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Sample records for southern sudan implications

  1. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  2. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for...

  3. Viewing the Reconstruction of Primary Schooling in Southern Sudan through Education Data, 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, HyeJin; Moses, Kurt D.; Jang, Bosun; Wils, Annababette

    2011-01-01

    After one of the longest wars in the history of Africa, Southern Sudan accomplished one of the world's quickest education reconstruction programmes. Once the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005, the international donor community and the government and people of Southern Sudan united under a common goal: to increase access to…

  4. Phylogenetic and ecologic perspectives of a monkeypox outbreak, southern Sudan, 2005.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Emerson, Ginny L; Carroll, Darin S; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Reynolds, Mary G; Karem, Kevin L; Olson, Victoria A; Lash, R Ryan; Davidson, Whitni B; Smith, Scott K; Levine, Rebecca S; Regnery, Russell L; Sammons, Scott A; Frace, Michael A; Mutasim, Elmangory M; Karsani, Mubarak E M; Muntasir, Mohammed O; Babiker, Alimagboul A; Opoka, Langova; Chowdhary, Vipul; Damon, Inger K

    2013-02-01

    Identification of human monkeypox cases during 2005 in southern Sudan (now South Sudan) raised several questions about the natural history of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in Africa. The outbreak area, characterized by seasonally dry riverine grasslands, is not identified as environmentally suitable for MPXV transmission. We examined possible origins of this outbreak by performing phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences of MPXV isolates from the outbreak in Sudan and from differing localities. We also compared the environmental suitability of study localities for monkeypox transmission. Phylogenetically, the viruses isolated from Sudan outbreak specimens belong to a clade identified in the Congo Basin. This finding, added to the political instability of the area during the time of the outbreak, supports the hypothesis of importation by infected animals or humans entering Sudan from the Congo Basin, and person-to-person transmission of virus, rather than transmission of indigenous virus from infected animals to humans. PMID:23347770

  5. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  6. Notes from the field: acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks caused by coxsackievirus A24v --- Uganda and southern Sudan, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-08-20

    CDC was contacted on June 22, 2010, by the Ugandan Ministry of Health (MoH)/Uganda Virus Research Institute and on July 11 by the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) via the CDC Global Disease Detection Regional Center in Kenya to perform diagnostic laboratory testing on conjunctival swabs from persons with "red eye syndrome." Widespread, ongoing outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) have been observed in Uganda and Southern Sudan since spring 2010. AHC becomes a reportable condition in outbreak settings. Case numbers were estimated in Uganda after MoH confirmation of reported cases from district health facilities and, in Southern Sudan, after a medical record review in six health facilities. To date, 6,818 cases from 26 districts in Uganda, and 428 cases in Juba, Southern Sudan, have been counted; however, because most cases are not reported, these totals are considered underestimates. PMID:20724969

  7. Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-11-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself. PMID:22309968

  8. The epidemiology of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in southern Sudan

    E-print Network

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona E.; Ole-Sempele, Francis; Onsarigo, Alice; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul M.

    2007-08-28

    AcceResearch article The epidemiology of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in southern Sudan Jeremiah Ngondi*1, Mark Reacher1, Fiona Matthews2, Francis Ole-Sempele3, Alice Onsarigo4, Ibrahim Matende5, Samson Baba6, Carol Brayne1... low vision or blindness by the time they reach their late thirties. This epidemiologic picture is consistent with a severe burden of trichiasis and vision loss at a much younger age than had been appreciated. It is also indicative of lack of trich...

  9. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis... Determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and... under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis,...

  10. Lessons learned from translators and interpreters from the Dinka tribe of southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Baird, Martha B

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the methodological challenges associated with working with translators and interpreters from the Dinka tribe of southern Sudan during an ethnographic study with refugee Dinka women who were resettled with their children in the United States. Navigating the cultural differences between the researcher, the translator, and the interpreters provided a deeper understanding about the culture of the study population. The lessons learned included the importance of cultural congruence between the interpreters and participants; the education, training, and experience of the interpreters; and the difficulties encountered in preparing interpreters according to university institutional review board requirements. Cultural differences such as time perception and communication and literacy styles were negotiated throughout each phase of the study. The most valuable lesson learned from this experience was the importance of the relationship between the researcher, the translator, and the interpreters as well as between the interpreters and participants to achieve credibility and trustworthiness of the study results. PMID:21317404

  11. Participatory diagnosis of a chronic wasting disease in cattle in southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Catley, A; Okoth, S; Osman, J; Fison, T; Njiru, Z; Mwangi, J; Jones, B A; Leyland, T J

    2001-10-11

    In southern Sudan, livestock keepers identified a chronic wasting disease in adult cattle as one of their most-serious animal-health problems. Participatory-appraisal (PA) methods and conventional veterinary-investigation methods were used to characterise the chronic wasting disease and identify linkages between indigenous knowledge and modern veterinary knowledge. The local characterisation of chronic wasting encompassed trypanosomosis, fasciolosis, parasitic gastroenteritis and schistosomosis (as both single and mixed infections).A standardised PA method called matrix scoring had good reproducibility when investigating local perceptions of disease-signs and disease causes. Comparison of matrix-scoring results showed much overlap with modern veterinary descriptions of cattle diseases and the results of conventional veterinary investigation. Applications of PA methods in remote areas with very limited veterinary infrastructure are discussed. The validation of data derived from PA is discussed by reference to the low sensitivity of 'field-friendly' diagnostic tests for important cattle diseases. PMID:11535278

  12. Integrated Surveys of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Southern Sudan: How Much Do They Cost and Can They Be Refined?

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Hanson, Kara; Robinson, Emily; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Mpakateni, Martin; Lado, Mounir; Moore, Stephen; Petty, Nora; Brooker, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing emphasis on integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires identification of co-endemic areas. Integrated surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection have been recommended for this purpose. Integrated survey designs inevitably involve balancing the costs of surveys against accuracy of classifying areas for treatment, so-called implementation units (IUs). This requires an understanding of the main cost drivers and of how operating procedures may affect both cost and accuracy of surveys. Here we report a detailed cost analysis of the first round of integrated NTD surveys in Southern Sudan. Methods and Findings Financial and economic costs were estimated from financial expenditure records and interviews with survey staff using an ingredients approach. The main outcome was cost per IU surveyed. Uncertain variables were subjected to univariate sensitivity analysis and the effects of modifying standard operating procedures were explored. The average economic cost per IU surveyed was USD 40,206 or USD 9,573, depending on the size of the IU. The major cost drivers were two key categories of recurrent costs: i) survey consumables, and ii) personnel. Conclusion The cost of integrated surveys in Southern Sudan could be reduced by surveying larger administrative areas for LF. If this approach was taken, the estimated economic cost of completing LF, schistosomiasis and STH mapping in Southern Sudan would amount to USD 1.6 million. The methodological detail and costing template provided here could be used to generate cost estimates in other settings and readily compare these to the present study, and may help budget for integrated and single NTDs surveys elsewhere. PMID:20644619

  13. Prevalence of livestock diseases and their impact on livelihoods in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Malak, A K; Mpoke, L; Banak, J; Muriuki, S; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D; Sunter, J; Kiara, H

    2012-05-01

    A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted in Kajo Keji and Yei Counties, Central Equatoria State, southern Sudan to assess the impact of livestock diseases on livelihoods. A serological survey of tick-borne diseases was conducted to supplement the PE study. PE data collection tools consisted primarily of focus group interviews and key informant interviews supplemented by observation. Information was collected on the social context, history and species of livestock kept. Constraints in livestock keeping were explored through description and probing. Proportional piling on the importance of different diseases and relative incidence scoring were also conducted. 243 sera were collected from cattle and tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Theileria mutans and T. parva by ELISA. Additionally, 173 blood samples were collected for a PCR assay of T. parva. Livestock diseases were ranked as the most important constraint to livestock keeping. While East Coast fever was ranked as the most important disease in Kajo Keji, diarrhoea in small ruminants was reported as the most important disease in Yei. Serological analyses of the sera indicated that A. marginale, B. bigemina, T. mutans and T. parva were most prevalent. Prevalence of B. bovis was found to be low (4.0% and 7.4% in Kajo Keji and Yei, respectively). 35% of the samples screened with the T. parva p104 gene nested PCR assay were positive. The study concludes that while ECF is the most important disease in Kajo Keji, it was not the case in Yei. Additional epidemiological studies are proposed before control strategies are recommended. PMID:22244519

  14. The Research Process in a Multi-Level Mixed-Methods Case Study: International Organization Headquarters and Field Employee Perspectives of a Program in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschenbacher, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the methods and data-collection process for a multi-level mixed-methods case study. Data for the study were gathered through phone interviews and electronic surveys from individuals working on the same educational program in Southern Sudan, though some were supporting the program from outside the country. The…

  15. They Own This: Mother Tongue Instruction for Indigenous Kuku Children in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laguarda, Ana Isabel; Woodward, Walter Pierce

    2013-01-01

    This article details a pilot program of mother tongue instruction in five primary schools for classes one through three, in Kajokeji County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. The program was launched by teachers and volunteers with the support of the Jesuit Refugee Service, an international non-governmental organization. The research examines…

  16. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Presidential Determination on Sudan Presidential... Presidential Determination on Sudan Memorandum for the Secretary of State President of the Export-Import Bank... related equipment that enables the United Nations to facilitate the referendum in Southern Sudan...

  17. Participatory analysis of seasonal incidences of diseases of cattle, disease vectors and rainfall in southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Catley, A; Osman, J; Mawien, C; Jones, B A; Leyland, T J

    2002-04-15

    During an investigation into a chronic wasting disease in southern Sudanese cattle, a participatory appraisal method called a 'seasonal calendar' was used to understand local perceptions of seasonal variations in cattle diseases, disease vectors, intermediate hosts and rainfall. Repetition of a standardized seasonal calendar with Dinka informants demonstrated good reproducibility of the method. Comparison of rainfall data produced by seasonal calendars and objective measures of rainfall demonstrated good validity of the seasonal calendar method. Subjective assessment of seasonal calendar scoring patterns by veterinarians indicated that herders' perceptions of seasonal populations of biting flies, ticks and snails were similar to modern veterinary knowledge. The uses of seasonal calendars in veterinary epidemiology are discussed. PMID:11937234

  18. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  19. 31 CFR 538.320 - Specified Areas of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specified Areas of Sudan. 538.320 Section 538.320 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... Definitions § 538.320 Specified Areas of Sudan. (a) The term Specified Areas of Sudan means Southern...

  20. Sudan Grass. 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, B.; Conner, A. B.

    1915-01-01

    EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN No. 172 JANUARY, 1915 ? SUDAN GRASS ? '! POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS ? VON BOECKMANN-JONES CO., PRINTERS, AUSTIN, TEXAS 1915 BLANK PAGE IN ORIGINAL A42-f1 5-30m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT~ STATION... BuLLETIN No. 172 JANUARY, 1915 SUDAN GRASS BY B. YOUNGBLOOD .AND A. B. CONNER POSTOFFICE: COLLI:GE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS VON BOECKMANN-JONES CO., PRINTERS, .\\. USTIN .. I'EXAS 1915 AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS w...

  1. 75 FR 75865 - Presidential Determination on Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... in the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, November 19, 2010 [FR Doc... Sudan Memorandum for the Secretary of State President of the Export-Import Bank of the United States By... enables the United Nations to facilitate the referendum in Southern Sudan pursuant to the...

  2. The Birth of a New Nation: The Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In early July, the country of Sudan, wracked by civil war since the 1980s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan. Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or "Unity." For the…

  3. A sensitivity study on the role of the swamps of southern Sudan in the summer climate of North Africa using a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaroug, Modathir A. H.; Sylla, M. B.; Giorgi, F.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Aggarwal, Pradeep K.

    2013-07-01

    We used the regional climate model RegCM3 to investigate the role of the swamps of southern Sudan in affecting the climate of the surrounding region. Towards this end, we first assessed the performance of a high resolution version of the model over northern Africa. RegCM3 shows a good skill in simulating the climatology of rainfall and temperature patterns as well as the related circulation features during the summer season, outperforming previous coarser resolution applications of the model over this region. Sensitivity experiments reveal that, relative to bare soil conditions, the swamps act to locally modify the surface energy budget primarily through an increase of surface latent heat flux. Existence of the swamps leads to lower ground temperature (up to 2 °C), a larger north-south temperature gradient, and increased local rainfall (up to 40 %). Of particular importance is the impact on rainfall in the surrounding regions. The swamps have almost no impact on the rainfall over the source region of the Nile in Ethiopia or in the Sahel region; however, they favor wetter conditions over central Sudan (up to 15 %) in comparison to the bare desert soil conditions.

  4. Flood pulsing in the Sudd wetland: analysis of seasonal variations in 2 inundation and evapotranspiration in Southern Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Rebelo, L-M.; McCartney, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Located on the Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan, the Sudd is one of the largest floodplain wetlands in the world. Seasonal inundation drives the hydrologic, geomorphological, and ecological processes, and the annual flood pulse is essential to the functioning of the Sudd. Despite the importance of the flood pulse, various hydrological interventions are planned upstream of the Sudd to increase economic benefits and food security. These will not be without consequences, in particular for wetlands where the biological productivity, biodiversity, and human livelihoods are dependent on the flood pulse and both the costs and benefits need to be carefully evaluated. Many African countries still lack regional baseline information on the temporal extent, distribution, and characteristics of wetlands, making it hard to assess the consequences of development interventions. Because of political instability in Sudan and the inaccessible nature of the Sudd, recent measurements of flooding and seasonal dynamics are inadequate. Analyses of multitemporal and multisensor remote sensing datasets are presented in this paper, in order to investigate and characterize flood pulsing within the Sudd wetland over a 12-month period. Wetland area has been mapped along with dominant components of open water and flooded vegetation at five time periods over a single year. The total area of flooding (both rain and river fed) over the 12 months was 41 334 km2, with 9176 km2 of this constituting the permanent wetland. Mean annual total evaporation is shown to be higher and with narrower distribution of values from areas of open water (1718 mm) than from flooded vegetation (1641 mm). Although the exact figures require validation against ground-based measurements, the results highlight the relative differences in inundation patterns and evaporation across the Sudd.

  5. Food aid and development in southern Sudan: implications of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement for response planning.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Buzz

    2007-03-01

    In the post-Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) era a greater impact on the unacceptably high prevalence of child malnutrition is more likely to come from additional investment and attention to education, health, hygiene, sanitation and childcare practices than from expanded food aid interventions. The negligible impact of food aid on malnutrition, although most commonly challenged on the quality of needs assessments, is equally attributable to the timing of deliveries, and a dysfunctional distribution system. Comparatively few resources have been allocated to strengthen skills for assessing, analysing and understanding community priorities, local economies, and social safety nets. A more thoughtful allocation of scarce funds could have more impact if a range of alternative responses was considered. Participation in and commitment to a more independent livelihoods analytical forum would improve communication with the new government, local leaders and other partners, as well as providing a platform for reaching consensus on both humanitarian and development planning over the next five years. PMID:17349001

  6. A climate trend analysis of Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, Jim; Rowland, Jim; Marshall, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Summer rains in western and southern Sudan have declined by 10-20 percent since the mid-1970s. Observed warming of more than 1 degree Celsius is equivalent to another 10-20 percent reduction in rainfall for crops. The warming and drying have impacted southern Darfur and areas around Juba. Rainfall declines west of Juba threaten southern Sudan's future food production prospects. In many cases, areas with changing climate are coincident with zones of substantial conflict, suggesting some degree of association; however, the contribution of climate change to these conflicts is not currently understood. Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a more variable climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Sudan over the next 20 years.

  7. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Lucas, S.G. and Spielmann, J.A., eds., 2007, The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 41. TRIASSIC-JURASSIC BOUNDARYON THE SOUTHERN MARGIN OFTETHYS

    E-print Network

    McRoberts, Christopher A.

    this period (Late Triassic-Early Jurassic). Numerous tectonic processes were active during the time History and Science Bulletin 41. TRIASSIC-JURASSIC BOUNDARYON THE SOUTHERN MARGIN OFTETHYS: IMPLICATIONS the Triassic­Jurassic boundary in the southern Tethyan margin have been studied in Egypt, Sudan, Jordan

  9. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River and its tributaries were not transformed upstream our sample points (Lavie et al., 2013, under press). Finally, we studied an urban drinking waters network, in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, one of the least developed countries, with chronic political crises. The nearly 6 million inhabitants of this settlement suffer many cuts and bad pressure at tap. Furthermore, Nile's waters that feed the network are summarily treated and then quite turbid, especially in summer during Nile's floods. This situation obliges the population to store and to decant water, transforming it into clear ones (Lavie and Hamza, 2013, under press). The results of our studies demonstrate that, generally, we can observe a correlation between increasing turbidity and bacteriology, and decreasing oximetry. This assumption is disproven in many cases: (1) the stagnant waters of Khartoum and (2) the clarified Mendoza River waters. Finally, (3) the seasonal anthropogenic uses of soil and waters in the Doubegue and Tunuyán Rivers have more impact on the bacteriological quality than the natural seasonality of the suspended solids because soil erosion has increased.

  10. Seismotectonic implications of sand blows in the southern Mississippi Embayment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.T.; Hill, A.A.; Larsen, D.; Holzer, T.; Forman, S.L.; Noce, T.; Gardner, C.; Morat, J.

    2007-01-01

    We explore seismically-induced sand blows from the southern Mississippi Embayment and their implications in resolving the question of near or distal epicentral source region. This was accomplished using aerial photography, field excavations, and cone penetration tests. Our analysis shows that three sand blow fields exhibit a distinct chronology of strong ground motion for the southern embayment: (1) The Ashley County, Arkansas sand blow field, near the Arkansas/Louisiana state border, experienced four Holocene sand venting episodes; (2) to the north, the Desha County field experienced at least three episodes of liquefaction; and (3) the Lincoln-Jefferson Counties field experienced at least one episode. Cone penetration tests (CPT) conducted in and between the sand blow fields suggest that the fields may not be distal liquefaction associated with New Madrid seismic zone earthquakes but rather are likely associated with strong earthquakes on local faults. This conclusion is consistent with the differences in timing of the southern embayment sand venting episodes and those in the New Madrid seismic zone. These results suggest that active tectonism and strong seismicity in intraplate North America may not be localized at isolated weak spots, but rather widespread on fault systems that are favorably oriented for slip in the contemporary stress field. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Politics of Writing Tribal Identities in the Sudan: The Case of the Colonial Nuba Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Linguistics is implicated in the colonial project of the invention of "self-contained" "racial" and "tribal units" in the Sudan. This paper has two objectives. First, to historicise the notions of "language" in the postcolonial discourse of language planning in the Sudan by reviewing one of the significant colonial policies: the colonial Nuba…

  12. Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in southern Appalachian Mountain streams: implications for trout

    E-print Network

    Hutchens, John

    Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in southern Appalachian Mountain streams: implications. Streams of this region typically have low standing stock and production of trout because of low benthic in the southern Appalachians, ecotrophic coefficients and food conversion efficiencies. 3. Abundance and biomass

  13. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard University in…

  14. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  15. 31 CFR 538.505 - Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. 538.505 Section 538.505 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.505 Provision of certain legal services to the Government of Sudan, persons in Sudan, or benefitting Sudan. (a) The provision to the Government of Sudan, to a person in Sudan, or...

  16. Atmospheric Teleconnections of Northern Hemisphere cooling to the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes, and implications for Southern Ocean ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, John; Lee, Shih-Yu; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tokos, Kathy

    2010-05-01

    Recent marine proxy studies, most notably by Anderson et al. (2009), show intensification of wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean during Heinrich events, and suggesting the possibility of robust atmospheric teleconnections from the Northern Hemisphere affecting the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude westerlies. We explore the latter hypothesis using simulations of an AGCM coupled to a reduced-gravity ocean, and with reference to current thinking regarding extratropical-tropical atmospheric dynamical linkages. When we simulate a Heinrich-like event in our model (by cooling the North Atlantic), we find a significant strengthening of the southern midlatitude westerlies, in particular during the austral winter (JJA), and in the South Pacific. The other pronounced climate change is a marked southward shift of the tropical rainbelt, indicating alteration of the Hadley circulation. Our analysis indicates that the teleconnection can be broken into two parts: first, the northern hemisphere cooling shifting the ITCZ southwards with a pronounced effect on the Hadley circulation (Lindzen and Hou 1988), and then the altered Hadley circulation in turn affecting the southern midlatitude westerlies through the former's control of the southern subtropical westerlies and subsequent effect on the eddy-driven midlatitude westerlies (Lee and Kim, 2003). The seasonal (JJA) and regional (South Pacific) preference of the teleconnection's effects can be explained in terms of the peculiarities of the regional atmospheric dynamics. As an aside, we also find that the growth or decay of the Laurentide ice sheet can also generate this type of north-south teleconnection, although the dynamics are somewhat different. With regards to possible implications for southern ocean ventilation and atmospheric CO2: we applied the wind changes we obtained in our AGCM 'Heinrich' simulation to a global biogeochemical model (the Minnesota Earth System Model for Ocean biogeochemistry), and found a ~20ppm increase to the equilibrated atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the increase is substantially higher (~60ppm) if feedbacks from biology are turned off in the model. In short, we find the scenario as hypothesized by Anderson et al. (2009) to be quite plausible. Our study elucidates and emphasizes the central role of atmospheric teleconnections in the story, in particular the importance of tropical circulation mediating the intimate coupling between the northern and southern high-latitude climate through atmospheric circulation. More broadly, it underscores the control that the northern hemisphere has on southern midlatitude winds, in contrast to past paleoclimate suggestions that the magnitude and/or position of the southern midlatitudes was controlled by global temperatures. References: Anderson et al., Science 323, 1443 (2009) Lee and Kim, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 60, 1490-1503 (2003) Lindzen and Hou, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 45, 2416-2427 (1988)

  17. Structural Implications of Walloomsac and Hartland Rocks Displayed by Borings in Southern Manhattan

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    Structural Implications of Walloomsac and Hartland Rocks Displayed by Borings in Southern Manhattan penetrated bedrock from various construction sites throughout NYC. Careful examination of rock core, sampling by ductile faults known as the St. Nicholas thrust and Cameron's Line the schistose rocks, from

  18. Structural Implications of Walloomsac and Hartland Rocks of Southern Manhattan Island

    E-print Network

    Merguerian, Charles

    Structural Implications of Walloomsac and Hartland Rocks of Southern Manhattan Island Charles of Manhattan Island. From their structural base upwards, allochthonous schistose rocks are mapped. Preliminary results indicate that a belt of Walloomsac schistose and calc-silicate rocks appears south

  19. [Sudan, through the back door].

    PubMed

    Veeken, H

    1998-08-01

    South Sudan has five million inhabitants and has been fighting a war of independence with North Sudan since 1959. The hostilities have totally disrupted society and the country is the most inaccessible of Africa. International non-government organizations co-operate in relief activities in the 'Operation Life Line'. Semi-nomadic pastoral tribes populate South Sudan. Doctors Without Borders assisted in fighting a major epidemic of kala azar in the late eighties which cost some 200,000 lives; the organization still provides medical aid in the country. PMID:9856145

  20. Seismic Hazard Implication of the Seismotectonics of southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midzi, Vunganai; Mulabisana, Thifelimbilu; Manzunzu, Brassnavy

    2014-05-01

    The work presented in this report / presentation was prepared as part of the requirements for the SIDA/IGCP Project 601 titled "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" as well as part of the seismic source characterisation of the GEM-Africa Seismic hazard study. An effort was made to compile information necessary to prepare a seismotectonic map of Africa which can then be used in carrying out a seismic hazard assessment of the continent or locations within the continent. Information on major faults, fault plane solutions, geophysical data as well as stress data has so far been collected and included in a database for the southern Africa region. Reports published by several experts contributed much to the collected information. The seismicity data used are part of the earthquake catalogue being prepared for the GEM-Africa project, which includes historical and instrumental records as collected from various sources. An effort has been made to characterise the identified major faults and through further analysis investigate their possible impact on the seismic hazard of southern Africa.

  1. Agricultural fields, Khartoum, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This herringbone pattern of irrigated agricultural fields near Khartoum, Sudan (14.5N, 33.5E) is very distinctive in both size and shape. The region contains thousands of these rectangular fields bounded by canals which carry water from both the White and Blue Nile Rivers. A crop rotation system is used so that some fields are in cotton, millit, sorghum or fallow to conserve moisture and control weeds and insects. See also STS049-96-003.

  2. Language Situation in Post-War Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2010-01-01

    The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan, after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…

  3. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  4. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  5. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of Sudan. 538.305 Section... § 538.305 Government of Sudan. (a) The term Government of Sudan includes: (1) The state and the Government of Sudan, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including...

  6. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan. 538... Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan. (a) Any financial transaction with a depository institution located in an area of Sudan other than the Specified Areas of Sudan, e.g., Khartoum,...

  7. A Late Neoproterozoic (V630 Ma) high-magnesium andesite suite from southern Israel: implications for the consolidation

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    A Late Neoproterozoic (V630 Ma) high-magnesium andesite suite from southern Israel: implications, when the dykes were emplaced. These magmas had compositions of basaltic andesites and andesites but had and depleted in heavy rare earth elements. They are high-magnesium andesites and are similar to low-Ca type 2

  8. The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for

    E-print Network

    Naveira Garabato, Alberto

    The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Gala´pagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different

  9. Environmental justice and regional inequality in southern California: implications for future research.

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Pastor, Manuel; Porras, Carlos; Sadd, James

    2002-01-01

    Environmental justice offers researchers new insights into the juncture of social inequality and public health and provides a framework for policy discussions on the impact of discrimination on the environmental health of diverse communities in the United States. Yet, causally linking the presence of potentially hazardous facilities or environmental pollution with adverse health effects is difficult, particularly in situations in which diverse populations are exposed to complex chemical mixtures. A community-academic research collaborative in southern California sought to address some of these methodological challenges by conducting environmental justice research that makes use of recent advances in air emissions inventories and air exposure modeling data. Results from several of our studies indicate that communities of color bear a disproportionate burden in the location of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities and Toxic Release Inventory facilities. Longitudinal analysis further suggests that facility siting in communities of color, not market-based "minority move-in," accounts for these disparities. The collaborative also investigated the health risk implications of outdoor air toxics exposures from mobile and stationary sources and found that race plays an explanatory role in predicting cancer risk distributions among populations in the region, even after controlling for other socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Although it is unclear whether study results from southern California can be meaningfully generalized to other regions in the United States, they do have implications for approaching future research in the realm of environmental justice. The authors propose a political economy and social inequality framework to guide future research that could better elucidate the origins of environmental inequality and reasons for its persistence. PMID:11929723

  10. Identification of two distinct fire regimes in Southern California: implications for economic impact and future change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yufang; Goulden, Michael L.; Faivre, Nicolas; Veraverbeke, Sander; Sun, Fengpeng; Hall, Alex; Hand, Michael S.; Hook, Simon; Randerson, James T.

    2015-09-01

    The area burned by Southern California wildfires has increased in recent decades, with implications for human health, infrastructure, and ecosystem management. Meteorology and fuel structure are universally recognized controllers of wildfire, but their relative importance, and hence the efficacy of abatement and suppression efforts, remains controversial. Southern California’s wildfires can be partitioned by meteorology: fires typically occur either during Santa Ana winds (SA fires) in October through April, or warm and dry periods in June through September (non-SA fires). Previous work has not quantitatively distinguished between these fire regimes when assessing economic impacts or climate change influence. Here we separate five decades of fire perimeters into those coinciding with and without SA winds. The two fire types contributed almost equally to burned area, yet SA fires were responsible for 80% of cumulative 1990-2009 economic losses (3.1 Billion). The damage disparity was driven by fire characteristics: SA fires spread three times faster, occurred closer to urban areas, and burned into areas with greater housing values. Non-SA fires were comparatively more sensitive to age-dependent fuels, often occurred in higher elevation forests, lasted for extended periods, and accounted for 70% of total suppression costs. An improved distinction of fire type has implications for future projections and management. The area burned in non-SA fires is projected to increase 77% (±43%) by the mid-21st century with warmer and drier summers, and the SA area burned is projected to increase 64% (±76%), underscoring the need to evaluate the allocation and effectiveness of suppression investments.

  11. Peace impact on health: population access to iodized salt in south Sudan in post-conflict period

    PubMed Central

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the population access to salt/iodized salt during and after the armed conflict in south Sudan and to illustrate geographical variations in population consumption of iodized salt in south Sudan after the armed conflict. Methods The sources of data for the conflict period were the 2004 Toward a Baseline: Best Estimates of Social Indicators for Southern Sudan study report and the 2000 Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey, and for the post-conflict period the 2005 Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) data set. Results After peace agreement, population access to salt increased by 6.8% (Z?=?5.488, P?Sudan. Public health authorities in south Sudan need to establish quality monitoring and surveillance systems to track progress toward Universal Salt Iodization goal defined by the World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. PMID:21495201

  12. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Chris G.; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture. PMID:25561845

  13. 31 CFR 538.418 - Financial transactions in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Financial transactions in Sudan... OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT...Interpretations § 538.418 Financial transactions in Sudan...to the routing of the financial transaction through...the Office of Foreign Assets Control....

  14. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  15. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers...

  16. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  17. 31 CFR 538.417 - Transshipments through Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transshipments through Sudan. 538.417... § 538.417 Transshipments through Sudan. (a) The exportation or reexportation of goods, technology, or services to the Specified Areas of Sudan is exempt under § 538.212(g) only if such goods, technology,...

  18. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers to items controlled to Iran, Sudan, and Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. AT column 2 refers to additional items controlled to Iran and Sudan for anti-terrorism...

  19. Major climate indicators of ongoing drought in Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Elhag, Muna M.

    2011-11-01

    SummaryThere has been a rigorous debate during the 2000s about the recovery of the African Sahel from the long-lasting drought. To examine the situation in Sudan, this paper develops the standardized anomaly indices (SAIs) of mean annual temperature and annual rainfall, and accordingly, establishes the Pedj drought index (PDI) since the 1940s to 2008 for 14 stations spread over the country. There has been a drastic increase in temperatures (maximum, minimum, and mean) over the whole country in line with a significant decline of rainfall over the northern half of the country. Evidence of a correlation between temperature and rainfall anomalies has been reported, emphasizing the concurrence of dry and hot periods. These results suggest less effective rainfall. Contrary to the postulation of recovery from the long-lasting drought in the African Sahel, the results for Sudan indicate intensifying drought evidenced by significant rising trends in PDI. The 2000s depict a widespread and prolonged drought (mild to severe), except for the extreme southern and south-western parts of the country which displayed excess of humidity. The frequency of occurrence of drought classes during 1975-2008 ranged from 44.1% to 70.6% compared to a frequency extending from 8.8% to 40.0% for 1941-1974. The PDI succeeded to represent satisfactorily drought episodes captured by other drought indices recommended worldwide. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index has a significant footprint on the PDI, strongly affecting the country south of latitude 15°N.

  20. Not just about sunburn--the ozone hole's profound effect on climate has significant implications for Southern Hemisphere ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sharon A; Erickson, David J

    2015-02-01

    Climate scientists have concluded that stratospheric ozone depletion has been a major driver of Southern Hemisphere climate processes since about 1980. The implications of these observed and modelled changes in climate are likely to be far more pervasive for both terrestrial and marine ecosystems than the increase in ultraviolet-B radiation due to ozone depletion; however, they have been largely overlooked in the biological literature. Here, we synthesize the current understanding of how ozone depletion has impacted Southern Hemisphere climate and highlight the relatively few documented impacts on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Reviewing the climate literature, we present examples of how ozone depletion changes atmospheric and oceanic circulation, with an emphasis on how these alterations in the physical climate system affect Southern Hemisphere weather, especially over the summer season (December-February). These potentially include increased incidence of extreme events, resulting in costly floods, drought, wildfires and serious environmental damage. The ecosystem impacts documented so far include changes to growth rates of South American and New Zealand trees, decreased growth of Antarctic mosses and changing biodiversity in Antarctic lakes. The objective of this synthesis was to stimulate the ecological community to look beyond ultraviolet-B radiation when considering the impacts of ozone depletion. Such widespread changes in Southern Hemisphere climate are likely to have had as much or more impact on natural ecosystems and food production over the past few decades, than the increased ultraviolet radiation due to ozone depletion. PMID:25402975

  1. The New South as Curriculum: Implications for Understanding Southern Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castenell, Louis A.

    The culture of the southern United States is examined in the context of its effects on race relations and how it is portrayed in curriculum. Many of the southern racial tragedies of the past are still unresolved and this is reflected in schools as they teach about the South. Since schools are dependent on published materials to teach classes, and…

  2. Political Implications of the Southern African Development Community Agenda on Educational Development in the Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nziramasanga, Caiphas T.

    This paper briefly describes the historical development of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) from its roots in 1980 and examines the work of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) today. The objectives of the SADCC are listed from the 1980 declaration and the achievement of those objectives are assessed.…

  3. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints and geometrical and compositional input for local models of stress and strain. Results will be further used to validate and to test inferred erosion patterns and the potential effect on stress differentiation, in view of the exploration and production of (un)conventional hydrocarbons.

  4. Fire Regimes of the Southern Appalachian Mountains: Temporal and Spatial Variability and Implications for Vegetation Dynamics 

    E-print Network

    Flatley, William 1977-

    2012-08-31

    Ecologists continue to debate the role of fire in forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains. How does climate influence fire in these humid, temperate forests? Did fire regimes change during the transition from Native ...

  5. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The spread of the redbay ambrosia beetle and its fungal symbiont has been very rapid, exceeding model predictions (Koch and Smith, 2008); by 2011, laurel wilt disease was found from the southern coastal plain of North Carolina to southern peninsular Florida. The first redbay ambrosia beetle was trapped in Miami-Dade County in March 2010, and laurel wilt disease was discovered in swamp bays in February 2011 and in commercial avocado groves about a year later (Kendra and others, 2013). By 2013, laurel wilt disease was seen in swamp bays throughout the southern Everglades in Everglades National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve, and Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) 3A and 3B (Rodgers and others, 2014).

  6. Rehabilitation of the expanded programme on immunization in Sudan following a poliomyelitis outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    ElZein, H. A.; Birmingham, M. E.; Karrar, Z. A.; Elhassan, A. A.; Omer, A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 a large outbreak of paralytic poliomyelitis occurred in Sudan as a result of an accumulation of large numbers of susceptible children that was accelerated by faltering immunization services. The extent of the outbreak led to the rapid rehabilitation of Sudan's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI); the government began financing vaccine purchase, operational aspects of EPI were decentralized, vaccine delivery was changed from a mobile to a fixed-site strategy, a solar cold chain network was installed, inservice training was resuscitated, and social mobilization was enhanced. National immunization days (NIDs) for poliomyelitis eradication were conducted throughout the country, including the southern states during a cease fire in areas of conflict. Measles immunization coverage was increased by offering measles vaccine during the second round of NIDs and subsequently through routine immunization services. Supplemental tetanus toxoid immunization of women of child-bearing age began in three provinces at high risk for neonatal tetanus. From 1994 to 1996 reported immunization coverage increased and the incidence of all EPI target diseases fell. Trends in coverage, disease incidence, financing, and the implementation of WHO-recommended disease-control strategies suggest that more sustainable immunization services have been re-established in Sudan. PMID:9803584

  7. Tectonic implications of the microearthquake seismicity and fault plane solutions in southern Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grange, F.; Hatzfeld, D.; Cunningham, P.; Molnar, P.; Roecker, S. W.; Suarez, G.; Rodrigues, A.; Ocola, L.

    1984-01-01

    Because the contortion in the seismic zone in southern Peru is aligned approximately parallel to the direction of relative plate motion, rather than perpendicular to the coast of Peru, the position of the contortion need not migrate with respect to the overriding South American plate as the Nazca plate subducts beneath it, and the flow in the surrounding asthenosphere could be in a steady state. In addition, the position of the contortion defines the northern boundary of the volcanic arc in southern Peru. The inference that a wedge of asthenospheric material must overlie the downgoing slab for subduction-related volcanism to occur is thereby strengthened.

  8. Dissertation Citations in Organismal Biology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Implications for Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabe, Jonathan; Imre, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    We report on a citation analysis of Ph.D. dissertations in plant biology and zoology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, undertaken to test the common assumption that scientists favor current research to such an extent that journal backfiles can be de-emphasized in academic library collections. Results demonstrate otherwise. The study is…

  9. Increased dry-season length over southern Amazonia in recent decades and its implication for future

    E-print Network

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    -season length (DSL) is among the most important climate limitations for sustaining rainforests (6­ 9 and simulate these changes over southern Amazonia. climate variability | rainforests | climate model projection Fifteen percent of global photosynthesis occurs in the Amazon rainforest (1), where 25% of plant species

  10. Energy, Product, and Economic Implications of Environmental Compliance Options- A Southern California Case Study 

    E-print Network

    Kyricopoulos, P. F.; Dennison, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    to selecting an option to implement. We discuss how the options are assembled into an array of coping strategies for environmental compliance. This work is part of an ongoing project to develop a database of regulations and technology options. (A major Southern...

  11. A Grammar of Northern and Southern Gumuz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Colleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern

  12. Genesis of an esker-like ridge over the southern Fraser Plateau, British Columbia: Implications for paleo-ice sheet reconstruction based on geomorphic inversion

    E-print Network

    Brennand, Tracy

    Genesis of an esker-like ridge over the southern Fraser Plateau, British Columbia: Implications in revised form 6 February 2013 Accepted 11 February 2013 Available online 19 February 2013 Keywords: Esker-based paleo-ice sheet reconstructions. This problem is illustrated by the evolution of Young Lake esker

  13. Salt fortification with iodine: Sudan situation analysis.

    PubMed

    Izzeldin, S H; Crawford, M A; Ghebremeskel, K

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute a severe public health problem in Sudan. IDD affects children and women throughout life. More than 2 out of 10 school age children have goiter. The prevalence reaches 40% in some regions of the country. Several interventional measures were introduced to control the IDD problem. While the situation with regard to production and supply of iodized salt was thus deteriorating, an Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment Survey (EFSNA) revealed that the prevalence of IDD among adult women, as reflected in the presence of visible goiter, was as high as 25.5%. We have conducted a situation analysis survey in the Republic of Sudan to review the prevailing situation and suggest a benchmark that would help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementations. SWOT analysis, questionnaire, focus groups discussion beside a combination of rapid assessment approach and qualitative method were used to critically evaluate the salt iodization situation in the country and assess the prevailing IDD situation in and propose a plan of action to overcome the bottlenecks. The survey concluded that Iodine deficiency affects children and women all through Sudan. The prevalence is even greater in some regions of the country and there is no supportive policy environment for successful universal salt iodization. To overcome this aggravated situation Sudan will need to conduct a baseline study to provide data on the prevalence of IDD, geographic distribution, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to iodine deficiency. This will provide a benchmark that will help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementation. The study recommended a set of actions to the government to overcome the prevailing situation and strengthening the current policy and implementation. PMID:19326717

  14. Jebel Marra Volcano Caldera, Sudan, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This excellent view of Jebel Marra Volcano Caldera, Sudan, Africa (13.0N, 24.5E) shows the collapsed mouth of this ancient volcano withh two smaller calderas now acting as lakes. As one of the highest regions of the eastern Sahara Desert, the Jebel Marra receives more rainfall than the surrounding desert. The radial pattern of streams flowing away from the highest points of the calderas is accenuated by a large dark colored lava flow.

  15. Possible glacio-fluvial landforms in southern Argyre Planitia, Mars: Implications for glacier thickness and depositional settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, H.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.; Ivanov, M.; Erkeling, G.

    2012-09-01

    Our study presents new insights into possible formation mechanisms and glacio-fluvial implications of previously identified esker-like sinuous ridges on layered terrain in southern Argyre Planitia [1,2,3,4,5]. Based on detailed morphologic analyses and comparisons with terrestrial analogs, we interpret the ridges and their surroundings to be eskers on glacio-fluvial sediments. We propose the formation of northward trending degraded ridges to have involved back- and downwasting ice near the glacier rim comparable to the Piedmont-style Malaspina Glacier, Alaska [6]. Computational reconstruction suggests the eastward trending, more pristine ridges to have formed beneath a ~2 km thick ice sheet before its stagnant retreat. Fluvial landforms on top of or etched into possible glacial deposits also point to a distinct period of fluvial activity after glacial activity ceased.

  16. Lead isotopes in Southern Ocean marine sediments: implications for paleoclimatic provenance and seawater studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. P.; Martin, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopes in detrital marine sediments and authigenic oxide coatings have proven useful in reconstructing past changes in continental weathering of glaciated continents and ocean circulation. This approach is under-utilised in the Southern Ocean, despite uncertainties about the evolution of Antarctica's ice sheets and oceanographic changes in this region throughout the Cenozoic. Lead isotopes in sediments are controlled by the mineralogy and age of their bedrock sources, making them an ideal tool to trace changes in Southern Ocean sediment provenance associated with onland erosion patterns (and ice sheet variability), and ocean circulation. However, core-top mapping of Pb isotope signatures of detrital marine sediments in this region is non-existent. We present new Pb isotope data for acid-digested <63µm and bulk Late Holocene sediments from 40 cores located in the East Antarctic sector of Southern Ocean. Results demonstrate that, similar to existing Nd and Sr core-top surveys, distinct provenance sectors can be seen in sediments proximal to the continent, due to the geological characteristics of bedrock sources along the margin. A striking N-S trend is also evident, with distal sediments characterised by less radiogenic isotopic signatures, likely associated with a decrease in radiogenic Pb-bearing minerals with increasing distance from the continental margin. This pattern suggests that Pb isotopes in marine sediments may be useful in reconstructing past provenance trends associated with ice sheet change, and migrations of Southern Ocean frontal positions. In addition, we will present new seawater Pb isotope data from reductive leaching of authigenic coatings of these same sediments, permitting for Late Holocene Pb isotope seawater mapping of the Southern Ocean. To ensure we measured the true seawater signal, we adapted established sequential leaching procedures to minimise detrital contamination, and monitored leachate compositions with Nd isotopes, and major and trace elements. Preliminary results, along with those of parallel detrital studies, suggest Pb isotopes are a viable tool for paleoclimatic studies in areas of the Southern Ocean proximal to Antarctica, and our new data forms an important framework for future studies in the region.

  17. Forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize: Implications for migrant land birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.

  18. The Dinka of Sudan: Family Traditions in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Kate

    This paper examines the core values of the Dinka tribe of Sudan, focusing on the most prominent aspects of their family life. The paper also examines how the Dinka family is changing in the face of Sudan's civil war and modernization. It concludes with suggestions for new directions that social work can take to facilitate the transition of the…

  19. Education in the Sudan: The Privileging of an Islamic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the educational discourse in the part of the Sudan administered by the Government of the Sudan. It first analyses the value system upon which the Sudanese education is based by focusing on the nature of Islamism. Such a discussion is necessary because the dominant discourse is a discourse where power and Islamic theocracy…

  20. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  1. 31 CFR 538.415 - Payments involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments involving Sudan. 538.415 Section 538.415 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 538.415 Payments involving Sudan. Before a United States financial institution initiates a...

  2. Compositional heterogeneity of Asteroid 4 Vesta’s southern hemisphere: Implications for the Dawn mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Gaffey, Michael J.; Kelley, Michael S.; Nathues, Andreas; Li, Jian-Yang; Yarbrough, Robert

    2010-12-01

    High signal-to-noise, rotationally-resolved spectra of Asteroid 4 Vesta's southern hemisphere from the 2007 opposition were used to constrain its compositional and mineralogical variations. The spectra were rotationally-phased using closely timed HST observations of Vesta by Li et al. (Li, J.-Y., McFadden, L.A., Thomas, P.C., Mutchler, M.J., Parker, J.Wm., Young, E.F., Russell, C.T., Sykes, M.V., Schmidt, B.E. [2010]. Icarus 208, 238-251). The average surface of Vesta's southern hemisphere is analogous to a howardite or polymict eucrite assemblage similar to the northern hemisphere, although the band parameters are distinctly shifted towards the diogenite zone on the Band-Band plot. A few distinct compositional units were detected and they might be related to albedo features detected by Hubble Space Telescope (Li et al., 2010). We have identified two compositionally distinct regions overlaying the background surface. The first unit is a polymict eucrite and/or low-Ca eucrite compositional unit at 143° longitude that border the eucrite zone on the Band-Band plot and the second is a diogenite unit at 159°. While we did not detect any distinct olivine units as suggested by Gaffey (Gaffey, M.J. [1997]. Icarus 127, 130-157), we cannot rule out the possibility of smaller olivine-rich units that are below the detection limit of the instrumentation we used. Based on the analysis and the limitations of the data, we do not suggest that Vesta's surface is olivine-free. Mean pyroxene chemistry estimates for both hemispheres broadly agree with one another (to within one-sigma) with the northern hemisphere ferrosilite (Fs) and wollastonite (Wo) values being slightly higher than southern hemisphere.

  3. Southern dispersal and Palaeoecological implications of woolly rhinoceros ( Coelodonta antiquitatis): review of the Iberian occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Lao, Diego J.; García, Nuria

    2011-07-01

    Cold-adapted large mammal populations spread southward during the coldest and driest phases of the Late Pleistocene reaching the Iberian Peninsula. Presence of woolly rhinoceros ( Coelodonta antiquitatis) can be identified from 23 Iberian sites, which is compiled and analyzed herein, and the fossil specimens from seven of these sites are described here for first time. Morphological and biometrical analyses demonstrate that the Iberian woolly rhinoceros did not significantly differ from individuals of other European populations, but represent the westernmost part of a continuous Eurasian belt of distribution. The first presence of woolly rhino in the Iberian Peninsula has been identified during the late Middle Pleistocene and early Late Pleistocene. However, the highest abundance of this species is recorded during MIS 3 and 2. The latest Iberian occurrences can be dated around 20 ka BP. The presence of woolly rhinoceros in the Iberian Peninsula correlates with periods of extreme dry and cold climatic conditions documented in Iberian terrestrial and marine sediment sequences. From a palaeobiogeographic point of view, the maximum southern spread of C. antiquitatis on the Iberian Peninsula was registered during the late Middle Pleistocene or early Late Pleistocene, reaching the latitude of Madrid (about 40°N). Subsequently, during MIS 3 and 2, all Iberian finds were restricted to the Northern regions of Iberia (Cantabrian area and Catalonia). The southern expansion of C. antiquitatis during the Late Pleistocene in the Iberian Peninsula reached similar latitudes to other Eurasian regions. The ecological composition of fossil assemblages with presence of woolly rhinoceros was statistically analyzed. Results show that temperate ungulate species are predominant at Iberian assemblages, resulting in a particular mixture of temperate and cold elements different of the typical Eurasian cold-adapted faunal associations. This particular situation suggests two possible explanations: a) Eventual migrations during the coldest time spans, resulting in a mixing of cold and temperate faunas, instead a faunal replacing; b) Persistence of woolly rhinoceros populations in the Iberian Peninsula during interglacial episodes confined at cryptic southern refugia.

  4. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  5. 78 FR 8360 - Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... 10 CFR Part 110 RIN 3150-AJ21 Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List AGENCY...) is amending its export and import regulations by adding South Sudan to the list of restricted... Equipment and Material,'' with regard to U.S. Government law and policy on South Sudan. South Sudan is...

  6. 31 CFR 538.522 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residing in Sudan. 538.522 Section 538.522 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and.... citizens residing in Sudan. U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Sudan ordinarily... reside on a permanent basis in Sudan....

  7. Orbital remote sensing for geological mapping in southern Tunisia: Implication for oil and gas exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Sherrie A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

    2006-02-01

    Southern Tunisia is dominated by early to middle Triassic continental sandstones inter-bedded with shales and conglomerates followed by late Triassic shallow marine carbonates, lower Jurassic evaporates, and upper Jurassic to lower Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. These constitute the Dahar Plateau (which is part of the Ghadames Basin and it is the focus of this study) that was developed in association with regional uplift of the Saharan Platform. Efforts in mapping the details of surface geology in southern Tunisia are hindered by the lack of continuous bedrock outcrops, where some of the formations are buried under the sand of the Sahara Desert. Remote sensing data including multi-spectral optical (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)), radar (RADARSAT), and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data are used to trace along strike continuity of different lithological units as well as mapping morphologically defined structures in southern Tunisia. Landsat ETM+ and ASTER Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color combination images (both band and band-ratio images) have been used for the identification of various lithological units when they are exposed on the surface. On the other hand, RADARSAT images have been utilized for tracing geological formations and geological structures that are buried under thin (˜1 m) sand. Fusion of optical and radar remote sensing data using Color Normalization Transformation (CNT) has been effectively implemented to further identify lithological units and geological structures. Hill-shading techniques are applied to SRTM DEMs to enhance terrain perspective views and to extract geomorphological features and morphologically defined structures through the means of lineament analysis. Results from remote sensing analysis are in good agreement with results obtained from in situ investigations including geological mapping and seismic exploration. Identifying lithological and structural features using remote sensing studies incorporated with surface and sub-surface geological investigations in southern Tunisia can aid exploration for new oil and gas fields. Such an approach of integrating remote sensing and in situ geological studies can be successfully adopted in other parts of North Africa and arid regions in general.

  8. Reasons behind the Failure of Teaching Sudan Practical Integrated National English (SPINE 5) in Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamad, Mona M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the development of English language learning and curriculum design, English language series became a very important issue that affects education globally and in Sudan. In specific, this study reports reasons behind the failure of teaching SPINE 5 (which is one of SPINE series) from the teachers' point of view. In Bahry Locality in…

  9. A new fossil mammal assemblage from the southern Chilean Andes: implications for geology, geochronology, and tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, John J.; Novacek, Michael J.; Dodson, Holly E.; Frassinetti, Daniel; McKenna, Malcolm C.; Norell, Mark A.; Sears, Karen E.; Swisher, Carl C.; Wyss, André R.

    2002-07-01

    A diverse (36 taxa), new fossil terrestrial mammal assemblage has been recovered from the Santacrucian South American Land Mammal 'Age' (SALMA; latest Early Miocene) in the southern Andes of Chile. This is the westernmost high latitude mammal fauna known in South America and the first in a string of new mammal assemblages discovered in Chile after a lapse of nearly a century. The terrestrial mammal-bearing sequence conformably overlies a marine section of Late Oligocene to Early Miocene age. The combined marine-terrestrial sequence, as well as a locality with fossil whales and bracketing basalts, bear significantly on theories regarding the extent of the late Tertiary Patagonian epicontinental seaway and the onset of later Cenozoic phases of uplift in the southern Andes. Uplift in this region likely began by Santacrucian SALMA (˜16-17.5 Ma) time, but it remains uncertain whether this occurred in two phases (Pehuenchic and Quechuic) or one. These discoveries substantiate propositions of sharp geologic contrasts north and south of the Lago General Carrera/Lago Buenos Aires area (Magellanes basin to the south and R?´o Mayo embayment to the north). Minimum estimates of uplift rate are approximately 0.05-0.07 mm/yr (but as high as 0.22 mm/yr), comparable to or slightly lower than those from other parts of the Andes (e.g. Bolivia). The timing and location of uplift may be correlated with major plate tectonic events associated with the Chile Margin Triple Junction.

  10. Salp/krill interactions in the Southern Ocean: spatial segregation and implications for the carbon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Froneman, P. W.; Perissinotto, R.

    Available data on the spatial distribution and feeding ecophysiology of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, and the tunicate, Salpa thompsoni, in the Southern Ocean are summarized in this study. Antarctic krill and salps generally display pronounced spatial segregation at all spatial scales. This appears to be the result of a clear biotopical separation of these key species in the Antarctic pelagic food web. Krill and salps are found in different water masses or water mass modifications, which are separated by primary or secondary frontal features. On the small-scale (<100 km), Antarctic krill and salps are usually restricted to the specific water parcels, or are well segregated vertically. Krill and salp grazing rates estimated using the in situ gut fluorescence technique are among the highest recorded in the Antarctic pelagic food web. Although krill and salps at times may remove the entire daily primary production, generally their grazing impact is moderate (?50% of primary production). The regional ecological consequences of years of high salp densities may be dramatic. If the warming trend, which is observed around the Antarctic Peninsula and in the Southern Ocean, continues, salps may become a more prominent player in the trophic structure of the Antarctic marine ecosystem. This likely would be coupled with a dramatic decrease in krill productivity, because of a parallel decrease in the spatial extension of the krill biotope. The high Antarctic regions, particularly the Marginal Ice Zone, have, however, effective physiological mechanisms that may provide protection against the salp invasion.

  11. An increase of dry season length over southern Amazonia, its causes and implication to climate projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R.; Yin, L.

    2013-05-01

    Observations from several independent sources suggest that the dry season length (DSL) has increased over southern Amazonia since 1979, primarily due to a delay of its ending dates (DSE). Whether such a change is entirely due to natural climate variability or a result of combine natural variability and anthropogenic forced change will be assessed through a process-based analysis. The observed changes appear to be greater than those simulated by the global climate models that participated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) forced by both historical and future anthropogenic and natural forcing. Such a discrepancy is unlikely due to under-representation of natural variability and more likely due to underestimate the sensitivity of the dry season length to external forcing. Consequently, the climate projections of these models may underestimate the future changes of the dry season length and its impact on rainforests. Our study suggests that it is imperative that monitoring, quantification, and understanding of changes of rainfall seasonality over southern Amazonia be improved.

  12. Phylogeography and spatial genetic structure of the Southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.P.; Haig, S.M.; Wagner, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders. ?? The American Genetic Association. 2006. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial genetic structure and regional demography in the southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders.

  14. Humpback Whale Song on the Southern Ocean Feeding Grounds: Implications for Cultural Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Ellen C.; Gedamke, Jason; Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Noad, Michael J.; Garrigue, Claire; Gales, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean. PMID:24278134

  15. Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Samy, Abdallah M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A Townsend

    2014-10-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease. PMID:25330098

  16. Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Abdallah M.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease. PMID:25330098

  17. Prediction of temperature and precipitation in Sudan and South Sudan by using LARS-WG in future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Guo, Jiali; Zhang, Zengxin; Xu, Chong-Yu

    2013-08-01

    Global warming has brought great pressure on the environment and livelihood conditions in Sudan and South Sudan. It is desirable to analyze and predict the change of critical climatic variables, such as temperature and precipitation, which will provide valuable reference results for future water resources planning and management in the region. The aims of this study are to test the applicability of the Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) model in downscaling daily precipitation and daily maximum (Tmax) and daily minimum (Tmin) temperatures in Sudan and South Sudan and use it to predict future changes of precipitation; Tmin and Tmax for nine stations in Sudan and South Sudan are based on the SRA2 scenario of seven General Circulation Models (GCMs) outputs for the periods of 2011-2030, 2046-2065, and 2080-2099. The results showed that (1) the LARS-WG model produces good performance in downscaling daily precipitation and excellent performance in downscaling Tmax and Tmin in the study region; (2) downscaled precipitation from the prediction of seven GCMs showed great inconsistency in these two regions, which illustrates the great uncertainty in GCMs' results in the regions; (3) predicted precipitation in rainy season JJA (June, July, and August) based on the ensemble mean of seven GCMs showed a decreasing trend in the periods of 2011-2030, 2046-2065, and 2080-2099 in Sudan; however, an increasing trend can be found in SON (September, October, and November) in the future; (4) precipitation in South Sudan has an increasing trend in most seasons in the future except in MAM (March, April, and May) season in 2011-2030; and (5) predictions from seven GCMs showed a similar and continuous increasing trend for Tmax and Tmin in all three future periods, which will bring severe negative influence on improving livelihoods and reducing poverty in Sudan and South Sudan.

  18. Intradomiciliary behavior of Anopheles albimanus on the coastal plain of southern Mexico: implications for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Bown, D N; Rodriguez, M H; Arredondo-Jimenez, J I; Loyola, E G; Rodriguez, M C

    1993-09-01

    The postfeeding indoor resting behavior of Anopheles albimanus in experimental houses in southern México was investigated by using a mark-recapture procedure. The majority of mosquitoes rested inside houses after taking a blood meal indoors. There was a higher landing frequency on interior surfaces other than walls and roofs; however, mosquitoes rested for longer periods on these 2 surfaces. Successive landings on walls after short flights showed that mosquitoes gradually increased their mean landing height from 1.0 to 1.4 m. Similarly, mosquitoes resting at the base of inner roofs had a successive landing height range of about 0.5 m. Based on these observations and the potential for reduction of nearly 50% in the quantity of insecticide used and the time needed to apply it, village-scale studies involving the selective spraying of a 1-m-wide swath of insecticide on walls and on roofs are recommended in this area. PMID:8245943

  19. Heat flow anomaly in Lesotho - implications for the southern boundary of the Kaapvaal craton

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.Q.W. )

    1992-10-01

    Heat flow studies in southern Africa reveal a pattern of low heat flow in Archean cratons compared with Proterozoic mobile belts that provides grounds for modeling in which cratons have lower mantle heat flux and greater lithospheric thickness. Measurements at nine locations in a 90-km-long north-south traverse show an increase of heat flow from typically cratonic values of about 45 mW/sq m in the north to about 80 mW/sq m where the craton abuts on the Natal belt in the south. The change occurs within 30 km, suggesting that the anomaly largely reflects an increase in radioactive heat from the upper crust in the orogenic front. The change in mantle heat flux across the boundary is probably considerably smaller. These and other results suggest that the surficial craton boundary is further north than usually depicted. 20 refs.

  20. Structural and Geologic Mapping of Southern Tellus Regio, Venus: Implications for Crustal Plateau Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graupner, Melanie

    Crustal plateau formation on Venus is subject to animated debate, centered on plateau support and resulting surface deformation. Detailed mapping provides critical clues for plateau evolution. Southern Tellus Regio records broadly synchronous formation of contractional and extensional structures, accompanied by deposition of flood material. Short-wavelength folds occur across the entire plateau, the extent of which has previously been undocumented. Generally the early-formed structures record a high structural fluidity, marked by variable orientation of structures or juxtaposition of neighboring structural suites. This interpretation of the geologic history of the region indicates the necessity of an extremely high geothermal gradient and provides a means to evaluate the different crustal plateau hypotheses. The mantle downwelling, mantle upwelling, and pulsating continents hypotheses fail to accommodate the surface features recorded in this study. However, the lava pond hypothesis provides a suitable hypothesis of crustal plateau formation that accommodates structural elements recorded in this study.

  1. Sudan Grass for Hay, Seed and Pasture. 

    E-print Network

    Quinby, John Roy; Jones, D. L. (Don L.); Karper, R. E. (Robert Earl)

    1929-01-01

    Rot Investrgatrons No. 6 Denton Denton Connty: P. b. DUNK~E, B. S., Superintendent No. 7, Spur, Dickens County: R. E. DICKSON, B. S., Superintendent W. E. FLINT, B. S., Agronomist No. 8, Lubbock, Lubbock County: D L JONES Superrntendent P... 1. Date-of-planting experiments .at Lubbock show that the yields decline when planting is delayed past the latter part of April, and at Chillicothe the best yields were made by planting on or before the first of May. Sudan grass may be planted...

  2. Anthocyanins of Hibiscus sabdiffera calyces from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Cahliková, Lucie; Ali, Badreldin H; Havliková, Lucie; Lo?árek, Mirek; Siatka, Tomáš; Opletal, Lubomir; Blunden, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa are widely used in folk medicine to combat many illnesses. The active constituents of the extracts have been shown on several occasions to be anthocyanins. In our current studies the biological activities of an extract of H. sabdariffa calyces purchased in Oman, but grown in Sudan, are being compared with those of the anthocyanins isolated from them, and, for this, the anthocyanin profile of the extract needed to be ascertained. Although several anthocyanins were detected by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS, delphinidin-3-sambubioside (major) and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were predominant. PMID:25920224

  3. Evidence of much more intense land convection in the Southern than in the Northern tropics and implications for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, J.; Khaykin, S.; Vernier, J.; Ricaud, P.

    2012-12-01

    Convective overshooting over tropical land areas is key contributor to the troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange, shown to inject in the lower stratosphere adiabatically cooled air (Pommereau and Held 2007, Khaykin et al., 2012), trace and chemically active gases (Ricaud et al 2007, 2010), ice crystals (Corti et al 2007, Nielsen et al. 2007, Khaykin et al. 2009) and tropospheric clean air diluting the aerosols (Vernier et al., 2011). However, the altitude reached by those events differs dramatically with the hemisphere. They are observed to reach 20-21 km on average in the Southern tropics during the southern summer in contrast to the Northern tropics where they are limited to the tropopause level., indicating that convective overshoots are far less intense in the North. This difference is consistent with the indirect aerosols effect due to the known larger anthropogenic aerosols and desert dust concentrations in the northern hemisphere troposphere, shown by Cloud Resolving Models (CRM) to increase the number and reducing the size of droplets or growlers, resulting in lighter rainfall and reduced convective vertical velocity, that is weaker overshooting. Asides from the reduced cross-tropopause transport reported by all above observations, the lighter rainfall due to the increase anthropogenic pollution and desertification in the industrial era in the North has strong implications for climate change differences between the two hemispheres. Shown in the presentation will be the evidence of the large difference of convective intensity between the two hemispheres from the various satellite observations, followed by an illustration of the difference in tropospheric aerosols loading, and a short discussion on the impact of such contrast between the two hemispheres on their respective past climate evolution.

