEs and LREE with more significant negative Eu anomaly (0.63~0.79), are more depleted in HFSEs with Nb/La ratios of 0.40 0.56 and have lower ?Nd(t) (-9.44 to -7.78) and higher 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.70985~0.71016), in comparison with the group 1 rocks. They most likely originated from metasomatised veins in the lithospheric mantle. The origination of the group 1 and group 2 magma suggests the development of a peridotite-plus-vein lithospheric mantle during early Mesozoic era beneath the interior of the Cathaysian block. The group 3 rhyolites are characterized by high SiO2 (72.75~77.97%), Zr (99~290 ppm), Hf (3.9~9.7 ppm) and Ga/Al (2.76~3.87) and significant Nb Ta, Ba Sr and P Ti depletions. These rhyolites exhibit Sr Nd isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.70962~0.71104, ?Nd(t) = -4.63 to -5.80) similar to the contemporaneous Zhaibei and Pitou A-type granites in the area. Such characteristics suggest that they might be derived from the underplating basaltic magma contaminated by crustal materials. Therefore, an early Mesozoic rifting model in response to intracontinental lithospheric extension is proposed to account for the early Mesozoic volcanism in southern Jiangxi Province, South China.

Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Peng, Touping; Guo, Feng

2005-02-01

442

Northern versus southern gateways control on ocean overturning circulation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition and possible implications to global cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing body of evidence indicating reorganization in the ocean overturning circulation during the transition from the Eocene to the Oligocene, in particular, the initiation of the northern-sourced overturning circulation that comprises the northern component water (NCW) and northward flowing intermediate water. This evidence includes Nd isotopes from the Southern Hemisphere, ?13C from intermediate water in the subtropical North Atlantic, and increasing difference in the benthic ?18O between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We compare all these sets of proxies and show that the increasing trends have been conjugated throughout most of the Oligocene indicating enhancement of the northern-sourced overturning circulation that began around the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT). This reorganization was attributed mainly to the development of the wind-driven Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC). Based on variety of geological inferences, we suggest that the shift to interhemispheric bipolar overturning circulation was initiated by buoyancy fluxes formed by the development of anti-estuarine circulation between the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic around the EOT, which significantly intensified the NCW. The Nordic anti-estuarine circulation began at a critical threshold during rapid tectonic subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) triggered by the suppression of the Iceland mantle plume. We show that the development of northern-sourced circulation cell during the Oligocene correlates compellingly with the histories of the GSR subsidence and the activity of the Iceland mantle plume, and to a lesser degree with the ACC history. Accordingly, this circulation was enhanced as long as the GSR subsided rapidly. The onset of the northern-sourced overturning circulation, which is the biologically productive circulation domain, has probably triggered the marked increase in the ocean productivity during the EOT. The relationship between the EOT climatic changes (?18O, CO2 proxies) and circulation proxies may suggest that growing rates of burial of organic carbon caused by the productivity increase could have triggered an accelerated decrease in atmospheric CO2, which in turn caused the cooling at the first stage of the EOT.

Abelson, M.; Erez, J.

