Science.gov

Sample records for southwest ocean dredged-material

  1. Dredged material disposal in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.R.; Ketchum, B.H.; Duedall, I.W.; Park, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include sediment-copper reservoir formation by the burrowing polychaete Nephtys incisa, factors affecting the uptake of cadmium and other trace metals from marine sediments by bottom-dwelling marine invertebrates, and changes in the levels of PCBs in Mytilus edulis associated with dredged-material disposal.

  2. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. )

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  3. 78 FR 38672 - Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...The EPA is proposing to designate four new Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site(s) (ODMDS) located offshore of Texas for the disposal of dredged material from the Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW), pursuant to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, as amended (MPRSA). The new sites are needed for the disposal of additional dredged material associated with the SNWW Channel Improvement......

  4. DREDGED MATERIAL TRANSPORT AT DEEP-OCEAN DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of environmental impact of dredged material disposal in deep ocean water calls for predictions of water column concentration, exposure time as well as the impacted area of the bottom (footprint). redictions based on vertical willing and horizontal advection of single p...

  5. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ...: Comments. The comment period for the proposed rule and draft EIS published May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29687), is... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation... designate the Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site pursuant to the draft EIS,...

  6. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from MOTBY

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The National Park Service, US Department of the Interior requested U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/New York District (USACE-NYD) to evaluate sediments around the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY) in Bayonne, New Jersey for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from MOTBY. Tests and analyses were conducted on MOTBY sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from MOTBY included grain size and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses and one acute toxicity test with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita. In addition to this benthic toxicity test, a bioaccumulation test (28-day exposure) was conducted.

  7. 75 FR 19311 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...The EPA is proposing to designate the Guam Deep Ocean Disposal Site (G-DODS) as a permanent ocean dredged material disposal site (ODMDS) located offshore of Guam. Dredging is essential for maintaining safe navigation at port and naval facilities in Apra Harbor and other locations around Guam. Not all dredged materials are suitable for beneficial re-use (e.g., construction materials, landfill......

  8. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Register (FR). Historically, dredged material generated around Guam by the Navy and the Port Authority of... will, wherever feasible, designate ocean dumping sites beyond the edge of the continental shelf and... continental land mass and does not have a continental shelf. In the ] absence of a shelf break,...

  9. 78 FR 939 - Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in... Potential Designation of One or More Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to Serve the Eastern...

  10. FERNANDINA BEACH OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE STATUS AND TRENDS, AUGUST 2005.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This EPA Region 4 study documents the current status (2005) of the Fernandina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site. It includes an assessment of the benthic sediment quality, water quality and benthic bilogical communities. The report is located at the following web site: http...

  11. Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters

    SciTech Connect

    Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

  12. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... the Federal Register in 1977 (42 FR 2461), a status superseded by later statutory changes to the MPRSA. Mounding at Site A and concern over the potential for ocean currents to move sediments from Site A back..., EPA published a proposed rule at 75 FR 5708 to designate two new ocean dredged material disposal...

  13. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Shark River Project area

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Shark River Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Tests and analyses were conducted on the Shark River sediments. The evaluation of proposed dredged material consisted of bulk sediment chemical and physical analysis, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests. Individual sediment core samples collected from the Shark River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One sediment composite was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate, prepared from suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Shark River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs. Benthic acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests were performed.

  14. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  18. Impact of the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site on nearby hard bottom reef habitats.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Stacie E; Gayes, Paul T; Viso, Richard F; Bergquist, Derk C; Jutte, Pamela C; Van Dolah, Robert F

    2010-05-01

    The deepening of shipping and entrance channels in Charleston Harbor (South Carolina, USA) was completed in April 2002 and placed an estimated 22 million cubic yards (mcy) of material in the offshore Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS). To determine if sediments dispersed from the ODMDS were negatively affecting invertebrate and/or finfish communities at hard bottom reef areas around the disposal area, six study sites were established: three close to and downdrift of the ODMDS and three upcurrent and farther from the ODMDS. These sites were monitored biannually from 2000 to 2005 using diver surveys and annually using simultaneous underwater video tows and detailed sidescan-sonar. In general, the sediment characteristics of downdrift sites and reference sites changed similarly over time. Overall, the hard bottom reef areas and their associated communities showed little evidence of degradation resulting from the movement of sediments from the Charleston ODMDS during the study period. PMID:20089285

  19. 75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... policy to prepare a voluntary National Environmental Policy document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the designation of an ODMDS off the...

  20. UTILIZING A CHIRP SONAR TO ACCURATELY CHARACTERIZE NEWLY DEPOSITED MATERIAL AT THE CALCASIEU OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution of dredged sediments is measured at the Calcasieu Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) using a chirp sonar immediately after disposal and two months later. ubbottom reflection data, generated by a chirp sonar transmitting a 4 to 20 kHz FM sweep, is proces...

  1. 76 FR 43685 - Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in the Gulf of Mexico Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... for Voluntary Preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Documents (63 FR 58045), and in... AGENCY Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in the Gulf of Mexico Off the Mouth... Act of 1972 (MPRSA), and 40 CFR Part 228 (Criteria for the Management of Disposal Sites for...

  2. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Eastchester Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Tokos, J.J.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Eastchester project (Federal Project [FP] No. 6) was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area in the Hutchinson River to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Eastchester was one of seven waterways that the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water- column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Eighteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Eastchester project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two composite sediment samples, representing the upstream and lower reaches of the area proposed for dredging, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the two Eastchester sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. An additional 1 1 composite samples were created for the USACE-New England Division (USACE-NED) using the same 18 Eastchester core samples but combined into different composites. These composites were analyzed for metals, chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHS, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed along with bioaccumulation tests.

  3. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  4. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dredged materials. 227.13 Section 227.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.13 Dredged materials. (a) Dredged materials are...

  5. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dredged materials. 227.13 Section 227.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Environmental Impact § 227.13 Dredged materials. (a) Dredged materials are...

  6. Long-term benthic infaunal monitoring at a deep-ocean dredged material disposal site off Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, James A.; Maciolek, Nancy J.; Ota, Allan Y.; Williams, Isabelle P.

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and thirty-five benthic infaunal samples were collected from the San Francisco Deep-Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) over a 10-year period from January 1996 to September 2004. Each sample was 0.1 m 2, cut to a depth of 10 cm, and sieved through a 300-μm mesh. A total of 810 species of benthic invertebrates were identified; the majority of taxa (65.4%) new to science. The fauna represents a rich lower slope infaunal assemblage that rivals similarly studied locations in the western North Atlantic. No regional impact or degradation of benthic infauna due to dredged material disposal was detected. All reference stations and stations on the site boundary maintained high species richness and diversity during the monitoring period. Exceptions included an occasional sample with anomalously high numbers of one or two species that reduced the diversity and/or equitability. Within SF-DODS species richness and diversity were often reduced. Stations within the disposal site were recolonized by the same taxa that normally occurred in adjacent reference areas. Initial colonizers of fresh dredged material included spionid and paraonid polychaetes that were typical dominants at the site. At least one polychaete species, Ophelina sp. 1, sometimes colonized dredged materials containing coarse sand. One sample at Station 13, located in the middle of SF-DODS (September 2002), contained 57 species of benthic invertebrates, suggesting that colonization of fresh dredged material is rapid. It seems unlikely that larval dispersal and settlement account for this rapid recolonization; therefore it is postulated that adult organisms from adjacent areas move to the disturbed sites via boundary layer currents. The steep continental slope adjacent to SF-DODS is subject to turbidity flows and the resident fauna are likely pre-adapted to rapidly colonize disturbed sediments. Larval dispersal, especially by spionid polychaetes such as Prionospio delta, may also be important in colonizing

  7. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Port Chester, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Port Chester was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Tests and analyses were conducted on Port Chester sediment core samples. Because the Port Chester area is located on the border between New York and southeast Connecticut, its dredged material may also be considered for disposal at the Central Long Island Sound Disposal Site. The sediment evaluation consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and dredged material elutriate preparations, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Port Chester were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. In addition, sediment was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  8. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Buttermilk Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Buttermilk Channel was one of seven waterways that was sampled and evaluated for dredging and sediment disposal. Sediment samples were collected and analyses were conducted on sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. A composite sediment samples, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  9. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, M.E.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-07-01

    This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the proposed disposal of Wilmington Harbor and Military Ocean Terminal, Sunny Point (MOTSU), North Carolina, sediments in the ocean. The report is divided into five sections. Section 1.0 is the introduction containing a brief overview of the study and the study objectives. Section 2.0 describes the methods and materials used for sample collection, processing, toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, physical/chemical analysis of sediments and tissues, data analysis, and quality assurance procedures. Section 3.0 presents the results of field collections, sediment chemistry, toxicological testing, and tissue chemistry resulting from bioaccumulation exposures. Section 4.0 presents a discussion of the results and summary conclusions concerning the acceptability of the Wilmington Harbor and MOTSU dredged material for ocean disposal. Section 5.0 lists the literature cited in support of this document. A series of appendixes contain detailed data listings.

  10. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... permits. Pursuant to its voluntary NEPA policy, published at 63 FR 58045 (October 29, 1998), EPA typically... designation through a rulemaking proposal published in the Federal Register (FR), as here. Formal designation... EPA will, wherever feasible, designate ocean dumping sites beyond the edge of the continental...

  11. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  12. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  13. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hudson River, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Hudson River (Federal Project No. 41) was one of seven waterways that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Sediment samples were collected from the Hudson River. Tests and analyses were conducted on Hudson River sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hudson River included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Hudson River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). A composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of Hudson River sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed with three species. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  14. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineering (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 1 of a two-volume data report that presents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as a full presentation of data and results in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 contains the remaining data in Appendixes I through L.

  15. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 2 of a two-volume data report that represents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as data and results presented in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 includes the remaining data presented in Appendixes I through L.

  16. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Federal Projects in New York and New Jersey and the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY)

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Kohn, N.P.; Gruendell, B.D.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Rosman, L.B.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is authorized by Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, and by the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) and Amendments of 1977 to permit, evaluate, and regulate the disposal of dredged material in ocean waters to minimize adverse environmental effects. Compliance with the regulations of the MPRSA calls for physical and biological testing of sediment proposed for dredging prior to its disposal in ocean waters. The testing required by the MPRSA criteria is conducted under a testing manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the `Green Book.` Testing protocols in the Green Book include bulk sediment analysis, grain size analysis, elutriate testing, and biological testing. The biological testing includes bioassays for acute toxicity as well as analysis to determine bioaccumulation of certain contaminants by marine organisms. The objective of the USACE-NYD Federal Projects Program was to evaluate sediment proposed for dredging and unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. The results of analytical measurements and bioassays performed on the test sediments were compared with analyses of sediment from the Mud Dump Reference Site to determine whether the test sediments were acutely toxic to marine organisms or resulted in statistically significantly greater bioaccumulation of contaminants in marine organisms, relative to the reference sediment. Testing for the federal project areas was performed according to the requirements.

  17. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  18. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accomodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site enviromments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 1 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains project background, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusions.

  19. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  20. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 B of -42-foot project). Volume 2, Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Ward, J.A.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Barrows, E.S.; Goodwin, S.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-06-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) San Francisco District, to deepen and widen the navigational channels of the Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors to accommodate deeper-draft vessels. The USACE is considering several disposal options for the dredged material removed during these channel improvements including open-water disposal. Dredged material proposed for open-water disposal must be evaluated to determine the potential impacts of the disposal activity on the water column and disposal site environments. The USACE requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct studies to evaluate open-water disposal options for Oakland Harbor sediments. This request developed into the Oakland Harbor Phase III Program. This is Volume 2 of a two-volume report that presents information gathered to determine the suitability of ocean disposal of sediments dredged from Oakland Harbor. This volume contains the Appendixes (A through N), which provide details of the data analyses and full presentation of the data and results.

  1. 75 FR 5708 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... the Federal Register in 1977 (42 FR 2461), a status superseded by later statutory changes to the MPRSA. Mounding at Site A and concern over the potential for ocean currents to move sediments from Site A back... Procedures for Voluntary Preparation of NEPA Documents,'' (Voluntary NEPA Policy), 63 FR 58045, (October...

  2. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... municipal or industrial wastes or by runoff from terrestrial sources such as agricultural lands. (b) Dredged... existing and historical sources of pollution so as to provide reasonable assurance that such material has not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does...

  3. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... municipal or industrial wastes or by runoff from terrestrial sources such as agricultural lands. (b) Dredged... existing and historical sources of pollution so as to provide reasonable assurance that such material has not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does...

  4. 40 CFR 227.13 - Dredged materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... municipal or industrial wastes or by runoff from terrestrial sources such as agricultural lands. (b) Dredged... existing and historical sources of pollution so as to provide reasonable assurance that such material has not been contaminated by such pollution. (c) When dredged material proposed for ocean dumping does...

  5. ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

  6. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... through the territorial sea for ocean disposal. (2) The public hearing procedures of 33 CFR part 327... document. District engineers will consider the criteria of 40 CFR parts 227 and 228 when selecting ocean... ODA. (2) As provided by the EPA regulations at 40 CFR 225.2(b-e) for implementing the procedures...

  7. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... through the territorial sea for ocean disposal. (2) The public hearing procedures of 33 CFR part 327... document. District engineers will consider the criteria of 40 CFR parts 227 and 228 when selecting ocean... ODA. (2) As provided by the EPA regulations at 40 CFR 225.2(b-e) for implementing the procedures...

  8. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... through the territorial sea for ocean disposal. (2) The public hearing procedures of 33 CFR part 327... document. District engineers will consider the criteria of 40 CFR parts 227 and 228 when selecting ocean... ODA. (2) As provided by the EPA regulations at 40 CFR 225.2(b-e) for implementing the procedures...

  9. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... through the territorial sea for ocean disposal. (2) The public hearing procedures of 33 CFR part 327... document. District engineers will consider the criteria of 40 CFR parts 227 and 228 when selecting ocean... ODA. (2) As provided by the EPA regulations at 40 CFR 225.2(b-e) for implementing the procedures...

  10. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project). Volume 2, Appendixes I through L

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 2 of a two-volume data report that represents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as data and results presented in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 includes the remaining data presented in Appendixes I through L.

  11. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 of 38-Foot Project). Volume 1, Background and appendixes A through H

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Kohn, N.P.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the US Army Corps of Engineering (USACE), environmental studies were conducted by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to evaluate the suitability of sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor for dredging and ocean disposal. During the Phase 3 38-Foot Project, sediment cores were collected from mudline to {minus}39 ft mean lower low water at various locations in Oakland Inner Harbor channel and allocated to six composite samples. These composites were evaluated through physical/chemical analyses, acute toxicity to sensitive marine organisms, and bioaccumulation potential. Sediment samples from individual locations were tested for physical/chemical parameters only. The results of toxicological and bioaccumulation testing may be used by USACE to determine the amount of potential dredged material from Oakland Inner Harbor channel acceptable for open-water disposal as defined by the Draft Implementation Manual (EPA/USACE 1990) and consistent with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662). This is Volume 1 of a two-volume data report that presents the data gathered during the Oakland Harbor Phase 3 38-Foot Project, conducted in the Fall of 1990. This data report does not include interpretation or statistical analysis of the 38-Foot data. Volume 1 includes the project background as well as a full presentation of data and results in Appendixes A through H. Volume 2 contains the remaining data in Appendixes I through L.

  12. 33 CFR 336.2 - Transportation of dredged material for the purpose of disposal into ocean waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... through the territorial sea for ocean disposal. (2) The public hearing procedures of 33 CFR part 327... ODA. (2) As provided by the EPA regulations at 40 CFR 225.2(b-e) for implementing the procedures of... provisions of 40 CFR 225.3 are followed and the Administrator grants a waiver of the criteria pursuant...

  13. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  14. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 2 of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Strand, J.A.; Kohn, N.P.; Squires, A.L. )

    1990-09-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 to deepen and widen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California, to accommodate modern deep-draft vessels. The recommended plan consists of deepening the harbor channels from the presently authorized water depth of {minus}35 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) to {minus}42 ft MLLW and supplying the harbor with adequate turning basins and berthing areas. Offshore ocean disposal of the dredged sediment is being considered, provided there is no evident of harmful ecological effects. It harmful ecological effects are not evident then the appropriate certifications from state environmental quality agencies and concurrence from the Environmental Protection Agency can be obtained to allow disposal of sediment. To help provide the scientific basis for determining whether Oakland Harbor sediments are suitable for offshore disposal, the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) collected sediment cores from 23 stations in Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, evaluated these sediment cores geologically, performed chemical analyses for selected contaminants in sediments, conducted a series of solid phase toxicity tests with four sensitive marine invertebrates and assessed the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-associated contaminants in the tissues of Macoma Nasuta. 43 refs., 26 figs., 61 tabs.

  15. DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site with computer models, available for download, used in evaluating various aspects of dredging and dredged material disposal. (landfill and water Quality models are also available at this site.) The site includes the following dredged mate...

  16. Dredged-material-effects assessment: Single-species toxicity/bioaccumulation and macrobenthos colonization tests

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, P.R.; Moore, J.C.; Clark, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests conducted according to methods established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Corps of Engineers in 1977 were used to evaluate potential environmental impacts of ocean disposal of dredged materials. Assessments of potential impacts based on results of currently recommended single-species tests were compared with results from macrobenthos colonization tests of dredged material from three harbors in the Gulf of Mexico and two in the Atlantic Ocean.

  17. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project). Volume 1, Analyses and discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F.

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  18. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to detemine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were, suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged sediment-toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described iti the Draft Implementation Manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab Citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas- Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredgedsediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaste worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the arnphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged From 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the Contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments.

  19. Ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters (Phase 3 A of -42-foot project)

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J A; Word, J Q; Pinza, M R; Mayhew, H L; Barrows, E S; Lefkovitz, L F

    1992-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted a study to determine whether dredged sediments from Oakland Inner and Outer Harbors were suitable for ocean disposal. Nineteen test treatments, six reference treatments, and three control treatments were tested for physical/chemical parameters, water column effects, dredged- sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation potential. Physical/chemical parameters were analyzed at each site and each composite sediment to a depth of -44 ft MLLW. These parameters included analysis for geological characteristics, conventional sediment measurements (grain size, total volatile solids, total organic carbon, oil and grease, and total petroleum hydrocarbons), metals,, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, butyltins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Physical/chemical data were used in support of the toxicological and bioaccumulation testing, but were not used in the decision-making criteria described in the Draft Implementation manual under Tier III testing. To evaluate water column effects, MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) test using the mysid shrimp Holmesimysis sculpta, speckled sanddab citharichtys stigmaeus, and larvae of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Both a 48-h and a 96-h test were performed. The MSL evaluated dredged-sediment toxicity by conducting a total of eight solid-phase toxicity tests using the following organisms: the bivalve clam Macoma nasuta, the polychaete worm Nepthys caecoides, the speckled sanddab C. stigmaeus, and the amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. Test duration ranged from 10 to 28 days. Bioaccumulation potential was evaluated in the 28-day M. Nasuta and N. caecoides solid-phase exposures by measuring the contaminants of concern present in their tissues after exposure to test, reference, and control sediments. This report contains the data and test results.

  20. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Review of Dredged Material Permits... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The... its physical boundaries; (2) A statement as to whether the site has been designated for use by...

  1. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Review of Dredged Material Permits... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The... its physical boundaries; (2) A statement as to whether the site has been designated for use by...

  2. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Review of Dredged Material Permits. 225... CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The District... writing all of the following information: (1) The location of the proposed disposal site and its...

  3. BIOASSESSMENT METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE HAZARDS OF DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 325 million m3 of sediment are dredged annually for navigation purposes in the United States. f this, 46 million m3 are disposed of annually in the ocean (Peddicord, 1987). ecisions regarding the ocean disposal of dredged material result, in large part, from bioasse...

  4. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This collapsed thunderstorm was observed over the open ocean (9.0N, 120.0E) between the Philippine island of Mindoro and Borneo, Malaysia. The cleared area in the center is the result of the clouds being driven from there by the sudden rush of katabatic air spreading downward and outward from the dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new though smaller storms are developing. The two small coral atolls are the Tubbataha Reefs.

  5. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-02-01

    The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

  6. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from St. Andrew Bay, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Kohn, N.P.; Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Ward, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Mobile District, requested that the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct field sampling and chemical and biological testing to determine the suitability of potential dredged material for open ocean disposal. Sediment from St. Andrew Bay was chemically characterized and evaluated for biological toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material). To meet these requirements, the MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, solid-phase toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation testing on sediment representing potential dredged material from Panama City Harbor. Physical and chemical characterization of sediment to support toxicity and bioaccumulation results was also conducted on both the test and reference sediments. The MSL collected sediment samples from five sites in St. Andrew Bay and one reference site near Lands End Peninsula. The five test sediments and the reference sediment were analyzed for physical and chemical sediment characteristics, SPP chemical contaminants, solid-phase toxicity, SPP toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants.

  7. 40 CFR 225.2 - Review of Dredged Material Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.2 Review of Dredged Material Permits. (a) The... proposed disposal site; (5) Existence and documented effects of other authorized dumpings that have been made in the dumping area (e.g., heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content); (6)...

  8. Variability of the southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P M; Ridderinkhof, Herman; Schouten, Mathijs W

    2005-01-15

    The variability in the southwest Indian Ocean is connected to the basin-scale and global-scale ocean circulation. Two bands of enhanced variability stretch across the Southern Indian Ocean east of Madagascar around 12 degrees S and 25 degrees S, respectively. They mark the preferred routes along which anomalies, generated by varying forcing over the central basin, near the eastern boundary or in the equatorial region, propagate westward as baroclinic Rossby waves. Sea-surface height anomalies pass along the northern tip of Madagascar and are observed by satellite altimetry to propagate into the central Mozambique Channel. There, eddies are subsequently formed that propagate southward into the Agulhas retroflection region. The anomalies along the southern band trigger the formation of large dipolar vortex pairs in the separation region of the East Madagascar Current at the southern tip of the island. South of Africa these eddies and dipoles trigger the shedding of Agulhas Rings that feed the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with warm, salty, Indian Ocean water. Interannual variability of the forcing over the Indian Ocean, such as that associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole/El Nino climate modes, propagates along these pathways and leads to associated modulations of the eddy transports into the South Atlantic. PMID:15598623

  9. Scientific Drilling in the Southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exon, Neville; Gallagher, Stephen; Seton, Maria

    2013-03-01

    Recent geophysical surveys and geological studies in the southwest Pacific Ocean have improved scientists' understanding of geological evolution and helped to crystallize new research goals. In the current phase of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), there have been five regional expeditions: Canterbury Basin Sea Level (Expedition 317), Wilkes Land Glacial History off Antarctica (Expedition 318), Great Barrier Reef Environmental Changes (Expedition 325), South Pacific Gyre Subseafloor Life (Expedition 329), and Louisville Seamount Trail (Expedition 330). Of six current IODP proposals, four are ready to drill. To review the latest research in the region, briefly outline possible future IODP expeditions, and set up working groups to develop compelling new drilling proposals in the global science context, a workshop was organized at the University of Sydney with a diverse group of 80 scientists. As the JOIDES Resolution may be in the region fairly soon, the workshop participants agreed on the urgent need to build strong science proposals.

  10. Analyses of water and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1976-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallworth, Geraldine R.; Jordan, Helen F.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to provide water-quality data to evaluate the potential environmental effects of (1) dredging activities in selected navigable waterways of southern Louisiana and (2) the disposal of dredged material at selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico. Areas studied from September 1976 to May 1978 included five ocean disposal sites in the Gulf of Mexico, in addition to the following waterways: Baptiste, Collette Bayou, Mississippi River at Head of Passes and Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at Tiger Pass, Bayou Black, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical, physical, and biological constituents. (USGS)

  11. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel: Phase 3 -- biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Karle, L.M.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; White, P.J.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The John F. Baldwin Ship Channel is a 28-mile-long portion of the San Francisco Bay to Stockton Ship Channel, the primary shipping lane through San Francisco Bay and Delta. The San Francisco District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for construction of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, which is authorized to be deepened to a project depth of {minus}45 ft relative to mean lower low water (MLLW). Approximately 8.5 million cubic yards (mcy) of sediment will be removed from the channel to reach this project depth. The USACE requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct testing for ocean disposal under the guidelines in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal-Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1991). This testing manual contains a tiered evaluation approach developed specifically for ocean disposal of dredged material at a selected site. In this study, John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediments were evaluated under the Tier III (biological) testing guidance, which is considered to be highly stringent and protective of the environment. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects, (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material).

  12. Contaminant leaching model for dredged material disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, P.R.; Aziz, N.M.

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes the hydrologic evaluation of leachate production and quality model, a screening-level tool to simulate contaminant leaching from a confined disposal facility (CDF) for dredged material. The model combines hydraulics, hydrology, and equilibrium partitioning, using site-specific design specifications, weather data, and equilibrium partitioning coefficients from the literature or from sequential batch or column leach tests of dredged material. The hydraulics and hydrology are modeled using Version 3 of the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance model. The equilibrium partitioning model includes provisions for estuarine sediments that have variable distribution coefficients resulting from saltwater washout. Model output includes contaminant concentrations in the CDF profile, contaminant concentration and mass releases through the bottom of the CDF, and contaminant concentrations and masses captured by leachate collection systems. The purpose of the model is to provide sound information for evaluating the potential leachate impacts on ground water at dredged material CDFs and the effectiveness of leachate control measures.