  4. Avian influenza A viruses of southern China and Hong Kong: ecological aspects and implications for man*

    PubMed Central

    Shortridge, K. F.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous surveillance of the influenza viruses isolated from domestic poultry from southern China and Hong Kong over more than 4 years resulted in the isolation of influenza viruses possessing 46 different combinations of haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) subtypes. Of these, 43 were obtained from ducks from China. In all cases, infection appeared to be asymptomatic. The antigenic combination found most commonly in the viruses isolated was H4N6, which accounted for approximately one-quarter of the duck isolates, its occurrence being more frequent than expected from a statistical analysis of the observed frequencies of the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes among all the isolates. Some combinations of H and N occurred less frequently than expected or not at all. Influenza viruses tended to be isolated more frequently from ducks during the summer months in comparison with paramyxoviruses, which were more commonly encountered in the winter. Possible reasons for the great antigenic diversity of influenza A viruses in the poultry, especially the ducks, in the region are discussed together with the potential significance of these viruses to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. PMID:6979416

  5. Snow-avalanche impact landforms in Breheimen, southern Norway: Origin, age, and paleoclimatic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, J.A.; McCarroll, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Twelve snow-avalanche ramparts in Jostedalen and Sprongdalen (Breheimen, southern Norway) are investigated to elucidate processes of formation, the history of avalanche activity, and their potential for paleoclimatic reconstruction. Variation in the form of these riverbank boulder ramparts reflects local patterns of avalanche impact. Differences in clast roundness between ramparts, avalanche tracks, and river beds indicate that, on average, 50 to 60% of the clasts in the ramparts originate from river bedload as opposed to avalanche source areas or tracks. Rampart clasts increase in roundness downstream over a distance of 12 km, and the contribution from the river bed varies from 26 to 80% depending on local factors. Conventional lichenometric dating suggests ages for the initiation of rampart formation of 250 to 2000 yr, but they probably have a much longer history. Lichen-size frequency distributions, using the largest lichen from each of n boulders, reflect the age-frequency of surface boulders, providing a record of late Holocene avalanche activity. A simulation model suggests that maximum avalanche activity affected nine of the ramparts during the 19th century, after the peak of the Little Ice Age. The pattern of avalanche activity differs from the pattern of glacier variations but is in close agreement with that of debris-flow activity. The ramparts may yield a valuable proxy record of winter snowfall. 48 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Tephrochronology of a 72 ka-long marine record: implications for the southern Tyrrhenian explosive volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburrino, Stella; Insinga, Donatella; Pelosi, Nicola; Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo; Capotondi, Lucilla; Sprovieri, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Several discrete tephra layers occur in a Marion Dufresne 13.9 m-long deep-sea core (MD01-2474G) from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Major, minor and trace element data (EMPA-WDS and LA-ICP-MS analyses) from fresh micro-pumices and glass shards allow to correlate them with the volcanic activity from Aeolian Islands (Lipari, Vulcano, Salina), Campanian Plain (Ischia), Pantelleria and Mt. Etna. The chronology of the succession is provided by a high-resolution age-model based on isotope stratigraphy and AMS radiocarbon dating, which places the succession in a time interval spanning the last 72 kyrs BP. According to a detailed proximal-distal and distal-distal correlation, a precise chronological framework is established and some main markers tephras of the central Mediterranean area (Y-1, Y-6, Y-7 and Y-8) are recognised. In additions, the succession is a precious archive to record multiple volcanic events occurred at Ischia volcano and the Aeolian Arc (Lipari and Vulcano). This latter, in particular, erupted several products which exhibits strong compositional variations otherwise non detectable from terrestrial counterparts. The results of the present study, hence, provide new data for a detailed analytical reference database of the Tyrrhenian Sea tephrochronology and may contribute to a better chronostratigraphic reconstruction of the Aeolian arc explosive events.

  7. Intradomicillary pre- and postfeeding behavior of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis of southern Mexico: implications for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Casas, M; Bown, D N; Rodríguez, M H

    1994-09-01

    The intradomicillary pre- and postfeed resting behavior of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis was studied in an experimental house in southern Mexico. During resting periods (both pre-/postfeed) mosquitos had greater contact (landings) with the inner roof than with the walls and other surfaces. A comparison of mean landing frequency and overall resting time (pre-/postfeed) showed that a greater periodic and prolonged contact occurred prefeed, probably as a result of disturbed activity associated with host movements. Pre-/postfeed resting patterns on walls were limited to a 0.6-0.5-m-wide band, nearly 1 m from the floor, and to a narrower band on the roof, 0.3-0.2 m wide, approximately 2.3 m from the floor, respectively. We calculated that with a band width of 0.8 m on the walls and another band 0.8 m wide on the roof, 87.2% of the mosquitoes had at least one contact with either the wall, the roof, or with both surfaces, along with an overall mean resting time (pre-/postfeed) of 8.1 min/landing. These findings suggest that a high potential for control can be achieved by spraying preferred wall and roof resting sites in this region where the intradomicillary application of residual insecticide is the primary malaria control measure. PMID:7807076

  8. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925

  9. Shear-wave splitting beneath southern Korea and its tectonic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Tae-Seob; Shin, Jin Soo

    2009-06-01

    Seismic anisotropy beneath the southern Korean Peninsula (SKP) was investigated based on the ScS waves of deep-focused earthquakes recorded at 35 broadband stations. The most striking feature of the observed splitting patterns is the preference of the fast directions (NW-SE) that are nearly parallel to the direction of the absolute plate motion in the region. However, the splitting patterns over the region show significant variation in splitting parameters indicating a complex anisotropic structure. Variations of the splitting directions and dissimilarity in the source domains of basaltic volcanisms suggest that the asthenospheric mantle flow since at least the late Cenozoic cannot explain the seismic anisotropy beneath the region. Comparison to shear-wave splitting measurements from eastern China revealed that the NW-SE fast direction of splitting measurements in the SKP is close to that in the North China block (NCB) while the NE-SW fast direction might be related to that in the South China block (SCB). The shallow mantle lithosphere beneath the SKP retains the fossil anisotropy amalgamated prior to the late Paleozoic before the collision between the NCB and SCB, and the anisotropic structure was not completely realigned by the major orogenic events during the late Paleozoic to Mesozoic eras.

  10. Short communication: new HIV infections at Southern New England academic institutions: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Chan, Philip A; Kazi, Shahzeb; Rana, Amaad; Blazar, Ilyse; Dejong, Colette C; Mayer, Kenneth H; Huard, Thomas K; Carleton, Kim; Gillani, Fizza; Alexander, Nicole; Parillo, Zoanne; Flanigan, Timothy P; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    New HIV infections among younger men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are escalating. Data on HIV infections in college students are limited. In 2010, three MSM college students presented to our clinic with primary HIV infection (PHI) in a single month. To determine the number of college students among new HIV diagnoses, we reviewed clinical characteristics and molecular epidemiology of HIV-diagnosed individuals from January to December 2010 at the largest HIV clinic in Southern New England. PHI was defined as acute HIV infection or seroconversion within the last 6 months. Of 66 individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2010, 62% were MSM and 17% were academic students (12% college or university, 5% other). Seventy-three percent of students were MSM. Compared to nonstudents, students were more likely to be younger (24 versus 39 years), born in the United States (91% versus 56%), have another sexually transmitted disease (45% versus 11%), and present with PHI (73% versus 16%, all p-values<0.05). Thirty percent of individuals formed eight transmission clusters including four students. MSM were more likely to be part of clusters. Department of Health contact tracing of cluster participants allowed further identification of epidemiological linkages. Given these high rates of PHI in recently diagnosed students, institutions of higher education should be aware of acute HIV presentation and the need for rapid diagnosis. Prevention strategies should focus on younger MSM, specifically college-age students who may be at increased risk of HIV infection. PMID:22724920

  11. A New Oviraptorosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleoecological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Junchang; Yi, Laiping; Zhong, Hui; Wei, Xuefang

    2013-01-01

    A new oviraptorosaur Nankangia jiangxiensis gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of a partial postcranial skeleton with a partial lower jaw collected from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou, in Jiangxi Province of southern China. The new taxon is diagnosed by: (1) a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down; (2) neural spines of the cranial caudal vertebrae that are wider transversely than anteroposteriorly, forming a large posterior fossa with rugose central areas; (3) a femoral neck extending at an angle of about 90 to the shaft; and (4) a ratio of femur to tibia length of 0.95. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Nankangia as basal to the oviraptorid Yulong, but more derived than Caenagnathus, which also has a mandibular symphysis that is not turned down. The coexistence of Nankangia jiangxiensis, Ganzhousaurus nankangensis, Jiangxisaurus ganzhouensis, an unnamed oviraptorid from Nanxiong Basin and Banji long suggests that they occupied distinct ecological niches. Nankangia may have been more herbivorous than carnivorous. PMID:24312233

  12. River channel adjustments in Southern Italy over the past 150 years and implications for channel recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Giano, Salvatore I.; Pisano, Luca; Robustelli, Gaetano; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs along with topographic and geomorphological surveys are used to assess evolutionary trends and key control factors of channel adjustments for five major rivers in southern Italy (the Trigno, Biferno, Volturno, Sinni and Crati rivers) to support assessment of channel recovery and river restoration. Three distinct phases of channel adjustment are identified over the past 150 years primarily driven by human disturbances. Firstly, slight channel widening dominated from the last decades of the nineteenth century to the 1950s. Secondly, from the 1950s to the end of the 1990s, altered sediment fluxes induced by in-channel mining and channel works brought about moderate to very intense incision (up to 6-7 m) accompanied by strong channel narrowing (up to 96%) and changes in channel configuration from multi-threaded to single-threaded patterns. Thirdly, the period from around 2000 to 2015 has been characterized by channel stabilization and local widening. Evolutionary trajectories of the rivers studied are quite similar to those reconstructed for other Italian rivers, particularly regarding the second phase of channel adjustments and ongoing transitions towards channel recovery in some reaches. Analyses of river dynamics, recovery potential and connectivity with sediment sources of the study reaches, framed in their catchment context, can be used as part of a wider interdisciplinary approach that views effective river restoration alongside sustainable and risk-reduced river management.

  13. Clinical and Pharmacogenomic Implications of Genetic Variation in a Southern Ethiopian Population

    PubMed Central

    Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Aseffa, Abraham; Hailu, Elena; Finan, Chris; Davey, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Africa is home to genetically diverse human populations. We compared the genetic structure of the Wolaita ethnic population from southern Ethiopia (WETH, n=120) with HapMap populations using genome-wide variants. We investigated allele frequencies of 443 clinically and pharmacogenomically relevant genetic variants in WETH compared to HapMap populations. We found that WETH were genetically most similar to the Kenya Maasai and least similar to the Japanese in HapMap. Variant alleles associated with increased risk of adverse reactions to drugs used for treating tuberculosis (rs1799929 and rs1495741 in NAT2), thromboembolism (rs7294, rs9923231 and rs9934438 in VKORC1), and HIV/AIDS and solid tumors (rs2242046 in SLC28A1) had significantly higher frequencies in WETH compared to African ancestry HapMap populations. Our results illustrate that clinically relevant pharmacogenomic loci display allele frequency differences among African populations. We conclude that drug dosage guidelines for important global health diseases should be validated in genetically diverse African populations. PMID:25069476

  14. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science.

    PubMed

    Ceríaco, Luis M P; Marques, Mariana P; Madeira, Natália C; Vila-Viçosa, Carlos M; Mendes, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925

  15. Seismic chimneys in the Southern Viking Graben - Implications for palaeo fluid migration and overpressure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstens, Jens; Berndt, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Detailed understanding of natural fluid migration systems is essential to minimize risks during hydrocarbon exploration and to evaluate the long-term efficiency of the subsurface storage of waste water and gas from hydrocarbon production as well as CO2. The Southern Viking Graben (SVG) hosts numerous focused fluid flow structures in the shallow (<1000 m) subsurface. The seismic expressions of vertical fluid conduits are variously known as seismic chimneys or pipes. Seismic pipes are known to form large clusters. Seismic chimneys have so far been described as solitary structures. Here, we show that the study area in the SVG hosts more than 46 large-scale vertical chimney structures, which can be divided in three categories implying different formation processes. Our analysis reveals that seal-weakening, formation-wide overpressure and the presence of free gas are required to initiate the formation of vertical fluid conduits in the SVG. The presence of numerous vertical fluid conduits implies inter-stratigraphic hydraulic connectivity, which significantly affects the migration of fluids in the subsurface. Chimney structures are important for understanding the transfer of pore pressure anomalies to the shallow parts of the basin.

  16. Short Communication: New HIV Infections at Southern New England Academic Institutions: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Shahzeb; Rana, Amaad; Blazar, Ilyse; Dejong, Colette C.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Huard, Thomas K.; Carleton, Kim; Gillani, Fizza; Alexander, Nicole; Parillo, Zoanne; Flanigan, Timothy P.; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Abstract New HIV infections among younger men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are escalating. Data on HIV infections in college students are limited. In 2010, three MSM college students presented to our clinic with primary HIV infection (PHI) in a single month. To determine the number of college students among new HIV diagnoses, we reviewed clinical characteristics and molecular epidemiology of HIV-diagnosed individuals from January to December 2010 at the largest HIV clinic in Southern New England. PHI was defined as acute HIV infection or seroconversion within the last 6 months. Of 66 individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2010, 62% were MSM and 17% were academic students (12% college or university, 5% other). Seventy-three percent of students were MSM. Compared to nonstudents, students were more likely to be younger (24 versus 39 years), born in the United States (91% versus 56%), have another sexually transmitted disease (45% versus 11%), and present with PHI (73% versus 16%, all p-values<0.05). Thirty percent of individuals formed eight transmission clusters including four students. MSM were more likely to be part of clusters. Department of Health contact tracing of cluster participants allowed further identification of epidemiological linkages. Given these high rates of PHI in recently diagnosed students, institutions of higher education should be aware of acute HIV presentation and the need for rapid diagnosis. Prevention strategies should focus on younger MSM, specifically college-age students who may be at increased risk of HIV infection. PMID:22724920

  17. Medical education in the Sudan: its strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Fahal, Ahmed Hassan

    2007-11-01

    The history of medical education in the Sudan is both long and interesting. It began in 1924 and has passed through several different phases and stages. Despite numerous difficulties and constraints along the way, vast experience has been gained and many achievements made, all of which have had positive impacts on the health system in the Sudan and the Region. This paper aims to share the experiences and lessons that have emerged from the journey of medical education in the Sudan, and explores the future need for continuing support and dialogue from international colleagues to maintain momentum. PMID:18158664

  18. Genetic variation in insecticide tolerance in a population of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala): Implications for amphibian conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, C.M.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, conservation efforts are devoted to determining the extent and the causes of the decline of many amphibian species worldwide. Human impacts frequently degrade amphibian habitat and have been implicated in many declines. Because genetic variance is critical in determining the persistence of a species in a changing environment, we examined the amount of genetic variability present in a single population for tolerance to an environmental stressor. We examined the amount of genetic variability among full- and half-sib families in a single population of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) with respect to their tolerance to lethal concentrations of the agricultural chemical, carbaryl. Analysis of time-to-death data indicated significant differences among full-sib families and suggests a large amount of variability present in the responses to this environmental stressor. Significant differences in responses among half-sib families indicated that there is additive genetic variance. These data suggest that this population may have the ability to adapt to environmental stressors. It is possible that declines of amphibian populations in the western United States may be attributed to low genetic variability resulting from limited migration among populations and small population sizes.

  19. Scale-up of a programme for malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticide-treated nets: lessons from South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Remijo, Constantino D; Pasquale, Harriet; Baba, Samson P; Lako, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are important tools in malaria control. South Sudan, like many other endemic countries, has struggled to improve LLIN coverage and utilization. Approach In 2006, Southern Sudan – known as South Sudan after independence in 2011 – initiated a strategic plan to increase LLIN coverage so that at least 60% of households had at least one LLIN each. By 2008, the target coverage was 80% of households and the Global Fund had financed a phased scale-up of LLIN distribution in the region. Local setting South Sudan’s entire population is considered to be at risk of malaria. Poor control of the vectors and the large-scale movements of returnees, internally displaced people and refugees have exacerbated the problem. Relevant changes By 2012, approximately 8.0 million LLINs had been distributed in South Sudan. Between 2006 and 2009, the percentage of households possessing at least one LLIN increased from about 12% to 53% and LLIN utilization rates increased from 5 to 25% among children younger than 5 years and from 5 to 36% among pregnant women. The number of recorded malaria cases increased from 71 948 in 2008 to 1 198 357 in 2012. Lessons learnt In post-conflict settings, a phased programme for the national scale-up of LLIN coverage may not have a substantial impact. A nationwide campaign that is centrally coordinated and based on sound guidelines may offer greater benefits. A strong partnership base and effective channels for the timely and supplementary deployment of LLINs may be essential for universal coverage. PMID:24700997

  20. Stratigraphy of the Younger Dryas Chronozone and paleoenvironmental implications: Central and Southern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holliday, V.T.; Meltzer, D.J.; Mandel, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Great Plains of the United States was the setting for some of the earliest research in North America into patterns and changes in the character of late Pleistocene environments and their effects on contemporary human populations. Many localities in the region have well-stratified records of terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene human (Paleoindian) activity and past environments. These have proven important in debates over the character of the Younger Dryas Chronozone (YDC; 11,000-10,000 14C BP; 12,900-11,700 cal BP) in the continental interior. This paper reviews the lithostratigraphic record of the YDC on the Central and Southern Great Plains and summarizes paleobiological records (largely isotopic). The goal is to determine if there is any uniformity in the timing, character, direction and/or magnitude of changes in depositional environments or broader geomorphic systems before, during or after the YDC in order to address the question of the character of environments through this time. The stratigraphic records of the late Pleistocene to early Holocene transition, and in particular, the stratigraphic records of the YDC vary through time and space. The data clearly show that a host of geomorphic processes produced the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene stratigraphic records of the Great Plains. Moreover, the YDC is not necessarily manifest as a distinct lithostratigraphic or biostratigraphic entity in these different types of deposits and soils. The various geomorphic systems of the Great Plains did not behave synchronously in response to any common climate driver. These stratigraphic records reflect local environmental conditions and probably a complex response to the reorganization of mid-latitude climates in the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  1. Floristic Relationships Among Vegetation Types of New Zealand and the Southern Andes: Similarities and Biogeographic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ezcurra, Cecilia; Baccalá, Nora; Wardle, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Similarities between the floras of geographically comparable regions of New Zealand (NZ) and the southern Andes (SA) have interested biologists for over 150 years. The present work selects vegetation types that are physiognomically similar between the two regions, compares their floristic composition, assesses the environmental factors that characterize these matching vegetation types, and determines whether phylogenetic groups of ancestral versus modern origin are represented in different proportions in their floras, in the context of their biogeographic history. Methods Floristic relationships based on 369 genera of ten vegetation types present in both regions were investigated with correspondence analysis (CA) and ascending hierarchical clustering (AHC). The resulting ordination and classification were related to the environmental characteristics of the different vegetation types. The proportions of different phylogenetic groups between the regions (NZ, SA) were also compared, and between forest and non-forest communities. Key Results Floristic similarities between NZ and SA tend to increase from forest to non-forest vegetation, and are highest in coastal vegetation and bog. The floras of NZ and SA also differ in their phylogenetic origin, NZ being characterized by an ‘excess’ of genera of basal origin, especially in forests. Conclusions The relatively low similarities between forests of SA and NZ are related to the former being largely of in situ South American and Gondwanan origin, whereas the latter have been mostly reconstituted though transoceanic dispersal of propagules since the Oligocene. The greater similarities among non-forest plant communities of the two regions result from varied dispersal routes, including relatively recent transoceanic dispersal for coastal vegetation, possible dispersal via a still-vegetated Antarctica especially for bog plants, and independent immigration from Northern Hemisphere sources for many genera of alpine vegetation and grassland. PMID:18390564

  2. Geology and Geochemistry of the Yingmailai Granitic Intrusion in the Southern Tianshan and Its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Letian; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zhang, Shu; Huang, He

    2015-04-01

    The Late Permian Yingmailai granitic intrusion is located in the middle part of the southern Tianshan. It consists predominantly of biotite K-feldspar granite with minor two-mica K-feldspar granite. Two types of ellipse-shaped xenoliths including dark-color fine-granular xenolith and light-color granitic xenolith have been recognized in the granitic intrusion. The xenoliths have geochemically similarities to granites. They are characterized by high SiO2 contents, enrichment of K and total alkali coupled with low MgO and CaO contents. Furthermore, they display the enrichment in Rb, Ba, Th and REE as well as significant fractionation of LREE from HREE, and negative Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf anomalies on the ORG normalized trace element patterns. The similar variation trends of major oxides between granites and xenoliths on the Harker diagram suggest that they were derived from a common parental magma. The A/CNK ratios range from 0.99 to 1.08, meta-aluminous to per-aluminous feature. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns are characterized by strong enrichment of LREE relative to HREE and significantly negative Eu anomalies. In combination with their high (87Sr/86Sr)t ratios (0.71036 to 0.71585) and negative Nd(t) values (-1.67 to -6.45), it can be inferred that the magmas might be produced by dehydration melting of crust-source amphibole-bearing mafic rocks (<50 km), and that crystal fractionation of biotite and plagioclase with minor magnetite might have occurred before emplacement. The petrological and geochemical characteristics of the granitic rocks suggest that the intrusion is a transition type between A and S types, and formed in the late or end stage of collision between Tarim and Kazakhstan plate in late Permian time.

  3. Landscape formation at the Deuteronilus contact in southern Isidis Planitia, Mars: Implications for an Isidis Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkeling, G.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Ivanov, M. A.; Hauber, E.; Bernhardt, H.

    2014-11-01

    Two of the most widely studied landforms that are associated with a putative ocean that filled the northern hemisphere of Mars are (1) the Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF), plain units that cover a larger portion of the northern lowlands of Mars, and (2) a candidate paleoshoreline, e.g., the Deuteronilus contact, which represents the outer margin of the VBF. The VBF and the Deuteronilus contact are interpreted to result from a short-lived Late Hesperian ocean that readily froze and sublimated. Similar landforms are also present in the impact basin of Isidis Planitia and suggest formation processes comparable to those that formed the VBF and the Deuteronilus contact in the northern lowlands. Our study of the Deuteronilus contact in Isidis revealed geologic evidence that possibly supports the existence of a Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian Isidis Sea. For example, numerous valleys that are incised into the plains of the southern Isidis basin rim between 82°/90°E and 3°/6°N and trend a few tens of kilometers to the north following the general topographic gradient toward the center of Isidis Planitia. A few of them reach the Deuteronilus contact and continue as sinuous ridges in the Isidis Interior Plains (IIP). Based on our findings we conclude that the geologic setting along the Deuteronilus contact, including the valleys and ridges is a result of (1) Late Hesperian short-term fluvial activity, (2) a Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian short-lived Isidis Sea that readily froze, (3) subglacial drainage and esker formation, and (4) subsequent sublimation of the proposed Isidis ice sheet. Although the fluvio-glacial model we introduce in our manuscript cannot fully explain the geologic setting, possible alternative formation models, including relief inversion and fluvio-volcanic scenarios are even less capable in explaining the observed geologic setting along the Deuteronilus contact.

  4. Shear wave velocity mapping of Hat Yai district, southern Thailand: implication for seismic site classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordkayhun, Sawasdee; Sujitapan, Chedtaporn; Chalermyanont, Tanit

    2015-02-01

    Soil characteristics play an important role in the degree of ground shaking due to local site amplification during an earthquake. The objectives of this work are to study shear wave velocity (Vs) distribution in the near surface, and to develop a seismic site classification map for soil effect characterization and seismic hazard assessment in Hat Yai district, southern Thailand. The Vs determination based on the multichannel analysis of surface waves technique, has been carried out and analyzed at 70 measuring sites throughout the district. On the basis of the weighted-average Vs in the upper 30?m depth (Vs30), a seismic site classification map, based on the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) standard has been developed. It is found that the NEHRP site class in Hat Yai can be classified into four groups in accordance with the value of Vs30 within the range of about 150 to 1160?m?s-1. Most parts of the study area are typically classified as site class C and D. Site class C is mostly found within the colluvial and terrace deposits in the western and eastern part of the area, whereas site class D is concentrated in the alluvial sediment of the middle and northern flood plain areas. A small portion of site class B is observed in the western mountain ranges, where there is a thin overburden on the firm rock. There is a remarkably low Vs30 value at only one site, located near the main stream in the northern part of the study area. The results imply that the soil characteristics in the central and northern Hat Yai district pose a medium to high amplification rate with respect to the other regions. Although Vs data alone are insufficient to verify the potential of the amplification of ground shaking, this study provides an initial attempt to understand seismic hazards in the study area.

  5. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    PubMed

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. PMID:25466000

  6. Reconstructing Younger Dryas plateau icefields in the Tweedsmuir Hills, Southern Uplands, Scotland: Style, dynamics and palaeo-climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Danni; Rea, Brice; Bradwell, Tom; Barr, Iestyn; Small, David; McDougall, Des

    2014-05-01

    In Britain, the glacial geomorphological record has been widely utilised to infer palaeo-glacier geometries and ice dynamics, with much of this work focusing on the Scottish Highlands during the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT), in particular the Younger Dryas (YD; c. 12.9 - 11.7 ka BP). The Southern Uplands represents the largest upland area south of the Highlands but has received limited research attention over the last century. The Tweedsmuir Hills are located in the central Southern Uplands, which form an area of dissected plateau approximately 320 km2. Early research in the 1800s identified moraines thought to be associated with the YD. However, the majority of previous work has focussed on isolated valleys and ignored the potential for plateau icefield glaciation, which has significant implications for the understanding of ice dynamics and geometries. Recent numerical modelling experiments covering the period 38 - 10.4 ka BP (Hubbard et al., 2008 cf. E109B8 and E102b2) have predicted a significant body of ice for the Southern Uplands at the onset of and throughout the YD, which cannot be verified at present due to a lack of empirical data. This research aims to provide the first systematic geomorphological mapping and Lateglacial climate reconstruction for the Tweedsmuir Hills. The results of air-photo interpretation and field mapping, which utilised a morphostratigraphic approach, have demonstrated a more extensive glaciation than previously mapped, reflecting more closely the Hubbard et al. (2009) modelled extent than earlier research. This consists of two separate icefields over the southern and northern Tweedsmuir Hills covering an area c. 45 km2 and 25 km2 respectively with Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) calculated to have ranged from c.419 m to 634 m. For both icefields ELAs of individual outlets reflect topographic controls rather than steep precipitation gradients similar to those derived for other icefields in Scotland (e.g., the Monadhliath Mountains and Beinn Dearg). New radiocarbon dating of basal contact organics place the ice-mass within the context of the YD but new Cosmogenic Nuclide Analysis (CNA) of bedrock and in situ boulders are inconclusive, implying limited erosion and limited resetting during the YD. Landform evidence also indicates smaller independent glaciers occupied some of the south-easterly catchments until the end of the YD. All of these results differ significantly from the traditional paradigm which suggests that due to low accumulation rates, only restricted ice masses developed in the Tweedsmuir Hills during this time. References: Hubbard, A. et al., (2009). Dynamic cycles, ice streams and their impact on the extent, chronology and deglaciation of the British-Irish ice sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews, (28), 7-8, 758-776

  7. Southern hemisphere sand furrows: spatial patterning and implications for the cryo-venting process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Ciaran; Bourke, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide is an important volatile on Mars. Seasonally, atmospheric CO2 condenses as ice on to the Martian surface and sublimates during the spring. Links have been made between a suite of observed surface features and the sublimation of surface CO2 ice; these include spider-like araneiform, gullies, and fans. Sand furrows are one such feature; suggested to form due to the erosive action of pressurised CO2 gas as it escapes through cracks in surficial ice (i.e. cryo-venting, Bourke, 2013). There are significant and important differences between the North and South Hemispheres, particularly in the seasonal CO2 deposits. Previous investigations into the formation and distribution of sand furrows on Mars have concentrated solely on the northern hemisphere. We present a study of furrows in the southern hemisphere which has yielded new data on their distribution and spatial patterning as well as providing insights into the cryo-venting process. A total of 221 dune sites were surveyed over the three Martian years' of available HiRISE data to establish the overall distribution of sand furrows. A more detailed study was carried out at eight sites using data from Mars Year 30. These sites represent a latitudinal sample of dunefields located between 40°S to 72°S. Surficial CO2 ice thickness was estimated using the Mars Climate Database (Millour et al., 2014). Our data show that sand furrows are significantly less numerous in the study region than in the northern hemisphere where data show they occur in 95% of surveyed sites. We found a strong correlation between latitude and furrow distribution. As one progresses polewards from 40°S, furrows become more numerous until 68°S. Furrows were not detected south of 72°S. Carbon dioxide ice thickness has been highlighted as a potentially important factor controlling furrow distribution in the northern hemisphere (Bourke and McGaley-Towle, 2014). Results from our investigation suggest there is a feedback mechanism between CO¬2 ice thickness and furrow formation; indicating a threshold thickness above which geomorphologically effective cryo-venting may not occur. Bourke, M. C., The Formation of Sand Furrows by Cryo-Venting on Martian Dunes. 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, 2013, pp. Abstract #2919. Bourke, M. C., McGaley-Towle, Why do sand furrows distributions vary in the North Polar latitudes on Mars? , European Geosciences Union, Vienna, Vol. 16, EGU2014-13626, 2014. Millour, E., et al., The Mars Climate Database (MCD version 5.1). Eighth International Conference on Mars. Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, 2014, pp. Abstract #1184.

  8. A sediment budget for the southern reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: implications for habitat restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the southern reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with this uncertainty provides a more statistically rigorous method of quantifying this uncertainty than the more typical “sum of errors” approach. The results of this study reinforce the need for measurement of estuarine sediment fluxes over multiple years (multiple hydrologic conditions) to adequately detail the variability in flux. Additionally, the timing of breaching events for the restoration project could be tied to annual hydrologic conditions to capitalize on increased regional sediment supply.

  9. Islands of Education: Schooling, Civil War and the Southern Sudanese (1983-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Victims of warfare, famine, slavery, and isolation, the Southern Sudanese are one of the most undereducated populations in the world. Since the inception of formal education in southern Sudan a century ago, schooling has largely consisted of island-like entities surrounded by oceans of educational emptiness. Islands of Education is the first book…

  10. An Extreme Precipitation Event in Southern Morocco in Spring 2002 and some Hydrological Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippertz, P.; Fink, A. H.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes an extreme rain event in the semiarid to arid region south of the High Atlas in northwest Africa on 31 March and 01 April 2002. Apart from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses, satellite, radiosonde and synoptic weather station data, half-hourly observations from 12 climate stations that have been recently installed in the Drâa valley in southern Morocco as part of the IMPETUS project ("An Integrated Approach to the Efficient Management of Scarce Water Resources in West Africa") are considered. Precipitation totals (of up to 77 mm in 23 hours) range in the order of magnitude of more than half of an average annual sum and constitute the heaviest storm of the last 25 years in this region. The immediate run-off caused flooding and damage to buildings. Besides, a substantial filling of water reservoirs (+23.6% of the total capacity of the great storage lake Mansour Eddahbi) and a storage of water in the High Atlas snow cover (up to 1 m) and in the soil was observed, which positively impacted on the region's water supply until the summer. The precipitation event was connected to a "tropical plume" (TP) that formed on the eastern side of an quasi-stationary upper-level subtropical trough to the west of northwestern Africa during the previous days. The large positive potential vorticity (PV) anomaly associated with this trough suggests an intrusion of dry stratospheric air connected to an anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking event. This PV anomaly interacted with the low-level temperature front connected to the TP, initiating the development of a Mediterranean cyclone on the poleward side of the TP over the course of the following days. On 01 April, the merging of the TP with the cold air cloud feature resulted in the formation of a lambda-shaped cloud system, sometimes referred to as an "instant occlusion". A trajectory and integrated water vapour flux analysis reveals that on the equatorward side of the TP, mid-level moisture transports from tropical West Africa occurred, while the high clouds connected to the actual TP originated close to tropical South America. The strong dynamically induced upper-level divergence at the inflection point of the trough and the associated synoptic-scale uplift appear to be crucial factors for the formation of the extraordinarily heavy rainfalls. Orographic forcing might have played an additional role. In contrast to cases of tropical-extratropical interactions causing precipitation in the Atlas region in late summer/early autumn, large-scale dynamical and frontogenetic effects seem to dominate over local factors as for example the triggering of convection in the moist tropical air through the daytime heating of elevated terrain. The results are contrasted to a simultaneous extreme event on the nearby Canary Island of Tenerife (up to 240 mm in three hours), which is identified as a localised thunderstorm in the unstable air underneath the axis of the upper-level cold trough that initiated the TP, potentially enhanced locally by the steep orography of the island.

  11. Pleistocene northwards fold propagation of the Jura within the southern Upper Rhine Graben: seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivière, Bertrand; Winter, Thierry

    2000-12-01

    On the basis of the geophysical (seismic profiles and electric tomography), geomorphic and geological data, we re-evaluate the post-Pliocene structural interpretation of the southern Upper Rhine graben (Basel-Mulhouse area): we demonstrate a Plio-Pleistocene northward propagation of the Jura thrust and fold belt up to Mulhouse proceeding from a succession of four ˜10 km apart ramps (from north to south Ferrette, Muespach, Magstatt and Rixheim) rooted within the late Triassic evaporitic marls acting as a decollement. This domain was previously considered as having undergone an on-going continuous extension (horst of Mulhouse bounded by the Quaternary Sirentz and Dannemarie grabens). The Quaternary activity of this thin-skinned tectonics induces the growth of a sedimentary wedge whose regional slope, which comprised between 1.4° and 1° to the north, also attests to a low friction basal detachment. More into details, these ramps correspond to ˜40-50-m high jumps within the forward topographic slope. Pleistocene activity is suggested just above the Muespach ramp by the presence of a 5-10-m north-facing scarp corresponding in depth to a 3-m vertical offset of early Pleistocene alluvial deposits. Farther to the north, a stronger incision of the Rhine Würm terrace can be interpreted as the result of the growth of the Mulhouse-Rixheim frontal ramp. This northward propagation of the Jura thrust and fold belt is strongly controlled by the Oligocene structural inheritage. The development of the frontal ramp in Mulhouse has to be related to the Oligocene significant vertical offset of the Triassic evaporite along the Mulhouse Railway Station fault preventing a propagation of the decollement farther to the north. In the same way, the fold propagation is laterally segmented by the N20°E trending Oligocene fabrics (from East to West, Rhine Valley flexure fault, Allschwil-Istein fault system and Illfurth fault) which acts above the decollement as lateral ramps. To the west, the development of a shallow anticline along the Illfurth fault suggests that the thin-skinned propagation is oblique with respect to the Oligocene fabrics. It results in spacial contrast between a left-lateral-reverse and a right-lateral-normal shallow kinematics along the western and eastern lateral ramps, respectively. In depth to the east, it also induces a vertical contrast between shallow (right-lateral-normal) and deep (left-lateral given by fault plane solutions) kinematics along the Istein-Allschwill-Rhine Valley fault system. Few arguments supporting a nucleation of the Basel-1356 earthquake, the strongest event in NW Europe in the last thousand years, onto the Rhine Valley fault system beneath the decollement have been given. However, we emphasize that the above mentioned coeval thin (aseismic)- and thick (seismic)-skinned tectonics along the Istein-Allschwill-Rhine Valley fault system would make difficult both the identification and the interpretation of the surface rupture of the Basel-1356 earthquake.

  12. Iodized Salt Consumption in Sudan: Present Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Bani, Ibrahim Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Control Programme in Sudan adopted salt iodization as the long-term strategy in 1994. In 2000, it was found that less than 1% of households were using adequately-iodized salt. The objectives of this study were to: (i) study the coverage and variation of different geographical regions of Sudan regarding access to and use of iodized salt, (ii) explore the possible factors which influence the use of iodized salt, (iii) develop recommendations to help in the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) strategy in Sudan. This paper is based on the Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) dataset. A total sample of 24,507 households was surveyed, and 18,786 cooking salt samples were tested for iodine levels with rapid salt-testing kits. Nationally, the percentage of households using adequately-iodized salt increased from less than 1% in 2000 to 14.4%, with wide variations between states. Access to iodized salt ranged from 96.9% in Central Equatoria to 0.4% in Gezira state. Population coverage with iodized salt in Sudan remains very low. The awareness and political support for USI programme is very weak. National legislation banning the sale of non-iodized salt does not exist. Utilization of the already-existing laws, like the National Standardization and Metrology Law (2008), to develop a compulsory national salt specification, will accelerate the USI in Sudan. PMID:23304909

  13. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper. PMID:15935655

  14. Exploitation and recovery of a sea urchin predator has implications for the resilience of southern California kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Scott L; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2015-01-22

    Size-structured predator-prey interactions can be altered by the history of exploitation, if that exploitation is itself size-selective. For example, selective harvesting of larger sized predators can release prey populations in cases where only large individuals are capable of consuming a particular prey species. In this study, we examined how the history of exploitation and recovery (inside marine reserves and due to fisheries management) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has affected size-structured interactions with sea urchin prey in southern California. We show that fishing changes size structure by reducing sizes and alters life histories of sheephead, while management measures that lessen or remove fishing impacts (e.g. marine reserves, effort restrictions) reverse these effects and result in increases in density, size and biomass. We show that predation on sea urchins is size-dependent, such that the diet of larger sheephead is composed of more and larger sized urchins than the diet of smaller fish. These results have implications for kelp forest resilience, because urchins can overgraze kelp in the absence of top-down control. From surveys in a network of marine reserves, we report negative relationships between the abundance of sheephead and urchins and the abundance of urchins and fleshy macroalgae (including giant kelp), indicating the potential for cascading indirect positive effects of top predators on the abundance of primary producers. Management measures such as increased minimum size limits and marine reserves may serve to restore historical trophic roles of key predators and thereby enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems. PMID:25500572

  15. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Yambio, Sudan, 2004.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Clayton O; Opoka, Martin L; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Formenty, Pierre; Ahmed, Abdullahi; Tukei, Peter M; Sang, Rosemary C; Ofula, Victor O; Konongoi, Samson L; Coldren, Rodney L; Grein, Thomas; Legros, Dominique; Bell, Mike; De Cock, Kevin M; Bellini, William J; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

    2007-11-15

    Between the months of April and June 2004, an Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak was reported in Yambio county, southern Sudan. Blood samples were collected from a total of 36 patients with suspected EHF and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G and M antibodies, antigen ELISA, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a segment of the Ebolavirus (EBOV) polymerase gene. A total of 13 patients were confirmed to be infected with EBOV. In addition, 4 fatal cases were classified as probable cases, because no samples were collected. Another 12 patients were confirmed to have acute measles infection during the same period that EBOV was circulating. Genetic analysis of PCR-positive samples indicated that the virus was similar to but distinct from Sudan EBOV Maleo 1979. In response, case management, social mobilization, and follow-up of contacts were set up as means of surveillance. The outbreak was declared to be over on 7 August 2004. PMID:17940949

  16. Superficial Cancer in the Sudan. A Study of 1225 Primary Malignant Superficial Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Malik, M. O. A.; Hidaytalla, A.; Daoud, E. H.; el Hassan, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Superficial cancer in the Sudan accounted for 17·2% of all malignant tumours examined histologically during the period 1962-72 inclusive. Of the 4 pathological types studied, squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest (63·3% of all superficial cancers) followed by malignant melanoma (18·8%) and basal cell carcinoma (14·9%) whilst Kaposi's sarcoma formed only 3% of the total. Generally, twice as many cases occurred in males as in females, with the exception of Kaposi's sarcoma where all the patients were males. Although a relatively high proportion of cases occurred in the young age groups, the age-specific incidence was noted to increase with age. Similarities and differences in the anatomical site of tumours compared with European and African series were noted. Certain differences emerged in the geographical distribution of these tumours in the Northern and Southern regions of the Sudan—regions which differ both ethnologically and geographically—thus suggesting possible roles played by racial and environmental factors in this respect. PMID:4447778

  17. Determining the effect of climate change and development on water resources management in the Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of climate change in East Africa provide a myriad of challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. The construction of the Grand renaissance dam (GRD), as well as the unknown trajectory of precipitation trends in the Ethiopian highlands may greatly affect the countries that rely on the Nile. Sudan's huge irrigation potential and dams that feed multiple current irrigation schemes as well as its location within the basin means that Sudan's water management decisions may reverberate and have social, economic and political implications within the east African sub-region. Here, we apply a suite of state-of-the-art hydrology and climate analysis tools to evaluate the sensitivity of Sudan's optimal hydropower and irrigation development pathways to hydrologic variability and climate change. Present day hydrologic conditions are derived from a gridded implementation of the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) that includes representation of typical irrigation practices in the region. Noah is implemented using the NASA Land Information System (LIS), and draws forcing data from a combination of reanalysis and satellite meteorological products. Additional satellite inputs are used to provide a constraint on Noah evapotranspiration estimates and to acquire parameters such as crop water requirements that are crucial in determining yield and agricultural production. Future climate conditions are projected using statistical downscaling techniques trained to historical meteorological records and projected forward using inputs from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulation database. These climatic and hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to drive an optimization model developed within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). By using output and results from climate, hydrologic and optimization models this research aims to show how these models can be integrated to aid decision makers in the quest to better manage their water resources.

  18. Development of sedimentary cycles on the east Sahara craton since Silurian time (northwest Sudan/southwest Egypt)

    SciTech Connect

    Wycisk, P. )

    1988-08-01

    The sedimentary succession of southwest Egypt and northwest Sudan, formerly called the Nubia(n) Sandstone, has been subdivided into a number of formations. The predominantly fluvial sediments which characterize Silurian to Upper Cretaceous strata of this region were repeatedly interrupted by marine transgressions that rapidly progressed toward the south since Ordovician time. Thin, shallow marine sequences of different ages can be traced for more than 1,000 km within the studied area. The development of the sedimentary cycles will be pointed out by surface and subsurface data along a cross section from the southern Dakhla basin in the north to the Misaha trough and Abyad basin in the south.

  19. Habitat overlap between southern bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna in the east coast longline fishery implications for present and future

    E-print Network

    Feng, Ming

    Habitat overlap between southern bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna in the east coast longline fishery Bycatch reduction Spatial management Habitat prediction Climate change a b s t r a c t Southern bluefin to contain SBT. A habitat prediction model combining data from an ocean model and pop- up satellite archival

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of October 27, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  1. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....

  2. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  3. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions....

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Sudan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 1, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Sudan, pursuant to the International...

  5. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...

  6. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to...

  7. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software,...

  8. Possible Glacio-Fluvial Landforms in Southern Argyre Planitia, Mars: Implications for Glacier Thickness and Depositional Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, H.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.; Ivanov, M.; Erkeling, G.

    2012-03-01

    We conducted a detailed geomorphologic mapping and analysis of the southern rim of the Argyre basin, Mars. We reconstructed the glacial load potentially associated with esker-like ridges and propose new formation mechanisms for their surroundings.

  9. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM VEGETATION IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: EMISSION RATES AND SOME POTENTIAL REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVO...

  10. Cutaneous Emergence of Eustrongylides in Two Persons from South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Mark L.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Two large, living worms were collected as they emerged from the lower limb of each of two persons in South Sudan. The worms were observed by staff of the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program during surveillance activities in communities at-risk for cases of Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis). The worms measured 7 and 8 cm in length and were identified as fourth-stage larvae of Eustrongylides. This is the first report of such worms emerging from the skin; all five previous reports of human infection involved surgical removal of worms from the peritoneal cavity. PMID:24379241

  11. Linkages between Southern Ocean Cloud-Radiative Processes and the Large-Scale Southern Hemisphere Circulation, and Their Implications for Climate Model Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grise, K. M.; Polvani, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Southern Ocean cloud cover is strongly linked to extratropical weather systems, and thus to the position of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) storm track and the mid-latitude eddy-driven jet stream. Consequently, if the jet moves poleward (either as a result of natural variability or anthropogenic forcing), a notable change in cloud-radiative processes might be expected. In this study, we examine the cloud-radiative anomalies associated with interannual variability in the latitude of the SH mid-latitude eddy-driven jet, using two satellite data sets (ISCCP-FD and CERES) and 20 global climate models from Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Two distinct model types are found. In the first class of models ("type I models"), the total cloud fraction is reduced at SH mid-latitudes as the jet moves poleward, contributing to enhanced shortwave radiative warming. In the second class of models ("type II models"), this dynamically-induced cloud-radiative warming effect is largely absent. Type I and type II models have distinct deficiencies in their representation of observed Southern Ocean clouds, but comparison with the two satellite data sets indicates that the cloud-dynamics behavior of type II models is more realistic. Because the SH mid-latitude jet shifts poleward in response to CO2 forcing, the cloud-dynamics biases uncovered from interannual variability are directly relevant for climate change projections. In CMIP5 model experiments with abruptly quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the global-mean surface temperature initially warms more in type I models, even though their equilibrium climate sensitivity is not significantly larger. In type I models, this larger initial warming is linked to the rapid adjustment of the circulation and clouds to CO2 forcing in the SH, where a nearly instantaneous poleward shift of the mid-latitude jet is accompanied by a reduction in the reflection of solar radiation by clouds. In type II models, the SH jet also shifts rapidly poleward with CO2 quadrupling, but it is not accompanied by cloud-radiative warming anomalies, resulting in a smaller initial global-mean surface temperature warming.

  12. A survey of antimicrobial residues in table eggs in Khartoum State, Sudan, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Sirdar, Mohamed M; Picard, Jackie; Bisschop, Shahn; Jambalang, Alexander R; Gummow, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The risk to consumers of antimicrobial residues in table eggs produced in Khartoum State, Sudan, was studied. All producing layer farms (n =?175) in the state were sampled in April, June and August 2008. A total of 933 eggs from 335 layer houses were screened for antimicrobial residues by using the growth inhibition of Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis in-house test. A high proportion of layer farms (72% in April, 61% in June and 66% in August) and layer houses (63% April, 59% in June and 61% in August) were found to have antimicrobial residues, with no significant difference in prevalence (p =?0.57) between study periods. The study showed that the consumer was at constant risk of exposure to antimicrobial residues in table eggs. The paper discusses reasons for the high prevalence of antimicrobial residues in Sudanese eggs and its implications, and makes recommendations to address this important public health problem. PMID:23327308

  13. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan: temporal trends and underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria vector control in Sudan relies mainly on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and the use of long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs). Monitoring insecticide resistance in the main Sudanese malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, is essential for planning and implementing an effective vector control program in this country. Methods WHO susceptibility tests were used to monitor resistance to insecticides from all four WHO-approved classes of insecticide at four sentinel sites in Gezira state over a three year period. Insecticide resistance mechanisms were studied using PCR and microarray analyses. Results WHO susceptibility tests showed that Anopheles arabiensis from all sites were fully susceptible to bendiocarb and fenitrothion for the duration of the study (2008–2011). However, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was detected at three sites, with strong seasonal variations evident at all sites. The 1014 F kdr allele was significantly associated with resistance to pyrethroids and DDT (P??7 in allelic tests). The 1014S allele was not detected in any of the populations tested. Microarray analysis of the permethrin-resistant population of An. arabiensis from Wad Medani identified a number of metabolic genes that were significantly over-transcribed in the field-collected resistant samples when compared to the susceptible Sudanese An. arabiensis Dongola strain. These included CYP6M2 and CYP6P3, two genes previously implicated in pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s, and the epsilon-class glutathione-S-transferase, GSTe4. Conclusions These data suggest that both target-site mechanisms and metabolic mechanisms play an important role in conferring pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis from Sudan. Identification in An. arabiensis of candidate loci that have been implicated in the resistance phenotype in An. gambiae requires further investigation to confirm the role of these genes. PMID:24886129

  14. Mycetoma in the Sudan: an update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed M; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh

    2015-03-01

    This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991-2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old) males (76%). The majority (68%) were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%). In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%). History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76%) and hand (8%) were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%), thigh (2%), buttock (2%) and arm and forearm (1%). Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2%) of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7%) had postoperative recurrence. Different types of amputations were done in 120 patients (1.7%). PMID:25816316

  15. Mycetoma in the Sudan: An Update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, EL Sheikh; Hassan, Ahmed M. EL; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh

    2015-01-01

    This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991–2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old) males (76%). The majority (68%) were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%). In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%). History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76%) and hand (8%) were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%), thigh (2%), buttock (2%) and arm and forearm (1%). Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2%) of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7%) had postoperative recurrence. Different types of amputations were done in 120 patients (1.7%). PMID:25816316

  16. Mammalian body size changes and Plio-Pleistocene environmental shifts: implications for understanding hominin evolution in eastern and southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Sally Christine

    2007-11-01

    This study examines geographic and temporal variation in three mammalian taxa co-occurring in eastern and southern Africa. The selected taxa-the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), the plains zebra (Equus burchellii), and the impala (Aepyceros melampus)--are geographically widespread in modern times and are abundant in eastern and southern African Plio-Pleistocene fossil sites. Craniodental measurements of modern conspecifics from known geographic locations are compared using multivariate statistical methods to discern patterns of modern geographic variation within taxa. Modern and fossil samples are statistically compared to assess the nature and extent of inferred shifts in body size, both between modern samples and through time in each region. These results indicate that modern spotted hyenas and plains zebras exhibit mainly size variation between regions, with southern African samples possessing statistically larger craniodental metrics than eastern African samples. Comparison of fossil and modern samples reveals that the fossil assemblages do not show the same pattern of geographic variation. Significant temporal changes are more numerous between fossil and modern eastern African samples, and these changes are not mirrored by similar changes in the southern African samples. The changes experienced by taxa in eastern Africa appear to have been more extreme and wide-ranging than those in southern Africa, a presumed refugium. This result accords well with genetic studies of several large mammal species and paleoenvironmental studies suggesting that eastern African localized environments were more affected by tectonism and volcanism than were those in southern Africa. This study suggests that different evolutionary scenarios may have existed within Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene, but that both regions played unique and complementary roles in the evolution of African hominins and the broader faunal community. PMID:17915290

  17. 76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background DoD, GSA, and NASA published a proposed rule in the Federal Register at 75 FR 62069... Sudan and Imports from Burma, in the Federal Register at 74 FR 40463 on August 11, 2009, amending the... past performance and integrity (see the Past Performance Information Retrieval System including...

  18. 75 FR 62069 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Operations in Sudan and Imports from Burma, in the Federal Register at 74 FR 40463 on August 11, 2009... integrity (see the Past Performance Information Retrieval System (including the Federal Awardee Performance... foreign policy aspects of the waiver request for consultations. This information will be provided, in...

  19. New sources of grain mold resistance among accessions from Sudan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-nine sorghum accessions from Sudan were evaluated in replicated plots at Isabela, Puerto Rico, for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum, one of the causal agents of grain mold. The environmental conditions during this study, especially at and after physiological maturity were optimal for gra...

  20. Sudanese Images of the Other: Education and Conflict in Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Education can contribute to peace and reconciliation as well as to conflict and strife. The complex, often contradictory role of education in conflict is explored in this article in relation to Sudan. The focus of the article is the North-South conflict, bearing in mind that other, "minor" wars and military clashes in both the North and South have…

  1. Child Prodigy in Astronomy: A Biographical Study from the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleefa, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have been conducted in the West regarding child prodigies, no such studies have taken place in indigenous Arab cultures--particularly not in Sudan. The present study attempts to bridge the existing gap in this area by focusing on a Sudanese child prodigy with extraordinary inclination towards astronomy. It is a qualitative…

  2. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  3. Arabic in the Sudan: Current Problems and Future Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurreiz, Sayyid Hamid

    1975-01-01

    Using as a framework Ferguson's diglossia model with its division into a high and a low variety of the language used, the linguistic situation in the Sudan in described as a continuum. At one end is found the very formal classical Arabic, used for special occasions. At the other end is a casual form which dominates meetings and social gatherings…

  4. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section 742.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10...

  5. The Development of an Environmental Education Curriculum for Sudan, Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of three environmental education workshops held in Sudan between 1983 and 1985. Explains the participants' involvement with curriculum design, curriculum structure development, and activity selection. Suggests that this program can serve as a model for national environmental education program development. (ML)

  6. New chronology for the southern Kalahari Group sediments with implications for sediment-cycle dynamics and early hominin occupation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matmon, Ari; Hidy, Alan J.; Vainer, Shlomy; Crouvi, Onn; Fink, David; Erel, Yigal; Arnold, M.; Aumaître, G.; Bourlès, D.; Keddadouche, K.; Horwitz, Liora K.; Chazan, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Kalahari Group sediments accumulated in the Kalahari basin, which started forming during the breakup of Gondwana in the early Cretaceous. These sediments cover an extensive part of southern Africa and form a low-relief landscape. Current models assume that the Kalahari Group accumulated throughout the entire Cenozoic. However, chronology has been restricted to early-middle Cenozoic biostratigraphic correlations and to OSL dating of only the past ~ 300 ka. We present a new chronological framework that reveals a dynamic nature of sedimentation in the southern Kalahari. Cosmogenic burial ages obtained from a 55 m section of Kalahari Group sediments from the Mamatwan Mine, southern Kalahari, indicate that the majority of deposition at this location occurred rapidly at 1-1.2 Ma. This Pleistocene sequence overlies the Archaean basement, forming a significant hiatus that permits the possibility of many Phanerozoic cycles of deposition and erosion no longer preserved in the sedimentary record. Our data also establish the existence of a shallow early-middle Pleistocene water body that persisted for > 450 ka prior to this rapid period of deposition. Evidence from neighboring archeological excavations in southern Africa suggests an association of high-density hominin occupation with this water body.

  7. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China’s afforestation program. PMID:26115116

  8. Late Holocene Marsh Expansion in Southern San Francisco Bay, California: Implications for the Use of Historic Baselines as Restoration Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the largest tidal wetlands restoration project on the US Pacific Coast is being planned and implemented in southern San Francisco Bay; however, knowledge of baseline conditions of salt marsh extent in the region prior to European settlement is limited. Here, analysis o...

  9. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Niño–Southern Oscillation records

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2–8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term “shattered landscape” to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Niño events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Niño-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion. PMID:15263069

  10. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Nino-Southern Oscillation records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2-8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term "shattered landscape" to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Nin??o events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Nin??o-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion.

  11. Crustal strain rates, upper mantle seismic wave speeds, and implications for lower crustal strength in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Venkataramani, S.; Mcelwaine, J. N.; Restrepo, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    In southern California the dilatational strain rate field of the crust imaged using GPS geodesy is strongly correlated with upper mantle wave speeds imaged using Rayleigh wave tomography. This correlation suggests that small-scale upper mantle convection may be actively contributing to upper crustal deformation. Understanding this correlation is important for determining whether geodesy has a role to play in advancing our understanding of upper mantle dynamics, and for improving tectonic interpretations of crustal motion data, particularly with regard to hazards assessment. To study this issue further, we developed an analytical model in which a viscoelastic crust is driven by tractions induced by negatively buoyant cylinders sinking in a viscous mantle halfspace. This model may serve as a numerical analog for delaminated crustal roots or lithospheric mantle drips. For models in which the crust is composed of a single viscoelastic layer with viscosity that is higher than that of the upper mantle, we found that tractions on the base of the crust associated with Stokes-like flow may result in horizontal motions of the crustal surface of order 1 mm/yr or more over distances of as small as 50 km (strain rates of order 20 nanostrain/yr), depending on crustal thickness, cylinder size and density contrast, and crust and mantle viscosities. These strain rates are comparable to the dilatational strain rates observed in southern California. For models in which the lower crust behaves as a weak, low viscosity layer sandwiched between stronger upper crust and mantle, the horizontal components of upper crust are decoupled from mantle flow. Thus, the geodetic strain rate and seismic tomography data for southern California may suggest that the lower crust of southern California is relatively strong. This inference is consistent with long-time scale rheologic properties recently inferred by other researchers from short-time scale postseismic deformation data for the southern California region.

  12. Base- and precious-metal deposits in the Basin and Range of Southern California and Southern Nevada—Metallogenic implications of lead isotope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Stanley E.; Cox, Dennis P.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Tingley, Joseph V.; Vaughn, Robert B.

    2005-12-01

    Southern California and southern Nevada contain abundant lead-zinc deposits with strikingly different characteristics. On the west, the Darwin Terrane contains abundant Jurassic and Cretaceous intrusions surrounded by lead-zinc skarn and replacement deposits rich in pyrite and manganese minerals. The Tecopa Terrane is east of the Darwin Terrane and contains some lead deposits that are hosted by the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite. These lead deposits have no consistent relation to igneous rocks; they contain mainly galena, and are devoid of pyrite and manganese minerals. Other skarn and vein deposits in the Ivanpah and Tecopa districts are more closely associated with igneous rocks. Mississippi Valley type lead-zinc deposits are present still farther to the east in the Goodsprings Terrane in Nevada. These deposits are hosted by breccias formed below the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity and are unrelated to igneous rocks. Deposits in the Darwin Terrane have lead isotopic signatures that lie along a mantle-sediment mixing line indicating that they formed in a continental arc setting analogous to that for the plutons in the Sierra Nevada batholith [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Encroachment of this continental arc on the North American continent in the eastern part of the Darwin Terrane resulted in a lead isotopic signature that is like that of the strongly contaminated plutons [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Many deposits from the Inyo Mountains on east side of the Owens Valley have lead isotopic signatures that reflect this encroachment. To the east in the Tecopa Terrane, encroachment of the continental arc on the Mojave crust resulted in partial melting of 1.7 Ga amphibolite and granulite facies rocks to produce the plutons and mineral deposits associated with plutons in this terrane. Lead from deposits in this terrane hosted in the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite and associated rocks have a lead isotope signature that reflects hydrothermal circulation of fluids in the Mojave supracrustal rocks. The boundary between the Darwin Terrane and the Tecopa Terrane lies just west of the Ash Valley-Panamint Range Fault and is bounded by the Towne Fault on the north and the Garlock Fault on the south. Lead isotopic data from the Goodsprings district in southwestern Nevada, east of the Tecopa Terrane, form a 1.45 Ga linear array that is indicative of Mississippi Valley type mineralization. Although we have no independent evidence of the timing of the tectonic events that formed these deposits, it is likely that all formed as a result of the Mesozoic collision of the Panthalassen crust with the North American continent.

  13. Base- and precious-metal deposits in the Basin and Range of Southern California and Southern Nevada - Metallogenic implications of lead isotope studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Cox, D.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Tingley, J.V.; Vaughn, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Southern California and southern Nevada contain abundant lead-zinc deposits with strikingly different characteristics. On the west, the Darwin Terrane contains abundant Jurassic and Cretaceous intrusions surrounded by lead-zinc skarn and replacement deposits rich in pyrite and manganese minerals. The Tecopa Terrane is east of the Darwin Terrane and contains some lead deposits that are hosted by the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite. These lead deposits have no consistent relation to igneous rocks; they contain mainly galena, and are devoid of pyrite and manganese minerals. Other skarn and vein deposits in the Ivanpah and Tecopa districts are more closely associated with igneous rocks. Mississippi Valley type lead-zinc deposits are present still farther to the east in the Goodsprings Terrane in Nevada. These deposits are hosted by breccias formed below the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity and are unrelated to igneous rocks. Deposits in the Darwin Terrane have lead isotopic signatures that lie along a mantle-sediment mixing line indicating that they formed in a continental arc setting analogous to that for the plutons in the Sierra Nevada batholith [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Encroachment of this continental arc on the North American continent in the eastern part of the Darwin Terrane resulted in a lead isotopic signature that is like that of the strongly contaminated plutons [Chen, J.H. and Tilton, G.R., 1991. Application of lead and strontium isotopic relationships to the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks, central Sierra Nevada batholith, California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 103, 439-447]. Many deposits from the Inyo Mountains on east side of the Owens Valley have lead isotopic signatures that reflect this encroachment. To the east in the Tecopa Terrane, encroachment of the continental arc on the Mojave crust resulted in partial melting of 1.7 Ga amphibolite and granulite facies rocks to produce the plutons and mineral deposits associated with plutons in this terrane. Lead from deposits in this terrane hosted in the Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite and associated rocks have a lead isotope signature that reflects hydrothermal circulation of fluids in the Mojave supracrustal rocks. The boundary between the Darwin Terrane and the Tecopa Terrane lies just west of the Ash Valley-Panamint Range Fault and is bounded by the Towne Fault on the north and the Garlock Fault on the south. Lead isotopic data from the Goodsprings district in southwestern Nevada, east of the Tecopa Terrane, form a 1.45 Ga linear array that is indicative of Mississippi Valley type mineralization. Although we have no independent evidence of the timing of the tectonic events that formed these deposits, it is likely that all formed as a result of the Mesozoic collision of the Panthalassen crust with the North American continent. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lessons learned from post-wildfire monitoring and implications for land management and regional drinking water treatability in Southern Rockies of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diiwu, J.; Silins, U.; Kevin, B.; Anderson, A.

    2008-12-01

    Like many areas of the Rocky Mountains, Alberta's forests on the eastern slopes of the Rockies have been shaped by decades of successful fire suppression. These forests are at high risk to fire and large scale insect infestation, and climate change will continue to increase these risks. These headwaters forests provide the vast majority of usable surface water supplies to large region of the province, and large scale natural disasters can have dramatic effects on water quality and water availability. The population in the region has steadily increased and now this area is the main source water for many Alberta municipalities, including the City of Calgary, which has a population of over one million. In 2003 a fire burned 21,000 ha in the southern foothills area. The government land managers were concerned about the downstream implications of the fire and salvage operations, however there was very limited scientific information to guide the decision making. This led to establishment of the Southern Rockies Watershed Project, which is a partnership between Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, the provincial government department responsible for land management and the University of Alberta. After five years of data collection, the project has produced quantitative information that was not previously available about the effects of fire and management interventions such as salvage logging on headwaters and regional water quality. This information can be used to make decisions on forest operations, fire suppression, and post-fire salvage operations. In the past few years this project has captured the interest of large municipalities and water treatment researchers who are keen to investigate the potential implications of large natural disturbances to large and small drinking water treatment facilities. Examples from this project will be used to highlight the challenges and successes encountered while bridging the gap between science and land management policy.

  15. Holocene Southern-Ocean Surface Radiocarbon Ages: Implications for Ocean Circulation and Ice-shelf Flow Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, G. M.; Hall, B. L.; Baroni, C.; Kellogg, T. B.