2013-12-01

443

Apatite (U-Th)/He dating of kimberlites, links with mantle xenolith evolution, and implications for uplift of the southern African Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) dating of kimberlite pipes provides a unique way to assess the timing and cause of unroofing and elevation change in cratonic interiors. Kimberlites are small volume, volatile-rich magmas emplaced rapidly from mantle depths. By dating kimberlites of differing emplacement ages using AHe thermochronometry the potential exists to more tightly bracket the timing of denudation than by dating Precambrian basement characterized by a more protracted thermal history. Moreover, the chemistry of the kimberlites themselves and the mantle xenolith suites that they contain provide a window into the state of the lithosphere below at the time of kimberlite emplacement. Thus, coupling AHe thermochronometry with mantle xenolith data from kimberlites may allow direct documentation of the surface response to deep-seated changes in the continental lithosphere and the mantle beneath. The southern African plateau currently sits at ~1000 m average elevation, but marine sedimentary rocks preserved on the plateau surface show that the continent was at sea level at ~255 Ma. The timing, rate, and cause(s) of this surface uplift remain enigmatic. The region was pierced by numerous kimberlites in post-Paleozoic time, including several areas of repeated intrusion. In a pilot study, four kimberlites with emplacement ages ranging from 143 Ma to 74 Ma from a small geographic area straddling the southwestern margin of the Kaapvaal Craton were dated using AHe. The oldest of the pipes, a group II kimberlite, shows a significantly younger AHe date than emplacement age, suggesting significant post-emplacement unroofing. The youngest of the pipes has an AHe date similar to its emplacement age suggesting only limited unroofing since kimberlite intrusion. Thermobarometry on mantle nodules contained within these pipes shows warming of the mantle in this region over the same period, and chemical studies indicate metasomatism and suggest lithospheric thinning. Our results provide evidence for a direct temporal link between the thermochronologically constrained unroofing history, surface uplift, and a change in the southern Africa lithospheric mantle at depth which could be related to other dynamic mantle processes. Together this suggests a deep mantle origin for the surface uplift and the erosional response documented by the thermochronometry data.

Stanley, J. R.; Flowers, R. M.; Bell, D. R.

2012-12-01

444

Geochronology and geochemistry of late Paleozoic magmatic rocks in the Yinwaxia area, Beishan: Implications for rift magmatism in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mafic-ultramafic rocks are distributed widely in the Beishan rift, which is located in the southern Beishan, central southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The Yinwaxia study area is located in eastern Beishan rift, where mafic-ultramafic rocks occur along major faults. The zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age obtained of a gabbro is 281 ± 11 Ma, and the age of the basalt is constrained by the youngest xenocrystal with an age of 265 Ma, which substantiate that these mafic rocks formed in Permian. Basalts and gabbros exhibit similar geochemical characteristics including: high SiO2, total Fe2O3 and TiO2 contents; low MgO contents and Mg# values; and tholeiitic characteristics. Yinwaxia mafic rocks have relatively high total rare earth element contents, enrichment in light rare earth elements, enrichments in the high field strength elements, and obvious negative Nb-Ta-Ti anomalies. Basalts exhibit low (87Sr/86Sr)i and high ?Nd(t) values, while gabbros exhibit relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i and low ?Nd(t) values. Isotopic compositions of these mafic rocks display a mixed trend between depleted and enriched mantles. Meanwhile, differing ?Nd(t) values show that basalts were intensively contaminated by juvenile crustal materials, but gabbros were contaminated by older continental crust. We conclude that Yinwaxia mafic rocks were derived from lithospheric mantle metasomatized by fluids and/or melts from subducted slab; parental magmas underwent AFC processes, then emplaced along faults in a continental rift. We collected geochemical and geochronological data in the study area, and collated geochronological data from previous workers in the Beishan orogenic belt to develop a geochronological frequency diagram. From these data and analyses we deduced a model of tectonic evolution for the Beishan orogenic belt. Considering the geochemistry, sedimentological evidence for rifting, and the geochronological frequency diagram, we propose that the Beishan rift had entered a post-collision stage since Early Devonian, and then changed into a continental rift stage around late Carboniferous-early Permian.