  13. Towards the assessment and management of contaminated dredged materials.

    PubMed

    Agius, Suzanne J; Porebski, Linda

    2008-04-01

    Environment Canada's Disposal at Sea Programme hosted the Contaminated Dredged Material Management Decisions Workshop in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, on 28-30 November 2006. The workshop brought together over 50 sediment assessment and management experts from academic, industrial, and regulatory backgrounds and charged them with drafting a potential framework to assess contaminated dredged materials and compare the risks of various disposal alternatives. This article summarizes the recommendations made during the workshop concerning the development of sediment assessment tools, the interpretation of these tools, and the essential attributes of a comparative risk assessment process. The major outcomes of the workshop include a strong recommendation to develop a national dredging or sediment management strategy, a potential decision-making framework for the assessment of dredged materials and comparative risk assessment of disposal options, and the expansion of minimum sediment characterization requirements for nonroutine disposal permit applications. PMID:17994915

  14. Lake-dredged material for beef cattle pasture establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbonatic lake-dredged materials can be used as soil amendments (lime and fertilizer) for early establishment of bahiagrass in beef cattle pastures in Florida. Some of the indirect benefits of the liming effects of this material for pastures include enhancing nutrient availability, nitrification, n...

  15. DREDGED MATERIAL PLUME DISPERSAL IN CENTRAL LONG ISLAND SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simulation model based upon in situ current velocity data and records of disposal events was developed to predict the chemical exposure field resulting from dredged material disposal plumes in central Long island Sound (CLIS) during the spring of 1983. n the model, plumes are a...

  16. CALIBRATION OF A PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR INSTANTANEOUSLY DISCHARGED DREDGED MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes modifications to a computer model originally developed by R.C.Y. Koh and Y.C. Chang for predicting the physical fate of dredged material instantaneously released into a water column. Changes to the simulation include the calibration and verification of the p...

  17. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY - ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  18. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY SITE CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  19. Environmental management of solid waste: Dredged material and mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Salomons, W.; Forstner, U.

    1988-01-01

    The problems and questions mine tailings and dredged materials pose with regard to safe environmental deposition are similar: aquatic versus terrestrial disposal, revegetation, leaching of contaminants. Larger projects in the fields of both mine tailings reclamation and dredged material disposal are increasingly requiring a multidisciplinary team approach. A major part of mineral reserves are in less-developed countries with limited environmental controls. Such experience implies far-going demands from the host countries: (1) reclamation should be carried out, as far as possible, during the life of the mine; (2) technology to ameliorate long-term effects should be as self-supporting as possible; (3) simple, reliable, low-energy techniques for minimizing deleterious effects of mining should be developed. Separate abstracts are processed for 14 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  20. DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

    1999-06-01

    The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the US in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

  1. DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED MATERIAL FROM THE PORT OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY.

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; STERN,E.A.; DONATO,K.R.; CLESCERI,N.L.

    1999-06-01

    The Port of New York and New Jersey ranks first in the United States in volume of petroleum products handled each year. In addition, many refineries are in operation on the New Jersey side of the Port. These activities have led to the discharge of significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons into the waters of the New York/New Jersey region. Intense industrial and commercial activities have also brought about major inputs of other organic and inorganic contaminants as would be expected in an industrialized, heavily populated urban port. Sediments that then are contaminated are a major problem for the region since they can no longer be disposed of by the traditional method of ocean disposal following the dredging operations required for the efficient operation of the Port. Decontamination and beneficial reuse of the dredged materials is one component of a comprehensive dredged material management plan being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. A demonstration decontamination project extending from bench- to field-scale operations is now in progress in the Port, and its current status and relevance for other regions is summarized.

  2. Southwest Indian Ocean Bathymetric Compilation (swIOBC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, L.; Dorschel, B.; Arndt, J. E.; Jokat, W.

    2014-12-01

    As result of long-term scientific activities in the southwest Indian Ocean, an extensive amount of swath bathymetric data has accumulated in the AWI database. Using this data as a backbone, supplemented by additional bathymetric data sets and predicted bathymetry, we generate a comprehensive regional bathymetric data compilation for the southwest Indian Ocean. A high resolution bathymetric chart of this region will support geological and climate research: Identification of current-induced seabed structures will help modelling oceanic currents and, thus, provide proxy information about the paleo-climate. Analysis of the sediment distribution will contribute to reconstruct the erosional history of Eastern Africa. The aim of swIOBC is to produce a homogeneous and seamless bathymetric grid with an associated meta-database and a corresponding map for the area from 5° to 39° S and 20° to 44° E. Recently, multibeam data with a track length of approximately 86,000 km are held in-house. In combination with external echosounding data this allows for the generation of a regional grid, significantly improving the existing, mostly satellite altimetry derived, bathymetric models. The collected data sets are heterogeneous in terms of age, acquisition system, background data, resolution, accuracy, and documentation. As a consequence, the production of a bathymetric grid requires special techniques and algorithms, which were already developed for the IBCAO (Jakobsson et al., 2012) and further refined for the IBCSO (Arndt et al., 2013). The new regional southwest Indian Ocean chart will be created based on these methods. Arndt, J.E., et al., 2013. The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) Version 1.0—A new bathymetric compilation covering circum-Antarctic waters. GRL 40, 1-7, doi: 10.1002/grl.50413, 2013. Jakobsson, M., et al., 2012. The International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) Version 3.0. GRL 39, L12609, doi: 10.1029/2012GL052219.

  3. The Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and climate experiment (SPICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganachaud, A.; Cravatte, S.; Melet, A.; Schiller, A.; Holbrook, N. J.; Sloyan, B. M.; Widlansky, M. J.; Bowen, M.; Verron, J.; Wiles, P.; Ridgway, K.; Sutton, P.; Sprintall, J.; Steinberg, C.; Brassington, G.; Cai, W.; Davis, R.; Gasparin, F.; Gourdeau, L.; Hasegawa, T.; Kessler, W.; Maes, C.; Takahashi, K.; Richards, K. J.; Send, U.

    2014-11-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR. The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. South Pacific thermocline waters are transported in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC) toward Australia and Papua-New Guinea. On its way, the SEC encounters the numerous islands and straits of the Southwest Pacific and forms boundary currents and jets that eventually redistribute water to the equator and high latitudes. The transit in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas is of great importance to the climate system because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, while the southward transports influence the climate and biodiversity in the Tasman Sea. After 7 years of substantial in situ oceanic observational and modeling efforts, our understanding of the region has much improved. We have a refined description of the SPCZ behavior, boundary currents, pathways, and water mass transformation, including the previously undocumented Solomon Sea. The transports are large and vary substantially in a counter-intuitive way, with asymmetries and gating effects that depend on time scales. This paper provides a review of recent advancements and discusses our current knowledge gaps and important emerging research directions.

  4. Assessing the efficacy of dredged materials: Pasture establishment and forage productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, dredged material disposal alternatives have several limitations. Options for dealing with dredged materials include leaving them alone, capping them with clean sediments, placing them in confined facilities, disposing of them at upland sites, treating them chemically, or using them for we...

  5. Lake-dredged materials for beef cattle pasture establishment in subtropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to reuse dredge materials for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces offshore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills that are already overtaxed. Beneficial uses of dredging or dredged materials are both economical and environmental. ...

  6. Establishing bahiagrass in subtropical beef cattle pastures with lake-dredged materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dredged materials (DM) are often viewed by society and regulators as pollutants, but many have used these materials in coastal nourishment, land or wetland creation, construction materials, and for soil improvement as a soil amendment. The objective of this study was to assess lake-dredged materials...

  7. Chemical gradients in sediment cores from an EPA reference site off the Farallon Islands - Assessing chemical indicators of dredged material disposal in the deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Gill, P.W.; Boothman, W.S.; Taylor, B.B.; Karl, Herman A.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy metal and organic contaminants have been determined in undisturbed sediment cores from the US Environmental Protection Agency reference site for dredged material on the continental slope off San Francisco. As expected, the concentrations are significantly lower than toxic effects guidelines, but concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, Hg, Pb, and Clostridium perfringens (a bacterium spore found in sewage) were nearly two or more times greater in the surface sediments than in intervals deeper in the cores. These observations indicate the usefulness of measuring concentration gradients in sediments at the San Francisco deep ocean disposal site (SF-DODS) where a thin (0.5 cm thick) layer of dredged material has been observed beyond the boundary. This thin layer has not been chemically characterized by the common practice of homogenizing over the top 10 cm. An estimated 300 million cubic yards of dredged material from San Francisco Bay are expected to be discharged at the SF-DODS site during the next 50 years. Detailed depth analysis of sediment cores would add significant new information about the fate and effects of dredged material in the deep sea.

  8. A regional ocean model for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region to assess the risk of storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natoo, N.; Paul, A.; Hadfield, M.; Jendersie, S.; Bornman, J.; de Lange, W.; Ye, W.; Schulz, M.

    2012-04-01

    New Zealand's coasts are not only affected by mid-latitude storms, but infrequently also by storms that originate from the tropics. Projections for the southern hemisphere's southwest Pacific island countries for the 21st century show a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm tracks, which consequently might result in changes in wind, precipitation and temperature patterns. Furthermore, an increase in frequency of intense storms is expected for the New Zealand region, which will very likely increase the risk of storm surges and flooding of coastal and low-lying regions. We employ the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to assess the changes in the storm climate of the New Zealand region. The model set-up uses a resolution of ~50 km for the Southwest Pacific Ocean "parent domain" and ~10 km for the New Zealand "child domain", to well represent the major eddies that influence the climate of North Island. With the aim to later utilize this nested ocean model set-up as part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling system for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region, results for the 20th century will be presented. The simulated circulation is shown to be largely consistent with the observed regional oceanography.

  9. Mercury emissions from cement-stabilized dredged material.

    PubMed

    Goodrow, Sandra M; Miskewitz, Robert; Hires, Richard I; Eisenreich, Steven J; Douglas, W Scott; Reinfelder, John R

    2005-11-01

    Upland placement of dredged materials from navigation channels in the New York/New Jersey Harbor is currently being used to manage sediments deemed inappropriate for open water disposal. Although upland placement sites are equipped with engineering controls (leachate collection and/or barrier walls), little is known of the potential impacts of this approach to air quality. The aim of this study was to estimate the flux of mercury to the atmosphere from New York/New Jersey Harbor stabilized dredged material (SDM) that was used for land reclamation at a site in northeastern New Jersey. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was measured at a site receiving SDM in August and October 2001 and May and November 2002. TGM was also monitored at an urban reference site 3.5 km west of the SDM site in September 2001 and from February 2002 to July 2002 and from October 2002 to February 2003. The concentration of TGM at the urban reference site averaged 2.2 +/- 1.1 ng m(-3), indicating some local contribution to the Northern Hemisphere background. TGM concentrations exhibited seasonality with the highest values in summer (3.3 +/- 2.1 ng m(-3) in June 2002) and the lowest in winter (1.7 +/- 0.6 ng m(-3) in January 2003). TGM concentrations at the SDM placement site ranged from 2 to 7 ng m(-3) and were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those at the urban reference site. Sediment-air fluxes of Hg at the SDM placement site estimated by the micrometeorological technique ranged from -13 to 1040 ng m(-2) h(-1) (sediment to air fluxes being positive) and were significantly correlated to solar radiation (r2 = 0.81). The estimated contribution of Hg emissions from land-applied SDM to local TGM concentrations was found to be negligible (<4%). However, the estimated annual volatilization rate of TGM atthe SDM site (130 kg y(-1))was comparable to those of other industrial sources in New Jersey (140-450 kg y(-1)). PMID:16294853

  10. A near-synoptic survey of the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Kathleen A.; Toole, John M.

    2003-07-01

    This study focused on the southwest region of the Indian Ocean, where the poleward-directed Agulhas Current is born, and where dense waters filter through fractures in the Southwest Indian Ridge to form an equatorward-directed deep boundary current east of Madagascar. Both represent major circulation features of the Indian Ocean: the Agulhas in its role as a western-boundary current closes the wind-driven subtropical gyre; the deep western-boundary current renews the bottom waters of the Madagascar, Mascarene, and Somali basins to the north. A regional, quasi-synoptic survey of the Southwest Indian Ocean carried out as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program from May through July of 1995 occupied a cruise track that comprised a closed "box" in the Southwest Indian Ocean. Full-depth water properties and direct-velocity measurements were used to diagnose the circulation patterns as a function of depth and to estimate the transports of the major currents. The synoptic circulation was quantified by the construction of a referenced geostrophic velocity field. Water-mass distributions, direct-velocity measurements, and mass conservation within bounded regions guided the placement of the level of no motion. Errors in the reference scheme and from synoptic-scale circulation features such as eddies and internal waves that are aliased by the hydrographic sampling led to uncertainties in the transport estimates. The upper-ocean Agulhas transport (neutral density, γn<27.96 kg m -3, depths≲2000 m) was estimated to be 76×10 6 m 3 s -1. Contributions to the Agulhas consisted of 29×10 6 m 3 s -1 from the westward limb of the subtropical gyre south of 25°S, 20×10 6 m 3 s -1 from the poleward flow east of Madagascar, which subsequently turns to move west at about 25°S, and an additional poleward flow of 18×10 6 m 3 s -1 through the Mozambique Channel. Bathymetry strongly controls the deep and bottom circulation: the African Coast, the Mozambique

  11. DECONTAMINATING AND PROCESSING DREDGED MATERIAL FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    SciTech Connect

    CLESCERI,N.L.; STERN,E.A.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.

    2000-07-01

    Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

  12. Understanding the physical and environmental consequences of dredged material disposal: history in New England and current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fredette, T J; French, G T

    2004-07-01

    Thirty-five years of research in New England indicates that ocean disposal of dredged material has minimal environmental impacts when carefully managed. This paper summarizes research efforts and resulting conclusions by the US Army Corps of Engineers, New England District, beginning with the Scientific Report Series and continuing with the Disposal Area Monitoring System (DAMOS). Using a tiered approach to monitoring and a wide range of tools, the DAMOS program has monitored short- and long-term physical and biological effects of disposal at designated disposal sites throughout New England waters. The DAMOS program has also helped develop new techniques for safe ocean disposal of contaminated sediments, including capping and confined aquatic disposal (CAD) cells. Monitoring conducted at many sites in New England and around the world has shown that impacts are typically near-field and short-term. Findings such as these need to be disseminated to the general public, whose perception of dredged material disposal is generally negative and is not strongly rooted in current science. PMID:15234878

  13. Chondrichthyan egg cases from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mabragaña, E; Figueroa, D E; Scenna, L B; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Colonello, J H; Delpiani, G

    2011-11-01

    Egg cases of 21 oviparous chondrichthyan species from the south-west Atlantic Ocean are described and compared. The catshark Schroederichthys bivius has a cigar-shaped egg case with curled tendrils only at the posterior end. Egg cases of the elephant fish Callorhinchus callorynchus are spindle-shaped with anterior and posterior tubular extensions and lateral flanges. The skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi presents medium-sized egg cases (71 mm in length) with a lateral keel extending to the first portion of the horns. The endemic skate species of the genus Atlantoraja have medium to large egg cases (69-104 mm in length) and present relatively large posterior horns. Egg cases of the genus Bathyraja have a medium size, 75-98 mm in length, and are characterized by a very similar morphology, a relatively smooth to rough surface case and posterior horns strongly curved inwards. Egg cases of the genera Dipturus and Zearaja are very large, 115-230 mm in length, and have a well-developed posterior apron. Despite the problematical identification of skates at species level, the egg capsules of the endemic genus Psammobatis are easily diagnosed; the capsules are small (25-53 mm in length), those of Psammobatis rutrum being the smallest known to date in the world. Egg cases of Rioraja agassizi have a medium size, 61-68 mm in length, relatively straight sides, a smooth surface and silky attachment fibres placed in the lateral keel next to each horn. Those of the genus Sympterygia are small to medium sized, 51-86 mm in length, and display the thickest lateral keel and the longest posterior horns among the skates of the world. Egg cases can be a useful tool for identifying species and egg-laying areas; therefore, a provisional key for the south-west Atlantic Ocean chondrichthyan capsules is presented. PMID:22026605

  14. Continental crust beneath the Agulhas Plateau, Southwest Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Tucholke, B.E.; Houtz, R.E.; Barrett, D.M.

    1981-05-10

    The Agulhas Plateau lies 500 km off the Cape of Good Hope in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Acoustic basement beneath the northern one third of this large, aseismic structural high has rugged morphology, but basement in the south is anomalously smooth, excepting a 30- to 90-km-wide zone with irregular relief that trends south-southwest through the center of the plateau. Seismic refraction profiles across the southern plateau indicate that the zone of irregular acoustic basement overlies thickened oceanic crust and that continental crust, locally thinned and intruded by basalts, underlies several regions of smooth acoustic basement. Recovery of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses in dredge hauls confirms the presence of continental crust. The smoothness of acoustic basement probably results from erosion (perhaps initially subaerial) of topographic highs with depositions and cementation of debris in ponds to form high-velocity beds. Basalt flows and sills also may contribute locally to form smooth basement. The rugged basement of the northern plateau appears to be of oceanic origin. A plate reconstruction to the time of initial opening of the South Atlantic places the continental part of the southern plateau adjacent to the southern edge of the Falkland Plateau, and both abut the western Mozambique Ridge. Both the Agulhas and Falkland plateaus were displaced westward during initial rifting in the Early Cretaceous. Formation of an RRR triple junction at the northern edge of the Agulhas continental fragment during middle Cretaceous time may explain the origin of the rugged, thickened oceanic crust beneath plateau as well as the apparent extension of the continental crust and intrusion of basaltic magmas beneath the southern plateau.

  15. EVALUATION OF THREE FISH SPECIES AS BIOASSAY ORGANISMS FOR DREDGED MATERIAL TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three fish species, Cyprinodon variegatus, Fundulus similis, and Menidia menidia, were evaluated to determine which is most suitable as a bioassay organism for solid phase testing of dredged material. Acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were mon...

  16. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Oakland Harbor intensive study, IC-1 and OC4-B

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-11-01

    Oakland Harbor is located on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay in Alameda County, between the cities of Oakland and Alameda, California. Oakland Harbor and its access channels are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modern deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels to {minus}44 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) ({minus}42 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdraft) in Oakland Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE. Those options include disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean sites, or at upland disposal sites. Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), Public Law 92-532, specifies that all proposed disposal of dredged material into open water be evaluated to determine the potential environmental impacts to those activities. To comply with those requirements, the potential environmental impacts of the dredged material must be evaluated by chemical characterization, toxicity testing, and bioaccumulation testing prior to dredging and disposal. Test results are described.

  17. Management of dredge material in the Republic of Ireland - A review.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, C; Harrington, J

    2012-05-01

    As an island nation the Republic of Ireland's ports and harbours are key to the economic wellbeing of the country as they are the primary transport link to the United Kingdom, mainland Europe and beyond. This paper examines the main aspects of the Irish dredging industry with comparison to international practice and standards, including the source of the dredge material and volumes generated annually, the dredging plant employed and the management processes currently practised. Relevant European and Irish legislation governing dredging, disposal at sea and waste licensing are presented. The potential impacts of disposal at sea are discussed with the implications for the Irish dredging industry of recently introduced European Directives assessed. Beneficial use rates for dredge material and the techniques implemented in Ireland are examined and compared with international practice. Recent notable beneficial use projects for dredge material and proposed innovative dredge material management techniques for specific dredging projects in Ireland are presented. Proposals to encourage greater beneficial use of dredge material and minimise disposal at sea for Ireland are presented including the introduction of environmental credits, tax breaks and a grant system for pilot schemes. An alternative disposal at sea charge fee structure is also recommended to encourage alternative dredge material management practices. Ireland's management of contaminated sediment is also presented with recent projects described highlighting the current practice of primarily exporting contaminated sediment to mainland Europe. Alternative methods of treatment of contaminated sediment are assessed in an Irish context. Future issues and challenges facing the Irish dredging industry are assessed and a critical analysis of the current approaches to dredge material management is presented. PMID:22240209

  18. Early Palaeogene temperature evolution of the southwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bijl, Peter K; Schouten, Stefan; Sluijs, Appy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Zachos, James C; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2009-10-01

    Relative to the present day, meridional temperature gradients in the Early Eocene age ( approximately 56-53 Myr ago) were unusually low, with slightly warmer equatorial regions but with much warmer subtropical Arctic and mid-latitude climates. By the end of the Eocene epoch ( approximately 34 Myr ago), the first major Antarctic ice sheets had appeared, suggesting that major cooling had taken place. Yet the global transition into this icehouse climate remains poorly constrained, as only a few temperature records are available portraying the Cenozoic climatic evolution of the high southern latitudes. Here we present a uniquely continuous and chronostratigraphically well-calibrated TEX(86) record of sea surface temperature (SST) from an ocean sediment core in the East Tasman Plateau (palaeolatitude approximately 65 degrees S). We show that southwest Pacific SSTs rose above present-day tropical values (to approximately 34 degrees C) during the Early Eocene age ( approximately 53 Myr ago) and had gradually decreased to about 21 degrees C by the early Late Eocene age ( approximately 36 Myr ago). Our results imply that there was almost no latitudinal SST gradient between subequatorial and subpolar regions during the Early Eocene age (55-50 Myr ago). Thereafter, the latitudinal gradient markedly increased. In theory, if Eocene cooling was largely driven by a decrease in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, additional processes are required to explain the relative stability of tropical SSTs given that there was more significant cooling at higher latitudes. PMID:19812670

  19. Air emission flux from contaminated dredged materials stored in a pilot-scale confined disposal facility.

    PubMed

    Ravikrishna, R; Valsaraj, K T; Reible, D D; Thibodeaux, L J; Price, C B; Brannon, J M; Meyers, T E; Yost, S

    2001-03-01

    A pilot-scale field simulation was conducted to estimate the air emissions from contaminated dredged material stored in a confined disposal facility (CDF). Contaminated dredged material with a variety of organic chemicals, obtained from Indiana Harbor Canal, was used in the study. It was placed in an outdoor CDF simulator (i.e., a lysimeter of dimensions 4 ft x 4 ft x 2 ft). A portable, dynamic flux chamber was used to periodically measure emissions of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A weather station was set up to monitor and record the meteorological conditions during the experiment. The fluxes of several PAHs were monitored over time for 6 1/2 months. Initial 6-hr average fluxes varied from 2 to 20 ng/cm2/hr for six different PAHs. The flux values declined rapidly for all compounds soon after placement of the dredged material in the CDE Chemical concentrations derived from flux values were generally of low magnitude compared with ambient standards. Data obtained from the experiment were compared against those predicted using models for air emissions. Model simulations showed that initially the flux was largely from exposed pore water from saturated (wet) sediment, whereas the long-term flux was controlled by diffusion through the pore air of the unsaturated sediment. Model predictions generally overestimated the measured emissions. A rainfall event was simulated, and the dredged material was reworked to simulate that typical of a CDF operation. Increased flux was observed upon reworking the dredged material. PMID:11266100

  20. Environmental effects of dredging. Current district dredged material dewatering practices. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    This technical note summarizes the current US Army Corps of Engineers state of practice in dewatering dredged material. State-of-practice dewatering methods are currently in full-scale use by one or more Corps of Engineers District Offices as contrasted with state-of-the-art methods, which may not have been demonstrated in full-scale applications. The Corps of Engineers conducted research to investigate state-of-the-art dredged material dewatering techniques under the Dredged Material Research Program (DMRP). Based on DMRP research, a number of dewatering methods have been recommended for implementation. The purpose of this note is to describe which of the dewatering practices recommended by DMRP research have been implemented and to determine whether these practices work as well in full-scale applications as was envisioned based on research studies. Also, innovative dewatering techniques developed or applied by the Districts is documented to encourage further investigation and possible use.

  1. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  2. The Somali current and the southwest monsoon: An ocean atmosphere instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    The Somali current and the southwest monsoon are identified as arising from an ocean atmosphere instability which is associated with the low latitude variation of the Coriolis force. Data on the fall of isotherms, surface wind speed, ocean response to frictional force, and upwelling of cold water are discussed.

  3. Five new records of Luvarus imperialis (Acanthuroidei: Luvaridae) in the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Domingues, R R; Montealegre-Quijano, S; Soto, J M R; Amorim, A F

    2015-03-01

    Five new records of louvars Luvarus imperialis are documented for the south-west Atlantic Ocean, extending its distribution range in this ocean. The presence of one ripe specimen, associated with the previous records of larvae and juveniles, suggests that L. imperialis spawn in this region. The possible association of juveniles with shoals of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis is discussed. PMID:25639157

  4. Ocean control of the breeding regime of the sooty tern in the southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaquemet, S.; Le Corre, M.; Quartly, G. D.