    2007-12-01

    The Southern Ocean features high surface-water 14C reservoir ages, reflecting substantial upwelling of old deep water and poor air-sea exchange. These high values complicate 14C dating in the circum-Antarctic region, and encode information about past ocean circulation (particularly the rate of deep-water ventilation in the Atlantic). Here we present new results from the Ross Sea that provide a history of Holocene Southern Ocean 14C. Freezing at the base of the McMurdo ice shelf traps sediment (including solitary corals) which is then transported to the ice surface by ice ablation. Forty-five solitary corals from the McMurdo Ice Shelf and from Hells Gate have been dated precisely using U/Th and 14C techniques to provide a detailed reconstruction of surface-water reservoir ages for the past 6,000 years. With the exception of two young samples that show the impact of bomb radiocarbon, other samples indicate a constant 14C reservoir age during this period of 1300±200 years. The constancy of this value is reassuring for studies conducting chronology in the Southern Ocean, or relying on knowledge of deep-water source regions for 14C ventilation ages. It also allows constraints to be placed on changes in the flow of NADW with time, since slower flow leads to older upwelling water in the Southern Ocean. The systematic increase in age of samples with distance from Black Island also allows reconstruction of the flow rate of the McMurdo Ice Shelf. This indicates a constant flow of about 4 m/yr for the last 5000 years, with flow about three times faster before this period. These flow rates compare with short term estimates of flow in the region of about 16 m/yr suggesting that flow may have increased in recent times.

  16. Vertical Water Mass Structure of the Southern Ocean Inferred From Neodymium Isotopes: Implications for Organic Carbon Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. E.; Scher, H. D.

    2006-12-01

    Neodymium isotope records from the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean have documented first order changes in ocean circulation, such as Pacific throughflow following the early opening of Drake Passage, initiation of deep water export from the North Atlantic, and intensification of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). These studies have shed light on changes in deep water circulation and production areas, however the impact of these changes on the vertical structure of the Southern Ocean is has not been explored. We investigated the middle Eocene to early Miocene sections of three vertically and horizontally offset Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (ODP Sites 689 (upper Maud Rise; paleodepth 1500 m), 690 (lower Maud Rise; paleodepth 2200 m), and 1090 (Agulhas Ridge; paleodepth 3700). Nd isotope records were generated from fossil fish teeth covering the interval from 45 to 25 Ma. Our goal was to investigate changes in the vertical water mass structure of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The vertical water mass structure of the Southern Ocean has been influenced by the development of the ACC, which is believed to have exerted an important control on the relationship between opal deposition and organic carbon burial in this region. Thus, this work is relevant for assessing the mechanisms thought to be responsible for the draw down of atmospheric carbon dioxide, an important factor in global climate change over this interval. During the middle Eocene, around 42 Ma, the ?Nd gradient between intermediate and deep waters in the Atlantic sector was about 1 ?Nd unit. ?Nd values at Maud Rise were -9.2 and - 9.5 (Sites 689 and 690 respectively), while ?Nd values at Agulhas Ridge were -8.5. Between 41 and 35 Ma ?Nd values at all three locations became more radiogenic as Pacific seawater entered the Atlantic following the early opening of Drake Passage. Agulhas Ridge ?Nd values increased to -6, and values at Maud Rise increased to -8 and -8.5. By 37 Ma the vertical gradient in the Atlantic sector had increased to 2.5 ?Nd units and remained high through the early Oligocene. During the late Oligocene, the vertical gradient decreased to about 1.25 ?Nd units as values on Agulhas Ridge and Maud Rise converged. Results from this study indicate that intermediate and deep waters were strongly stratified during the late middle Eocene to late Oligocene. This is very different from the present-day Southern Ocean, where vigorous mixing by the ACC results in a relatively uniform ?Nd depth profile. One result of intense ACC mixing is low organic carbon burial despite high opal accumulation rates. The vertical water mass structure during the Eocene and Oligocene that has been documented in this study is likely a result of lower mixing rates due to a shallower ACC. Lower mixing rates may have contributed to the coupling of opal deposition and organic carbon burial that has been observed over this interval (Anderson and Delaney, 2005), which possibly led to the draw down of atmospheric carbon dioxide, contributing to planetary cooling. Mixing in the Southern Ocean increased as the mature ACC developed, the vertical ?Nd profile became more uniform.

  17. Occurrence of Sudan I in paprika fruits caused by agricultural environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yunhe; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Wu, Naiying; Lu, Qingguo; Han, Wenjie; Tie, Xiaowei

    2014-05-01

    Current research has demonstrated the presence of sub parts per billion levels of Sudan dye in paprika fruits during the vegetation process, which is difficult to understand on the basis of the conventional concept of cross-contamination or malicious addition. Detailed surveys on Sudan dyes I-IV in paprika fruits, soils, and agronomic materials used from seven fields of Xinjiang (China) were conducted to investigate the natural contamination. Results revealed that Sudan dyes II-IV were never detected and that Sudan I existed in almost all samples except for the mulching film and irrigation water. The higher total amount of Sudan I in soils, pesticides, and fertilizers compared to coated seeds indicated the combination of Sudan I-contaminated soils and application of Sudan I-containing agronomic materials constitutes a major source of 0.18-2.52 ?g/kg levels of Sudan I in fruits during the growth period. The study offers a more reasonable explanation for the previously observed Sudan I in paprika fruits. PMID:24766082

  18. The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

  19. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alex D; Tyler, Paul A; Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jon T; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D; Pearce, David A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; German, Christopher R; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Alker, Belinda J; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J J; Graham, Alastair G C; Green, Darryl R H; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D K; Roterman, Christopher N; Sweeting, Christopher J; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than previously recognised. PMID:22235194

  20. Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics of southern African peridotite xenoliths - Implications for the chemical evolution of subcontinental mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R. W.; Shirey, S. B.; Boyd, F. R.

    1989-01-01

    Isotope analyses of Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb elements were caried out on twelve peridotite xenoliths from the Jagersfontein, Letseng-la-terae, Thaba Patsoa, Mothae, and Premier kimberlites of southern Africa, to investigate the timing and the nature of melt extraction from the continental lithosphere and its relation to the continent formation and stabilization. The distinct Os and Pb isotopic characteristics found in these samples suggested that both the low- and the high-temperature peridotites reside in an ancient stable lithospheric 'keel' to the craton that has been isolated from chemical exchange with the sublithospheric mantle for time periods in excess of 2 Ga.

  1. Late Pleistocene barrier-island sequence along the southern Delmarva Peninsula: implications for middle Wisconsin sea levels

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, K.; Kearney, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence for a middle Wisconsin sea-level high at or above modern limits along the east coast of the US has long been controversial. Most reports have been dismissed as poorly dated or lacking unequivocal documentation of a marine transgression. The authors describe here a /sup 14/C-dated, middle Wisconsin transgressive sequence with an extant subaerial barrier facies along the southern Delmarva Peninsula. This sequence indicates that sea levels were near their present position between ca. 23 and 34 ka; it may correlate with other inferred similar-age littoral deposits of the area, and it suggests that the evidence for glacioeustatic fluctuations during the Wisconsin Glaciation should be reconsidered.

  2. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  3. Late Pleistocene and Holocene uplift history of Cyprus: implications for active tectonics along the southern margin of the Anatolian microplate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, R.W.; Tsiolakis, E.; Stone, B.D.; Lord, A.; McGeehin, J.P.; Mahan, S.A.; Chirico, P.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the southern margin of the Anatolian microplate during the Neogene is complex, controversial and fundamental in understanding active plate-margin tectonics and natural hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our investigation provides new insights into the Late Pleistocene uplift history of Cyprus and the Troodos Ophiolite. We provide isotopic (14C) and radiogenic (luminescence) dates of outcropping marine sediments in eastern Cyprus that identify periods of deposition during marine isotope stages (MIS) 3, 4, 5 and 6. Past sea-levels indicated by these deposits are c. 95±25 m higher in elevation than estimates of worldwide eustatic sea-level. An uplift rate of c. 1.8 mm/year and possibly as much as c. 4.1 mm/year in the past c. 26–40 ka is indicated. Holocene marine deposits also occur at elevations higher than those expected for past SL and suggest uplift rates of c. 1.2–2.1 mm/year. MIS-3 marine deposits that crop out in southern and western Cyprus indicate uniform island-wide uplift. We propose a model of tectonic wedging at a plate-bounding restraining bend as a mechanism for Late Pleistocene to Holocene uplift of Cyprus; uplift is accommodated by deformation and seismicity along the margins of the Troodos Ophiolite and re-activation of its low-angle, basal shear zone.

  4. Thrust faults of southern Diamond Mountains, central Nevada: Implications for hydrocarbons in Diamond Valley and at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.E.

    1993-04-01

    Overmature Mississippian hydrocarbon source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains have been interpreted to be a klippe overlying less mature source rocks and represented as an analogy to similar conditions near Yucca Mountain (Chamberlain, 1991). Geologic evidence indicates an alternative interpretation. Paleogeologic mapping indicates the presence of a thrust fault, referred to here as the Moritz Nager Thrust Fault, with Devonian rocks emplaced over Permian to Mississippian strata folded into an upright to overturned syncline, and that the overmature rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in the footwall of this thrust. The upper plate has been eroded from most of the Diamond Mountains but remnants are present at the head of Moritz Nager Canyon and at Sentinel Mountain. Devonian rocks of the upper plate comprised the earliest landslide megabreccia. Later, megabreccias of Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks of the overturned syncline of the lower plate were deposited. By this interpretation the maturity of lower-plate source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains, which have been increased by tectonic burial, is not indicative of conditions in Diamond Valley, adjacent to the west, where upper-plate source rocks might be present in generating conditions. The interpretation that overmature source rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in a lower plate rather than in a klippe means that this area is an inappropriate model for the Eleana Range near Yucca Mountain.

  5. Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable. PMID:26125972

  6. Hydroclimate implications of thermocline variability in the southern South China Sea over the past 180,000 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Li; Li, Qianyu; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2015-03-01

    Based on core-top calibration, the TEX 86H-derived temperature has been considered as representing subsurface sea temperature (SSST), and the difference between the U37K?-derived sea-surface temperature (SST) and the TEX 86H-derived SSST can be used to reflect the depth of thermocline (DOT) in the South China Sea region (Jia et al., 2012). We evaluated the DOT dynamics in late Quaternary records using this approach on paired analysis of samples from core MD05-2896/7 in the southern South China Sea. The reconstructed DOT over the last 180,000 yr (180 ka) displays a shoaling trend in glacial periods, which may be attributed to the strengthened cyclonic gyre by the enhanced East Asian winter monsoon and Walker circulation with prominent La Niña-like state, and vice versa in interglacial periods corresponding to reduced winter monsoon with enhanced El Niño-like state. These upper-water thermal variations testify that enhanced winter monsoon was the direct cause of an uplifted local thermocline during glacial or La Niña-like states with strengthened cyclonic gyre due to positive wind stress curl in the southern South China Sea. Our results provide insights into the relationship between monsoon and ENSO on both glacial and millennial time scales.

  7. Middle Permian brachiopods from the Tumenling Formation in the Wuchang area, southern Heilongjiang, NE China, and their palaeobiogeographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazawa, J.; Chen, Z. Q.

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes nine brachiopod species in eight genera from the Tumenling Formation in the Wuchang area, southern Heilongjiang, northeast China. The Tumenling fauna is constrained to a Wordian-Capitanian (Guadalupian, Middle Permian) age, based on the correlation of the faunas, and previously published data from the same horizons in the same area. This Middle Permian brachiopod fauna is characterized by an admixture of elements of Boreal affinity ( Kochiproductus sp., Yakovlevia sp., Stenoscisma margaritovi, Gypospirifer volatilis, Spiriferella keilhavii, Spiriferella lita and Alispiriferella neimongolensis), with Palaeoequatorial forms ( Spinomarginifera sp., Vediproductus sp., and Leptodus nobilis). The Wuchang fauna, as a whole, is comparable to several contemporaneous faunas described from Inner Mongolia in northern China, Jilin in Northeast China, South Primorye in eastern Russia, and the Hida Gaien Belt of Japan, in terms of its index elements and its Boreal-Palaeoequatorial mixture. During the Middle Permian these areas (or blocks) were referred to the Inner Mongolia-Japan transition zone or the northern transition zone between the Palaeoequatorial and Boreal Realms. The overwhelming majority of the Boreal elements reveal that the Wuchang area was probably situated in the northern subzone of this transitional zone, which belongs to the southern margin of the Bureya Block. These east and northeast Asian blocks acted as migratory stepping stones bridging faunal migration between the Palaeoequatorial and Boreal realms during the Middle Permian.

  8. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  9. 48 CFR 25.702 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. 25.702 Section 25.702 Federal... operations in Sudan....

  10. N Isotopes in Nile Sediments (ethiopia, Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padoan, M.; Villa, I. M.; Garzanti, E.; Galbusera, M.; Quistini, S.; Peruta, L.; El Kammar, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Nile is the most important river of the Eastern Mediterranean. Its water and sediment fluxes have greatly influenced marine circulation throughout the Quaternary, and are widely considered as possible causes for stagnation and formation of sapropel (Krom et al., 1999a; 2002; Talbot et al., 2000; Freydier et al., 2001; Weldeab et al., 2002; Scrivner et al., 2004). Variations in annual flooding and baseflow of the river Nile, controlled by climate changes, had major impact on the rise and demise of Egyptian dynasties (Stanley et al., 2003). In order to better define sedimentary sources of the Nile system and to obtain more robust results, we have analyzed Nd isotopes in sediments of all its major Sudanese and Ethiopian tributaries (Atbara, Gash, Abay, Didesa, Dabus, White Nile, Bahr Ez Zeraf) in several replicate samples. Analyses were carried out on distinct mud and sand fractions (<40 microns and 125-180 microns) of 30 samples, and systematic changes related to grain size and hydraulic-sorting processes could thus be investigated. On the same samples, companion studies are being carried out on Sr isotopes (Padoan et al., 2007) and on Pb isotopes at the Geological Survey of Israel (Harlavan et al., in preparation). Overall, isotopic signals are markedly different between the White Nile system, derived from largely Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement rocks, and Ethiopian tributaries, derived in diverse proportions from largely Neoproterozoic rift-shoulder basements and overlying Oligocene flood basalts. Isotopic signals of Main Nile sediments downstream of the Atbara confluence are close to those of Blue Nile sediments, indicating that detritus is mainly provided by the latter (Garzanti et al., 2006). In the White Nile branch, the 143Nd/144Nd ratio of the mud fraction is lower in the Bahr Ez Zeraf (0.51167) than in the White Nile downstrean of the Sobat confluence (0.51219), revealing significant sediment influx from the latter. In Blue Nile and Atbara branches, values vary from 0.51240-0.51242 for tributaries draining basement rocks only (e.g., Gash, wadi Guba) to 0.51275-0.51280 for tributaries draining mostly basaltic rocks (Atbara); tributaries draining both record mixed signals (e.g., 0.51259; Beles). Nd ratios for Atbara sediments correspond closely with signatures of volcanic source rocks (0.51271-0.51298; Pik et al., 1999), revealing involvement of various mantle and crustal components in petrogenesis of flood basalts. Corresponding Nd model ages (tDM) cluster around 0.84 Ga for the mostly volcanic-derived Blue Nile, Atbara, and Main Nile muds, range 1.2 - 1.5 Ga for tributaries draining Ethiopian basement rocks, and reach as high as 2.4 Ga for the Bahr Ez Zeraf. The different Nd isotopic signal between mud and sand samples is closely controlled by mineralogical composition, Nd and other REE being chiefly contributed by ultradense minerals (e.g., monazite), and consequently concentrated in the finest size fractions of each sample (Garzanti et al., 2008). FREYDIER, R., MICHARD, A., DE LANGE G., THOMSON, J., 2001. Nd isotopic composition of Eastern Mediterranean sediments: tracers of the Nile influence during sapropel S1 formation. Mar. Geol., 177, 45-62. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., ABDEL MEGID, A.A., EL KAMMAR, A., 2006. Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopian and Sudan): Sediment budgets and erosion patterns. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 252, 327-341. GARZANTI, E., ANDÒ, S., VEZZOLI, G., 2008. Settling-equivalence of detrital minerals and grain-size dependence of sediment composition. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 273, 138-151. HARLAVAN Y., GARZANTI, E., PADOAN, M., EL KAMMAR, A. Geochemical characterization of Nile River sands; Rare earth elements, Pb and Sr isotopes of the fine fraction. In preparation. KROM, M.D., CLIFF, R.A., EIJSINK, L.M., HERUT, B., CHESTER, R., 1999a. The characterisation of Saharan dusts and Nile particulate matter in surface sediments from the Levantine basin using Sr isotopes. Mar. Geol., 155, 319-330. KROM, M.D., STANLEY, J.D., CLIFF, R.A., WOODWARD, J.C., 2002. Nile River s

  11. Evidence for and implications of sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism in the southern Utopia highland-lowland boundary plain, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Several types of spatially associated landforms in the southern Utopia Planitia highland-lowland boundary (HLB) plain appear to have resulted from localized geologic activity, including (1) fractured rises, (2) elliptical mounds, (3) pitted cones with emanating lobate materials, and (4) isolated and coalesced cavi (depressions). Stratigraphic analysis indicates these features are Hesperian or younger and may be associated with resurfacing that preferentially destroyed smaller (< 8 ?? km diameter) impact craters. Based on landform geomorphologies and spatial distributions, the documented features do not appear to be specifically related to igneous or periglacial processes or the back-wasting and erosion of the HLB scarp. We propose that these features are genetically related to and formed by sedimentary (mud) diapirs that ascended from zones of regionally confined, poorly consolidated, and mechanically weak material. We note morphologic similarities between the mounds and pitted cones of the southern Utopia boundary plain and terrestrial mud volcanoes in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan. These analogs provide a context for understanding the geological environments and processes that supported mud diapir-related modification of the HLB. In southern Utopia, mud diapirs near the Elysium volcanic edifice may have resulted in laccolith-like intrusions that produced the fractured rises, while in the central boundary plain mud diapirs could have extruded to form pitted cones, mounds, and lobate flows, perhaps related to compressional stresses that account for wrinkle ridges. The removal of material a few kilometers deep by diapiric processes may have resulted in subsidence and deformation of surface materials to form widespread cavi. Collectively, these inferences suggest that sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism as well as related surface deformations could have been the dominant Hesperian mechanisms that altered the regional boundary plain. We discuss a model in which detritus would have accumulated thickly in the annular spaces between impact-generated structural rings of Utopia basin. We envision that these materials, and perhaps buried ejecta of Utopia basin, contained volatile-rich, low-density material that could provide the source material for the postulated sedimentary diapirs. Thick, water-rich, low-density sediments buried elsewhere along the HLB and within the lowland plains may account for similar landforms and resurfacing histories. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Glacial geomorphology of the Torres del Paine region (southern Patagonia): Implications for glaciation, deglaciation and paleolake history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Juan-Luis; Hall, Brenda L.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Vega, Rodrigo M.; Strelin, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    The processes affecting paleoclimate variability and Pleistocene glacial landscape development in the southern mid-latitudes remain poorly understood, in part because of the scarcity of comprehensive, well-studied records. Glacial landforms are invaluable for reconstructing past ice-sheet, climate, and associated environmental changes along the southern Andes, but there are significant spatial and temporal gaps in existing data. In this paper, we present new geomorphic and sedimentologic analyses, including surficial maps, for the Torres del Paine region (51°S, 73°W), southern South America. Our findings provide a new framework for understanding changes in the regional glacier history and Pleistocene landscape development. Glacial extent during the local last glacial maximum (LGM) remains unknown but new chronological data supported by geomorphic evidence afford evidence for a larger ice sheet at Torres del Paine than previously assumed. Deglaciation from the local LGM was underway by 17,400 ± 200 (1?) cal. yr. BP. As opposed to previous suggestions, we have found that most of the moraines fringing the lakes in the Torres del Paine national park were deposited during a late-glacial expansion that occurred between 14,100 and 12,500 cal. yr. BP. Late-glacial advances also have been documented recently for the Última Esperanza and Lago Argentino basins to the south and north of Torres del Paine, respectively, suggesting an overall regional ice response to a climate signal. The Tehuelche paleolake accompanied each of the ice-sheet fluctuations in Torres del Paine. New data document at least three main phases of this paleolake, which drained eastward to the Atlantic Ocean, while the Andes gaps were blocked with ice. During the late phase of glacial lake formation, when water levels reached 125-155 m a.s.l., the lake likely merged with paleolake Consuelo in the Última Esperanza area at the end of the last glaciation. Lake Tehuelche in Torres del Paine had drained into the Pacific Ocean by the late-glacial period, suggesting that ice southwest of Torres del Paine may have retreated back into the mountains by this time.

  13. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks - implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friederich, W.; Brüstle, A.; Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lamara, S.; Egelados Working Group

    2014-05-01

    The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini-Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW-SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE-SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east-west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW-SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except in volcanic areas, where both appear to be unrelated, and in the forearc where compressional principal stresses are very well aligned with compressional principal strain rates. This finding indicates that, except for volcanic areas, microseismic activity in the southern Aegean is not controlled by small-scale local stresses but rather reflects the regional stress field. The lateral and depth variations of the stress field reflect the various agents that influence tectonics in the Aegean: subduction of the Hellenic slab, incipient collision with continental African lithosphere, roll back of the slab in the southeast, segmentation of the slab, arc volcanism and extension of the Aegean crust.

  14. Transpressional segment boundaries in strike-slip fault systems offshore southern California: Implications for fluid expulsion and cold seep habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Jillian M.; Grupe, Benjamin M.; Pasulka, Alexis L.; Dawson, Katherine S.; Case, David H.; Frieder, Christina A.; Levin, Lisa A.; Driscoll, Neal W.

    2015-05-01

    The importance of tectonics and fluid flow in controlling cold seep habitats has long been appreciated at convergent margins but remains poorly understood in strike-slip systems. Here we present geophysical, geochemical, and biological data from an active methane seep offshore from Del Mar, California, in the inner California borderlands (ICB). The location of this seep appears controlled by localized transpression associated with a step in the San Diego Trough fault zone and provides an opportunity to examine the interplay between fluid expulsion and restraining step overs along strike-slip fault systems. These segment boundaries may have important controls on seep locations in the ICB and other margins characterized by strike-slip faulting (e.g., Greece, Sea of Marmara, and Caribbean). The strike-slip fault systems offshore southern California appear to have a limited distribution of seep sites compared to a wider distribution at convergent plate boundaries, which may influence seep habitat diversity and connectivity.

  15. Small-scale lobes in the southern hemisphere on Mars: Implications for transient liquid water in the recent past.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, A.; Reiss, D.; Conway, S. J.; Hauber, E.; Hiesinger, H.

    2015-10-01

    We have catalogued small-scale lobes in the southern hemisphere on Mars. Small-scale lobes are restricted to crater walls and hillslopes but are morphologically distinct from viscous flow features(VFF)or other putative glacial landforms. Instead they show striking resemblance to terrestrial solifluction lobes. Previously it was shown by several authors that they are common in the northern mid and high latitudes. Here we show that they represent a hemispherical bimodal and latitude-dependent landform such as gulliesand polygonal terrain. We hypothesize that they form by freeze-thaw activity and represent geomorphologic indicators for repeated transient liquid water close to the ground surface in Mars recent climate history.

  16. Paleomagnetism of the Cambrian Sediments in Bornholm (Denmark) and Southern Sweden and Implications for Paleogeography of Baltica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, M.; Abrahamsen, N.

    2001-12-01

    In Bornholm the Phanerozoic sedimentary succession overlying Precambrian basement starts with the Lower Cambrian (ca. 545 Ma) Nekso Sandstone Fm (NSF) that, in the earlier paleomagnetic analyses, have yielded characteristic magnetization (ChRM) similar to the Permian direction for Baltica. Here, we present paleomagnetic results from other Lower Cambrian formations in Bornholm (Balka Sandstone, Broens Odde siltstone) and in southern Sweden (Hardebega, Mickwitzia and Lingula Sandstones). Lithologically, most of these formations are very similar to the NSF and they are all considered stratigraphically younger. The intention was to check, whether a Permian paleomagnetic overprint occured on a regional scale and could it be attributed to secondary magnetic phases originating from fluids, which possibly traveled laterally along the contact between the basement and the Lower Cambrian sediments. In this report we show results of this regional test, followed by a comprehensive re-analysis of our Nekso data, including new results obtained after supplementary sampling and new petrologic information, which appeared recently. We have found that the NSF possessed a unique ChRM. The well-grouped and stable characteristic magnetization of the Nekso Sandstone contrasts with fairly chaotic, soft and badly preserved magnetization of the Balka, the Hardeberga, the Mickwitzia and the Lingulid sandstones of Bornholm and southern Sweden. A regional geological context, including the inferred diagenetic evolution of Lower Cambrian sediments, points to a syndepositional/early diagenetic origin of the characteristic remanence of the Nekso Sandstone, revealing a stable remanence applicable for plate tectonic interpretations. Similarity of the characteristic remanence of the NSF to the Permian direction for Baltica has been confirmed, but it is supposed to be casual, because of lack of any sign of a regional Permian remagnetization within the other Cambrian deposits of Southern Scandinavia. This is in line with recent results from isotopic and mineralogical studies which point to a final cementation and pore closure due to the late Silurian - early Devonian burial and diagenesis, what made the sedimentary rocks in question impermeable for mineralized fluids later during the Permian time. Supportive evidence for early Cambrian age of ChRM of the NSF is detrital/early diagenetic nature of hematite, which is the main carrier of the NSF magnetization. Taking into account the relatively low (up to 150circC) temperature of the burial event, a total thermoviscous resetting of the Ti-poor hematite carriers residing in the NSF seems unrealistic in any time of its geological history. The sub-horizontal paleomagnetic inclinations obtained for the NSF indicate an equatorial position of Bornholm (and hence of Baltica ) during the time of the remanence acquisition ( paleolatitude about 8circ N or S). Possible inclination and compaction errors may only be roughly estimated (say 10circ-15circ), and this would increase the paleolatitude for the early Cambrian position of the Bornholm basin up to 15circ. Following a minimum plate velocity principle and the shortest distance between paleopoles for the APWP we propose normal polarity and the southern hemisphere for Baltica. Such a paleogeographic position and orientation of Baltica increase the drift rate for this paleocontinent in the early Cambrian-Lower Ordovician time span and makes the APWP trend more complicated than envisaged by other authors.

  17. Increased dry-season length over southern Amazonia in recent decades and its implication for future climate projection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Rong; Yin, Lei; Li, Wenhong; Arias, Paola A.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Huang, Lei; Chakraborty, Sudip; Fernandes, Katia; Liebmann, Brant; Fisher, Rosie; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    We have observed that the dry-season length (DSL) has increased over southern Amazonia since 1979, primarily owing to a delay of its ending dates (dry-season end, DSE), and is accompanied by a prolonged fire season. A poleward shift of the subtropical jet over South America and an increase of local convective inhibition energy in austral winter (June–August) seem to cause the delay of the DSE in austral spring (September–November). These changes cannot be simply linked to the variability of the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Although they show some resemblance to the effects of anthropogenic forcings reported in the literature, we cannot attribute them to this cause because of inadequate representation of these processes in the global climate models that were presented in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report. These models significantly underestimate the variability of the DSE and DSL and their controlling processes. Such biases imply that the future change of the DSE and DSL may be underestimated by the climate projections provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report models. Although it is not clear whether the observed increase of the DSL will continue in the future, were it to continue at half the rate of that observed, the long DSL and fire season that contributed to the 2005 drought would become the new norm by the late 21st century. The large uncertainty shown in this study highlights the need for a focused effort to better understand and simulate these changes over southern Amazonia. PMID:24145443

  18. Tectonic magnetic lineation and oroclinal bending of the Alborz range: Implications on the Iran-Southern Caspian geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, Francesca; Ballato, Paolo; Alimohammadian, Habib; Sabouri, Jafar; Mattei, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetic data for deciphering the origin of magnetic lineation in weakly deformed sedimentary rocks and for evaluating oroclinal processes within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. In particular, we have analyzed the Miocene Upper Red Formation (URF) from the outer curved front of the southern Central Alborz Mountains of north Iran, to test for the first time with paleomagnetic data the origin (primary versus secondary) of this orogenic arc. AMS data document the existence of a magnetic lineation parallel to the orientation of the major tectonic structures, which vary along strike from WNW to ENE. These directions are highly oblique to the paleoflow directions and hence suggest that the magnetic lineation in the URF was produced by compressional deformation during layer-parallel shortening. In addition, our paleomagnetic data document clockwise and anticlockwise rotations along vertical axis for the western and eastern sectors of the Central Alborz Mountains, respectively. Combined, our results suggest that the orogen represents an orocline, which formed not earlier than circa 7.6 Ma most likely through bending processes caused by the relative motion between the rigid crustal blocks of the collision zone. Moreover, our study provides new insights into the Iran-Southern Caspian Basin kinematic evolution suggesting that the present-day SW motion of the South Caspian Basin with respect to Central Iran postdates oroclinal bending and hence cannot be as old as late Miocene to early Pliocene but a rather recent configuration (i.e., 3 to <1 Ma).

  19. Determinants of Persistence and Tolerance of Carnivores on Namibian Ranches: Implications for Conservation on Southern African Private Lands

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Havemann, Carl Peter; Lines, Robin; Palazy, Lucille; Price, Aaron Ernest; Retief, Tarryn Anne; Rhebergen, Tiemen; Van der Waal, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo) are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved) and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal) lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world where carnivore conservation is being attempted on private lands. PMID:23326333

  20. Historical land-use and landscape change in southern Sweden and implications for present and future biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qiao-Yu; Gaillard, Marie-José; Lemdahl, Geoffrey; Stenberg, Li; Sugita, Shinya; Zernova, Ganna

    2014-01-01

    The two major aims of this study are (1) To test the performance of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to quantify past landscape changes using historical maps and related written sources, and (2) to use the LRA and map reconstructions for a better understanding of the origin of landscape diversity and the recent loss of species diversity. Southern Sweden, hemiboreal vegetation zone. The LRA was applied on pollen records from three small bogs for four time windows between AD 1700 and 2010. The LRA estimates of % cover for woodland/forest, grassland, wetland, and cultivated land were compared with those extracted from historical maps within 3-km radius around each bog. Map-extracted land-use categories and pollen-based LRA estimates (in % cover) of the same land-use categories show a reasonable agreement in several cases; when they do not agree, the assumptions used in the data (maps)-model (LRA) comparison are a better explanation of the discrepancies between the two than possible biases of the LRA modeling approach. Both the LRA reconstructions and the historical maps reveal between-site differences in landscape characteristics through time, but they demonstrate comparable, profound transformations of the regional and local landscapes over time and space due to the agrarian reforms in southern Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries. The LRA was found to be the most reasonable approach so far to reconstruct quantitatively past landscape changes from fossil pollen data. The existing landscape diversity in the region at the beginning of the 18th century had its origin in the long-term regional and local vegetation and land-use history over millennia. Agrarian reforms since the 18th century resulted in a dramatic loss of landscape diversity and evenness in both time and space over the last two centuries leading to a similarly dramatic loss of species (e.g., beetles). PMID:25478148

  1. Increased dry-season length over southern Amazonia in recent decades and its implication for future climate projection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rong; Yin, Lei; Li, Wenhong; Arias, Paola A; Dickinson, Robert E; Huang, Lei; Chakraborty, Sudip; Fernandes, Katia; Liebmann, Brant; Fisher, Rosie; Myneni, Ranga B

    2013-11-01

    We have observed that the dry-season length (DSL) has increased over southern Amazonia since 1979, primarily owing to a delay of its ending dates (dry-season end, DSE), and is accompanied by a prolonged fire season. A poleward shift of the subtropical jet over South America and an increase of local convective inhibition energy in austral winter (June-August) seem to cause the delay of the DSE in austral spring (September-November). These changes cannot be simply linked to the variability of the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Although they show some resemblance to the effects of anthropogenic forcings reported in the literature, we cannot attribute them to this cause because of inadequate representation of these processes in the global climate models that were presented in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report. These models significantly underestimate the variability of the DSE and DSL and their controlling processes. Such biases imply that the future change of the DSE and DSL may be underestimated by the climate projections provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report models. Although it is not clear whether the observed increase of the DSL will continue in the future, were it to continue at half the rate of that observed, the long DSL and fire season that contributed to the 2005 drought would become the new norm by the late 21st century. The large uncertainty shown in this study highlights the need for a focused effort to better understand and simulate these changes over southern Amazonia. PMID:24145443

  2. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Havemann, Carl Peter; Lines, Robin; Palazy, Lucille; Price, Aaron Ernest; Retief, Tarryn Anne; Rhebergen, Tiemen; Van der Waal, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), leopards (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea) were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and lions (Panthera leo) are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved) and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal) lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world where carnivore conservation is being attempted on private lands. PMID:23326333

  3. Peleolakes and impact basins in southern Arabia Terra, including Meridiani Planum: Implications for the formation of hematite deposits on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsom, Horton E.; Barber, C.A.; Hare, T.M.; Schelble, R.T.; Sutherland, V.A.; Feldman, W.C.

    2003-01-01

    The hematite deposit in Meridiani Planum was selected for a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing site because water could be involved in the formation of hematite, and water is a key ingredient in the search for life. Our discovery of a chain of paleolake basins and channels along the southern margin of the hematite deposits in Meridiani Planum with the presence of the strongest hematite signature adjacent to a paleolake basin, supports the possible role of water in the formation of the hematite and the deposition of other layered materials in the region. The hematite may have formed by direct precipitation from lake water, as coatings precipitated from groundwater, or by oxidation of preexisting iron oxide minerals. The paleolake basins were fed by an extensive channel system, originating from an area larger than Texas and located south of the Schiaparelli impact basin. On the basis of stratigraphic relationships, the formation of channels in the region occurred over much of Mars' history, from before the layered materials in Meridiani Planum were deposited until recently. The location of the paleolake basins and channels is connected with the impact cratering history of the region. The earliest structure identified in this study is an ancient circular multiringed basin (800-1600 km diameter) that underlies the entire Meridiani Planum region. The MER landing site is located on the buried northern rim of a later 150 km diameter crater. This crater is partially filled with layered deposits that contained a paleolake in its southern portion. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  5. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of Sudan is prohibited....

  6. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  7. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  8. 31 CFR 538.508 - Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sudan of obligations to persons within the United States authorized. 538.508 Section 538.508 Money and... Licensing Policy § 538.508 Certain payments by the Government of Sudan of obligations to persons within the..., solely for the purpose of payment of obligations of the Government of Sudan to persons or accounts...

  9. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or loans by any United States person to the Government of Sudan is prohibited....

  10. ELEMENTAL UPTAKE BY SORGHUM SUDAN GRASS FROM A FLUE GAS DESULPHURIZATION WASTE AMENDED SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to assess the effect of flue gas desulphurization (FGDW) waste on elemental uptake by sorghum sudan grass (Sorghum sundensis L.). Unweathered FGDW was applied to an Ogeechee loamy soil (Typic Paleudult) at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% by weight. The sorghum-sudan grass was ...

  11. The politics of language planning in the Sudan: the case of the Naivasha language policy 

    E-print Network

    Abdelhay, Ashraf K

    2008-01-01

    The National Congress Party (NCP), representing the government of the Sudan, and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) signed key peace protocols on the 26th May 2004 in the Kenyan town of Naivasha. The ...

  12. 77 FR 3369 - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961...as amended, I hereby find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Republic of South Sudan will...

  13. 75 FR 67585 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 1, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-27876 Filed 11-1-10... of November 1, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November 3, 1997, by Executive Order 13067, the...

  14. 77 FR 66357 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ..., Washington, November 1, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-27035 Filed 11-1-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F3 ... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No... ] Notice of November 1, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November...

  15. 77 FR 3369 - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... HOUSE, Washington, January 6, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-1545 Filed 1-23-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ... the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign... defense services to the Republic of South Sudan will strengthen the security of the United States...

  16. 78 FR 16028 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of South Sudan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the... 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to South Sudan, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  17. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as...

  18. 76 FR 68053 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, November 1, 2011. [FR Doc... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No... ] Notice of November 1, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November...

  19. 78 FR 65865 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ..., October 30, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-26413 Filed 10-31-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... With Respect to Sudan #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... ] Notice of October 30, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan On November...

  20. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as...

  1. 78 FR 1866 - Extension and Redesignation of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...This Notice announces that the Secretary of Homeland Security (Secretary) is both extending the existing designation of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status (TPS) for 18 months from May 3, 2013 through November 2, 2014, and redesignating South Sudan for TPS for 18 months, effective May 3, 2013 through November 2, 2014. The extension allows currently eligible TPS beneficiaries to retain......

  2. Overcoming Structural Adjustment Policies in Africa: Strategies for Vocational Education and Training in the Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washi, Sidiga; Pitamber, Sunita

    Most developing countries have been debt ridden since the mid-1970s. This continuing debt burden has resulted in increasing prices and inflation, growing unemployment, and daily life difficulties. This problem has been acute for the Sudan. Sudan received help from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1978 and negotiated new credit terms. By…

  3. Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy making via gameplay. It…

  4. Upconversion nanosensor for sensitive fluorescence detection of Sudan I-IV based on inner filter effect.

    PubMed

    Fang, Aijin; Long, Qian; Wu, Qiongqiong; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-02-01

    Sudan dyes are banned as food additives due to the carcinogenicity of their metabolites in the human body. Therefore, it is of great significance for sensitive detection of Sudan dyes. This paper reports a novel nanosensor for Sudan dyes detection based on fluorescence (FL) quenching of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) stabilized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) through the inner filter effect (IFE). In the presence of Sudan I-IV, the fluorescence emission of UCNPs was effectively quenched due to the absorption bands of Sudan I-IV largely covered the emission bands of UCNPs. Under the optimized conditions, the FL was quenched with Sudan concentration over the range of 0.05-40, 0.01-20, 0.01-40 and 0.05-40?g/mL for Sudan I-IV, respectively. The corresponding limit of detection is 15.1, 2.83, 3.52 and 16.7ng/mL (at 3?/slope) respectively. Meanwhile, the nanosensor shows good selectivity, sensitivity and can be successfully applied to detection of Sudan in chili powder samples. PMID:26653433

  5. The Birth of a Nation Is Only the Beginning: The Travails of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Just three years since it broke away from Sudan, the new country of South Sudan is embroiled in a violent civil war. This article examines what went wrong and why, by discussing the incredible difficulty of building a new nation from scratch following years of conflict, war, suspicion, and great expectations. How this tragedy will end is…

  6. The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences of…

  7. 76 FR 63629 - Designation of Republic of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... not yet affected South Sudan directly, food security is fragile and the living situation remains... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB08 Designation of Republic of South Sudan for... Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces that the Secretary of Homeland Security...

  8. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments of the Upper Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation, Ulan Nuur basin, southern Mongolia, and its paleoclimatic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Tada, Ryuji; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Minjin, Chuluun

    2009-06-01

    Non-marine Upper Cretaceous strata are widely distributed in the Gobi basin of southern Mongolia and record marked paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic changes. The climate in this region is considered to have changed from humid during the Cenomanian to Santonian, to semi-arid during the Campanian, and returned to humid during the early Maastrichtian. The change from humid to semi-arid climate is well recorded in the "Djadokhta Formation" (as former division) in the Ulan Nuur basin of the central Gobi basin. In previous studies, the Djadokhta Formation was formally regarded as being characterized by eolian deposits formed under a semi-arid climate. However, the present study revealed that this formation comprises sub-humid fluvial lithofacies in the lower part and semi-arid eolian lithofacies in the upper part. Since the Djadokhta Formation was initially defined as a succession characterized by eolian lithofacies, it is proposed here that the lower part showing fluvial lithofacies should be separated from the "Djadokhta Formation" and is newly named as the Alagteeg Formation. The Alagteeg Formation is characterized by alternating beds of horizontally-bedded sandstone and mudstone, indicating sandy braided river, flood-plain, and ephemeral lake environments under sub-humid climate. The Djadokhta Formation (revised division) is further subdivided into two parts. The lower part is composed of large-scale cross-stratified sandstone, in situ and reworked calcretes, and thick mudstone lens, suggesting desert environments of broad sand dune fields with few inter-dune ephemeral river and pond deposits under semi-arid climate. On the other hand, the upper part comprises structureless sandstone with mature in situ calcretes, exotic pebbly sandstone and large-sized burrows. These lithofacies imply steppe environments with calcic soil development under semi-arid climate. This change from sub-humid to semi-arid climate during the Campanian is recorded not only in the Ulan Nuur basin but also in other regions of southern Mongolia as well as northern China. Hence, the broad aridification in the mid-latitudes of the Asian interior during the Campanian is inferred.

  9. Implications for the Formation of Transform Faults from Pliocene Basins on Isla San Jose, Southern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umhoefer, P. J.; Schwennicke, T.; Ingle, J. C.; Del Margo, M. T.; Ruiz-Geraldo, G.

    2001-12-01

    Pliocene basins on islands in the southern Gulf of California offer a superb opportunity to evaluate how transform faults form in a highly oblique plate boundary. Pliocene strata are exposed in two subbasins on Isla San Jose, 100 km north of La Paz, Mexico. The subbasins have broadly similar stratigraphy and part of the basin is subsided offshore. A ~1 km thick lower sequence deepens upward from a thick alluvial fan unit through marginal marine strata to an outer shelf to upper slope mudstone (based on lithology and benthic forams). The uppermost mudstone has planktonic forams that indicate an early late Pliocene age ( ~3.5-3 Ma). There is evidence for widespread syn-sedimentary deformation in the lower sequence. The upper sequence is a ~50 - 120 m thick shallow marine calcarenite that lies across a low-angle to abruptly gradational unconformity. The overall stratigraphy represents 1 - 1.5 km of subsidence in the lower sequence before 3 Ma, followed by local tilting of the basin and rapid upward shallowing at and after 3 Ma. A late Pliocene to Quaternary unconformity lies above the basin and most Quaternary deposits are alluvial. The southern subbasin is bounded by NW-N striking Pliocene normal and normal-dextral faults, while the northern subbasin has mainly buttress unconformities and local faults along an irregular embayment. The subbasins on Isla San Jose may have initiated at the northern end of an early transform fault emanating from the Cerralvo trough, which suggests basin inception at 5 - 6 Ma. This implies a reasonable rate of subsidence for a rift basin. The rapid basin uplift indicates a major reorientation (or cessation) of Cerralvo transform faulting at ~3 Ma. Mudstone deposition at 3.5 - 3 Ma followed by basin uplift is similar to events in the Perico basin on Isla Carmen, 120 km to the NW near Loreto. These synchronous events on two separate islands may mean that the development of early transform faults acted in unison from Loreto to the mouth of the Gulf. This implies that there was a major reorganization of early transform faults to the modern configuration at 3 Ma. In contrast, later fault reorientation in the Loreto basin at 2.4 - 2 Ma suggests that there may be a northward propagation of transform fault development. The evidence from the islands shows that MCS and bathymetric data from the narrow shelf are needed to resolve the connections from the basins and faults we are studying on the islands to the main plate boundary transform spreading ridge system in the middle of the Gulf of California.

  10. Multi-decadal variability and trends in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and tropical Pacific fisheries implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, D. E.; Chiodi, Andrew M.

    2015-03-01

    Extremes of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are known to have various socio-economic impacts, including effects on several Pacific fisheries. The 137-year-long record of Darwin sea-level pressure offers a uniquely long-term perspective on ENSO and provides important insight into various aspects of interannual to century-scale variability that affects these fisheries. One particular issue of interest is whether there is a centennial-scale (or longer) trend that can be expected to alter the future distributions of these fisheries. Since most tropical Pacific fishery records are no longer than a few decades, another issue is the extent to which trends over these recent decades are a good basis for detecting the presence of long-term (e.g., centennial-scale) deterministic changes, and perhaps thereby projecting future conditions. We find that the full 137-yr trend cannot be distinguished from zero with 95% confidence, and also that the ENSO variance in recent decades is very similar to that of the early decades of the record, suggesting that ENSO has not fundamentally changed over the period of large increase in atmospheric CO2. However, the strong multi-decadal variability in ENSO is reflected in decades with quite different levels of ENSO effects on the ecosystem. Many multi-decadal subsets of the full record have statistically significant trends, using standard analysis techniques. These multi-decadal trends are not; however, representative of the record-length trend, nor are they a useful basis for projecting conditions in subsequent decades. Trend statistical significance is not a robust foundation for speculation about the future. We illustrate how the difficulties involved in determining whether a trend is statistically significant or not mean that, even after careful consideration, an unexpectedly large number of trends may reach standard statistical significance levels over the time spans for which many newer records are available, but still not continue into future decades or be indicative of deterministic changes to the system. Analysis of the Southern Oscillation Index, another common ENSO index, but one that has been directly measured for fewer years than has Darwin, yields similar results.

  11. Regional variations in the lead isotopic composition of galena from southern Korea with implications for the discrimination of lead provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Youn-Joong; Cheong, Chang-sik; Shin, Dongbok; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Jo, Hui Je; Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Lee, Insung

    2012-11-01

    This study presents a comprehensive database (n = 215) of lead isotopes in galena from the southern Korean peninsula using new and published data. Of the 69 metal mines examined, predominantly skarn- and hydrothermal-type Pb-Zn-Au-Ag-Cu deposits were observed and were associated with Mesozoic magmatic activities. Galena samples from each geotectonic unit showed discrete lead isotopic signatures. The Gyeongsang basin samples were characteristically unradiogenic and had restricted variations in lead isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.16-18.59, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.48-15.64, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.87-38.77). Their 208Pb/204Pb range indicated an involvement of source materials less thorogenic than the associated granites. The galena samples from Cambro-Ordovician carbonate rocks of the northeastern Yeongnam massif and eastern Taebaeksan basin had the most radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb (19.28 ± 0.14) and 207Pb/204Pb (15.833 ± 0.027) ratios. Their lead isotopic trend indicated a combined contribution of ore lead from granitic magmas, Precambrian basements, and overlain host rocks. Less radiogenic galena samples from the middle to southwestern parts of the Yeongnam massif and Okcheon belt showed limited lead isotopic variations (206Pb/204Pb = 18.332 ± 0.065, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.693 ± 0.012, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.93 ± 0.07 on average), probably resulted from mixing with a common crustal basement. The differences in lead isotopes between the radiogenic and unradiogenic groups from the Yeongnam massif and Okcheon belt may reflect the spatial dissimilarity of involved crustal rocks. The old crust appears to have significantly contributed ore lead to galenas from the western Gyeonggi massif, but the geochronological meaning of their steep 207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb trend is not clear. The comprehensive database constructed by the present study suggests that lead province in the southern Korean peninsula may be subdivided into four discrete zones. Linear discriminant analysis showed that more than 90% of the compiled data were correctly reclassified within their a priori zones. Such discrimination may be useful for a wide range of applications, including mineral exploration, archaeological correlation, and environmental characterization.

  12. Focal mechanisms in the Southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks - implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friederich, W.; Brüstle, A.; Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.

    2013-10-01

    The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located earthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini-Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW-SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE-SSW. Intermediate depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east-west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW-SE compression. The lateral and depth variations of the stress field reflect the various agents that influence tectonics in the Aegean: subduction of the Hellenic slab, incipient collision with continental African lithosphere, roll back of the slab in the south-east, segmentation of the slab, arc volcanism and extension of the Aegean crust.

  13. Paleoecological and Taphonomic Implications of Insect-Damaged Pleistocene Vertebrate Remains from Rancho La Brea, Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Anna R.; Harris, John M.; Timm, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The La Brea Tar Pits, the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into southern California’s past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects serve as sensitive and valuable paleoecological and taphonomic indicators. Of the thousands of fossil bird and mammal bones recovered from the Tar Pits, insect trace damage is thus far almost exclusively confined to the foot bones of large herbivores, especially bison, camel, and horse species. Our laboratory experiments with dermestid and tenebrionid beetles establish that the larvae of both consume bone, producing different characteristic feeding traces and providing the first documentation that tenebrionids consume bone. The presence of carcass-exploiting insects in the Rancho La Brea biota provides insight into the taphonomy of the asphaltic bone masses and the environmental conditions under which they accumulated. The succession of dermestids, tenebrionids, and indeterminate traces on many of the foot elements, combined with the climate restrictions and life cycles of these insects, indicate that carcasses could remain unsubmerged for at least 17–20 weeks, thus providing the most reliable estimate to date. Attribution of these traces also suggests that the asphaltic fossils only accumulated during warmer intervals of the Late Pleistocene. Forensic studies need to reevaluate the role of tenebrionids in carcass decomposition and other additional insects that modify bone. PMID:23843988

  14. Variability of fecal indicator bacteria in flowing and ponded waters in southern California: implications for bacterial TMDL development and implementation.

    PubMed

    He, Li-Ming; Lu, Jun; Shi, Weiyong

    2007-07-01

    Recreational water quality is assessed by using water quality objectives for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including total coliform, fecal coliform (or E. coli), and/or Enterococcus. It is required under the Clean Water Act that a TMDL be developed for a bacteria-impaired water body. The development and implementation of bacterial TMDLs has proven challenging and often difficult due to unknown source(s) of FIB. This study found that FIB levels varied significantly in flowing water, ponded water, and associated sediment. FIB levels in isolated ponded water in waterways were significantly higher than in flowing water. Sediment under ponded water contained a great amount of FIB. Furthermore, FIB concentrations in ponded water tended to increase with increasing water temperature and to decrease with increasing water salinity. The result provides the field evidence of survival/growth of FIB in water and sediment under ambient conditions in southern California. A holistic approach including natural sources (e.g., a reference system) should be considered for practical and applicable purposes while developing and implementing bacterial TMDLs for pathogen-impaired waterbodies. PMID:17543369

  15. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-01-01

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. PMID:26133245

  16. Inorganic contaminants from diffuse pollution in shallow groundwater of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy). Implications for geochemical survey.

    PubMed

    Cuoco, E; Darrah, T H; Buono, G; Verrengia, G; De Francesco, S; Eymold, W K; Tedesco, D

    2015-02-01

    The Campanian Plain (CP) shallow aquifer (Southern Italy) represents a natural laboratory to validate geochemical methods for differentiating diffuse anthropogenic pollution from natural water-rock interaction processes. The CP is an appropriate study area because of numerous potential anthropogenic pollution vectors including agriculture, animal husbandry, septic/drainage sewage systems, and industry. In order to evaluate the potential for geochemical methods to differentiate various contamination vectors, 538 groundwater wells from the shallow aquifer in Campanian Plain (CP) were sampled. The dataset includes both major and trace elements. Natural water-rock interactions, which primarily depend on local lithology, control the majority of geochemical parameters, including most of the major and trace elements. Using prospective statistical methods in combination with the traditional geochemical techniques, we determined the chemical variables that are enriched by anthropogenic contamination (i.e. NO3, SO4 and U) by using NO3 as the diagnostic variable for detecting polluted groundwater. Synthetic agricultural fertilizers are responsible for the majority of SO4 and U pollution throughout the CP area. Both SO4 and U are present in the groundmass of synthetic fertilizers; the uranium concentration is specifically applicable as a tracer for non-point source agricultural fertilizer contamination. The recognition of non-geological (anthropogenic) inputs of these elements has to be considered in the geochemical investigations of contaminated aquifers. PMID:25638062

  17. Jurassic-Cretaceous history of Cuba: implications for the evolution of the southern margin of the North American plate

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, J.A.; Rosencrantz, E.

    1985-01-01

    The oldest Cuban sedimentary rocks, clastics of the Bajocian San Cayetano Fm. provide the earliest record of North American-Gondwana rifting as seen in Cuba. A similar clastic sequence is seen below the carbonates of the Bahamas platform. In the Pinar del Rio area, the San Cayetano is succeeded by Oxfordian limestones, the shallow water Jagua Fm. to the south and deeper water Francisco Fm. to the north. Both contain basaltic pillow lavas, related either to rifting or to leaky transform motion parallel to the margin. The Oxfordian units are overlain by Kimmeridgian to Tithonian pelagic limestones, the Guasasa and Artemisa Fms. The later interfingers with northerly derived calci-turbidites. North of the Escambray, silici-clastic fragments in late Jurassic pelagic limestones suggests that a basement high existed south of the platform until the Berriasian. The carbonate platform continues to shed debris along its southern edge throughout the Cretaceous. To the south an Aptian-Albian episode of turbidite deposition suggests that South America-Africa rifting caused tectonic disturbances in the Caribbean. Southerly derived volcanoclastics deposited during the Maastrichtian marks the start of the Cuban orogeny.

  18. Plio-Pleistocene vegetation response on orbitally forced climatic cycles in Southern Europe - implications for early human environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Angela; Bertini, Adele

    2013-04-01

    The pace and causes of the early human colonization, in one or several migratory waves from Africa in new environments of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, are still a matter of debate. However, climate change is considered a major driving factor of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. In fact directly or indirectly by its severe influence on vegetation, physiography of landscape, and animal distribution, climate modulates the availability of resources. Plant fossils usually are rare or even absent at hominin sites. Thus, direct evidence on local vegetation and environment is generally missing. Independent from such localities, pollen profiles from the Mediterranean realm show the response of regional vegetation on global climate changes and cyclicity, with distinct spatial and temporal differences. Furthermore, plant fossils provide proxies for climate quantification that can be compared to the global signal, and add data to understanding the regional differentiation of Mediterranean environments. In this presentation we will discuss various palaeobotanical data from Southern Europe to assess Early Pleistocene climate and vegetation in time and space as part of the environment during the first expansions of early humans out of Africa.

  19. Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in Southern Brazil: Implications for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4–18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians. PMID:26488577

  20. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-01-01

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. PMID:26133245

  1. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-07-01

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time.

  2. Recent and old groundwater in the Niebla-Posadas regional aquifer (southern Spain): Implications for its management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I.; Soler, Albert; Custodio, Emilio; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The Niebla-Posadas (NP) aquifer in southern Spain is one of the main groundwater sources for the lower Guadalquivir Valley, a semiarid region supporting an important population, agriculture and industry. To contribute to the understanding of this aquifer the assessment of sustainable use of groundwater, the residence time of groundwater in the NP aquifer has been estimated using 3H, 14C and 36Cl. Along the flow paths, recharged groundwater mixes with NaCl-type waters and undergoes calcite dissolution and is further modified by cation exchange (Ca-Na). Consequently, the water loses most of its calcium and the residual ?13CDIC in the groundwater is isotopically enriched. Further modifications take place along the flow path in deeper zones, where depleted ?13CDIC values are overprinted due to SO42- and iron oxide reduction, triggered by the presence of organic matter. Dating with 3H, 14C and 36Cl has allowed the differentiation of several zones: recharge zone (<0.06 ky), intermediate zone (0.06-20 ky), deep zone 1 (20-30 ky), and deep zone 2 (>30 ky). An apparent link between the tectonic structure and the groundwater residence time zonation can be established. Regional faults clearly separates deep zone 1 from the distinctly older age (>30 ky) deep zone 2. From the estimated residence times, two groundwater areas of different behavior can be differentiated within the aquifer.

  3. Possible detachment zone in Precambrian rocks of Kanjamalai Hills, Cauvery Suture Zone, Southern India: Implications to accretionary tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, D. P.; Chetty, T. R. K.

    2014-07-01

    Existence of a possible detachment zone at Elampillai region, NW margin of Kanjamalai Hills, located in the northern part of Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ), Southern India, is reported here for the first time. Detailed structural mapping provides anatomy of the zone, which are rarely preserved in Precambrian high grade terranes. The detachment surface separates two distinct rock units of contrasting lithological and structural characters: the upper and lower units. The detachment zone is characterized by a variety of fold styles with the predominance of tight isoclinal folds with varied plunge directions, limb rotations and the hinge line variations often leading to lift-off fold like geometries and deformed sheath folds. Presence of parasitic folding and associated penetrative strains seem to be controlled by differences in mechanical stratigraphy, relative thicknesses of the competent and incompetent units, and the structural relief of the underlying basement. Our present study in conjunction with other available geological, geochemical and geochronological data from the region indicates that the structures of the detachment zone are genetically related to thrust tectonics forming a part of subduction-accretion-collision tectonic history of the Neoproterozoic Gondwana suture.

  4. Crustal structure of Precambrian terranes in the southern African subcontinent with implications for secular variation in crustal genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachingwe, Marsella; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi

    2015-07-01

    New estimates of crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio and crustal shear wave velocity have been obtained for 39 stations in Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia by modelling P-wave receiver functions using the H-? stacking method and jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These estimates, combined with similar results from previous studies, have been examined for secular trends in Precambrian crustal structure within the southern African subcontinent. In both Archean and Proterozoic terranes we find similar Moho depths [38-39 ± 3 km SD (standard deviation)], crustal Poisson's ratio (0.26 ± 0.01 SD), mean crustal shear wave velocity (3.7 ± 0.1 km s-1 SD), and amounts of heterogeneity in the thickness of the mafic lower crust, as defined by shear wave velocities ?4.0 km s-1. In addition, the amount of variability in these crustal parameters is similar within each individual age grouping as between age groupings. Thus, the results provide little evidence for secular variation in Precambrian crustal structure, including between Meso- and Neoarchean crust. This finding suggests that (1) continental crustal has been generated by similar processes since the Mesoarchean or (2) plate tectonic processes have reworked and modified the crust through time, erasing variations in structure resulting from crustal genesis.

  5. Interaction of ambient conditions and fecal coliform bacteria in southern Lake Michigan beach waters: Monitoring program implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker; Gerovac, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Excessive fecal coliform bacteria in public swimming waters can potentially threaten visitor health. Fecal coliform bacteria (1984-1989) and Escherichia coli (1990-1995) density were monitored weekly at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore beaches for 12 summers, and park officials closed swimming areas when fecal coliform density exceeded the state water quality criteria (400 CFU fecal coliforms/ 100 ml; 235 CFU E. coli/100 ml water). Due to a 24-hour incubation in the fecal coliform and E. coli assays, beaches were closed the day after collection of high fecal coliform. Our analysis suggests that it is not possible to predict one day's fecal coliform count based on the previous day's results in waters taken from southern Lake Michigan beaches. Dispersal and deposition of bacteria were not uniform among sites or across time apparently due to interactions among environmental variables including rainfall, wind direction, water temperature, and bacteria source. Rainfall combined with northwest winds increased bacteria concentrations. Escherichia coli followed a seasonal trend with similar fluctuations in density among beaches. We suggest that the current beach monitoring protocol is inadequate for predicting fecal coliform density at the time of beach closure, and, subsequently, its use for ensuring visitor safety remains questionable.

  6. Improved Schmidt-hammer exposure ages for active and relict pronival ramparts in southern Norway, and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John A.; Wilson, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Eight pronival (protalus) ramparts from alpine southern Norway were dated using Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) based on local high-precision linear calibration equations. SHD ages were - 1355 ± 1240 to 815 ± 1000 years for three active ramparts and 8730 ± 1050 to 14,635 ± 1060 years for five relict ramparts. Different parts of the same rampart yielded ages that were in generally good agreement. R-value frequency distributions enabled the identification single-age and mixed-age boulder populations, and the differentiation of active and relict rampart surfaces. The relict ramparts are located outside Younger Dryas glacier limits and probably formed over a period of ~ 6000 years between deglaciation (following the Last Glacial Maximum of the late Weichselian, ~ 18,000 years ago) and the end of the Younger Dryas (~ 11,700 years ago). At that time, glacial debuttressing and permafrost degradation apparently enhanced the release of rock debris from rock faces to the ramparts. The active ramparts, which are located in areas deglaciated after the Younger Dryas, are relatively uncommon in the study area due to diminished paraglacial effects and limited debris supply associated with seasonally frozen ground during the Holocene. Thus, the legacy of glaciers, glacier-permafrost interaction, and the specific type of periglacial environment must all be considered when assessing the palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic significance of pronival ramparts.

  7. Review of SISA Student Dissertations on Library and Information Systems and Services in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, G. G.; Tadesse, Taye T.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and southern African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)

  8. Mean transport of mass, heat, salt and nutrients in southern California coastal waters: implications for primary production and nutrient cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemmich, Dean

    1989-09-01

    A close balance is demonstrated between geostrophic convergence, relative to 500 m, and Ekman divergence, in a control volume defined by the modern (1984-1987) CalCOFI surveys of southern California coastal waters. Both the geostrophic and Ekman calculations yield an area mean vertical velocity of about 3.5 × 10 -4 cm s -1 upward at the base of the Ekman layer. Cruise-to-cruise and year-to-year variations in geostrophic transport are large and a long time series is required for a good estimate of the mean field. With the mass field balanced by geostrophic and Ekman transport, the resulting oceanic heat flux is equivalent to 68 W m -2 of heat gain by the ocean and is in good agreement with calculations of air-sea heat transfer. Agreement in the heat budget sets a limit on possible errors due to ambiguity in the reference level of the geostrophic velocity field. Mean annual and seasonal fluxes of nutrients, oxygen, chlorophyll a, and salinity are calculated, together with error bars, and are used to estimate primary production as well as rates of air-sea oxygen exchange and net water vapor loss to the atmosphere. The nitrate import, converted to equivalent carbon by means of a Redfield ratio, and including local estimates of nitrogen recycling, yields an estimate of total primary production of roughly 600 mg C m -2 d -1, consistent with direct measurements of carbon uptake. The geostrophic convergence and subsequent upwelling of subsurface nitrate-rich waters is the dominant physical mechanism for nutrient importation, with a much smaller contribution due to alongshore advection of nutrients in the surface layer. It is suggested that some additional measurements would permit the flux calculations to be made with a substantially greater degree of accuracy and that the seasonal and interannual variations of the mass transport field could be determined together with rates of biologically and physically important processes.

  9. Anomalous crustal and lithospheric mantle structure of southern part of the Vindhyan Basin and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, O. P.; Srivastava, R. P.; Vedanti, N.; Dutta, S.; Dimri, V. P.