Zheng, Rongguo; Wu, Tairan; Zhang, Wen; Meng, Qingpeng; Zhang, Zhaoyu

2014-09-01

445

Volcaniclastic debris-flow occurrences in the Campania region (Southern Italy) and their relation to Holocene Late Pleistocene pyroclastic fall deposits: implications for large-scale hazard mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Campania Region (southern Italy) is characterized by the frequent occurrence of volcaniclastic debris flows that damage property and loss of life (more than 170 deaths between 1996 and 1999). Historical investigation allowed the identification of more than 500 events during the last four centuries; in particular, more than half of these occurred in the last 100 years, causing hundreds of deaths. The aim of this paper is to quantify debris-flow hazard potential in the Campania Region. To this end, we compared several elements such as the thickness distribution of pyroclastic fall deposits from the last 18 ka of the Vesuvius and Phlegrean Fields volcanoes, the slopes of relieves, and the historical record of volcaniclastic debris flows from A.D. 1500 to the present. Results show that flow occurrence is not only a function of the cumulative thickness of past pyroclastic fall deposits but also depends on the age of emplacement. Deposits younger than 10 ka (Holocene eruptions) apparently increase the risk of debris flows, while those older than 10 ka (Late Pleistocene eruptions) seem to play a less prominent role, which is probably due to different climatic conditions, and therefore different rates of erosion of pyroclastic falls between the Holocene and the Late Pleistocene. Based on the above considerations, we compiled a large-scale debris-flow hazard map of the study area in which five main hazard zones are identified: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high.

Bisson, M.; Pareschi, M. T.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Santacroce, R.

2007-11-01

446

Evolution of the late Quaternary San Gregorio Magno tectono-karstic basin (southern Italy) inferred from geomorphological, tephrostratigraphical and palaeoecological analyses: tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pantano di San Gregorio Magno is a 4.7 km2 large tectono-karstic basin located in the axial belt of the Southern Apennines, an area affected by intense seismicity. The basin was formed in the Middle Pleistocene and is presently undissected. It is filled by lacustrine sediments (clays, silts and pyroclastic sands) passing laterally into alluvial fan deposits. Geomorphological investigations were integrated with tephrostratigraphical, palynological and palaeoecological analyses of a 61 m thick core (not reaching the bedrock). The multiproxy analysis of the S. Gregorio Magno record shows that, over the last 200k yr, the basin hosted a freshwater lake with an oscillating level. Age constraints provided by the tephrostratigraphic record allowed estimation of the sedimentation rate, which varied strongly through time. Evolution of the basin resulted from the complex combination of tectonic subsidence, karst processes and changing amounts of sedimentary inputs. The latter was influenced by allogenic contributions related both to primary and reworked volcanoclastic inputs and was climate-driven. The overall evidence, which indicates that in the long-term the accumulation rate substantially counterbalanced the accommodation space created by faulting, suggests that the basin evolution was also modulated by changing subsidence rates. Copyright

Aiello, G.; Ascione, A.; Barra, D.; Munno, R.; Petrosino, P.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Villani, F.

2007-03-01

447

Time of emplacement and metamorphism of Late Precambrian mafic dykes associated with the Pan-African Gariep orogeny, Southern Africa: implications for the age of the Nama Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gannakouriep mafic dyke swarm straddles the border between South Africaand Namibia in the lower Orange River region, and was intruded during crustal extension associated with the early phases of the Late Precambrian Gariepian orogeny. A Rb?Sr internal isochronage of 717±11 Ma has been obtained from fresh unmetamorphosed gabbro that forms relict patches in the biggest dyke of the swarm. By inference, the maximum age for the Gariepian orogeny, which deformed and metamorphosed the dyke swarm along its western margin, and forms part of the Pan-African system of mobile belts, is constrained by these age data. A product of the Gariepian orogeny was the growth of metamorphic amphibole in the dykes, which had a profound influence on the K?Ar age patterns. Within the amphibole isograd, the dykes possess coherent patterns indicating growth of the metamorphic amphibole 542±4 Ma ago. Lower grade sectors of the dyke swarm characterised by chlorite-scricite assemblages have lower K?Ar ages indicative of open system behaviour, perhaps promoted by the lack of a K-bearing stabilising mineral such as amphibole. Amphibolitised Gannakouriep dykes are unconformably overlain by the Nama Group, and so it follows that this sedimentary sequence post dated Gariepian metamorphism at ˜540 Ma. A minimum age for the Nama Group is given by the intrusion of the Bremen Complex at 521±11 Ma, thereby constraining deposition and by inference the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in southern Africa to between 540 and 520 Ma ago.

Reid, D. L.; Ransome, I. G. D.; Onstott, T. C.; Adams, C. J.