    2007-01-01

    Food availability, which is often seasonal, is regarded as a key factor in the breeding success of seabirds. In oceanic tropical areas, the resources are mostly patchy and ephemeral at the surface, and the seasonality is less marked than at higher latitudes. Such a situation influences greatly the breeding strategies of the oceanic seabird species. We conducted a comparative study of the breeding phenology of the sooty tern ( Sterna fuscata) in relation to the local and regional oceanographic conditions around the four major colonies (Europa, Juan de Nova, Lys and Bird Islands) of the southwest Indian Ocean. Over the 1997-2003 period, around all the studied locations, the sea-surface temperature (SST) and the chlorophyll concentration in the Mozambique Channel and the Seychelles area showed clear seasonal differences related to the southern climate and the monsoon phenomena. The breeding activity is synchronized at each studied colony, but the timings are very different. Seasonal reproduction occurs in austral winter at Europa and Bird Island and in austral summer at Juan de Nova; at Lys Island the reproduction is non-seasonal. For the seasonal colonies, there is a large monthly change in SST just before the beginning of reproduction, which is a proxy indicating the annual phytoplankton bloom. This variation is accompanied by the development of oceanic features such as fronts that favour aggregation of prey, and may also play an important role in the presence of schools of surface tuna, which are very important for the foraging success of sooty terns. Conversely, around Lys Island the seasonal variations of the marine environment do not lead to pronounced development of oceanic structures, and consequently, the longer-lasting phytoplankton bloom could explain the non-seasonal breeding regime there. Further studies will help discern the advantages and disadvantages of seasonal and non-seasonal reproduction regime in response to unpredictable fluctuations of the

  5. Biosolids and dredged materials: alternative sources of nutrients for crop productivity and sustainability of pasture-based agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic sewage sludge or “biosolids” and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and cha...

  6. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disposal site adjacent to the Sanctuary off of the Golden Gate: Point ID No. Latitude Longitude 1 37.76458... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites... Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  7. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposal site adjacent to the Sanctuary off of the Golden Gate: Point ID No. Latitude Longitude 1 37.76458... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites... Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  8. Behavior of subaqueous sediment mounds: Effect on dredged material disposal site capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Poindexter, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Dredging of contaminated sediments and subsequent disposal at legally designated disposal sites is an internationally accepted disposal alternative when adherence to strict disposal practices is maintained. As more highly contaminated sediments in the heavily industrialized harbors of the world must be dredged to maintain navigation and economic viability, use of subaqueous dredged material disposal sites is expected to increase. Use of these subaqueous sites has necessitated development of procedures to analyze disposal site capacity based upon physical, chemical, and biological considerations. A methodology of analysis was developed in this study to investigate the behavior of the crated subaqueous sediment mounds. Emphasis was placed upon the geotechnical engineering aspects of mound behavior although the methodology also includes chemical and biological aspects. This methodology was applied to four field sites at which dredged material mounds have been created. The procedure successfully predicted the geotechnical engineering behavior of the constructed dredged material mounds. This methodology of analysis provides a useful tool for evaluation of subaqueous disposal sites and the dredged materials mounds created within these sites.

  9. A COMPUTER STUDY OF THE KOH-CHANG MODEL FOR DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is on a computer study of the Koh-Chang model for physical fate prediction in dredge material disposal. This computer model can simulate three discharge methods: instantaneous bottom release, jet discharge, and discharge into a wake. Convective descent, dynamic collap...

  10. HUMAN HEALTH RISK SCREEN FOR THE PROPOSED OPEN WATER DISPOSAL OF CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laboratory bioaccumulation test has been a standard testing requirement to evaluate the open water disposal dredged materials since the late 1970's. Heretofore, the interpretation of these test results, using the clam, Macoma nasuta, and worm, Nereis virens, has been an ass...

  11. Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols.

    PubMed

    Koropchak, Sara C; Daniels, W Lee; Wick, Abbey; Whittecar, G Richard; Haus, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. Once placed, saline materials rapidly leach and ripen with quick declines in pH, electrical conductivity, and sodicity, but potentials for local groundwater impacts must be considered. Our experience to date indicates that the most important primary screening parameter is acid-base accounting (potential acidity or lime demand), which should become a mandatory analytical requirement. Our second level of acceptance screening is based on a combination of federal and state residual waste and soil screening standards and basic agronomic principles. High silt+clay and total organic C may also limit rapid use of many dredge materials due to extended dewatering times and physical limitations. This dredge material screening system separates potential upland placement candidates into three soil quality management categories (unsuitable, suitable, and clean fill) with differing monitoring requirements. Similar use of these sediments in urban soil reconstruction is also recommended. PMID:26828161

  12. Sampling and analysis of sediments in dredged material from Wilma Uplands Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q. )

    1992-09-01

    The Lower Granite Reservoir provides slack-water navigation for the Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington area. The levee system associated with the reservoir protects industrial, commercial, and residential areas from inundation of waters impounded behind the dam. Sediment deposition at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers has required frequent dredging events In past years, Including two recent events in 1986 and 1987. Dredged material from the 1986 and 1987 events was placed in three containment ponds located on the north bank of the Snake River, near River Mile 134.7. The ponds were used to hold approximately 400,000 cubic yards of dredged material removed from the port areas at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Prior to dredging, the river sediments were tested and found to be typical of non-contaminated sediment. Since that testing, dioxins and furans have been found in the effluent from a Kraft pulp mill in Lewiston that discharges directly into the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) believed that dredged material placed in the containment ponds may contain contaminated levels of dioxins and furans. At their request, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) sampled sediments from these ponds and performed a chemical analysis.

  13. Dredged material characterization and management frameworks: A case study at the port Vilagarcia (NW, Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; Khosrovyan, Alla; DelValls, T Angel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2016-01-25

    The potential impact of dredged sediment has been assessed at sixteen areas of the high-traffic port of Vilagarcia (Northwest Spanish Atlantic coast). The assessment has been done by three weight-of-evidence tools, which integrated data on sediment characteristics and toxicity responses of Ampelisca brevicornis, Vibrio fischeri and eggs and embryos of Paracentrotus lividus. Two of the tools also represented management options regarding the disposal of dredged material. The comparison of the logic in these tools revealed essential differences in the type and the necessity of bioassays and threshold values for chemical concentrations. However, despite this difference, assessment results and the derived management options coincided in most of the sediments. The potential toxicity of sediments was relatively low especially for eggs and embryos possibly due to different contaminant availability in solid and liquid phases. The importance of a battery of toxicity tests in the dredged material quality assessment has been emphasized to avoid an underestimation of sediment toxicity for solid phase organisms, if only liquid phase responses are considered. The potential false implications, which may result from the application of the third tool, were highlighted. The strengths and weaknesses of the tools were discussed from the dredged material management perspective. PMID:26453824

  14. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

    1982-01-01

    Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

  15. 78 FR 73097 - Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... Federal Register (FR) April 4, 2011 (Vol. 76, Nos. 43). That document is available for public inspection.... Pursuant to its voluntary NEPA policy, published at 63 FR 58045 (October 29, 1998), EPA typically relies on... designation through a rulemaking process published in the Federal Register (FR). Formal designation of...

  16. Marine debris ingestion by albatrosses in the southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Sebastián; Domingo, Andrés; Brazeiro, Alejandro; Defeo, Omar; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-07-15

    Plastics and other marine debris affect wildlife through entanglement and by ingestion. We assessed the ingestion of marine debris by seven albatross species in the southwest Atlantic by analyzing stomach contents of birds killed in fisheries. Of the 128 specimens examined, including four Diomedea species (n=78) and three Thalassarche species (n=50), 21 (16.4%) contained 1-4 debris items, mainly in the ventriculus. The most common type was plastic fragments. Debris was most frequent in Diomedea species (25.6%) and, particularly, Diomedea sanfordi (38.9%) and very rare in Thalassarche species (2.0%), presumably reflecting differences in foraging behavior or distribution. Frequency of occurrence was significantly higher in male than female Diomedea albatrosses (39.3% vs. 18.0%). Although levels of accumulated debris were relatively low overall, and unlikely to result in gut blockage, associated toxins might nevertheless represent a health risk for Diomedea albatrosses, compounding the negative impact of other human activities on these threatened species. PMID:25986654

  17. Misidentification of Carcharhinus galapagensis (Snodgrass & Heller, 1905) in the Southwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Clinton A J

    2016-01-01

    Although primarily a coral reef species the grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos has been recorded from a number of subtropical oceanic islands and reefs in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. Examination of all nominal C. amblyrhynchos voucher material collected from Lord Howe Island, Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs and Norfolk Island resulted in the re-identification of these specimens as Galapagos sharks, C. galapagensis. As C. amblyrhynchos superficially resembles C. galapagensis visual records of C. amblyrhynchos from Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs and the Kermadec Islands cannot be substantiated without voucher material. Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos therefore appears to be confined to waters north of about 25o S in the Southwest Pacific. Precaudal vertebral counts should be used to confirm the identification of nominal C. amblyrhynchos specimens that have an interdorsal ridge. PMID:27395655

  18. Contaminant Area Aquaculture Program. Determination of the chemical suitability of a dredged material containment area for aquaculture. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tatem, H.E.

    1990-12-01

    This concerns use of dredged material containment areas (DMCA) for aquaculture, specifically for production of a crop intended for human consumption. New DMCA's used only periodically for dredged material disposal could be managed to produce valuable crops. Previous studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers, including one where shrimp was raised at a DMCA, and others relating to the effects of sediment contaminants on aquatic organisms, are reviewed. The literature indicated that most dredged material is uncontaminated and that many sediment constituents such as metal are relatively unavailable to aquatic animals; DMCAs containing parts-per-million levels of organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, or petroleum hydrocarbons should not be used for aquaculture without extensive testing.

  19. Recovery of floral and faunal communities after placement of dredged material on seagrasses in Laguna Madre, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, P.

    2004-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to determine how long alterations in habitat characteristics and use by fishery and forage organisms were detectable at dredged material placement sites in Laguna Madre, Texas. Water, sediment, seagrass, benthos, and nekton characteristics were measured and compared among newly deposited sediments and nearby and distant seagrasses each fall and spring over three years. Over this period, 75% of the estimated total surface area of the original deposits was either re-vegetated by seagrass or dispersed by winds and currents. Differences in water and sediment characteristics among habitat types were mostly detected early in the study. There were signs of steady seagrass re-colonization in the latter half of the study period, and mean seagrass coverage of deposits had reached 48% approximately three years after dredging. Clovergrass Halophila engelmannii was the initial colonist, but shoalgrass Halodule wrightii predominated after about one year. Densities of annelids and non-decapod crustaceans were generally significantly greater in close and distant seagrass habitats than in dredged material habitat, whereas densities of molluscs were not significantly related to habitat type. Nekton (fish and decapod) densities were almost always significantly greater in the two seagrass habitats than in dredged material deposits. Benthos and nekton communities in dredged material deposits were distinct from those in seagrass habitats. Recovery from dredged material placement was nearly complete for water column and sediment components after 1.5 to 3 years, but recovery of seagrasses, benthos, and nekton was predicted to take 4 to 8 years. The current 2 to 5 years dredging cycle virtually insures no time for ecosystem recovery before being disturbed again. The only way to ensure permanent protection of the high primary and secondary productivity of seagrass beds in Laguna Madre from acute and chronic effects of maintenance dredging, while ensuring

  20. Distribution of Holocene deep-sea benthonic foraminifera in the southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corliss, Bruce H.

    1983-02-01

    The distribution of deep-sea benthonic foraminifera in core top samples from the southwest Indian Ocean is examined. Principal component analysis reveals two major assemblages. One assemblages between 3600 and 4800-m water depth is dominated by Episominella umbonifera and is associated with cold ( θ = -0.3 to 0.8°C), low salinity (34.66 to 34.72 × 10 -3) Antarctic Bottom Water in the Crozet Basin, in fracture zones, and on the flanks of the Southwest Indian Ridge. A second assemblage, dominated by Planulina wuellerstorfi, Globocassidulina subglobasa, Astrononion echolsi and Pullenia bulloides, is between 1600 and 3800 m on the Crozet Plateau, Madagascar Ridge, Central Indian Ridge, and Southwest Indian Ridge and is associated with relatively warm ( θ = 0.8 to 2.6°C), high salinity (34.72 to 34.76 × 10 -3) North Atlantic Deep Water. The third principal component divides the P. wuellerstorfi assemblage into two subgroups. One is dominated by Epistominella exigua, P. bulloides, P. wuellerstorfi, and A. echolsi and a second is dominated by G. subglobosa. The distribution of the E. umbonifera assemblage and previous hydrographic studies suggest that AABW flows as a western boundary contour current in the Crozet Basin and penetrates fracture zones in the Southwest Indian Ridge between 55 and 57°E and near 66°E as it travels northward into the Madagascar and Mascarene basins. The faunal-water mass associations from the southeast Indian Ocean are compared; the most notable faunal difference is the absence of Uvigerina as a dominant taxon in the southwest Indian Ocean. A comparison of dissolved oxygen and Uvigerina data shows that oxygen is not a major influence upon the distribution of Uvigerina. A correlation analysis of the faunal data and water depth, potential temperature, in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and 1 - Ω, an index of calcium carbonate undersaturation, was carried out to determine the relationships between fauna and hydrography. The

  1. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, B.J.; Pearson, W.H. )

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the Seattle District of the US Army Corps of Engineers has begun active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. This survey was to verify that the location of the area of high crab density observed during site selection surveys has not shifted into the Southeast Ocean Disposal Site. In June 1990, mean densities of juvenile Dungeness crab were 146 crab/ha within the disposal site and 609 crab/ha outside ad north of the disposal site. At nearshore locations outside the disposal site, juvenile crab density was 3275 crab/ha. Despite the low overall abundance, the spatial distribution of crab was such that the high crab densities in 1990 have remained outside the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site. The survey data have confirmed the appropriateness of the initial selection of the disposal site boundaries and indicated no need to move to the second monitoring tier. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Environmental effects of dredging: Upland animal bioassays of dredged materials. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Simmers, J.W.; Rhett, R.G.; Lee, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Clean Water Act in the United States requires that the environmental evaluation of dredged material prior to discharge or impacting the waters of the United States include the effects of disposal on concentrations of contaminants through biological processes. This results in a need for Corps of Engineers districts to be able to predict the contamination of animals that may be associated with potential disposal alternatives: open-water disposal, upland disposal, and wetland creation. The following is a summary of the results of bioassay procedures using the earthworm Eisenia foetida to evaluate the potential contaminant mobility into soil-dwelling animals. These tests were derived from proposed Organization for European Common Development (OECD) and European Economics Commission (EEC) test procedures (evaluating the effects of new chemicals) and modified to consider accumulation and sublethal effects rather than toxicity.

  3. Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W N; Miller, G; Simmers, J W

    1990-01-01

    We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high concentrations of trace elements in the biota. PMID:15092276

  4. Pliocene climate change of the Southwest Pacific and the impact of ocean gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Cyrus; Nürnberg, Dirk; Tiedemann, Ralf; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The transition from the early Pliocene “Warmhouse” towards the present “Icehouse” climate and the role of Gateway dynamics are intensively debated. Both, the constrictions of the Central American Seaway and the Indonesian Gateway affected ocean circulation and climate during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we use combined δ18O and Mg/Ca ratios of planktonic foraminifera (marine protozoa) from surface and subsurface levels to reconstruct the thermal structure and changes in salinities from the Southwest Pacific Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 590B from 6.5 to 2.5 Ma. Our data suggest a gradual cooling of ~ 2 °C and freshening of the sea surface during ~ 4.6-4 Ma with an increased meridional temperature gradient between the West Pacific Warm Pool and the Southwest Pacific when the closing of the Central American Seaway reached a critical threshold. After ~ 3.5 Ma, the restricted Indonesian Gateway might have amplified the East Australian Current, allowing enhanced heat transport towards the Southwest Pacific with reduced meridional temperature gradients when the global climate gradually cooled. At the same time our data suggest a cooling and freshening of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) or/and an increased northward flow of SAMW towards Site 590B, possibly a first step towards the present Antarctic Frontal System.

  5. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

  6. PROPOSED BIOACCUMULATION TESTING EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING THE SUITABILITY OF DREDGED MATERIAL TO BE PLACED AT THE HISTORIC AREA REMEDIATION SITE (HARS) - PHASE 1 HUMAN HEALTH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 29, 1997 Final Rule, Simultaneous De-designation and Termination of the Mud Dump Site and Designation of the HARS, specifies that the HARS will be remediated by covering it with uncontaminated dredged material (i.e., dredged material that meets current Category I stand...

  7. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Gravesend Bay Anchorage, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.

    1996-09-01

    The Gravesend Bay Anchorage was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in February 1994. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses to provide baseline sediment chemistry data on the Gravesend Bay Anchorage. Individual sediment core samples collected at the Gravesend Bay Anchorage were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two samples, one of composited sediment cores representing the southeast corner of the anchorage (COMP GR), and one sediment core representing the northeast corner of the anchorage (Station GR-1 0), were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  8. 77 FR 23668 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a 20-Year Dredged Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...-Year Dredged Material Management Plan for the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway from Port Royal Sound... Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, southward to the Georgia-Florida state line. The Corps' Savannah... Harbor Act of 1937 provided for a 7- foot protected route around St. Andrew Sound, Georgia, and for a...

  9. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D...

  10. Contributions of cretaceus quiet zone natural remanent magnetization to Magsat anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, Lawrence G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Roark, James H.; Thomas, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The Magsat magnetic anomalies over the Southwest Indian Ocean are modeled using a combination of induced plus viscous remanent magnetization (IM/VRM) and natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Two broad, roughly parallel, SW to NE trending triple-peaked positive anomalies dominate the region, one lying south of Africa and the other north of Antarctica. Although these anomaly peaks generally correspond with the Agulhas Plateau/Maud Rise, Mozambique Plateau/Astrid Ridge, and Madagascar Ridge/Conrad Rise conjugate pairs, the IM/VRM contribution from structural characteristics (i.e., crustal thickness) accounts for only about 20% of the anomaly amplitudes. A spatially variable but observationally constrained NRM contribution in Cretaceous Quiet Zone (KQZ) crust is required to account for the location, shape, and amplitude contrast of these anomalies. Many crustal features in the Southwest Indian Ocean near Antarctica have little geophysical data to constrain their structure but do hagve tectonic conjugates near Africa for which much more geophysical data are generally available. Using geophysical and geological constraints from one member to model the magnetization structure of its conjugate reproduces the observed Magsat reduced-to-pole anomalies over both structures very well. This suggests that no significant alteration in their magnetization structure has occurred since the features split. Models of these conjugate structures show that IM/VRM reproduces the Magsat anomalies associated with non-KQZ crust but that both IM/VRM and a dominant NRM component are required to explain the anomalies associated with KQZ crust.

  11. First records of winter sea ice concentration in the southwest Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, Alexander J.; Crosta, Xavier; Quilty, Patrick G.; Fink, David; Howard, William; Armand, Leanne K.

    2015-11-01

    We use a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) to provide the first winter sea ice concentration record from two cores located within the southwest Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. To compliment the application of GAM, a time series analysis on satellite records of sea ice concentration data was used to extend the standard 13.25 year time series used for paleoceanography. After comparing GAM sea ice estimates with previously published paleo sea ice data we then focus on a new paleo winter sea ice record for marine sediment core E27-23 (59°37.1'S, 155°14.3'E), allowing us to provide a more comprehensive view of winter sea ice dynamics for the southwest Pacific Ocean. The paleo winter sea ice concentration estimates provide the first suggestion that winter sea ice within the southwestern Pacific might have expanded during the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Throughout the Holocene, core E27-23 documents millennial scale variability in paleo winter sea ice coverage within the southwest Pacific. Holocene winter sea ice expansion may have resulted from the Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation, increased intensity of the westerly winds, as well as a northern migration of the Subtropical and/or Sub-Antarctic Fronts. Brief consideration is given to the development of a paleo summer sea ice proxy. We conclude that there is no evidence that summer sea ice ever existed at core sites SO136-111 and E27-23 over the last 220 and 52,000 years, respectively.

  12. Calls reveal population structure of blue whales across the southeast Indian Ocean and the southwest Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Balcazar, Naysa E.; Tripovich, Joy S.; Klinck, Holger; Nieukirk, Sharon L.; Mellinger, David K.; Dziak, Robert P.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2015-01-01

    For effective species management, understanding population structure and distribution is critical. However, quantifying population structure is not always straightforward. Within the Southern Hemisphere, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) complex is extremely diverse but difficult to study. Using automated detector methods, we identified “acoustic populations” of whales producing region-specific call types. We examined blue whale call types in passive acoustic data at sites spanning over 7,370 km across the southeast Indian Ocean and southwest Pacific Ocean (SWPO) from 2009 to 2012. In the absence of genetic resolution, these acoustic populations offer unique information about the blue whale population complex. We found that the Australian continent acts as a geographic boundary, separating Australia and New Zealand blue whale acoustic populations at the junction of the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. We located blue whales in previously undocumented locations, including the far SWPO, in the Tasman Sea off the east coast of Australia, and along the Lau Basin near Tonga. Our understanding of population dynamics across this broad scale has significant implications to recovery and conservation management for this endangered species, at a regional and global scale. PMID:26989263

  13. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Stronkhorst, J; Ariese, F; van Hattum, B; Postma, J F; de Kluijver, M; Den Besten, P J; Bergman, M J N; Daan, R; Murk, A J; Vethaak, A D

    2003-01-01

    The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, biomarker responses and benthic community changes shortly after dumping at the 'North' site had ceased and at the start of disposal at the new dumping site 'Northwest'. During the period of dumping, very few benthic invertebrates were found at the North site. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in the fine sediment fraction (<63 microm) from this site were 2-3 times higher than at the reference site. In four different bioassays with marine invertebrates the sediments showed no acute toxic effects. In tissue (pyloric caeca) of resident starfish Asterias rubens, residual levels of mercury, zinc, PCBs and dioxin-like activity were never more than twice those at the reference site. Four different biomarkers (DNA integrity, cytochrome P450 content, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition) were used on the starfish tissues, but no significant differences were found between North and the reference site. Minor pathological effects were observed in resident dab Limanda limanda. One year after dumping had ceased at the North site, a significant increase in the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates and a concomitant decrease in the fine sediment fraction of the seabed were observed. After 8.2 million m3 of moderately contaminated dredged material had been dumped at the new dumping site Northwest, the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates declined over an area extending about 1-2 km eastwards. This correlated with a shift in sediment texture from sand to silt. The contamination of the fine sediment fraction at the Northwest location

  14. In situ measurement of the biogeochemical properties of Southern Ocean mesoscale eddies in the Southwest Indian Ocean, April 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Villiers, S.; Siswana, K.; Vena, K.

    2015-10-01

    Several open-ocean mesoscale features, a "young" warm-core (anti-cyclonic) eddy at 52° S, an "older" warm-core eddy at 57.5° S, as well as an adjacent cold-core (cyclonic) eddy at 56° S, were surveyed during a M/V S.A. Agulhas II cruise in April 2014. The main aim of the survey was to obtain hydrographical and biogeochemical profile data for contrasting open-ocean eddies in the Southern Ocean, that will be suitable for comparison and modelling of their heat, salt and nutrient characteristics, and the changes that occur in these properties as warm-core eddies migrate from the polar front southwards into the Southern Ocean. Results show that the older warm-core eddy at 57.5° S is, at its core, 2.7 °C colder than a younger eddy at 52° S, while its dissolved silicate levels are almost 500 % higher and accompanied by chl a levels that are more than 200 % higher than that in the younger eddy. A total of 18 CTD stations were occupied in a sector south of the Southwest Indian Ridge, along three transects crossing several mesoscale features identified from satellite altimetry data prior to the cruise. The CTD data, as well as chl a and dissolved nutrient data (for NO3-, NO2-, PO43- and SiO2) have been processed, quality-controlled and made available via the PANGAEA Data Archiving and Publication database at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.848875.

  15. The Southwest Indian Ocean thermocline dome in CMIP5 models: Historical simulation and future projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiao-Tong; Gao, Lihui; Li, Gen; Du, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Using 20 models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), the simulation of the Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) thermocline dome is evaluated and its role in shaping the Indian Ocean Basin (IOB) mode following El Ni˜no investigated. In most of the CMIP5 models, due to an easterly wind bias along the equator, the simulated SWIO thermocline is too deep, which could further influence the amplitude of the interannual IOB mode. A model with a shallow (deep) thermocline dome tends to simulate a strong (weak) IOB mode, including key attributes such as the SWIO SST warming, antisymmetric pattern during boreal spring, and second North Indian Ocean warming during boreal summer. Under global warming, the thermocline dome deepens with the easterly wind trend along the equator in most of the models. However, the IOB amplitude does not follow such a change of the SWIO thermocline among the models; rather, it follows future changes in both ENSO forcing and local convection feedback, suggesting a decreasing effect of the deepening SWIO thermocline dome on the change in the IOB mode in the future.

  16. Southwest Pacific Ocean response to a warmer world: Insights from Marine Isotope Stage 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, G.; Dunbar, G. B.; Carter, L.; Scott, G.; Bostock, H.; Bowen, M.; Crundwell, M.; Hayward, B. W.; Howard, W.; Martínez, J. I.; Moy, A.; Neil, H.; Sabaa, A.; Sturm, A.