    2014-09-01

    Tectonically active Vindhyan intracratonic basin situated in central India, forms one of the largest Proterozoic sedimentary basins of the world. Possibility of hydrocarbon occurrences in thick sediments of the southern part of this basin, has led to surge in geological and geophysical investigations by various agencies. An attempt to synthesize such multiparametric data in an integrated manner, has provided a new understanding to the prevailing crustal configuration, thermal regime and nature of its geodynamic evolution. Apparently, this region has been subjected to sustained uplift, erosion and magmatism followed by crustal extension, rifting and subsidence due to episodic thermal interaction of the crust with the hot underlying mantle. Almost 5-6 km thick sedimentation took place in the deep faulted Jabera Basin, either directly over the Bijawar/Mahakoshal group of mafic rocks or high velocity-high density exhumed middle part of the crust. Detailed gravity observations indicate further extension of the basin probably beyond NSL rift in the south. A high heat flow of about 78 mW/m2 has also been estimated for this basin, which is characterized by extremely high Moho temperatures (exceeding 1000 °C) and mantle heat flow (56 mW/m2) besides a very thin lithospheric lid of only about 50 km. Many areas of this terrain are thickly underplated by infused magmas and from some segments, granitic-gneissic upper crust has either been completely eroded or now only a thin veneer of such rocks exists due to sustained exhumation of deep seated rocks. A 5-8 km thick retrogressed metasomatized zone, with significantly reduced velocities, has also been identified around mid to lower crustal transition.

  10. Occurrence of organophosphorus flame retardants in indoor dust in multiple microenvironments of southern China and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    He, Chun-Tao; Zheng, Jing; Qiao, Lin; Chen, She-Jun; Yang, Jun-Zhi; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-08-01

    Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are important alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), but information on their contamination of the environment in China is rare. We examined the occurrence of 12 OPFRs in indoor dust in four microenvironments of southern China, including a rural electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, a rural non-e-waste area, urban homes, and urban college dormitory rooms. The OPFR concentrations (with a median of 25.0 ?g g(-1)) were highest in the e-waste area, and the concentrations in other three areas were lower and comparable (7.48-11.0 ?g g(-1)). The levels of OPFRs in the present study were generally relatively lower than the levels of OPFRs found in Europe, Canada, and Japan because BFRs are still widely used as the major FRs in China. The composition profile of OPFRs in the e-waste area was dominated by tricresyl phosphate (TCP) (accounting for 40.7%, on average), while tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was the most abundant OPFR (64.4%) in the urban areas (homes and college dormitories). These two distribution patterns represent two OPFR sources (i.e., emissions from past e-waste and from current household products and building materials). The difference in the OPFR profiles in the rural area relative to the OPFR profiles in the urban and e-waste areas suggests that the occurrence of OPFRs is due mainly to emissions from characteristic household products in rural homes. Although human exposures to all the OPFRs were under the reference doses, the health risk for residents in the e-waste area is a concern, considering the poor sanitary conditions in this area and exposure from other sources. PMID:25898308

  11. Controls on large landslide distribution and implications for the geomorphic evolution of the southern interior Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safran, E.B.; Anderson, S.W.; Mills-Novoa, M.; House, P.K.; Ely, L.

    2011-01-01

    Large landslides (>0.1 km2) are important agents of geomorphic change. While most common in rugged mountain ranges, large landslides can also be widespread in relatively low-relief (several 100 m) terrain, where their distribution has been relatively little studied. A fuller understanding of the role of large landslides in landscape evolution requires addressing this gap, since the distribution of large landslides may affect broad regions through interactions with channel processes, and since the dominant controls on landslide distribution might be expected to vary with tectonic setting. We documented >400 landslides between 0.1 and ~40 km2 across ~140,000 km2 of eastern Oregon, in the semiarid, southern interior Columbia River basin. The mapped landslides cluster in a NW-SE-trending band that is 50-100 km wide. Landslides predominantly occur where even modest local relief (~100 m) exists near key contacts between weak sedimentary or volcaniclastic rock and coherent cap rock. Fault density exerts no control on landslide distribution, while ~10% of mapped landslides cluster within 3-10 km of mapped fold axes. Landslide occurrence is curtailed to the NE by thick packages of coherent basalt and to the SW by limited local relief. Our results suggest that future mass movements will localize in areas stratigraphically preconditioned for landsliding by a geologic history of fluviolacustrine and volcaniclastic sedimentation and episodic capping by coherent lava flows. In such areas, episodic landsliding may persist for hundreds of thousands of years or more, producing valley wall slopes of ~7??-13?? and impacting local channels with an evolving array of mass movement styles. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  12. Paleoclimatic implications of fossil shoreline deposits in the southern basin and range province during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowler, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    Paleolake shoreline deposits throughout the southern Basin and Range (SBAR) signify past intervals of steady-state climatic conditions occuring during the late Pleistocene slightly before, as well as after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~23-19 Ka). Unfortunately, a lack of knowledge about the age of fossil shoreline deposits—due to C-14 related uncertainties and incomplete dating of shorelines—has resulted in a large gap in our knowledge about past climatic and surface hydrologic conditions in the SBAR. Several studies collectively reveal multiple lake level oscillations during the LGM and last part of the Pleistocene, with reasonably well dated shoreline deposits existing for only four paleolakes: one in central New Mexico (Estancia), two in southwestern New Mexico (Playas and Cloverdale), and one in southeastern Arizona (Cochise). In summary, there is evidence for a pre-LGM high-stand at Cochise (>26 Ka), LGM high-stands at Estancia and Cloverdale (>20-16 Ka), deglacial age high-stands at Playas and Cochise (16-13 Ka), and latest Pleistocene-early Holocene still stands of as yet undetermined elevation at Playas and Estancia (13-9K). Further, the absence of high-stands from 11-10 Ka suggests that the Younger Dryas climatic reversal—which is detected in the stable O isotopic composition of speleothems from Cave-of-the-Bells in southeastern Arizona—was marked there by a decrease in mean annual air temperature without a significant increase in precipitation. Alternatively, if a return to glacial precipitation levels did occur, then it was for an interval so short that sedimentological evidence was not preserved. This presentation will cover the afore mentioned chronologies, along with discussion about associated atmospheric circulation patterns in the SBAR and across western North America.

  13. Quaternary morphotectonic mapping of the Wadi Araba and implications for the tectonic activity of the southern Dead Sea fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le BéOn, Maryline; Klinger, Yann; MéRiaux, Anne-Sophie; Al-Qaryouti, Mahmoud; Finkel, Robert C.; Mayyas, Omar; Tapponnier, Paul

    2012-10-01

    The Dead Sea strike-slip fault accommodates the northward motion of Arabia relative to Sinai at a rate of ˜5 mm/yr. The southern segment of the fault, the Wadi Araba fault, runs along a valley blanketed in Quaternary sediments. We first focused on understanding the relative and absolute timing of emplacement of the alluvial surfaces. We then determined the probable source of the sediments before assessing their lateral offset to constrain the late Pleistocene fault slip rate. Seven successive morphostratigraphic levels were identified. At two sites, we recognized an alluvial sequence of five to seven successive levels with ages getting younger northward, a pattern consistent with the western block moving southward relative to two fixed feeding channels located to the east. Surface samples were collected for10Be cosmogenic radionuclide dating. Fans F3 and F5 were found to be synchronous from site to site, at 102 ± 26 ka and 324 ± 22 ka, respectively, while F4 could be dated at 163 ± 19 ka at one site only. These are minimum ages, assuming no erosion of the alluvial surfaces. At least two of these periods are correlated with wet periods that are regionally well documented. Further analyses of tectonic offsets are affected in most cases by large uncertainties due to the configuration of the sites. They indicate maximum offsets of ˜5.5 km for the oldest, possibly ˜1 Ma old, surfaces. They lead to bracketing of the fault slip rate between 5 and 12 mm/yr, with preferred values of 5-7 mm/yr, for the last 300 ka.

  14. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  15. Climatic Implications of the Observed Temperature Dependence of the Liquid Water Path of Low Clouds in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelGenio, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Satellite observations of low-level clouds have challenged the assumption that adiabatic liquid water content combined with constant physical thickness will lead to a negative cloud optics feedback in a decadal climate change. We explore the reasons for the satellite results using four years of surface remote sensing data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. We find that low cloud liquid water path is approximately invariant with temperature in winter but decreases strongly with temperature in summer, consistent with the satellite inferences at this latitude. This behavior occurs because liquid water content shows no detectable temperature dependence while cloud physical thickness decreases with warming. Thinning of clouds with warming is observed on seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales; it is most obvious in the warm sectors of baroclinic waves. Although cloud top is observed to slightly descend with warming, the primary cause of thinning, is the ascent of cloud base due to the reduction in surface relative humidity and the concomitant increase in the lifting condensation level of surface air. Low cloud liquid water path is not observed to be a continuous function of temperature. Rather, the behavior we observe is best explained as a transition in the frequency of occurrence of different boundary layer types. At cold temperatures, a mixture of stratified and convective boundary layers is observed, leading to a broad distribution of liquid water path values, while at warm temperatures, only convective boundary layers with small liquid water paths, some of them decoupled, are observed. Our results, combined with the earlier satellite inferences, imply that the commonly quoted 1.5C lower limit for the equilibrium global climate sensitivity to a doubling of CO2 which is based on models with near-adiabatic liquid water behavior and constant physical thickness, should be revised upward.

  16. Climatic Implications of the Observed Temperature Dependence of the Liquid Water Path of Low Clouds in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelGenio, Anthony D.; Wolf, Audrey B.

    1999-01-01

    Satellite observations of low-level clouds have challenged the assumption that adiabatic liquid water content combined with constant physical thickness will lead to a negative cloud optics feedback in a decadal climate change. We explore the reasons for the satellite results using four years of surface remote sensing data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. We find that low cloud liquid water path is approximately invariant with temperature in winter but decreases strongly with temperature in summer, consistent with the satellite inferences at this latitude. This behavior occurs because liquid water content shows no detectable temperature dependence while cloud physical thickness decreases with warming. Thinning of clouds with warming is observed on seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal time scales; it is most obvious in the warm sectors of baroclinic waves. Although cloud top is observed to slightly descend with warming, the primary cause of thinning is the ascent of cloud base due to the reduction in surface relative humidity and the concomitant increase in the lifting condensation level of surface air. Low cloud liquid water path is not observed to be a continuous function of temperature. Rather, the behavior we observe is best explained as a transition in the frequency of occurrence of different boundary layer types: At cold temperatures, a mixture of stratified and convective boundary layers is observed, leading to a broad distribution of liquid water path values, while at warm temperatures, only convective boundary layers with small liquid water paths, some of them decoupled, are observed. Our results, combined with the earlier satellite inferences, imply that the commonly quoted 1.50 C lower limit for the equilibrium global climate sensitivity to a doubling of CO2, which is based on models with near-adiabatic liquid water behavior and constant physical thickness, should be revised upward.

  17. Hillslope response to knickpoint migration in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the evolution of post-orogenic landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wegmann, S.F.G.; Franke, K.L.; Hughes, S.; Lewis, R.Q.; Lyons, N.; Paris, P.; Ross, K.; Bauer, J.B.; Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The southern Appalachians represent a landscape characterized by locally high topographic relief, steep slopes, and frequent mass movement in the absence of significant tectonic forcing for at least the last 200 Ma. The fundamental processes responsible for landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape remain enigmatic. The non-glaciated Cullasaja River basin of south-western North Carolina, with uniform lithology, frequent debris flows, and the availability of high-resolution airborne lidar DEMs, is an ideal natural setting to study landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape through the lens of hillslope-channel coupling. This investigation is limited to channels with upslope contributing areas >2.7 km2, a conservative estimate of the transition from fluvial to debris-flow dominated channel processes. Values of normalized hypsometry, hypsometric integral, and mean slope vs elevation are used for 14 tributary basins and the Cullasaja basin as a whole to characterize landscape evolution following upstream knickpoint migration. Results highlight the existence of a transient spatial relationship between knickpoints present along the fluvial network of the Cullasaja basin and adjacent hillslopes. Metrics of topography (relief, slope gradient) and hillslope activity (landslide frequency) exhibit significant downstream increases below the current position of major knickpoints. The transient effect of knickpoint-driven channel incision on basin hillslopes is captured by measuring the relief, mean slope steepness, and mass movement frequency of tributary basins and comparing these results with the distance from major knickpoints along the Cullasaja River. A conceptual model of area-elevation and slope distributions is presented that may be representative of post-orogenic landscape evolution in analogous geologic settings. Importantly, the model explains how knickpoint migration and channel- hillslope coupling is an important factor in tectonically-inactive (i.e. post-orogenic) orogens for the maintenance of significant relief, steep slopes, and weathering-limited hillslopes. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Compositional diversity of Late Cenozoic basalts in a transect across the southern Washington Cascades: Implications for subduction zone magmatism

    SciTech Connect

    Leeman, W.P. ); Smith, D.R. ); Hildreth, W. ); Palacz, Z.; Rogers, N. )

    1990-11-10

    Major volcanoes of the Southern Washington Cascades (SWC) include the large quaternary stratovolcanoes of Mount St. Helens (MSH) and Mount Adams (MA) and the Indian Heaven (IH) and Simcoe Mountain (SIM) volcanic fields. There are significant differences among these volcanic centers in terms of their composition and evolutionary history. The authors conclude that subducted fluids and sediments do not play an essential role in producing these magmas. Rather, they infer that they formed by variable degree melting of a mixed mantle source consisting mainly of heterogeneously distributed OIB and mid-ocean ridge basalt source domains. Relatively minor occurrences of high field strength element (HFSE) depleted arclike basalts may reflect the presence of a small proportion of slab-metasomatized subarc mantle. The juxtaposition of such different mantle domains within the lithospheric mantle is viewed as a consequence of (1) tectonic mixing associated with accretion of oceanic and island arc terranes along the Pacific margin of North America prior to Neogene time, and possibly (2) a seaward jump in the locus of subduction at about 40 Ma. The Cascades arc is unusual in that the subducting oceanic plate is very young and hot. They suggest that slab dehydration outboard of the volcanic front resulted in a diminished role of aqueous fluids in generating or subsequently modifying SWC magmas compared to the situation at most convergent margins. Furthermore, with low fluid flux conditions, basalt generation is presumably triggered by other processes that increase the temperature of the mantle wedge (e.g., convective mantle flow, shear heating, etc.).

  19. Geochemical studies of hotspot volcanism in the Southern Pacific and its implications for mantle structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Q.C.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation dedicates to geochemical investigations of hotspot volcanism in the Southern Pacific, by means of detailed, combined major, trace element and isotope studies of individual islands and island/seamount chains. Chapter 2 describes Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic studies of the whole Louisville Seamount Chain (LSC), to investigate long term evolution of hotspot source. Leaching experiments were conducted to study seawater alteration effects on both Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. Chapter 3 studies the Easter Island-Seamount Chain (EISC). Results from this study are most consistent with a hotspot origin for the EISC. Chapter 4 involves detailed geochemical studies of Tahiti, including Teahitia and Mehetia, from Society Islands. Both major and trace element compositions change systematically with time, indicating a progressive decrease in both the extent of partial melting and the amount of plume component. Isotope data are well correlated on the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr vs. {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd diagram, suggesting mixing between two distinct end-members. Secular isotopic variation pattern records volcanic activities on Tahiti, which links geochemical characteristics to mantle processes of hotspot volcanism. A mantle blob model is preferred for island formation. Most existing OIB isotopic data can be explained by mixing of a small amount of sediments with MORB-like sources. These findings provide further geochemical evidence for a subducted slab origin of OIB sources. Chapter 5 synthesizes the author's own data and those from the literature, to evaluate mantle heterogeneities, origin and evolution of hotspot sources, and mantle structure and dynamics.

  20. High-pressure metamorphism in the southern New England Orogen: Implications for long-lived accretionary orogenesis in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G.; Offler, R.; Rubatto, D.; Phillips, D.

    2015-09-01

    New geochemical, metamorphic, and isotopic data are presented from high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the southern New England Orogen (eastern Australia). Conventional and optimal thermobarometry are augmented by U-Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar phengite dating to define pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) histories for the rocks. The P-T-t histories are compared with competing geodynamic models for the Tasmanides, which can be summarized as (i) a retreating orogen model, the Tasmanides formed above a continuous, west dipping, and eastward retreating subduction zone, and (ii) a punctuated orogen model, the Tasmanides formed by several arc accretion, subduction flip, and/or transference events. Whereas both scenarios are potentially supported by the new data, an overlap between the timing of metamorphic recrystallization and key stages of Tasmanides evolution favors a relationship between a single, long-lived subduction zone and the formation, exhumation, and exposure of the high-pressure rocks. By comparison with the retreating orogen model, the following links with the P-T-t histories emerge: (i) exhumation and underplating of oceanic eclogite during the Delamerian Orogeny, (ii) recrystallization of underplated and exhuming high-pressure rocks at amphibolite facies conditions coeval with a period of rollback, and (iii) selective recrystallization of high-pressure rocks at blueschist facies conditions, reflecting metamorphism in a cooled subduction zone. The retreating orogen model can also account for the anomalous location of the Cambrian-Ordovician high-pressure rocks in the Devonian-Carboniferous New England Orogen, where sequential rollback cycles detached and translated parts of the leading edge of the overriding plate to the next, younger orogenic cycle.

  1. Fault Zone Architecture and Mineralogy: Implications in Fluid Flow and Permeability in Crustal Scale Fault Zones in the Southern Andes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roquer, T.; Terrón, E.; Perez-Flores, P.; Arancibia, G.; Cembrano, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid flow in the upper crust is controlled by the permeability and interconnection of fractures in the fault zones. The permeability within the fault zone is determined by its activity, architecture and, in particular, by the mineralogy of the core and the damage zone. Whereas the permeability structure of a fault zone can be defined by the volume proportion of the core with respect to the damage zone, the relationship between the mineralogy and permeability along fault zones still remains obscure. This work examines structural and mineralogical data to show the relationship between the mineral composition of the fault zone with its permeability in the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and the Arc-oblique Long-lived Fault Systems (ALFS), Southern Chile. The LOFS is an active ca. 1200 km long strike-slip Cenozoic intra-arc structure that strikes NNE in its master traces and NE in its subsidiary traces, with dextral and dextral-normal movement mostly developed in the last 6 My. Although the LOFS and the ALFS cross-cut each other, the ALFS is an apparently older basement fault system where seismic and field evidences record sinistral, sinistral-normal and sinistral-reverse movements. One 22-m-long NE transect was mapped orthogonal to a segment of the ALFS, where host rocks are Miocene andesitic rocks. Structural and XRD sampling were conducted in the core and damage zone. Structural mapping shows a multiple core, NW-striking fault zone with foliated gouge and an asymmetric damage zone, where the hanging wall has significantly higher mesoscopic fracture density than the footwall. The hanging wall is characterized by NW-striking, steeply dipping veins. Preliminary XRD results indicate the presence of homogenously distributed Ca-rich zeolite (mainly laumontite) in the core and the veins of the damage zone, which could indicate that the core acted as a conduit for low-temperature (ca. 220°C) fluids.

  2. Foot and mouth disease in the Borana pastoral system, southern Ethiopia and implications for livelihoods and international trade.

    PubMed

    Rufael, T; Catley, A; Bogale, A; Sahle, M; Shiferaw, Y

    2008-01-01

    Participatory epidemiology (PE) was used on the Borana plateau of southern Ethiopia to understand pastoralist's perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle. Matrix scoring showed good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs of acute and chronic FMD, and findings were cross-checked by clinical examination of cattle and assessment of previous clinical FMD at herd level by detection of antibody to non structural proteins of FMD virus. The positive predictive value of pastoralist's diagnosis of FMD at herd level was 93.1%. The annual age-specific incidence and mortality of acute FMD in 50 herds was estimated using proportional piling. The estimated mean incidence of acute FMD varied from in 18.5% in cattle less than two years of age to 14.0% in cattle three to four years of age. The estimated mean mortality due to acute FMD varied from 2.8% in cattle less than two years of age to 0.3% in cattle three of age or older. Pearson correlation coefficients for acute FMD by age group were -0.12 (p>0.05) for incidence and -0.59 (p<0.001) for mortality. Estimates of the annual incidence of chronic FMD varied from 0.2% in cattle less than two years of age to 1.8% in cattle three to four years of age. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the incidence of chronic FMD by age group was 0.47 (p<0.001). Outbreaks of FMD peaked in Borana cattle during the two dry seasons and were attributed to increased cattle movement to dry season grazing areas. The mean seroprevalence of FMD was estimated at 21% (n=920) and 55.2% of herds (n=116) tested seropositive. Serotyping of 120 seropositive samples indicated serotypes O (99.2%), A (95.8%), SAT 2 (80%) and C (67.5%). The endemic nature of FMD in Borana pastoral herds is discussed in terms of the direct household-level impact of the disease, and the increasing export of cattle and chilled beef from Ethiopia. PMID:18551776

  3. Average Stress Drops of Southern California Earthquakes in the Context of Crustal Geophysics: Implications for Fault Zone Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, Egill

    2015-05-01

    To understand how fault healing processes affect earthquake stress drops, we search for a possible dependency of stress drops on crustal conditions and geophysical parameters. We reanalyze the stress drop values of ~60,000 earthquakes in southern California which were originally determined by Shearer et al. J Geophys Res 111:B06303, (2006) using a spectral method. We modify the dataset to include only stress drops that are derived from at least 10 spectra and with corner frequencies between 3 and 30 Hz, and correct the rupture velocity for increasing S-wave speed with depth. We see no dependence of stress drop on moment magnitude or depth, except for a small, poorly determined increase from 15 to 25 km. We use six crustal geophysics parameters to search for obvious correlations that may explain changes in the mean values of the stress drops: (1) crustal thickness, (2) isostatic gravity, (3) heat flow, (4) shear strain rate, (5) crustal stress regime, and (6) style of faulting. None of the variables reduce the scatter but most can explain up to 10-20 % variations in the mean stress drops. The geographical distribution of the grouped mean stress drops includes very high stress drops near Ridgecrest, eastern California, as well as near fault jogs within the San Andreas Fault system. Low stress drops dominate in trans-tensional regions. Heat flow and GPS-based shear strain rate estimates have the largest influence on stress drop variations. In the range of low to medium heat flow, the stress drops increase with increasing heat flow. In contrast, at high heat flow in thin crust, the stress drops decrease systematically with increasing heat flow. Increasing shear strain rate systematically correlates with decreasing stress drops. The crustal stress regime and style of faulting also influence the stress drops as demonstrated by lower stress drops for north-northeast trending principal horizontal stress and in areas of dip-slip faulting. The mean variations in stress drops with heat flow, stress regime, crustal thickness, and density can be explained in the context of fault healing (grain boundary growth) and corresponding increase in fault zone strength on time scales modulated by the tectonic shear strain rate.

  4. Volcanic risk and tourism in southern Iceland: Implications for hazard, risk and emergency response education and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Deanne K.; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between volcanic risk and the tourism sector in southern Iceland and the complex challenge emergency management officials face in developing effective volcanic risk mitigation strategies. An early warning system and emergency response procedures were developed for communities surrounding Katla, the volcano underlying the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. However, prior to and during the 2007 tourist season these mitigation efforts were not effectively communicated to stakeholders located in the tourist destination of Þórsmörk despite its location within the hazard zone of Katla. The hazard zone represents the potential extent of a catastrophic jökulhlaup (glacial outburst flood). Furthermore, volcanic risk mitigation efforts in Þórsmörk were based solely on information derived from physical investigations of volcanic hazards. They did not consider the human dimension of risk. In order to address this gap and provide support to current risk mitigation efforts, questionnaire surveys were used to investigate tourists' and tourism employees' hazard knowledge, risk perception, adoption of personal preparedness measures, predicted behaviour if faced with a Katla eruption and views on education. Results indicate that tourists lack hazard knowledge and they do not adopt preparedness measures to deal with the consequences of an eruption. Despite a high level of risk perception, tourism employees lack knowledge about the early warning system and emergency response procedures. Results show that tourists are positive about receiving information concerning Katla and its hazards and therefore, the reticence of tourism employees with respect to disseminating hazard information is unjustified. In order to improve the tourism sector's collective capacity to positively respond during a future eruption, recommendations are made to ensure adequate dissemination of hazard, risk and emergency response information. Most importantly education campaigns should focus on: (a) increasing tourists' knowledge of Katla, jökulhlaup and other volcanic hazards and (b) increasing tourist and employee awareness of the early warning and information system and appropriate behavioural response if a warning is issued. Further, tourism employees should be required to participate in emergency training and evacuation exercises annually. These efforts are timely given that Katla is expected to erupt in the near future and international tourism is an expanding industry in Þórsmörk.

  5. New tectonic data from sw iberian variscan fold belt (ossa morena zone-southern portugal): implications for geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, F.; Marques, F.; Ribeiro, A.

    2003-04-01

    New detailed structural mapping of the Alvito-Viana key sector, in SW Ossa Morena Zone (Southern Iberian Variscan Fold Belt), revealed the following tectonic imbrication of units of unknown age (from bottom to top): Gneiss unit (composed mostly of quartz-feldspar orthogneisses); Marbles unit; Água de Peixe metapelites unit (micaschists and disperse interbedded bodies - boudins? - of marbles and amphibolites); and Monte das Pereiras metapelites unit (mainly comprising micaschists and metabasalts).These units were intruded, to the North and to the West, by two main igneous complexes: the granitoid Évora massif (EM, ca. 318Ma), and the dioritic/gabbroic Beja igneous complex (BIC, ca. 340Ma), respectively. The study of metamorphic and geometric overprint relationships, between several types of structures, at different scales, revealed a chronological succession of tectonometamorphic events, comprising: a) An early high pressure metamorphic event (D_n) producing eclogites (Fonseca, et al., 1993), and blueschists (Rosas et al., in prep.). b) A retrogressive event (Dn+1 and Dn+2), affecting the HP rocks in lower grade metamorphic conditions and refolding the previous tectonic fabrics. c) A thermal event (T_n), related with an early stage of the BIC intrusions, represented by the strong static recrystallisation of the previous tectonic fabrics. d) An episode (Dn+3) represented by the tectonic reactivation of the prevoius metamorphic layering inducing a top to the NNW sense of shear. e) A N-S folding of all previous structures and fabrics as a response to the space problems imposed by the late intrusion of the BIC igneous rocks. f) A thermal episode (n+1) responsible for a late strong static recrystallisation of all previously formed tectonic fabrics, as a consequence of the granitic EM intrusions. Interpretation of this sequence of events includes the recognition, during the Variscan evolution of the SW Ossa-Morena zone, of northwards oblique subduction and HP metamorphism during D_n, exhumation during Dn+1 and Dn+2, orogenic magmatism associated to the BIC early intrusions during T_n, northwards (left-lateral) tectonic imbrication during Dn+3, accommodation to space problems imposed by the late BIC intrusions during Dn+4, and late orogenic magmatism associated to the EM intrusion during Tn+2. Following the contributions of Mancktelow (1995) and Petrini &Podladchikov (2000), the occurrence of tectonic ovepressure associated with the development of a tectonic wedge (flake geometry) is proposed.

  6. Origin of the Lyme Dome and implications for the timing of multiple Alleghanian deformational and intrusive events in southern Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, G.J.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wintsch, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic mapping, structural analysis, and geochronology in the area of the Lyme dome, southern Connecticut provides constraints on the origin of the rocks in the core of the dome, the absolute timing of the principal deformational and thermal events attributed to Alleghanian orogenesis, and the processes that generated the dome. Detrital zircon geochronology in combination with ages on intrusive rocks brackets the deposition of quartzite in the core of the dome sometime between ca. 925 and 620 Ma. Granite and granodiorite intruded the Neoproteorozic metasedimentary rocks in the core of the dome at ca. 620 to 610 Ma. Four major early Permian events associated with the Alleghanian orogeny affected the rocks in the Lyme dome area. Syn-tectonic migmatization and widespread penetrative deformation (D1, ca. 300 - 290 Ma) included emplacement of alaskite at 290 ?? 4 Ma during regional foliation development and aluminosilicate-orthoclase metamorphic conditions. Rocks of the Avalon terrane may have wedged between Gander cover rocks and Gander basement in the core of the Lyme during D1. Limited structural evidence for diapiric uplift of the Lyme dome indicates that diapirism started late in D1 and was completed by D2 (ca. 290 - 280 Ma) when horizontal WNW contractional stresses dominated over vertical stresses. Second sillimanite metamorphism continued and syn-tectonic D2 granite pegmatite (288 ?? 4 Ma) and the Joshua Rock Granite Gniess (284 ?? 3 Ma) intruded at this time. North-northwest extension during D3 (ca. 280 - 275 Ma) led to granitic pegmatite intrusion along S3 cleavage planes and in extensional zones in boudin necks during hydraulic failure and decompression melting. Intrusion of a Westerly Granite dike at 275 ?? 4 Ma suggests that D3 extension was active, and perhaps concluding, by ca. 275 Ma. Late randomly oriented but gently dipping pegmatite dikes record a final stage of intrusion during D4 (ca. 275 - 260 Ma), and a switch from NNW extension to vertical unloading and exhumation. Monazite and metamorphic zircon rim ages record this event at ca. 259 Ma. The evolution of the Lyme dome involved D1 mylonitization, intrusion, and migmatization during north-directed contraction, limited late D1 diapirism, D2 migmatization during WNW contraction with associated flexural flow and fold interference, D3 NNW horizontal extension and decompression melting, and final D4 vertical extension and rapid exhumation. Late regional uplift, extension, and normal faulting at higher crustal levels may have been caused by diapiric rise of the lower crust, below the structural level of the Lyme dome. The rocks record no evidence of Acadian metamorphism or deformation, suggesting that the Gander zone here was not tectonically juxtaposed with Avalon until the Alleghanian orogeny.

  7. A temporary pond in the Early Cretaceous of southern England: palaeoclimatic implications of nonmarine "Purbeck-Wealden" ostracod faunas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, D. J.

    2009-04-01

    Excavation of the partial skeleton of an Iguanodon from the Upper Weald Clay (Barremian, Early Cretaceous) at Smokejacks Brickworks near Ockley, Surrey, UK included detailed sampling for micropalaeontological and palynological and studies (Nye et al., 2008). Rich and well-preserved non-marine assemblages of pollen and spores include early angiosperms as well as freshwater green algae. Taphonomic analyses show the ostracod assemblages to be autochthonous thanatocoenoses, indicative of local environment at the time of deposition. Using a palaeobiological approach, the ostracods and palynomorphs demonstrate temporary / ephemeral freshwater conditions at the time when the Iguanodon died and the carcase was buried. Ostracod "faunicycles" in "Purbeck-Wealden" deposits may represent salinity variations in non-marine water-bodies, influenced by the balance between precipitation and evaporation, and/or the relative abundance of permanent and temporary waterbodies in the landscape; many assemblages resulted from post-mortem mixing, perhaps during flood events (Horne, 2002). Faunal alternations may therefore reflect shifts of the boundary between warm temperate and paratropical climate in the Early Cretaceous of NW Europe. The previously rejected suggestion that such assemblage variations record Milankovitch cyclicity deserves to be reconsidered, as does the possibility that they reflect changes on sub-Milankovitch timescales. Climate variability may have influenced the differential evolutionary success of sexual, mixed and parthenogenetic reproductive strategies in nonmarine ostracods. Latitudinally restricted distribution patterns and wind dispersal of resting eggs offer potential for inferring global climate patterns from ostracod palaeobiogeography, although dispersal by large animals (e.g., crocodiles, pterosaurs) is likely to have confused any aeolian transport patterns. References Horne, D. J. 2002. Ostracod biostratigraphy and palaeoecology of the Purbeck Limestone Group in southern England. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 68, 1-18, 2 pls. Nye, E., Feist-Burkhardt, S., Horne, D. J., Ross, A. J. & Whittaker, J. E. (2008) The palaeoenvironment associated with a partial Iguanodon skeleton from the Upper Weald Clay (Barremian, Early Cretaceous) at Smokejacks Brickworks (Ockley, Surrey, UK), based on palynomorphs and ostracods. Cretaceous Research, 29, 417-444.

  8. Tectono-thermal History of the Southern Nenana Basin, Interior Alaska: Implications for Conventional and Unconventional Hydrocarbon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, N. C.; Hanks, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Tertiary Nenana basin of Interior Alaska is currently the focus of both new oil exploration and coalbed methane exploitation and is being evaluated as a potential CO2sequestration site. The basin first formed as a Late Paleocene extensional rift with the deposition of oil and gas-prone, coal-bearing non-marine sediments with excellent source potential. Basin inversion during the Early Eocene-Early Oligocene times resulted in folding and erosion of higher stratigraphic levels, forming excellent structural and stratigraphic traps. Initiation of active faulting on its eastern margin in the middle Oligocene caused slow tectonic subsidence that resulted in the deposition of reservoir and seal rocks of the Usibelli Group. Onset of rapid tectonic subsidence in Pliocene that continues to the present-day has provided significant pressure and temperature gradient for the source rocks. Apatite fission-track and vitrinite reflectance data reveals two major paleo-thermal episodes: Late Paleocene to Early Eocene (60 Ma to 54.8 Ma) and Late Miocene to present-day (7 Ma to present). These episodes of maximum paleotemperatures have implications for the evolution of source rock maturity within the basin. In this study, we are also investigating the potential for coalbed methane production from the Late Paleocene coals via injection of CO2. Our preliminary analyses demonstrate that 150 MMSCF of methane could be produced while 33000 tonnes of CO2 per injection well (base case of ~9 years) can be sequestered in the vicinity of existing infrastructure. However, these volumes of sequestered CO2and coal bed methane recovery are estimates and are sensitive to the reservoir's geomechanical and flow properties. Keywords: extensional rift, seismic, subsidence, thermal history, fission track, vitrinite reflectance, coal bed methane, Nenana basin, CO2 sequestration

  9. Paleoclimatic implications (Late Cretaceous-Paleogene) from micromorphology of calcretes, palustrine limestones and silcretes, southern Paraná Basin, Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tófalo, Ofelia R.; Pazos, Pablo J.

    2010-04-01

    Sedimentologic and petrographic analyses of outcroping and subsurface calcretes, palustrine carbonates, and silcretes were carried out in the southern Paraná Basin (Uruguay). The aim of this work is to describe the microfabric and interpret the genesis of these rocks through detailed analyses, since they contain significant paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution information. The main calcrete and silcrete host rock (Mercedes Formation) is represented by a fluvial thinning upward succession of conglomerate and sandstone deposits, with isolated pelitic intervals and paleosoils. Most of the studied calcretes are macroscopically massive with micromorphological features of alpha fabric, originated by displacive growth of calcite in the host clastic material due to evaporation, evapotranspiration and degassing. Micromorphologically, calcretes indicate an origin in the vadose and phreatic diagenetic environments. Micrite is the principal component, and speaks of rapid precipitation in the vadose zone from supersaturated solutions. The abundance of microsparite and secondary sparite is regarded as the result of dissolution and reprecipitation processes. Although present, brecciated calcretes are less common. They are frequent in vadose diagenetic environments, where the alternation between cementation and non-tectonic fracturing conditions take place. These processes generated episodes of fragmentation, brecciation and cementation. Fissures are filled with clear primary sparitic calcite, formed by precipitation of extremely supersaturated solutions in a phreatic diagenetic environment. The micromorphological characteristics indicate that calcretes resulted from carbonate precipitation in the upper part of the groundwater table and the vadose zone, continuously nourished by lateral migration of groundwater. The scarcity of biogenic structures suggests that they were either formed in zones of little biological activity or that the overimposed processes related to water table fluctuations produced intense recrystallization completely obliterating the biogenic fabric. Limestone beds containing terrestrial gastropods are geographically restricted. Situated at the top of the calcrete successions, they exhibit brecciated and peloidal-intraclastic textures but lack lamination, edaphic structures, aggregates and vertical rhizoliths. This indicates they correspond to low-energy palustrine deposits, generated in shallow, local and ephemeral ponds developed in topographic depressions. When water table levels dropped, the palustrine deposits were exposed. This favours the presence of terrestrial gastropods, seeds and insect nests. The combination of calcretes and palustrine carbonates indicates periods and areas with a reduced clastic input and a predominantly semiarid climate, with well-defined humid and dry seasons. Characteristics of the later developed massive and nodular horizons of silcretes, such as, preservation of the internal structure of the host rock, the small areal extent, the formation of massive lenses, the complex pore infillings and the lack of a columnar upper section, indicate that they were generated from groundwaters. Every silcretized horizon shows different positions of the groundwater table and relates to the dissection of landscape. The age of calcretization and silcretization is bracketed between the Late Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) and the Early Eocene. Paleoclimate indicates changing conditions from warm and humid at the end of the Cretaceous (Mercedes Formation) to semiarid and seasonal during Paleocene (groundwater calcretes and palustrine deposits) and subtropical and seasonal in the early Eocene (Asencio Formation).

  10. Paleomagnetism of the Ocotillo Badlands, southern California, and implications for slip transfer through an antidilational fault jog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Norman N.; Fuller, Michael D.; Sibson, Richard H.

    1991-03-01

    The right-lateral Coyote Creek fault is the southernmost segment of the San Jacinto fault zone in California. At the Ocotillo Badlands, an anticlinorium of locally updomed material is exposed at a step-over between echelon segments of the fault. Here, uplift and deformation most probably result from multiple slip increments transferred across the antidilational fault jog, under the assumption that material away from the jog region deforms by rigid body translation. Within the 2 km wide fault jog, contraction has occurred by folding of the Quaternary sedimentary strata about east-west trending hinge lines. Structural analysis of this deformation shows that folding has accommodated ˜ 800 m of fault slip transferred through the antidilational jog. By comparison, total right slip on the Coyote Creek fault is 2.5 km, measured 25 km to the northwest at Coyote Ridge. A magnetostratigraphic study of the deformed strata was undertaken to determine the longevity of this fault discontinuity at the Ocotillo Badlands. The eroded core of the updomed material at the Ocotillo Badlands exposes a 325 m thick sequence of sedimentary rock, made up by the lacustrine Borrego Formation (˜ 200 m) and the overlying conglomeratic Ocotillo Formation (˜ 125 m). Stepwise thermal demagnetization of samples from the exposed strata suggests that the formation boundary also marks a magnetic polarity reversal, of reversed field to normal field as one travels upwards through the composite section. The inferred primary magnetization is probably produced by a detrital remanent magnetization (DRM) and is often overprinted with a weak, viscous present field component. Comparison with magnetostratigraphy of the Borrego Badlands 10 km to the northwest indicates that the reversal sampled is the onset of the Jaramillo event (0.97 Ma). The presence of a 20° angular unconformity within the upper portion of the exposed stratigraphy shows that deformation within the Ocotillo Badlands began during deposition of the Ocotillo Formation, shortly after the time of the field reversal. If total slip on the Coyote Creek fault at the Ocotillo Badlands is greater than 800 m, it appears that the fault jog has been a transitory feature within the fault zone, with slip alternately bypassing it or being transferred across it. Such switchyard behavior of slip transfer through the fault jog has important implications for understanding structural controls on earthquake rupture.

  11. A climate distribution model of malaria transmission in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Musa, Mohammed I; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Hashim, Nor R; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy

    2012-11-01

    Malaria remains a major health problem in Sudan. With a population exceeding 39 million, there are around 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year. The predicted distribution of malaria derived from climate factors such as maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity was compared with the actual number of malaria cases in Sudan for the period 2004 to 2010. The predictive calculations were done by fuzzy logic suitability (FLS) applied to the numerical distribution of malaria transmission based on the life cycle characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito accounting for the impact of climate factors on malaria transmission. This information is visualized as a series of maps (presented in video format) using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach. The climate factors were found to be suitable for malaria transmission in the period of May to October, whereas the actual case rates of malaria were high from June to November indicating a positive correlation. While comparisons between the prediction model for June and the case rate model for July did not show a high degree of association (18%), the results later in the year were better, reaching the highest level (55%) for October prediction and November case rate. PMID:23242678

  12. Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Badreldin Abdelrhman; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To assess participants' knowledge about HIV/AIDS and to identify the factors associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan. Methods. Observational cross-sectional study carried out at Omdurman National Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre, Sudan covered 870 participants. Sociodemographic data as well as information related to sexual behavior were collected. Results. Most of the respondents were knowledgeable about the true transmission modes for AIDS virus. Very few respondents knew someone infected with AIDS (4.5%), died of AIDS (8.1%), accepted to live with someone infected with AIDS (4.7%) or to work with someone infected with AIDS (2.1%). Regarding sexual behavior, 96.5% had reported their first sexual experience between 20 and 30 years, with 85.7% reporting one or two partners, and only 1.8% reported using condom. Multivariate logistic regression showed that circumcision, religion, marital status, age at first sex, number of sexual partners, education level, and misconception of knowledge are the main risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. Our results showed that a number of diversity risk factors were associated with HIV/AIDS. It is unlikely that a holistic approach will be found to immediately change sexual-risk-relating behavior. Interventions including sustained educational programs, promotion of condom, and encouragement of voluntary testing and active involvement of the country's political and religious leaders will be needed to alleviate this problem. PMID:23957014

  13. Staining histological lung sections with Sudan Black B or Sudan III for automated identification of alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jan Philipp; Pedersen, Lars; Mühlfeld, Christian; Ochs, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells produce, store and secrete pulmonary surfactant and serve as progenitor cells for the alveolar epithelium. They are thus an interesting target in wide fields of pulmonary research. Stereological methods allow their quantification based on measurements on histological sections. A proper AE2 cell quantification, however, requires a method of tissue processing that results in little tissue shrinkage during processing. It was recently shown that a primary fixation with a mixture of glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde, postfixation with osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate and embedding in glycol methacrylate fulfills this requirement. However, a proper quantification, furthermore, requires a secure identification of the cells under the microscope. Classical approaches using routine stainings, high magnifications and systematic uniform random sampling can result in a tedious counting procedure. In this article we show that Sudan Black B and Sudan III staining in combination with the previously described "low shrinkage method" of tissue processing result in good staining of lamellar bodies of AE2 cells (their storing organelles of surfactant) and thus provide a good signal of AE2 cells, which allows their easy and secure identification even at rather low magnifications. We further show that this signal enables automated detection of AE2 cells by image analysis, which should make this method a suitable staining method for the recently developed and more efficient proportionator sampling. PMID:26558990

  14. Determination of Sudan dye residues in eggs by liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Limin; Su, Yijuan; Fang, Binghu; Shen, Xiangguang; Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Yahong

    2007-06-26

    A sensitive and cheap high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) was developed for the determination of Sudan dyes (I, II, III, and IV) residues in various types of eggs. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse phase C18 column with gradient elution, using a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid aqueous solution; detector was set at 478 nm for Sudan I and 520 nm for Sudan II, III and IV. The suspected egg samples were derivatized with N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoro-acetamide and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in EI. Mass spectra of trimethylsilyl derivatives of the Sudan dyes were built up in EI mode. Recoveries of the Sudan dyes ranged between 79.8 and 95.7% in eggs by HPLC-UV, with all the relative standard deviations of less than 5%. Limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 4.0-4.8 and 12.3-13.8 microg kg(-1) in eggs, respectively. Identification and confirmation could be validated in the range of 2.0-4.2 microg kg(-1) with the GC-MS method. This method is suitable for routine fast monitoring, screening and confirmation of Sudan dyes residues in eggs, as mandated by regulatory agencies. PMID:17560395

  15. Tectonostratigraphic development of the Interior Sudan rifts, Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHargue, Tim R.; Heidrick, Tom L.; Livingston, Jack E.

    1992-10-01

    In the Muglad, Melut and Blue Nile rift basins of Interior Sudan three major episodes of rifting, concomitant subsidence and nonmarine/nonvolcanic sedimentation are recognized. These three rifting cycles, which spanned 140 to 95 Ma (Fl), 95 to 65 Ma (F2), and 65 to 30 Ma (F3), resulted in the accumulation of up to 5400, 4200 and 5400 m of sediments, respectively. In the Muglad Basin, the best known and largest of the Sudan rift basins, each rifting cycle consists of (1) a basal sandstone unit (at least near rift margins), that is followed by (2) an upward coarsening section of lacustrine shale grading through marginal lacustrine mudstone and sandstone into fluvial mudstone and sandstone, and (3) a capping blanket of fluvial and alluvial sandstone. The shale-dominated portions of these cycles were deposited in a closed-drainage basin during active faulting. The fluvial and alluvial blanket sands were deposited in an open-drainage basin during the thermal sag phase following each tectonic cycle. The Early Cretaceous F1 intracontinental rifts of Interior Sudan were linked to major rifts/spreading centres in the Proto-South Atlantic by the dextral WSW-trending Central African Shear Zone and to the Indian Ocean via the NW-trending Anza rift in Kenya. In the Muglad Basin, F1 deformation involved high strain rates, rapid syn-rift crustal stretching and subsidence, and the formation of deep, fault-bounded tensional and transtensional pull-apart basins. During the F2 and F3 deformations, the rates of subsidence and stretching were much lower and were focused within smaller geographic areas. Structural elements include asymmetric half-grabens and less common full-grabens with central highs. The three superimposed tectonic episodes resulted in the subsidence of NNW- to NW-trending rift sub-basins; this gave rise to a wide variety of normal fault geometries, displacements, and growth histories. Planar domino-style and listric normal F1 fault arrays are modeled. The rotated F1 basement blocks typically are asymmetric and low-standing, and favour NE-directed growth and material transport. The F2 and F3 normal faults, which have both NE- and SW-directed polarities, often are listric and decouple younger syn-rift strata from older F1 rotated and locked planar basement faults. Palinspastic restorations and forward modeling of three regional cross-sections suggest that F1 faults account for 65-80% of total crustal extension. Stretching factors across the Interior Sudan rifts vary between 1.25 and 1.40. This range is considered to be a minimum since restored sections do not cross F3 depocenters. Total crustal extension across the Muglad plus the Melut rift basins exceeds 75 km.

  16. The Impact of Conflict on Forests in South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, V.; Kasischke, E. S.; Dempewolf, J.; Loboda, T. V.; Geores, M.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of armed conflict on ecosystems are complex and difficult to assess due to restricted access to affected areas making satellite remote sensing a useful tool for studying direct and indirect effects of conflict on the landscape. The Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) in South Sudan together with the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) in Northern Uganda share a boundary and encompass a biologically diverse montane ecosystem. This study used satellite data combined with general human population trends to examine the impact of armed conflict and its outcome on similar forest ecosystems both during and after hostilities. A Disturbance Index (DI) was used to investigate the location and extent of forest cover loss and gain in three areas for two key time periods. Results indicate that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the ICFR. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by some gains in forest cover. Discussions with local inhabitants confirmed these findings and provided further insights into the underlying causes impacting forest cover and wildlife. South Sudan is the latest nation to join the Global Environment Facility (GEF). While the GEF does not explicitly address conflict, many of the projects it supports occur in conflict and post-conflict zones with wide-ranging repercussions for both people and the environment. In an effort to assess best practices for working in conflict and post-conflict areas, the GEF Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will undertake an analysis of GEF-funded projects over the last two decades to identify where the GEF has promoted cooperation between groups and states, and/or made a positive contribution toward conflict avoidance resulting in shared environmental benefits.

  17. New insights into the origin of the subduction component in Late Oligocene magmatism in the Ronda peridotite (southern Spain): geodynamic implications for the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Károly; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Several tectonic scenarios have been proposed for the Tertiary evolution of the Betic-Rif chain in the westernmost Mediterranean. Recent studies on late, mantle-derived Cr-rich websterite dykes in the Ronda peridotite have revealed recycling the involvement of sources of continental detrital sediments in the waning magmatic stage of the Ronda peridotite (Marchesi et al., 2012). This new data are consistent with a subduction-related setting for the late evolution of the Alboran lithospheric mantle before its final intracrustal emplacement in the early Miocene (Garrido et al., 2011). Detailed structural studies of Ronda plagioclase peridotites show that large-scale, ductile folding of peridotites-associated to the development of LT-LP plagioclase peridotite tectonites and ultramylonites-occurred during a contractional event before intracrustal emplacement of peridotites (Hidas et al., 2013). These authors have proposed that this event was related to inversion of a back-arc basin, followed by failed subduction initiation that ended into the intracrustal emplacement of peridotite into the Alboran wedge. This new structural data leads us to hypothesize that the crustal component observed in late, Cr-rich websterite might come from fluids produced by dehydration of underthrusted crustal units in the earliest stages of subduction initiation. Here we present new trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data in whole rocks from Flysch sediments from the Betic cordillera and the underlying crustal units of the Ronda massif, which may account for the timing and geochemical signature of the Ronda Cr-rich pyroxenites dykes. These units correspond to the Flysch trough composed of turbiditic deposits, formed in the region between Iberia and Africa during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, and the underlying crustal unit of the Ronda peridotite known as the Blanca unit. These new data are used to constrain the potential role of different crustal sources in the generation of the Late Oligocene subduction-related magmatism in the Ronda peridotite, and its implications for geodynamic models of the western Mediterranean in the Cenozoic. REFERENCES Garrido, C. J., F. Gueydan, G. Booth-Rea, J. Precigout, K. Hidas, J. A. Padrón-Navarta, and Marchesi C. . (2011) Garnet lherzolite and garnet-spinel mylonite in the Ronda peridotite: Vestiges of Oligocene backarc mantle lithospheric extension in the western Mediterranean, Geology, 39(10), 927-930. Hidas, K., Booth-Rea, G, Garrido, C. J., Martínez-Martínez, J. M., Padrón-Navarta, J. A., Konc, Z., Giaconia, F., Frets, E., and Marchesi, C. (2013) . Backarc basin inversion and subcontinental mantle emplacement in the crust: kilometre-scale folding and shearing at the base of the proto-Alborán lithospheric mantle (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain): Journal of the Geological Society, London. Marchesi, C., Garrido, C. J., Bosch, D., Bodinier, J.-L., Hidas, K., Padrón-Navarta, J. A., and Gervilla, F. (2012) A Late Oligocene Suprasubduction Setting in the Westernmost Mediterranean Revealed by Intrusive Pyroxenite Dikes in the Ronda Peridotite (Southern Spain): The Journal of Geology, 120 (2), 237-247.

  18. Reinvestigating the Mission Creek Fault: Holocene slip rates in the northern Coachella Valley and implications for southern California earthquake hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wersan, Louis Samuel

    Near San Gorgonio Pass the San Andreas fault zone encounters a structural knot which causes strain to be distributed regionally onto the San Jacinto fault and Eastern California Shear Zone and locally onto a series of evolving fault strands. Each strand was activated and subsequently abandoned as it became locked; current interpretations show that the Mission Creek fault was the dominant strand in the early Pleistocene before being abandoned in favor of the presently active Banning fault. Recent slip rate investigations along the Mission Creek fault have challenged this interpretation, however, and motivate new studies into strain distribution through San Gorgonio Pass and mechanisms of strain transfer to the Eastern California Shear Zone. It is therefore essential to establish an accurate Holocene slip rate on the Mission Creek fault and revisit current interpretations of San Andreas fault zone kinematics. In support of this goal, detailed fault and quaternary unit mapping was conducted in two field areas along the Mission Creek fault in the northern Coachella Valley. Separated by ˜3 km, the two field areas allow for characterization of along-strike changes in Mission Creek fault behavior and interaction with regional faults. Nineteen samples were collected from dextrally offset landforms for Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclide (TCN) dating. TCN dating measures the total concentration of in situ produced 10Be, which is proportional to exposure age of the surface. TCN surface dates therefore provide the age constraint for accurate Holocene-Late Quaternary slip rate analysis. Dated surfaces within Big Morongo Canyon field area yield preliminary TCN ages of 8 ka and 20 ka in locations that record 88-97 m and 31-37 m of dextral displacement, respectively. Based on the calculated dates and measured offsets, local slip rates are calculated to be 11.4-14.0 mm/yr, which is significantly faster than previously estimated rates on the Mission Creek fault in the northern Coachella Valley. Constraining active slip on the Mission Creek fault has significant implications for southern California fault modeling and earthquake hazard assessment, and allows quantification of maximum strain transfer in the Coachella Valley from the Mission Creek fault to the Eastern California Shear Zone (˜9 mm/yr).

  19. Sudan I induces genotoxic effects and oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    An, Yu; Jiang, Liping; Cao, Jun; Geng, Chengyan; Zhong, Laifu

    2007-03-01

    Sudan I, a synthetic lipid soluble azo pigment, is widely used in various industrial fields. However, Sudan I has not been approved at any level of food production, since there are many inconclusive reports relating to its genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of Sudan I and to identify and clarify the reaction mechanisms by use of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. To study the genotoxic effects of Sudan I, the comet assay and micronucleus test (MNT) were used. In the comet assay and MNT, we found increase of DNA migration and of the micronuclei frequencies at all tested concentrations (25-100 microM) of Sudan I in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that Sudan I caused DNA strand breaks and chromosome breaks. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of this difference, we monitored the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with the 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. The level of the oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation was evaluated using immunoperoxidase staining for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and by measuring levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Significantly increased levels of ROS, 8-OHdG and TBARS were observed in HepG2 cells at higher concentrations, the doses being 100, 50-100 and 50-100 microM, respectively. We conclude that Sudan I causes genotoxic effects, probably via ROS-induced oxidative DNA damage at the higher doses. PMID:17188558

  20. International Aid as Informal Educator: Exploring Political Attitudes and Engagement in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagen, Christine Mary

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship has isolated internal economic conditions and political institutions as essential factors in political development and democracy-building, this research suggests that external influences are at play. During times of civil war and post-conflict reconstruction, governmental and socioeconomic structures are likely weak or nonexistent, and…

  1. Education in Emergencies and Early Reconstruction: UNICEF Interventions in Colombia, Liberia, and Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beleli, Ozsel; Chang, Victoria; Feigelson, Michael J.; Kopel-Bailey, Jules A.; Maak, Sheila A.; Mnookin, Jacob P.; Nguyen, Thu H.; Salazar, Mariana; Sinderbrand, Joy E.; Tafoya, Simon N.

    2007-01-01

    Broad access to quality, child-friendly education in emergencies is a critical component of early reconstruction and development. As a class of graduate students at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, our goal is to make a modest contribution to the field of education in emergencies by working…

  2. 78 FR 68499 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Aso Known as Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan Also Known as Vanguards for the Protection of Muslims in Black Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a...

  3. 78 FR 68500 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Also Known as Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan Also Known as Vanguards for the Protection of Muslims in Black Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a...

  4. 77 FR 3371 - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ..., Washington, January 10, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-1546 Filed 1-23-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 4710-10-P ... Nations Mission in South Sudan Consistent With Section 2005 of the American Servicemembers' Protection Act... Mission in South Sudan are without risk of criminal prosecution or other assertion of jurisdiction by...

  5. The Relationship between Leadership Style and Motivation among Faculty Members in Two Public Universities in the Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malok, Malok N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership style and motivation among faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of the South Sudan. The researcher examined this issue by surveying and interviewing faculty members in two public universities in the Republic of South Sudan, a total of 67 for…

  6. 76 FR 63635 - Extension of the Designation of Sudan for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... extraordinary and temporary conditions within that country. See 62 FR 59737; section 244(a)(b)(1)(A), (C) of the... redesignated Sudan for TPS a total of 12 times, including this extension. See 74 FR 69355 (Dec. 31, 2009.... 69 FR 60168 (Oct. 7, 2004). The last extension of TPS for Sudan was announced on December 31,...

  7. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, A. Y. A.; Ali, Y. S. A.; Roelvink, J. A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.

    2015-04-01

    Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the vast upper river catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir has already lost more than one-third of its storage capacity due to sedimentation in the last four decades. Appropriate management of the eroded soils in the upper basin could mitigate this problem. In order to do that, the areas providing the highest sediment volumes to the river have to be identified, since they should have priority with respect to the application of erosion control practices. This requires studying the sedimentation record inside Roseires Reservoir in order to assess when and how much sediment is deposited and to identify its source. This paper deals with the identification of deposition time and soil stratification inside the reservoir, based on historical bathymetric data, numerical modelling and newly acquired soil data. The remoteness of the study area and the extreme climate result in coring campaigns being expensive and difficult. Therefore, these activities need to be optimised and coring locations selected beforehand. This was done by combining bathymetric data and the results of a depth-averaged morphodynamic model recording the vertical stratification in sediment deposits. The model allowed for recognising the areas that are potentially subject to neither net erosion nor bar migration during the lifespan of the reservoir. Verification of these results was carried out by analysing sediment stratification from the data collected during the subsequent field campaign.

  8. Standard case management of asthma in Sudan: a pilot project

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, C-Y.; Malik, E.; Hassanain, S. A.; Hussien, H.; Khamis, A. H.; Bassilli, A. F.; Enarson, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Setting: A pilot project for asthma management in selected hospitals in Khartoum and Gezira States, Sudan. Objective: To assess standard case management of asthma in 2007–2008. Design: Local adaptation of guidelines, followed by situational analysis, pre-intervention study, training and implementation. Treatment outcome was assessed 1 year after patient enrolment. Results: Situational analysis revealed that inhaled beclometasone was not available in the public sector. During the project, 2068 patients were enrolled: severity of asthma was intermittent in 185 (9.0%), mild persistent in 231 (11.2%), moderate persistent in 640 (31.0%), severe persistent in 812 (39.3%) and unclassified in 200 (9.7%). Of the 1654 patients with persistent asthma who were treated with inhaled corticosteroids, 1157 (70.0%) had treatment cards available for outcome assessment. Of these, 652 (56.4%) did not attend their annual evaluation, among whom 1 (0.1%) died and 651 (56.3%) were lost to follow-up. Of the 505 patients who attended their annual evaluation, 417 (82.6%) improved, 32 (6.3%) were stable and 56 (11.1%) were worse. The frequency of emergency visits and hospitalisation decreased substantially among those who presented for the 1 year follow-up assessment. Conclusion: The results of standard case management of asthma were encouraging; however, a high proportion of patients did not return for long-term management. PMID:26393039

  9. Ethical, legal and social aspects of the approach in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Badria B; Malcolm, Colin A; Babiker, Ahmed; Malik, Elfatih M; El Tayeb, Mohammed AH; Saeed, Nageeb S; Nugud, Abdel Hameed D; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    The global malaria situation, especially in Africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at regional and local levels. The successful application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the control of the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax and several species of fruit flies has given impetus to the use of this method for suppression or elimination of malaria vectors in some areas of Africa including Northern State of Sudan. The research and development phase of the Northern State feasibility study has been started. Sudanese stakeholders are working side-by-side with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the activities of this important phase. Several ethical, legal and social issues associated with this approach arose during this phase of the project. They need to be seriously considered and handled with care. In this paper, these issues are described, and the current and proposed activities to overcome potential hurdles to ensure success of the project are listed. PMID:19917073

  10. On the azo/hydrazo equilibrium in Sudan I azo dye derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gilson R; Garcia, Humberto Costa; Couri, Mara Rubia C; Dos Santos, Hélio F; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C

    2013-01-24

    In this study, Raman, infrared, UV/vis, NMR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction spectroscopies are used to elucidate the tautomeric equilibrium of azo dyes derived from 1-phenyl-azo-2-naphthol (Sudan I). A new crystallographic structure is described for Sudan I, revealing the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and supramolecular interactions, such as the unconventional C-H···O hydrogen bond type, ?-stacking, and charge-dipole interactions. All of these weak intermolecular interactions play a role in the stability of the crystalline structure. Theoretical calculations are also reported for geometries, energy, and spectroscopic properties. The predicted spectra are in accordance with the experiments carried out in the solid state and in solution of dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, suggesting the hydrazo form as the preferable tautomer in gas and condensate phases for Sudan I and its derivatives. PMID:23289665

  11. Seasonal variation of carbon fluxes in a sparse savanna in semi arid Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ardö, Jonas; Mölder, Meelis; El-Tahir, Bashir Awad; Elkhidir, Hatim Abdalla Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Background Large spatial, seasonal and annual variability of major drivers of the carbon cycle (precipitation, temperature, fire regime and nutrient availability) are common in the Sahel region. This causes large variability in net ecosystem exchange and in vegetation productivity, the subsistence basis for a major part of the rural population in Sahel. This study compares the 2005 dry and wet season fluxes of CO2 for a grass land/sparse savanna site in semi arid Sudan and relates these fluxes to water availability and incoming photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). Data from this site could complement the current sparse observation network in Africa, a continent where climatic change could significantly impact the future and which constitute a weak link in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Results The dry season (represented by Julian day 35–46, February 2005) was characterized by low soil moisture availability, low evapotranspiration and a high vapor pressure deficit. The mean daily NEE (net ecosystem exchange, Eq. 1) was -14.7 mmol d-1 for the 12 day period (negative numbers denote sinks, i.e. flux from the atmosphere to the biosphere). The water use efficiency (WUE) was 1.6 mmol CO2 mol H2O-1 and the light use efficiency (LUE) was 0.95 mmol CO2 mol PPFD-1. Photosynthesis is a weak, but linear function of PPFD. The wet season (represented by Julian day 266–273, September 2005) was, compared to the dry season, characterized by slightly higher soil moisture availability, higher evapotranspiration and a slightly lower vapor pressure deficit. The mean daily NEE was -152 mmol d-1 for the 8 day period. The WUE was lower, 0.97 mmol CO2 mol H2O-1 and the LUE was higher, 7.2 ?mol CO2 mmol PPFD-1 during the wet season compared to the dry season. During the wet season photosynthesis increases with PPFD to about 1600 ?mol m-2s-1 and then levels off. Conclusion Based on data collected during two short periods, the studied ecosystem was a sink of carbon both during the dry and wet season 2005. The small sink during the dry season is surprising and similar dry season sinks have not to our knowledge been reported from other similar savanna ecosystems and could have potential management implications for agroforestry. A strong response of NEE versus small changes in plant available soil water content was found. Collection and analysis of flux data for several consecutive years including variations in precipitation, available soil moisture and labile soil carbon are needed for understanding the year to year variation of the carbon budget of this grass land/sparse savanna site in semi arid Sudan. PMID:19046418

  12. Neogene brittle detachment faulting on Kos (E Greece): implications for a southern break-away fault of the Menderes metamorphic core

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    close to the inferred southern breakaway fault. It exposes Permo- Carboniferous anchi- metamorphic rocks-grade metamorphic rocks in the footwall against upper crustal rocks in the hanging wall (Crittenden et al. 1980 the detachment will lack a ductile history, juxtaposing only upper crustal, low-grade metamorphic rocks

  13. A comparison of the physics of the northern and southern shelves of the eastern Bering Sea and some implications for the ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Kachel, Nancy B.; Moore, Sue; Mordy, Calvin W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Overland, James E.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Sigler, Michael F.