448

Abrupt turnover in calcareous-nannoplankton assemblages across the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum: implications for surface-water oligotrophy over the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core Section 183-1135A-25R-4 from the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean represents only the second complete, expanded sequence through the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55 Ma) recovered from Antarctic waters. Calcareous nannoplankton at this site underwent an abrupt, fundamental turnover across the PETM as defined by a carbon isotope excursion. Although Chiasmolithus, Discoaster, and Fasciculithus exponentially increase in abundance at the onset, the former abruptly drops but then rapidly recovers, whereas the latter two taxa show opposite trends due to surface-water oligotrophy. These observations confirm previous results from ODP Site 690 on Maud Rise. The elevated pCO2 that accompanied the PETM caused a shoaling of the lysocline and carbonate compensation depth, leading to intensive dissolution of susceptible holococcoliths and poor preservation of the assemblages. Similarities and contrasts between the results of this study and previous work from open-ocean sites and shelf margins further demonstrate that the response to the PETM was consistent in open-ocean environments, but could be localized on continental shelves where nutrient regimes depend on the local geologic setting and oceanographic conditions.

Jiang, Shijun; Wise, Sherwood W., Jr.

2007-01-01

449

New information on Riograndia guaibensis Bonaparte, Ferigolo & Ribeiro, 2001 (Eucynodontia, Tritheledontidae) from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil: anatomical and biostratigraphic implications.  

PubMed

The tritheledontid Riograndia guaibensis was the first cynodont described for the "Caturrita Formation" fauna from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil (Santa Maria 2 Sequence). The type materials did not preserve anatomical information regarding braincase, occiput, basicranium, zygomatic arch, postdentary bones and craniomandibular joint. Here new materials are described and supply the missing information. Riograndia shows a suite of important anatomical features quite derived among the non-mammaliaform eucynodonts, such as the partial closure of the medial orbital wall and braincase, extensive secondary osseous palate, wide primary palate, basicranium with jugular foramen separated from the periphery of fenestra rotunda, narrow zygomatic arch and much reduced postdentary bones. Many of these features constitute synapomorphies shared only with the other members of mammaliamorpha. Thus, the almost complete cranial, mandibular and dental information from the new fossils of Riograndia can bring a significant improve in the understanding of the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of the tritheledontids and help to elucidate the transformational steps involved in the cynodont-mammal transition. Additionally, Riograndia is a key taxon in refining the "Caturrita Formation" biostratigraphy, enabling the connection of several fossiliferous outcrops that have a rich tetrapod fauna that can be correlated with other Triassic faunas from Gondwana and Laurasia. PMID:21437390

Soares, Marina B; Schultz, Cesar L; Horn, Bruno L D

2011-03-01

450

Uranium-series and radiocarbon geochronology of deep-sea corals: implications for Southern Ocean ventilation rates and the oceanic carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new uranium-series and radiocarbon measurements for deep-sea corals from the Southern Ocean. These data are used to reconstruct ventilation ages, both at present and at the end of the last glacial period approximately 16?500 years ago. We apply an improved two-component mixing approach to correct uranium-series dates for contaminant thorium and protactinium present in oxide coatings. Calculated seawater radiocarbon values for contemporary samples decrease with depth in the water column and agree with direct seawater radiocarbon measurements for this area. This indicates that deep-sea corals can accurately record seawater radiocarbon distributions. Two of three glacial samples experienced open-system uranium-series systematics, however, a third sample from the Drake Passage yields concordant thorium and protactinium dates as well as seawater values for initial 234U/ 238U. This coral yields a ventilation age that is approximately 20-40% greater than modern values for its location. This increase is consistent with published deep-sea coral and calibrated planktonic-benthic foraminifera radiocarbon data, suggesting that the glacial oceans as a whole may have been substantially less ventilated, presumably due to decreased formation of North Atlantic Deep Water. An overall decrease in oceanic mixing rates could have contributed to lower dissolved carbon in surface ocean water and lower atmospheric pCO 2 during the past glacial period.

Goldstein, Steven J.; Lea, David W.; Chakraborty, Supriyo; Kashgarian, Michaele; Murrell, Michael T.