    2013-09-01

    Paleoceanographic archives derived from 17 marine sediment cores reconstruct the response of the Southwest Pacific Ocean to the peak interglacial, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (ca. 125 ka). Paleo-Sea Surface Temperature (SST) estimates were obtained from the Random Forest model—an ensemble decision tree tool—applied to core-top planktonic foraminiferal faunas calibrated to modern SSTs. The reconstructed geographic pattern of the SST anomaly (maximum SST between 120 and 132 ka minus mean modern SST) seems to indicate how MIS 5e conditions were generally warmer in the Southwest Pacific, especially in the western Tasman Sea where a strengthened East Australian Current (EAC) likely extended subtropical influence to ca. 45°S off Tasmania. In contrast, the eastern Tasman Sea may have had a modest cooling except around 45°S. The observed pattern resembles that developing under the present warming trend in the region. An increase in wind stress curl over the modern South Pacific is hypothesized to have spun-up the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, with concurrent increase in subtropical flow in the western boundary currents that include the EAC. However, warmer temperatures along the Subtropical Front and Campbell Plateau to the south suggest that the relative influence of the boundary inflows to eastern New Zealand may have differed in MIS 5e, and these currents may have followed different paths compared to today.

  17. Low frequency baleen whale calls detected on ocean-bottom seismometers in the Lau basin, southwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Dana C; Dunn, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Ten months of broadband seismic data, recorded on six ocean-bottom seismographs located in the Lau Basin, were examined to identify baleen whale species. As the first systematic survey of baleen whales in this part of the southwest Pacific Ocean, this study reveals the variety of species present and their temporal occurrence in and near the basin. Baleen whales produce species-specific low frequency calls that can be identified by distinct patterns in data spectrograms. By matching spectrograms with published accounts, fin, Bryde's, Antarctic blue, and New Zealand blue whale calls were identified. Probable whale sounds that could not be matched to published spectrograms, as well as non-biologic sounds that are likely of volcanogenic origin, were also recorded. Detections of fin whale calls (mid-June to mid-October) and blue whale calls (June through September) suggest that these species migrate through the region seasonally. Detections of Bryde's whale calls (primarily February to June, but also other times of the year) suggest this species resides around the basin nearly year round. The discovery of previously unpublished call types emphasizes the limited knowledge of the full call repertoires of baleen whales and the utility of using seismic survey data to enhance understanding in understudied regions. PMID:25618038

  18. Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Oil-Degrading Bacterium Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans Strain YA_1 from the Southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiyuan; Ren, Chong; Chen, Ruixuan; Zeng, Runying

    2016-01-01

    Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans has been previously reported to be capable of degrading crude oil and diesel oil. G. pentaromativorans strain YA_1 was isolated from the southwest Indian Ocean and can degrade crude oil. This study reports the draft genome sequence of G. pentaromativorans, which can provide insights into the mechanisms of microbial oil biodegradation. PMID:27491993

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Oil-Degrading Bacterium Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans Strain YA_1 from the Southwest Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yiyuan; Ren, Chong; Chen, Ruixuan

    2016-01-01

    Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans has been previously reported to be capable of degrading crude oil and diesel oil. G. pentaromativorans strain YA_1 was isolated from the southwest Indian Ocean and can degrade crude oil. This study reports the draft genome sequence of G. pentaromativorans, which can provide insights into the mechanisms of microbial oil biodegradation. PMID:27491993

  1. Environmental effects of dredging: Upland animal bioassays of dredged material. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, E.A.; Edwards, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    Earthworms have great potential for use as bioassay/biomonitor organisms in studies of contaminant uptake and possess many characteristics that make them ideally suited for this purpose (Ma 1982). Studies have demonstrated that native species of earthworms, collected at contaminated sites, can be used to indicate biologically available levels of these contaminants (Helmke et al. 1979, Ireland 1983, Pietz et al. 1984). However, it is the species Eisenia foetida (which does not naturally colonize these sites) which has been recommended for use in the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of agricultural and industrial chemicals (European Economic Community (EEC) 1984), proposed as a bioassay species for assessing contaminant availability in waste materials, and used to determine the bioavallability of contaminants in dredged material (Marquenie and Simmers 1984). Correlations between total and OTPA-extractable metal concentrations in contaminated substrates and the concentrations in the tissues of earthworms exposed to these substrates over a 28-day period may be used to establish their potential as biomonitor organisms.

  2. Use of hydrocyclone and flotation column for reducing the volume of contaminated dredged material.

    PubMed

    Park, K H; Lee, J H; Bae, B H; Kim, Y H; Choung, Y K

    2006-01-01

    As sediment contamination problems have recently been raised in Korea, the need for technologies to clean contaminants in sediments has increased. Although the recalcitrant organic matters and heavy metals in the contaminated sediments are of primary concern, large amounts of sediment makes the removal of the contaminants in them more difficult. In this study, the performance of hydrocyclone and flotation column was tested to reduce the volume of contaminated dredged materials (CDMs) prior to treating recalcitrant matters, such as various organic chemicals and heavy metals, in an integrated treatment system. When hydrocyclone was operated with 10% (w/v) solids concentration of the feed slurry, the total solids of upflow products were 4 to 7% (w/v) when the inlet pressure was changed from 1.0 to 2.0 kg/cm2. The volume reduction ratio of CDMs by hydrocyclone was approximately 90% (v/v). When the upflow products in hydrocyclone was then spiked with automobile transmission oil and fed to the flotation colum to see the performance of the column flotation on the volume reduction and the TPH removal, 44% of the TPHs in feed were removed at the tails and the volume reduction ratio of CDMs by column flotation was 18% at 200 L/min of wash water. The flotation column could be proposed as a potential preliminary treatment process of CDMs prior to subsequent biological treatments. PMID:16752776

  3. In situ measurement of the biogeochemical properties of Southern Ocean mesoscale eddies in the Southwest Indian Ocean, April 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Villiers, S.; Siswana, K.; Vena, K.

    2015-12-01

    Several open-ocean mesoscale features - a "young" warm-core (anti-cyclonic) eddy at 52° S, an "older" warm-core eddy at 57.5° S and an adjacent cold-core (cyclonic) eddy at 56° S - were surveyed during a R/V S.A. Agulhas II cruise in April 2014. The main aim of the survey was to obtain hydrographical and biogeochemical profile data for contrasting open-ocean eddies in the Southern Ocean, which will be suitable for comparative study and modelling of their heat, salt and nutrient characteristics, and the changes that occur in these properties as warm-core eddies migrate from the polar front southwards. The major result is that the older warm-core eddy at 57.5° S is, at its core, 2.7 °C colder than a younger eddy at 52° S, while its dissolved silicate levels are almost 500 % higher and accompanied by chlorophyll a levels that are more than 200 % higher than that in the younger eddy. A total of 18 CTD stations were occupied in a sector south of the Southwest Indian Ridge, along three transects crossing several mesoscale features identified from satellite altimetry data prior to the cruise. The CTD data, as well as chlorophyll a and dissolved nutrient data (for NO3-, NO2-, PO43- and SiO2), have been processed, quality controlled and made available via the PANGAEA Data Archiving and Publication database at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.848875.

  4. Model and assessment of the contribution of dredged material disposal to sea-surface contamination in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.T.; Cowan, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    Hydrophobic or floatable materials released to the water column during dredge disposal operations may accumulate in high concentrations on the water surface. If such surface accumulations occur, they could impact the reproduction of fish and shellfish with neustonic (floating) eggs or larvae. Also, floatable surface contaminants could deposit on nearby beaches. In order to examine the potential impacts of such processes, an interactive computer (IBM PC) model was developed. The FORTRAN model allows input of contaminant concentrations on the dredge material, the surface area of the disposal site, the floatable fraction of the contaminated material, and the baseline concentrations of contaminants present in the sea-surface microlayer. The model then computes the resultant concentrations of each contaminant in the microlayer and the potential impact on floating fish eggs. The utility of the model would be greatly improved by empirical data, not yeat available, on the vertical upward and lateral movement of contaminants during dredge material disposal.

  5. Crustal Magnetization Model of Maud Rise in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; vanFrese, Ralph R. B.; Golynsky, Alexander V.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2004-01-01

    We modeled the crustal magnetization for the Maud Rise in the south-west Indian Ocean off the coast of East Antarctica using magnetic observations from the Oersted satellite and near-surface surveys complied by the Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP). A new inversion modeling scheme of the multi-altitude anomaly fields suggests that the magnetic effects due to crustal thickness variations and remanence involving the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone (KQZ) become increasingly dominant with altitude. The magnetic crustal thickness effects were modeled in the Oersted data using crustal thickness variations derived from satellite altitude gravity data. Remanent magnetization modeling of the residual Oersted and near-surface magnetic anomalies supports extending the KQZ eastwards to the Astrid Ridge. The remaining near-surface anomalies involve crustal features with relatively high frequency effects that are strongly attenuated at satellite altitudes. The crustal modeling can be extended by the satellite magnetic anomalies across the Indian Ocean Ridge for insight on the crustal properties of the conjugate Agulhas Plateau. The modeling supports the Jurassic reconstruction of Gondwana when the African Limpopo-Zambezi and East Antarctic Princess Astrid coasts were connected as part of a relatively demagnetized crustal block.

  6. Variability of tropical cyclones over the southwest Pacific Ocean using a high-resolution climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, L. M.; Karoly, D. J.; Leplastrier, M.; Buckley, B. W.

    2007-08-01

    Knowledge of the variability in tropical cyclone (TC) frequency and distribution is essential in determining the possible impact of natural or human-induced climate change. This variability can be investigated using the available TC data bases and by carrying out long-term climate model simulations for both past and future climates. A coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model (referred to here as the OU-CGCM) is described and applied with a higher resolution (50 km) nested domain in the southwest Pacific region. Six-member ensembles of simulations with the OU-CGCM have been run for 80 years, from 1970 to 2050. During the period 1970 2000, the OU-CGCM runs were compared with the observed TC data base. For the period 2000 2050, two ensembles of simulations were performed, one with constant greenhouse gas concentrations and the second with increasing greenhouse gases. The OU-CGCM simulated well the observed TC frequency and distribution in the southwest Pacific during the period 1970 2000. It also produced clear interannual and interdecadal TC variability in both the fixed and enhanced greenhouse gas simulations during the period 2000 2050. The variability in TC frequencies was associated with the typical atmospheric and SST anomaly patterns that occur in periods of quiet and active TC frequencies. The main findings from the enhanced greenhouse gas scenario for the period 2000 2050 are: no change in the mean decadal number of TCs relative to the control run, but a marked increase of about 15% in the mean decadal number of TCs in the most severe WMO categories 4 and 5; the likelihood of TCs during the next 50-year period that are more intense than ever previously experienced in the Australian region; a poleward extension of TC tracks; and a poleward shift of over 2 degrees of latitude in the TC genesis region.

  7. Reproductive biology of the spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui in the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Colonello, J C; García, M L; Lasta, C A; Menni, R C

    2012-06-01

    This study provides information on the reproduction of spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui. A total of 232 individuals (119 females and 113 males) were obtained from surveys carried out between 2003 and 2006, from the south-west Atlantic Ocean, between 34 and 42° S and <50 m deep; another 514 specimens (241 females and 273 males) were obtained between 2005 and 2007 from commercial fishery operations carried out in the same area and landings in the port of Mar del Plata, Argentina. Males ranged from 185 to 1250 mm total length (L(T) ) and females from 243 to 1368 mm L(T) . Length at maturity was estimated to be 980 mm for males and 1089 mm L(T) for females. Lack of variation of testis mass together with the continuous production of mature spermatocyst and spermatozoa in deferent ducts suggested that males can reproduce throughout the year. Females reproduced year-round with peaks of reproductive activity an integral part of a continuous cycle. This conclusion is corroborated by the seasonal variation of ovaries, oviducal gland and the occurrence of females with eggs in the uterus throughout the year. Results from this study indicate that A. castelnaui is very susceptible to fishery pressure. PMID:22650424

  8. Mechanism for generating the anomalous uplift of oceanic core complexes: Atlantis Bank, southwest Indian Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baines, A.G.; Cheadle, Michael J.; Dick, H.J.B.; Scheirer, A.H.; John, Barbara E.; Kusznir, N.J.; Matsumoto, T.

    2003-01-01

    Atlantis Bank is an anomalously uplifted oceanic core complex adjacent to the Atlantis II transform, on the southwest Indian Ridge, that rises >3 km above normal seafloor of the same age. Models of flexural uplift due to detachment faulting can account for ???1 km of this uplift. Postdetachment normal faults have been observed during submersible dives and on swath bathymetry. Two transform-parallel, large-offset (hundreds of meters) normal faults are identified on the eastern flank of Atlantis Bank, with numerous smaller faults (tens of meters) on the western flank. Flexural uplift associated with this transform-parallel normal faulting is consistent with gravity data and can account for the remaining anomalous uplift of Atlantis Bank. Extension normal to the Atlantis II transform may have occurred during a 12 m.y. period of transtension initiated by a 10?? change in spreading direction ca. 19.5 Ma. This extension may have produced the 120-km-long transverse ridge of which Atlantis Bank is a part, and is consistent with stress reorientation about a weak transform fault.

  9. The Morphology, Structure and Origin of Seamounts on the South-West Indian Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, L. A.; Watts, A. B.; JC066 shipboard scientific party

    2012-04-01

    The South-West Indian Ridge (SWIR) between longitude 46 and 57° East is an ultra-slow spreading (~16 mm/a) mid-ocean ridge system with a highly oblique (>50°) spreading direction and a large number of closely spaced transform faults. Previous swath bathymetry surveys onboard R/V Dr. Fridtjof Nansen in 2009 show that the ridge crest is characterised by a number of irregularly shaped seamounts which rise about 2500 m above the mean depth of the surrounding seafloor. However, the origin of these seamounts and whether they reflect passive cracking of the lithosphere or deep mantle processes is not clear. In November/December, 2011 we re-surveyed 5 of these seamounts onboard RRS James Cook using an EM120 swath bathymetry system, a Lacoste-Romberg air-sea gravimeter and a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Preliminary results show that the seamounts are highly fractured, with fault trends parallel and orthogonal to the spreading direction. There is evidence of both growth and collapse structures, including head scars, chutes and debris flows. We present here a preliminary analysis of the morphology, gravity field and rock sample data and its implications for tectonics, mass wasting and eruptive processes at young seamounts that have formed in an active extensional setting.

  10. Heavy metal uptake, translocation, and bioaccumulation studies of Triticum aestivum cultivated in contaminated dredged materials.

    PubMed

    Shumaker, Ketia L; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-08-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

  11. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

    PubMed Central

    Shumaker, Ketia L.; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

  12. Summary of a workshop on interpreting bioaccumulation data collected during regulatory evaluations of dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, T.S.; Moore, D.W.; Landrum, P.; Neff, J.; Cura, J.

    1996-07-01

    Evaluating the environmental consequences of contaminant bioaccumulation resulting from dredged material disposal is a complex technical and regulatory problem. This problem is exacerbated by the high cost of bioaccumulation testing and the lack of explicit guidance on how bioaccumulation data should be interpreted and used within a regulatory program. Bioaccumulation is a measurable phenomenon, rather than an effect. Without specific information about biological effects (e.g., reduced survival, growth, reproduction in animals, cancer risk in humans) resulting from bioaccumulation, it is difficult if not impossible from a regulatory standpoint to objectively determine what level of bioaccumulation constitutes an `unacceptable adverse effect.` Existing regulatory guidance attempts to overcome this with two approaches, both of which use low aquatic trophic level organisms and a reference-based comparison. In the first approach, the level of bioaccumulation of a specific contaminant is compared with a numerical effect limit, such as a Food and Drug Administration action level or a fish advisory. If the level of the contaminant in the organism exceeds the numerical limit, it is equated to an unacceptable adverse effect. If it does not, or there is no numerical limit, the second approach involves a comparison with animals exposed to a reference sediment. If bioaccumulation in the animals exposed to the dredged material exceeds that of animals exposed to the reference, a number of subjective factors are then evaluated to determine whether or not dredged material disposal will result in an `unacceptable adverse effect` (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) 1991, 1994).

  13. Restoring marsh elevation in a rapidly subsiding salt marsh by thin-layer deposition of dredged material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, M.A.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Thin-layer deposition of dredged material on coastal marsh by means of high-pressure spray dredging (Jet-Spray??2) technology has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize wetland impacts associated with traditional bucket dredging technologies and to restore soil elevations in deteriorated marshes of the Mississippi River delta. The impact of spray dredging on vegetated marsh and adjacent shallow-water habitat (formerly vegetated marsh that deteriorated to open water) was evaluated in a 0.5-ha Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marsh in coastal Louisiana. The thickness of dredged sediment deposits was determined from artificial soil marker horizons and soil elevation change was determined from sedimentation-erosion tables (SET) established prior to spraying in both sprayed and reference marshes. The vertical accretion and elevation change measurements were made simultaneously to allow for calculation of shallow (~5 m depth) subsidence (accretion minus elevation change). Measurements made immediately following spraying in July 1996 revealed that stems of S. alterniflora were knocked down by the force of the spray and covered with 23 mm of dredged material. Stems of S. alterniflora soon recovered, and by July 1997 the percent cover of S. alterniflora had increased three-fold over pre-project conditions. Thus, the layer of dredged material was thin enough to allow for survival of the S. alterniflora plants, with no subsequent colonization by plant species typical of higher marsh zones. By February 1998, 62 mm of vertical accretion accumulated at this site, and little indication of disturbance was noted. Although not statistically significant, soil elevation change was greater than accretion on average at both the spray and reference marshes, suggesting that subsurface expansion caused by increased root biomass production and/or pore water storage influence elevation in this marsh region. In the adjacent shallow water pond, 129 mm of sediment was deposited in July

  14. 77 FR 55144 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Preparation of NEPA Documents,'' (Voluntary NEPA Policy), 63 FR 58045, (October 29, 1998), sets out both the... action'' under the terms of Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). This action is exempt from review under Executive Order 12866 and Executive Order 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 21, 2011)....

  15. 77 FR 20590 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of Yaquina Bay, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...,'' (Voluntary NEPA Policy), 63 FR 58045, (October 29, 1998), sets out both the policy and procedures the EPA... a ``significant regulatory action'' under the terms of Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is therefore not subject to review under Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 (76 FR...

  16. Effects of industrial outfalls on tropical macrobenthic sediment communities in Reunion Island (Southwest Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Bigot, Lionel; Conand, Chantal; Amouroux, Jean Michel; Frouin, Patrick; Bruggemann, Henrich; Grémare, Antoine

    2006-08-01

    Temporal changes in the composition of soft bottom macrobenthic assemblages at Reunion Island (Southwest Indian Ocean) were studied in the context of a long-term environmental monitoring programme studying the impacts of effluents of industrial sugar cane refineries that are transferred to shallow and deep coastal environments by different pathways: surface discharge and deep underground injection. Seven stations (between 20 and 160 m depth) were surveyed between 1994 and 2003 on the industrial zone. One additional station was surveyed on a reference site. Spatio-temporal changes in the composition of macrobenthic communities were assessed using several diversity indices, ABC curves, MDS and associated ANOSIM tests and biotic indices. Among the 171 taxa recorded, polychaetes were dominant (89 species), followed by crustaceans and molluscs. The analysis of spatial changes in the composition of macrobenthos showed the existence of distinct benthic communities along the depth gradient. Temporal changes in macrobenthos composition were most prominent at the shallowest station. They mainly corresponded to the decline of several initially dominant taxa and the increase of the Eunicid polychaete Diopatra cuprea. This station further showed increasing macrofaunal abundance, biomass and sediment organic content over time, concomitant with decreasing sediment grain sizes. In deeper environments, temporal changes were much smaller. Macrofaunal abundance and species richness increased progressively, suggesting a moderate impact on benthic ecosystems resulting from slight enrichments due to effluents rich in organic matter. Our results highlight an original response to disturbance pattern involving opportunistic Eunicidae species (D. cuprea) not previously described. Moreover, they allow for the comparison of the impact on macrofauna caused by industrial effluents exported by two distinct and different pathways in a tropical coastal high-energy marine environment. PMID:16631815

  17. Comprehensive analysis of migration pathways (CAMP): Contaminant migration pathways at confined dredged material-disposal facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, J.M.; Pennington, J.C.; Gunnison, D.; Myers, T.E.

    1990-09-01

    A confined disposal facility (CDF) is a diked enclosure having either permeable or low-permeable walls that are used to retain dredged material solids. There are two types of CDFs are located within the influence of normal tidal or other water fluctuations. This report identifies and documents key contaminant mobility processes and pathways operative in CDFs under varying operational and environmental conditions. It also summarizes what is known about contaminant migration, cycling, and mobilization pathways, provides information on models and assessment techniques, and identifies areas for which insufficient information is available. The present information does not permit evaluations of the relative significance of contaminant migration pathways from a CDF. Pathways involving movement of large masses of water, such as CDF effluent, leaching through permeable dikes, or leaching through the dredged material, have the greatest potential for moving significant quantities of contaminants out of the CDF. Pathways such as volatilization may also result in movement of substantial amounts of volatile organic contaminants from CDFs. The relative importance of contaminant cycling and mobilization pathways to net mass balance has not been determined, but available information on each of the contaminant migration, cycling, and mobilization pathways is summarized in the report. Where possible, methods have been provided for making rough estimates of contaminant mass movement via pathways.

  18. A quantitative analysis of naiad mollusks from the Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin dredge material site on the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havlik, M.E.; Marking, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Prairie du Chien dredge material site contains about 100,000 cubic meters of material dredged from the East Channel of the Mississippi Riverin1976. Previous studies in that area suggested a rich molluscan fauna, but most studies were only qualitative or simply observations. Our study of this material was designed to determine the density and diversity of molluscan fauna, to assess changes in the fauna, to identify endemic species previously unreported, and to evaluate the status of the endangered Lampsilis higginsi. Ten cubic meters of dredge material were sieved to recover shells. Molluscan fauna at the site contained38 species of naiades and up to 1,737 identifiable valves per cubic meter. The endangered L. higginsi ranked18th In occurrence, accounted for only 0.52% of the identifiable shells, and averaged about three valves per cubic meter. From a total of 813 kg of naiades and gastropods, 6,339 naiad valves were identified. Five naiad species were collected at the site for the first time, and Eploblasma triquetra had not been reported previously in the Prairie du Chien area. Although the molluscan fauna has changed, the East Channel at Prairie du Chien is obviously suitable for L. higginsi.

  19. A multi-criteria approach for the dumping of dredged material in the Thermaikos Gulf, Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kanellopoulos, Theodore; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Antoniou, Panayota; Anagnostou, Christos

    2010-12-01

    A multi-criteria approach was applied for the disposal into the sea of ∼1,100,000 m(3) of sediment, dredged from a coastal area in the northeastern part of the Thermaikos Gulf. This sediment (classified as muddy) is distributed vertically into two distinct Layers (A and B) with the thickness of the surficial sedimentary unit ranging from 7 to 54 cm. Its geochemistry reveals increased Cr and Ni concentrations, which may be attributed to natural enrichment through the erosion of the adjacent igneous and metamorphic rocks. In addition, a low to moderate contamination from urban-originated heavy metals, like Cu, Pb and Zn as well as from aliphatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons was identified for the upper Layer A. However, the limited proportion (5.5%) of the polluted Layer A in the total volume of the dredged material could not affect the good quality (assessed by the Sediment Quality Guidelines) of the bulk sediment. The identification of the optimum marine dumping site was based on (a) the physicochemical similarity (detected by the application of a cluster analysis) of the dredged material with the surficial deposits of potential dumping sites in the Outer Thermaikos Gulf, and (b) the consideration, based on previous studies, of various criteria related to the disposal area such as deep-water circulation, influence on living resources, impact on economical (aquaculture, fishing, navigation), recreational (fishing) and military activities. PMID:20674146

  20. Effects of burial by the disposal of dredged materials from the Columbia River on Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula)

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrinec, John; Kohn, Nancy P.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.