    2012-06-01

    Sufficient oceanographic measurements have been made in recent years to describe the latitudinal variation in the physics of the eastern Bering Sea shelf and the potential impact of climate change on the species assemblages in the two ecosystems (north and south). Many of the predicted ecosystem changes will result from alterations in the timing and extent of sea ice. It is predicted that the sea ice in the northern Bering Sea will be less common in May, but will continue to be extensive through April. In contrast, the southern shelf will have, on average, much less sea ice than currently observed, but with large interannual and multiyear variability until at least 2050. Thus, even under current climate warming scenarios, bottom temperatures on the northern shelf will remain cold. Based on biophysical measurements, the southern and northern ecosystems were divided by a North-South Transition at ˜60°N. The northern middle shelf was characterized by a freshwater lens at the surface, cold bottom temperatures, and a thicker pycnocline than found on the southern shelf. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms were common. In contrast, the southern shelf stratification was largely determined by temperature alone; the pycnocline was thin (often<3 m) and subsurface blooms were uncommon. Biological responses to climate warming could include greater north-south differences in zooplankton community structure, the transport of large Outer Shelf Domain crustacean zooplankton to the middle shelf, and the disappearance of two principal prey taxa (Calanus spp. and Thysanoessa spp.) of planktivorous fish, seabirds and whales. The response of commercially and ecologically important fish species is predicted to vary. Some species of fish (e.g., juvenile sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka) may expand their summer range into the northern Bering Sea; some (e.g., pink salmon, O. gorbuscha) may increase in abundance while still other species (e.g., walleye pollock and arrowtooth flounder; Theragra chalcogramma and Atheresthes stomias, respectively) are unlikely to become common in the north. The projected warming of the southern shelf will limit the distribution of arctic species (e.g., snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio) to the northern shelf and will likely permit expansion of subarctic species into the southern Bering Sea. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales will respond to shifts in prey availability; for instance, if prey are advected northward from the southeastern Bering Sea, an extension of range and an increase in seasonally migratory baleen whale numbers is anticipated. Thus, alteration of this ecosystem in response to climate change is expected to result in something other than a simple northward shift in the distribution of all species.

  14. A new model for management of mycetoma in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh; Alshambaty, Yassir; Hashim, Ahmed; Hago, Ali; Zijlstra, Eduard E

    2014-10-01

    Patients with mycetoma usually present late with advanced disease, which is attributed to lack of medical and health facilities in endemic areas, poor health education and low socio-economic status. With this background, an integrated patient management model at the village level was designed to address the various problems associated with mycetoma. The model was launched in an endemic village in the Sudan, between 2010 and 2013. This model is described in a prospective, descriptive, community-based study, aimed to collect epidemiological, ecological, and clinical data and to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in order to design effective and efficient management measures. In this study, the prevalence of mycetoma was 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The patients were farmers, housewives and children of low socio-economic status, and no obvious risk group was detected. All had surgery performed in a mobile surgical unit in the village which encouraged patients to present early with small early lesion leading to a good clinical outcome. The close contact with the Acacia tree thorns, animals and animal dung, walking bare footed and practising poor hygiene may all have contributed to the development of mycetoma in the village. Knowledge of mycetoma was poor in 96.3% of the study population, 70% had appropriate attitudes and beliefs towards interaction with mycetoma patients and treatment methods, and 49% used satisfactory or good practices in the management of mycetoma. Knowledge and practices on mycetoma were found to be significantly associated with age. Based on the KAP and epidemiological data, several health education sessions were conducted in the village for different target groups. The integrated management approach adopted in this study is unique and appeared successful and seems suitable as an immediate intervention. While for the longer term, establishment of local health facilities with trained health staff remains a priority. PMID:25356640

  15. A New Model for Management of Mycetoma in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; EL Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh; Alshambaty, Yassir; Hashim, Ahmed; Hago, Ali; Zijlstra, Eduard E.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with mycetoma usually present late with advanced disease, which is attributed to lack of medical and health facilities in endemic areas, poor health education and low socio-economic status. With this background, an integrated patient management model at the village level was designed to address the various problems associated with mycetoma. The model was launched in an endemic village in the Sudan, between 2010 and 2013. This model is described in a prospective, descriptive, community-based study, aimed to collect epidemiological, ecological, and clinical data and to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in order to design effective and efficient management measures. In this study, the prevalence of mycetoma was 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The patients were farmers, housewives and children of low socio-economic status, and no obvious risk group was detected. All had surgery performed in a mobile surgical unit in the village which encouraged patients to present early with small early lesion leading to a good clinical outcome. The close contact with the Acacia tree thorns, animals and animal dung, walking bare footed and practising poor hygiene may all have contributed to the development of mycetoma in the village. Knowledge of mycetoma was poor in 96.3% of the study population, 70% had appropriate attitudes and beliefs towards interaction with mycetoma patients and treatment methods, and 49% used satisfactory or good practices in the management of mycetoma. Knowledge and practices on mycetoma were found to be significantly associated with age. Based on the KAP and epidemiological data, several health education sessions were conducted in the village for different target groups. The integrated management approach adopted in this study is unique and appeared successful and seems suitable as an immediate intervention. While for the longer term, establishment of local health facilities with trained health staff remains a priority. PMID:25356640

  16. Determination of banned Sudan dyes in food samples by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Baggiani, Claudio; Anfossi, Laura; Baravalle, Patrizia; Giovannoli, Cristina; Giraudi, Gianfranco; Barolo, Claudia; Viscardi, Guido

    2009-10-01

    A method for molecularly imprinted SPE of banned Sudan azo-dyes from food samples was investigated. The molecularly imprinted polymer was obtained by suspension polymerization using 1-(4-chlorophenyl)azonaphthalen-2-ol as the mimic template. The molecular recognition properties of imprinted beads were evaluated for use as a SPE sorbent, in order to develop a selective extraction protocol for the Sudan class of dyes. The optimized extraction protocol resulted in a reliable molecularly imprinted SPE (MISPE) method suitable for HPLC analysis. It was selective for the main analyte, Sudan I, and the related azo-dyes Sudan II, III, IV, Sudan Red B, and Sudan Red 7B, while the permitted azo-dyes Allura Red AC, Neococcin, and Sunset Yellow FCF were not extracted. The method was tested for Sudan I, II, III, and IV in five different food samples (hot chilli pepper, hot chilli tomato sauce, sausage, tomato sauce, and hard boiled egg yolk) at three concentration levels (15, 100, and 300 microg/g). It demonstrated itself to be insensitive to the presence of different complex matrices, precise, accurate, and with good recovery rates (85-101%). The LOD and LOQ were satisfactory for most analytical determinations. PMID:19722173

  17. Gravity anomalies, Quaternary vents, and Quaternary faults in the southern Cascade Range, Oregon and California: Implications for arc and backarc evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.; Christiansen, R.L.; Guffanti, M.; Wells, R.E.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Clynne, M.A.; Smith, James G.

    1997-01-01

    Isostatic residual gravity anomalies in the southern Cascade Range of northern California and southern Oregon are spatially correlated with broad zones of Quaternary magmatism as reflected by the total volume of Quaternary volcanic products, the distribution of Quaternary vents, and the anomalously low teleseismic P wave velocities in the upper 30 km of crust. The orientation of Quaternary faults also appears to be related to gravity anomalies and volcanism in this area, trending generally north-south within the magmatic regions and northwest-southeast as they enter the neighboring amagmatic zones to the north and south. The relationship between gravity anomalies, vent density, and fault orientations may indicate in a broad sense the strength of the middle and upper crust. The southern Cascade Range occupies a transition zone where horizontal stress is transferred from the northwest-southeast dextral shear of the Walker Lane belt to the east-west extension characteristic of the Cascade arc in central Oregon. Faulting along north-south strikes in the volcanically active areas indicates the east-west extensional stresses in thermally weakened crust, whereas northwest faulting between the volcanically active areas reflects the northwest trending, right lateral shear strain of the Walker Lane belt. The segmentation of the arc reflected in Quaternary magmatism may be caused by differential extension behind crustal blocks of the forearc rotating clockwise with respect to North America. In this view the volcanic centers at Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake volcano, and Lassen Peak in northern California are situated along the southern parts of the trailing edges of two distinct segments of the forearc where additional extension is implied by their differential clockwise rotation. U.S. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Detrital Geochemical Fingerprints of Rivers Along Southern Tibet and Nepal: Implications for Erosion of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone and the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassim, M. F. B.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.; Kapp, P. A.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Our detrital geochemical study of modern sand collected from tributaries of the Yarlung River in southern Tibet and the Kali Gandaki River and its tributaries in Nepal shed light on the ages and exhumation histories of source rocks within the Indus-Yarlung Suture (IYS) zone and the Himalayas. Seven sand samples from rivers along the suture zone in southern Tibet between Xigatze to the east and Mt. Kailas to the west were collected for detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and Apatite Fission Track (AFT) thermochronologic analyses. Zircon U-Pb ages for all rivers range between 15 and 3568 Ma. Rivers draining the northern side of the suture zone mainly yield ages between 40 and 60 Ma, similar to the age of the Gangdese magmatic arc. Samples from rivers draining the southern side of the suture zone record a Tethyan Himalayan signal characterized by age clusters at 500 Ma and 1050 Ma. Our results indicate that the ages and proportion of U-Pb zircons ages of downstream samples from tributaries of the Yarlung River directly reflect source area ages and relative area of source rock exposure in the catchment basin. Significant age components at 37 - 40 Ma, 47 - 50 Ma, 55 - 58 Ma and 94 - 97 Ma reflect episodicity in Gangdese arc magmatism. Our AFT ages show two main signals at 23-18 Ma and 12 Ma, which are in agreement with accelerated exhumation of the Gangdese batholith during these time intervals. The 23 - 18 Ma signal partly overlaps with deposition of the Kailas Formation along the suture zone and may be related to exhumation due to upper plate extension in southern Tibet in response to Indian slab rollback and/or break-off events. Detrital thermochronology of four sand samples from the Kali Gandaki River and some of its tributaries in Nepal is underway and will provide constraints on the timing of erosion of the central Nepal Himalaya.

  19. Continent-scale strike-slip on a low-angle fault beneath New Zealand's Southern Alps: Implications for crustal thickening in oblique collision zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon; Smith, Euan; Stern, Tim; Warren-Smith, Emily

    2015-09-01

    New Zealand's Southern Alps lie adjacent to the continent-scale dextral strike-slip Alpine Fault, on the boundary between the Pacific and Australian plates. We show with a simple 2-D model of crustal balancing that the observed crustal root and erosion (expressed as equivalent crustal shortening) is up to twice that predicted by the orthogonal plate convergence since ˜11 Ma, and even since ˜23 Ma when the Alpine Fault formed. We consider two explanations for this, involving a strong component of motion along the length of the plate-boundary zone. Geophysical data indicate that the Alpine Fault has a listric geometry, flattening at mid crustal levels, and has accommodated sideways underthrusting of Australian plate crust beneath Pacific plate crust. The geometry of the crustal root, together with plate reconstructions, requires the underthrust crust to be the hyperextended part of an asymmetric rift system which formed over 500 km farther south during the Eocene—the narrow remnant part today forms the western margin of the Campbell Plateau. At ˜10 Ma, the hyperextended margin underwent shallow subduction in the Puysegur subduction zone, and then was dragged over 300 km along the length of the Southern Alps beneath a low-angle (<20°) section of the Alpine Fault. We speculate that prior to 10 Ma, more distributed lower crustal shortening and thickening occurred beneath the Southern Alps, accommodating southward extrusion of continental crust in the northern part of the plate boundary zone, providing a mechanism for clockwise rotation of the Hikurangi margin.

  20. Late Holocene Environmental Change at Amara West: A New Kingdom Town on the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Neal; Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Dalton, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Amara West is a well-preserved town of the late New Kingdom downstream of Sai Island in Northern Sudan. The town has being identified as the seat of the pharaonic administration of Kush (Upper Nubia) in the Ramesside Period (c. 1306-1070 BC). This region fell under Egyptian control after about 1500 BC. The modern Nile (flowing eastwards in this reach) lies to the south of the town and a well preserved palaeochannel lies immediately to the north. Following the Egypt Exploration Society excavations of 1938-39 and 1947-48, it was argued that the ancient town was once located upon an island in the Nile. Renewed archaeological excavations allied to geomorphological work on the ancient river environment are attempting to establish the nature of the local and regional landscape before, during, and after the occupation of the town. This paper presents new OSL and radiocarbon dates on the sedimentary fill from the palaeochannel system to establish when the channel system ceased to flow on a permanent basis. Micromorphological work on the sedimentary records within the town provide additional insights into the nature of the local environment during the period of occupation. We discuss the implications of the new palaeoenvironmental data for our understanding of Amara West and we set out the wider significance of these new geoarchaeological data.

  1. Concomitant Infection with Leishmania donovani and L. major in Single Ulcers of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients from Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Babiker, A. M.; Ravagnan, S.; Fusaro, A.; Hassan, M. M.; Bakheit, S. M.; Mukhtar, M. M.; Cattoli, G.; Capelli, G.

    2014-01-01

    In Sudan human leishmaniasis occurs in different clinical forms, that is, visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Clinical samples from 69 Sudanese patients with different clinical manifestations were subjected to a PCR targeting the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene for Leishmania species identification. Mixed infections were suspected due to multiple overlapping peaks presented in some sequences of the COII amplicons. Cloning these amplicons and alignment of sequences from randomly selected clones confirmed the presence of two different Leishmania species, L. donovani and L. major, in three out of five CL patients. Findings were further confirmed by cloning the ITS gene. Regarding other samples no significant genetic variations were found in patients with VL (62 patients), PKDL (one patient), or ML (one patient). The sequences clustered in a single homogeneous group within L. donovani genetic group, with the exception of one sequence clustering with L. infantum genetic group. Findings of this study open discussion on the synergetic/antagonistic interaction between divergent Leishmania species both in mammalian and vector hosts, their clinical implications with respect to parasite fitness and response to treatment, and the route of transmission with respect to vector distribution and or adaptation. PMID:24744788

  2. Part I: cancer in Sudan—burden, distribution, and trends breast, gynecological, and prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Elamin, Amany; Ibrahim, Muntaser E; Abuidris, Dafalla; Mohamed, Kamal Eldin H; Mohammed, Sulma Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Despite the growing burden of cancer worldwide, it continues to receive low priority in Africa, across the continent and specifically in Sudan. This is due to political unrest, limited health resources, and other pressing public health issues such as infectious diseases. Lack of awareness about the magnitude of the current and future cancer burden among policy makers play a major role as well. Although, the real scope of cancer in Sudan is not known, the reported cases have increased from 303 in 1967-6303 in 2010. According to Globocan estimates, the top most common cancers in both sexes are breast, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, esophagus, and colorectum. This review is the first of four papers that focuses on cancer, its distribution and trend as well as the risk factors most common in Sudan. It is expected that cancer will increase in Sudan as a result of migration of people from rural areas to urban cities in the pursuit of a better standard of living, which has resulted in lifestyle and behavioral changes that include tobacco chewing and smoking, unhealthy dieting, and a lack of physical activity. These changes are further exacerbated by the aging population and have made the country vulnerable to many diseases including cancer. These reviews are meant to provide a better understanding and knowledge required to plan appropriate cancer-control and prevention strategies in the country. PMID:25641872

  3. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of South Sudan To Receive Defense Articles and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Presidential Determination on the Eligibility of..., including section 503(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and section 3(a)(1) of the Arms... services to the Republic of South Sudan will strengthen the security of the United States and promote...

  4. Fluorescent nanomicelles for selective detection of Sudan dye in Pluronic F127 aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xinliang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui; Wang, Xiaohui; Huang, Fei

    2014-04-01

    Novel self-assembled water-soluble nanomicelles that contain fluorescent conjugated polymers (poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) or poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-alt-4,4'-phenylether] (PF-PE)) have been obtained and used as the highly sensitive/selective platform for Sudan dye detection. The Fluorescent nanomicelles exhibited a highly selective fluorescence quenching by the prohibited food additive Sudan I, while not for the natural pigments: Capsanthin and Beta-carotene, due to the more suitable matching of the LUMOs (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of the conjugated polymers with that of Sudan I molecules. The Stern-Volmer constants (K(SV)) of PF-PE/F127 and PFO/F127 for Sudan I were 1,040,480 and 665,000 M(-1), respectively, which were more than 100 times higher than those of the same conjugated polymers in the orgainc solvents. The significantly enhanced sensitivity was due to the collective effect of the F127 micelles to both chromophore and analyte, through which the fluorophone-analyte binding interaction is significantly strengthened and efficient photoinduced charge transfer occurs. The as-proposed materials and approach may be potentially applied in the real-time food safety screening. PMID:24625370

  5. A Basic Hybrid Library Support Model to Distance Learners in Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelrahman, Omer Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Distance learning has flourished in Sudan during the last two decades; more and more higher education institutions offer distance learning programmes to off-campus students. Like on-campus students, distance learners should have access to appropriate library and information support services. They also have specific needs for library and…

  6. Risk Factors for Sustained Cholera Transmission, Juba County, South Sudan, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ujjiga, Thomas T.A.; Mogga, Juma J.H.; Othwonh, Thabo O.; Mutonga, David; Kone-Coulibaly, Asta; Ali, Masood; Mpairwe, Allan M.; Abdinasir, Abubaker; Abdi, Mohamed A.; Yoti, Zabulon; Olushayo, Olu; Nyimol, Pinyi; Lul, Riek; Lako, Richard L.; Rumunu, John

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a case–control study to identify risk factors for the 2014 cholera outbreak in Juba County, South Sudan. Illness was associated with traveling or eating away from home; treating drinking water and receiving oral cholera vaccination were protective. Oral cholera vaccination should be used to complement cholera prevention efforts. PMID:26402715

  7. The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

  8. South Sudan: Stakeholders' Views of Technical and Vocational Education and Training and a Framework for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atari, Dominic Odwa; McKague, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of South Sudan, recently emerging from the longest civil war in contemporary African history, has set goals towards post-conflict reconstruction in many areas of social services. However, the educational infrastructure continues to struggle, and many stakeholders in government and international and local organisations are not…

  9. Research On: Motivation to Learn English among College Students in Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humaida, Ibrahim Abdelrahim Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to achieve the following objectives: to examine motivation to learn English language among students of faculty of arts, Islamic University-Sudan, to find out if there were significant statistical differences on motivation scores related to both student level and age. To pursue these objectives, the researcher used the…

  10. Reaching out and Partnering in the Sudan through Integrated Community-Oriented Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelrahman, Samira; Al Fadil, Sumaia

    2011-01-01

    Community-university partnerships, if they are to be successful, must be firmly grounded in the context in which they take place. This paper describes the ways in which the University of Gezira in the Sudan from its very beginning was built on an understanding of rural communities. The university's Faculty of Medicine built its training around…

  11. 76 FR 63629 - Designation of Republic of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), during the past...of the displaced are now in crisis and are relying on food assistance...of the ongoing humanitarian crisis. South Sudan is already considered...persons (IDPs) and 350,000 refugees have returned to South...

  12. Part I: cancer in Sudan—burden, distribution, and trends breast, gynecological, and prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Elamin, Amany; Ibrahim, Muntaser E; Abuidris, Dafalla; Mohamed, Kamal Eldin H; Mohammed, Sulma Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing burden of cancer worldwide, it continues to receive low priority in Africa, across the continent and specifically in Sudan. This is due to political unrest, limited health resources, and other pressing public health issues such as infectious diseases. Lack of awareness about the magnitude of the current and future cancer burden among policy makers play a major role as well. Although, the real scope of cancer in Sudan is not known, the reported cases have increased from 303 in 1967–6303 in 2010. According to Globocan estimates, the top most common cancers in both sexes are breast, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, esophagus, and colorectum. This review is the first of four papers that focuses on cancer, its distribution and trend as well as the risk factors most common in Sudan. It is expected that cancer will increase in Sudan as a result of migration of people from rural areas to urban cities in the pursuit of a better standard of living, which has resulted in lifestyle and behavioral changes that include tobacco chewing and smoking, unhealthy dieting, and a lack of physical activity. These changes are further exacerbated by the aging population and have made the country vulnerable to many diseases including cancer. These reviews are meant to provide a better understanding and knowledge required to plan appropriate cancer-control and prevention strategies in the country. PMID:25641872

  13. Chironomid Haemoglobins: Their Detection and Role in Allergy to Midges in the Sudan and Elsewhere.

    E-print Network

    Cranston, Peter S.

    f' Chironomid Haemoglobins: Their Detection and Role in Allergy to Midges in the Sudan. London SW7 5BD. ROSEMARYD. TEE Department ofAllergy and Clinical Immunology Cardiothoracic Institute University of London Regent's Park, London NWI 4NS. A.B. KAY Department of Allergy and Clinical

  14. Civic Education and Peacebuilding: Examples from Iraq and Sudan. Special Report 254

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Daniel H.; Bishai, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2010, the United States Institute of Peace developed several civic education programs for Iraq and Sudan as part of broader efforts to promote postconflict stability and development and help prevent a return to violence. This report describes those programs after first examining the conceptual bases for civic education and how…

  15. The Sociolinguistics of Nationalism in the Sudan: The Politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree; Mugaddam, Abdel Rahim

    2011-01-01

    This monograph describes the historiography of language ideologies that led to the politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of politics in the Sudan, starting from British colonial rule until the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that was a precursor to the separation of the South as an independent state. The monograph shows that the…

  16. A statistical perspective on data mining Jonathan Hosking, Edwin Pednault and Madhu Sudan

    E-print Network

    Sudan, Madhu

    A statistical perspective on data mining Jonathan Hosking, Edwin Pednault and Madhu Sudan IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., U.S.A. Abstract Data mining can be regarded as a collection of methods for drawing inferences from data. The aims of data mining,and some of its methods

  17. twred at 550C on soil samples collected from the Sudan; some cultures exhibit

    E-print Network

    Olins, Ada L.

    twred at 550C on soil samples collected from the Sudan; some cultures exhibit obvious antibiotic behavior. Tetracycline is effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bac- teria, Rickettsiae the X groUp The side effects of tetracycline include -teflpQrary inhibition of bone growth in ifpts (25

  18. Sub-regional integration in Sudan: the key to food security and recovery.

    PubMed

    D'Silva, Brian; Tecosky, Olivia

    2007-03-01

    The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in Sudan has created a new opportunity for peace. Approaches to food security must now be reoriented based on the agro-ecological diversity in Sudan. WFP is in a unique position to catalyse an approach to food security that meets immediate needs and contributes to long-term recovery, in collaboration with the Government of National Unity (GNU) and the Government of South Sudan (GOSS). Aggregate food production in Sudan has increased in the past decade. At sub-regional levels, however, many areas remain food insecure. Major research must be undertaken to identify optimum levels of food production and barriers to access to food at sub-regional levels as a first step towards linking deficit areas with areas of surplus. Initiatives must also be undertaken to facilitate increased integration between sub-regions. Increased sub-regional linkages could ensure more efficient delivery of food in the short term as well as recovery and economic growth in the long term. PMID:17349002

  19. Geologic assessment of the fossil energy and geothermal potential of the Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary report provides geological input to the consideration of appropriate activities that can enhance the exploration and development of fossil-fuel and possible geothermal energy resources of the Sudan, and is based on study of available literature in early 1982. 59 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.

  20. Risk Factors for Sustained Cholera Transmission, Juba County, South Sudan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ujjiga, Thomas T A; Wamala, Joseph F; Mogga, Juma J H; Othwonh, Thabo O; Mutonga, David; Kone-Coulibaly, Asta; Ali, Masood; Mpairwe, Allan M; Abdinasir, Abubaker; Abdi, Mohamed A; Yoti, Zabulon; Olushayo, Olu; Nyimol, Pinyi; Lul, Riek; Lako, Richard L; Rumunu, John

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for the 2014 cholera outbreak in Juba County, South Sudan. Illness was associated with traveling or eating away from home; treating drinking water and receiving oral cholera vaccination were protective. Oral cholera vaccination should be used to complement cholera prevention efforts. PMID:26402715

  1. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the importation into the United States, directly or indirectly, of any goods or services...

  2. Feasibility of health systems strengthening in South Sudan: a qualitative study of international practitioner perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Abigail; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of health systems strengthening from the perspective of international healthcare implementers and donors in South Sudan. Design A qualitative interview study, with thematic analysis using the WHO health system building blocks framework. Setting South Sudan. Participants 17 health system practitioners, working for international agencies in South Sudan, were purposively sampled for their knowledge and experiences of health systems strengthening, services delivery, health policy and politics in South Sudan. Results Participants universally reported the health workforce as insufficient and of low capacity and service delivery as poor, while access to medicines was restricted by governmental lack of commitment in undertaking procurement and supply. However, progress was clear in improved county health department governance, health management information system functionality, increased health worker salary harmonisation and strengthened financial management. Conclusions Resurgent conflict and political tensions have negatively impacted all health system components and maintaining or continuing health system strengthening has become extremely challenging. A coordinated approach to balancing humanitarian need particularly in conflict-affected areas, with longer term development is required so as not to lose improvements gained. PMID:26700280

  3. Piagetian Theory and Its Implications for the Helping Professions. Proceedings of Interdisciplinary Conference (7th, Volume I, University of Southern California, February, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizmann, Rama, Ed.; And Others

    This book is the first volume of a collection of papers from the Seventh Interdisciplinary Conference on Piagetian theory and its implications for the helping professions social work and psychological services. More than 40 papers are included. Areas explored in the papers include development of prosocial behavior in children; the effect of…

  4. Differential gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus exposed to Orange II and Sudan III azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongmiao; Xu, Joshua; Kweon, Oh-Gew; Zou, Wen; Feng, Jinhui; He, Gui-Xin; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2015-05-01

    We previously demonstrated the effects of azo dyes and their reduction metabolites on bacterial cell growth and cell viability. In this report, the effects of Orange II and Sudan III on gene expression profiling in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA 1556 were analyzed using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR technology. Upon exposure to 6 ?g/ml Orange II for 18 h, 21 genes were found to be differently expressed. Among them, 8 and 13 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Most proteins encoded by these differentially expressed genes involve stress response caused by drug metabolism, oxidation, and alkaline shock indicating that S. aureus could adapt to Orange II exposure through a balance between up and down regulated gene expression. Whereas, after exposure to 6 ?g/ml Sudan III for 18 h, 57 genes were differentially expressed. In which, 51 genes were up-regulated and 6 were down-regulated. Most proteins encoded by these differentially expressed genes involve in cell wall/membrane biogenesis and biosynthesis, nutrient uptake, transport and metabolite, and stress response, suggesting that Sudan III damages the bacterial cell wall or/and membrane due to binding of the dye. Further analysis indicated that all differentially expressed genes encoded membrane proteins were up-regulated and most of them serve as transporters. The result suggested that these genes might contribute to survival, persistence and growth in the presence of Sudan III. Only one gene msrA, which plays an important role in oxidative stress resistance, was found to be down-regulated after exposure to both Orange II and Sudan III. The present results suggested that both these two azo dyes can cause stress in S. aureus and the response of the bacterium to the stress is mainly related to characteristics of the azo dyes. PMID:25720844

  5. Phytoplankton size structure in the southern Bay of Bengal modified by the Summer Monsoon Current and associated eddies: Implications on the vertical biogenic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Madhu, N. V.; Robin, R. S.; Karnan, C.; Jagadeesan, L.; Anjusha, A.

    2015-03-01

    The present study combines field and satellite observations to investigate how hydrographical transformations influence phytoplankton size structure in the southern Bay of Bengal during the peak Southwest Monsoon/Summer Monsoon (July-August). The intrusion of the Summer Monsoon Current (SMC) into the Bay of Bengal and associated changes in sea surface chemistry, traceable eastward up to 90°E along 8°N, seems to influence biology of the region significantly. Both in situ and satellite (MODIS) data revealed low surface chlorophyll except in the area influenced by the SMC. During the study period, two well-developed cyclonic eddies (north) and an anti-cyclonic eddy (south), closely linked to the main eastward flow of the SMC, were sampled. Considering the capping effect of the low-saline surface water that is characteristic of the Bay of Bengal, the impact of the cyclonic eddy, estimated in terms of enhanced nutrients and chlorophyll, was mostly restricted to the subsurface waters (below 20 m depth). Conversely, the anti-cyclonic eddy aided by the SMC was characterized by considerably higher nutrient concentration and chlorophyll in the upper water column (upper 60 m), which was contrary to the general characteristic of such eddies. Albeit smaller phytoplankton predominated the southern Bay of Bengal (60-95% of the total chlorophyll), the contribution of large phytoplankton was double in the regions influenced by the SMC and associated eddies. Multivariate analysis revealed the extent to which SMC-associated eddies spatially influence phytoplankton community structure. The study presents the first direct quantification of the size structure of phytoplankton from the southern Bay of Bengal and demonstrates that the SMC-associated hydrographical ramifications significantly increase the phytoplankton biomass contributed by larger phytoplankton and thereby influence the vertical opal and organic carbon flux in the region.

  6. Strong thermodynamic imprint on Recent bottom-water and epibenthic ?13C in the Weddell Sea revealed: Implications for glacial Southern Ocean ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackensen, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Paleonutrient proxies are widely used to reconstruct the geometry of deep-water masses during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Epibenthic ?13C provides best spatial coverage, and artifacts are well investigated. Discrepancies between reconstructed LGM-circulation patterns derived from models or different benthic nutrient proxies can partly be resolved by varying air-sea signatures of ?13C, i.e. ?13Cas. However, there are very few data available to calculate a ?13Cas of modern bottom water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ?13C, and to document how this signal is recorded in benthic foraminiferal ?13C. Here I show that today bottom water in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean is 13C enriched with ?13CDIC values between 0.4 and 1.0‰ and ?13Cas values > 0.4‰, and that this signal is recorded in live and dead epibenthic ?13C. This is in contrast to a uniform modern Antarctic circumpolar ?13CDIC of rather 0.4‰, which hitherto is used as modern framework to compare to low LGM ?13CDIC of southern sourced bottom-water and glacial inter basin differences. I conclude that a potential reduction of the strong Recent thermodynamic imprint during bottom-water generation in glacial times could explain depleted circum Antarctic 13CDIC without associated CO2 enrichment and anoxia in Antarctic bottom waters. The present synoptic compilation of ?13CDIC and live benthic foraminifera ?13C is in support of hypotheses that explain low LGM ?13C by a depletion of southern end-member 13CDIC due to extensive sea-ice formation with low ?13Cas-brine rejection and diminished air-sea gas exchange.

  7. Magnetic Prospection at the Archaeological Site of Jebel Barkal, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed A. Mohamed; Goldmann, Thomas; Wolf, Pawel; Wützler, Ronny; Goldmann, Lukas; Hobbs, Richard; Kendall, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    One of most important archaeological sites in northern Sudan is Jebel Barkal, an isolated sandstone butte, which became the chief cult center of the ancient Sudanese kingdom of Kush (ca. 800 BC-400 AD). Located on the western edge of the modern town of Karima, just downstream from the Nile's fourth cataract, Jebel Barkal is the site of numerous ruined palaces, temples, and pyramids. In 2006 and 2007, we carried out a magnetic survey of about 3.5 hectares of the temple area using an Overhauser magnetometer GSM 19. Our objective was to prospect some of the unexcavated areas of the site to try to image the sub-soil remains, and our resulting map clearly shows a number of magnetic anomalies of mud-brick, fired brick and stone-block walls belonging to different ancient buildings. Our initial magnetic results successfully revealed one corner of the wall of the early Meroitic palace B 100, which had been "lost" after its excavation in 1916, since it buried by later excavation debris before it had been precisely located on any site map. Prospection in the same area also revealed other (earlier?) massive mud walls of unknown function and character. A second area we chose for examination was that in front of the Great Amun Temple (B 500). Here we found two or three small rectangular anomalies that suggested a series of small chapels built at right angles to the paved way leading into the Great Temple; the layout was identical to chapels in front of the Great Amun Temple at Meroe. Another magnetic anomaly in front of B 500 seemed to be a predictable type of stepped podium, well-known from other Kushite temples. A third area we chose to examine was that northeast of B 500. Here we found the clear outline of a multi-chambered building (B 1700) parallel to the Great Temple, which appeared to have all the characteristics of a smaller temple fronted by a pylon. Far less clear were the complex magnetic anomalies we found northeast of B 1700. These appeared to belong to a series of adjacent or overlapping structures, but why their plans were so incoherent was puzzling. All the features revealed by the magnetic survey are partially excavated and will be fully exposed within the next five years, this should shortly offer us the opportunity to correlate our magnetic images with actuality.

  8. Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pitamber, S; Osama, S

    1994-06-01

    Merowe province in rural northern Sudan has been divided into three local government council areas: Merowe, Karima, and Ed Debba. A government program was instituted to increase the welfare of residents and food production. A baseline survey of 490 respondents was conducted in order to ascertain how illiterate women viewed development in the area and to provide useful information for program design and implementation. Women from 24 villages were administered questionnaires, observed in their daily activities, and engaged in discussion in a local meeting place. Discussions were also held with members of the local Popular Committee. Demographic information was very sketchy about age, and 48% had no formal education in writing and reading. General reading and writing skills of the remainder were very poor. There were 500 female children and 502 male children, and the sex ratio varied among the 3 council areas. 52% were married and 14% were divorced or widowed and living with relatives. The average monthly income was from Ls. 700 to Ls. 3000 based on reports from only 59.3% of respondents. Most of the women had skills in food processing and 25.7% were skilled in handicrafts. Water was obtained primarily from local wells and not decontaminated before use. Pit latrines were the standard. One bathing facility was available in the compound for the entire council area. Health units were either in each village or within 20-30 minutes walk. Child mortality was 4.3% in Merowe province. 77 children 0-5 years old died out of a total of 1002 live births. Life expectancy was 41-50 years for women and 61-70 years for men. Cleanliness and healthful eating were observed. 58% owned no land; plots were under 5 feddans and usually half a feddan. 92.1% had no bank account and 90% had no experience with loans. 70.2% were indifferent about involvement in an income generation program. 26% were interested in part-time participation. Only 3.9% desired full-time participation. 8.6% said they wanted raw materials to produce handicrafts, and 21% said they wanted cash to raise livestock. 28.4% had radios. 80.4% lacked any farm equipment. 7.6% owned an electric pump and 7% had an ox plough. A program could be offered after lunch and coordinated with other activities after 4 P.M. at a local center. The population would have to be oriented to business and income generation would have to be planned very carefully. PMID:12288810

  9. Ignimbrite flare-up and deformation in the southern Sierra Madre Occidental, western Mexico: Implications for the late subduction history of the Farallon plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Luca; López-Martínez, Margarita; Rosas-Elguera, José

    2002-08-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) of western Mexico is one of the largest silicic volcanic provinces on Earth, but the mechanism for the generation of such a large volume of ignimbrites has never been clearly defined. We present new 40Ar/39Ar ages, geologic mapping, and structural data for the southern part of the SMO demonstrating that most of this volcanic province was built in two episodes of ignimbrite flare-up in Oligocene (31.5-28 Ma) and early Miocene (23.5-20 Ma) time, and that extensional deformation occurred mostly before the transfer of Baja California to the Pacific plate. Extensive ignimbrite successions, with 40Ar/39Ar ages clustering at ~23 and ~21 Ma, cover most of the southern SMO, thus correlating in age with ignimbrites exposed in southern Baja California and central Mexico. Grabens with a 020° to N-S orientation developed in the east almost concurrently with this volcanic episode. Half grabens and NNW striking listric normal fault systems formed at the end of middle Miocene as far as 150 km from the present coast. A belt of left-lateral transpressional structures formed along the southern boundary of the SMO during the same period. We link these magmatic and tectonic events to the evolution and dynamics of the Farallon and North America plates during the Miocene. Particularly, we propose that a first detachment of the lower part of the Farallon plate in early Miocene time produced a transient thermal event and partial melting of the crust via mafic underplating. Middle Miocene extension would be related to a second detachment event, resulting from the slowing subduction that preceded the final capture of the Magdalena microplate by the Pacific plate at 12.5 Ma. Transpression at the southernmost end of the SMO occurred along the inland projection of the Magdalena-Cocos plate boundary and may be explained by a difference in subduction rate and by a temporal convergence between the two plates in the eve of the end of subduction of the Magdalena plate.

  10. Spatio-temporal spawning and larval dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in a North Texas Reservoir: implications for invasions in the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Christopher John

    2013-01-01

    Zebra mussels were first observed in Texas in 2009 in a reservoir (Lake Texoma) on the Texas-Oklahoma border. In 2012, an established population was found in a near-by reservoir, Ray Roberts Lake, and in June 2013, settled mussels were detected in a third north Texas reservoir, Lake Lewisville. An established population was detected in Belton Lake in September 2013. With the exception of Louisiana, these occurrences in Texas mark the current southern extent of the range of this species in the United States. Previous studies indicate that zebra mussel populations could be affected by environmental conditions, especially increased temperatures and extreme droughts, which are characteristic of surface waters of the southern and southwestern United States. Data collected during the first three years (2010–12) of a long-term monitoring program were analyzed to determine if spatio-temporal zebra mussel spawning and larval dynamics were related to physicochemical water properties in Lake Texoma. Reproductive output of the local population was significantly related to water temperature and lake elevation. Estimated mean date of first spawn in Lake Texoma was approximately 1.5 months earlier and peak veliger densities were observed two months earlier than in Lake Erie. Annual maximum veliger density declined significantly during the study period (p < 0.0001). A population crash occurred as a result of thermal stress and variability of lake elevation. In summer 2011, water temperatures peaked at 34.3°C and lake elevation declined to the lowest level recorded during the previous 18 years, which resulted in desiccation of substantial numbers of settled mussels in littoral zones. Veliger spatial distributions were associated with physicochemical stratification characteristics. Veligers were observed in the deepest oxygenated water after lake stratification, which occurred in late spring. Results of this study indicate environmental conditions can influence variability of population sizes and spatial distributions of zebra mussels along the current southern frontier of their geographic range. Although the future population size trajectory and geographic range are uncertain, increased temperatures and intermittent, extreme droughts likely will affect spatio-temporal dynamics of established populations if zebra mussels spread farther into the southern and southwestern United States.

  11. Provenance of the Passo Feio complex, Dom Feliciano Belt: Implications for the age of supracrustal rocks of the São Gabriel Arc, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Carina Graciniana; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Gruber, Leonardo; Armstrong, Richard; Junges, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The Passo Feio complex (PFC) is a sequence of metapelite, amphibolite, metavolcanic/metavolcanoclastic rocks, marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite and magnesium schist. It is part of the São Gabriel Terrane, a Neoproterozoic juvenile arc formed during the early stages of evolution of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB), in southern Brazil. This belt corresponds to the southernmost portion of the Mantiqueira Province, an important Neoproterozoic orogenic system exposed in the NNE direction along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The geotectonic significance of the original Passo Feio basin in the tectonic evolution of São Gabriel Terrene is not well understood. It has been considered as part of a passive margin sequence or as a back-arc sequence. Geochronological and isotopic data are very scarse for the Passo Feio rocks and this has hampered the better understanding of its significance in the Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of southern Brazil. In the present study the age and significance of metasedimentary rocks of the PFC were investigated. The provenance study was carried out in four metapelite samples from the southern and northern Passo Feio complex, using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon. The results showed varied provenance patterns and zircon ages range from 3637 to 803 Ma. Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are present in all samples, but an important Neoproterozoic population has been identified in one of them. 3.5 Ga old zircon grains form the oldest population of detrital zircon ever reported in southern Brazil. Paleoproterozoic/Archean terranes within the Rio de la Plata Craton may represent the main source of detrital sediments and this suggests that part of the Passo Feio complex might have been a passive margin sequence, developed along the northeastern margin of that paleocontinent. However, the presence of a Neoproterozoic zircon population is not consistent with derivation solely from the craton and indicates contribution from younger sources, such as the Neoproterozoic São Gabriel Arc itself. This Neoproterozoic zircon population with ages ranging from 948 to 803 Ma, suggests that the onset of the magmatic/tectonic evolution of the São Gabriel Arc might have started as early ca. 0.95 Ma.

  12. Organochlorine contaminants in blubber from stranded marine mammals collected from the Northern Oregon and Southern Washington coasts: implications for re-introducing California Condors, Gymnogyps californianus, in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Deke T; Duffield, Deborah A; Randall, Tina; Wintle, Nate; D'Alessandro, Dalin N; Rice, James M; Shepherdson, David

    2013-03-01

    Re-introduction of California Condors into Oregon is currently being considered, but there are concerns about the safety of potential food sources of this species. Condors are opportunistic feeders and a largely available food source for this species will be stranded marine mammal carcasses. We analyzed 37 blubber samples from 7 different marine mammal species collected from the Oregon and Southern Washington coasts for 18 organochlorine (OC) pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) was the most prevalent OC contaminant, making up more than 58 % of the total OC concentration measured. There were no significant differences in OC content between species or sexes. PMID:23275975

  13. Meltwater and ice rafting in the southern Norwegian Sea between 20 and 40 calendar kyr B.P.: Implications for Fennoscandian Heinrich events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekens, W. A. H.; Sejrup, H. P.; Haflidason, H.; Knies, J.; Richter, T.

    2006-09-01

    The timing of meltwater release in the southern Norwegian Sea in relation to millennial-scale climate variability is studied from core MD99-2283 based on down-core analysis of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, calcium carbonate and ice-rafted debris (IRD). Between 20 and 40 calendar (cal) kyr B.P., strong Dansgaard-Oeschger cyclicity is expressed in increased carbonate content and reduced total organic carbon during warm interstadials and IRD marking the end of cold stadials. The planktonic ?18O record of core MD99-2283 compared to available isotopic records in the region confirms the existence of multisourced, synchronized meltwater anomalies during Heinrich (H) events 2 to 4. It was found that the sudden release of meltwater occurs near major ice streams and that no significant increase in IRD was associated with the peaks of the meltwater events in the southern Norwegian Sea, suggesting meltwater discharges from ice-dammed lakes. Significant meltwater events not related to the H events were also observed between 33 and 35 cal kyr B.P., indicating that the release of meltwater is not necessarily connected with major cooling and enhanced IRD delivery. The simultaneous release of fresh water during H events in the Nordic Seas, through icebergs and ice-dammed lakes, is thought to be the result of sea level increase. The meltwater input to the Nordic Seas provides a significant additional contribution to global sea level rise associated with H3 and H4.

  14. Combined structural interventions for gender equality and livelihood security: a critical review of the evidence from southern and eastern Africa and the implications for young people

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha; Misselhorn, Alison; Mangoma, Jaqualine

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people in southern and eastern Africa remain disproportionately vulnerable to HIV with gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities being key drivers of this. Behavioural HIV prevention interventions have had weak outcomes and a new generation of structural interventions have emerged seeking to challenge the wider drivers of the HIV epidemic, including gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities. Methods We searched key academic data bases to identify interventions that simultaneously sought to strengthen people's livelihoods and transform gender relationships that had been evaluated in southern and eastern Africa. Our initial search identified 468 articles. We manually reviewed these and identified nine interventions that met our criteria for inclusion. Results We clustered the nine interventions into three groups: microfinance and gender empowerment interventions; supporting greater participation of women and girls in primary and secondary education; and gender empowerment and financial literacy interventions. We summarise the strengths and limitations of these interventions, with a particular focus on what lessons may be learnt for young people (18–24). Conclusions Our review identified three major lessons for structural interventions that sought to transform gender relationships and strengthen livelihoods: 1) interventions have a narrow conceptualisation of livelihoods, 2) there is limited involvement of men and boys in such interventions, 3) studies have typically been done in stable populations. We discuss what this means for future interventions that target young people through these methods. PMID:22713350

  15. Carbonate xenoliths hosted by the Mesoproterozoic Siddanpalli Kimberlite Cluster (Eastern Dharwar craton): implications for the geodynamic evolution of southern India and its diamond and uranium metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalapathi Rao, N. V.; Anand, M.; Dongre, A.; Osborne, I.

    2010-12-01

    A number of limestone and metasomatised carbonate xenoliths occur in the 1,090 Ma Siddanpalli kimberlite cluster, Raichur kimberlite Field, Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India. These xenoliths are inferred to have been derived from the carbonate horizons of the Kurnool (Palnad) and Bhima Proterozoic basins and provide evidence for a connection between these basins in the geological past. A revised Mesoproterozoic age is proposed for the Bhima and Kurnool (Palnad) basins based on this kimberlite association and is in agreement with similar proposals made recently for the Chattisgarh and Upper Vindhyan sediments in Central India. The observed Bhima-Kurnool interbasinal uplift may have been caused by: (1) extension- or plume-related mafic alkaline magmatism that included the emplacement of the southern Indian kimberlites at ~1.1 Ga, (2) mantle plume-related doming of the peninsular India during the Cretaceous, or (3) Quaternary differential uplift in this region. It is not possible, with the currently available geological information to constrain the exact timing of this uplift. The deep erosion of primary diamond sources in the Raichur kimberlite Field in the upper reaches of the Krishna River caused by this uplift could be the elusive source of the alluvial diamonds of the Krishna valley. Mesoproterozoic sedimentary basins can host world class unconformity-type uranium deposits. In light of its inferred Mesoproterozoic age, a more detailed stratigraphic and metallogenic analysis of the Kurnool basin is suggested for uranium exploration.

  16. Carbonate saturation state of surface waters in the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean: controls and implications for the onset of aragonite undersaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, H. B.; Dunbar, R. B.; Mucciarone, D. A.; Koweek, D. A.

    2015-06-01

    Predicting when surface waters of the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to biogenic carbonate minerals is challenging in part due to the lack of baseline high resolution carbon system data. Here we present ~ 1700 surface total alkalinity measurements from the Ross Sea and along a transect between the Ross Sea and southern Chile from the austral autumn (February-March 2013). We calculate the saturation state of aragonite (?Ar) and calcite (?Ca) using measured total alkalinity and pCO2. In the Ross Sea and south of the Polar Front, variability in carbonate saturation state (?) is mainly driven by algal photosynthesis. Freshwater dilution and calcification have minimal influence on ? variability. We estimate an early spring surface water ?Ar value of ~ 1.2 for the Ross Sea using a total alkalinity-salinity relationship and historical pCO2 measurements. Our results suggest that the Ross Sea is not likely to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite until the year 2070.

  17. 76 FR 63635 - Extension of the Designation of Sudan for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...displaced, and approximately 280,000 refugees have fled to neighboring Chad. Fighting...contribute to the ongoing humanitarian crisis in Sudan. Sporadic eruptions of political...created one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world. Despite encouraging...

  18. Evidence for large-magnitude paleo-earthquakes on the Ventura fault: Implications for earthquake recurrence, fault slip rate, and seismic hazard assessment in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcauliffe, L. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J. H.; Pratt, T. L.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    New borehole, high-resolution seismic reflection, and geochronologic data reveal the ages and displacements of the two most recent large-magnitude earthquakes on the Ventura fault, the central segment of a large, multi-fault reverse fault system that extends for >200 km along the southern edge of the central and western Transverse Ranges fault system. Based on geomorphology and analysis of high-resolution seismic data acquired in 2010, we drilled 17 hollow stem auger boreholes and cone penetrometer tests along two transects across the locus of most recent folding above the Ventura fault. At Day Road in downtown Ventura, our 23-m-deep boreholes revealed a well-bedded alluvial section with many units that are traceable continuously along the entire 375 m length of the transect. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that the prominent topographic scarp at this site records ~6 m of uplift during fold growth in the most-recent earthquake on the underlying Ventura blind thrust ramp. Similarly, sedimentary growth observed in the borehole cross section indicates ~4.5 m of growth during the penultimate event, with an event horizon located at the base of a growth interval between 4 and 8.5 m depth south of the scarp. Six 14C and 14 OSL ages collected from the four hollow-stem auger boreholes at this site constrain the timing of the two most recent events on the Ventura blind thrust fault to post-2900 B.P. and 4700 × 350 to 5460 × 330 years before present; dating of additional shallow luminescence samples should help narrow the age range of the MRE. The large amounts of uplift in the two folding events indicate that they formed in response to large-displacement, and therefore large-magnitude earthquakes, likely involving rupture of the Ventura fault together with thrust ramps to both the west (e.g., Pitas Point fault) and east (Southern San Cayetano and eastern San Cayetano faults). These thrust faults form the middle section of a >200-km-long, east-west belt of large, interconnected reverse faults that extends along the southern edge of the Transverse Ranges. Although each of these faults represents a major seismic source in its own right, we are exploring the possibility of even larger-magnitude, multi-segment ruptures that may link these faults to other major faults to the east and west. The proximity of this large reverse-fault system to several major population centers, including the metropolitan Los Angeles region, and the potential for tsunami generation during offshore ruptures of the western parts of the system, emphasize the importance of understanding the behavior of these faults for seismic hazard assessment.

  19. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Os isotopic compositions of Miocene ultrapotassic rocks in southern Tibet: Petrogenesis and implications for the regional tectonic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, BaoDi; Chen, JianLin; Xu, JiFeng; Wang, LiQuan

    2014-11-01

    Ultrapotassic lavas are widespread throughout southern Tibet and are generally thought to have formed from magmas generated by partial melting of an enriched mantle source that was metasomatized during earlier subduction events. Here, we report new geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Os isotope data for Miocene ultrapotassic rocks within the Sailipu area of the western Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet. The Sailipu ultrapotassic rocks are enriched in the large ion lithophile elements relative to the high field strength elements, and have extremely radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.714480-0.727323), Pb (206Pb/204Pb = 18.414-18.787, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.693-15.749, 208Pb/204Pb = 39.439-39.765), and Os isotopic signatures (187Os/188Os(i) = 0.1095-0.37454), and unradiogenic Nd (?Nd(t) = - 11.5 to - 15.2) isotopic compositions. These geochemical and isotopic characteristics, coupled with high K2O (> 5 wt.%) and MgO (5.20-13.70 wt.%) concentrations, Mg# values of 68-76, high Rb/Sr (0.13-0.95) and low Ba/Rb (3.33-12.3) ratios, and the relatively low Os contents and radiogenic Os isotopic compositions of the Sailipu ultrapotassic rocks, do not support any significant crustal contamination. Instead, we consider these rocks to be analogous to the Cenozoic ultrapotassic rocks from Italy and the Balkans, suggesting that they were produced by interaction between melts derived from phlogopite-rich clinopyroxene veins and surrounding peridotitic mantle material. The Sailipu ultrapotassic rocks can be divided into type-1 and type-2 suites based on differences in major and trace element concentrations, and isotopic compositions. Type-1 ultrapotassic rocks are relatively enriched in the heavy rare earth elements, most likely as a result of interaction between melts derived from phlogopite-rich clinopyroxene veins and the surrounding spinel-bearing peridotite material, whereas the type-2 rocks are enriched in rare earth elements and have high (Gd/Yb)N values (8.3-12.2), both of which are indicative of interaction between melts derived from phlogopite-rich clinopyroxene veins and surrounding garnet-bearing peridotite material that also contained carbonates. Although both the existing convective removal and oblique subduction models can explain some of the geological observations associated with the formation of the Tibetan Plateau, we suggest that the former more accurately explains the spatial and temporal distributions of ultrapotassic rocks and other Cenozoic lavas in this area and the associated topographic uplift recorded in southern Tibet.

  20. The seismogenic structure of the 2013-2014 Matese seismic sequence, Southern Italy: implication for the geometry of the Apennines active extensional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferranti, L.; Milano, G.; Burrato, P.; Palano, M.; Cannavò, F.

    2015-05-01

    Seismological, geological and geodetic data have been integrated to characterize the seismogenic structure of the late 2013-early 2014 moderate energy (maximum local magnitude MLmax = 4.9) seismic sequence that struck the interior of the Matese Massif, part of the Southern Apennines active extensional belt. The sequence, heralded by a ML = 2.7 foreshock, was characterized by two main shocks with ML = 4.9 and ML = 4.2, respectively, which occurred at a depth of ˜17-18 km. The sequence was confined in the 10-20 km depth range, significantly deeper than the 1997-1998 sequence which occurred few km away on the northeastern side of the massif above ˜15 km depth. The depth distribution of the 2013-14 sequence is almost continuous, albeit a deeper (16-19 km) and a shallower (11-15 km) group of events can be distinguished, the former including the main shocks and the foreshock. The epicentral distribution formed a ˜10 km long NNW-SSE trending alignment, which almost parallels the surface trace of late Pliocene-Quaternary southwest-dipping normal faults with a poor evidence of current geological and geodetic deformation. We built an upper crustal model profile for the eastern Matese massif through integration of geological data, oil exploration well logs and seismic tomographic images. Projection of hypocentres on the profile suggests that the seismogenic volume falls mostly within the crystalline crust and subordinately within the Mesozoic sedimentary cover of Apulia, the underthrust foreland of the Southern Apennines fold and thrust belt. Geological data and the regional macroseismic field of the sequence suggest that the southwest-dipping nodal plane of the main shocks represents the rupture surface that we refer to here as the Matese fault. The major lithological discontinuity between crystalline and sedimentary rocks of Apulia likely confined upward the rupture extent of the Matese fault. Repeated coseismic failure represented by the deeper group of events in the sequence, activated in a passive fashion the overlying ˜11-15 km deep section of the upper crustal normal faults. We consider the southwest-dipping Matese fault representative of a poorly known type of seismogenic structures in the Southern Apennines, where extensional seismogenesis and geodetic strain accumulation occur more frequently on NE-dipping, shallower-rooted faults. This is the case of the Boiano Basin fault located on the northern side of the massif, to which the 1997-1998 sequence is related. The close proximity of the two types of seismogenic faults at the Matese Massif is related to the complex crustal architecture generated by the Pliocene-early Pleistocene contractional and transpressional tectonics.

  1. On the development of Antarctic katabatic winds and their impact on ocean and ice processes in the coastal Southern Ocean with implications for primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrick, Scott Lawrence

    1997-10-01

    As a first step toward improving the present understanding of the physics that control air-sea CO2 exchange in the Southern Ocean, a coupled mesoscale atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model is described and used to examine the interaction of Antarctic katabatic winds with coastal ocean and sea ice processes. These winds are a dominant factor in shaping the climatology of Antarctica, particularly during the austral winter. Simulations are presented for winter and early spring conditions. For the spring case a simple primary productivity model is used to examine the early stages of phytoplankton bloom development. Latent heat polynyas are a common feature along the Antarctic coast. These ice-free regions are maintained by a balance between wind driven ice divergence and ice production. For the winter simulation the coupled model creates an initial polynya that closes after 4 days of simulation. The closing of the polynya is linked to the adjustment of the katabatic winds to the alongshore direction which forces shoreward Ekman transport of the sea ice, closing the polynya. Seasonal variations in the magnitude of the katabatic flows are linked to variations in the strength of the East Wind Drift. During the winter, the offshore directed katabtic winds adjust geostrophically, contributing to the strong polar easterlies of high southern latitudes. Shoreward Ekman transport associated with these easterlies supports a barotropic coastal current, the East Wind Drift. During spring the adjustment process is interrupted by the diurnal cycle, weakening the Ekman transport and the coastal current. Phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean are typically linked to the retreat of the seasonal ice cover. As the sea ice melts the associated input of fresh water stabilizes the surface layer of the ocean limiting the depth of turbulent mixing. In early spring, sea ice coverage, incoming solar irradiance and wind stress are shown to be the major factors contributing to early bloom development. Polynyas are shown to provide a favorable environment for bloom development even in the absence of fresh water input.

  2. A New Estimate for Total Offset on the Southern San Andreas Fault: Implications for Cumulative Plate Boundary Shear in the Northern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, M. H.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Development of a consistent and balanced tectonic reconstruction for the late Cenozoic San Andreas fault (SAF) in southern California has been hindered for decades by incompatible estimates of total dextral offset based on different geologic cross-fault markers. The older estimate of 240-270 km is based on offset fluvial conglomerates of the middle Miocene Mint Canyon and Caliente Formations west of the SAF from their presumed source area in the northern Chocolate Mountains NE of the SAF (Ehlig et al., 1975; Ehlert, 2003). The second widely cited offset marker is a distinctive Triassic megaporphyritic monzogranite that has been offset 160 ± 10 km between Liebre Mountain west of the SAF and the San Bernadino Mountains (Matti and Morton, 1993). In this analysis we use existing paleocurrent data and late Miocene clockwise rotation in the eastern Transverse Ranges (ETR) to re-assess the orientation of the piercing line used in the 240 km-correlation, and present a palinspastic reconstruction that satisfies all existing geologic constraints. Our reconstruction of the Mint Canyon piercing line reduces the original estimate of 240-270 km to 195 ± 15 km of cumulative right-lateral slip on the southern SAF (sensu stricto), which is consistent with other published estimates of 185 ± 20 km based on correlative basement terranes in the Salton Trough region. Our estimate of ~195 km is consistent with the lower estimate of ~160 km on the Mojave segment because transform-parallel extension along the southwestern boundary of the ETR during transrotation produces ~25-40 km of displacement that does not affect offset markers of the Liebre/San Bernadino correlation located northwest of the ETR rotating domain. Reconciliation of these disparate estimates places an important new constraint on the total plate boundary shear that is likely accommodated in the adjacent northern Gulf of California. Global plate circuit models require ~650 km of cumulative Pacific-North America (PAC-NAM) relative plate motion since ~12 Ma (Atwater and Stock, 1998). We propose that the continental component of PAC-NAM shear is accommodated by: (1) 195 ± 15 km on the southern SAF (this study); (2) 12 ± 2 km on the Whittier-Elsinore fault; (3) 75 ± 20 km of cumulative shear across the central Mojave in the eastern California shear zone; (4) 30 ± 4 km of post-13 Ma slip on the Stateline fault; and (5) 47 ± 18 km of NW-directed translation produced by north-south shortening. Together, these components sum to 359 ± 31 km of net dextral displacement on the SAF system (sensu lato) in southern California since ca. 12 Ma, or ~300 km less than what is required by the global plate circuit. This suggests that the continental component of post-12 Ma PAC-NAM transform motion can be no more than ~390 km in the adjacent northern Gulf of California, substantially less than the 450 km of shear proposed in some models. We suggest that the remaining ~270-300 km of NW-directed relative plate motion is accommodated by a small component of late Miocene extension and roughly 225 km of slip on the offshore borderland fault system west of Baja California.

  3. U-Cr-rich high Mg-Al granulites from Karimnagar Granulite Belt, India: implications for Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic events in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarbajna, Chanchal; Bose, Sankar; Rajagopalan, V.; Das, Kaushik; Som, Anjan; Paul, A. K.; Shivkumar, K.; Umamaheswar, K.; Chaki, Anjan

    2013-08-01

    High Mg-Al granulite occurs as enclave within granite gneisses at Karimnagar, southern India, and it contains coarse granoblastic aggregates of orthopyroxene and sapphirine with minor amount of cordierite, spinel and phlogopite. An important chemical characteristic of these minerals is their extremely high MgO content and the high Cr2O3 in sapphirine and spinel. Textural analysis shows sapphirine + orthopyroxene + cordierite as the peak-metamorphic assemblage that possibly evolved though the breakdown of a spinel-bearing assemblage. Cation exchange geothermometers involving orthopyroxene, sapphirine and spinel yield temperatures of 600-800 °C with a maximum of 860 °C implying an event of high temperature (HT) metamorphism. Pseudosection analysis in the FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 chemical system shows the stability of the peak- assemblage below 6.2 kbar. Subsequently, the rock underwent hydration and cooling with the appearance of phlogopite in the assemblage. Chromium enrichment is possibly inherited from the protolith and its presence presumably stabilized sapphirine and spinel below their high-temperature stability field. The recorded Rb-Sr age of ca. 2,500 Ma in host granite gneiss marks the upper age limit of HT metamorphism. Presence of patchy, lobate grains as well as veinlets of uraninite and brannerite is also a characteristic feature of the rock. Uranium mineralization took place during the post peak metamorphic stage, sulfide mineralization represented by tiny grains and veinlets of pyrite, millerite and pentlandite coincided with, and outlasted the uranium mineralization. The U-Th-Pb chemical ages of uraninite grains suggest ca. 2,200 ± 12 Ma for the age of uranium mineralization in the granulite. Based on the field relations, it is surmised that the granulite metamorphism in the study area is older than ca. 2,500 Ma and is comparable with an event in the other parts of Eastern Dharwar Craton. It can be conceived as a widespread event in southern India.

  4. Geochemistry of Quaternary basalts erupted along the east Anatolian and Dead Sea fault zones of southern Turkey: implications for mantle sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, A.; Kerrich, R.; Casey, J. F.

    1997-03-01

    Quaternary Ceyhan-Osmaniye plain and Hassa graben alkali olivine basalts were erupted along the transtensional depressions of the east Anatolian and Dead Sea left-lateral strike-slip faults in the Adana and Hatay provinces of southern Turkey, respectively. Average values of Ni, Cr, V, Y, Al 2O 3, MgO, MnO and SiO 2 in the Ceyhan-Osmaniye (COPB) and Hassa graben basalts (HGB) are similar to those of MORB. However, LILE, HFSE and LREE in these lavas range from 2-10 times MORB values. The COPB and HGB have similar primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns but different major and trace element concentrations. According to {La}/{Sm n}, {Gd}/{Yb n}, {Th}/{Yb}, {Zr}/{Y}, {Nb}/{Ta}, {Sr}/{Pr} and {Y}/{Ho} ratios, geochemical differences between the COPB and HGB can be explained by variable degrees of partial melting of similar mantle sources. A1 2O 3 contents and {Ti}/{Ti}?, {Ba}/{Y}, {Ce}/{Y}, {La}/{Yb n} and {La}/{Sc} ratios suggest greater depths of partial melting for the COPB than the HGB. Elevated concentrations of incompatible trace elements and high {La}/{Yb n}, {Nb}/{La}, {Nb}/{Th} and {U}/{Pb} ratios suggest that the COPB and HGB were generated from mantle reservoirs resembling OIB sources. Because there is no evidence for a mantle-plume in the region, the COPB and HGB were probably derived from, low degree of partial melting of metasomatically-enriched asthenospheric mantle ascended through the lithospheric fracture formed by the east Anatolian and Dead Sea strike-slip faults in southern Turkey.