2001-11-01

451

Implications and concerns of deep-seated disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water using three-dimensional contaminant transport model in Bhit Area, Dadu District of Southern Pakistan.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional contaminant transport model has been developed to simulate and monitor the migration of disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water in Injection well at 2,100 m depth in the Upper Cretaceous Pab sandstone, Bhit area in Dadu district of Southern Pakistan. The regional stratigraphic and structural geological framework of the area, landform characteristics, meteorological parameters, and hydrogeological milieu have been used in the model to generate the initial simulation of steady-state flow condition in the underlying aquifer's layers. The geometry of the shallow and deep-seated characteristics of the geological formations was obtained from the drilling data, electrical resistivity sounding surveys, and geophysical well-logging information. The modeling process comprised of steady-state simulation and transient simulation of the prolific groundwater system of contamination transport after 1, 10, 30 years of injection. The contaminant transport was evaluated from the bottom of the injection well, and its short- and long-term effects were determined on aquifer system lying in varying hydrogeological and geological conditions. PMID:19936954

Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Akhter, Gulraiz; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan

2010-11-01

452

Isotopic composition of a calcite-cemented layer in the Lower Jurassic Bridport Sands, southern England: Implications for formation of laterally extensive calcite-cemented layers  

SciTech Connect

[delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] and [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values have been measured on 107 calcite cement samples from a laterally extensive (> 3 km) and continuous calcite-cemented layer 0.5 m thick in the coastal exposures of the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine Bridport Sands in Dorset, southern England. The samples were taken from a two-dimensional grid with 10-cm horizontal and vertical spacing between samples and along individual vertical lines across the calcite-cemented layer, [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values vary between [minus]4.8% and [minus]9.2% and decrease radially outwards from points with lateral spacings on the order of 0.5-1 m in the middle of the calcite-cemented layer. The [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values therefore indicate that the calcite-cemented layer was formed by merging of concretions. All [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values measured are in the narrow range [minus]2.2% to [minus]0.5%, which suggests that the dominant source of calcite cement in the layer was biogenic carbonate.

Bjoerkum, P.A. (Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)); Walderhaug, O. (Rogaland Research, Stavanger (Norway))

1993-07-01

453

Petrofacies and provenance of the Puente Formation (middle to upper Miocene), Los Angeles basin, southern California: Implications for rapid uplift and accumulation rates  

SciTech Connect

The Peunte Formation is a Middle-Upper Miocene clastic unit lying unconformably on the Lower-Middle Miocene El Modeno Volcanics and Topanga Group, in the Los Angeles basin. The Puente Formation, about 3900 m thick, is composed of conglomerate, sandstone, and mudrock deposit;ed as a submarine fan at bathyal depths. Several intrabasinal discordances suggest tectonic activity during deposition. The succession consists of two main upward-thickening and -coarsening megacycles, reflecting submarine-fan progradation. The Puente Formation is characterized up-section by: (1) thin-bedded sandstone and shale (La Vida member) grading to thick-bedded sandstone and conglomerate (Soquel Member); and (2) thin-bedded mudrock and sandstone (Yorba Member) grading to thick- to very thick-bedded sandstone and conglomerate (Sycamore Canyon Member). There is consistent provenance signal in spite of complex transportation tectonics, responsible for opening of the Los Angeles Basin, and later transpressional processes, which are still active. Detailed provenance study of the Puente Formation and related units provides important constraints on paleogeographic and paleotectonic reconstructions of southern California basins and uplifts.

Critelli, S. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roges di Rende (Italy). Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica nell`Italia Meridionale ed Insulare; Rumelhart, P.E.; Ingersoll, R.V. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences

1995-10-02

454

On the azo/hydrazo equilibrium in Sudan I azo dye derivatives.  