    2007-05-07

    Annual maintenance of the Columbia River navigation channel requires the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) to dredge sediment from the river and dispose of the sediment in coastal areas at the mouth of the Columbia River. Some of these disposal areas can be as shallow as 12 m deep in waters off the coastal beaches, and dredged material disposal activities have therefore raised concerns of impacts to local razor clam (Siliqua patula) populations that are prevalent in the area. The Corps’ Portland District requested that the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conduct laboratory experiments to evaluate the potential impacts of burial by dredged material to razor clams during disposal. Prior modeling of disposal events indicates three stresses that could have an impact on benthic invertebrates: convective descent and bottom encounter (compression forces due to bottom impact), dynamic collapse and spreading (surge as material washes over the bottom), and mounding (burial by material). Because the razor clam is infaunal, the effects of the first two components should be minimal, because the clams should be protected by substrate that is not eroded in the event and by the clams’ rapid digging capabilities. The mound resulting from the disposal, however, would bury any clams remaining in the footprint under as much as 12 cm of new sediment according to modeling, and the clams’ reaction to such an event and to burial is not known. Although the literature suggests that razor clams may be negatively affected by siltation and therefore perhaps by dredging and disposal activity, as well, impacts of this type have not been demonstrated. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impacts of dredge material disposal on adult subtidal razor clam populations at the mouth of the Columbia River. Using the parameters defined in a previous model, a laboratory study was created in which a

  1. Decreasing monsoon precipitation in southwest China during the last 240 years associated with the warming of tropical ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Liangcheng; Cai, Yanjun; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Hai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Gao, Yongli; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    Based on an absolutely dated stalagmite δ18O record from Yunnan province, China, we reconstructed monsoon precipitation variations in southwest China since 1760 AD with a resolution of about 2 years. Combining the speleothem δ18O and observed rainfall records, we find an overall decreasing trend in monsoon precipitation in this region and suggest that the recent drought in 2009-2012 AD has been the driest since 1760 AD. Our speleothem record is consistent with the monsoon precipitation records reconstructed from tree rings in the Nepal Himalaya and southeastern Tibetan Plateau. However, it is anti-correlated with a speleothem record from central India, which confirms the observed anti-phase variations of Indian monsoon precipitation with moistures from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea on multi-decadal to centennial timescales during historical time. The long-term warming of tropical ocean may have caused the decrease of the land-sea thermal gradient and the amount of moisture transported from the Bay of Bengal, which may reduce precipitations in southwest China during the last 240 years. On decadal scale, El Nińo-like conditions of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature may cause drought in this region. Climate model simulations suggest El Niño-like conditions exist in tropical Pacific under global warming scenarios. As a result, it is crucial to have adaptive strategies to overcome future declines in precipitation and/or drought events in southwest China.

  2. Application of biological traits to further our understanding of the impacts of dredged material disposal on benthic assemblages.

    PubMed

    Bolam, S G; McIlwaine, P S O; Garcia, C

    2016-04-15

    While the effects of coastal disposal of dredged material on benthic assemblage structure have been well studied, our understanding of the mechanism of such responses, and their potential ecological implications, remain relatively unknown. Data from a licenced disposal site off the northeast coast of England are analysed to address this and improve our ability to make informed licencing decisions for this activity. Assemblages within the disposal site displayed reduced number of species and total invertebrate density, an altered assemblage taxonomic structure, and a shift towards a greater numerical dominance of less-productive individuals. Following separate analyses of biological response and effect traits, a novel approach for marine benthic trait analysis, we identify the traits responsible (i.e. response traits) for the observed structural alterations. Furthermore, analysis of the effect traits revealed that the assemblages characterising the disposal site possess a greater bioturbative capability compared to those not directly impacted by disposal. PMID:26899157

  3. USE OF DREDGINGS FOR LANDFILL. TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL DESICCATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF DREDGED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model has been developed to represent the physical phenomena that occur during the desiccation and one-dimensional consolidation of successive layers of dredged material as they are periodically deposited in a diked containment area. The governing boundary value pr...

  4. Analyses of native water and dredged material from southern Louisiana waterways, 1975-76

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demas, Charles R.; Higgins, Patricia C.

    1977-01-01

    From June 1975 to July 1976 the U.S. Geological Survey conducted nine dredging and seven postdredging studies related to water quality in selected reaches of major navigable waterways of southern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet, Mississippi River at Southwest Pass, Mississippi River at New Orleans, Bayou Rigaud near Grand Isle, Barataria Bay and Waterway, Bayou La Carpe near Houma, Atchafalaya Bay (Ship Channel), Lower Atchafalaya River area, Intracoastal Waterway near Calumet, Intracoastal Waterway (Port Allen to Morgan City), Petite Anse area, and Calcasieu River and Ship Channel. These studies were conductd to determine potential environmental effects of dredging activities in the waterways. The Geological survey collected, treated, and analyzed 383 water and water-sediment mixture samples from 85 dredging sites and 142 postdredging samples (72 sites). Water samples were collected 100 yards upstream and downstream from the dredge effluent, from the disposal area, and from the effluent outfall during the dredge phase of the study; samples were collected at former dredge sites during the postdredging phase. Samples were analyzed for selected metals, pesticides, nutrients, and organic constituents. The analytical data are presented in tables. Sampling sites are shown on maps. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean.

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Materials from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Miller, Martin C.; Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-02-01

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). The overall objectives of this effort are to synthesize what is known about disposal effects on Dungeness crabs (Phase 1) and to offer approaches to quantify the effects, including approaches to gain a population-level perspective on any effects found in subsequent studies (Phase 2). This report documents Phase 1, which included (1) development of a conceptual model to integrate knowledge about crab biology and the physical processes occurring during disposal, (2) application of physics-based numerical modeling of the disposal event to understand the physical forces and processes to which a crab might be exposed during disposal, (3) conduct of a vulnerability analysis to identify the potential mechanisms by which crabs may be injured, and (4) recommendations of topics and approaches for future studies to assess the potential population-level effects of disposal on Dungeness crabs. The conceptual model first recognizes that disposal of dredged materials is a physically dynamic process with three aspects: (1) convective descent and bottom encounter, (2) dynamic collapse and spreading, and (3) mounding. Numerical modeling was used to assess the magnitude of the potentially relevant forces and extent of mounding in single disposal events. The modeling outcomes show that predicted impact pressure, shear stress, and mound depth are greatly reduced by discharge in deep water, and somewhat reduced at longer discharge duration. The analysis of numerical modeling results and vulnerabilities indicate that the vulnerability of crabs to compression forces under any of the disposal scenarios is low. For the deep-water disposal scenarios, the maximum forces and mounding do not appear to be sufficiently high enough to warrant concern for surge currents or burial at the depths involved (over 230 ft). For the shallow-water (45 to 65 ft), short

  7. 77 FR 63312 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in Eastern Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Island Sound; Connecticut, New York, and Rhode Island AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Island Sound region (Connecticut, New York, and Rhode Island). SUMMARY: EPA is authorized to designate... the analyses that were conducted for the 2005 Long Island Sound Environmental Impact Statement...

  8. 76 FR 26720 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Environmental Policy Document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR 58045, October 1998). For Further Information... is based on capacity computer modeling results. Alternatives: The following proposed...

  9. 77 FR 77076 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Expanded Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) off...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Charleston, South Carolina AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4. ACTION: Notice of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... prepare a National Environmental Policy Document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR 58045, October...

  10. Radiocarbon and Stable Isotope Evidence for Increased Ventilation of the Southwest Pacific Ocean during the Last Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikes, E. L.; Elmore, A.; Allen, K. A.; Cook, M. S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in ocean circulation are thought to have increased CO2 sequestration in the deep ocean during glacial periods, resulting in lower atmospheric CO2. The return of this CO2 to the atmosphere was likely driven by invigorated ventilation of the ocean, but the relative influence of possible mechanisms that drove past circulation changes during the deglaciation are still debated. High-resolution benthic foraminiferal δ13C from Cibicidoides (primarily wuellerstorfi) and tephra-tied Δ14C on mixed benthics from an eight-core depth transect (663-3836 m water depth) in the Southwest Pacific Ocean provide compelling evidence for shallow glacial stratification in the Southern Ocean. The glacial δ13C difference between ~660 and ~1600 m was ~1.7‰, more than double the Holocene difference of ~0.7‰. At the same time, Δ14C of waters below ~1600 m were 3-5 times more depleted than modern, confirming increased isolation of deep water from the atmosphere. During the last glacial termination better-ventilated intermediate waters appeared in a pulse beginning ~16.5 ka, indicated by rapid δ13C enrichment to 1100 m and confirmed by Δ14C values with vertical structure similar to modern. Intermediate ventilation in the high resolution δ13C was followed by slower, progressive ventilation of increasingly deeper layers between 14.5 and 10 ka, again confirmed by lower resolution Δ14C of mid-depth water. The close coincidence of rapid atmospheric CO2 increases, shallow ventilation and documented wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean suggests the influence of wind-driven ocean ventilation. In addition, gradual atmospheric CO2 increases coincident with the onset of deep ventilation and reinitiation of vigorous North Atlantic Deep Water formation suggest that shifts in deep water density and circulation also contributed to deglacial ocean ventilation in this region. In combination, these data indicate both processes played a role in deglacial CO2 rise.

  11. An interdisciplinary approach to controlling chikungunya outbreaks on French islands in the south-west Indian ocean.

    PubMed

    Flahault, A; Aumont, G; Boisson, V; de Lamballerie, X; Favier, F; Fontenille, D; Journeaux, S; Lotteau, V; Paupy, C; Sanquer, M A; Setbon, M; Gaüzere, B A

    2012-03-01

    The outbreak of chikungunya that occurred on French Island territories in the southwest Indian Ocean in 2005 and 2006 caused severe morbidity and mortality. In the aftermath, French authorities set up a scientific task force including experts in epidemiology, public health, entomology, virology, immunology, sociology, animal health, community and hospital medicine. The mission of the task force was to conceive and propose research programs needed to increase understanding of the disease and epidemic and to help public health officials in improving epidemic response measures. The purpose of this article is to describe the findings of the task force at the end of its two-year existence and initial outcomes in the the areas studied. Discussion emphasizes topics requiring further study. PMID:22693932

  12. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Bulls Head Channel (lower Suisun Bay)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Gardiner, W.W.; Word, J.Q.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the sampling and testing program conducted for USACE by Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to address (1) exclusion from further testing for ocean disposal, (2) suitability of open-water disposal within San Francisco Bay, and (3) beneficial uses, based on open-water and upland (leaching) disposal criteria, for the estimated 1.86 million cubic yards of sediment to be dredged from Bulls Head Channel and turning basin. To meet these objectives, core samples were collected from 28 locations to a depth of -47 ft mean lower low water (MLLW), which is -45 ft MLLW plus 2 ft overdepth. One to three samples per coring location were characterized physically and chemically; sediment from groups of locations and from various depth strata were combined into composite samples for biological toxicity characterization in addition to physical and chemical characterization. The chemical and biological tests were conducted following the guidance of USACE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and state regulatory agencies.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments at dredged material disposal sites around England: concentrations in 2013 and time trend information at selected sites 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Rumney, Heather S; Bolam, Stefan G; Law, Robin J

    2015-03-15

    The maintenance of navigation channels to ports and the development of their facilities present a need to conduct dredging operations, and the subsequent disposal of dredged material at sea. Contaminant concentrations in candidate dredged material are determined and their possible impacts considered during the licensing process, which can result in the exclusion of some material from sea disposal. Monitoring of disposal sites is conducted in order to ensure that no undesirable impacts are occurring. In this study we consider the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments at a number of disposal sites monitored in 2013 and variations in concentrations over time at three sites during the period 2008-2013. These were assessed using established sediment quality guidelines. Elevated PAH concentrations were generally observed only within the boundaries of the disposal sites studied. PMID:25618523

  14. A preliminary study of habitat and resource partitioning among co-occurring tropical dolphins around Mayotte, southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Alexandra; Kiszka, Jeremy; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Richard, Pierre; Ridoux, Vincent

    2009-09-01

    Mayotte in the southwest Indian Ocean is characterized by high dolphin diversity. They may coexist within a fairly small area around the island because they exploit neither the same preferential habitats nor the same resources. This preliminary study aimed to investigate ecological niche segregation among these delphinid communities: the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus, the pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata, the spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris, and the melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra. Two approaches were used. Habitat preferences were investigated by analysing dolphin sighting data and associated physiographical characteristics. Resource partitioning was explored by analysing C and N stable isotopes in skin and blubber biopsies. Only T. aduncus, which showed clear association with coastal habitats in the lagoon, differed from the others in terms of habitat preferences, characterised by shallow depth and slope, and proximity to the coast. All other species shared similar oceanic habitats immediately outside the lagoon, these being of higher depth and slope, greater distance from the coast and were not discernable by discriminant analysis. The two Stenella species and the melon-headed whale displayed very high overlap in habitat physiographic variables. The analysis of stable isotopes confirmed the ecological isolation of T. aduncus and revealed a clear segregation of P. electra compared to the two Stenella that was not apparent in the habitat analysis. This may reflect ecological differences that were not observable from diurnal surface observations.

  15. A screening procedure for selecting the most suitable dredged material placement site at the sea. The case of the South Euboean Gulf, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kapsimalis, V; Panagiotopoulos, I P; Hatzianestis, I; Kanellopoulos, T D; Tsangaris, C; Kaberi, E; Kontoyiannis, H; Rousakis, G; Kyriakidou, C; Hatiris, G A

    2013-12-01

    The selection of the best site for the placement of dredged sedimentary material (∼7,000 m(3)) from the Aliveri coastal area in the adjacent South Euboean Gulf (Greece) was accomplished through a screening procedure. The initial stage comprised the determination of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the dredged sediment before the commencement of any dredging operation. Grain size measurements, geochemical analyses together with the use of pollution/toxicity indices and empirical sediment quality guidelines, and the conduct of an acute toxicity test showed that the dredged material consisted of "unpolluted to slightly polluted" silty sands and sandy silts. However, the local authorities planned to place this sediment in the neighboring open sea area, i.e., the South Euboean Gulf, due to the absence of any beneficial use or alternative dumping option (i.e., dumping on public lands). Therefore, the next stage of the screening procedure, based on criteria such as the national legislation, seabed and seawater column characteristics, influence of the water mass circulation pattern on the post-placement migration of dredged sediment, impact on living resources and human activities (i.e., aquaculture and fishing), effect on significant marine sites (i.e., sites of scientific, ecological, and historical importance, navigation routes, military zones), and seafloor engineering uses, led to the evaluation of the suitability of the South Euboean Gulf as a potential dumping area. Then, the identification of the appropriate dredged material placement sites in the South Euboean Gulf was based on a cluster analysis, which tested the physicochemical resemblance of the dredged material and the surface sediments of 19 potential placement locations in the gulf. After the statistical process, only four sites situated near the north shoreline of the South Euboean Gulf were qualified as the best dredged material placement locations. PMID:23813126

  16. Theoretical models for evaluation of volatile emissions to air during dredged-material disposal with applications to New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts. Final report, July 1987-June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Thibodeaux, L.J.

    1989-05-01

    Some bottom sediments in both fresh and marine waters are contaminated with hazardous organic chemicals that are classified as volatile and semivolatile. An example is the New Bedford Harbor and Acushnet River Estuary sediment, which contains quantities of the polychlorinated biphenyls Aroclors 1242, 1248, and 1254. Dredged material contaminated with these and other volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) can release these contaminants to the atmosphere during and after disposal by volatilization. Methods to predict these volatilization losses are needed to develop design, operation, and management guidelines for controlling VOC emissions. Volatilization rates for hydrophobic organic compounds from a confined disposal facility (CDF) containing contaminated dredged material are presently unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the availability of theoretical models for the evaluation of volatile emissions to air during the process of dredged-material disposal in a CDF. The first objective was to identify the primary vapor phase transport mechanism for various CDF designs and stages of filling. This provided the theoretical basis for assessing relative volatilization rates. The second objective was to review available laboratory and field procedures for obtaining the information needed to measure volatile losses. The report also contains preliminary calculations of the emission rates of Aroclors 1242 and 1254 from a hypothetical CDF operation in the Upper Acushnet River Estuary (Appendix A). Appendix B presents a detailed derivation of the rivulet and ponded VOC emission model.

  17. Sediment quality assessment and dredged material management in Spain: Part I, application of sediment quality guidelines in the Bay of Santander.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Guerra, Manuel; Viguri, Javier R; Casado-Martínez, M Carmen; DelValls, T Angel

    2007-10-01

    Sediments are an essential component of aquatic ecosystems that must be assessed and managed properly. The use of quantitative environmental quality standards derived from consideration of sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) can be effective as part of a tiered risk assessment approach. In Part I of this 2-part paper addressing sediment quality assessment and dredged material management in Spain, different SQG methods are used to evaluate sediment quality in the Bay of Santander, located in the Cantabric Sea along the northern coast of Spain, and to guide development of empirically derived SQGs for marine sediments. The results of the study indicate a great heterogeneity of SQGs, both with regard to the numeric values for a particular chemical and the number of substances for which SQGs have been derived. The analysis highlights the scarce development of empirical SQGs for priority substances identified in current European Union water policy. Nonetheless, the application of SQGs makes it possible to classify different zones of sediment quality in the Bay of Santander. Part II of this 2-part paper considers the environmental impacts of dredged material disposal. Legislation and criteria used to regulate dredged material disposal at sea in different European countries are reviewed, and action levels derived by different countries were used to evaluate management of dredged sediments from Cádiz Bay, located on the South Atlantic coast of Spain. PMID:18046802

  18. High connectivity of the crocodile shark between the Atlantic and Southwest Indian Oceans: highlights for conservation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferrette, Bruno Lopes; Mendonça, Fernando Fernandes; Coelho, Rui; de Oliveira, Paulo Guilherme Vasconcelos; Hazin, Fábio Hissa Vieira; Romanov, Evgeny V; Oliveira, Claudio; Santos, Miguel Neves; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Among the various shark species that are captured as bycatch in commercial fishing operations, the group of pelagic sharks is still one of the least studied and known. Within those, the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, a small-sized lamnid shark, is occasionally caught by longline vessels in certain regions of the tropical oceans worldwide. However, the population dynamics of this species, as well as the impact of fishing mortality on its stocks, are still unknown, with the crocodile shark currently one of the least studied of all pelagic sharks. Given this, the present study aimed to assess the population structure of P. kamoharai in several regions of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans using genetic molecular markers. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 255 individuals was analyzed, and 31 haplotypes were found, with an estimated diversity Hd = 0.627, and a nucleotide diversity π = 0.00167. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a fixation index ΦST = -0.01118, representing an absence of population structure among the sampled regions of the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These results show a high degree of gene flow between the studied areas, with a single genetic stock and reduced population variability. In panmictic populations, conservation efforts can be concentrated in more restricted areas, being these representative of the total biodiversity of the species. When necessary, this strategy could be applied to the genetic maintenance of P. kamoharai. PMID:25689742

  19. High Connectivity of the Crocodile Shark between the Atlantic and Southwest Indian Oceans: Highlights for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Ferrette, Bruno Lopes; Mendonça, Fernando Fernandes; Coelho, Rui; de Oliveira, Paulo Guilherme Vasconcelos; Hazin, Fábio Hissa Vieira; Romanov, Evgeny V.; Oliveira, Claudio; Santos, Miguel Neves; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Among the various shark species that are captured as bycatch in commercial fishing operations, the group of pelagic sharks is still one of the least studied and known. Within those, the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, a small-sized lamnid shark, is occasionally caught by longline vessels in certain regions of the tropical oceans worldwide. However, the population dynamics of this species, as well as the impact of fishing mortality on its stocks, are still unknown, with the crocodile shark currently one of the least studied of all pelagic sharks. Given this, the present study aimed to assess the population structure of P. kamoharai in several regions of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans using genetic molecular markers. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 255 individuals was analyzed, and 31 haplotypes were found, with an estimated diversity Hd = 0.627, and a nucleotide diversity π = 0.00167. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a fixation index ΦST = -0.01118, representing an absence of population structure among the sampled regions of the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These results show a high degree of gene flow between the studied areas, with a single genetic stock and reduced population variability. In panmictic populations, conservation efforts can be concentrated in more restricted areas, being these representative of the total biodiversity of the species. When necessary, this strategy could be applied to the genetic maintenance of P. kamoharai. PMID:25689742

  20. Transform Faults, Oceanic Ridges, and Magnetic Anomalies Southwest of Vancouver Island.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J T

    1965-10-22

    The San Andreas Fault and a large fault off British Columbia are interpreted as examples of the recently proposed "transform faults." They are joined by a short, isolated length of oceanic ridge striking N20 degrees E, with an associated "window" of young crust. The displacement along these faults is estimated at 400 kilometers. PMID:17842753

  1. Constraining early to middle Eocene climate evolution of the southwest Pacific and Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallanave, Edoardo; Bachtadse, Valerian; Crouch, Erica M.; Tauxe, Lisa; Shepherd, Claire L.; Morgans, Hugh E. G.; Hollis, Christopher J.; Hines, Benjamin R.; Sugisaki, Saiko

    2016-01-01

    Studies of early Paleogene climate suffer from the scarcity of well-dated sedimentary records from the southern Pacific Ocean, the largest ocean basin during this time. We present a new magnetostratigraphic record from marine sediments that outcrop along the mid-Waipara River, South Island, New Zealand. Fully oriented samples for paleomagnetic analyses were collected along 45 m of stratigraphic section, which encompasses magnetic polarity Chrons from C23n to C21n (˜ 51.5- 47 Ma). These results are integrated with foraminiferal, calcareous nannofossil, and dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) biostratigraphy from samples collected in three different expeditions along a total of ˜80 m of section. Biostratigraphic data indicates relatively continuous sedimentation from the lower Waipawan to the upper Heretaungan New Zealand stages (i.e., lower Ypresian to lower Lutetian, 55.5 to 46 Ma). We provide the first magnetostratigraphically-calibrated age of 48.88 Ma for the base of the Heretaungan New Zealand stage (latest early Eocene). To improve the correlation of the climate record in this section with other Southern Ocean records, we reviewed the magnetostratigraphy of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1172 (East Tasman Plateau) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1356 (Wilkes Land Margin, Antarctica). A paleomagnetic study of discrete samples could not confirm any reliable magnetic polarity reversals in the early Eocene at Site 1172. We use the robust magneto-biochronology of a succession of dinocyst bioevents that are common to mid-Waipara, Site 1172, and Site U1356 to assist correlation between the three records. A new integrated chronology offers new insights into the nature and completeness of the southern high-latitude climate histories derived from these sites.

  2. Carbonate chemistry of intermediate waters in the Southwest Pacific Ocean since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, K. A.; Sikes, E. L.; Elmore, A.; Hoenisch, B.; deMenocal, P. B.; Rosenthal, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Shifts in ocean circulation and marine carbon storage likely played an important role in the termination of the last ice age, but the mechanisms driving these changes have not yet been fully explained. It has been suggested that a greater amount of CO2 was stored in the deep sea during glacial periods via the biologic pump and/or increased uptake by a more alkaline ocean. To quantify the relative roles of such processes, more constraints on past deep ocean alkalinity are needed. Here, we present a new record of deep water carbonate chemistry for the last 30,000 years derived from a sediment core located at 1,627 meters depth in New Zealand's Bay of Plenty. Today, this core site lies at the boundary between relatively fresh Antarctic/Tasman Intermediate Water (above), and Circumpolar Deep Water (below) with more corrosive Pacific Deep Water also intruding from the north. Trace element and stable isotopic composition of foraminiferal calcite (the epibenthic species Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi) reveal changes in bottom water carbonate chemistry during periods of atmospheric CO2 change. The boron to calcium ratio (B/Ca) in these shells indicates that deep water saturation (ΔCO32-) during the last glacial maximum (LGM) was only 5 μmol kg-1 less than the modern value of ~ 20 μmol/kg, consistent with previous work identifying the Pacific as a 'well-buffered' ocean basin on long timescales. However, reconstructed ΔCO32- values fluctuated by as much as 30 μmol/kg across the deglaciation, exhibiting the most pronounced changes between 17 and 13 ka. Together with shifts in carbon isotopes, these results imply changes in circulation and/or respired CO2 storage, and support a series of events in which major oceanographic changes are intimately linked with shifts in atmospheric circulation.

  3. 75 FR 33747 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...) at 71 FR 27396 (May 11, 2006). The EPA is also restoring the coordinates for Site H at 40 CFR 228.15... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and...

  4. Circulation and water properties of the southwest Indian Ocean, Spring 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gründlingh, M. L.; Carter, R. A.; Stanton, R. C.

    The results obtrained during a cruise in the south-western Indian Ocean, from South Africa to Mauritius in September 1987, are presented. Temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrients were measured at 70 CTD station, 20 nautical miles apart. The data perspective is enhanced by NOAA satellite infrared imagery and Geosat altimetry. The major features encountered on the cruise were two intense cyclonic eddies in the vicinity of the Mozambique Ridge and the Mozambique Basin and which seemed to form part of the broader western boundary region of the southern Indian Ocean. Evidence was found of a significant equatoward flux at the Madagascar Ridge, which provided input of water from higher latitudes. The passage of North Atlantic Deep Water was constrained by the bottom topography south of the Madagascar Ridge, and this led to a reduction of its salinity and oxygen concentration. The positive correlation between the CTD results and the altimetry enabled the identification, tracking and description of a number of eddies in the region. The transition zone of these eddies from east of Madagascar to the African continent was identified, and so was the apparent closure of the southern entrance of the Mozambique Channel to migrating eddies.

  5. Annual cycles of deep-ocean biogeochemical export fluxes in subtropical and subantarctic waters, southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodder, Scott D.; Chiswell, Stephen M.; Northcote, Lisa C.