  5. Southern Ocean air-sea heat flux, SST spatial anomalies, and implications for multi-decadal upper ocean heat content trends.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamsitt, V. M.; Talley, L. D.; Mazloff, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean displays a zonal dipole (wavenumber one) pattern in sea surface temperature (SST), with a cool zonal anomaly in the Atlantic and Indian sectors and a warm zonal anomaly in the Pacific sector, associated with the large northward excursion of the Malvinas and southeastward flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). To the north of the cool Indian sector is the warm, narrow Agulhas Return Current (ARC). Air-sea heat flux is largely the inverse of this SST pattern, with ocean heat gain in the Atlantic/Indian, cooling in the southeastward-flowing ARC, and cooling in the Pacific, based on adjusted fluxes from the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE), a ?° eddy permitting model constrained to all available in situ data. This heat flux pattern is dominated by turbulent heat loss from the ocean (latent and sensible), proportional to perturbations in the difference between SST and surface air temperature, which are maintained by ocean advection. Locally in the Indian sector, intense heat loss along the ARC is contrasted by ocean heat gain of 0.11 PW south of the ARC. The IPCC AR5 50 year depth-averaged 0-700 m temperature trend shows surprising similarities in its spatial pattern, with upper ocean warming in the ARC contrasted by cooling to the south. Using diagnosed heat budget terms from the most recent (June 2014) 6-year run of the SOSE we find that surface cooling in the ARC is balanced by heating from south-eastward advection by the current whereas heat gain in the ACC is balanced by cooling due to northward Ekman transport driven by strong westerly winds. These results suggest that spatial patterns in multi-decadal upper ocean temperature trends depend on regional variations in upper ocean dynamics.

  6. Geology of the Eel River basin and adjacent region: Implications for late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and Mendocino triple junction

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.H. Jr. )

    1992-02-01

    Two upper Cenozoic depositional sequences of principally marine strata about 4,000 m thick overlie accreted basement terranes of the Central and Coastal belts of the Franciscan Complex in the onshore-offshore Eel River basin of northwestern California. The older depositional sequence is early to middle Miocene in age and represents slope basin and slope-blanket deposition, whereas the younger sequence, later Miocene to middle Pleistocene in age, consists largely of forearc basin deposits. Youthful tectonic activity related to Gorda-North American plate convergence indicates an active Cascadia subduction zone and strong partial coupling between these plates. Structures of the northeastern margin of the Eel River basin are principally north-northwest-trending, east-northeast-dipping thrust and reverse faults that form imbricate thrust fans. The Coastal belt fault, the early Tertiary accretionary suture between the Franciscan Central and Coastal belts, can be traced from Arcata Bay northward offshore to the southern Oregon border. It is tentatively extended farther northward based on aeromagnetic data to an offshore position west of Cape Blanco. Thereafter, it may coincide with the offshore Fulmar fault. The Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) does not join the Mendocino transform fault at the commonly depicted offshore location of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ). Instead, the CSZ extends southeastward around the southern Eel River basin and shoreward along Mendocino Canyon to join the Petrolia shear zone. Similarly, the Mendocino fault may extend shoreward via Mattole Canyon and join the Cooskie shear zone. These two shear zones intersect onshore north of the King Range, and the area of their intersection is the probable location of the MTJ.

  7. Influence of climate and land use in carbon biogeochemistry in lower reaches of rivers in central southern Chile: Implications for the carbonate system in river-influenced rocky shore environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Claudia A.; DeGrandpre, Michael D.; Lagos, Nelson A.; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Cascales, Emma-Karin; Vargas, Cristian A.

    2015-04-01

    Freshwater discharge affects the biogeochemistry of river-influenced nearshore environments by contributing with carbon and nutrients. An increase in human activities in river basins may alter the natural riverine nutrients and carbon export to coastal ecosystems. Along a wide latitudinal range (32°55'S-40°10'S), this study explores the role of climate and land use in determining the nutrient and carbon concentrations in the river mouth and fluxes to adjacent coastal areas. Between winter 2011 and fall 2012, we collected monthly samples in five river mouths in central southern Chile and at rocky shore sites affected by river plumes. Basins were characterized by different land uses and meteorological conditions along this latitudinal range. Water samples were collected for pH measurements, nutrients, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, particulate organic carbon, and isotopic signatures (?13C). Our results show a north-south gradient in concentrations of nutrients and carbon. The highest concentrations were observed in the Maipo basin, which presents the highest percentage of urban-industrial activities. Nutrients and carbon contributions, in most cases, were lowest in the southern Valdivia basin, which has the least human intervention and a greater percentage of vegetation. The Biobío River had the highest nutrient and carbon fluxes, in most cases, due to its high river discharge. Our results show the influence of river plume effects on carbon and nitrogen concentrations in river-influenced rocky shore sites. Moreover, our study suggests that land use might influence some parameters of carbonate system in rivers and river-influenced rocky shore environments. River-influenced rocky shore environments may exhibit suppression in aragonite saturation state with implications for calcifiers inhabiting these marine environments.

  8. Paleoclimatic implications of late quaternary lacustrine sediments in Western Nubia, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachur, Hans-Joachim; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    1991-11-01

    Owing to the hypercontinental location of Western Nubia, secular fluctuations of climate have been filtered and wet phases can be considered as representative of conditions throughout the southeastern Sahara. The study area is crossed by the 20-mm isohyet; between 9300 and about 4000 yr B.P., however, there were widespread lake and swamp environments with freshwater molluscs, ostracods, and diatoms, and a species-rich savanna mammal fauna. The center of the West Nubian Basin (approx. 18°N), an area of about 20,000 km 2, was occupied by a semiaquatic landscape which was situated at the same latitude as Paleolake Chad. From extensive lake carbonates up to about 4 m thick, a long-term rise of the groudwater table is inferred. Environments developed that now exist at about latitude 13°N. Radiocarbon dates from lake sediment sequences cluster between 30,000 and 21,000 yr B.P., indicating a Pleistocene wet phase. A gap in radiocarbon dates between 21,000 and 11,000 yr B.P. signals a phase of hyperaridity, similar to the present hyperarid phase, with eolian deflation and deposits of sand being the dominant forms of erosion and accumulation.

  9. A lithofacies terrain model for the Blantyre Region: Implications for the interpretation of palaeosavanna depositional systems and for environmental geology and economic geology in southern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, H. G.; Ludwig, R.-R.; Kathewera, A.; Mwenelupembe, J.

    2005-06-01

    The Blantyre City Area is part of the African savanna in southern Malawi. Sedimentological, geomorphological, chemical and mineralogical studies were conducted to create a lithofacies terrain model. The project involves mapping, cross-sectioning, grain size, heavy mineral analysis, XRD and the study of sedimentary textures under the petrographic microscope. These classical techniques were combined with GIS-based field and office works. The combined efforts led to 2-D maps and 3-D block diagrams that illustrate the geomorphological and sedimentological evolution of the landscape in southern Malawi during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The results obtained through integrated geomorphological-sedimentological studies form the basis for land management (planning of residential areas, waste disposal sites, assessment of bearing capacity of rocks), geohazard prediction (delineation of high risk zones in terms of mass flow and inundation) and the evaluation of high-place (ceramic raw materials) and high-unit value (placers of precious metals and gemstones) mineral commodities in the study area. The study addresses regional and general aspects alike. In regional terms, the study aimed at unraveling the evolution of landforms at the southern end of the East African Rift System during the most recent parts of the geological past. Four stages of peneplanation were established in the working area. Planation was active from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary (stage I: early to mid-Cretaceous, stage II: early Tertiary, stage III: early to mid-Tertiary, stage IV: mid- to late Tertiary). During the most recent parts of the Quaternary, strong fluvial incision was triggered by the base-level lowering of the Shire River. Geomorphological alteration of the landscape goes along with a phyllosilicate-sesquioxide transformation from minerals indicative of more acidic meteoric fluids (e.g., gibbsite, kaolinite) to those typical of more alkaline conditions (e.g. smectite, vermiculite, hydrobiotite). In addition, the investigation is to provide some characteristic features suitable for the recognition and interpretation of terrestrial environments resembling the present-day savanna in the ancient sedimentary record: Conspicuous bimodality in the grain-size distribution. High degree of gravel roundness. Boulder fields (basal conglomerates) with fitting breccias and no rotation of structural elements. Poor to very poor sorting of siliciclastics. Stratification is rare; if present only in sandy beds with antidune and tabular cross-bedding at low angle prevailing over cross-bedding at high angle. Grading rare; in arenaceous deposits poorly developed FU sequences, in rudites poorly developed CU sequences, locally with surface armoring. Directional sedimentary structures in coarse-grained deposits are unimodal. Fabric types: a(t)b(i) and a(p)b(i); shear planes indicative of slide may be present. Ribbon-shaped architectural elements prevail over channel-like types. Bounding surfaces/unconformities are uneven to wavy and more widespread than scour-and-pool structures. Fine-grained carbonaceous interbeds are restricted to shallow depressions. Etch marks such as tafonis, flutes, honeycomb textures are common. Placer deposits of metallic and non-metallic mineral commodities are abundant. Alucretes and ferricretes of bog iron (ferrihydrite > goethite) and lateritic (goethite > ferrihydrite) types are common, calcitic freshwater limestones and gypcretes are scarce. Kandite-group minerals "in" (relic), smectite-group minerals "in", vermiculite "in" (recent), mica-group minerals "out".

  10. Northern versus southern gateways control on ocean overturning circulation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition and possible implications to global cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelson, M.; Erez, J.

    2013-12-01

    There is a growing body of evidence indicating reorganization in the ocean overturning circulation during the transition from the Eocene to the Oligocene, in particular, the initiation of the northern-sourced overturning circulation that comprises the northern component water (NCW) and northward flowing intermediate water. This evidence includes Nd isotopes from the Southern Hemisphere, ?13C from intermediate water in the subtropical North Atlantic, and increasing difference in the benthic ?18O between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We compare all these sets of proxies and show that the increasing trends have been conjugated throughout most of the Oligocene indicating enhancement of the northern-sourced overturning circulation that began around the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT). This reorganization was attributed mainly to the development of the wind-driven Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC). Based on variety of geological inferences, we suggest that the shift to interhemispheric bipolar overturning circulation was initiated by buoyancy fluxes formed by the development of anti-estuarine circulation between the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic around the EOT, which significantly intensified the NCW. The Nordic anti-estuarine circulation began at a critical threshold during rapid tectonic subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) triggered by the suppression of the Iceland mantle plume. We show that the development of northern-sourced circulation cell during the Oligocene correlates compellingly with the histories of the GSR subsidence and the activity of the Iceland mantle plume, and to a lesser degree with the ACC history. Accordingly, this circulation was enhanced as long as the GSR subsided rapidly. The onset of the northern-sourced overturning circulation, which is the biologically productive circulation domain, has probably triggered the marked increase in the ocean productivity during the EOT. The relationship between the EOT climatic changes (?18O, CO2 proxies) and circulation proxies may suggest that growing rates of burial of organic carbon caused by the productivity increase could have triggered an accelerated decrease in atmospheric CO2, which in turn caused the cooling at the first stage of the EOT.

  11. Modeling the bloom evolution and carbon flows during SOIREE: Implications for future in situ iron-enrichments in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannon, E.; Boyd, P. W.; Silvoso, M.; Lancelot, C.

    The impact of a mesoscale in situ iron-enrichment experiment (SOIREE) on the planktonic ecosystem and biological pump in the Australasian-Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean was investigated through model simulations over a period of 60-d following an initial iron infusion. For this purpose we used a revised version of the biogeochemical SWAMCO model ( Lancelot et al., 2000), which describes the cycling of C, N, P, Si, Fe through aggregated chemical and biological components of the planktonic ecosystem in the high nitrate low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters of the Southern Ocean. Model runs were conducted for both the iron-fertilized waters and the surrounding HNLC waters, using in situ meteorological forcing. Validation was performed by comparing model predictions with observations recorded during the 13-d site occupation of SOIREE. Considerable agreement was found for the magnitude and temporal trends in most chemical and biological variables (the microbial food web excepted). Comparison of simulations run for 13- and 60-d showed that the effects of iron fertilization on the biota were incomplete over the 13-d monitoring of the SOIREE bloom. The model results indicate that after the vessel departed the SOIREE site there were further iron-mediated increases in properties such as phytoplankton biomass, production, export production, and uptake of atmospheric CO 2, which peaked 20-30 days after the initial iron infusion. Based on model simulations, the increase in net carbon production at the scale of the fertilized patch (assuming an area of 150 km2) was estimated to 9725 t C by day 60. Much of this production accumulated in the upper ocean, so that the predicted downward export of particulate organic carbon (POC) only represented 22% of the accumulated C in the upper ocean. Further model runs that implemented improved parameterization of diatom sedimentation (i.e. including iron-mediated diatom sinking rate, diatom chain-forming and aggregation) suggested that the downward POC flux predicted by the standard run might have been underestimated by a factor of up to 3. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the biological response to iron-enrichment at locales with different initial oceanographic conditions (such as mixed-layer depth) or using different iron fertilization strategies (single vs. pulsed additions) was conducted. The outcomes of this analysis offer insights in the design and location of future in situ iron-enrichments.

  12. Elemental and Sr Nd isotopic systematics of the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Peng, Touping; Guo, Feng

    2005-02-01

    Elemental and Sr Nd isotopic results are presented for the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence (~172 Ma) in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. The sequence is voluminously composed of ~45% subalkaline basaltic rocks (group 1), <5% high-mg andesite dacites (group 2) and ~50% rhyolites (group 3). The group 1 rocks are characterized by (La/Yb)cn = 3.8 7.2, Eu/Eu* = 0.65 1.15, Nb/La = 0.64 0.99, 87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.70602~0.70822 and ?Nd(t) = -1.63 to +0.11, similar to those of an EMII-like source. The group 2 rocks have mg=0.42~0.60, SiO2=60.24~66.71%, MgO=2.65~ 5.54%, Ni=24~102 ppm and Cr=84~266 ppm, classified as high-mg andesitic rocks. These rocks are more enriched in LILEs and LREE with more significant negative Eu anomaly (0.63~0.79), are more depleted in HFSEs with Nb/La ratios of 0.40 0.56 and have lower ?Nd(t) (-9.44 to -7.78) and higher 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.70985~0.71016), in comparison with the group 1 rocks. They most likely originated from metasomatised veins in the lithospheric mantle. The origination of the group 1 and group 2 magma suggests the development of a peridotite-plus-vein lithospheric mantle during early Mesozoic era beneath the interior of the Cathaysian block. The group 3 rhyolites are characterized by high SiO2 (72.75~77.97%), Zr (99~290 ppm), Hf (3.9~9.7 ppm) and Ga/Al (2.76~3.87) and significant Nb Ta, Ba Sr and P Ti depletions. These rhyolites exhibit Sr Nd isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.70962~0.71104, ?Nd(t) = -4.63 to -5.80) similar to the contemporaneous Zhaibei and Pitou A-type granites in the area. Such characteristics suggest that they might be derived from the underplating basaltic magma contaminated by crustal materials. Therefore, an early Mesozoic rifting model in response to intracontinental lithospheric extension is proposed to account for the early Mesozoic volcanism in southern Jiangxi Province, South China.

  13. 1.4 kyrs of flash flood events in the Southern European Alps: implications for extreme precipitation patterns and forcing over the north-western Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Sabatier, P.; Crouzet, C.; Brisset, E.; Guiter, F.; Reyss, J. L.; Chaumillon, E.; Tachikawa, K.; Bard, E.; Delannoy, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events trigger flash floods causing large human and economic losses. Their frequency and/or intensity are expected to increase in the context of global warming, especially in the Mediterranean region. However, the relationship between such events and past climate change remains difficult to assess. Indeed, the stochastic nature of extreme event occurrence precludes the identification of trends. This is reinforced by a lack in long-term instrumental data. It is hence essential to reconstruct long-term geological records of intense events to extend documented records beyond the observational data. This will enable a better understanding of local to regional flood hazard patterns in the context of global warming and hence improve predictive models. In the framework of Pygmalion research program, a multiproxy investigation of the Lake Allos (2230 m a.s.l., Southern French Alps) sediment sequence revealed the presence of 160 flood-triggered interbedded layers within a 1400-long sequence. Owing to sedimentary and geochemical characteristics and the frequent occurrence, such deposits were interpreted as the result of high-energy sediment inputs during intense torrential floods (i.e. flash-floods), related to extreme precipitation events. Furthermore the significant relationship between the thickness and the basal grain size of the graded beds allowed using the thickness as a proxy of the flood intensity. Trough the comparison with local historic flood reconstructions over the last 400 years, we argue that these flash floods were mostly triggered by autumnal meso-scale intense precipitation events. Since the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the absence of major change in erosion processes and local vegetation dynamics linked to anthropogenic impact led us to interpret the Allos flood record as the proxy for the occurrence of such extreme precipitation events over the last millennium. The frequency of Allos flash-flood events appeared consistent with the general moisture, the hydrology of large rivers and temperature patterns of the south-western European region, i.e. a low flood activity during the warm/dry MCA and conversely during the cold/wet Little Ice Age (LIA). At a sub-centennial scale, a high variability of the flood frequency is superimposed to the general increase during the LIA and appeared in phase with solar maximum. Moreover peaks of flood frequency seem to be correlated with negative autumnal NAO phases, in agreement with previous paleoflood reconstructions of Mediterranean Spanish rivers. Finally the comparison of flood frequency patterns from north-western Mediterranean sites suggests a 50-150 years oscillation mode, probably related to a NAO-like pattern, in two main NW Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns triggering extreme precipitations either over the Southern Alps or the Cevennes-Vivarais region.

  14. Early evolution of the southern margin of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Tectono-stratigraphic implications for rift evolution and exploration of hydrocarbon plays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, Leandro; Bilmes, Andrés; Franzese, Juan R.; Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Hernández, Mariano; Muravchik, Martín

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived rift basins are characterized by a complex structural and tectonic evolution. They present significant lateral and vertical stratigraphic variations that determine diverse basin-patterns at different timing, scale and location. These issues cause difficulties to establish facies models, correlations and stratal stacking patterns of the fault-related stratigraphy, specially when exploration of hydrocarbon plays proceeds on the subsurface of a basin. The present case study corresponds to the rift-successions of the Neuquén Basin. This basin formed in response to continental extension that took place at the western margin of Gondwana during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic. A tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the initial successions of the southern part of the Neuquén Basin was carried out. Three syn-rift sequences were determined. These syn-rift sequences were located in different extensional depocentres during the rifting phases. The specific periods of rifting show distinctly different structural and stratigraphic styles: from non-volcanic to volcanic successions and/or from continental to marine sedimentation. The results were compared with surface and subsurface interpretations performed for other depocentres of the basin, devising an integrated rifting scheme for the whole basin. The more accepted tectono-stratigraphic scheme that assumes the deposits of the first marine transgression (Cuyo Cycle) as indicative of the onset of a post-rift phase is reconsidered. In the southern part of the basin, the marine deposits (lower Cuyo Cycle) were integrated into the syn-rift phase, implying the existence of different tectonic signatures for Cuyo Cycle along the basin. The rift climax becomes younger from north to south along the basin. The post-rift initiation followed the diachronic ending of the main syn-rift phase throughout the Neuquén Basin. Thus, initiation of the post-rift stage started in the north and proceeded towards the south, constituting a diachronous post-rift event. This arrangement implies that the lower part of Cuyo Cycle, traditionally related to regional thermal subsidence, may be deposited during either mechanical subsidence or thermal subsidence according to its position within the basin.

  15. Surface exposure chronology of the Waimakariri glacial sequence in the Southern Alps of New Zealand: Implications for MIS-2 ice extent and LGM glacial mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Henrik; Shulmeister, James; Fink, David; Alexander, David; Bell, David

    2015-11-01

    During the late Quaternary, the Southern Alps of New Zealand experienced multiple episodes of glaciation with large piedmont glaciers reaching the coastal plains in the west and expanding into the eastern alpine forelands. Here, we present a new 10Be exposure age chronology for a moraine sequence in the Waimakariri Valley (N-Canterbury), which has long been used as a reference record for correlating glacial events across New Zealand and the wider Southern Hemisphere. Our data indicate that the Waimakariri glacier reached its maximum last glaciation extent prior to ?26 ka well before the global last glaciation maximum (LGM). This was followed by a gradual reduction in ice volume and the abandonment of the innermost LGM moraines at about 17.5 ka. Significantly, we find that during its maximum extent, the Waimakariri glacier overflowed the Avoca Plateau, previously believed to represent a mid-Pleistocene glacial surface (i.e. MIS 8). At the same time, the glacier extended to a position downstream of the Waimakariri Gorge, some 15 km beyond the previously mapped LGM ice limit. We use a simple steady-state mass balance model to test the sensitivity of past glacial accumulation to various climatic parameters, and to evaluate possible climate scenarios capable of generating the ice volume required to reach the full local-LGM extent. Model outcomes indicate that under New Zealand's oceanic setting, a cooling of 5 °C, assuming modern precipitation levels, or a cooling of 6.5 °C, assuming a one third reduction in precipitation, would suffice to drive the Waimakariri glacier to the eastern alpine forelands (Canterbury Plains). Our findings demonstrate that the scale of LGM glaciation in the Waimakariri Valley and adjacent major catchments, both in terms of ice volume and downvalley ice extent, has been significantly underestimated. Our observation that high-lying glacial surfaces, so far believed to represent much older glacial episodes, were glaciated during the LGM, challenges the conventional geomorphic model of glaciation in New Zealand where the vertical arrangement of glacial landform-associations is used to assign successively older glaciation ages.

  16. Tectonic geomorphology and paleoseismology of strike-slip faults in Jamaica: Implications for distribution of strain and seismic hazard along the southern edge of the Gonave microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, R. D.; Mann, P.; Brown, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The east-west, left lateral strike-slip fault system forming the southern edge of the Gonave microplate crosses the110-km-long and 70-km-wide island of Jamaica. GPS measurements in the northeastern Caribbean are supportive of the microplate interpretation and indicate that ~ half of the Caribbean-North America left-lateral plate motion (8-14 mm/yr) is carried by the Plantain Garden (PGFZ) and associated faults in Jamaica. We performed Neotectonic mapping of the Plantain Garden fault along the southern rangefront of the Blue Mountains and conducted a paleoseismic study of the fault at Morant River. Between Holland Bay and Morant River, the fault is characterized by a steep, faceted, linear mountain front, prominent linear valleys and depressions, shutter ridges, and springs. At the eastern end of the island, the PGFZ is characterized by a left-stepping fault geometry that includes a major, active hot spring. The river cut exposure at Morant River exposes a 1.5-m-wide, sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and faulted Cretaceous basement rocks. This section is overlain by an, unfaulted 3-m-thick fluvial terrace inset into a late Pleistocene terrace that is culturally modified. Upward fault terminations indicate the occurrence of three paleoearthquakes that occurred prior to deposition of the flat lying inset terrace around 341-628 cal yr BP. At this time, our radiocarbon results suggest that we can rule out the PGFZ as the source of the 1907 Kingston earthquake 102 years ago, as well as, the 1692 event that destroyed Port Royal 317 years ago and produced a major landslide at Yallahs. Pending OSL ages will constrain the age of the penultimate and most recent ruptures. Gently to steeply dipping rocks as young as Pliocene exposed in roadcuts within the low coastal hills south of and parallel to the Plantain Garden fault may indicate active folding and blind thrust faulting. These structures are poorly characterized and may accommodate an unknown amount of oblique strain. Reconnaissance mapping was also performed along the South Coast fault in south-central Jamaica north of Portland Ridge, and along the Crawle River-Rio Minho fault near Frankfield in the Central Inlier. The absence of fault scarps or other tectonic geomorphic features across fluvial terraces of the Milk and Minho Rivers indicate that the South Coast fault has not been active in Holocene time. Left laterally offset streams, linear valleys, and saddles support active faulting along the east-west Crawle River-Rio Minho fault that is roughly collinear with the western extension of the Plantain Garden fault.

  17. Habitat overlap between southern bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna in the east coast longline fishery - implications for present and future spatial management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartog, Jason R.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Matear, Richard; Feng, Ming

    2011-03-01

    Southern bluefin tuna (SBT) are presently a quota-managed species in the multi-species eastern Australian tuna and billfish longline fishery (ETBF). Capture of SBT is regulated by quota, as is access to regions likely to contain SBT. A habitat prediction model combining data from an ocean model and pop-up satellite archival tags is used to define habitat zones based on the probability of SBT occurrence. These habitat zones are used by fishery managers to restrict access by ETBF fishers to SBT habitat during a May-November management season. The zones display a distinct seasonal cycle driven by the seasonal southward expansion and northward contraction of the East Australia Current (EAC) and as a result access by fishers to particular ocean regions changes seasonally. This species also overlaps with the commercially valuable yellowfin tuna (YFT), thus, we modified the SBT model to generate YFT habitat predictions in order to investigate habitat overlap between SBT and YFT. There is seasonal variation in the overlap of the core habitat between these two species, with overlap early (May-Jul) in the management season and habitat separation occurring towards the end (Aug-Nov). The EAC is one of the fastest warming ocean regions in the southern hemisphere. To consider the future change in distribution of these two species compared to the present and to explore the potential impact on fishers and managers of the future, we use future ocean predictions from the CSIRO Bluelink ocean model for the year 2064 to generate habitat predictions. As the ocean warms on the east coast of Australia and the EAC extends southward, our model predicts the suitable habitat for SBT and YFT will move further south. There was an increase in the overlap of SBT and YFT habitat throughout the management season, due to regional variation of each species' habitat. These results illustrate that a management tradeoff exists between restricting fisher access to SBT habitat and allowing access to YFT habitat. We suggest that some options to address this tradeoff are possible by identifying the seasonal variability of the overlap.

  18. Pharmaceutical representatives' beliefs and practices about their professional practice: a study in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Idris, K M; Mustafa, A F; Yousif, M A

    2012-08-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives are an important promotional tool for pharmaceutical companies. This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to determine pharmaceutical representatives' beliefs and practices about their professional practice in Sudan. A random sample of 160 pharmaceutical representatives were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The majority were male (84.4%) and had received training in professional sales skills (86.3%) and about the products being promoted (82.5%). Only 65.6% agreed that they provided full and balanced information about products. Not providing balanced information was attributed by 23.1% to doctors' lack of time. However, 28.1% confessed they sometimes felt like hiding unfavourable information, 21.9% were sometimes or always inclined to give untrue information to make sales and 66.9% considered free gifts as ethically acceptable. More attention is needed to dissemination of ethical codes of conduct and training about the ethics of drug promotion for pharmaceutical representatives in Sudan. PMID:23057370

  19. The Sr and Nd isotopic variations of the southern Japan Sea sediments over the past 48 ka: Implications for terrigenous sediment provenance and East Asian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, XueFa; Zhu, Aimei

    2015-04-01

    143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the acid-insoluble residues of the fine-grained sediments (<63?m) of core KCES1 collected from the Ulleung Basin (southern Japan Sea) were investigated. The Sr isotopic compositions of the sediments range between 0.718-0.723 with an average value of 0.72. ?Nd values vary from -10.12 to -12.03 with an average vaule of -11.02. Temporal distributions of the Sr and Nd isotopes of the sediments showed higher Sr isotope ratios and lower Nd isotope ratios during the Holocene, increasing trends of Sr and Nd isotope ratios during the last deglaciation and relatively stable Sr and Nd isotope ratios during the last glacial periods. The downcore variations in Sr and Nd isotopic compositions indicate climatically induced changes in sediment provenance from two isotopically distinct end-members: Yangtze River and Chinese Loess Plateau. Sediments deposited after 8 ka were supplied mainly from the Yang River, while before 8 ka the eolian input contributed much to the sediments. The rapid change in sediment source is closely related to the evolution of East Asian Monsoon and sea level. Acknowledgements: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41476056, 41206059) and by Basic Scientific Fund for National Public Research Institutes of China (No. 2012G31, GY0213G23).

  20. Regional variations in upper mantle compressional velocities beneath southern California 1. Post-shock temperatures: Their experimental determination, calculation, and implications, 2.. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raikes, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    The compressional velocity within the upper mantle beneath Southern California is investigated through observations of the dependence of teleseismic P-delays at all stations of the array on the distance and azimuth to the event. The variation of residuals with azimuth was found to be as large as 1.3 sec at a single station; the delays were stable as a function of time, and no evidence was found for temporal velocity variations related to seismic activity in the area. These delays were used in the construction of models for the upper mantle P-velocity structure to depths of 150 km, both by ray tracing and inversion techniques. The models exhibit considerable lateral heterogeneity including a region of low velocity beneath the Imperial Valley, and regions of increased velocity beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Transverse Ranges. The development is described of a technique for the experimental determination of post-shock temperatures, and its application to several metals and silicates shocked to pressures in the range 5 to 30 GPa. The technique utilizes an infra-red radiation detector to determine the brightness temperature of the free surface of the sample after the shock wave has passed through it.

  1. Abrupt turnover in calcareous-nannoplankton assemblages across the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum: implications for surface-water oligotrophy over the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Shijun; Wise, Sherwood W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core Section 183-1135A-25R-4 from the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean represents only the second complete, expanded sequence through the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55 Ma) recovered from Antarctic waters. Calcareous nannoplankton at this site underwent an abrupt, fundamental turnover across the PETM as defined by a carbon isotope excursion. Although Chiasmolithus, Discoaster, and Fasciculithus exponentially increase in abundance at the onset, the former abruptly drops but then rapidly recovers, whereas the latter two taxa show opposite trends due to surface-water oligotrophy. These observations confirm previous results from ODP Site 690 on Maud Rise. The elevated pCO2 that accompanied the PETM caused a shoaling of the lysocline and carbonate compensation depth, leading to intensive dissolution of susceptible holococcoliths and poor preservation of the assemblages. Similarities and contrasts between the results of this study and previous work from open-ocean sites and shelf margins further demonstrate that the response to the PETM was consistent in open-ocean environments, but could be localized on continental shelves where nutrient regimes depend on the local geologic setting and oceanographic conditions.

  2. Isotopic composition of a calcite-cemented layer in the Lower Jurassic Bridport Sands, southern England: Implications for formation of laterally extensive calcite-cemented layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerkum, P.A. ); Walderhaug, O. )

    1993-07-01

    [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] and [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values have been measured on 107 calcite cement samples from a laterally extensive (> 3 km) and continuous calcite-cemented layer 0.5 m thick in the coastal exposures of the Lower Jurassic shallow-marine Bridport Sands in Dorset, southern England. The samples were taken from a two-dimensional grid with 10-cm horizontal and vertical spacing between samples and along individual vertical lines across the calcite-cemented layer, [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values vary between [minus]4.8% and [minus]9.2% and decrease radially outwards from points with lateral spacings on the order of 0.5-1 m in the middle of the calcite-cemented layer. The [delta][sup 18]O[sub PDB] values therefore indicate that the calcite-cemented layer was formed by merging of concretions. All [delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB] values measured are in the narrow range [minus]2.2% to [minus]0.5%, which suggests that the dominant source of calcite cement in the layer was biogenic carbonate.

  3. Miocene tectono-stratigraphic history of La Mision basin, northwestern Baja California: implications for early tectonic development of southern California continental borderland

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.R.; Minch, J.

    1988-03-01

    The middle Miocene La Mision basin in northwestern Baja California, Mexico, provides a rare opportunity to study an onshore portion of the southern California continental borderland. Stratigraphy, geometry of dispersal, and a variety of lithotypes within the volcanic and volcaniclastic sediments of the Rosarito Beach Formation provide clues to the nature of early tectonic evolution of this area during the Miocene. The elongated, trough-shaped La Mision basin formed in response to peninsular basement uplifts and the formation of volcanic highlands west of the present coastline. Lithologies and depositional environments represented within the basin sediments include: subaerial basalt flows and airfall tuffs, submarine muddy- and sandy-matrix mudflow breccias, lapilli tuffs, crystal tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones,d diatomites, and conglomerates. The environments of deposition range from fluvatile to intertidal to shallow marine. Early basin infilling is characterized by sediments and basalts, with a western source terrane, that were deposited against the faulted seacliffs. progressive infilling against the seacliff resulted in the formation of an extensive eastward-sloping basaltic platform extending eastward to the foothill coastal belt of the Peninsular Ranges. Marine transgression and subsequent regression are recorded by diverse marine volcaniclastic lithologies. Abundant fossils, K-Ar dates, and paleomagnetic data obtained from the La Mision basin allow precise correlation with other areas in the continental borderland and provide conclusive evidence that this block of the borderland was formed and in its present position by 16-14 Ma.

  4. Paleogene propagation of the southern Pyrenean thrust wedge revealed by finite strain analysis in frontal thrust sheets: Implications for mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyghe, D.; Mouthereau, F.; Castelltort, S.; Filleaudeau, P. Y.; Emmanuel, L.

    2009-11-01

    To better evaluate the sequence of shortening and estimate shortening rates associated with the propagation of the southern Pyrenean front, we propose an original approach based on the reconstruction of finite displacement and finite vertical-axis rotations. This study is based on the quantitative analysis of published datasets including balanced cross-sections, paleomagnetic and thermochronologic data. We distinguish three main episodes of shortening between 41 and 37 Ma, 37 and 30 Ma and between 30 and 16 Ma. They are associated with a decrease of accretionary rates from ~ 3 km/Ma to 0.39 ± 0.27 km/Ma on the pro-wedge side of the Pyrenean orogenic wedge. Based on the comparison between frontal accretionary flux and outcoming fluxes in the Axial Zone of the Pyrenees, we show that the period ranging from 37 to 30 Ma recorded a remarkable increase in erosion that is not compensated by accretion in the wedge. In the context of the overall decrease in the Iberia/Eurasia plate convergence, we suggest that the main cause of the acceleration of erosion on top of the growing Pyrenean orogen is related to climate changes that occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary.

  5. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero; Aro, Arja R

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan. Methods This was a cross sectional study of 197 women diagnosed with different stages of cervical cancer. Data was obtained from the cancer registry unit at the Radiation and Isotopes Centre in Khartoum for all women diagnosed with cervical cancer in 2007. Results There was an association between older age and advanced stage (at diagnosis) of cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.05). Being of African ethnicity was associated with 76% increased odds (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.01–3.05), living in a rural area was associated with 13% increased odds (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.78–5.50), and being uninsured was associated with an almost eight-fold increase in odds (OR: 7.7, 95% CI: 3.76–15.38). Marital status and education level were not associated with an advanced stage of cervical cancer at diagnosis. Conclusion Women with cervical cancer who are elderly, not covered by health insurance, of African ethnicity, and living in a rural area are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage of cervical cancer in Sudan. These women should be targeted for cervical cancer screening and a health education program, and encouraged to have health insurance. PMID:22140326

  6. Integrated vector management: a critical strategy for combating vector-borne diseases in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Integrated vector management (IVM) based vector control is encouraged by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, operational experience with the IVM strategy has mostly come from countries with relatively well-established health systems and with malaria control focused programmes. Little is known about deployment of IVM for combating multiple vector-borne diseases in post-emergency settings, where delivery structures are less developed or absent. This manuscript reports on the feasibility of operational IVM for combating vector-borne diseases in South Sudan. Case description A methodical review of published and unpublished documents on vector-borne diseases for South Sudan was conducted via systematic literature search of online electronic databases, Google Scholar, PubMed and WHO, using a combination of search terms. Additional, non-peer reviewed literature was examined for information related to the subject. Discussion South Sudan is among the heartlands of vector-borne diseases in the world, characterized by enormous infrastructure, human and financial resource constraints and a weak health system against an increasing number of refugees, returnees and internally displaced people. The presence of a multiplicity of vector-borne diseases in this post-conflict situation presents a unique opportunity to explore the potential of a rational IVM strategy for multiple disease control and optimize limited resource utilization, while maximizing the benefits and providing a model for countries in a similar situation. Conclusion The potential of integrating vector-borne disease control is enormous in South Sudan. However, strengthened coordination, intersectoral collaboration and institutional and technical capacity for entomological monitoring and evaluation, including enforcement of appropriate legislation are crucial. PMID:24156749

  7. Table 1. Energy value of various grains compared to prairie, sorghum-sudan, alfalfa, and mixed hay.* Amount of hay that can be replaced by 1 pound of grain

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    Table 1. Energy value of various grains compared to prairie, sorghum-sudan, alfalfa, and mixed hay.* Amount of hay that can be replaced by 1 pound of grain Grain TDN Prairie hay Sorghum-sudan Alfalfa hay

  8. Linking Satellite Derived Land Surface Temperature with Cholera: A Case Study for South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaach, H. S. V.; Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    A sudden onset of cholera in South Sudan, in April 2014 in Northern Bari in Juba town resulted in more than 400 cholera cases after four weeks of initial outbreak with a case of fatality rate of CFR 5.4%. The total number of reported cholera cases for the period of April to July, 2014 were 5,141 including 114 deaths. With the limited efficacy of cholera vaccines, it is necessary to develop mechanisms to predict cholera occurrence and thereafter devise intervention strategies for mitigating impacts of the disease. Hydroclimatic processes, primarily precipitation and air temperature are related to epidemic and episodic outbreak of cholera. However, due to coarse resolution of both datasets, it is not possible to precisely locate the geographical location of disease. Here, using Land Surface Temperature (LST) from MODIS sensors, we have developed an algorithm to identify regions susceptible for cholera. Conditions for occurrence of cholera were detectable at least one month in advance in South Sudan and were statistically sensitive to hydroclimatic anomalies of land surface and air temperature, and precipitation. Our results indicate significant spatial and temporal averaging required to infer usable information from LST over South Sudan. Preliminary results that geographically location of cholera outbreak was identifiable within 1km resolution of the LST data.

  9. Long Return Periods for Earthquakes in San Gorgonio Pass and Implications for Large Ruptures of the San Andreas Fault in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yule, J.; McBurnett, P.; Ramzan, S.

    2011-12-01

    The largest discontinuity in the surface trace of the San Andreas fault occurs in southern California at San Gorgonio Pass. Here, San Andreas motion moves through a 20 km-wide compressive stepover on the dextral-oblique-slip thrust system known as the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone. This thrust-dominated system is thought to rupture during very large San Andreas events that also involve strike-slip fault segments north and south of the Pass region. A wealth of paleoseismic data document that the San Andreas fault segments on either side of the Pass, in the San Bernardino/Mojave Desert and Coachella Valley regions, rupture on average every ~100 yrs and ~200 yrs, respectively. In contrast, we report here a notably longer return period for ruptures of the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone. For example, features exposed in trenches at the Cabezon site reveal that the most recent earthquake occurred 600-700 yrs ago (this and other ages reported here are constrained by C-14 calibrated ages from charcoal). The rupture at Cabezon broke a 10 m-wide zone of east-west striking thrusts and produced a >2 m-high scarp. Slip during this event is estimated to be >4.5 m. Evidence for a penultimate event was not uncovered but presumably lies beneath ~1000 yr-old strata at the base of the trenches. In Millard Canyon, 5 km to the west of Cabezon, the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone splits into two splays. The northern splay is expressed by 2.5 ± 0.7 m and 5.0 ± 0.7 m scarps in alluvial terraces constrained to be ~1300 and ~2500 yrs old, respectively. The scarp on the younger, low terrace postdates terrace abandonment ~1300 yrs ago and probably correlates with the 600-700 yr-old event at Cabezon, though we cannot rule out that a different event produced the northern Millard scarp. Trenches excavated in the low terrace reveal growth folding and secondary faulting and clear evidence for a penultimate event ~1350-1450 yrs ago, during alluvial deposition prior to the abandonment of the low terrace. Subtle evidence for a third event is poorly constrained by age data to have occurred between 1600 and 2500 yrs ago. The southern splay at Millard Canyon forms a 1.5 ± 0.1 m scarp in an alluvial terrace that is inset into the lowest terrace at the northern Millard site, and therefore must be < ~1300 yrs old. Slip on this fault probably occurred during the most recent rupture in the Pass. In summary, we think that the most recent earthquake occurred 600-700 yrs ago and generated ~6 m of slip on the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone. The evidence for two older earthquakes is less complete but suggests that they are similar in style and magnitude to the most recent event. The available data therefore suggest that the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone has produced three large (~6 m) events in the last ~2000 yrs, a return period of ~700 yrs assuming that the next rupture is imminent. We prefer a model whereby a majority of San Andreas fault ruptures end as they approach the Pass region from the north or the south (like the Wrightwood event of A.D. 1812 and possibly the Coachella Valley event of ~A.D. 1680). Relatively rare (once-per-millennia?), through-going San Andreas events break the San Gorgonio Pass fault zone and produce the region's largest earthquakes.

  10. C. 1.5 Ga metamorphism of the Lazdijai 13 volcano-sedimentary sequence in southern Lithuania: its origin and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siliauskas, Laurynas; Skridlaite, Grazina

    2015-04-01

    The concealed crystalline crust in the SW East European Craton consists of several domains finally accreted at 1.8-1.70 Ga (Bogdanova et al., 2014). However, some geological structures in the Lithuanian basement are still poorly reconstructed because of insufficient isotopic and geochemical data. Such is the Lazdijai 13 (Lz13) volcano-sedimentary sequence in southern Lithuania, preliminary dated at 1.83-1.80 Ga (U-Pb zircon age). The newly obtained monazite analyses (EPMA dating, Cameca SX-100 electron microprobe, Warsaw University) allowed dating of metamorphism of the Lz13 rocks. The 300 m thick Lz13 sequence is composed of deformed and metamorphosed volcanics, volcano-clastics and sediments, cross-cut by pegmatite and quartz veins. The upper part of the drilling (at c. 493 m) consists of exhalitic quartz chlorite cherts and metaandesitic rocks. They are underlain by medium-fine grained shists composed of quartz, biotite, garnet, cordierite, staurolite, minor plagioclase, K-feldspar, magnetite and monazite (felsic volcanics, 540 m) that were metamorphosed at 580° C and 6 kbar (garnet, biotite, cordierite geothermobarometry). Monazites are small, interstitial, fragmented and dissolved, some found as inclusions in magnetite. They yielded three ages: 1685±25 Ma, 1525±11Ma, and 1448±24 Ma. Another layer of a fine grained shist (quartz, biotite, garnet, K-feldspar, muscovite, 599 m) of sedimentary origin contains zircons and monazites arranged in thin, undulating lines. The monazites are small, interstitial, partly dissolved, in places overgrown by alanite aggregates. They yielded 1671±29 Ma and 1523±17 Ma ages. Below, at 757 m, a strongly deformed shist composed of quartz, biotite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, garnet and cordierite (former sediment) was metamorphosed at 498° C and 5.4 kbar (garnet, biotite, plagioclase and muscovite geothermobarometry). It contains very small, strongly dissolved and locally overgrown by alanite, monazite grains. Three of them were dated at 1629±48 Ma and 1499±21 Ma. The 1685-1629 Ma ages were obtained from relic domains in the c 1.5 Ga monazites. These domains might be the relics of magmatic monazites, somewhat older than 1.69 Ga. The largest monazite group of c. 1530-1500 Ma seems to record a major metamorphic event. The c. 1450 Ma age might indicate a cooling or lead loss as in case of the oldest monazites. According to the previously obtained data, the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Lz13 might have been formed in a back arc tectonic setting c. 1.83-1.80 Ga ago. The new data shows that the rocks did not experience any stronger metamorphic reworking until c. 1.5 Ga. The nearby AMCG charnockites and host rocks were metamorphosed at 1.53-1.50 Ga (Skridlaite et al., 2008). The metamorphism might have been caused by the intrusion of the 1.54-1.50 Ga AMCG Mazury suite in N Poland and S Lithuania. The Mesoproterozoic AMCG magmatism and metamorphism in Lithuania as well as in Poland may be regarded as inboard manifestations of the accretionary Danopolonian orogeny (Bogdanova, 2008) at the present southern margin of ProtoBaltica. This is a contribution to the Open Access Centre activities Bogdanova, S.V. et al., 2008, Precambrian Research, 160, 23-45. Bogdanova, S., et al., 2014, Precambrian Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2014.11.023 Skridlaite, et al., 2008. Gondwana Research, 14, 663-674.

  11. 10Be and U-series dating of late Quaternary landforms along the southern San Jacinto fault: Implications for temporal slip rate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blisniuk, K.; Oskin, M. E.; Fletcher, K.; Sharp, W. D.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2009-12-01

    Robust age control on faulted landforms with well-constrained offsets is essential to documenting the heterogeneous behavior of a fault zone over time. However, showing late Quaternary temporal slip rate variation is often challenging due to the difficultly of obtaining reliable ages for Quaternary deposits. Exposure ages from cosmogenic isotopes can be significantly affected by surface processes, and U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate provides only minimum ages because carbonate accumulation occurs after deposition. Fortunately, the controlling factors for the resulting age uncertainties of each method are relatively independent from each other, so a combination of cosmogenic isotope and U-series dating may significantly improve the reliability of landform dating and yield more robust slip rate estimates. We present preliminary results of this dual-dating approach at 4 sites along the southern San Jacinto fault zone in California: 2 sites along the Coyote Creek fault, and 2 sites along the Clark fault. These results show age agreement between the two dating methods. Along the southern Clark fault, a 10Be depth profile model age of 34.5 ±6.6 ka and a U-series age of 33.2 ±1.1 ka were obtained for an offset Q2b fan surface, and a Q3b surface yielded a weighted mean 10Be surface exposure age of 5.9 ±1.5 ka, similar to an U-series age of 6.3 ±0.4 ka. Along the northern Coyote Creek fault, preliminary data indicate a 10Be surface exposure age of 11.3 ±3.4 ka and a U-series age of 11.7 ±1.8 ka for an offset Q3a surface, and a 10Be surface exposure age of 6.9 ±1.0 ka and a U-series age of 7.8 ± 0.9 ka for an offset Q3b surface. The remarkable consistency among ages from the two dating methods suggest that: (1) U-series ages of pedogenic carbonate clast rinds closely approach depositional ages of the host alluvium; (2) erosion may be negligible at the sampled sites; and (3) inherited 10Be has been accurately quantified (via depth profile) for the late Pleistocene deposits, and is negligible for Holocene fans. In general, our results show that, in an arid setting where post-depositional processes are limited and multiple dating techniques can be applied, reliable ages may be obtained to yield robust slip rates across and along fault zones. Preliminary slip-rate results from these sites imply that slip rates may have varied significantly over the late Quaternary, with an ~2x increase since ~8-6 kyr.

  12. Cyclostratigraphy of an orbitally-driven Tithonian-Valanginian carbonate ramp succession, Southern Mendoza, Argentina: Implications for the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Neuquén Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietzmann, Diego A.; Palma, Ricardo M.; Iglesia Llanos, Maria Paula

    2015-01-01

    Detailed sedimentological, sequence stratigraphical and cyclostratigraphical analyses have been made from four lower Tithonian-lower Valanginian sections of the Vaca Muerta Formation, exposed in the southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina. The Vaca Muerta Formation is characterized by decimetre-scale rhythmic alternations of marls, shales and limestones, and consists of five facies associations, which reflect different paleoenvironmental conditions: basin to restricted outer ramp, outer ramp, and middle ramp. Vertical organization within the Vaca Muerta Formation shows a well-ordered hierarchy of cycles, where elementary cycles, bundles and superbundles with frequencies within the Milankovitch band have been recognized. According to biostratigraphic data, elementary cycles have a periodicity of ~ 20 ky, which correlates with the precession cycle of Earth's axis. Spectral analysis based on series of cycle thickness allows us to identify frequencies of about 400 ky and 90-120 ky, which we interpret as the modulation of the precessional cycle by the Earth's orbital eccentricity. Cycles are probably driven by variations in carbonate exportation, as fluctuations in shallow-water carbonate production involve modifications in carbonate basinward exportation. Cyclostratigraphic data allowed us to build a floating orbital scale for the Tithonian-lower Valanginian interval in the Neuquén Basin. Correlation between studied sections allowed us to recognize a discontinuity between the Substeueroceras koeneni and Argentiniceras noduliferum ammonite zones in the Malargüe Anticline area. Orbital calibration of these sections is consistent with Riccardi's biostratigraphic scheme, wich place the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary within the Substeueroceras koeneni ammonite Zone. On the other hand, the base of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Virgatosphinctes mendozanus ammonite Zone) would be probably placed in the base of the middle Tithonian rather than the lower Tithonian, which is also consistent with our preliminary palaeomagnetic data.

  13. Mineralogy and geochemistry of pseudogley soils and recent alluvial clastic sediments in the Ngog-Lituba region, Southern Cameroon: An implication to their genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndjigui, Paul-Désiré; Ebah Abeng, Sandrine Appolonie; Ekomane, Emile; Nzeukou, Aubin Nzeugang; Ngo Mandeng, Francine Sidonie; Matoy Lindjeck, Marthe

    2015-08-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical investigations have been done on the hydromorphic clays (pseudogley soils and recent alluvial clastic sediments) in the Sanaga Maritime region (Southern Cameroon). Pseudogley soils are developed on gneisses from the Yaoundé Group. They have a dark brown to greyish brown color, with silty clay texture. Their mineral assemblage is made up of kaolinite, goethite, quartz, smectite, rutile, muscovite-illite and feldspars. The alluvial clastic sediments are characterized by variable colors (purple yellow, greenish, dark brown and purple brown) and sandy clay to clay texture. The mineral assemblage of alluvial clays is similar to that of pseudogley soils. SEM observations confirm the presence of kaolinite, smectite, quartz and muscovite-illite. Infrared data show that kaolinite is more orderly in pseudogley than in the alluvial clastic sediments. The Ngog-Lituba gneisses have moderate contents in SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O and several trace elements including REE. High element depletion is noticed in the pseudogley soils except Cr, V, Zr, Pb and REE. However, the alluvial clays are marked by a strong mobilization of LILE (Na, K, Ba, Rb and Sr) and REE, relative to the parent rock and pseudogley soils. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns are homogenous and parallel with Ce-anomalies. The (La/Yb)N shows that the REE fractionation increase from the parent rock to the alluvial clastic sediments. The mineralogical and geochemical features show that the clastic river sediments are derived from the erosion of the neighboring pseudogley materials before hydraulic sorting.

  14. Basin geometry and cumulative offsets in the Eastern Transverse Ranges, southern California: Implications for transrotational deformation along the San Andreas fault system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Powell, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Eastern Transverse Ranges, adjacent to and southeast of the big left bend of the San Andreas fault, southern California, form a crustal block that has rotated clockwise in response to dextral shear within the San Andreas system. Previous studies have indicated a discrepancy between the measured magnitudes of left slip on through-going east-striking fault zones of the Eastern Transverse Ranges and those predicted by simple geometric models using paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations of basalts distributed along the faults. To assess the magnitude and source of this discrepancy, we apply new gravity and magnetic data in combination with geologic data to better constrain cumulative fault offsets and to define basin structure for the block between the Pinto Mountain and Chiriaco fault zones. Estimates of offset from using the length of pull-apart basins developed within left-stepping strands of the sinistral faults are consistent with those derived by matching offset magnetic anomalies and bedrock patterns, indicating a cumulative offset of at most ???40 km. The upper limit of displacements constrained by the geophysical and geologic data overlaps with the lower limit of those predicted at the 95% confidence level by models of conservative slip located on margins of rigid rotating blocks and the clockwise rotation of the paleomagnetic vectors. Any discrepancy is likely resolved by internal deformation within the blocks, such as intense deformation adjacent to the San Andreas fault (that can account for the absence of basins there as predicted by rigid-block models) and linkage via subsidiary faults between the main faults. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  15. Genesis of an esker-like ridge over the southern Fraser Plateau, British Columbia: Implications for paleo-ice sheet reconstruction based on geomorphic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Andrew J.; Brennand, Tracy A.; Burke, Matthew J.

    2013-05-01

    Robust interpretations of meltwater systems operating during ice sheet decay are integral to reconstructing deglacial patterns and style. Yet over reliance on meltwater landform morphology with limited attention to morpho-sedimentary relationships, and basin-scale geomorphic and stratigraphic context can lead to unreliable geomorphic inversion-based paleo-ice sheet reconstructions. This problem is illustrated by the evolution of Young Lake esker-like ridge (YLER) formed in the Young Lake basin (YLB) on BC's southern Fraser Plateau during decay of the last Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS). We integrate data from digital elevation models, aerial photographs, sedimentary outcrops, water wells and shallow geophysics (ground-penetrating radar, electrical resistivity tomography). Previous interpretations of YLER as both an esker and an ice-contact, poorly-sorted, stratified deposit emplaced by westerly flowing meltwater, imply an eastward retreating ice margin. Geophysical data from a flat-topped component of YLER reveal slipface and planar-bedded sand and gravel overlying lacustrine sediments, characteristic of a Hjulstrom delta. Eastward-dipping foresets in a Gilbert delta exist at the eastern terminus. Contextually our observations suggest, despite esker-like morphology, YLER was not deposited within a subglacial ice tunnel. Instead, it formed through deposition of subaerial outwash between and/or on dead ice in front of a regionally backwasting ice margin. The complex deglacial evolution of YLB, including a drainage reversal and formation of two glacial lakes, supports northwestward backwasting of the CIS and dead ice within YLB. We conclude that accurate geomorphic inversion of meltwater landforms for deglacial paleo-ice sheet reconstruction requires knowledge of landform-scale morpho-sedimentary relationships and basin-scale geomorphic and stratigraphic context.

  16. Age and composition of Archean crystalline rocks from the southern Madison Range, Montana. Implications for crustal evolution in the Wyoming craton

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.A.; Shuster, R.D. ); Wooden, J.L. ); Erslev, E.A. ); Bowes, D.R. )

    1993-04-01

    The southern Madison Range of southwestern Montana contains two distinct Precambrian lithologic assemblages: (1) a complex of tonalitic to granitic gneisses that has been thrust over (2) a medium-grade metasupracrustal sequence dominated by pelitic schist. Crystallization ages for the protolith of a granodioritic gneiss that intruded the metasupracrustal sequence ([approximately]2.6 Ga)-along with an intercalated meta-andesite ([approximately]2.7 Ga) confirm the sequence as Archean. Chemical (major and trace element), isotopic (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb), and geochronologic (U-Pb zircon) data for selected components of the gneiss complex indicate two groups of gneisses: an older, tonalitic to trondhjemitic group ([approximately]3.3 Ga) and a younger, mostly granitic group ([approximately]2.7 Ga). Both groups of gneisses exhibit the radiogenic Pb and nonradiogenic Nd isotopic signature characteristic of Middle and Late Archean rocks from throughout the Wyoming province. The older gneisses, in particular, appear to be compositionally, isotopically, and chronologically comparable to other Middle Archean gneisses from the northern part of the province (for example, Beartooth Mountains). The Late Archean gneisses, however, exhibit some distinct differences relative to their temporal counterparts, including (1) trace-element patterns that are more suggestive of crustal melts than subduction activity and (2) higher initial Sr isotopic ratios that suggest more involvement of older crust in their petrogenesis. These comparisons suggest that the juxtaposition of Late Archean terranes in the northern Wyoming province was the result, at least in part, of intracratonic processes. 41 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Petrology and geochemistry of primitive lower oceanic crust from Pito Deep: Implications for the accretion of the lower crust at the Southern East Pacific Rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perk, N.W.; Coogan, L.A.; Karson, J.A.; Klein, E.M.; Hanna, H.D.

    2007-01-01

    A suite of samples collected from the uppermost part of the plutonic section of the oceanic crust formed at the southern East Pacific Rise and exposed at the Pito Deep has been examined. These rocks were sampled in situ by ROV and lie beneath a complete upper crustal section providing geological context. This is only the second area (after the Hess Deep) in which a substantial depth into the plutonic complex formed at the East Pacific Rise has been sampled in situ and reveals significant spatial heterogeneity in the plutonic complex. In contrast to the uppermost plutonic rocks at Hess Deep, the rocks studied here are generally primitive with olivine forsterite contents mainly between 85 and 88 and including many troctolites. The melt that the majority of the samples crystallized from was aggregated normal mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). Despite this high Mg# clinopyroxene is common despite model predictions that clinopyroxene should not reach the liquidus early during low-pressure crystallization of MORB. Stochastic modeling of melt crystallisation at various levels in the crust suggests that it is unlikely that a significant melt mass crystallized in the deeper crust (for example in sills) because this would lead to more evolved shallow level plutonic rocks. Similar to the upper plutonic section at Hess Deep, and in the Oman ophiolite, many samples show a steeply dipping, axis-parallel, magmatic fabric. This suggests that vertical magmatic flow is an important process in the upper part of the seismic low velocity zone beneath fast-spreading ridges. We suggest that both temporal and spatial (along-axis) variability in the magmatic and hydrothermal systems can explain the differences observed between the Hess Deep and Pito Deep plutonics. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  18. A 250,000-year record of lunette dune accumulation on the Southern High Plains, USA and implications for past climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Julie

    2013-02-01

    A concentration of lake/playa basins occurs on the Southern High Plains (SHP) of northwest Texas and eastern New Mexico. Associated with these lake/playas are lee-side lunettes positioned on their southeast margins ranging in height from 1.5 to >10 m. An OSL dating program was applied to 30 samples from lunettes associated with large lakes and small playa basins. Samples were extracted from trenched dune sections or from deep cores. Earlier SHP lunette investigations show depositional ages primarily in the late Wisconsin and Holocene. This research extends the timing of lunette accretion to the middle Pleistocene, the earliest recorded deposition for these features. The expanded chronology permitted investigation into dune morphology on nested lunettes built on contracting lake margins. Outer lunettes formed prior to inner dunes, but simultaneous deposition occurred on downwind ridges as younger lee-side dunes were constructed. Large lake lunettes were inactive during discreet SHP pluvial episodes from early Wisconsin to LGM. Conversely, these lunettes accreted when climatic conditions promoted basin desiccation and aeolian deflation. This suggests their mode of formation contrasts with lunette models recognized for other regions. From post LGM to earliest Holocene, active lunette accretion occurred from 16 to 11 ka followed by a significant period of lunette construction during the mid-Holocene. Late Holocene-lunette deposition was interrupted by intervals of landscape stability. Lunette deposition between 1300s and 1700s corresponds with drought intervals recognized in tree-ring records from adjacent regions. Recent lunette activity on the plateau is contemporary with the 1930's 'dust bowl'. Further insight into SHP response to changing climatic conditions was given by comparing lunette depositional events with previous investigations on sedimentation intervals for draws, lake/playa basins, and sand sheets.