PubMed

In this study, Raman, infrared, UV/vis, NMR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction spectroscopies are used to elucidate the tautomeric equilibrium of azo dyes derived from 1-phenyl-azo-2-naphthol (Sudan I). A new crystallographic structure is described for Sudan I, revealing the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and supramolecular interactions, such as the unconventional C-H···O hydrogen bond type, ?-stacking, and charge-dipole interactions. All of these weak intermolecular interactions play a role in the stability of the crystalline structure. Theoretical calculations are also reported for geometries, energy, and spectroscopic properties. The predicted spectra are in accordance with the experiments carried out in the solid state and in solution of dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, suggesting the hydrazo form as the preferable tautomer in gas and condensate phases for Sudan I and its derivatives. PMID:23289665

Ferreira, Gilson R; Garcia, Humberto Costa; Couri, Mara Rubia C; Dos Santos, Hélio F; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C

2013-01-24

455

Effects of Orange II and Sudan III azo dyes and their metabolites on Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are widely used in the plastic, paper, cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Some metabolites of these dyes are potentially genotoxic. The toxic effects of azo dyes and their potential reduction metabolites on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA 1556 were studied. When the cultures were incubated with 6, 18, and 36 ?g/ml of Orange II and Sudan III for 48 h, 76.3, 68.5, and 61.7% of Orange II and 97.8, 93.9, and 75.8% of Sudan III were reduced by the bacterium, respectively. In the presence of 36 ?g/ml Sudan III, the cell viability of the bacterium decreased to 61.9% after 48 h of incubation, whereas the cell viability of the control culture without the dye was 71.5%. Moreover, the optical density of the bacterial cultures at 10 h decreased from 0.74 to 0.55, indicating that Sudan III is able to inhibit growth of the bacterium. However, Orange II had no significant effects on either cell growth or cell viability of the bacterium at the tested concentrations. 1-Amino-2-naphthol, a metabolite common to Orange II and Sudan III, was capable of inhibiting cell growth of the bacterium at 1 ?g/ml and completely stopped bacterial cell growth at 24-48 ?g/ml. On the other hand, the other metabolites of Orange II and Sudan III, namely sulfanilic acid, p-phenylenediamine, and aniline, showed no significant effects on cell growth. p-Phenylenediamine exhibited a synergistic effect with 1-amino-2-naphthol on cell growth inhibition. All of the dye metabolites had no significant effects on cell viability of the bacterium. PMID:21451978

Pan, Hongmiao; Feng, Jinhui; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

2011-10-01

456

Neoproterozoic chromite-bearing high-Mg diorites in the western part of the Jiangnan orogen, southern China: Geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-Mg diorites were discovered in the southern part of the ca. 830 Ma Dongma Pluton, northern Guangxi Province of southern China. The diorites (SiO2 = 59-65 wt%) are characterized by high MgO (6.7-8.9 wt%) contents and Mg-number [Mg# = 100 × Mg/(Mg + Fe)] (69-73), in contrary to the associated medium-Mg (MgO = 3.4-3.8 wt%, Mg# = 59-63) granodiorites in the Dongma main body and the low-Mg (MgO = 1.4-1.9 wt%, Mg# = 46-51) granodiorites in the Bendong Pluton to the north. Moreover, the high-Mg diorites show surprisingly high Cr (595-640 ppm) and Ni (171-194 ppm) concentrations, which are beyond the ranges of most coeval mafic rocks in the study area. Correspondingly, chromite crystals were separated from the high-Mg diorites and some of the medium-Mg granodiorites, and they show high Cr# [100 × Cr/(Cr + Al)] (average of 75), but low Mg# (0.34-2.51) and low Fe3 +. The decoupling of Cr# and Mg# and the existence of quartz + apatite mineral inclusion in chromites suggest Mg-Fe exchange that may be facilitated by the disequilibrium resulted from magma mixing. The high-Mg diorites show low La/Yb (6.8-8.5) and Sr/Y (2.1-3.1) ratios, significant negative anomalies of Nb and Ti and positive anomaly of Pb, resembling the Setouchi high-Mg andesites, despite of their relatively low Sr (71-100 ppm). All of the studied diorites and granodiorites show enriched Nd isotope compositions, with ?Nd(t) values (- 3.2 to - 5.9) a bit higher than some of the associated mafic rocks. Some of the high-Mg diorites show whole-rock ?Hf(t) (- 6.0 to - 6.2) coupled with Nd isotopes, similar to the associated mafic-ultramafic rocks in northern Guangxi, suggesting the metasomatism by melts of subducting sediments in the mantle source. Whereas, others show decoupled Nd-Hf isotopes that are similar to the medium- and low-Mg granodiorites [?Hf(t) = - 1.8 to + 0.05], probably indicating the late magma mixing with granitic magmas at a crustal level for the dioritic magmas. We propose a two-stage model for the petrogenesis of the high-Mg diorites: 1) the mantle source was firstly metasomatized by melts from partial melting of subducting terrigenous sediments to form the enriched Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics; and then 2) the mantle-derived high-Mg mafic melts mixed with the crust-derived low-Mg granitic melts to form the high-Mg diorites and medium-Mg granodiorites. The occurrence of high-Mg diorites implies the existence of Neoproterozoic subduction-related metasomatism in the western part of the Jiangnan orogen.