    2016-04-01

    The annual cycles of particle fluxes derived from moored sediment trap data collected during 2000-2012 in subtropical (STW) and subantarctic waters (SAW) east of New Zealand are presented. These observations are the most comprehensive export flux time series from temperate Southern Hemisphere latitudes to date. With high levels of variability, fluxes in SAW were markedly lower than in STW, reflecting the picophytoplankton-dominated communities in the iron-limited, high nutrient-low chlorophyll SAW. Austral spring chlorophyll blooms in surface STW were near synchronous with elevated fluxes of bio-siliceous, carbonate, and organic carbon-rich materials to the deep ocean, probably facilitated by diatom and/or coccolithophorid sedimentation. Lithogenic fluxes were also high in STW, compared to SAW, reflecting proximity to the New Zealand landmass. In contrast, the highest biogenic fluxes in SAW occurred in spring when surface chlorophyll concentrations were low, while highest annual chlorophyll concentrations were in summer with no associated flux increase. We hypothesize that the high spring export in SAW results from subsurface chlorophyll accumulation that is not evident from remote-sensing satellites. This material was also rich in biogenic silica, perhaps related to the preferential export of diatoms and other silica-producing organisms, such as silicoflagellates and radiolarians. Organic carbon fluxes in STW are similar to that of other mesotrophic to oligotrophic waters (˜6-7 mg C m-2 d-1), whereas export from SAW is below the global average (˜3 mg C m-2 d-1). Regional differences in flux across the SW Pacific and Tasman region reflect variations in physical processes and ecosystem structure and function.

  6. Investigating Behaviour and Population Dynamics of Striped Marlin (Kajikia audax) from the Southwest Pacific Ocean with Satellite Tags

    PubMed Central

    Sippel, Tim; Holdsworth, John; Dennis, Todd; Montgomery, John

    2011-01-01

    Behaviour and distribution of striped marlin within the southwest Pacific Ocean were investigated using electronic tagging data collected from 2005–2008. A continuous-time correlated random-walk Kalman filter was used to integrate double-tagging data exhibiting variable error structures into movement trajectories composed of regular time-steps. This state-space trajectory integration approach improved longitude and latitude error distributions by 38.5 km and 22.2 km respectively. Using these trajectories as inputs, a behavioural classification model was developed to infer when, and where, ‘transiting’ and ‘area-restricted’ (ARB) pseudo-behavioural states occurred. ARB tended to occur at shallower depths (108±49 m) than did transiting behaviours (127±57 m). A 16 day post-release period of diminished ARB activity suggests that patterns of behaviour were affected by the capture and/or tagging events, implying that tagged animals may exhibit atypical behaviour upon release. The striped marlin in this study dove deeper and spent greater time at ≥200 m depth than those in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. As marlin reached tropical latitudes (20–21°S) they consistently reversed directions, increased swimming speed and shifted to transiting behaviour. Reversals in the tropics also coincided with increases in swimming depth, including increased time ≥250 m. Our research provides enhanced understanding of the behavioural ecology of striped marlin. This has implications for the effectiveness of spatially explicit population models and we demonstrate the need to consider geographic variation when standardizing CPUE by depth, and provide data to inform natural and recreational fishing mortality parameters. PMID:21695132

  7. Fulvimarina manganoxydans sp. nov., isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal plume in the south-west Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fei; Zhang, Limin; Song, Lei; Xu, Shiyao; Xi, Lijun; Huang, Li; Huang, Ying; Dai, Xin

    2014-08-01

    An aerobic, Mn(II)-oxidizing, Gram-negative bacterium, strain 8047(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent plume in the south-west Indian Ocean. The strain was rod-shaped and motile with a terminal flagellum, and formed yellowish colonies. It produced catalase and oxidase, hydrolysed gelatin and reduced nitrate. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 8047(T) belonged to the order Rhizobiales of the class Alphaproteobacteria, and was phylogenetically most closely related to the genus Fulvimarina, sharing 94.4% sequence identity with the type strain of the type species. The taxonomic affiliation of strain 8047(T) was supported by phylogenetic analysis of four additional housekeeping genes, gyrB, recA, rpoC and rpoB. The predominant respiratory lipoquinone of strain 8047(T) was Q-10, the major fatty acid was C(18 : 1)ω7c and the DNA G+C content was 61.7 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics determined in this study, strain 8047(T) represents a novel species within the genus Fulvimarina, for which the name Fulvimarina manganoxydans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 8047(T) ( = CGMCC1.10972(T) = JCM 18890(T)). PMID:24854008

  8. Purification and identification of a novel antifungal protein secreted by Penicillium citrinum from the Southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chao; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    A novel antifungal protein produced by the fungal strain Penicillium citrinum W1, which was isolated from a Southwest Indian Ocean sediment sample, was purified and characterized. The culture supernatant of P. citrinum W1 inhibited the mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. After saturation of P. citrinum W1 culture supernatants with ammonium sulfate and ion-exchange chromatography, an antifungal protein (PcPAF) was purified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that PcPAF might be an unknown antifungal protein. PcPAF displayed antifungal activity against Trichoderma viride, Fusarium oxysporum, Paecilomyces variotii, and Alternaria longipes at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.52, 6.08, 3.04, and 6.08 µg/disc, respectively. PcPAF possessed high thermostability and had a certain extent of protease and metal ion resistance. The results suggested that PcPAF may represent a novel antifungal protein with potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungal infection. PMID:24931500

  9. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site and addtiional sites off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Cullinan, V.I.; Pearson, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District (USACE), has made active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. Disposal site boundaries were established to avoid an area where high densities of Young-of-the-Year (YOY) Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, were observed during the site selection surveys. To monitor possible impacts of disposal operations on Dungeness crab at the site, USACE recommended a crab distribution survey prior to disposal operations in the February 1989 environmental impact statement supplement (EISS) as part of a tiered monitoring strategy for the site. According to the tiered monitoring strategy, a preliminary survey is conducted to determine if the disposal site contains an exceptionally high density of YOY Dungeness crab. The trigger for moving to a more intensive sampling effort is a YOY crab density within the disposal site that is 100 times higher than the density in the reference area to the north. This report concerns a 1991 survey that was designed to verify that the density of YOY Dungeness crab present at the disposal site was not exceptionally high. Another objective of the survey was to estimate Dungeness crab densities at nearshore areas that are being considered as sediment berm sites by USACE.

  10. Carapidae larvae (Acanthomorpha, Paracanthopterygii, Ophidiiformes) from the oceanic region of the southwest Atlantic Ocean off Brazil (12 22°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, C.; Bonecker, A. C. T.; de Castro, M. S.

    2007-02-01

    We report the occurrence and distribution of Carapidae larvae in the southwest Atlantic Ocean, between Real River (12°S) and São Tomé Cape (22°S), off Brazil. Carapidae larvae were collected during three oceanographic cruises: spring 1998, winter 1999 and autumn 2000. The hauls were conducted obliquely from a maximum depth of 200 m, during day and night, with bongo nets 330- and 500-μm mesh size. Three species were recorded in this study: Carapus bermudensis, Echiodon dawsoni and Snyderidia canina. Only one C. bermudensis was collected during the winter cruise off the Salvador coast (13°S). Twenty-one larvae of E. dawsoni were collected during the three cruises between 14.5° and 22°S, including some at the banks of Vitória-Trindade Ridge. One S. canina larva occurred, during the spring in the north coast of Rio de Janeiro (22°S).

  11. Fe-Ti-oxide textures and microstructures in shear zones from oceanic gabbros at Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, Jessica; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Rybacki, Erik

    2016-04-01

    Ocean drilling expeditions at several oceanic core complexes formed at slow- and ultra-slow-spreading ridges have recovered cores containing numerous zones of oxide-rich gabbros containing ilmenite and magnetite. In these cores, high modal concentrations of Fe-Ti-oxides are systematically associated with high-temperature plastic deformation features in silicates. We present observations of Fe-Ti-oxide mineral structures and textural characteristics from a series of oxide-rich shear zones from Atlantis Bank (ODP Site 735B) on the Southwest Indian Ridge aimed at determining how oxide mineral abundances relate to strain localization. Fe-Ti-oxide minerals in undeformed oxide gabbros and in highly deformed samples from natural shear zones generally have morphologies characteristic of crystallized melt, including highly cuspate grains and low dihedral angles. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in oxide-rich shear zones is very strong, with fabrics mainly characterized by strong magnetic foliations parallel to the macroscopic foliation. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in magnetite are generally weak, with occasionally well-defined textures. Ilmenite typically displays well-developed CPOs, however, the melt-like ilmenite grain shapes indicate that at least part of the crystallographic texture results from oriented ilmenite growth during post-deformation crystallization. The oxides are hypothesized to have initially been present as isolated pockets of trapped melt (intercumulus liquid) in a load-bearing silicate framework. Progressive plastic deformation of silicate phases at high-temperature mainly produced two features: (i) elongated melt pockets, which crystallized to form strings of opaque minerals and (ii), interconnected networks of melt regions. The latter lead to intense strain localization of the rock, which appears as oxide-rich mylonites in the samples. In some samples, abundant low-angle grain boundaries in both magnetite and ilmenite suggest

  12. Habitat selection of two island-associated dolphin species from the south-west Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condet, Manon; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine

    2016-08-01

    Identifying suitable habitats of protected species is an essential question in ecology and conservation planning. Modelling approaches have been widely used to identify environmental features that contribute to a species' ecological requirements and distribution. On Reunion Island, a fast-growing French territory located in the south-western Indian Ocean, anthropogenic impacts are mainly concentrated along the coast, representing a potential threat for Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins, two resident coastal species. Beside coastal development, commercial and recreational dolphin-watching are growing, particularly along the west coast. To promote effective local management, habitat modelling was applied using presence-only data collected from 2008 to 2012 on the west coast of the island. Ecological Niche Factor Analyses were used to investigate the effect of physiographic variables on the distribution of these two dolphin species and delineate suitable habitats. It was found that the core habitat of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was mainly restricted by depth and confined to coastal waters ranging from 4.7 to 75.8 m deep. The species preferentially used soft substrates (sand and mud) and tended to be ubiquitous in terms of substrate type/color used. Foraging activities were significantly related to soft substrates. The diurnal core habitat of spinner dolphins was confined to one discrete area, on the flat portion of the insular shelf, between 45.1 m and 70.7 m of depth. Suitable habitat was mainly related to soft and light-colored substrates, with a clear avoidance of dark-colored substrates. The core habitats of both species were very restrained spatially and therefore vulnerable to human activities. The fine scale habitat mapping achieved in this study represents baseline data to conduct ad hoc impact assessment and support conservation actions.

  13. Evolutionary Dynamics in the Southwest Indian Ocean Marine Biodiversity Hotspot: A Perspective from the Rocky Shore Gastropod Genus Nerita

    PubMed Central

    Postaire, Bautisse; Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Magalon, Hélène; Faure, Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    The Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) is a striking marine biodiversity hotspot. Coral reefs in this region host a high proportion of endemics compared to total species richness and they are particularly threatened by human activities. The island archipelagos with their diverse marine habitats constitute a natural laboratory for studying diversification processes. Rocky shores in the SWIO region have remained understudied. This habitat presents a high diversity of molluscs, in particular gastropods. To explore the role of climatic and geological factors in lineage diversification within the genus Nerita, we constructed a new phylogeny with an associated chronogram from two mitochondrial genes [cytochrome oxidase sub-unit 1 and 16S rRNA], combining previously published and new data from eight species sampled throughout the region. All species from the SWIO originated less than 20 Ma ago, their closest extant relatives living in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA). Furthermore, the SWIO clades within species with Indo-Pacific distribution ranges are quite recent, less than 5 Ma. These results suggest that the regional diversification of Nerita is closely linked to tectonic events in the SWIO region. The Reunion mantle plume head reached Earth’s surface 67 Ma and has been stable and active since then, generating island archipelagos, some of which are partly below sea level today. Since the Miocene, sea-level fluctuations have intermittently created new rocky shore habitats. These represent ephemeral stepping-stones, which have likely facilitated repeated colonization by intertidal gastropods, like Nerita populations from the IAA, leading to allopatric speciation. This highlights the importance of taking into account past climatic and geological factors when studying diversification of highly dispersive tropical marine species. It also underlines the unique history of the marine biodiversity of the SWIO region. PMID:24736639

  14. Southwest Pacific Oceanic Plateaus and the Greater Ontong Java Plateau Event: A Unique Magmatic Episode in Earth History?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) in the Southwest Pacific is the world's largest oceanic plateau and the most voluminous LIP on Earth. Recent data from the Hikurangi and Manihiki Plateaus and the Nauru Basin strongly suggest that basement lavas from these areas are related. The implication is that the Great OJP Volcanic Event covered ~1% of the Earth's surface. Published 40-39 Ar age dates from basement lavas indicate the following: two volcanic LIP events have been recorded from the OJP (ca. 120 and 90 Ma); for the Manihiki Plateau, DSDP Site 317 lavas gave ages of ca. 117 Ma and dredge samples from the R/V Sonne expedition 193 gave ages of ca. 124.5 Ma; dredge samples recovered during R/V Sonne expedition 168 give ages spanning 118-96 Ma for Hikurangi Plateau basement lavas; in the Nauru Basin DSDP Legs 61 and 89 indicate that basaltic basement lavas erupted between 130-110 Ma. To form these different constructs at the same time would require a unique event in Earth's history. The current data are consistent with initiation of volcanism beneath the Manihiki Plateau/Nauru Basin with the main eruptive event focusing on the OJP, before waning and moving to the Hikurangi Plateau. However, there are a number of magmatic events recorded by samples from each location that suggest periodic rejuvenation of the LIP source region. Ages of 90 Ma and ~60 Ma have been recorded on the OJP by drilling (Site 803) and sampling on the island of Santa Isabel, as well as on the Hikurangi Plateau. OJP-type lavas with ages of ~90 Ma, ~60 Ma, and ~35 Ma have been recovered from the island of San Cristobal. Emplacement of basaltic sills occurred in the Nauru Basin 100-75 Ma. Finally, MORB- and OIB-type lavas have been recovered from the Solomon Islands and from the Hikurangi plateau that appear to be intercalated with OJP-type lavas, but (at least from San Cristobal) these appear to be associated with the ~60 Ma and ~35 Ma events. These observations need to be explained in modeling the

  15. Field-verification program (aquatic disposal): comparison of field and laboratory bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic contaminants from Black Rock Harbor dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, J.L.; Galloway, W.; Hoffman, G.; Nelson, W.; Scott, K.J.

    1988-05-01

    The utility of laboratory tests for predicting bioaccumulation of contaminants in the field was evaluated by comparing the identities, relative abundances, and quantities of organic and inorganic contaminants accumulated by organisms exposed to dredged material in both laboratory and field studies. The organisms used were Mytilus edulis (a filter-feeding bivalve) and Nephtys incisa (a benthic polychaete). These organisms were exposed in the laboratory and in the field to a contaminated dredged material from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Connecticut. Both organisms had positive and negative attributes for these exposure studies. Mytilus edulis appeared to reach steady-state in laboratory-exposure studies. However, the determination of field-exposure concentrations was precluded due to limitations on obtaining an integrated water sample during the exposure period in the field. Nephtys incisa did not appear to reach steady-state in laboratory studies and, although field-exposure data (sediment concentrations) were obtained, the exposure zone for these organisms could not be determined. Estimates of field exposures were made using laboratory-derived exposure-residue relationships and residues from field-exposed organisms. These field-exposure estimates were compared with those estimated using exposure data from the field. A comparison of these estimates showed the same general trends in the exposure-residue relationships from the laboratory and the field and further supports the laboratory predictive approach.

  16. Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes Region.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W N; Stafford, C

    1993-01-01

    Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were <1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, <0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and <0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil. PMID:24227260

  17. Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Stafford, C.

    1993-01-01

    Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were < 1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, < 0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and < 0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil.

  18. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. A high-resolution record of ocean chemistry, temperature and productivity in the Southwest Pacific Ocean during Marine Isotope Stage 31 from G. ruber and G. bulloides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, A.; Baker, J.; Dunbar, G. B.; Carter, L.

    2010-12-01

    We have produced a high-resolution, millennial record of the trace element chemistry and stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerina bulloides from the Southwest Pacific Ocean during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 33 to 29, including the super-warm interglacial MIS-31. During MIS-31, southern hemisphere solar radiation was considerably higher than the present interglacial, and geological evidence (Naish et al., 2009) suggests open ocean conditions existed in the Ross Sea and significant ice loss occurred from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. LA-ICP-MS was used to analyse the trace element/Ca ratios (Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Sr and Ba/Ca) of three species of planktonic foraminifera (G. ruber, G. bulloides and N. incompta) recovered from 1.2 Myr old marine sediments from Chatham Rise, east of New Zealand (ODP Site 1123). Site 1123 is located just north of the Sub-Tropical Front in the path of the Deep Western Boundary Current that branches from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, off the eastern New Zealand micro-continent. Mg/Ca ratios were used to reconstruct sea surface temperatures (SST) for each species using locally derived Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations obtained by LA-ICP-MS analysis of core-top foraminifera (Bolton et al., 2010, in review; Marr et al., 2010, in review). Trace element data for foraminifera were complimented with oxygen isotope data and size-normalized weight measurements. Mg/Ca data for G. ruber and G. bulloides suggest that MIS-31 SSTs were ca. 4-5°C warmer at southern mid-latitudes (42°S) as compared to modern SSTs and 8-9°C warmer than MIS-29 and MIS-30 glacial periods. Size-normalised weights of G. bulloides also correlate with SSTs. These findings have implications for predicted future global climate models. Models suggest that a 5°C polar warming could lead to West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse (Pollard et al., 2009). If our data and interpretations of a 4-5°C warming at southern mid-latitudes are correct

  20. Three-dimensional seismic structure of the Dragon Flag oceanic core complex at the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39'E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghui; Qiu, Xuelin; Li, Jiabiao; Sauter, Daniel; Ruan, Aiguo; Chen, John; Cannat, Mathilde; Singh, Satish; Zhang, Jiazheng; Wu, Zhenli; Niu, Xiongwei

    2013-10-01

    The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is an ultraslow spreading end-member of mid-ocean ridge system. We use air gun shooting data recorded by ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and multibeam bathymetry to obtain a detailed three-dimensional (3-D) P wave tomographic model centered at 49°39'E near the active hydrothermal "Dragon Flag" vent. Results are presented in the form of a 3-D seismic traveltime inversion over the center and both ends of a ridge segment. We show that the crustal thickness, defined as the depth to the 7 km/s isovelocity contour, decreases systematically from the center (˜7.0-8.0 km) toward the segment ends (˜3.0-4.0 km). This variation is dominantly controlled by thickness changes in the lower crustal layer. We interpret this variation as due to focusing of the magmatic activity at the segment center. The across-axis velocity model documents a strong asymmetrical structure involving oceanic detachment faulting. A locally corrugated oceanic core complex (Dragon Flag OCC) on the southern ridge flank is characterized by high shallow crustal velocities and a strong vertical velocity gradient. We infer that this OCC may be predominantly made of gabbros. We suggest that detachment faulting is a prominent process of slow spreading oceanic crust accretion even in magmatically robust ridge sections. Hydrothermal activity at the Dragon Flag vents is located next to the detachment fault termination. We infer that the detachment fault system provides a pathway for hydrothermal convection.

  1. Application of neutral red retention assay to caged clams (Ruditapes decussatus) and crabs (Carcinus maenas) in the assessment of dredged material.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Sara; Ramos-Gómez, Julia; Fabbri, Elena; DelValls, T Angel; Martín-Díaz, M Laura

    2012-01-01

    Dredged material management is a key issue for the protection of aquatic environments. The in situ approach using caged bioindicator species has been chosen lately as a new methodology for the assessment of dredged material. In a tier testing approach, neutral red retention (NRR) assay has been applied as a screening tool to detect adverse changes in health status associated with contamination. Nevertheless, to authors' knowledge, little is known about the application and validation of this technique in sediment bioindicator species and under field conditions. Caged Ruditapes decussatus and Carcinus maenas were exposed during 28 days to potentially contaminated sediments at three sites in Algeciras Bay (SW Spain) and one site in Cádiz Bay (SW Spain). Lysosomal membrane stability was measured over time in haemolymph samples of exposed clams and crabs using the NRR assay. Sediment characterization of the study sites was performed in parallel. NRR time did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) over time in organisms from Cádiz Bay. Conversely, significant differences (p < 0.05) in NRR time were found in clams and crabs exposed to sediments from Algeciras Bay, which exhibited a 30-70% decrease in haemocyte lysosome membrane stability compared to day 0. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between the drop of haemocyte lysosome membrane stability, in both crabs and clams, and the presence of metals (p < 0.05) and PAHs (p < 0.01) in the studied sediments. The results obtained confirmed the use of NRR assay as a suitable and sensitive method to be used in the assessment of sediment quality using as bioindicator species the clam R. philippinarum and the crab C. maenas. PMID:21870173

  2. Three-dimensional visualization maps of suspended-sediment concentrations during placement of dredged material in 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Duluth, Minnesota, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groten, Joel T.; Ellison, Christopher A.; Mahoney, Mollie H.

    2016-01-01

    Excess sediment in rivers and estuaries poses serious environmental and economic challenges. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) routinely dredges sediment in Federal navigation channels to maintain commercial shipping operations. The USACE initiated a 3-year pilot project in 2013 to use navigation channel dredged material to aid in restoration of shoreline habitat in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. Placing dredged material in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment supports the restoration of shallow bay aquatic habitat aiding in the delisting of the St. Louis River Estuary Area of Concern.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE, collected turbidity and suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) in 2014 and 2015 to measure the horizontal and vertical distribution of SSCs during placement operations of dredged materials. These data were collected to help the USACE evaluate the use of several best management practices, including various dredge material placement techniques and a silt curtain, to mitigate the dispersion of suspended sediment.Three-dimensional visualization maps are a valuable tool for assessing the spatial displacement of SSCs. Data collection was designed to coincide with four dredged placement configurations that included periods with and without a silt curtain as well as before and after placement of dredged materials. Approximately 230 SSC samples and corresponding turbidity values collected in 2014 and 2015 were used to develop a simple linear regression model between SSC and turbidity. Using the simple linear regression model, SSCs were estimated for approximately 3,000 turbidity values at approximately 100 sampling sites in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. The estimated SSCs served as input for development of 12 three-dimensional visualization maps.

  3. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  4. REFERENCE AREA DATABASE FOR THE SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order for a dredging project to be authorized to dispose of dredged material at the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS), sediment evaluations (including, as appropriate, physical, chemical, and biological testing) must first be conducted. EPA determines the suita...

  5. SITE MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL - SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA published in 1994 a Final Rule formally designating the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) for the disposal of suitable dredged material removed from the San Francisco Bay region and other nearby harbors or dredging sites. This Final Rule contained an extensive ...

  6. Study of the plume created by the spillage of dredged material in the area overlooking the Port of Fiumicino (Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanu, S.; Bonamano, S.; Peviani, M. A.; Marcelli, M.

    2009-04-01

    The present paper describes the analysis of the evolution of the plume of material according to the hydrodynamic field in different weather conditions for two possible zones for the spillage of dredging material in the area overlooking the Port of Fiumicino. The study was conducted through the use of the coastal circulation model ADCIRC and the transport model PTM, both included in the hydrodynamic suite models SMS 9.2. For the numerical modelling was identified a physiographic unit comprising Cape Linaro to the North and Cape Anzio to the South. The physiographic representation of this area was obtained from bathymetric campaigns conducted by DECOS in the years 2002 and 2003. In addition, a detailed bathymetric measurements of the spillage zone, and a campaign of currentometric measures in order to calibrate the hydrodynamic model, carried out both in 2007. To study the movement of sediment from the spillage zone towards the surrounded area, was used a numerical Lagrangian model (Particle Tracking Module - PTM) that allows to simulate the movement of a group of particles in relation with the hydrodynamic field. There were selected two classes of particles sizes that describe the typology of the dredged material from the Port of Fiumicino. Dominant wind pattern of the region is Tramontana (in autumn and winter) and Ponente (in spring and summer) although intense events concerned Libeccio and Scirocco directions. In the case of Tramontana the velocity field is slightly reduced and creates zones of reverse current near the coast. In case of Libeccio, the velocity field slightly moves towards the coast direction and in case of Scirocco there can be noticed an increase of the current intensity in the spillage area. From the simulation studies conducted through the PTM model, it can be noticed that the coarse material (Dm = 0.8 mm) is quickly deposited in the neighbour area, while the finer material (Dm = 0.03 mm) is carried by the current creating a plume of sediment

  7. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Richmond Harbor Deepening Project and the intensive study of the Turning Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Kohn, N.P.; White, P.J.; Word, J.Q.; Michaels, L.L.

    1995-06-01

    Richmond Harbor is on the eastern shoreline of central San Francisco Bay and its access channels and several of the shipping berths are no longer wide or deep enough to accommodate modem deeper-draft vessels. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (PL99-662) authorized the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District to deepen and widen the navigation channels in Richmond Harbor. Several options for disposal of the material from this dredging project are under consideration by USACE: disposal within San Francisco Bay, at open-ocean disposal sites, or at uplands disposal sites. Purpose of this study was to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including chemical, biological, and bioaccumulation testing of sediments in selected areas of Richmond Harbor. This information was required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and USACE. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory collected 20 core samples, both 4-in. and 12-in., to a project depth of -40 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (-38 ft MLLW plus 2 ft of overdepth) using a vibratory-hammer core. These 20 field samples were combined to form five test composites plus an older bay mud (OBM) composite that were analyzed for physical/chemical parameters, biological toxicity, and tissue chemistry. Solid-phase tests were conducted with the amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius; the clam, Macoma nasuta; and the polychaete worm, Nephtys caecoides. Suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) tests were conducted with the sanddab, Citharichthys stigmaeus; the mysid, Holmesimysis costata; and the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bioaccumulation of contaminants was measured in tissues of Macoma nasuta and Nereis virens. Sediments from one ocean reference sediment, and two in-bay reference sediments, were tested concurrently. Results from analysis of the five test treatments were statistically compared with the reference sediment R-OS in the first five sections of this report.