  19. Leafcutter Bee Nests and Pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: Implications for Understanding the Paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Anna R.; Koch, Jonathan B.; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M.; Hall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ?23,000–40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum ?21,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the broad ecological niche of M. gentilis appears to have remained stable. PMID:24718701

  20. Determination of Sudan I in paprika powder by molecularly imprinted polymers-thin layer chromatography-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Hu, Yaxi; Chen, Da; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Grant, Edward; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-10-01

    Sudan I is a carcinogenic and mutagenic azo-compound that has been utilized as a common adulterant in spice and spice blends to impart a desirable red color to foods. A novel biosensor combining molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), thin layer chromatography (TLC) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) could determine Sudan I levels in paprika powder to 1 ppm (or 2 ng/spot). Sudan I spiked paprika extracts (spiking levels: 0, 1, 5, 10, 40, 70 and 100 ppm) were prepared. Sudan I imprinted polymers were synthesized by employing the interaction between Sudan I (template) and methacrylic acid (functional monomer), followed by washing to remove Sudan I leaving the Sudan I-binding sites exposed. MIPs were used as a stationary phase for TLC and could selectively retain Sudan I at the original spot with little interference. A gold colloid SERS substrate could enhance Raman intensity for Sudan I in this MIP-TLC system. Principal component analysis plot and partial least squares regression (R(2)=0.978) models were constructed and a linear regression model (R(2)=0.983) correlated spiking levels (5, 10, 40, 70 and 100 ppm) with the peak intensities (721 cm(-1)) of Sudan I SERS spectra. Both separation (30-40s) and detection (1s or 0.1s) were extremely fast by using both commercial bench-top and custom made portable Raman spectrometers. This biosensor can be applied as a rapid, low-cost and reliable tool for screening Sudan I adulteration in foods. PMID:26078169

  1. Low-grade metamorphism in the eastern Southern Alps: Distribution, conditions, timing and implications for the tectonics of the Alps and NW Dinarides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann; Friedl, Getrude

    2014-05-01

    Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of newly-grown syntectonic metamorphic white mica (sericite), we recognize for the first time the timing of Alpine low-grade metamorphism in the eastern part of the Southalpine unit: (1) A Silurian phyllite of Seeberg inlier located to the south of the Periadriatic fault yields a plateau age at c. 75 Ma suggesting a Late Cretaceous age of previously recognized low-grade (Rantitsch & Rainer, 2003) metamorphism. (2) Within the Tolmin nappe, four sericite plateau ages of mainly Middle Triassic volcanics are at c. 51 Ma (Early Eocene). The Late Cretaceous age in the Seeberg inlier is considered to record ductile deformation during formation of a retro-wedge related to the Eo-Alpine orogeny in the Austroalpine units in the Eastern Alps exposed north of the future Periadriatic fault. The Eocene age at the boundary of very low-grade to low-grade metamorphism in the Tolmin nappe (Rainer et al., 2009) relates to the emplacement of the Southalpine nappe complex onto the Dinarides and is contemporaneous with the initial ductile deformation in the Dinarides during Adria-directed shortening and formation of a siliciclastic flysch belt in front of the SW-directed growing fold-thrust belt (Placer, 2008). Similar rare Late Cretaceous and dominant Eocene ages within post-Variscan units are virtually more widespread in the Southalpine unit and Dinarides as considered before. These regions include the Collio basin (Feijth, 2002) and the Eder unit (Läufer et al., 1996) in the western and central Southern Alps, in the internal NW Dinarides (Borojevi? Šoštari? et al., 2012) and the Mid Bosnian Schist Mountains (Pami? et al., 2004) and Lim Paleozoic unit in the central Dinarides (Ilic et al., submitted). Consequently, the Southalpine unit and Dinarides were affected by two stages of metamorphism, Late Cretaceous (ca. 80 to 75 Ma) and Eocene (ca. 51 - 40 Ma), both stages are related to back-thrusting. The ages of metamorphism are different from those in the main body of the Alpine orogen exposed north of the E-trending Periadriatic fault. In previous interpretations, the eastern Southalpine unit was considered to differ in many respects from Alpine units north of the Periadriatic fault including (1) no Alpine metamorphic overprint and, therefore, (2) also no Alpine ductile deformation in contrast to amphibolite- and even eclogite- grade metamorphism (ca. 100 - 85 Ma) in Austroalpine units north of the fault, and by (3) S- to SW-, Adria-directed vergency of the deformation of mostly Eocene to Neogene age in contrast to all units basically directed to the north and northwest, towards the stable European plate. The Southalpine unit is considered as back-thrust of the Middle-Late Eocene plate collision between Stable Europe and the Alpine thrust wedge (Doglioni & Bosellini, 1987). The new data from the eastern part of the Southalpine unit challenge this view and imply a steadily but slowly growing Adria-directed thrust wedge between Maastrichtian and Early Eocene times. Acknowledement: The work has been supported by the Austrian Science Fund (project no. 22,110). References Borojevi? Šoštari?, S. Neubauer, F., Handler, R., Palinkaš, L. A., 2012. Variscan vs. Alpine tectonothermal events in NW-Dinarides: constraints from 40Ar/39Ar dating. Geologica Carpathica, 63, 441-452. Doglioni, C., Bosellini, A., 1987. Eoalpine and mesoalpine tectonics in the Southern Alps. Geologische Rundschaus, 76, 735-754. Feijth, J., 2002. Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonometamorphic development and geochronology of the Orobic chain (Southern Alps, Lombardy, Italy). PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Berlin, 136 p. Ili?, A., Neubauer, F., Handler, R. (submitted). Formation of a structural dome due to transpression: The Lim unit in Central Dinarides. Journal of Structural Geology. Läufer, A.L., Frisch, W., Steinitz, G., Loeschke, J., 1997. Exhumed fault-bounded Alpine blocks along the Periadriatic lineament: the Eder unit (Carnic Alps, Austria). Geologische Rundschau, 86, 612-626. P

  2. Southern Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schueler, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses results of a Green Index, published by the Institute for Southern Studies, that ranks the 50 states on the basis of 256 environmental indicators. Explores how and why the deep South states are all at the bottom of the list. A vignette provides a comparison between state hazardous waste generation and spending on waste management. (MCO)

  3. 3D numerical modelling of the Holocene evolution of One Tree Reef, Southern Great Barrier Reef: Implications for understanding the growth and architecture of coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S. J.; Webster, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Holocene reefs in the outer Great Barrier Reef (GBR) represent a thin veneer (10-30 m) built upon an older basement substrate reef surface. The morphology, stratigraphy and maturity (i.e. degree of sediment infilling - Hopley, 1982) of the modern reefs is thought to result from the interplay between the shape of the basement substrate, Holocene reef processes such as coralgal accretion, sediment erosion and transport in response to sea level rise. We use the 3D forward stratigraphic model CARBONATE-3D (CARB3D) to quantitatively simulate the Holocene evolution of One Tree Reef. Specifically, we test the influence of different basement substrate surfaces, sea level curves, reef accretion rates, sediment erosion and transport parameters to assess their relative importance in controlling reef evolution - particularly reef growth histories, 3D internal structure and stratigraphy and reef maturity. The range of parameters tested produced the full spectrum of reef maturities from unfilled "juvenile" buckets to planar "senile" reefs with sediment filled lagoons. We find that the shape and depth of the basement substrate and the sea level curve have the strongest influence - significantly impacting reef evolution and final maturity including the shape of the "bucket", size of the reef margins and internal reef structure. In contrast, variations in sediment production, erosion and transport mainly controlled the degree of lagoonal sediment filling. This study has implications for better understanding the past evolution of the GBR but also constraining the possible trajectories of the reef in the face of future environmental changes.

  4. Ages and origins of rocks of the Killingworth dome, south-central Connecticut: Implications for the tectonic evolution of southern New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Wintsch, R.P.; Tollo, R.P.; Unruh, D.M.; Fanning, C.M.; Schmitz, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Killingworth dome of south-central Connecticut occurs at the southern end of the Bronson Hill belt. It is composed of tonalitic and trondhjemitic orthogneisses (Killingworth complex) and bimodal metavolcanic rocks (Middletown complex) that display calc-alkaline affinities. Orthogneisses of the Killingworth complex (Boulder Lake gneiss, 456 ?? 6 Ma; Pond Meadow gneiss, ???460 Ma) were emplaced at about the same time as eruption and deposition of volcanic-sedimentary rocks of the Middletown complex (Middletown Formation, 449 ?? 4 Ma; Higganum gneiss, 459 ?? 4 Ma). Hidden Lake gneiss (339 ?? 3 Ma) occurs as a pluton in the core of the Killingworth dome, and, on the basis of geochemical and isotopic data, is included in the Killingworth complex. Pb and Nd isotopic data suggest that the Pond Meadow, Boulder Lake, and Hidden Lake gneisses (Killingworth complex) resulted from mixing of Neoproterozoic Gander terrane sources (high 207Pb/204Pb and intermediate ??Nd) and less radiogenic (low 207Pb/204Pb and low ??Nd) components, whereas Middletown Formation and Higganum gneiss (Middletown complex) were derived from mixtures of Gander basement and primitive (low 207Pb/204Pb and high ??Nd) sources. The less radiogenic component for the Killingworth complex is similar in isotopic composition to material from Laurentian (Grenville) crust. However, because published paleomagnetic and paleontologic data indicate that the Gander terrane is peri-Gondwanan in origin, the isotopic signature of Killingworth complex rocks probably was derived from Gander basement that contained detritus from non-Laurentian sources such as Amazonia, Baltica, or Oaxaquia. We suggest that the Killingworth complex formed above an east-dipping subduction zone on the west margin of the Gander terrane, whereas the Middletown complex formed to the east in a back-arc rift environment. Subsequent shortening, associated with the assembly of Pangea in the Carboniferous, resulted in Gander cover terranes over the Avalon terrane in the west; and in the Middletown complex over the Killingworth complex in the east. Despite similarities of emplacement age, structural setting, and geographic continuity of the Killingworth dome with Oliverian domes in central and northern New England, new and published isotopic data suggest that the Killingworth and Middletown complexes were derived from Gander crust, and are not part of the Bronson Hill arc that was derived from Laurentian crust. The trace of the Ordovician Iapetan suture (the Red Indian line) between rocks of Laurentian and Ganderian origin probably extends from Southwestern New Hampshire west of the Pelham dome of northcentral Massachusetts and is coverd by Mesozoic rocks of the Hartford basin.

  5. Late Quaternary incision rates in the Vésubie catchment area (Southern French Alps) from in situ-produced 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide dating: Tectonic and climatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saillard, Marianne; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Zerathe, Swann; Revel, Marie; Jourdon, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    We have estimated recent river incision rates using the in situ-produced 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. The target site consists of a ~25 m high vertical profile along a polished river cliff located in Jurassic limestones in the Vésubie catchment area, in the southern French Alps. The 36Cl exposure ages of the sampled river polished surface range from 3 to 14 ka, i.e., after the Last Glacial Maximum. Our data suggest as a first approximation a linear age/height relationship and lead to a mean incision rate of 2.2 mm a-1 over the last 14 ka. More precisely, incision rates are characterized by two peaks reaching ~2 and 4-5 mm a-1 at 4-5 ka and 11-12 ka, respectively, separated by a period experiencing a lower incision rate (~1 mm a-1). A chi-plot of the river longitudinal profile suggests that on the long term, the river is close to equilibrium conditions with a concavity index of 0.475. The evolution of the Vésubie River longitudinal profile over a time period of 2 Ma based on the stream power law of river incision was then modeled with varying erodibility coefficients and uplift rates ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm a-1. The best fitting models yield erodibility coefficient values ranging from 2.5 to 9.0 × 10-6 m-0.475 a-1 for the considered uplift rates. For long-term uplift rates lower than 2 mm a-1, an increase of the erodibility coefficient during the last 16 ka, with two peaks at 11-12 and 4-5 ka, is necessary to precisely match the observed incision rates and is interpreted as resulting from recent climatic changes. These variations do not strongly affect the general shape of the river profile and suggest that the measured short-term incision rate is dominated by a climatic signal, which does not preclude the possible role of tectonic uplift.

  6. Total and incremental left-lateral displacement across the East Gobi Fault Zone, southern Mongolia: Implications for timing and modes of polyphase intracontinental deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heumann, Matthew J.; Johnson, Cari L.; Webb, Laura E.; Taylor, Joshua P.; Jalbaa, Undarya; Minjin, Chuluun

    2014-04-01

    The East Gobi Fault Zone (EGFZ) is a dominant structural feature in southeastern Mongolia. The EGFZ's protracted history includes at least five distinct deformation events occurring over the last 250 million years. Two of these phases are marked by left-lateral motion, but the total and incremental displacement history is poorly known. A better understanding of the displacement history across the EGFZ is required to place its Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution within the larger context of central Asian tectonics, including evaluating the EGFZ's possible role as an intracontinental extrusion feature. This study presents analysis of sedimentary and igneous rocks as proposed offset markers on either side of the EGFZ. New geochronologic data, integrated with existing structural and stratigraphic data, are used to characterize and quantify two periods of left-lateral displacement along the EGFZ. The slip history of the EGFZ includes a total of ?250-300 km of left-lateral displacement. Approximately 150-200 km of slip occurred along a major shear zone during the Late Triassic (?225-210 Ma), based on restoration of Carboniferous intrusive suites and Permian remnant ocean basin deposits. During this first period of left-lateral displacement, the EGFZ acted as a continental extrusion feature responding to oblique collision between the South and North China Blocks and northern Mongolia and Siberia, an event analogous to the later India-Asia collision during the Cenozoic. A second period of ?90-100 km of left-lateral slip occurred in the Late Oligocene, based on offset of Lower Cretaceous strata and cross-cutting relationships. This brittle deformation phase was contemporaneous with dynamic boundary conditions along the Pacific margin, and the Indo-Asia collision. Cenozoic movement along the EGFZ may have coincided kinematically with the Altyn Tagh Fault in China via dispersed fault zones in the Alxa region. Major displacement along the EGFZ likely ceased in the early Miocene, coincident with changing relative plate motions at the Pacific margin. Magnitudes of Cenozoic offset across the EGFZ are significantly smaller than estimated for the Altyn Tagh Fault, which likely reflects distributed deformation in heterogeneous crust of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt.

  7. Mineralogical and microfabric characteristics of magnetite in the Wuyang Precambrian BIFs, southern North China Craton: Implications for genesis and depositional processes of the associated BIFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Yang, Zhijun; Kapsiotis, Argyrios; Zhou, Yongzhang; He, Junguo; Wang, Changle; Liang, Jin

    2014-11-01

    Precambrian Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) are widely distributed in the North China Craton (NCC). Among them, the Wuyang BIFs located in the southern margin of NCC occur in the Late Archaean Tieshanmiao Formation and can be subdivided in two different sub-types: (i) quartz-magnetite BIFs (QMB), consisting of magnetite, fine-microcrystalline quartz and minor calcite and (ii) pyroxene-magnetite BIFs (PMB), composed of pyroxene, fine-microcrystalline quartz and subordinate feldspars. Both sub-types display apparent discrepancies in terms of petrography and mineral composition. As shown in Electron BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD) images and micrographs, magnetite grains from the QMB range in size from tens up to hundreds of ?m, whereas magnetite crystals from the PMB can be up to a few tens of ?m across. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) structural data indicate that magnetite from both BIF sub-types is equiaxed (cubic) and was generated by sedimentary metamorphic processes. The cell parameters of magnetite in the QMB are a = b = c = 8.396 Å and Z = 8, which deviate slightly from these of magnetite in the PMB: a = b = c = 8.394 Å and Z = 8. The analytical results of Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed micro-structural signatures of both magnetite (Raman shifts near 552 cm-1 and 673 cm-1) and hematite (Raman shifts near 227 cm-1, 295 cm-1 and 413 cm-1). In magnetite from both QMB and PMB, the crystallinity degree is similar for magnetite micro-structures but varies significantly for hematite micro-structures. Oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions fluctuated during the recrystallization of magnetite in the QMB, whereas no evident variation of fO2 occurred during the formation of magnetite in the PMB. Analytical results of laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) show that the Si, Al and Mg abundances are higher in magnetite from the QMB, whereas the Ti and Mn contents are more elevated in magnetite from the PMB. Magnetite composition also denotes that both BIF sub-types are sedimentary-metamorphic origin, whereas the deposition of PMB was also affected by volcanic activities. Overall data indicate that the differences in the depositional environment of each BIF sub-type are due to the involvement of volcanic eruption processes in the genesis of the PMB. Thus, this paper indicated that the QMB was deposited by chemical deposition at the long-term interval of volcanic eruptions, and the PMB were the product of chemical deposition affected by the volcanic eruption.

  8. Vegetation and geomorphic significance of the riparian greenline in the Sprague River basin, southern Oregon: implications for biogeomorphic monitoring of riparian corridors in semi-arid mountain valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, M. L.; Leeseberg, C.

    2009-12-01

    Like many regions in the western U.S., valley-floor environments of the semi-arid Sprague River basin of southern Oregon are heavily irrigated and widely grazed by cattle. To better understand the impacts of grazing and other land uses on river quality, the Klamath Tribes have begun a long-term, basin-wide program aimed at: (1) establishing baseline geomorphic and vegetative conditions along the Sprague River and its tributaries, and (2) monitoring changes in these conditions over time. Because of its widespread use and ease of application, determining the composition of the lowest line of perennial vegetation above baseflow, or the “greenline,” has been included. The goal of this paper is to summarize results of 38 greenline surveys conducted at 19 sites in 2008-9 and to explore geomorphic hypotheses that may explain vegetation patterns evident in the surveys. Spikerush (Eleocharis ssp.) and reed-canary grass (Phalaris arudinacea) were the most commonly occurring vegetation in the greenline across all sites. Because these species are aggressive colonizers, they indicate high availability of fresh alluvium, which may be associated with sustained channel-bank disturbance. Sedges dominated some portions of the greenline at most of the sites, but occurred in less abundance. The late successional or early-to-late transitional state of these sedges, combined with their relatively low frequency, further supports the hypothesis that channel-bank systems remain chronically disturbed and dynamic. Grazing is common, but variable in intensity, at nearly all of the study sites, likely contributing to the persistence of channel-bank disturbance. Among meandering channels, the richness of dominant species (i.e., “community diversity”) was higher on the outer bends than on the inner bends of meanders at 10 of 12 sites. The variability of geomorphic surfaces (old floodplain, new floodplain, failed bank, accreted toe, etc.) incorporated in the greenline by the spatially discontinuous processes of channel-bank erosion and failure on the outer meander bends appears to increase the types of habitats surveyed and their combined biodiversity. In contrast, the spatial continuity of bar accretion on the inner meander bends appears to result in a more uniform geomorphic setting with fewer dominant species in the greenline. Despite widespread recognition that geomorphic processes influence riparian vegetation, factors such as the type and severity of bank erosion, the location of the survey with respect to meander geometry, and the type of geomorphic surface underlying greenline observations are not explicitly included in published guidance for biogeomorphic monitoring of the riparian greenline. Inclusion of such factors would improve communication, study design, and application of research by fluvial geomorphologists, riparian ecologists, and resource managers utilizing the greenline methodology.

  9. Implication of the southern Tethyan Himalaya (Sutlej section, India) for the extrusion of the Higher Himalaya and the geometry of the mid-crustal channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Soumyajit

    2013-04-01

    In the last three years, various combinations of channel flow and critical taper mechanisms have been suggested as plausible mechanism for the extrusion of the Higher Himalaya (HH, Beaumont and Jamieson 2010; Chambers et al., 2011; Larson et al., 2011; Corrie et al., 2012; Long et al. 2012; Mukherjee, in press). An alternate and rather less popular model of the HH has been southward droop of the northern boundary of the HH viz. the 'South Tibetan Detachment System-Upper (STDSU)' (Exner et al. 2006). Had the later been true, drag folds with southward vergence would be expected immediately north of the STDSU. In a SW to NE traverse from Morang up to Spillo along the Sutlej river valley (Himachal Pradesh, India), such folds do occur within the southern part of the Tethyan Himalaya. On close observation, the primary shear planes of top-to~S shear are overturned by folds with broad rounded hinges and with ~ NE dipping axial planes and limbs. The shear sense indicated by the sigmoid fabrics matches with the asymmetry of the folds. Northward from Spillo, large-scale folds (antiforms) with down-dip extensional shear in both limbs indicate 'irregular' doming of the Tethyan sediments. One of the best exposures of this shear sense that could be deciphered even from a distance is where the National Highway 22 running along the river valley joins the road to Nasang village. Below the Tethyan sediments, a mid-crustal sub-horizontal channel is widely accepted to allow the Higher Himalayan rock materials to flow from beneath south Tibet. Much north of Spillo, the Leo Pargil granite-gneiss dome has been suggested as an exposure of the channel materials. Thus, this work suggests (i) flap of the STDSU might have triggered the extrusion of the HH; and (ii) doming of a part of the Tethyan Himalaya could be due to the rise of low-density hot, partially molten rocks through the sub-horizontal channel. This would imply that the upper boundary of the sub-horizontal channel was flexible rather than rigid. Following Mancktelow (2008), the viscosity ratio between the mid-crustal material and that of the surrounding Tethyan sediments might be > 10-7.Taking the viscosity of the mid-crustal material as 1018-1019 Pa s, that for the Tethyan schists are loosely constrained as < 1025 to 1026 Pa s. This matches the viscosity values (between 500-700 0C: 1018-1019 Pa s) given for schists by Landholt-Bornstein (1982).

  10. Benthic Epiphytic Diatoms in Deep-sea Southern Ocean Sediments as a New Tool for Reconstructing Antarctic Paleoclimatic and Paleoceanographic History: Implications of Floating 'Macroalgal Biotic Oases'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, D. M.; Porter, N.; OConnell, S.

    2014-12-01

    A new paleobiological proxy for Antarctic paleoclimate history provides insight into past extent of open marine shelves on Wilkes Land margin, and calls for reassessment of IRD interpretations in the deep-sea. Marine, epiphytic benthic diatoms that grow attached to macroalgae (seaweed) are recovered in Miocene sediment from DSDP Site 269. They suggest periodic presence of floating rafts or 'biotic oases' in the Southern Ocean comprising buoyant macroalgae, attached benthic diatoms, and biota associated with this displaced coastal community. Macroalgae attach to the substrate with a holdfast, a multi-fingered structure that serves as an anchor. Uprooted holdfasts attached to buoyant macroalgae can raft sedimentary particles, some large (>50 kg), into the deep-sea. In addition, a rich biota of associated invertebrates live in cavities within the holdfast, the dispersal of which may explain the biogeographic distribution of organisms on Subantarctic islands. The stratigraphic occurrence of large, benthic epiphytic diatoms of genera Arachnoidiscus, Isthmia, Rhabdonema, Gephyra, Trigonium, and smaller Achnanthes, Cocconeis, Grammatophora, and Rhaphoneis in sediment cores from DSDP Site 269 reflect a rich, productive epiphytic diatom flora that maintained its position in the photic zone attached to their buoyant seaweed hosts. Amphipods and other herbivores grazed the benthic diatoms and produced diatom-rich fecal pellets that were delivered to the sea-floor. The discontinuous stratigraphic occurrence of the epiphytic diatoms, amongst the background of planktonic diatoms in Core 9 of DSDP Site 269, suggests environmental changes induced by either warm or cold events may have controlled the production and/or release of the macroalgae into the deep-sea. Warm events led to increased shelf areas, and cold events led to formation of ice on the macroalgae to increase their buoyancy and lift-off. Complicating the distinction between warm and cold events is the potential for the transport of sediment within the holdfast, biologically-rafted-debris (BRD). Identifying the abundance and provenance of the terrigeneous sediment may help to distinguish the climate and source-area signal of this complex relationship and refine the use of epiphytic diatoms as a paleoclimate and stratigraphic tool.

  11. Ages, durations and behavioural implications of Middle Stone Age industries in southern Africa: advances in optical dating of individual grains of quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Z.

    2009-04-01

    Recent developments in OSL dating have focussed on the measurement of individual sand-sized grains of quartz. Single-grain dating allows the identification of contaminant grains in a sample and their exclusion before final age determination, and the ability to directly check the stratigraphic integrity of archaeological sequences and address concerns about post-deposition sediment mixing. These benefits result in single-grain OSL ages being both accurate and precise. Even greater precision can be attained by adopting a systematic approach to the collection and analysis of OSL data. This involves one operator using the same OSL stimulation and detection instrument, laboratory radiation sources, calibration standards, and analytical procedures for all samples. By holding these experimental parameters constant, sources of error common to all samples are removed, enabling far greater resolution of the true age structure. This approach was recently used to determine the timing and duration of two bursts of Middle Stone Age technological and behavioural innovation - the Still Bay (SB) and Howieson's Poort (HP) - in southern Africa. These distinctive artefacts are associated with the first evidence for symbols and personal ornaments, and may have been the catalyst for the expansion of Homo sapiens populations in Africa 80,000-60,000 years ago and for the subsequent migration of modern humans out of Africa. Testing such hypotheses, and the putative role of climate change, has been hampered by poor age constraints for the HP and SB industries. Previous attempts to resolve the start and end dates of these industries had been largely obscured by the chronological' haze' arising from a variety of different materials being dated by different methods using different equipment, calibration standards, measurement procedures and techniques of data analysis. By clearing this haze and placing all ages on a common timescale, we were able to constrain the timing of the SB and HP, and the gap between them, to better than 3000 years at the 95% confidence interval. Both industries occur within the interval of population expansions in Africa inferred from genetic studies. A meta-analysis shows that our new ages are consistent with previous estimates but are more precise, revealing a lack of spatial patterning of the HP and SB across varied climatic and ecological zones. We find a temporal coincidence with major swings in climate, but not uniquely with these industries. Environmental factors may, therefore, have been responsible for episodic occupation of rock shelters, but were not the forcing mechanism behind the emergence of modern human behaviour.

  12. A 400-kyr record of millennial-scale carbonate preservation events in the Southern Ocean: Implications for Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, D. A.; Vautravers, M. J.; Barker, S.; Charles, C.; Crowhurst, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hodell et al. (2001) suggested that carbonate preservation in the deep Cape Basin represented a qualitative, high-resolution record of the temporal evolution of the carbonate saturation state of the deep sea. The carbonate signal reflects both transient events in the redistribution of alkalinity and DIC in the deep ocean and steady-state mass balance processes. Here we re-analyzed the carbonate records of Sites 1089/TN057-21 using an Avaatech XRF core scanner and measured elemental variations at 2.5-mm resolution for the past 400 kyrs. Log Ca/Ti is highly correlated to weight percent carbonate content and other dissolution proxies and resolves millennial-scale events in carbonate preservation. A high-pass filter removes the low-frequency (orbital) variability in carbonate preservation, which is attributed mainly to steady-state mass balance processes. The high-frequency (suborbital) component reflects transient responses to the redistribution of carbonate ion that is related mainly to changing deep-water circulation. During the last glacial period, distinct millennial-scale increases in carbonate preservation in piston core TN057-21 occurred during times of enhanced Atlantic Meridional Overtunring Circulation (AMOC) (Barker et al., 2010; Barker and Diz, 2014), as supported by increases in benthic ?13C and less radiogenic ?Nd values. Carbonate preservation peaked particularly during long, warm interstadials in Greenland when a deep water mass with high carbonate ion concentration was formed in the North Atlantic. Export of NADW may have been greater than the Holocene during some of these events ("overshoots") and/or preformed carbonate ion concentrations in North Atlantic source areas may have been higher owing to lower atmospheric CO2 and less carbonate production in surface water. Each South Atlantic carbonate peak is associated with the start of Antarctic cooling and declining or leveling of atmospheric CO2, reflecting the signature of a thermal bipolar seesaw. The increased flux of carbonate ion to the Southern Ocean during strong interstadials may have played a role in titrating respiratory CO2, thereby slowing CO2 degassing to the atmosphere and providing a secondary mechanism, in addition to heat transport, for interhemispheric coupling on millennial time scales.

  13. Quantifying recreational shore angling catch and harvest in southern Portugal (north-east Atlantic Ocean): implications for conservation and integrated fisheries management.

    PubMed

    Veiga, P; Ribeiro, J; Gonçalves, J M S; Erzini, K

    2010-06-01

    Recreational shore fishing along 250 km of the south and south-west coast of Portugal was studied based on roving creel and aerial surveys. Surveys were conducted between August 2006 and July 2007, following a stratified random-sampling design and provided information on catch and effort, harvest and discards, angler demographics and fishing habits. Overall, 192 roving creel surveys, 24 aerial surveys and 1321 interviews were conducted. Based on the aerial surveys, a mean +/-s.e. total fishing effort of 705,236 +/- 32,765 angler h year(-1) was estimated, corresponding to 166,430 +/- 9792 fishing trips year(-1). Average time spent per fishing trip was 4.7 h. A total of 48 species, belonging to 22 families, were recorded in roving creel surveys. The most important species was Diplodus sargus, accounting for 44% of the total catches by number and 48% by mass. Estimated mean +/-s.e. total annual recreational shore fishing catch was 160.2 +/- 12.6 t year(-1) (788,049 +/- 54,079 fishes year(-1)), of which 147.4 +/- 11.9 t year(-1) (589,132 +/- 42,360 fishes year(-1)) was retained. Although overall shore-based recreational catches only corresponded to 0.8% of the commercial landings (only common species considered), D. sargus catches by recreational shore anglers were considerable, corresponding to 65% of the commercial landings. The implications of these results for integrated fisheries management and conservation are discussed, and future research proposed. PMID:20557660

  14. Psychosocial effects of war experiences among displaced children in southern Darfur.

    PubMed

    Morgos, Dorothy; Worden, J William; Gupta, Leila

    This study focused on assessing the psychosocial effects of the long standing, high intensity, and guerrilla-style of warfare among displaced children in Southern Darfur. The goal was to better understand the etiology, prognosis, and treatment implications for traumatic reactions, depression, and grief symptoms in this population. Three hundred thirty-one children aged 6-17 from three IDP Camps were selected using a quota sampling approach and were administered a Demographic Questionnaire, Child Post Traumatic Stress Reaction Index, Child Depression Inventory, and the Expanded Grief Inventory. Forty-three percent were girls and 57% were boys. The mean age of the children was 12 years. Results found that children were exposed to a very large number of war experiences with no significant differences between genders for types of exposure, including rape, but with older children (13-17 years) facing a larger number of exposures than younger children (6-12 years). Out of the 16 possible war experiences, the mean number was 8.94 (SD = 3.27). Seventy-five percent of the children met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, and 38% exhibited clinical symptoms of depression. The percentage of children endorsing significant levels of grief symptoms was 20%. Increased exposure to war experiences led to higher levels of: (1) traumatic reactions; (2) depression; and (3) grief symptoms. Of the 16 war experiences, abduction, hiding to protect oneself, being raped, and being forced to kill or hurt family members were most predictive of traumatic reactions. Being raped, seeing others raped, the death of a parent/s, being forced to fight, and having to hide to protect oneself were the strongest predictors of depressive symptoms. War experiences such as abduction, death of one's parent/s, being forced to fight, and having to hide to protect oneself were the most associated with the child's experience of grief. In addition to Total Grief, Traumatic Grief, Existential Grief, and Continuing Bonds were measured in these children. Although trauma, depression, and grief often exist as co-morbid disorders, the mechanisms and pathways of these is less understood. In this study we used Structural Equation Modeling to better understand the complex interaction and trajectories of these three symptoms evolving from war exposure and loss. This study is the first of its kind to assess the psychosocial effects of war experiences among children currently living in war zone areas within Sudan. It identifies some of the most prevalent war-related atrocities and their varying impact on the children's psychological well-being and overall adjustment. Implications for planning mental health interventions are discussed. PMID:18300649

  15. Geochronology of the Baye Mn oxide deposit, southern Yunnan Plateau: Implications for the late Miocene to Pleistocene paleoclimatic conditions and topographic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jian-Wei; Vasconcelos, Paulo M.; Cohen, Benjamin E.; Kusky, Timothy M.

    2014-08-01

    40Ar/39Ar laser incremental heating analyses of supergene K-Mn oxides from weathering profiles at the Baye Mn deposit, southern Yunnan Plateau, SW China, were carried out to place constraints on the timing of weathering and derive insights into local paleoclimatic and landscape evolution. Weathering profiles in the Baye Mn mine are dominated by 20-30 m thick saprolites, which are locally covered by unconsolidated alluvial deposits. We analyzed 70 grains from 35 hand samples collected from four sites located at distinct elevations. In most cases, different grains from the same hand sample and different samples from the same site have reproducible 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages. The plateau ages of individual grains are also consistent with the respective isochron, integrated, and ideogram ages. This age consistency attests to the reliability of the geochronological results as numerical constraints on the formation and evolution of these weathering profiles. Sixty-four grains from 32 hand samples collected from weathering profiles at four sites (A to D) yield well-defined plateau or pseudoplateau ages ranging from 2.98 ± 0.07 to <0.16 Ma (2?). The age results show that Mn oxides become progressively younger towards lower elevations: samples collected from the highest elevation site (?1855 m a.s.l.) have the oldest ages at 2.98 ± 0.07 to 2.83 ± 0.13 Ma; samples from intermediate elevations (1821 to 1815 m a.s.l.) yield ages ranging from 2.91 ± 0.10 to 2.08 ± 0.11 Ma; and those from the lowest sites (1768 to 1753 m a.s.l.) are younger than 1.25 ± 0.08 Ma. The age versus elevation relationship indicates fast downward propagation of weathering front since the late Pliocene, and permits estimating the weathering rates at 3.3 ± 3.8, 6.6 ± 1.2, and 11.1 ± 1.9 m Myr-1 during the time periods of 2.98-2.83, 2.91-2.08, and 1.25 to <0.16 Ma, respectively. The average river incision rates estimated from the surface exposed ages range from 235 ± 10 to 416 ± 19 m Myr-1 during the past 3 million years. The incision rate calculated from minimum exposed ages at sites B-D is 33 ± 2 m Myr-1 for the time period of 2.91-1.25 Ma, which is consistent with the slow incision of streams on the ridges over the Yunnan Plateau since the early Pleistocene. Three Mn oxide pebbles contained in the alluvial deposits overlying the saprolite-dominated weathering profiles at the two highest sites provided additional information on the timing of weathering. Four grains from two pebbles yield plateau ages of 6.32 ± 0.19 to 5.27 ± 0.10 Ma, whereas the other two grains from the third pebble indicate the minimum formation ages of 8.2 ± 0.4 and 9.3 ± 0.3 Ma. These ages confirm the existence of older weathering profiles, now dismantled, in the region. Manganese oxide 40Ar/39Ar ages of the Baye deposit, when combined with results from other localities, indicate that lateritic weathering and supergene Mn enrichment and, by inference, warm and humid climates conducive to intense weathering have prevailed over the Plateau since the middle to late Miocene. The climatic conditions inferred from the weathering geochronology are consistent with multiple independent marine and terrestrial sedimentary and paleontological records, confirming that supergene Mn oxides can be used as a useful proxy for past climate. Age clusters of Mn oxides at 2.9-2.4, 1.2-0.8, and 0.6-0.4 Ma are broadly coincident with and thus likely reflect intensification events of the Indian Summer Monsoon that brings moisture and abundant precipitation to the Yunnan Plateau. These clusters also coincide with the periods of significant surface uplift in the Yunnan Plateau, demonstrating a causal link between topographic evolution, plateau uplift, and intensification of the monsoonal climate.

  16. Binding of Sudan II and IV to lecithin liposomes and E. coli membranes: insights into the toxicity of hydrophobic azo dyes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Gao, Hong-Wen; Ren, Jiao-Rong; Chen, Ling; Li, Yu-Cheng; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Zhao, He-Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Background Sudan red compounds are hydrophobic azo dyes, still used as food additives in some countries. However, they have been shown to be unsafe, causing tumors in the liver and urinary bladder in rats. They have been classified as category 3 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. A number of hypotheses that could explain the mechanism of carcinogenesis have been proposed for dyes similar to the Sudan red compounds. Traditionally, investigations of the membrane toxicity of organic substances have focused on hydrocarbons, e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT. In contrast to hydrocarbons, Sudan red compounds contain azo and hydroxy groups, which can form hydrogen bonds with the polar head groups of membrane phospholipids. Thus, entry may be impeded. They could have different toxicities from other lipophilic hydrocarbons. The available data show that because these compounds are lipophilic, interactions with hydrophobic parts of the cell are important for their toxicity. Lipophilic compounds accumulate in the membrane, causing expansion of the membrane surface area, inhibition of primary ion pumps and increased proton permeability. Results This work investigated the interactions of the amphiphilic compounds Sudan II and IV with lecithin liposomes and live Escherichia coli (E. coli). Sudan II and IV binding to lecithin liposomes and live E. coli corresponds to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the Sudan red compounds – lecithin liposome solutions, the binding ratio of Sudan II to lecithin is 1/31 and that of Sudan IV to 1/314. The binding constant of the Sudan II-lecithin complex is 1.75 × 104 and that of the Sudan IV-lecithin complex 2.92 × 105. Besides, the influences of pH, electrolyte and temperature were investigated and analyzed quantitatively. In the Sudan red compounds – E.coli mixture, the binding ratios of Sudan II and Sudan IV to E.coli membrane phospholipid are 1/29 and 1/114. The binding constants of the Sudan II – and Sudan IV- E.coli membrane phospholipid complexes are 1.86 × 104 and 6.02 × 104. Over 60% of Sudan II and 75% of Sudan IV penetrated into E.coli, in which 90% of them remained in the E.coli membrane. Conclusion Experiments of Sudan II and IV binding to lecithin liposomes and live E. coli indicates that amphiphilic compounds may besequestered in thelecithin liposomes and membrane phospholipid bilayer according to the Langmuir adsorption law. Penetration into the cytosol was impeded and inhibited for Sudan red compounds. It is possible for such compounds themselves (excluding their metabolites and by-products)not result directly in terminal toxicity. Therefore, membrane toxicity could be manifested as membrane blocking and membrane expansion. The method established here may be useful for evaluating the interaction of toxins with membranes. PMID:17389047

  17. False color image of Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a false color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar onboard the Shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degrees North latitude, 29 degrees East longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock, and the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. Virtually everything visible on this radar composite image cannot be seen either when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite images such as Landsat. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43920.

  18. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

    PubMed

    Mofadal, Adam I A; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong

    2015-05-01

    The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US$0.019 to US$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community. PMID:25794921

  19. Insecticide resistance in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi from Khartoum State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phlebotomus papatasi the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most widely spread sand fly in Sudan. No data has previously been collected on insecticide susceptibility and/or resistance of this vector, and a first study to establish a baseline data is reported here. Methods Sand flies were collected from Surogia village, (Khartoum State), Rahad Game Reserve (eastern Sudan) and White Nile area (Central Sudan) using light traps. Sand flies were reared in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute laboratory. The insecticide susceptibility status of first progeny (F1) of P. papatasi of each population was tested using WHO insecticide kits. Also, P. papatasi specimens from Surogia village and Rahad Game Reserve were assayed for activities of enzyme systems involved in insecticide resistance (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), non-specific carboxylesterases (EST), glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome p450 monooxygenases (Cyt p450). Results Populations of P. papatasi from White Nile and Rahad Game Reserve were sensitive to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), permethrin, malathion, and propoxur. However, the P. papatasi population from Surogia village was sensitive to DDT and permethrin but highly resistant to malathion and propoxur. Furthermore, P. papatasi of Surogia village had significantly higher insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than of those of Rahad Game Reserve. The sand fly population in Surogia displayed high AChE activity and only three specimens had elevated levels for EST and GST. Conclusions The study provided evidence for malathion and propoxur resistance in the sand fly population of Surogia village, which probably resulted from anti-malarial control activities carried out in the area during the past 50 years. PMID:22397726

  20. Oxidation of the carcinogenic non-aminoazo dye 1-phenylazo-2-hydroxy-naphthalene (Sudan I) by cytochromes P450 and peroxidases: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Stiborová, Marie; Martínek, Václav; Semanská, Marcela; Hodek, Petr; Dra?ínský, Martin; Cva?ka, Josef; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Frei, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Sudan I [1-(phenylazo)-2-hydroxynaphthalene, C.I. Solvent Yellow 14, CAS No: 842-07-9] is used as the compound employed in chemical industry and to color materials such as hydrocarbon solvents, oils, fats, waxes, plastics, printing inks, shoe and floor polishes and gasoline. Such a wide used could result in a considerable human exposure. Sudan I is known to cause developments of tumors in the liver or urinary bladder in rats, mice, and rabbits, and is considered a possible weak human carcinogen and mutagen. This carcinogen is also a potent contact allergen and sensitizer. Here, we compare the data concerning the Sudan I oxidative metabolism catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) and peroxidase enzymes, which has been investigated in our laboratory during the last two decades. These two types of enzymes are responsible both for Sudan I detoxication and activation. Among the Sudan I metabolites, C-hydroxylated derivatives and a dimer of Sudan I are suggested to be the detoxication metabolites formed by CYPs and peroxidases, respectively. Metabolic activation of Sudan I by both types of enzymes leads to formation of reactive species (the benzenediazonium ion by CYP and Sudan I radicals by peroxidase) that bind to DNA and RNA, generating covalent adducts in vitro and in vivo. Whereas the structure of the major adduct formed by the benzenediazonium ion in DNA has already been identified to be the 8-(phenylazo)guanine adduct, the structures of adducts formed by peroxidase, have not been characterized as yet. Biological significance of the DNA adducts of Sudan I activated with CYP and peroxidase enzymes and further aims of investigations in this field are discussed in this study. PMID:21217854

  1. Geoarchaeological investigation at Al-Khiday (central Sudan): late Quaternary palaeoenvironment and site formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerboni, Andrea; Usai, Donatella; Salvatori, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    The micromorphological investigation on several pluristratified archaeological sites in central Sudan (Al-Khiday, left bank of the White Nile, Khartoum region, Sudan) permitted to elucidate depositional and post-depositional processes playing a role in the formation and preservation of the archaeological record. At Al-Khiday sites are located at the top of small mounds, representing the remains of Pleistocene sandy fluvial bars, and were attended since the beginning of the Holocene. The first occupation of the area corresponds to a pre-Mesolithic cemetery; than Mesolithic groups lived upon the mounds and their occupation is testified by several archaeological features: pits filled by ash and bones and living floors. Preserved Neolithic features are scarce and limited to few graves (V millennium BC). After this phase, a long gap in human attendance is registered, during which wind continued to dismantling the mounds and the sites; at ca. 2000 years BP Meroitic/Post-Meroitic groups built their tombs at the top of the archaeological sequences and altered most of the stratigraphic record. Thanks to micromorphology, it was possible to distinguish between archaeological strata still in situ and those disturbed by natural and anthropic processes; furthermore, this approach allowed to interpret the significance of several archaeological features (living floors, fireplaces, and garbage pits). In this case micromorphology of archaeological deposits was a key tool to reconstruct the depositional and post-depositional processes that contributed to the formation and preservation of the archaeological record.

  2. Thirty-Seven Human Cases of Sparganosis from Ethiopia and South Sudan Caused by Spirometra Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Mark L.; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Yembo, Gole E.; Yibi, Makoy S.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-seven unusual specimens, three from Ethiopia and 34 from South Sudan, were submitted since 2012 for further identification by the Ethiopian Dracunculiasis Eradication Program (EDEP) and the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program (SSGWEP), respectively. Although the majority of specimens emerged from sores or breaks in the skin, there was concern that they did not represent bona fide cases of Dracunculus medinensis and that they needed detailed examination and identification as provided by the World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC) at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All 37 specimens were identified on microscopic study as larval tapeworms of the spargana type, and DNA sequence analysis of seven confirmed the identification of Spirometra sp. Age of cases ranged between 7 and 70 years (mean 25 years); 21 (57%) patients were male and 16 were female. The presence of spargana in open skin lesions is somewhat atypical, but does confirm the fact that populations living in these remote areas are either ingesting infected copepods in unsafe drinking water or, more likely, eating poorly cooked paratenic hosts harboring the parasite. PMID:26055739

  3. Thirty-Seven Human Cases of Sparganosis from Ethiopia and South Sudan Caused by Spirometra Spp.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Mark L; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Yembo, Gole E; Yibi, Makoy S; Cama, Vitaliano A; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    Thirty-seven unusual specimens, three from Ethiopia and 34 from South Sudan, were submitted since 2012 for further identification by the Ethiopian Dracunculiasis Eradication Program (EDEP) and the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program (SSGWEP), respectively. Although the majority of specimens emerged from sores or breaks in the skin, there was concern that they did not represent bona fide cases of Dracunculus medinensis and that they needed detailed examination and identification as provided by the World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC) at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All 37 specimens were identified on microscopic study as larval tapeworms of the spargana type, and DNA sequence analysis of seven confirmed the identification of Spirometra sp. Age of cases ranged between 7 and 70 years (mean 25 years); 21 (57%) patients were male and 16 were female. The presence of spargana in open skin lesions is somewhat atypical, but does confirm the fact that populations living in these remote areas are either ingesting infected copepods in unsafe drinking water or, more likely, eating poorly cooked paratenic hosts harboring the parasite. PMID:26055739

  4. HI Study of Southern Galactic Supernova Remnants

    E-print Network

    Bon-Chul Koo; Ji-hyun Kang; Naomi McClure-Griffiths

    2003-11-06

    We briefly summarize the survey of HI 21 cm emission lines to search for shocked atomic gas associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the southern sky. For G347.3-0.5, we discuss the distance to the SNR and the implications of the HI results.

  5. Children of the "Sug": A Study of the Daily Lives of Street Children in Khartoum, Sudan, with Intervention Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudrati, Mustafa; Plummer, Mary L.; Yousif, Nassrin Dafaalla El Hag

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study examines street children's daily lives in Khartoum, Sudan to recommend ways to improve their conditions and to successfully assist them off the streets. Methods: In 2000-2001, eight researchers conducted participant observation for 7 weeks; 20 groups of children engaged in role-plays and drawing activities; over 500 children…

  6. Addressing the Challenges of Language Choice in the Implementation of Mother-Tongue Based Bilingual Education in South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spronk, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (South Sudan) has been working towards the implementation of a Language and Education Policy in which the mother tongue of the learner is to be used as a medium of instruction for the first three years of primary education.…

  7. Educational Concerns of Arabic Speaking Migrants from Sudan and Iraq to Melbourne: Expectations on Migrant Parents in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sainsbury, W. J.; Renzaho, A. M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Families immigrating to Australia face many challenges integrating into the educational system, including language barriers and interrupted schooling. We have qualitatively evaluated the educational concerns of Arabic migrants from Sudan and Iraq to Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, a city that receives a high percentage of Australia's immigrants.…

  8. Notes from the field: malnutrition and elevated mortality among refugees from South Sudan - Ethiopia, June-July 2014.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Ellen; Bilukha, Oleg O; Menkir, Zeray; Gayford, Megan; Kavosa, Millicent; Wtsadik, Mulugeta; Maina, Gidraf; Gose, Mesfin; Nyagucha, Irene; Shahpar, Cyrus

    2014-08-15

    As a result of armed civil conflict in South Sudan that started in mid-December of 2013, an estimated 1.1 million persons were internally displaced, and approximately 400,000 refugees fled South Sudan to neighboring countries (primarily to Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, and Kenya). Refugees from South Sudan arriving in Ethiopia are sheltered in three refugee camps located in Gambella region: Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi. The camps were established during January-May 2014 and have estimated refugee populations of 47,000, 51,000, and 50,000, respectively. Reports from health clinics and humanitarian agencies providing assistance to refugees suggested poor nutritional status of arriving refugees and elevated mortality rates. To assess the nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and mortality rates (crude [all ages] and aged <5 years), the Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (an Ethiopian government aid agency), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Food Programme, and United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with CDC, conducted cross-sectional population-representative surveys in Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi camps during June-July 2014. Anthropometric measurements in children were taken using standard procedures, and nutritional status was classified based on 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards. Hemoglobin was measured using HemoCue Hb 301. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO thresholds. Retrospective mortality rates in Leitchuor and Kule were measured using a household census method. PMID:25121714

  9. Non-Formal Environmental Education: The Utilization of Solar Energy for Cooking in a Rural Area in Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Zubeir, Z.

    1997-01-01

    In El Sururab in rural Sudan, solar energy is used for cooking instead of wood. This study explored the efficiency of a hot-box type of solar cooker for storing heat and its effectiveness for different methods of cooking various foods used daily in El Sururab. Forty local women served as a respondent group. (PVD)

  10. 76 FR 41046 - Addition of the New State of the Republic of South Sudan to the Export Administration Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to add controls on exports and reexports...July, 2011. BIS is therefore amending the EAR to reflect the July 9, 2011 formal...continue to apply to ``Sudan'' under the EAR will not apply to the Republic of...

  11. Evidence for Early and Mid-Cryogenian glaciation in the Northern ArabianNubian Shield (Egypt, Sudan, and western Arabia)

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    (Egypt, Sudan, and western Arabia) ROBERT J. STERN1*, PETER R. JOHNSON2, KAMAL A. ALI1,3 & SUMIT K. MUKHERJEE1,4 1 Geosciences Department, U Texas at Dallas, Richardson TX 75080-3021, USA 2 Johnson and Vranas-mail: rjstern@utdallas.edu) Abstract: Evidence of Early- to Mid-Cryogenian (c. 780 Ma and c. 740 Ma) glacial

  12. Separation and Preconcentration of Sudan Blue II Using Membrane Filtration and UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Determination in River Water and Industrial Wastewater Samples.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Yunus Emre; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    A new separation and preconcentration method based on adsorption on a cellulose acetate membrane filter and elution with ethanol was established for the UV-Vis spectrophotometric determination of Sudan blue II. Various analytical parameters such as pH of working media, flow rates of solutions, and sample volumes were optimized. Matrix effects of concomitants were investigated for the quantitative recovery values of Sudan blue II. The preconcentration factor was 200. LOD was calculated as 0.96 ?g/L. RSD was 5.1%. The optimized procedure was applied to the spectrophotometric determination of Sudan blue II in river and industrial wastewater samples from oil and dye products. PMID:25857900

  13. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act...of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act...United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria...

  14. 75 FR 30459 - Assistance to the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act...of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act...United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria...

  15. 76 FR 82346 - Assistance to the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act...of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act...United States Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria...

  16. The Dialectic between Global Gender Goals and Local Empowerment: Girls' Education in Southern Sudan and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.; Ekne, Ingrid Birgitte Moller; Augestad, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    The start of the Education for All (EFA) movement ushered in a new era in education, an era linked to research on issues such as "global governance" or the "world institutionalization of education". This global governance not only affects the way in which educational systems are influenced, it also involves how we view and define various issues…

  17. 75 FR 30459 - Assistance to the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) for Fiscal Year 2008 AGENCY: Department of... Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as amended, for Fiscal Year 2008. SUMMARY... Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as amended by the Tom Lantos and Henry...

  18. 76 FR 82346 - Assistance to the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) for Fiscal Year 2010 AGENCY: Department of... Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as amended, for Fiscal Year 2010. SUMMARY... Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as amended by the Tom Lantos and Henry...

  19. Self-reported fever, treatment actions and malaria infection prevalence in the northern states of Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of fevers and their management in areas of low malaria transmission in Africa is not well understood. The characteristics of fever, its treatment and association with infection prevalence from a national household sample survey in the northern states of Sudan, an area that represents historically low parasite prevalence, are examined in this study. Methods In October-November 2009, a cluster sample cross-sectional household malaria indicator survey was undertaken in the 15 northern states of the Sudan. Data on household assets and individual level information on age, sex, whether the individual had a fever in the last 14 days and on the day of survey, actions taken to treat the fever including diagnostic services and drugs used and their sources were collected. Consenting household members were asked to provide a finger-prick blood sample and examined for malaria parasitaemia using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). All proportions and odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for clustering. Results Of 26,471 respondents 19% (n = 5,299) reported a history of fever within the last two weeks prior to the survey and 8% had fever on the day of the survey. Only 39% (n = 2,035) of individuals with fever in last two weeks took any action, of which 43% (n = 875) were treated with anti-malarials. About 44% (n = 382) of malaria treatments were done using the nationally recommended first-line therapy artesunate+sulphadoxine-pryrimethamine (AS+SP) and 13% (n = 122) with non-recommended chloroquine or SP. Importantly 33.9% (n = 296) of all malaria treatments included artemether monotherapy, which is internationally banned for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. About 53% of fevers had some form of parasitological diagnosis before treatment. On the day of survey, 21,988 individuals provided a finger-prick blood sample and only 1.8% were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Infection prevalence was higher among individuals who had fever in the last two weeks (OR = 3.4; 95%CI = 2.6 - 4.4, p < 0.001) or reported fever on the day of survey (OR = 6.2; 95%CI = 4.4 - 8.7, p < 0.001) compared to those without a history of fever. Conclusion Across the northern states of the Sudan, the period prevalence of fever is low. The proportion of fevers that are likely to be malaria is very low. Consequently, parasitological diagnosis of all fevers before treatment is an appropriate strategy for malaria case-management. Improved regulation and supervision of health workers is required to increase the use of diagnostics and remove the practice of prescribing artemisinin monotherapy. PMID:21575152

  20. Utilizing Remote Sensing to Explore Hydrological and Climatic Factors of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruczkiewicz, A.; Sweeney, A.; Reid, C.; Seaman, J.; Abubakar, A.; Ritmeijer, K.; Jensen, K.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Lessel, J.; Thomson, M. C.; Elnaiem, D.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan and South Sudan (locally known as Kala Azar) have caused an estimated 100,000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of this vector borne disease. In the past 30 years outbreaks have occurred cyclically within this country, but recent shifts in endemicity have necessitated a more robust understanding of the drivers of the disease. Previous work (e.g. Gebre-Michael et al., 2004; Ashford & Thomson, 1991; Hoogstraal & Heyneman, 1969) has suggested that the primary biological vector in this region, the female sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis, exhibits sensitivities to environmental and climatic variables. Results of this study showed a relationship between precipitation and inundation during months of the transmission season (April-July) and the number of confirmed cases in the following September-January period. Particular months of the transmission season with below-average precipitation were better indicators of lagged reports of VL than others. During VL epidemics (2009, 2010, 2011) the month of June exhibited below average precipitation. The two largest epidemics (2010, 2011) were associated with years of below average precipitation in the month of April. Inundation during April-July (AMJJ) also exhibited a strong inverse relationship with reported VL cases in the following September- January (SONDJ). This relationship was best explored when comparing the VL case data of a specific medical center to the inundation anomalies. Results are typified by the Lankien Medical Center analysis where below average inundation during April displays an inverse relationship with VL cases in the following SONDJ. Drought may lead to below average inundation, which could allow for soils to maintain their fissures, thus maintaining the sand fly breeding habitat, resulting in a sustained breeding season for the sandflies (Quate, 1964). Above-average precipitation and inundation might have the inverse effect, eliminating their breeding sites within the soil. Land surface temperature (LST) Night, LST Day, and relative humidity did not show a particularly strong relationship with VL. Further research is needed, as these variables are known to exist across strong gradients within the northern states of South Sudan (Quate, 1964).

  1. Arabicization in high education: The case of medical colleges in the Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fadni Suliman, Issameldin

    This thesis explores language policies, language conflict and language-user attitudes toward arabicization which refers to the use of Arabic as a medium of instruction in teaching medicine in universities in the Sudan. It follows up these objectives: (1) To highlight the roots of arabicization and implemented language planning activities through document analysis. (2) To report on the advantages and disadvantages of both Arabic and English as media of instruction in teaching medicine in the Sudan. (3) To survey the attitudes of students and their instructors in the colleges of Khartoum, Omdurman and Gezira universities towards arabicization using two similar developed questionnaires and an interview for faculty members. The questionnaires were distributed to the students and faculty members in the three colleges to probe six factors: (I) The extent of use of languages of instruction (2) Readiness of the students to receive medical studies in English (3) The difficulties they face (4) English as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (5) Arabic as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (6) Students' preference of a language of instruction. The study utilized tables, charts and chi square tests to illustrate the attitudes of students and their faculty members. The study has revealed that the attitude of most of the students and their faculty members were in favor of arabicization in principle. In fact, students showed support for the pedagogical benefits of Arabic like they can prepare and study in Arabic in less time than English. They can take more notes in Arabic than in English. The study has highlighted that Arabic as a native language of the students offers them a mighty and indispensable support for the ability to convey ideas, capacity for imaginative or creative thinking than the limited capacity given by the foreign language. Notwithstanding, English is reported to be very important for students' current medical studies and future career. The study emphasized that the language shift to Arabic should not lead to marginalize English in higher education in Sudan. A realization of the need of boosting the teaching of English in case of arabicization is fully implemented was present in the participants' responses. To conclude, the study has culminated in calling for benefiting from the successes of human resource development (HRD) in leading change in organizations in language planning and language policy implementation.

  2. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    SciTech Connect

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments. Seattle, WA. Geological Society of America. Coale, K., 2003. Open Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments: What they have told us, what they have not. American Society for Limnology and Oceanography and The Oceanography Society, Honolulu, February 2004. Coale, K., 2004. Recent Research from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX), in Taking the Heat: What is the impact of ocean fertilization on climate and ocean ecology? Science of earth and sky. AAAS, February 12-16, Seattle, WA

  3. In-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for simultaneous separation and extraction of Sudan dyes in different spices.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Maryam; Sabzalian, Sedigheh; Barfi, Behruz; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-12-18

    A novel, simple, fast, and miniaturized method, termed in-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (in-line MMSPD), coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of Sudan dyes (i.e. Sudan I-IV, Sudan orange G, Sudan black B, and Sudan red G) with the aid of an experimental design strategy. In this method, a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) column including a suitable mixture of polar sorbents was inserted in the mobile phase pathway, and while the interfering compounds were retained, the analytes were eluted and entered into the analytical column. In this way, the extraction, elution, and separation of the analytes were performed sequentially. Under the optimal experimental conditions (including the amount of sample, 0.0426g; amount of dispersant phase, 0.0216g of florisil, 0.0227g of silica, 0.0141g of alumina; and blending time, 112s), the limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification, linear dynamic ranges, and recoveries were obtained to be 0.3-15.3?gkg(-1), 1-50?gkg(-1), 50-28,000?gkg(-1), and 94.5-99.1%, respectively. The results obtained showed that determination of the selected Sudan dyes in food samples using an enough sensitive and a simple analytically validated method like in-line MMSPD may offer a suitable screening method, which could be useful for food analysis and adulteration. PMID:26614171

  4. Utilization of a novel microwave-assisted homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction method for the determination of Sudan dyes in red wines.

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Wu, Lijie; Li, Na; Hu, Mingzhu; Wang, Ziming

    2015-04-01

    A novel microwave-assisted homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction (MA-HILME) method was first developed for the extraction of Sudan dyes in red wines followed by detection using high-performance liquid chromatography. 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C12MIM]Br) was used as extractant in a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) procedure, and then transferred into hydrophobic solid-state ionic liquid after adding ammonium hexafluorophosphate ([NH4][PF6]). The separation between liquid state sample and solid state extractant can be realized easily. Several experimental parameters, including type and amount of extraction solvent, microwave power and irradiation time, amount of ion-exchange reagent ([NH4][PF6]), pH of sample solution, and ionic strength, were evaluated. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linearity for the determining of the analytes was in the range of 0.5-100 ?g L(-1), with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9995 to 0.9999. The limits of detection for Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, and Sudan IV were 0.19, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.16 ?g L(-1), respectively. When the present method was applied to the determination of Sudan dyes in red wines, satisfactory recoveries were obtained in the range of 78.5-106.8%, and relative standard deviations were lower than 9.7%. PMID:25640141

  5. Delineation of groundwater zones using lithology and electric tomography in the Khartoum basin, central Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohammed Tahir; Awad, Hussein Salim

    2006-12-01

    The three towns of Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum are located north of the capital of Sudan. This capital has agglomerated to reach more than 7 million inhabitants. The present situation is confronted with a dramatic shortage in freshwater supply. The treatment of surface water from the Nile became costly, particularly in flood season. Thus the authorities turned towards developing groundwater resources. The electric tomography, obtained by the combination of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and well logs, turned out to be very efficient to provide a complete electrical image of the underground from the surface until about 200-m depth. This methodology constitutes a very cheap guide for the evaluation of the quality of groundwater resources in the Khartoum area. To cite this article: M.T. Hussein, H.S. Awad, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  6. Alkaline pulping with additives of date palm rachis and leaves from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Khider, T

    2005-01-01

    Soda-anthraquinone (soda-AQ), alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ) and alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-methanol (ASAM) pulping of date palm rachis and leaves from Sudan was carried under different conditions, and pulps with variable yields and mechanical properties were obtained. The date palm rachis gave best yields and mechanical properties with the AS-AQ or the ASAM process, while the leaves were best pulped with the soda method with low yield, but very good strength properties. Blending with 10% and 30% kenaf bark pulp was beneficial, especially for the AS-AQ pulps. Totally chlorine free (TCF) bleached rachis pulps were obtained of high brightness and strength properties suitable for use in writing and printing papers. PMID:15364084

  7. Torture by Cieng: ethical theory meets social practice among the Dinka Agaar of south Sudan.

    PubMed

    Deal, Jeffery L

    2010-01-01

    Here I detail violence in South Sudan by first discussing a specific Dinka Agaar practice alongside existing discourses on the social aspects of violence and universal human rights, then I show how these acts had meaning and purpose using data from personal accounts of violence. I posit that the violence described was consistent with Dinka Agaar concepts of justice and basic human rights and that it cannot be judged against any universal human rights standard, devoid of local context or of an overarching metanarrative. These events highlight conflicting subjectivities, ethical norms, and the painful difficulties inherent to advocacy in areas of conflict. Viewed from the perspective of the larger social unit, it is easy to see how violence was required to end violence. However, witnessing punitive violence purposefully enacted on innocent individuals to achieve peace has the potential to create conflicting positions that modern anthropological discourse cannot reconcile. PMID:21132945

  8. HIV-infected People in Sudan Moving Toward Chronic Poverty: Possible Interventions.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salwa Muddthir; Eisa, Ammar Abobakre; Ibrahim, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify the socioeconomic impact on people living with HIV (PLWH) in Sudan. Focus group discussions were used to collect data and identify the most outstanding domains of HIV impact on PLWH and the survival mechanisms that may be common to a group of diverse HIV-infected persons (n = 30). The findings indicated that the most striking financial and social impacts were due to stigma associated with HIV in the conservative Sudanese society, which led to loss of work with all its consequences (e.g., children's education and health care expenses were affected). The socioeconomic impacts of HIV on infected populations are discussed, and suggestions for possible interventions to mitigate harmful impacts and stigma within the society, the workplace, and health care settings are highlighted. We concluded that HIV has intensified the existing problems of infected people, contributing to their vulnerability to poverty. PMID:26190419

  9. Secondary peritoneal hydatidosis, the challenges of echinococcal disease in South Sudan: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Richard William; Ellis-Owen, Rwth; Winson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A 28 year old male presented to the Juba Teaching Hospital with progressive shortness of breath. 18 months prior to admission, he presented to a rural hospital with severe abdominal pain. An emergency laparotomy was performed, and a large hepatic cyst was removed. Examination at the Juba Teaching hospital revealed a grossly distended abdomen with multiple palpable masses per abdomen. An Abdominal Ultrasound revealed multiple loculated cysts throughout the abdomen. A diagnosis of Secondary Peritoneal Hydatidosis resulting from incorrectly performed surgery was made. The patient was conservatively treated and at 14 weeks, the cysts showed a moderate reduction in size. Cystic Echinococcus(CE) is common in South Sudan and has a considerable disease burden throughout the developing world. Greater governmental and international support is required to develop effective control measures for these diseases. PMID:25995812

  10. Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

  11. Entomological aspects of African onchocerciasis and observations on Simulium in the Sudan*

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, B.; Hocking, J. M.