Chen, Xin; Wang, Di; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Jian-Feng; Shu, Xu-Jie; Zhou, Jin-Cheng; Qi, Liang

2014-07-01

457

Evolving transpressional strain fields along the San Andreas fault in southern California: implications for fault branching, fault dip segmentation and strain partitioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Andreas fault in southern California records only few large-magnitude earthquakes in historic time, and the recent activity is confined primarily on irregular and discontinuous strike-slip and thrust fault strands at shallow depths of ~5-20 km. Despite this fact, slip along the San Andreas fault is calculated to c. 35 mm/yr based on c.160 km total right lateral displacement for the southern segment of the fault in the last c. 8 Ma. Field observations also reveal complex fault strands and multiple events of deformation. The presently diffuse high-magnitude crustal movements may be explained by the deformation being largely distributed along more gently dipping reverse faults in fold-thrust belts, in contrast to regions to the north where deformation is less partitioned and localized to narrow strike-slip fault zones. In the Mecca Hills of the Salton trough transpressional deformation of an uplifted segment of the San Andreas fault in the last ca. 4.0 My is expressed by very complex fault-oblique and fault-parallel (en echelon) folding, and zones of uplift (fold-thrust belts), basement-involved reverse and strike-slip faults and accompanying multiple and pervasive cataclasis and conjugate fracturing of Miocene to Pleistocene sedimentary strata. Our structural analysis of the Mecca Hills addresses the kinematic nature of the San Andreas fault and mechanisms of uplift and strain-stress distribution along bent fault strands. The San Andreas fault and subsidiary faults define a wide spectrum of kinematic styles, from steep localized strike-slip faults, to moderate dipping faults related to oblique en echelon folds, and gently dipping faults distributed in fold-thrust belt domains. Therefore, the San Andreas fault is not a through-going, steep strike-slip crustal structure, which is commonly the basis for crustal modeling and earthquake rupture models. The fault trace was steep initially, but was later multiphase deformed/modified by oblique en echelon folding, renewed strike-slip movements and contractile fold-thrust belt structures. Notably, the strike-slip movements on the San Andreas fault were transformed outward into the surrounding rocks as oblique-reverse faults to link up with the subsidiary Skeleton Canyon fault in the Mecca Hills. Instead of a classic flower structure model for this transpressional uplift, the San Andreas fault strands were segmented into domains that record; (i) early strike-slip motion, (ii) later oblique shortening with distributed deformation (en echelon fold domains), followed by (iii) localized fault-parallel deformation (strike-slip) and (iv) superposed out-of-sequence faulting and fault-normal, partitioned deformation (fold-thrust belt domains). These results contribute well to the question if spatial and temporal fold-fault branching and migration patterns evolving along non-vertical strike-slip fault segments can play a role in the localization of earthquakes along the San Andreas fault.

Bergh, Steffen; Sylvester, Arthur; Damte, Alula; Indrevær, Kjetil

2014-05-01