  8. The Panthalassa—a cerium-rich Atlantic-type ocean: sedimentary environments of the Tamba Group, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musashino, Makoto

    1990-09-01

    The oceanic sediments of the Tamba Group, a part of the Japanese Paleozoic-Mesozoic accretionary prism were studied geochemically. These oceanic sediments have various REE patterns, which correspond to specific ocean floor environments. The Type II suite of the Tamba Group contains the following changes in sedimentary environment; pelagic sedimentation under the influence of hydrothermal activity or diagenetic metal accumulation (negative Ce anomaly), pelagic sedimentation in Ce- poor seawater or diagenesis under less oxic conditions (LREE > HREE or MREE > LREE ⩾ HREE pattern) and slow pelagic sedimentation under oxic conditions where authigenic metal flux from seawater resulted in a positive Ce anomaly. Different from the Type II suite, lower pelagic sediments of the Type I suite show a LREE ⩽ HREE pattern, which indicates the inflow of very fine terrigenous or volcanic materials. Cherts and siliceous shales with positive Ce anomaly are exclusively present in the upper part of chert-siliceous shale sequences in all successions of the Tamba Group. This suggests that seawater of the Panthalassa Ocean was, at least partially, enriched in Ce, resembling the modern Atlantic more than the modern Pacific Ocean. The following reasons for this enrichment are considered: (1) fluvial input from surrounding continents was substantial; (2) reductive regeneration of Ce from continental shelves was active; or (3) Ce-depleted seawater did not enter from the other "ocean".

  9. Analyses of native water, bottom material, elutriate samples, and dredged material from selected southern Louisiana waterways and selected areas in the Gulf of Mexico, 1979-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, to provide water-quality data to evaluate environmental effects of dredging activities in selected reaches of the Calcasieu River in southwestern Louisiana. Samples were collected from the upper and lower Calcasieu River between January 1980 and March 1981. Thirty-three samples (22 native-water and 11 effluent) were collected from eleven dredging sites. In addition, a series of elutriate studies were conducted between July 1979 and July 1981 to determine water quality as a basis for assessing possible environmental effects of proposed dredging activities in the following areas: Grand Bayou and Martins Canal near Happy Jack, unnamed bayou near Port Sulphur, Grand Bayou and Pipeline Canal near Port Sulphur and Bayou des Plantins near Empire; Mississippi River Gulf Outlet and Inner Harbor Navigation Canal; Southwest Pass; Barataria Bay; Atchafalaya Bay at Eugene Island; Calcasieu Ship Channel. Samples of native water and samples of bottom material were collected from 22 different sites and elutriate (mixtures of native water and bottom material) samples were prepared and analyzed. Four proposed ocean-disposal sites were sampled for bottom material only. Samples were analyzed for selected chemical and biological constituents and physical properties. (USGS)

  10. Effects of Black Rock Harbor dredged material on the scope for growth of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, after laboratory and field exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.G.; Phelps, D.K.; Galloway, W.B.; Rogerson, P.F.; Pruell, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate residue-effect relationships between tissue residue concentrations and the scope for growth of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, after exposure in the laboratory and the field to dredged material from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. A second objective included field verification of the laboratory results. Residue concentrations in mussels, particularly stable compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls, were found to be closely related to exposure concentration. Scope for growth, clearance rates, and shell growth measurements were inversely related to BRH exposure and subsequent tissue residues, with concentration as low as 1.5 mg/L of BRH material causing negative biological effects. In the field, mussels were placed along a transect from the center of the disposal mound to a clean area distant from the disposal mound. Exposure estimates indicated that the maximum concentration BRH material occurred during the disposal operation, after which both exposure and tissue residue concentrations decreased dramatically. Of the measurements made at the four field stations during the course of the study, a reduction in the scope for growth of mussels, attributable to BRH material, was observed only once. The estimated concentration of BRH suspended material during that collection was very close to the lowest concentration affecting the scope for growth in the laboratory experiments. 33 refs., 30 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Lipid biomarker and microbial community of 49.6°E hydrothermal field at Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, J.; Chu, F.; Yu, X.; Li, X.; Tao, C.

    2012-12-01

    In 2007, Chinese Research Cruises Discovered the First Active Hydrothermal Vent Field at the Ultraslow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. This study intent to get composition, evolution and origin information of lipid compounds in SWIR, and recognize the style of lipid biomarkers which have obviously indicative significance for community structure.Soluble organic matter were extracted from geological samples (including chimney sulfide, oxide, around hydrothermal vents) in Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), and divided into hydrocarbon, fatty acid component by column chromatography. GC, GC-MS, HPLC-MS were applied for composition and abundance analysis. Lipid in hydrothermal sulfide contains obvious isoprenoidal hydrocarbon biomarkers (Sq, IS40) and GDGTs (m/z=653) that associated with methanogenic archaea which belongs to Euryarchaeota, and iso /anti-iso fatty acid (iC15:0, aiC15:0, iC17:0, aiC17:0)which may originated from sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB).Lipids extracted from hydrothermal oxide lack isoprenoidal hydrocarbon, and Ph/C18 (0.57) is much lower than sulfide (1.22). Fatty acid compound of oxide include abundant saturated fatty (C16:0, C18:0) acid and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (C16:1n7, C18:1n7), but much less iso/anti-iso was detected. Lipid composition of hydrothermal oxide showed that archaea activity was seldom in hydrothermal oxide, and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was the main microbial community.Study of Jaeschke (2010) showed that high temperature hydrothermal venting encompassed different microbial community from low temperature hydrothermal venting. Our study showed that in different stage of hydrothermal, microbial community structure may be distinct.

  12. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River Estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 3. Characterization and elutriate testing of Acushnet River Estuary sediment. Technical report, August 1985-March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.

    1989-03-01

    Several of the alternatives being considered for the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project involve dredging of contaminated sediment from the Acushnet River Estuary and placement of the contaminated dredged material in confined disposal areas. Evaluation of these alternatives requires testing sediment from the site to determine chemical and physical characteristics, settling properties, contaminant releases for various migration pathways, and treatment requirements for disposal area effluent. The purpose of this report is to describe the estuary composite sediment sample and the hot-spot-sediment sample tested at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station as part of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Acushnet River Estuary Engineering Feasibility Study of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives. Bulk sediment chemistry, physical characteristics, and elutriate testing for the sediments are included.

  13. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 11. Evaluation of conceptual dredging and disposal alternatives. Technical report, August 1985-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.; Palermo, M.R.; Otis, M.J.; Rubinoff, P.B.

    1989-07-01

    This report evaluates conceptual dredging and disposal alternatives for the Acushnet River Estuary, a part of the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site. Dredging for removal of the highly contaminated sediment and subsequent disposal in upland or nearshore confined disposal facilities or disposal in contaminated aquatic disposal facilities are alternative considered in the Engineering Feasibility Study of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives. Sediment testing and sediment-transport modeling performed as earlier tasks of the study form the basis for evaluation of the alternatives. The technical feasibility of conceptual design options is based on site availability, capacity, and characteristics and on sediment physical characteristics and dredged-material settling behavior as defined by laboratory testing. Contamination releases during dredging and disposal operations are estimated for each disposal option. A preliminary cost estimate for implementation of each option evaluated is alo presented.

  14. Petrogenesis of fertile mantle peridotites from the Monte del Estado massif (southwest Puerto Rico): a preserved section of Proto-Caribbean oceanic lithospheric mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Jolly, Wayne T.; Lewis, John F.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín. A.; Lidiak, Edward G.

    2010-05-01

    The Monte del Estado massif is the largest and northernmost serpentinized peridotite belt in southwest Puerto Rico. It is mainly composed of spinel lherzolite and minor harzburgite with variable clinopyroxene modal abundances. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element compositions of peridotites coincide with those of fertile abyssal peridotites from mid ocean ridges. Peridotites lost 2-14 wt% of relative MgO and variable amounts of CaO by serpentinization and seafloor weathering. HREE contents in whole rock indicate that the Monte del Estado peridotites are residues after low to moderate degrees (2-15%) of fractional partial melting in the spinel stability field. However, very low LREE/HREE and MREE/HREE in clinopyroxene cannot be explained by melting models of a spinel lherzolite source and support that the Monte del Estado peridotites experienced initial low fractional melting degrees (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field. The relative enrichment of LREE in whole rock is not due to secondary processes but probably reflects the capture of percolating melt fractions along grain boundaries or as microinclusions in minerals, or the presence of exotic micro-phases in the mineral assemblage. We propose that the Monte del Estado peridotite belt represents a section of ancient Proto-Caribbean (Atlantic) lithospheric mantle originated by seafloor spreading between North and South America in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle was subsequently trapped in the forearc region of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc generated by the northward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the Proto-Caribbean ocean. Finally, the Monte del Estado peridotites belt was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous probably as result of the change in subduction polarity of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc without having been significantly modified by subduction processes.

  15. One new genus and three new species of deep-sea nematodes (Nematoda: Microlaimidae) from the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Ross Sea.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    New deep-sea nematodes of the family Microlaimidae are described from the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Ross Sea. Microlaimus korari n. sp. is characterised by annulated cuticle with longitudinal bars, round amphideal aperture slightly smaller than the cryptospiral amphideal fovea, spacious and heavily cuticularised buccal cavity with large dorsal tooth and right subventral tooth situated anteriorly relative to left subventral tooth, slender spicules 4.4 cloacal body diameters long, and gubernaculum 1.2 cloacal body diameters long with laterally curved distal end and swollen proximal end. Bolbolaimus tongaensis n. sp. is characterised by annulated cuticle with longitudinal bars, oval amphideal aperture and cryptocircular amphideal fovea situated between cephalic setae and only partially surrounded by cuticle annulations, and short spicules cuticularised along dorsal edge and at proximal end and with swollen portion near proximal end. Maragnopsia n. gen. is characterised by a minute, non-cuticularised mouth cavity without teeth, an elongated posterior pharyngeal bulb more than twice as long as it is wide, a single outstretched testis, and a conico-cylindrical tail 13-16 anal body diameters long. A list of all 83 valid Microlaimus species is provided. The present study provides the first microlaimid species records from deep-sea habitats (> 200 m depth) in the Southwest Pacific and Ross Sea. The presence of M. korari n. sp. on both the continental slope of New Zealand and Ross Sea abyssal plain suggests that this species has a wide geographical and depth distribution. However, molecular analyses will be required to confirm the identity of these two geographically disparate populations. PMID:27396004

  16. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 1. Study overview. Technical report, August 1985-March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Francingues, N.R.; Averett, D.E.; Otis, M.J.

    1988-10-01

    Sediments in the New Bedford Harbor and Acushnet River Estuary have been contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and heavy metals. The high levels of contamination have resulted in the New Bedford Harbor being placed on the National Priorities List of the Nation's worst hazardous waste sites. Efforts are under way to develop and implement remedial actions for protection of the environment under the Federal Superfund Program. This report is an introduction to and an overview of a series of reports describing the results of the EFS. It presents the overall study objectives and scope of work, describes the objectives and scope of the 10 EFS tasks, and presents a brief synopsis of the other 11 reports in the series. The EFS technical approach used field data-collection activities, literature reviews, laboratory (bench-scale) studies, and analytical and numerical modeling techniques to assess engineering feasibility and develop conceptual alternatives for dredging and dredged-material disposal. Technical and engineering issues addressed by the EFS included baseline mapping, geotechnical investigations, hydrodynamics, sediment resuspension and transport, contaminant releases to surface and ground water, dredged material settling properties, dredging equipment and controls, effluent treatment, solidification/stabilization of dredged material, confined-disposal-facility design, contained aquatic-disposal-facility design, and cost estimates for the alternatives evaluated.

  17. The petrology of a large intra-oceanic silicic eruption: the Sandy Bay Tephra, Kermadec Arc, Southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ian E. M.; Stewart, Robert B.; Price, Richard C.

    2003-06-01

    The pumiceous pyroclastic deposits known as the Sandy Bay Tuff on Macauley Island in the Kermadec Group represent a medium-scale silicic eruption in an oceanic subduction setting. The Sandy Bay eruption occurred about 6310 yr BP, forming a large submarine caldera in the summit of the mainly submarine and essentially basaltic Macauley Volcano. The Sandy Bay magma contained <1 vol% phenocrysts of plagioclase, augite, hypersthene and accessory oxides together with crystals and fragments of basaltic origin and lithic fragments representing an earlier silicic eruptive episode. Although prolonged fractionation of basaltic magma to produce silicic daughter is a generic paradigm, it fails in detail to completely explain the observed compositions of the silicic rocks, the variety of compositions, the distribution of rock types, their aphyric nature or their volumes. It also encounters difficulties as a general explanation for silicic magmatism in the Kermadec Arc. An alternative, that silicic magmas represent anatexis of underplated basaltic arc crust, explains more of these details and can be modelled as the logical consequence of the thermal evolution of an oceanic arc. In addition, this model can provide an explanation for the onset of silicic magmatism at the current stage in the evolution of the arc. A precondition for anatectic melting in an oceanic arc is the development of a suitable source at the base of the arc crust; this takes of the order of 10 6 years. The onset of silicic magmatism creates an infertile residue and complementary silicic magmas. Separation of silicic magma from its source and its rise into the upper crust removes heat from the system. Continuation of silicic magmatism depends on replenishment of fertile arc material. An alternative is that generation of silicic magmas is limited to a window of opportunity at an adolescent stage in the evolution of an oceanic arc.

  18. Southwest Pacific Ocean surface reservoir ages since the last glaciation: Circulation insights from multiple-core studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikes, Elisabeth L.; Guilderson, Thomas P.

    2016-02-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) in dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean can trace the age of ocean water relative to the atmosphere and provide insight into climate-driven changes in ocean circulation since the last glaciation. Here we estimate surface radiocarbon ages from the last glaciation through the deglaciation into the Holocene in the southwestern Pacific by using tephras, both as stratigraphic tie points and for the availability of existing radiocarbon dates from terrestrial- based analyses of the organic carbon associated with them, as markers of past atmospheric Δ14C. The glacial surface reservoir age of subtropical waters was ~700 14C years older than the coeval atmosphere at ~25,000 cal yr B.P. This was significantly older (more 14C depleted) by ~ 300 14C years, than modern reservoir ages. At the same time, subantarctic surface water reservoir age was ~3200 14C years, almost 5 times the modern reservoir age, making the difference in age between subtropical and subantarctic surface water masses treble the modern difference. This pattern is attributed to the upwelling and exchange of very old deep waters from the glacial abyss in the Southern Ocean. In the early deglaciation, surface reservoir ages were ~600 to 700 14C years. Recent atmospheric Δ14C calibrations project that these surface reservoir ages were older than modern by 1.2-fold to 2-fold. This increased reservoir effect can be attributed to shallow circulation that differed from modern, delivering waters with lower 14C content to the region. Early Holocene surface reservoir ages of ~300 to 500 14C years, similar to recent, suggest modern circulation patterns were in place by that time.

  19. Southwest Pacific Ocean response to a warming world: Using Mg/Ca, Zn/Ca, and Mn/Ca in foraminifera to track surface ocean water masses during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, Julene P.; Carter, Lionel; Bostock, Helen C.; Bolton, Annette; Smith, Euan

    2013-06-01

    In situ measurements of Mg/Ca, Zn/Ca, Mn/Ca, and Ba/Ca in Globigerinoides bulloides and Globigerina ruber from southwest Pacific core top sites and plankton tow are reported and their potential as paleoproxies is explored. The modern samples cover 20° of latitude from 34°S to 54°S, 7-19°C water temperature, and variable influence of subantarctic (SAW) and subtropical (STW) surface waters. Trace element signatures recorded in core top and plankton tow planktic foraminifera are examined in the context of the chemistry and nutrient profiles of their modern water masses. Our observations suggest that Zn/Ca and Mn/Ca may have the potential to trace SAW and STW. Intraspecies and interspecies offsets identified by in situ measurements of Mg/Ca and Zn/Ca indicate that these ratios may also record changes in thermal and nutrient stratification in the upper ocean. We apply these potential proxies to fossilized foraminifera from the high-resolution core MD97 2121. At the Last Glacial Maximum, surface water Mg/Ca temperature estimates indicate that temperatures were approximately 6-7°C lower than those of the present, accompanied by low levels of Mn/Ca and Zn/Ca and minimal thermal and nutrient stratification. This is consistent with regional dominance of SAW and reduced STW inflow associated with a reduced South Pacific Gyre (SPG). Upper ocean thermal and nutrient stratification collapsed during the Antarctic Cold Reversal, before poleward migration of the zonal winds and ocean fronts invigorated the SPG and increased STW inflow in the early Holocene. Together with reduced winds, this favored a stratified upper ocean from circa 10 ka to the present.

  20. Use of marine space by Black-browed albatrosses during the non-breeding season in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copello, Sofía; Seco Pon, Juan Pablo; Favero, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Marine birds like albatrosses have shown a profound deterioration of their conservation status in recent years. The Black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris) is the most abundant threatened albatross species in the Southwest Atlantic continental shelf. Declines in their breeding populations have been largely attributed to the impact of incidental mortality in fisheries. Data on at-sea distribution for the species during breeding is abundant, but movements of individuals during winter are poorly known. Here, we investigate the at-sea distribution of Black-browed albatrosses during the non-breeding seasons 2011 and 2012. Eleven adult individuals were captured at-sea and equipped with satellite tags. Distribution of tracked Black-browed albatrosses was mostly restricted to waters within the continental shelf of Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil; from 29° to 51°S. Two large marine areas, comprising the ca. 90% of the core area (50% utilization distribution) were identified; one from the mouth of Rio de la Plata toward the E and SE reaching the shelfbreak, and another in El Rincón estuary and waters to the South. Tracked birds were distributed over nine oceanographic regimes in the SW Atlantic continental shelf, spending between 5 and 34% of their time at sea in marine fronts of high productivity such as Río de la Plata, Los Patos lagoon estuary front, the shelfbreak and the mixed front. The identified core areas could be considered as proxy indicators of priority areas at the time of implementing conservation measures for the species. The analysis of overlapping with fisheries on the Argentinean Continental Shelf will provide further insights about critical areas where those measures should be more stringent.

  1. Towards a better understanding of Rift Valley fever epidemiology in the south-west of the Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) is an arbovirus causing intermittent epizootics and sporadic epidemics primarily in East Africa. Infection causes severe and often fatal illness in young sheep, goats and cattle. Domestic animals and humans can be contaminated by close contact with infectious tissues or through mosquito infectious bites. Rift Valley fever virus was historically restricted to sub-Saharan countries. The probability of Rift Valley fever emerging in virgin areas is likely to be increasing. Its geographical range has extended over the past years. As a recent example, autochthonous cases of Rift Valley fever were recorded in 2007–2008 in Mayotte in the Indian Ocean. It has been proposed that a single infected animal that enters a naive country is sufficient to initiate a major outbreak before Rift Valley fever virus would ever be detected. Unless vaccines are available and widely used to limit its expansion, Rift Valley fever will continue to be a critical issue for human and animal health in the region of the Indian Ocean. PMID:24016237

  2. A new monorchiid cercaria (Digenea) parasitising the purple clam Amiantis purpurata (Bivalvia: Veneridae) in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, with notes on its gonadal effect.

    PubMed

    Cremont, F; Kroeck, M A; Martorelli, S R

    2001-01-01

    An unnamed microcercous cercaria (Digenea: Monorchiidae), a parasite of Amiantis purpurata (Lamarck, 1818) (Bivalvia: Veneridae) and its corresponding metacercaria from the province of Buenos Aires and the Patagonian coast of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, are described. The cercaria described in this paper differs from the three other monorchiid microcercous cercariae, i.e., Lasiotocus minutus (Manter, 1931), Lasiotocus elongatus (Manter, 1931), and Cercaria caribbea XXXVI Cable, 1956, mainly because of the extension of the excretory vesicle and the location of the ventral sucker. Cercariae artificially extracted from sporocysts encyst in a dish and form metacercariae enveloped by a gelatinous sac with two prolongations, which are used to adhere to the substratum. The monorchiid described in this paper has a life cycle similar to those of L. minutus and L. elongatus, although the adult stage of the present species is still unknown. Their larvae are similar in morphology and have venerid clams as their first hosts. The presence of a monorchiid larva is reported for the first time in the Southern Hemisphere. Its monthly prevalence rates, ranging from 0 to 25% (mean: 8.3%), are given from the Patagonian coast. The infection seems to cause castration as it was observed that during March through to May, when most gametes were produced in uninfected individuals, 81% of the infected individuals did not produce gametes. PMID:11699657

  3. Diversity and ecological structure of vibrios in benthic and pelagic habitats along a latitudinal gradient in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bruno Sergio de O.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Valle, Cecilia; Alves, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Giselle; Garcia, Gizele; Lopes, Rubens M.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the diversity and population structure of the 775 Vibrio isolates from different locations of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO), including St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA), Abrolhos Bank (AB) and the St. Sebastian region (SS), between 2005 and 2010. In this study, 195 novel isolates, obtained from seawater and major benthic organisms (rhodoliths and corals), were compared with a collection of 580 isolates previously characterized (available at www.taxvibrio.lncc.br). The isolates were distributed in 8 major habitat spectra according to AdaptML analysis on the basis of pyrH phylogenetic reconstruction and ecological information, such as isolation source (i.e., corals: Madracis decactis, Mussismilia braziliensis, M. hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Scolymia wellsi; zoanthids: Palythoa caribaeorum, P. variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi; fireworm: Hermodice carunculata; rhodolith; water and sediment) and sampling site regions (SPSPA, AB and SS). Ecologically distinct groups were discerned through AdaptML, which finds phylogenetic groups that are significantly different in their spectra of habitat preferences. Some habitat spectra suggested ecological specialization, with habitat spectra 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to specialization on SPSPA, AB, and SS, respectively. This match between habitat and location may reflect a minor exchange of Vibrio populations between geographically isolated benthic systems. Moreover, we found several widespread Vibrio species predominantly from water column, and different populations of a single Vibrio species from H. carunculata in ecologically distinct groups (H-1 and H-8 respectively). On the other hand, AdaptML detected phylogenetic groups that are found in both the benthos and in open water. The ecological grouping observed suggests dispersal and connectivity between the benthic and pelagic systems in AB. This study is a first attempt to characterize the biogeographic distribution of vibrios in both seawater and

  4. Diversity and ecological structure of vibrios in benthic and pelagic habitats along a latitudinal gradient in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; Silva, Bruno Sergio de O; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Valle, Cecilia; Alves, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Giselle; Garcia, Gizele; Lopes, Rubens M; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the diversity and population structure of the 775 Vibrio isolates from different locations of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO), including St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA), Abrolhos Bank (AB) and the St. Sebastian region (SS), between 2005 and 2010. In this study, 195 novel isolates, obtained from seawater and major benthic organisms (rhodoliths and corals), were compared with a collection of 580 isolates previously characterized (available at www.taxvibrio.lncc.br). The isolates were distributed in 8 major habitat spectra according to AdaptML analysis on the basis of pyrH phylogenetic reconstruction and ecological information, such as isolation source (i.e., corals: Madracis decactis, Mussismilia braziliensis, M. hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Scolymia wellsi; zoanthids: Palythoa caribaeorum, P. variabilis and Zoanthus solanderi; fireworm: Hermodice carunculata; rhodolith; water and sediment) and sampling site regions (SPSPA, AB and SS). Ecologically distinct groups were discerned through AdaptML, which finds phylogenetic groups that are significantly different in their spectra of habitat preferences. Some habitat spectra suggested ecological specialization, with habitat spectra 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to specialization on SPSPA, AB, and SS, respectively. This match between habitat and location may reflect a minor exchange of Vibrio populations between geographically isolated benthic systems. Moreover, we found several widespread Vibrio species predominantly from water column, and different populations of a single Vibrio species from H. carunculata in ecologically distinct groups (H-1 and H-8 respectively). On the other hand, AdaptML detected phylogenetic groups that are found in both the benthos and in open water. The ecological grouping observed suggests dispersal and connectivity between the benthic and pelagic systems in AB. This study is a first attempt to characterize the biogeographic distribution of vibrios in both seawater and

  5. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality in the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area and vicinity, Cecil County, Maryland, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Koterba, Michael T.; Zapecza, Otto S.; Walker, Charles W.; Rice, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, to support an evaluation of the feasibility of reopening the Pearce Creek Dredge Material Containment Area (DMCA) in Cecil County, Maryland, for dredge-spoil disposal, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a comprehensive study designed to improve the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and water quality of shallow aquifers underlying the DMCA and adjacent communities, to determine whether or not the DMCA affected groundwater quality, and to assess whether or not groundwater samples contained chemical constituents at levels greater than maximum allowable or recommended levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act. The study, conducted in 2010-11 by USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, included installation of observation wells in areas where data gaps led earlier studies to be inconclusive. The data from new wells and existing monitoring locations were interpreted and show the DMCA influences the groundwater flow and quality. Groundwater flow in the two primary aquifers used for local supplies-the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone)-is radially outward from the DMCA toward discharge areas, including West View Shores, the Elk River, and Pearce Creek Lake. In addition to horizontal flow outward from the DMCA, vertical gradients primarily are downward in most of the study area, and upward near the Elk River on the north side of the DMCA property, and the western part of West View Shores. Integrating groundwater geochemistry data in the analysis, the influence of the DMCA is not only a source of elevated concentrations of dissolved solids but also a geochemical driver of redox processes that enhances the mobilization and transport of redox-sensitive metals and nutrients. Groundwater affected by the DMCA is in the Magothy aquifer and upper Patapsco aquifer (shallow water-bearing zone). Based on minimal data, the water quality