    1962-01-01

    Following a review of the literature on Simuliidae, relevant to the African scene, since 1955, the authors present observations made on Simulium damnosum at Mvolo, Equatoria, and along the Damer reach of the Nile, in the Sudan and consider these in relation to the economic importance of this species and the possibilities for control of the fly and of onchocerciasis transmitted by it. Meta-diethyltoluamide has been shown to be an effective repellent against this species, and the authors suggest that this or some other modern insect repellent might usefully be made available locally. It is suggested that the full life-cycle of S. damnosum in this area needs to be worked out, and a study made of the long-term effects of DDT larviciding on the flora and fauna of a typical river. A procedure for larviciding is recommended. Attention is drawn to the possibility of achieving natural control. PMID:13963755

  12. Novel Paramyxovirus Associated with Severe Acute Febrile Disease, South Sudan and Uganda, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Albariño, César G.; Foltzer, Michael; Towner, Jonathan S.; Rowe, Lory A.; Campbell, Shelley; Jaramillo, Carlos M.; Bird, Brian H.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Vodzak, Megan E.; Rota, Paul; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.; Knust, Barbara; Vincent, Joel P.; Frace, Michael A.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a female wildlife biologist experienced fever, malaise, headache, generalized myalgia and arthralgia, neck stiffness, and a sore throat shortly after returning to the United States from a 6-week field expedition to South Sudan and Uganda. She was hospitalized, after which a maculopapular rash developed and became confluent. When the patient was discharged from the hospital on day 14, arthralgia and myalgia had improved, oropharynx ulcerations had healed, the rash had resolved without desquamation, and blood counts and hepatic enzyme levels were returning to reference levels. After several known suspect pathogens were ruled out as the cause of her illness, deep sequencing and metagenomics analysis revealed a novel paramyxovirus related to rubula-like viruses isolated from fruit bats. PMID:24447466

  13. The Economic Burden of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Sudan: An Assessment of Provider and Household Costs

    PubMed Central

    Meheus, Filip; Abuzaid, Abuzaid A.; Baltussen, Rob; Younis, Brima M.; Balasegaram, Manica; Khalil, Eltahir A. G.; Boelaert, Marleen; Musa, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated and is endemic in eastern Sudan. We estimated the direct and indirect costs of treatment of VL from the perspective of the provider and the household at three public hospitals in Gedaref State. The median total cost for one VL episode was estimated to be US$450. Despite the free provision of VL drugs at public hospitals, households bore 53% of the total cost of VL with one episode of VL representing 40% of the annual household income. More than 75% of households incurred catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditures. The length of treatment of 30 days led to important costs for both health providers and households. Alternative treatment regimens that reduce the duration of treatment are urgently needed. PMID:24189368

  14. High-resolution Crystal Structure of Dimeric VP40 From Sudan ebolavirus.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Matthew C; Bruhn, Jessica F; Atkins, Kateri; Webb, Terry L; Baydo, Ruth O; Raymond, Amy; Lorimer, Donald D; Edwards, Thomas E; Myler, Peter J; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever. Central to the Ebola life cycle is the matrix protein VP40, which oligomerizes and drives viral budding. Here we present the crystal structure of the Sudan virus (SUDV) matrix protein. This structure is higher resolution (1.6 Å) than previously achievable. Despite differences in the protein purification, we find that it still forms a stable dimer in solution, as was noted for other Ebola VP40s. Although the N-terminal domain interface by which VP40 dimerizes is conserved between Ebola virus and SUDV, the C-terminal domain interface by which VP40 dimers may further assemble is significantly smaller in this SUDV assembly. PMID:25957961

  15. A survey on draught animal technology (DAT) in EN-Nhoud area, North Kordofan State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Makki, Elsamawal Khalil; Musa, Ezdehar Omer Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Draught animal technology (DAT) can potentially play a central role in agriculture transformation for traditional farmers. This study surveyed the state of DAT in En-Nhoud area, North Kordofan State, Sudan in an attempt to have a clear view of the changes brought about by introducing the technology. The study followed the cross-sectional survey design. Farmers were selected from ten clusters (villages) and data were collected using questionnaires and face to face interviews with farmers in addition to group discussions with them and the different actors in the field. The results showed that farmers appreciate the role played by DAT, but they highlighted the need for further capacity building and technical backup. Harnessing issues are not well understood and applied by the farmers. The different actors involved in DAT in the area lack networking and coordination, and this reflected on the many problems and constraints faced by the farmers. PMID:21240550

  16. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  17. Severe Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria among adults at Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There have been few published reports on severe Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria among adults in Africa. Methods Clinical pattern/manifestations of severe P. falciparum and P. vivax (according to World Health Organization 2000 criteria) were described in adult patients admitted to Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan. Results A total of 139 adult patients (80 males, 57.6%) with a mean (SD) age of 37.2 (1.5) years presented with severe P. falciparum (113, 81.3%) or P. vivax (26, 18.7%) malaria. Manifestations among the 139 patients included hypotension (38, 27.3%), cerebral malaria (23, 16.5%), repeated convulsions (18, 13.0%), hypoglycaemia (15, 10.8%), hyperparasitaemia (14, 10.1%), jaundice (14, 10.1%), severe anaemia (10, 7.2%), bleeding (six, 4.3%), renal impairment (one, 0.7%) and more than one criteria (27, 19.4%). While the geometric mean of the parasite count was significantly higher in patients with severe P. vivax than with severe P. falciparum malaria (5,934.2 vs 13,906.6 asexual stage parasitaemia per ?L, p?=?0.013), the different disease manifestations were not significantly different between patients with P. falciparum or P. vivax malaria. Three patients (2.2%) died due to severe P. falciparum malaria. One had cerebral malaria, the second had renal impairment, jaundice and hypoglycaemia, and the third had repeated convulsions and hypotension. Conclusions Severe malaria due to P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria is an existing entity among adults in eastern Sudan. Patients with severe P. falciparum and P. vivax develop similar disease manifestations. PMID:23634728

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of humanitarian relief interventions: visceral leishmaniasis treatment in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Griekspoor, A; Sondorp, E; Vos, T

    1999-03-01

    Spending by aid agencies on emergencies has quadrupled over the last decade, to over US$6 billion. To date, cost-effectiveness has seldom been considered in the prioritization and evaluation of emergency interventions. The sheer volume of resources spent on humanitarian aid and the chronicity of many humanitarian interventions call for more attention to be paid to the issue of 'value for money'. In this paper we present data from a major humanitarian crisis, an epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in war-torn Sudan. The special circumstances provided us, in retrospect, with unusually accurate data on excess mortality, costs of the intervention and its effects, thus allowing us to express cost-effectiveness as the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. The cost-effectiveness ratio, of US$18.40 per DALY (uncertainty range between US$13.53 and US$27.63), places the treatment of VL in Sudan among health interventions considered 'very good value for money' (interventions of less than US$25 per DALY). We discuss the usefulness of this analysis to the internal management of the VL programme, the procurement of funds for the programme, and more generally, to priority setting in humanitarian relief interventions. We feel that in evaluations of emergency interventions attempts could be made more often to perform cost-effectiveness analyses, including the use of DALYs, provided that the outcomes of these analyses are seen in the broad context of the emergency situation and its consequences on the affected population. This paper provides a first contribution to what is hoped to become an international database of cost-effectiveness studies of health interventions during relief operations, which use a comparable measure of health outcome such as the DALY. PMID:10351471

  19. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2015-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan. PMID:25898993

  20. Reduction of Urogenital Schistosomiasis with an Integrated Control Project in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Ha; Jeong, Hoo Gn; Kong, Woo Hyun; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Cho, Han-Ik; Nam, Hae-Sung; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Alla, Gibril Nouman Abd; Oh, Chung Hyeon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in Sudan, particularly Schistosoma haematobium infection. This study presents the disease-reduction outcomes of an integrated control program for schistosomiasis in Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan from 2009 through 2011. Methods The total population of the project sites was 482,902, and the major target group for intervention among them was 78,615 primary school students. For the cross-sectional study of the prevalence, urine and stool specimens were examined using the urine sedimentation method and the Kato cellophane thick smear method, respectively. To assess the impacts of health education for students and a drinking water supply facility at Al Hidaib village, questionnaire survey was done. Results The overall prevalence for S. haematobium and S. mansoni at baseline was 28.5% and 0.4%, respectively. At follow-up survey after 6–9 months post-treatment, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced to 13.5% (95% CI?=?0.331–0.462). A higher reduction in prevalence was observed among girls, those with moderately infected status (around 20%), and residents in rural areas, than among boys, those with high prevalence (>40%), and residents in urban areas. After health education, increased awareness about schistosomiasis was checked by questionnaire survey. Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit. However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI?=?0.933–6.891). Conclusions At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate. Approximately 200,000 subjects had received either praziquantel therapy, health education, or supply of clean water. To consolidate the achievements of this project, the integrated intervention should be adapted continuously. PMID:25569278

  1. Zircon U-Pb age, Lu-Hf isotope, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of Sundamalai peralkaline pluton from the Salem Block, southern India: Implications for Cryogenian adakite-like magmatism in an aborted-rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renjith, M. L.; Santosh, M.; Li, Tang; Satyanarayanan, M.; Korakoppa, M. M.; Tsunogae, T.; Subba Rao, D. V.; Kesav Krishna, A.; Nirmal Charan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Sundamalai peralkaline pluton is one among the Cryogenian alkaline plutons occurring in the Dharmapuri Rift Zone (DRZ) of the Salem Block in the Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) of India. Here we present zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotopic composition, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of the pluton to explore the petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Systematic modal variation of orthoclase, Na-plagioclase, Ca-amphibole (ferro-edenite and hastingsite) and quartz developed quartz-monzonite and granite litho units in the Sundamalai pluton. Thermometry based on amphibole-plagioclase pair suggests that the pluton was emplaced and solidified at around 4.6 kbar pressure with crystallization of the major phases between 748 and 661 °C. Estimated saturation temperature of zircon (712-698 °C) is also well within this range. However, apatite saturation occurred at higher temperatures between 835 and 870 °C, in contrast with monazite saturation (718-613 °C) that continued up to the late stage of crystallization. Estimated oxygen fugacity values (log fO2: -14 to -17) indicate high oxidation state for the magma that stabilized titanite and magnetite. The magmatic zircons from Sundamalai pluton yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 832.6 ± 3.2 Ma. Geochemically, the Sundamalai rocks are high-K to shoshonitic, persodic (Na2O/K2O ratio > 1), silica-saturated (SiO2:65-72 wt.%), and peralkaline in composition (aluminum saturation index, ASI < 1; Alkalinity index, AI < 0). The initial magma was mildly metaluminous which evolved to strongly peralkaline as result of fractional crystallization (plagioclase effect) controlled differentiation between quartz-monzonite and granite. Both rock types have high content of Na2O (5.1-6.3 wt.%), Ba (350-2589 ppm) and Sr (264-1036 ppm); low content of Y (8.7-17 ppm) and Yb (0.96-1.69 ppm); elevated ratios of La/Yb (11-46) and Sr/Y (46-69) and are depleted in Ti, with a positive Sr anomaly suggesting an adakite-like composition and garnet controlled melting of a plagioclase-poor source. The low content of MgO (<1 wt.%), Cr (7-29 ppm), Ni (6-19 ppm), Sc(2-3 ppm), positive Sr anomaly and predominantly negative zircon ?Hf(t) values (-10.8 to -9.3 with an average of -10.2) and initial 176Hf/177Hf ratios (0.281947-0.282022) confirm a Paleoproterozoic crustal source. Based on the field and geochemical evidences, we propose that a previously metasomatized mafic lower-crustal source enriched in alkalis has undergone CO2-present partial melting as a result of asthenospheric upwelling beneath an aborted rifting along the DRZ generating the magma that crystallized the Sundamalai rocks. Age of this pluton is comparable with that of the other Cryogenian felsic alkaline plutons from Salem Block suggesting extensive rift-related magmatism at this time in the SGT.

  2. SIR-B analysis of the Precambrian shield of Sudan and Egypt: Penetration studies and subsurface mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, T. H.; Roth, L.; Stern, R. J.; Almond, D. C.; Kroner, A.; Elshazly, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    A shuttle imaging radar-B (SIR-B) study is proposed for the Precambrian shield in southeast Egypt and northeast Sudan in an area east of the Nile. The phenomenon of radar penetration of thin, dry eolian/alluvial cover is to be confirmed and quantified. The penetration phenomenon is to be used to map structural and lithologic features. Field work to be done in conjunction with image acquisition is discussed.

  3. Factors for success in collaboration between high- and low-income countries: Developing a physiotherapy education programme in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Sørsdahl, Anne Brit; Salih, Abdel Salam; Salih, Omeima

    2014-01-01

    Background This study presents an example of collaboration between two higher education institutions: one in Norway, a high-income country, and one in Sudan, a low-income country, in developing an entry-level physiotherapy education programme in Sudan. The institution in Sudan had minimal theoretical and practical knowledge in physiotherapy. The study examined the factors important for the success of the bilateral collaboration. Material and methods We analysed written documents produced in the project from 2007 to 2012 in a qualitative study by using systematic text condensation. We identified vital factors for partner institutions and participants in ensuring a physiotherapy education programme of high quality. Results These factors were within seven topics: project arrangements, collaboration relationship, curriculum development, administration of the bachelor programme, capacity building, academic community and infrastructure. Conclusion We identified several factors that we hope can be valuable for similar projects. Some factors are similar to those shown by other studies. These are probably general factors that are important for such collaboration. PMID:25356376

  4. Prevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies and associated risk factors among cattle in East Darfur State, Western Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-transmitted virus, which causes bluetongue disease (BT) in sheep and a fatal hemorrhagic infection in North American white-tailed deer. However, in cattle the disease is typically asymptomatic and no overt clinical signs of disease appear to be associated with BTV infection. Serological evidence and isolation of different BTV serotypes have been reported in Sudan, however, no information is currently available in regard to previous exposure of Sudanese livestock to BTV infection in East Darfur State, Sudan. Aims To determine the prevalence of BTV antibodies and to identify the potential risk factors associated with BTV infection among cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan. Methods A total of 224 blood samples were collected randomly from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The serum samples were screened for detection of BTV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Results Serological evidence of BTV infection was observed in 150 out of 224 animals accounting for a 67% prevalence rate among cattle in East Darfur State. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were six times more likely to be infected with BTV (OR = 6.62, CI = 2.87-15.26, p-value = 0.01). Regarding animal source (contact with other herds) as a risk factor, it was shown that cattle purchased from market or introduced from other herds were 3 times at higher risk of being infected with BTV (OR = 3.87, CI = 1.07-13.87, p value = 0.03). Exposure of cattle to the insect vector increased the risk of contracting BTV infection by six times compared to non-exposed cattle (OR = 6.44, CI = 1.53-27.08, p value = 0.01). Conclusion The present study indicated that age, animal source and the intensity of the insect vector are influential risk factors for BTV infection in cattle in the Darfur region. Surveillance for BTV infection should be extended to include other susceptible ruminants and to study the distribution of the insect vectors to better predict and respond to a possible BTV outbreak in the State of East Darfur, Sudan. PMID:24507448

  5. Malaria indicator survey 2009, South Sudan: baseline results at household level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Sudan has borne the brunt of years of chronic warfare and probably has the highest malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. This nationally representative survey aimed to provide data on malaria indicators at household level across the country. Methods In 2009, data were collected using a two-stage random cluster sample of 2,797 households in 150 census enumeration areas during a Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) in South Sudan. The survey determined parasite and anaemia prevalence in vulnerable population groups and evaluated coverage, use and access to malaria control services. Standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group (RBM-MERG) MIS household and women’s questionnaires were adapted to the local situation and used for collection of data that were analysed and summarized using descriptive statistics. Results The results of this survey showed that 59.3% (95% CI: 57.5-61.1) of households owned at least one mosquito net. The proportion of the population with access to an ITN in their household was 49.7% (95% CI: 48.2-51.2). The utilization of insecticide-treated nets was low; 25.3% (95% CI: 23.9-26.7) for children under five (U5) and 35.9% (95% CI: 31.9-40.2) of pregnant women (OR: 1.66 (1.36-2.01); P =0.175). Prevalence of infection was 24.5% (95% CI: 23.0-26.1) in children U5 and 9.9% (95% CI: 7.4-13.1) in pregnant women. About two thirds (64%) of children U5 and 46% of pregnant women were anaemic. Only 2% of households were covered by indoor residual spraying (IRS) the previous year. Data shows that 58% reported that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, 34% mentioned that the use of mosquito nets could prevent malaria, 41% knew the correct treatment for malaria, and 52% of the children received treatment at a health facility. Conclusion The observed high malaria prevalence could be due to low levels of coverage and utilization of interventions coupled with low knowledge levels. Therefore, access and utilization of malaria control tools should be increased through scaling up coverage and improving behaviour change communication. PMID:24490895

  6. High sensitive voltammetric sensor based on Pt/CNTs nanocomposite modified ionic liquid carbon paste electrode for determination of Sudan I in food samples.

    PubMed

    Elyasi, Mojdeh; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan

    2013-12-15

    In this work, a simple and high sensitivity electrochemical sensor was developed to determine Sudan I based on Pt/CNTs nanocomposite ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (Pt/CNTs/ILCPE) using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) methods. The novel sensor exhibited an obviously catalytic activity towards the oxidation of Sudan I, which can be confirmed by the increased oxidation peak current and the decreased oxidation peak potential when compared with the bare carbon paste electrode (CPE). The electron transfer coefficient (?), diffusion coefficient (D), and charge transfer resistance (Rct) of Sudan I at the modified electrode were calculated. The linear response range and detection limit were found to be 0.008-600 ?mol L(-1) and 0.003 ?mol L(-1), respectively. Other species did not interfere with the determination of Sudan I at a surface of propose sensor in the optimum condition. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the determination of Sudan I in food samples with satisfactory results. PMID:23993620

  7. Implications of the Precambrian lineaments on the Red Sea tectonics based on Landsat study of northeast Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahmed, F.

    1982-01-01

    Projection of the ENE continental fractures offshore on the basis of a modified trend due to rift movements, and "principle of equidistances," corresponds with apparently more precise locations of possible transverse faults.  Projections of the proposed transverse faults generally conform with breaks in bathymetric contours, and azimuth trend of the axial trough.  Hot brine pools, shallow focus epicenters and anomalous heat flow measurements, all tend to lie at or close to the intersection of the transverse faults and axis of the deep waters.  The transverse faults exhibit a general N35-50°E trend as compared with the N60-70_Etrend of the ancestor continental fractures. Deflection in trend caused by faults coinciding with the presnet shore line, may indicate lateral displacement prior to the initial hase of rifting in Miocene times.  It also supports the hypothesis of a "two-phase rifting" of the Red Sea.  Spreading movements proposed along transverse faults with trend values exceeding N50°E may not be applicable, at least for the more recent separation movements.

  8. Bone marrow aspiration in north Sudan: the procedure, indications and the diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Noor, Sufian K; Bushara, Sarra O; Almobarak, Ahmed O; Husain, Nazik Elmalaika; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) is a common and useful investigation tool in clinical practice to obtain information about both hematological and non-hematological disorders. The aim of the work was to identify the main indications for BMA in Atbara city, north Sudan and to determine the common diagnoses encountered. Methods All reports of BMA carried out during a 6-year period from 2009 to 2014, in the Modern Specialized Laboratory (the only site where BMA is conducted in Atbara) were reviewed. The information extracted included the main indications for performing this procedure, age groups involved, and the most common diagnoses established. A specially designed form was used for this purpose and the data were analyzed using SPSS computer program. Results A total number of 112 cases were subjected to bone marrow aspiration. The most frequent indications were: pancytopenia 43(38.4%), anemia 39 (34.8%), and suspected leukemia 13 (11.6%). In 86(76.8%) cases, BMA provided either the diagnosis or diagnostic clues to the disease process, while 26 (23.2%) of the aspirates revealed a normally functioning marrow. Conclusion Bone marrow aspiration is an important investigation for establishing the diagnosis in many medical conditions. The most common indication for this procedure in our study was pancytopenia and the most common finding was aplastic anemia. PMID:26715923

  9. SHUTTLE IMAGING RADAR PROVIDES FRAMEWORK FOR SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC EXPLORATION IN EGYPT AND SUDAN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breed, Carol S.; McCauley, John F.; Schaber, Gerald G.

    1984-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar provides a pictorial framework to guide exploration for mineral resources (potential placers), groundwater sources, and prehistoric archaeological sites in the Western Desert of Egypt and Sudan. Documented penetration by the SIR-A signal of dry surficial sediment to depths of a meter or more revealed bedrock geologic features and networks of former stream valleys otherwise concealed beneath windblown sand, alluvium, and colluvial deposits. 'Radar units' mapped on SIR-A images according to relative brightness and degree of mottling correspond to subsurface geologic and topographic features identified in more than 50 test pits. Petrologic examination of pit samples confirms that a variety of depositional environments existed in this now hyper-arid region before it was mantled by windblown sand sheets and dunes. Wet sand was discovered in two buried valleys shown on the radar images and located in the field with the aid of co-registered maps and Landsat images, and a satellite navigation device. Buried valleys whose streams once traversed mineralized zones are potential sites of placers (gold, tin).

  10. Studies of the interaction between Sudan I and bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Dai, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Yang, Xi; Liu, Yi

    2008-10-01

    The interaction of Sudan I (SD) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological condition was investigated by the methods of fluorescence, UV-vis absorbance and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by SD was the result of the formation of BSA-SD complex, and the effective quenching constants ( Ka) were 4.457 × 10 4, 4.113 × 10 4, 3.642 × 10 4 and 3.488 × 10 4 L mol -1 at 292, 298, 304 and 310 K, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (? H) and entropy change (? S) for the reaction were calculated to be -10.76 kJ mol -1 and 53.97 J mol -1 K -1 according to van't Hoff equation. The results indicated that the hydrophobic force was the dominant intermolecular force in stabilizing the complex. The distance r between donor (BSA) and acceptor (SD) was obtained to be 4.59 nm according to Förster's non-radioactive energy transfer theory. After the addition of SD, the synchronous fluorescence spectral results showed that the hydrophobicity of amino acid residues increased and the CD spectral results showed that the ?-helix content of BSA decreased (from 63.60% to 50.17%). These revealed that the microenvironment and conformation of BSA were changed in the binding reaction.

  11. Prevalence of microbiological contaminants in groundwater sources and risk factor assessment in Juba, South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Engström, Emma; Balfors, Berit; Mörtberg, Ulla; Thunvik, Roger; Gaily, Tarig; Mangold, Mikael

    2015-05-15

    In low-income regions, drinking water is often derived from groundwater sources, which might spread diarrheal disease if they are microbiologically polluted. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of fecal contamination in 147 improved groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan and to assess potential contributing risk factors, based on bivariate statistical analysis. Thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) were detected in 66% of the investigated sources, including 95 boreholes, breaching the health-based recommendations for drinking water. A significant association (p<0.05) was determined between the presence of TTCs and the depth of cumulative, long-term prior precipitation (both within the previous five days and within the past month). No such link was found to short-term rainfall, the presence of latrines or damages in the borehole apron. However, the risk factor analysis further suggested, to a lesser degree, that the local topography and on-site hygiene were additionally significant. In summary, the analysis indicated that an important contamination mechanism was fecal pollution of the contributing groundwater, which was unlikely due to the presence of latrines; instead, infiltration from contaminated surface water was more probable. The reduction in fecal sources in the environment in Juba is thus recommended, for example, through constructing latrines or designating protection areas near water sources. The study results contribute to the understanding of microbiological contamination of groundwater sources in areas with low incomes and high population densities, tropical climates and weathered basement complex environments, which are common in urban sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25723872

  12. Factors associated with patient delay in accessin pulmonary tuberculosis care, Gezira State, Sudan, 2009.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, E Y; Abdalla, S M; Khamis, A A; Abdelbadea, A; Abdelgadir, M A

    2013-02-01

    Analyses of patient delays in seeking treatment for tuberculosis (TB) provide useful evidence for national TB control programmes. The objectives of this study in Gezira State, Sudan were to estimate the extent of, and factors associated with, pulmonary TB patient delay in accessing care. A cross-sectional phase was conducted to determine the length of delay, followed by a nested case-control phase comparing patients delaying above or below the median time. The mean patient delay was 27.2 days, median 4 days (range 0-365 days). There were no significant differences between case and control groups in terms of age, sex, marital status, educational level or smoking status. However, patients living in urban areas, with low income status and who were housewives or unemployed were more likely to delay. Also patients with a history of contact with a TB patient, those who suspected TB and those with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were more likely to delay. PMID:23516819

  13. Recent environmental change and prehistoric human activity in Egypt and Northern Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, Kathleen

    2004-03-01

    This paper reviews the various Late Quaternary records that are available from western Egypt and northern Sudan, which includes more than 500 published radiocarbon dates and various sedimentary archives from local landscape components, including palaeolakes, soils, drainages (wadis), and archaeological sites. This palaeoenvironmental compilation frames the spatial and temporal context of local cultural activities when the region was most hospitable ˜9000-6000 BP; at this time, monsoonal weather influenced the portion of the African continental interior, creating enough convective rainfall for occasional surface water storage. In this part of the modern Sahara, rapid hydroclimatic changes play a key role in geomorphic evolution and resource availability. As 'watering holes' formed and dried up in the Early to Middle Holocene, Neolithic people developed various subsistence strategies, including opportunistic hunting of small animals (e.g. gazelle and hare), and food-related (e.g. wild sorghum, millet, and legumes) activities: gathering, plant cultivation and livestock-rearing. During its wettest phases during the 'monsoonal maximum,' the area was drought-prone, sustaining a meager steppe-shrub desert flora. Further desertification and aeolian deflation during the Middle and Late Holocene fostered technological innovation, migration and settlement, as well as the further development of agrarian communities and complex culture.

  14. LEVEL AND DETERMINANTS OF INFANT AND UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY IN WAD-MEDANI TOWN, SUDAN

    PubMed Central

    Haroun, Huda M.; Mahfouz, Mohmamed S.; Ibrahim, Khalid H.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to determine the level of infant and under-five mortality rates and to examine the effect of socioeconomic, demographic and environmental factors on the health status of the children under five years. Methods: The data for this study were collected by means of a questionnaire addressed to women in Wad-Medani, Sudan. Three hundred women in the reproductive age (15-49) years were chosen randomly for this study. The data were analyzed statistically using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Frequency distributions and a statistical test based on Chi-square for independence was conducted. Results: Infant mortality rate was 77 per 100 and child mortality rate was 67 per 100. The results revealed that immunization, child order, child birth weight, birth interval and contraceptive use had a significant influence on the mortality of children under the age of five. The mother's level of education is highly significant on the mortality of children under five years old. Conclusions: The Ministry of Health should give greater attention to improving immunization services and concentrate on health education campaigns for mothers and for the community. PMID:23012148

  15. Low neonatal blood glucose levels in cesarean-delivered term newborns at Khartoum Hospital, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Glucose is the main source of energy for organ function in neonates. There are few published recent data on neonatal glucose levels during cesarean delivery. Methods A case (cesarean delivery) -control (vaginal delivery) study was conducted at Khartoum Hospital Sudan to compare blood glucose levels of term newborns born after elective cesarean delivery with those born vaginally. Results Cord blood glucose levels at delivery were significantly lower in women who had a cesarean delivery compared with those who delivered vaginally (99.8?±?20.6 vs. 106.8?±?11.1 mg/dl, P?=?0.026), but there was no significant difference (97.8?±?16.7 vs. 102.1?±?9.6, P?=?0.110) in newborn glucose levels at 2 hours after delivery between the groups. In linear regression, cesarean delivery (-6.475 mg/dl, P?=?0.013) and maternal blood glucose levels at the time of delivery (+0.619 mg, P?

  16. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100?%) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  17. Use of healthcare services by injured people in Khartoum State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    El Tayeb, Sally; Abdalla, Safa; Van den Bergh, Graziella; Heuch, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma care is an important factor in preventing death and reducing disability. Injured persons in low- and middle-income countries are expected to use the formal healthcare system in increasing numbers. The objective of this paper is to examine use of healthcare services after injury in Khartoum State, Sudan. Methods A community-based survey using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique in Khartoum State was performed. Information on healthcare utilisation was taken from injured people. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors affecting the probability of using formal healthcare services. Results During the 12 months preceding the survey a total of 441 cases of non-fatal injuries occurred, with 260 patients accessing formal healthcare. About a quarter of the injured persons were admitted to hospital. Injured people with primary education were less likely to use formal healthcare compared to those with no education. Formal health services were most used by males and in cases of road traffic injuries. The lowest socio-economic strata were least likely to use formal healthcare. Conclusions Public health measures and social security should be strengthened by identifying other real barriers that prevent low socio-economic groups from making use of formal healthcare facilities. Integration and collaboration with traditional orthopaedic practitioners are important aspects that need further attention. PMID:25205849

  18. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48?%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22?%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8?%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4?%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2?%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11?%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5?%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100?%) and Salmonella (17, 100?%), and 30 (83?%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100?%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94?%) isolates of E. coli and (78?%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47?%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44?%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  19. Ultrasound findings in urinary shistosomaisis infection in school children in the Gezira State Central Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elmadani, Ahmed E; Hamdoun, Anas O; Monis, Ahmed; Karamino, Nhashal E; Gasmelseed, Nagla

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound findings of urinary schistosomiasis in Quran school (Khalwas) children in Gezira State Sudan, we studied all the students from two schools. A total of 103 boys were tested for urinary schistosomiasis using the urine filtration method. Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) eggs were counted. Ultrasound was performed for all the positive subjects. Seventy-three (71%) subjects were positive for S. haematobium. The mean age was 11.3 ± 2.9 years. Sixty-six (90.4%) subjects showed urinary tract abnormalities. The findings revealed the following degrees of wall thickening: 53.0% mild, 18.2% moderate and 21.2% severe. Urinary bladder polyp(s) were noted in 43.3% (single) and 40.9% (multiple) of the subjects, and calcification of the bladder wall was observed in 7.6% subjects. Ureteric dilatation was noted in 38/73 (52.0%), while hydronephrosis was detected in 19/73 (26.3%). The vast majority of urinary tract schistomiasis lesions were in the urinary bladder. Ultrasound is a useful tool for identifying the morbidity of S. haematobium in endemic areas. PMID:23354218

  20. A user's guide to the SUDAN computer program for determining the vibration modes of structural systems. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ., Jun. 1963

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, R. G.; Durling, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    The use of the SUDAN computer program for analyzing structural systems for their natural modes and frequencies of vibration is described. SUDAN is intended for structures which can be represented as an equivalent system of beam, spring, and rigid-body substructures. User-written constraint equations are used to analytically join the mass and stiffness matrices of the substructures to form the mass and stiffness matrices of the complete structure from which all the frequencies and modes of the system are determined. The SUDAN program can treat the case in which both the mass and stiffness matrices of the coupled system may be singular simultaneously. A general description of the FORTRAN IV program is given, the computer hardware and software specifications are indicated, and the input required by the program is described.

  1. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region northern Uganda, the rate of forest recovery was much higher during the second period, coinciding with the time people began leaving overcrowded Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps. I also found that fire activity largely corresponded to coarse-scale human population trends on the South Sudan and northern Uganda side of the border in that post-war fire activity decreased for all areas in South Sudan and northern Uganda except for areas near the larger towns and villages of South Sudan, where people have begun to resettle. Fires occurred most frequently in woodlands on the South Sudan side, while the greatest increase in post-war, northern Ugandan fires occurred in croplands and the forested area around the Agoro-Agu reserve, Interviews with key informants revealed that while some people fled the area during the war, many others remained in the forest to hide; however, their impact on the forests during and after the conflict has been minimal; in contrast, those interviewed believed that wildlife has been largely depleted due to the widespread access to firearms and lack of regulations and enforcement. This study demonstrates the utility of using a multi-disciplinary approach to examine aspects of forest dynamics and fire activity related to human activities and conflict and as such contributes to the nascent but growing body of research on armed conflict and the environment.

  2. The Cost of Antibiotic Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control in a Remote Area of South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Robinson, Emily; Finn, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called “SAFE” strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as “integrated NTD control,” is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. Methods and Findings A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. Conclusions In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available. PMID:22022632

  3. Endemic goitre in the Sudan despite long-standing programmes for the control of iodine deficiency disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elnour, Abdelsalam A; Saeed, Amal M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the status of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) in the Sudan more than 25 years after the initiation of IDD control programmes and to explore the causes of endemic goitre in the country. Methods Testing for IDDs was carried out in 6083 schoolchildren 6 to 12 years of age from the capital cities of nine states in different areas of the country using the three indicators recommended by the World Health Organization: the prevalence of goitre, laboratory measurements of urinary iodine concentration in casual urine samples and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels. Serum levels of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), as well as urinary secretion of thiocyanate, which can affect the transport of iodine into thyrocytes, were also measured. Findings The prevalence of goitre in the different samples ranged from 12.2% to 77.7% and was 38.8% overall. The overall median urinary iodine concentration was 6.55 ?g/dl, with the lowest median value having been found in Kosti city (2.7 ?g/dl), situated in the centre of the country, and the highest (46.4 ?g/dl) in Port Sudan, on the Red Sea coast. The highest mean serum Tg level (66.98 ng/ml) was found in Kosti city, which also had the highest prevalence of goitre. Conclusion IDDs still constitute a public health problem throughout urban areas in the Sudan and iodine deficiency appears to be the main etiological factor involved. PMID:21346923

  4. The question of women and environment in the Sudan: inquiries into eco-feminism and feminist environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Nageeb, S A

    1994-12-01

    This article discusses a theoretical framework suggested by Agarwal on eco-feminism in the context of Sudan and the Kordofam region of Sudan. The paper focuses specifically on one aspect of eco-feminism that is discussed by Shiva (1988). Eco-feminism is the link between the domination and suppression of women and the domination and exploitation of nature. Women are identified with nature, while men are closer to culture, which places women in an inferior position. Because of the link of women with nature, women have a vested interest in restructuring the domination of nature. Feminism and environmentalism both reflect egalitarian and nonhierarchical systems. This analysis tests whether women are the central actors of environment and whether women's and environmental interests can be advanced simultaneously. The Indian experience reflects the class and gender process that results in loss of knowledge and livelihoods among poor rural women. The impact is related to the interaction between ideology and political and economic power. Grass-roots resistance to environmental degradation is strong, and women are engaged due to threats to survival. Sudanese women's role, position, status, and relation to the environment is shaped by the patriarchal order, class, ethnicity, and the sexual division of labor. The Shiva concepts apply to Sudan and the Kordofan region. The marginalization of traditional farming and pastoralism has pushed the growing population into marginal environmental zones. The focus on cash-oriented development, political instability, and insufficient and corrupt bureaucracies have aggravated the environmental crisis. Social inequality has increased. Shiva's theories do not fit Sudanese society and Agarwal's perspective is too general. Some Sudanese women have accumulated wealth, commercial interests, and exploited land. PMID:12292668

  5. Mapping Land Use Land Cover Using NDVI in a Semi-arid Areas in Gum Arabic Belt, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    Gum arabic belt is most important region in Sudan with producing gum arabic in global level. Each land cover type has different spectral characteristics, absorbing some frequencies of light and reflecting others. With an understanding of the reflectance characteristics and some ground observations, it is possible to use remotely sensed data to make inferences about the type of land cover and land use. The objective of this study is to measure and classify the vegetation cover in semi-arid area in gum arbic belt in Sudan using NDVI. The remotely sensed data used in this study were NDVI images created from Terra-ASTER (2007), ETM+ (1999) and TM (1985) images of the study area (35x35 km) in the gum arabic in Kordofan region, Sudan. The values of the NDVI were examined and evaluated on pixel-by-pixel using ERDAS software and the training points collected from the field work. Supervised classification of a multi-temporal Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set was used to analyse the temporal land-cover changes. The magnitude of green vegetation was quantified to several levels and separated from other classes using the advantage of the stratification of cover classes as a function of the NDVI. Using this stratification, the study found many similarities in the value of NDVI in land use land cover classes in gum arabic belt region. Four LULC classes were indicated using the range (0.184 and below) to represent the bare and farm lands, (0.185 -0.254) represents the grass and bush lands, (0.255 -0.334) represents forest dominated by Hashab trees (0.335 and high) represents mixed woodlands. Maximum NDVI values (0.90) were found in images 1972. Further research is needed to fully determine the spatial and temporal range of the NDVI values over non-vegetated and partially vegetated areas in semi-arid areas. Key words: vegetation cover, NDVI, gum arabic belt, mapping

  6. Land use and land cover classification, changes and analysis in gum Arabic belt in North Kordofan, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Hassan E.; Csaplovics, Elmar; Elhaja, Mohamed E.; El Abbas, Mustafa M.

    2013-10-01

    The gum arabic belt in Sudan plays a significant role in environmental, social and economical aspects. This research was conducted in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends in the gum arabic belt as in the rest of the Sahelian Sudan zone. The objective of the paper is to study the classification, changes and analysis of the land use and land cover in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State in Sudan. The study used imageries from different satellites (Landsat and ASTER) and multi-temporal dates (MSS 1972, TM 1985, ETM+ 1999 and ASTER 2007) acquired in dry season. The imageries were geo-referenced and radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Image classification (pixel-based) and accuracy assessment were applied. Application of multi-temporal remote sensing data demonstrated successfully the identification and mapping of land use and land cover into five main classes. Forest dominated by Acacia senegal class was separated covering an area of 21% in the year 2007. The obvious changes and reciprocal conversions in the land use and land cover structure indicate the trends and conditions caused by the human interventions as well as ecological impacts on Acacia senegal trees. Also the study revealed that a drastic loss of forest resources occurred in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan during 1972 to 2007 (25% for Acacia senegal trees). The study concluded that, using of traditional Acacia senegal-based agro-forestry as one of the most successful form in the gum belt.

  7. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, showing present Watterson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, showing present Watterson Expressway entrance ramp, looking from area to be affected towards Beechmont Historic District, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  8. Reconciling Agency and Structure in Empirical Analysis: Smallholder Land Use in the Southern

    E-print Network

    Roy Chowdhury, Rinku

    Reconciling Agency and Structure in Empirical Analysis: Smallholder Land Use in the Southern Yucata subfields. The implications of approaching explanations of land use using this binary are illustrated systematically, drawing from empirical research on smallholder land use in the southern Yucata´n of Mexico

  9. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-04-01

    This is the second quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others.

  10. Emission behavior of sudan red 7B on dogbone-shaped gold nanorods: Aspect ratio dependence of the metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Dewan S.; Sharma, Debdulal; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-stabilized 'dogbone-shaped' gold nanorods of aspect ratio varying from 1 to 6 have been synthesized by seed-mediated growth method in aqueous medium. Then, sudan red 7B, an alien molecular probe has been used as local probe to elucidate aspect ratio dependence of the nanorods on the photophysical properties of the dye molecules. It is seen that the relative intensity decreases exponentially with increasing aspect ratio and has been attributed to decrease in overall surface area for a particular concentration of the nanorods. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching has been ascribed to the electron and energy transfer processes in the gold-fluorophore hybrid nanostructures.

  11. The effect of labor migration on relations of exchange and subordination among the Rashaayda Bedouin of Sudan.

    PubMed

    Young, W C

    1987-01-01

    This study is based on qualitative data gathered during 3 years of fieldwork among the Rashaayda, Arabic-speaking pastoralists in Sudan. Prior to 1956, every Rashiidy household was linked to other households by 3 types of social relations: 1) patrilineal descent, 2) co-residence, and 3) incorporation by purchase. After 1956, "slaves" retained membership in the tribe, but were not economically dependent on "free owners" and lived apart from "free" Rashaayda. Yet most Rashaayda sought aid from 1) patrilineal kin, 2) neighbors, and 3) former "owners" or "slaves." If the household were short of workers it could recruit extra help from neighboring households and from households that were not co-resident but were related to it agnatically. Due to rising oil prices, in 1974 opportunities for Rashiidy men in oil-exporting countries became available. The 1st Rashaayda to go to the Gulf (in 1975) were men from impoverished households who had lost most of their animals and had abandoned pastoral nomadism. There were jobs in the Gulf for expert camel racers, herders, livestock brokers, and clerks. To buy plane tickets to Mecca, the migrants sold their few remaining animals. Once these 1st migrants had found jobs, they were allowed to remain in the country as legal workers. When their terms of employment were over, most migrants returned to Sudan and transformed their wages into durable wealth. The success of this 1st group encouraged a 2nd group of less impoverished men to consider migration (1977-1980). Like the 1st group, the 2nd group had to obtain capital, contract, extra labor (at home), and investment opportunities to be able to leave. For the 2nd group, obtaining these things was more difficult: 1) they had to sell more milk and camels than they would normally, 2) they either had to travel to Saudi Arabia as pilgrims and contact employers then or purchase contracts from Rashaayda who had returned to Sudan, 3) they had to hire outsiders to work for them while they were away, and 4) they invested in jewelry, businesses, and 2nd wives. Thus, the Rashaayda developed mutual trust with some of the other pastoral peoples of the region. Exchanges between rural Rashaayda and urban Sudanese emerged (through business and marriage). The infusion of cash into the Rashaayda's economy has also enabled them to respond productively to worsening ecological conditions in Sudan. Finally, economic and political inequalities among still-pastoral Bedouin are today much less pronounced than earlier. PMID:12281017

  12. Late Precambrian (740 Ma) charnockite, enderbite, and granite from Jebel Moya, Sudan: A link between the Mozambique Belt and the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.J. ); Dawoud, A.S. )

    1991-09-01

    New Rb-Sr and whole rock and U-Pb zircon data are reported for deep-seated igneous rocks from Jebel Moya in east-central Sudan. This exposure is important because it may link the high-grade metamorphic and deep-seated igneous rocks of the Mozambique Belt with the greenschist-facies and ophiolitic assemblages of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, both of Pan-African (ca. 900-550 Ma) age. The rocks of Jebel Moya consist of pink granite, green charnockite, and dark enderbite. A twelve-point Rb-Sr whole rock isochron for all three lithologies yields an age of 730 {plus minus} 31 Ma and an initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of 0.7031 {plus minus} 1. Nearly concordant zircon ages for granite, charnockite, and enderbite are 744 {plus minus} 2,742 {plus minus} 2, and 739 {plus minus} 2 Ma, respectively. Initial {epsilon}-Nd for these rocks are indistinguishable at 3.0 {plus minus} 0.4. The data suggest that the charnockite, enderbite, and granite are all part of a deep-seated igneous complex. The initial isotopic compositions of Sr and Nd indicate that Jebel Moya melts were derived from a mantle source that experienced significantly less time-integrated depletion of LRE and LIL elements than the source of Arabian-Nubian Shield melts. The ages for Jebel Moya deep-seated igneous rocks are in accord with data from elsewhere in the Mozambique Belt indicating that peak metamorphism occurred about 700-750 Ma. The northward extension of the Mozambique Belt to the Arabian-Nubian Shield defines a single east Pan-African orogen. The principal difference between the northern and southern sectors of this orogen may be the greater degree of thickening and subsequent erosion experienced in the south during the late Precambrian, perhaps a result of continental collision between East (Australia-India) and West Gondwanaland (S. America-Africa) about 750 Ma.

  13. Determinants of Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Case-Control Study in Gedaref State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Niven; Elhag, Mousab Siddig; Elbadawi, Mobarak Elnour; Hammam, Omer; Mumina, Ann; Atia, Atia Abdalla; Etard, Jean-François; Ritmeijer, Koert; Chappuis, François

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving knowledge on local determinants of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is crucial to guide the development of relevant control strategies. This study aimed to identify individual and household level determinants of primary VL in 24 highly endemic villages of Tabarak Allah hospital’s catchment area, Gedaref State, Sudan. Methods From September 2012 to July 2013, in an unmatched case-control design, 198 patients with primary VL were compared to 801 controls free of VL symptoms and with a negative VL rapid test. Using random spatial sampling, controls were selected with a distribution of age, sex and village of residence proportionate to the distribution of the target population. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Children and men were at higher risk of VL. Reporting VL patient(s) in the household in the previous year was the strongest VL risk factor. In a multivariate analysis, VL risk increased with household size, sleep location (outside the yard, not in the farm), evening outdoor activities in the rainy season (playing, watching TV, radio listening), use of ground nut oil as animal repellent and of smoke of Acacia seyal as indoor repellent, presence of dogs in the yard at night, Acacia nilotica in the yard’s immediate surroundings and of a forest at eye range. VL risk appeared to decrease with the use of drinking water sources other than the village water tank, a buffer distance from the adjacent house yard, and with the presence of animals other than dogs in the yard at night. In contrast with previous studies, housing factors, mosquito-net use, black cotton soil, ethnicity, socioeconomic index, presence of Balanites aegyptica and Azadirachta indica in the yard were not independent VL determinants. Discussion and conclusion Although these results do not provide evidence of causality, they provide useful suggestions for guiding further intervention studies on VL preventive measures. PMID:26544177

  14. Immune Memory to Sudan Virus: Comparison between Two Separate Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Sobarzo, Ariel; Eskira, Yael; Herbert, Andrew S.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Stonier, Spencer W.; Ochayon, David E.; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Balinandi, Steven; Kislev, Yaara; Tali, Neta; Lewis, Eli C.; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Dye, John M.; Yavelsky, Victoria; Lobel, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Recovery from ebolavirus infection in humans is associated with the development of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. According to recent studies, individuals that did not survive infection with ebolaviruses appear to have lacked a robust adaptive immune response and the expression of several early innate response markers. However, a comprehensive protective immune profile has yet to be described. Here, we examine cellular memory immune responses among survivors of two separate Ebolavirus outbreaks (EVDs) due to Sudan virus (SUDV) infection in Uganda—Gulu 2000–2001 and Kibaale 2012. Freshly collected blood samples were stimulated with inactivated SUDV, as well as with recombinant SUDV or Ebola virus (EBOV) GP (GP1–649). In addition, ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization assays were performed to determine anti-SUDV IgG titers and neutralization capacity. Cytokine expression was measured in whole blood cultures in response to SUDV and SUDV GP stimulation in both survivor pools, demonstrating recall responses that indicate immune memory. Cytokine responses between groups were similar but had distinct differences. Neutralizing, SUDV-specific IgG activity against irradiated SUDV and SUDV recombinant proteins were detected in both survivor cohorts. Furthermore, humoral and cell-mediated crossreactivity to EBOV and EBOV recombinant GP1–649 was observed in both cohorts. In conclusion, immune responses in both groups of survivors demonstrate persistent recognition of relevant antigens, albeit larger cohorts are required in order to reach greater statistical significance. The differing cytokine responses between Gulu and Kibaale outbreak survivors suggests that each outbreak may not yield identical memory responses and promotes the merits of studying the immune responses among outbreaks of the same virus. Finally, our demonstration of cross-reactive immune recognition suggests that there is potential for developing cross-protective vaccines for ebolaviruses. PMID:25569078

  15. Immune memory to Sudan virus: comparison between two separate disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Sobarzo, Ariel; Eskira, Yael; Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Stonier, Spencer W; Ochayon, David E; Fedida-Metula, Shlomit; Balinandi, Steven; Kislev, Yaara; Tali, Neta; Lewis, Eli C; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Dye, John M; Yavelsky, Victoria; Lobel, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Recovery from ebolavirus infection in humans is associated with the development of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. According to recent studies, individuals that did not survive infection with ebolaviruses appear to have lacked a robust adaptive immune response and the expression of several early innate response markers. However, a comprehensive protective immune profile has yet to be described. Here, we examine cellular memory immune responses among survivors of two separate Ebolavirus outbreaks (EVDs) due to Sudan virus (SUDV) infection in Uganda-Gulu 2000-2001 and Kibaale 2012. Freshly collected blood samples were stimulated with inactivated SUDV, as well as with recombinant SUDV or Ebola virus (EBOV) GP (GP1-649). In addition, ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization assays were performed to determine anti-SUDV IgG titers and neutralization capacity. Cytokine expression was measured in whole blood cultures in response to SUDV and SUDV GP stimulation in both survivor pools, demonstrating recall responses that indicate immune memory. Cytokine responses between groups were similar but had distinct differences. Neutralizing, SUDV-specific IgG activity against irradiated SUDV and SUDV recombinant proteins were detected in both survivor cohorts. Furthermore, humoral and cell-mediated crossreactivity to EBOV and EBOV recombinant GP1-649 was observed in both cohorts. In conclusion, immune responses in both groups of survivors demonstrate persistent recognition of relevant antigens, albeit larger cohorts are required in order to reach greater statistical significance. The differing cytokine responses between Gulu and Kibaale outbreak survivors suggests that each outbreak may not yield identical memory responses and promotes the merits of studying the immune responses among outbreaks of the same virus. Finally, our demonstration of cross-reactive immune recognition suggests that there is potential for developing cross-protective vaccines for ebolaviruses. PMID:25569078

  16. 'Gupton' southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) are hybrids derived from crosses between the (northern) highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and germplasm developed from Vaccinium spp. that are both native and adapted to the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberries have an advantage o...

  17. Pearl southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...

  18. Southern Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image shows ice-front retreat in part of the southern Antarctic Peninsula from 1947 to 2009. USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. The southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula is one area studied as part of this project, and is summariz...

  19. Southern Screamer in Pantanal

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Southern screamer along marsh boardwalk at Fortín Patria, Pantanal. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. This region, situated in the extreme northeastern corner of western Paraguay and extending south along the Paraguay river forms a southern...

  20. The Rhodope Zone as a primary sediment source of the southern Thrace basin (NE Greece and NW Turkey): evidence from detrital heavy minerals and implications for central-eastern Mediterranean palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, L.; Critelli, S.; Cavazza, W.; Meinhold, G.; von Eynatten, H.; Manetti, P.

    2015-04-01

    Detrital heavy mineral analysis coupled with a regional geological review provide key elements to re-evaluate the distribution of the Rhodope metamorphic zone (SE Europe) in the region and its role in determining the evolution of the Thrace basin. We focus on the Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary successions exposed in the southern Thrace basin margin to determine the dispersal pathways of eroded crustal elements, of both oceanic and continental origins, as well as their different contributions through time. Lithological aspects and tectonic data coupled with geochemistry and geochronology of metamorphic terranes exposed in the area point to a common origin of tectonic units exposed in NW Turkey (Biga Peninsula) with those of NE Greece and SE Bulgaria (Rhodope region). The entire region displays (1) common extensional signatures, consisting of comparable granitoid intrusion ages, and a NE-SW sense of shear (2) matching zircon age populations between the metapelitic and metamafic rocks of the Circum-Rhodope Belt (NE Greece) and those of the Çamlica-Kemer complex and Çetmi mélange exposed in NW Turkey. Detrital heavy mineral abundances from Eocene-Oligocene sandstones of the southern Thrace basin demonstrate the influence of two main sediment sources mostly of ultramafic/ophiolitic and low- to medium-grade metamorphic lithologies, plus a third, volcanic source limited to the late Eocene-Oligocene. Detrital Cr-spinel chemistry is used to understand the origin of the ultramafic material and to discriminate the numerous ultramafic sources exposed in the region. Compositional and stratigraphic data indicate a major influence of the metapelitic source in the eastern part (Gallipoli Peninsula) during the initial stages of sedimentation with increasing contributions from metamafic sources through time. On the other hand, the western and more external part of the southern Thrace margin (Gökçeada, Samothraki and Limnos) displays compositional signatures according to a mixed provenance from the metapelitic and metamafic sources of the Circum-Rhodope Belt (Çaml?ca-Kemer complex and Çetmi mélange). Tectonic restoration and compositional signatures provide constraints on the Palaeogene palaeogeography of this sector of the central-eastern Mediterranean region.

  1. The proximal marine record of the Marsili Seamount in the last 7 ka (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): Implications for the active processes in the Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburrino, S.; Vallefuoco, M.; Ventura, G.; Insinga, D. D.; Sprovieri, M.; Tiepolo, M.; Passaro, S.

    2015-10-01

    The volcanism of back-arc basins resembles that of oceanic spreading centers, rifts, and, in vanishing stages, extensional arcs, depending on the amount and rate of the dynamic processes associated to the subduction. Marsili Seamount (MS) represents the axial ridge of the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc basin, which is connected to the slab roll-backing processes affecting the Calabrian Arc (Italy). The Southern Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc is characterized by a significant decline in the spreading rate with time (2.8-3.1 mm/a to less than 1.8 mm/a in the last 0.78-1 Ma). MS develops between about 1 Ma and 3 ka and mainly consists of lava flows erupted from central and fissural vents. The MS products belong to the calcalkaline association and range in composition from basalts to trachytes. We present new stratigraphic, geochronological, and geochemical data (glass shards and minerals) of tephra from a 2.35 m long gravity core (Marsili1 core) recovered on MS at 943 m b.s.l. We recognize five tephras [M1 (top of the core) to M5 (bottom)] represented by poorly to highly vesiculated ashes. The lowermost tephra M5 emplaced between ca. 7 and 26 ka B.P.; it represents the less evolved distal counterpart of the Unit D related to the Biancavilla-Montalto products of Mount Etna (Sicily). The M1 to M4 tephras emplaced between 2.1 and 7.2 ka B.P. and are related to strombolian-like submarine eruptions of NNE-SSW aligned MS vents. The composition of the M1-M4 glasses ranges from basaltic trachyandesites to andesites and trachytes. The M1 to M4 magmas mainly originated by crystal fractionation from a heterogeneous mantle source with varying LILE enrichments by subduction-related fluids. The degree of evolution of the MS magmas increases with decreasing time. The formation of vertically stacked magma storage zones at the crust/mantle interface and within MS is related to the vanishing Southern Tyrrhenian Sea opening, which implies the rapid (< 1 Ma) evolution from a slow spreading back-arc setting to an arc system.

  2. A seasonal trend of single scattering albedo in southern African biomass-burning particles: Implications for satellite products and estimates of emissions for the world's largest biomass-burning source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Piketh, S. J.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Hyer, E. J.; Ward, D. E.; Dubovik, O.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Sorokin, M.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.

    2013-06-01

    As a representative site of the southern African biomass-burning region, sun-sky data from the 15 year Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) deployment at Mongu, Zambia, was analyzed. For the biomass-burning season months (July-November), we investigate seasonal trends in aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals. The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from ~0.84 in July to ~0.93 in November (from 0.78 to 0.90 at 675 nm in these same months). There was no significant change in particle size, in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months, nor any significant trend in the Ångström exponent (440-870 nm; r2 = 0.02). A significant downward seasonal trend in imaginary refractive index (r2 = 0.43) suggests a trend of decreasing black carbon content in the aerosol composition as the burning season progresses. Similarly, burning season SSA retrievals for the Etosha Pan, Namibia AERONET site also show very similar increasing single scattering albedo values and decreasing imaginary refractive index as the season progresses. Furthermore, retrievals of SSA at 388 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument satellite sensor show similar seasonal trends as observed by AERONET and suggest that this seasonal shift is widespread throughout much of southern Africa. A seasonal shift in the satellite retrieval bias of aerosol optical depth from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer collection 5 dark target algorithm is consistent with this seasonal SSA trend since the algorithm assumes a constant value of SSA. Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, however, appears less sensitive to the absorption-induced bias.

  3. A Seasonal Trend of Single Scattering Albedo in Southern African Biomass-burning Particles: Implications for Satellite Products and Estimates of Emissions for the World's Largest Biomass-burning Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Piketh, S. J.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Hyer, E. J.; Ward, D. E.; Dubovik, O.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Sorokin, M.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.

    2013-01-01

    As a representative site of the southern African biomass-burning region, sun-sky data from the 15 year Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) deployment at Mongu, Zambia, was analyzed. For the biomass-burning season months (July-November), we investigate seasonal trends in aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals. The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from approx.. 0.84 in July to approx. 0.93 in November (from 0.78 to 0.90 at 675 nm in these same months). There was no significant change in particle size, in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months, nor any significant trend in the Angstrom exponent (440-870 nm; r(exp 2) = 0.02). A significant downward seasonal trend in imaginary refractive index (r(exp 2) = 0.43) suggests a trend of decreasing black carbon content in the aerosol composition as the burning season progresses. Similarly, burning season SSA retrievals for the Etosha Pan, Namibia AERONET site also show very similar increasing single scattering albedo values and decreasing imaginary refractive index as the season progresses. Furthermore, retrievals of SSA at 388 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument satellite sensor show similar seasonal trends as observed by AERONET and suggest that this seasonal shift is widespread throughout much of southern Africa. A seasonal shift in the satellite retrieval bias of aerosol optical depth from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer collection 5 dark target algorithm is consistent with this seasonal SSA trend since the algorithm assumes a constant value of SSA. Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer, however, appears less sensitive to the absorption-induced bias.

  4. Towards Social Progress and Post-Imperial Modernity? Colonial Politics of Literacy in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1946-1956

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seri-Hersch, Iris

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the politics of literacy in late colonial Sudan. Drawing upon hitherto untapped archival sources in English and Arabic, it focuses on two key questions: What were the purposes and uses of literacy in the eyes of colonial authorities? What means were used to spread literacy skills among Sudanese people? Positioning these…

  5. Using Transformative Models of Adult Literacy in Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding Processes at Community Level: Examples from Guinea, Sierra Leone and Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffery, Juliet

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on the experience in Guinea, Sierra Leone and South Sudan, to explore how the methodology and modalities of community based participatory literacy can interrelate and combine with those of conflict resolution and peacebuilding. The paper considers how transformative models of literacy, such as those of Freire, REFLECT, the…

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 742 - Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and Sudan Contract Sanctity Dates and Related Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and Sudan Contract Sanctity Dates and Related Policies No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 742 - Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and Sudan Contract Sanctity Dates and Related Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and Sudan Contract Sanctity Dates and Related Policies No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 742 - Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and Sudan Contract Sanctity Dates and Related Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and Sudan Contract Sanctity Dates and Related Policies No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 742 - Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and Sudan Contract Sanctity Dates and Related Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and Sudan Contract Sanctity Dates and Related Policies No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 742 - Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and Sudan Contract Sanctity Dates and Related Policies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-Terrorism Controls: North Korea, Syria and Sudan Contract Sanctity Dates and Related Policies No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  11. Synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer strategy and its application in the Sudan dyes residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyu; Chen, Liang; Pan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Sicen

    2015-07-31

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have become a hotspot owing to the dual functions of target recognition and magnetic separation. In this study, the MMIPs were obtained by the surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using Sudan I as the template. The resultant MMIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and X-ray diffraction. Benefiting from the controlled/living property of the RAFT strategy, the uniform MIP layer was successfully grafted on the surface of RAFT agent-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles, favoring the fast mass transfer and rapid binding kinetics. The developed MMIPs were used as the solid-phase extraction sorbents to selectively extract four Sudan dyes (Sudan I, II, III, and IV) from chili powder samples. The recoveries of the spiked samples in chili powder samples ranged from 74.1 to 93.3% with RSD lower than 6.4% and the relative standard uncertainty lower than 0.029. This work provided a good platform for the extraction and removal of Sudan dyes in complicated matrixes and demonstrated a bright future for the application of the well-constructed MMIPs in the field of solid-phase extraction. PMID:26077971

  12. An assessment of gender inequitable norms and gender-based violence in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Following decades of conflict, South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011. Prolonged conflict, which included gender-based violence (GBV), exacerbated gender disparities. This study aimed to assess attitudes towards gender inequitable norms related to GBV and to estimate the frequency of GBV in sampled communities of South Sudan. Methods Applying a community-based participatory research approach, 680 adult male and female household respondents were interviewed in seven sites within South Sudan in 2009–2011. Sites were selected based on program catchment area for a non-governmental organization and respondents were selected by quota sampling. The verbally-administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Results were stratified by gender, age, and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and 2 did not provide gender data. Among respondents, 82% of females and 81% of males agreed that ‘a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together’. The majority, 68% of females and 63% of males, also agreed that ‘there are times when a woman deserves to be beaten’. Women (47%) were more likely than men (37%) to agree that ‘it is okay for a man to hit his wife if she won’t have sex with him’ (p=0.005). Agreement with gender inequitable norms decreased with education. Across sites, 69% of respondents knew at least one woman who was beaten by her husband in the past month and 42% of respondents knew at least one man who forced his wife or partner to have sex. Conclusion The study reveals an acceptance of violence against women among sampled communities in South Sudan. Both women and men agreed with gender inequitable norms, further supporting that GBV programming should address the attitudes of both women and men. The results support promotion of education as a strategy for addressing gender inequality and GBV. The findings reveal a high frequency of GBV across all assessment sites; however, population-based studies are needed to determine the prevalence of GBV in South Sudan. South Sudan, the world’s newest nation, has the unique opportunity to implement policies that promote gender equality and the protection of women. PMID:23497469

  13. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  14. Multifrequency polarimetric ALOS PALSAR and RADARSAT-2 analysis over the archaeological area of Djebel Barkal (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patruno, Jolanda; Dore, Nicole; Pottier, Eric; Crespi, Mattia

    2013-04-01

    Differences in vegetation growth and in soil moisture content generate ground anomalies which can be linked to the presence of subsurface anthropic structures. Such evidences have been studied and observed for a long time by means of aerial photographs, thanks to planned campaigns or through the observation of historical II World War acquisitions first, and thanks to the very high spatial resolution of optical satellites later. The present research constitutes a contribution to the non-invasive archaeological investigation methodology carried out in the last years by several institutions and cultural organizations. The work aims to exploit the technique of SAR Polarimetry for the detection of surface and subsurface archaeological structures, comparing ALOS PALSAR L-band, with a central frequency of 1.27 GHz, with RADARSAT-2 C-band sensor, whose central frequency is 5.405 GHz. The choice to analyze satellite radar sensors capabilities is based on their 24-hour observations, as they are independent from Sun illumination and meteorological conditions. Moreover, they could provide additional information concerning electromagnetic properties of the target, qualities not derivable from optical images. A multi frequency comparison between the two SAR sensors has been performed over the Napatan (900-270 BC) Meroitic (270 BC-350 AD) area of Djebel Barkal, located in Sudan and inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 2003. It constitutes one of the five Napatan and Meroitic archaeological sites stretching over more than 60 km in the Nile valley, in an arid area part of Nubia. The area, not completely excavated, presents thombs, pyramids and sacred palaces. The dataset we disposed of is composed of two archived ALOS PALSAR polarimetric images and four RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data specifically acquired in the same year (2012). All the products have been then processed and integrated with the available optical data and the cartographic documentation derivable from UNESCO reports over the area. A multitemporal analysis has been also performed thanks to the notable difference in time acquisition between ALOS PALSAR and RADARSAT-2 data. The great potential of the two polarimetric instruments with different frequency for the detection of archaeological remains has been demonstrated thanks to the sand penetration capability of both C-band and L-band sensors. The possibility of monitoring and observing ancient sites by means of remotely acquired SAR data could be an added value to the archaeological research, especially for those areas in which instable political situations do not allow ground truth and surveys in situ.

  15. Environmental crisis and its impact on women. The case of the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Bedri, B; Osama, S

    1992-06-01

    The savannah belt of the Sudan, particularly the central region of the northern Kordofan, provides resources for agricultural and pastoral activities and yields the destruction and misuse of renewable resources. Desertification has eliminated lands from production at a time when there is a greater demand for land from the increasing population. Environmental damage also involves water deficiencies and seasonal rain patterns, which promote communal grazing and lead to overgrazing. Wood or charcoal for fuel is increasingly in short supply, and the need to travel further to obtain access to fire wood and charcoal has increased. Other conditions which contribute to environmental degradation are the variability of the climate, the lack of rainfall, or presence of drought, and rural-urban migration. Agricultural production is low due to overregulation of irrigated land, inefficiency of agricultural cooperatives, inappropriate or unjust pricing policies, lack of inputs, and high cost of transportation and agricultural operations. When environmental deterioration occurs, woman are the first to suffer; when economic gains occur, women are the last to receive the benefits. Women are affected through increased work loads, and harder work loads cause by loss of productivity of the land. The fuel wood crisis means women must walk farther to obtain adequate supplies for cooking. Also, when wood is unavailable or of limited availability or the price rises, the quality of food declines or a reduction