  6. Comparative feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the coastal waters of the southwest Indian Ocean inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ryan; Froneman, Pierre W; Smale, Malcolm J

    2013-01-01

    As apex predators, sharks play an important role shaping their respective marine communities through predation and associated risk effects. Understanding the predatory dynamics of sharks within communities is, therefore, necessary to establish effective ecologically based conservation strategies. We employed non-lethal sampling methods to investigate the feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) using stable isotope analysis within a subtropical marine community in the southwest Indian Ocean. The main objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the predatory role that sub-adult and adult bull sharks play within a top predatory teleost fish community. Bull sharks had significantly broader niche widths compared to top predatory teleost assemblages with a wide and relatively enriched range of δ(13)C values relative to the local marine community. This suggests that bull sharks forage from a more diverse range of δ(13)C sources over a wider geographical range than the predatory teleost community. Adult bull sharks appeared to exhibit a shift towards consistently higher trophic level prey from an expanded foraging range compared to sub-adults, possibly due to increased mobility linked with size. Although predatory teleost fish are also capable of substantial migrations, bull sharks may have the ability to exploit a more diverse range of habitats and appeared to prey on a wider diversity of larger prey. This suggests that bull sharks play an important predatory role within their respective marine communities and adult sharks in particular may shape and link ecological processes of a variety of marine communities over a broad range. PMID:24205168

  7. Early to middle Eocene magneto-biochronology of the southwest Pacific Ocean and climate influence on sedimentation: new data from the Mead Stream section (Marlborough, New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallanave, E.; Agnini, C.; Bachtadse, V.; Muttoni, G.; Crampton, J. S.; Strong, P.; Hines, B. R.; Hollis, C. J.; Slotnick, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Mead Stream section (South Island, New Zealand) consists of a 650-m-thick series of continuous and well-exposed strata deposited on a South Pacific continental slope from the Late Cretaceous to the middle Eocene. We examined the uppermost Paleocene-middle Eocene part of the Mead Stream section, which consists of ~360 m of limestone and marl, for detailed magnetic polarity stratigraphy, calcareous nannofossil, and foraminifera biostratigraphy. Magneto-biostratigraphic data indicate that the section straddles magnetic polarity Chrons from C24r to C18n, calcareous nannofossil Zone from NP9a to NP17 (CNP11-CNE15 following a recently revised Paleogene zonation), and from the Waipawan to the Bortonian New Zealand stages (i.e., from the base of the Ypresian to the Bartonian international stages), encompassing 17 Myr (56-39 Ma) of Southwest Pacific Ocean history. The ages of calcareous nannofossil biohorizons are consistent with low to mid-latitude data from the literature, indicating that during the early-middle Eocene the low-mid latitude calcareous nannofossil domain extended at least to ~50-55°S in the South Pacific. Correlation of the magnetic polarity stratigraphy from the Mead Stream section with the geomagnetic polarity time scale allows us to derive the sediment accumulation rates (SAR), which range between 8 and 44 m/Myr. Comparing the SAR with paleotemperature proxy records, we found that two intervals of increased SAR occurred during the early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO; 52-50 Ma) and during the transient climate warming culminating with the middle Eocene climatic optimum (MECO; 40.5 Ma). This correlation indicates that the climate evolution of the early-middle Eocene is recorded in the sedimentation patterns whereby times of warmer climate promote continental weathering, transportation, and accumulation of terrigenous sediments.

  8. Comparative Feeding Ecology of Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the Coastal Waters of the Southwest Indian Ocean Inferred from Stable Isotope Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Ryan; Froneman, Pierre W.; Smale, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    As apex predators, sharks play an important role shaping their respective marine communities through predation and associated risk effects. Understanding the predatory dynamics of sharks within communities is, therefore, necessary to establish effective ecologically based conservation strategies. We employed non-lethal sampling methods to investigate the feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) using stable isotope analysis within a subtropical marine community in the southwest Indian Ocean. The main objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the predatory role that sub-adult and adult bull sharks play within a top predatory teleost fish community. Bull sharks had significantly broader niche widths compared to top predatory teleost assemblages with a wide and relatively enriched range of δ13C values relative to the local marine community. This suggests that bull sharks forage from a more diverse range of δ13C sources over a wider geographical range than the predatory teleost community. Adult bull sharks appeared to exhibit a shift towards consistently higher trophic level prey from an expanded foraging range compared to sub-adults, possibly due to increased mobility linked with size. Although predatory teleost fish are also capable of substantial migrations, bull sharks may have the ability to exploit a more diverse range of habitats and appeared to prey on a wider diversity of larger prey. This suggests that bull sharks play an important predatory role within their respective marine communities and adult sharks in particular may shape and link ecological processes of a variety of marine communities over a broad range. PMID:24205168

  9. Soft sediment deformation associated with the passage of North Atlantic Deep water through the deep Ariel Graben, Mozambique Ridge southwest Indian Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Errol; Green, Andrew; Watkeys, Mike; Jokat, Wilfried; Krocker, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    Interactions between bottom water currents and seafloor sediments are well known. Bottom current generated bedforms are varied both morphologicaly and sedimentologicaly. Sediment transport and deposition, associated with bottom water circulation, plays a significant role is sculpting seafloor morphology in all ocean basins. Indeed, bedforms have been used to great effect to define the presence, direction and strength of bottom water circulation globally. Here we present new multibeam swath bathymetry and high frequency seismic data from the Natal Valley and Mozambique Ridge, southwest Indian Ocean. These data show a deep (-3200 m) channel-like feature (Ariel Graben, situated at 28° 30"S on the Mozambique Ridge) connecting the northern Natal Valley to the Mozambique Basin. A distinct W - E change in seafloor morphology and seismic character is noted moving from the Natal Valley through the Ariel Graben. The northern flank of the graben exhibits smooth plastered drifts which give way to undulating seafloor in the east. The plastered drifts are characterised by distinct bottom echoes, with several discontinuous sub-bottom reflections. In contrast, the undulating seafloor is characterised by distinct hyperbolic echoes, with occasional indistinct sub-bottom reflectors. The W - E orientated undulations are straight crested, parallel / sub-parallel to the local isobaths. Wavelength is variable, ranging from 600 m to 1200 m. Cross-sectional symmetry of these features varies from symmetrical to asymmetrical, with board crests and narrow troughs. When asymmetrical, the lower (south-facing) limb is the longer (511.76 m average) than the upper (north-facing) limb (323.53 m average). The lower limbs are also steeper than the upper limbs; calculated averages being 3.80° and 1.55°, respectively. Overall, the slope on which the undulations are found, is south-facing with a gradient of 1.54°, however, the area affected by undulations is slightly steeper (average slope of 1.75

  10. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged material disposal alternatives. Report 4. Surface runoff quality evaluation for confined disposal. Technical report, June-February 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Skogerboe, J.G.; Price, R.A.; Brandon, D.L.

    1988-10-01

    The thickness of capping material needed to chemically sequests the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated New Bedford Harbor sediment from the overlying water column and aquatic biota was assessed in a small-scale predictive test. Changes in the overlying water concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonium-nitrogen, and orthophosphate-phosphorus were monitored following isolation of the water column from the atmosphere by placing a 4-cm layer of mineral oil on the water surface. The chemical tracers (ammonium-nitrogen and orthophosphate-phosphorus) were selected for their mobility under anaerobic conditions, ease of measurement, and generally high concentrations in contaminated dredged material compared with clean sediments. The chemical tracers were used to evaluate the efficiency of the capping material in preventing transfer of contaminants from New Bedford Harbor sediment into the overlying water column.

  11. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prohibition of dumping dredged and domestic sewage sludge (DSS) materials in streams and oceans, diminishing land fill space, skyrocketing landfill costs, and concerns over air pollution from incineration of wastes have contributed to a strong public interest in finding alternative, environmenta...

  12. Field verification program (aquatic disposal). A field and laboratory study using adenylate energy charge as an indicator of stress in Mytilus edulis and Nephtys incisa treated with dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zaroogian, G.E.; Rogerson, P.F.; Hoffman, G.; Johnson, M.; Johns, D.M.

    1988-06-01

    A study was conducted to test the applicability of adenylate energy charge (AEC) and adenine nucleotide pool concentrations as measures of biological response in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the marine polychaete, Nephtys incisa, after exposure in the laboratory an field to contaminated dredged material from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Conn. A second objective was to include field verification of laboratory results, and a third objective was to investigate residue-effect relationships between tissue concentrations of BRH contaminants and AEC and adenine nucleotide pool concentrations. Tissue residue concentrations, particularly of persistent compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls, were found to be closely related to exposure concentration. The biological responses evaluated in this report included the adenine nucleotide measures of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, adenylate pool, and AEC. Adenine nucleotides and AEC are important in energy transformation and in regulation of metabolic processes. Responses in adenine nucleotide pools correlate with tissue concentrations of BRH contaminants in exposed organisms. Measurement of the adenine nucleotide concentrations may help to characterize the energy costs incurred by organisms under stressful conditions.

  13. Report to Congress on ocean dumping, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The Report to Congress summarizes the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) activities in carrying out its responsibilities under Title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and its 1988 amendment, the Ocean Dumping Ban Act (ODBA). ODBA makes the ocean dumping of industrial waste and municipal sewage sludge unlawful after December 31, 1991. EPA's Office of Water (OW) in conjunction with EPA Regional Offices have responsibilities under MPRSA to regulate and monitor ocean disposal of municipal sewage sludge, industrial waste, and dredged materials as well as incineration-at-sea. In addition to administering MPRSA and ODBA, OW: (1) continued its participation in the work of the London Dumping Convention (LDC), the international agreement that addresses the dumping of wastes into the marine environment; (2) continued monitoring and public education activities aboard the Ocean Survey Vessel PETER W. ANDERSON; and (3) collaborated in programs with other organizations involved in marine protection.

  14. The Easternmost Southwest Indian Ridge: A Laboratory to Study MORB and Oceanic Gabbro Petrogenesis in a Very Low Melt Supply Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, M.; Cannat, M.; Hamelin, C.; Brunelli, D.

    2014-12-01

    Our study area is located at the ultra-slow Southwest Indian Ridge, east of the Melville Fracture Zone, between 61 and 67°E. The melt distribution in this area is very heterogeneous, with corridors of ultramafic seafloor where plate separation is accommodated by large offset normal faults [Sauter, Cannat et al., 2013]. These ultramafic corridors also expose rare gabbros and basalts. We use the major and trace elements composition of these magmatic rocks to document the petrogenesis of MORB in this exceptionnally low melt supply portion of the MOR system. Basalts from the easternmost SWIR represent a global MORB end-member for major element compositions [Meyzen et al., 2003], with higher Na2O and Al2O3 wt%, and lower CaO and FeO wt% at a given MgO. Within this group, basalts from the ultramafic corridors have particularly high Na2O, low CaO and FeO wt%. Best fitting calculated liquid lines of descent are obtained for crystallization pressures of ~8 kbar. Gabbroic rocks recovered in the ultramafic corridors include gabbros, oxide-gabbros and variably impregnated peridotites. This presentation focuses on these impregnated samples, where cpx have high Mg#, yet are in equilibrium with the nearby basalts in terms of their trace element compositions. Plagioclase An contents vary over a broad range, and there is evidence for opx resorption. These characteristics result from melt-mantle interactions in the axial lithosphere, which may explain several peculiar major element characteristics of the basalts. Similar interactions probably occur beneath ridges at intermediate to slow and ultraslow spreading rates. We propose that they are particularly significant in our study area due to its exceptionnally low integrated melt-rock ratio.

  15. Studies in Southwest Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, J. Donald, Ed.; Ornstein, Jacob, Ed.

    The Spanish dialects of the Southwest United States have received little serious attention until recently. The present volume contains studies designed to contribute to the understanding and acceptance of Southwest Spanish. The book consists of the following chapters: (1) "Linguistic Diversity in Southwest Spanish," by Garland D. Bills and Jacob…

  16. Management of dredged material at Toledo, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.R.

    1992-04-01

    Toledo Harbor, at the mouth of the Maumee River in northwest Ohio, is the second most active port and largest single dredging project on the Great Lakes. Over 770,000 cub. m is dredged each year. material has been confined since 1955. Most of this half of the harbor was declared suitable In 1983, over water disposal. Monitoring of the open-water disposal has not shown any adverse impact on water quality. Studies of the release or bioavailability of phosphorus (P) bound to the sediments indicate that P is released from the sediments at a rate of from 10 to 30 percent per day. On an annual basis, dredging and disposal account for 0.4 to 0.6 percent of the total external loading of P to Lake Erie. High-resolution visible data from the French satellite SPOT were used to demonstrate the total extent of the dredging plume. Efforts will be made in the future to use the satellite for routine monitoring.

  17. Quaternary geology of the Duck Hawk Bluffs, southwest Banks Island, Arctic Canada: a re-investigation of a critical terrestrial type locality for glacial and interglacial events bordering the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; England, John H.; La Farge, Catherine; Coulthard, Roy D.; Lakeman, Thomas R.; Vaughan, Jessica M.

    2014-05-01

    Duck Hawk Bluffs, southwest Banks Island, is a primary section (8 km long and 60 m high) in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago exposing a long record of Quaternary sedimentation adjacent to the Arctic Ocean. A reinvestigation of Duck Hawk Bluffs demonstrates that it is a previously unrecognized thrust-block moraine emplaced from the northeast by Laurentide ice. Previous stratigraphic models of Duck Hawk Bluffs reported a basal unit of preglacial fluvial sand and gravel (Beaufort Fm, forested Arctic), overlain by a succession of three glaciations and at least two interglacials. Our observations dismiss the occurrence of preglacial sediments and amalgamate the entire record into three glacial intervals and one prominent interglacial. The first glacigenic sedimentation is recorded by an ice-contact sandur containing redeposited allochthonous organics previously assigned to the Beaufort Fm. This is overlain by fine-grained sediments with ice wedge pseudomorphs and well-preserved bryophyte assemblages corresponding to an interglacial environment similar to modern. The second glacial interval is recorded by ice-proximal mass flows and marine rhythmites that were glacitectonized when Laurentide ice overrode the site from Amundsen Gulf to the south. Sediments of this interval have been reported to be magnetically reversed (>780 ka). The third interval of glacigenic sedimentation includes glacifluvial sand and gravel recording the arrival of Laurentide ice that overrode the site from the northeast (island interior) depositing a glacitectonite and constructing the thrust block moraine that comprises Duck Hawk Bluffs. Sediments of this interval have been reported to be magnetically normal (<780 ka). The glacitectonite contains a highly deformed melange of pre-existing sediments that were previously assigned to several formally named, marine and interglacial deposits resting in an undeformed sequence. In contrast, the tectonism associated with the thrust block moraine

  18. Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Marie E. C.; Ndunguru, Joseph; Berrie, Leigh C.; Paximadis, Maria; Berry, Shaun; Cossa, Nurbibi; Nuaila, Valter N.; Mabasa, Ken G.; Abraham, Natasha; Rybicki, Edward P.; Martin, Darren; Pietersen, Gerhard; Esterhuizen, Lindy L.

    2012-01-01

    The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component) or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B), many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-αs) or betasatellites (DNA-βs). Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs) DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world. PMID:23170182

  19. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  20. A new 0.9 Ma oxygen isotope stratigraphy for a shallow-water sedimentary transect across three IODP 317 sites in the Canterbury Bight of southwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xuan; Wu, YingYing

    2016-04-01

    Sedimentary records in shallow-water environment provide unique opportunity to further our understanding on the regional relative sea level changes in relation to global climate change. Here we present a new 0.9 Ma oxygen isotope stratigraphy for a shallow-water sedimentary transect across three IODP 317 sites in the Canterbury Bight of southwest Pacific Ocean. The three sites are located on the eastern margin of the South Island of New Zealand, including a continental slope site, IODP317-U1352 and two continental shelf sites, IODP317-U1354 and IODP317-U1351. We first generated high resolution benthic foraminifers (Nonionella flemingi) δ18O records for the three sites and a planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) record for the U1352B. An initial chronological framework for the benthic δ18O record of the U1352B was constructed using 8 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates and 4 biostratigraphic events. Then a refined age model was established by correlating the U1352B benthic δ18O record with the EDC δD record on the AICC2012 time-scale, and the LR04 benthic δ18O stack. Although the U1354B and U1351B have lower sedimentation rates, their benthic δ18O records correlate well with that of U1352B. In order to ensure the accuracy of the chronostratigraphic framework established, we also analyzed the characteristics of sedimentary grain size and the planktonic and benthic δ18O values. In accord with the adjacent sites, the results show that the melt of Southern Alps glaciers due to the warming climate during MIS 11 and 5.5 led to the increased fresh water delivery, with massive terrigenous deposit; and the warm SST during the MIS7 is related with the STF migration, which led to strong current activity, with coarser grain size. Meanwhile, records of benthic δ18O, sedimentation rate and content of >63μm coarse fraction of site U1352 all indicate the MIS 20 was indeed a colder interval compared to subsequent glacial times.

  1. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  2. Comparison of wetland structural characteristics between created and natural salt marshes in southwest Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, K.R.; Proffitt, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The use of dredge material is a well-known technique for creating or restoring salt marshes that is expected to become more common along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the future. However, the effectiveness of this restoration method is still questioned. Wetland structural characteristics were compared between four created and three natural salt marshes in southwest Louisiana, USA. The created marshes, formed by the pumping of dredge material into formerly open water areas, represent a chronosequence, ranging in age from 3 to 19 years. Vegetation and soil structural factors were compared to determine whether the created marshes become more similar over time to the natural salt marshes. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1997, 2000, and 2002 using the line-intercept technique. Site elevations were measured in 2000. Organic matter (OM) was measured in 1996 and 2002, while bulk density and soil particle-size distribution were determined in 2002 only. The natural marshes were dominated by Spartina alterniflora, as were the oldest created marshes; these marshes had the lowest mean site elevations ( 35 cm NGVD) and became dominated by high marsh (S. patens, Distichlis spicata) and shrub (Baccharis halimifolia, Iva frutescens) species. The higher elevation marsh seems to be following a different plant successional trajectory than the other marshes, indicating a relationship between marsh elevation and species composition. The soils in both the created and natural marshes contain high levels of clays (30-65 %), with sand comprising < 1 % of the soil distribution. OM was significantly greater and bulk density significantly lower in two of the natural marshes when compared to the created marshes. The oldest created marsh had significantly greater OM than the younger created marshes, but it may still take several decades before equivalency is reached with the natural marshes. Vegetation structural characteristics in the created marshes take only a few years to become similar

  3. 5. SOUTHWEST PORTAL AND SOUTHWEST WEB OT THROUGH TRUSSES, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHWEST PORTAL AND SOUTHWEST WEB OT THROUGH TRUSSES, SHOWING TOP CHORD DETAILS; VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Nebraska City Bridge, Spanning Missouri River near Highway 2 between Nebraska & Iowa, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  4. Looking Southwest at Southwest End of Erbia Building Showing Typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Southwest End of Erbia Building Showing Typical Wall and Roof Juncture Including a Recycling Furnace - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Erbia Plant, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  5. Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast vault door, and evidence of forced entry in north interior wall. View from west interior wall of southwest vault. Facing east. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  6. 77 FR 5493 - Southwest Fisheries Science Center; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... INFORMATION: The COAST uses high-precision acoustic sampling to efficiently map the distributions of... management as well as evaluating the performance of marine protected areas. Special Accommodations This... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA978 Southwest Fisheries Science Center;...

  7. Jurassic zircons from the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hao; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yang, Qunhui; Zhang, Lingmin; Ji, Fuwu; Dick, Henry

    2016-05-01

    The existence of ancient rocks in present mid-ocean ridges have long been observed but received less attention. Here we report the discovery of zircons with both reasonably young ages of about 5 Ma and abnormally old ages of approximate 180 Ma from two evolved gabbroic rocks that were dredged from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) in the Gallieni fracture zone. U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotope analyses of zircons were made using ion probe and conventional laser abrasion directly in petrographic thin sections. Young zircons and their host oxide gabbro have positive Hf isotope compositions (εHf = +15.7–+12.4), suggesting a highly depleted mantle beneath the SWIR. The spread εHf values (from‑2.3 to‑4.5) of abnormally old zircons, together with the unradiogenic Nd-Hf isotope of the host quartz diorite, appears to suggest an ancient juvenile magmatism along the rifting margin of the southern Gondwana prior to the opening of the Indian Ocean. A convincing explanation for the origin of the unusually old zircons is yet to surface, however, an update of the theory of plate tectonics would be expected with continuing discovery of ancient rocks in the mid-oceanic ridges and abyssal ocean basins.

  8. Jurassic zircons from the Southwest Indian Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hao; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yang, Qunhui; Zhang, Lingmin; Ji, Fuwu; Dick, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The existence of ancient rocks in present mid-ocean ridges have long been observed but received less attention. Here we report the discovery of zircons with both reasonably young ages of about 5 Ma and abnormally old ages of approximate 180 Ma from two evolved gabbroic rocks that were dredged from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) in the Gallieni fracture zone. U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotope analyses of zircons were made using ion probe and conventional laser abrasion directly in petrographic thin sections. Young zircons and their host oxide gabbro have positive Hf isotope compositions (εHf = +15.7–+12.4), suggesting a highly depleted mantle beneath the SWIR. The spread εHf values (from−2.3 to−4.5) of abnormally old zircons, together with the unradiogenic Nd-Hf isotope of the host quartz diorite, appears to suggest an ancient juvenile magmatism along the rifting margin of the southern Gondwana prior to the opening of the Indian Ocean. A convincing explanation for the origin of the unusually old zircons is yet to surface, however, an update of the theory of plate tectonics would be expected with continuing discovery of ancient rocks in the mid-oceanic ridges and abyssal ocean basins. PMID:27185575

  9. Jurassic zircons from the Southwest Indian Ridge.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Zhou, Huaiyang; Yang, Qunhui; Zhang, Lingmin; Ji, Fuwu; Dick, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The existence of ancient rocks in present mid-ocean ridges have long been observed but received less attention. Here we report the discovery of zircons with both reasonably young ages of about 5 Ma and abnormally old ages of approximate 180 Ma from two evolved gabbroic rocks that were dredged from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) in the Gallieni fracture zone. U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of zircons were made using ion probe and conventional laser abrasion directly in petrographic thin sections. Young zircons and their host oxide gabbro have positive Hf isotope compositions (εHf = +15.7-+12.4), suggesting a highly depleted mantle beneath the SWIR. The spread εHf values (from-2.3 to-4.5) of abnormally old zircons, together with the unradiogenic Nd-Hf isotope of the host quartz diorite, appears to suggest an ancient juvenile magmatism along the rifting margin of the southern Gondwana prior to the opening of the Indian Ocean. A convincing explanation for the origin of the unusually old zircons is yet to surface, however, an update of the theory of plate tectonics would be expected with continuing discovery of ancient rocks in the mid-oceanic ridges and abyssal ocean basins. PMID:27185575

  10. Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration Project: Beach and Nearshore Morphological Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Stevens, A. W.; Ruggiero, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Shoreline change along the southwest Washington and northwest Oregon coast responds to both natural and anthropogenic drivers at a range of temporal and spatial scales. Within the last century, human interventions, primarily the construction of large jetties at the entrance to the Columbia River, have been the dominant driver of nearshore morphology and shoreline change in this area. These jetties caused the inlet to narrow and deepen, the ebb-tidal delta to migrate offshore into deeper water, and adjacent shorelines to first accrete then erode over distances of tens of kilometers and time scales of decades. Shoreline change modeling suggests that reduced local sediment supply owing to these morphological changes is causing a deficit of sand feeding the shoreline, especially in the region of Benson Beach, just north of the mouth of the Columbia River. One of the goals of the Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration (SW LDR) project is to assess the long-term viability of placing dredged material from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) directly on Benson Beach to supplement the littoral sediment budget. The SW LDR will be one of the largest beach nourishment projects in the Pacific Northwest, with approximately 200,000 - 400,000 m3 of dredged material being placed on Benson Beach during the summer of 2010. Extensive monitoring and modeling efforts are underway to evaluate the effectiveness of the project and to develop morphodynamic modeling tools to inform future Regional Sediment Management decisions. Overall project components include Argus beach monitoring, measurements of nearshore waves and currents, deployment of a sand tracer, morphodynamic modeling, and a morphological monitoring program. The primary purpose of the morphological monitoring program, and the focus for this presentation, is to track the response of beach and nearshore areas during and after the sand placement. Bathymetric data, collected using Personal Watercraft (PWCs) equipped with