Science.gov

Sample records for soviet anthem low-key

  1. National Anthem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A montage of video clips over the years, footage shows the spacecrews, launch, and landing for different orbiters and missions. Clips include the Endeavour and Atlantis Orbiters and are shown to the music of the American National Anthem.

  2. National anthems and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2011-02-01

    In a sample of 18 European nations, suicide rates were positively associated with the proportion of low notes in the national anthems and, albeit less strongly, with students' ratings of how gloomy and how sad the anthems sounded, supporting a hypothesis proposed by Rihmer. PMID:21526589

  3. Schools Celebrate National Anthem Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Roger Lacher, instrumental music director at Murray Middle School in Ridgecrest, California, spearheaded a celebration of the national anthem attended by a descendant of Francis Scott Key. In a press release Lacher sent to the local media, he wrote: "Murray Middle School celebrated this event. We are blessed with having the great, great, great,…

  4. Lyrics of national anthems and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2011-08-01

    The suicide rates of 18 European nations were associated with the proportion of sad words in the lyrics of their national anthems as well as the gloominess of the music. It is suggested that a possible suicide prevention tactic might involve changing the music and lyrics of national anthems. PMID:22049655

  5. ANTHEM simulation of plasma opening switches

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.; Jones, M.E.; Bergman, C.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Opening Switches have been examined numerically with the aid of the ANTHEM plasma simulation model. A generic bi-cylindrical switch is studied. The switching of generator pulses ranging from 50 ns to 1 /mu/sec is reviewed, for a variety of plasma fill lengths and densities, and for a range of resistive loads. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  6. The Israeli anthem and its dental connection.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2009-01-01

    In 1892 an article on dentistry among the ancient Israelites appeared in the popular dental journal Items of Interest. It was written by Naphthali Herz Imber, an obscure wandering poet and writer who had traveled through most of the world, but achieved immortality for having written the poem Ha Tikva, or The Hope, which became the national anthem of the State of Israel. However, searches through biographies of Imber show no indication that he had any interest or attachment to dentistry. PMID:19537488

  7. Teaching Social Studies with National Anthems Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Many national anthem lyrics focus on struggle and war between nations. Some, such as "The Star Spangled Banner," focus on a single battle or incident, like the War of 1812. Others stress the bravery, strength, and courage of the soldiers and sometimes the entire nation. Other anthems, such as Brazil's, focus on the beauty and…

  8. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... on September 3, 2010 (75 FR 54187). The workers supply claims processing services and customer... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc... Adjustment Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield,...

  9. Soviet union.

    PubMed

    1987-12-19

    While Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev was last week holding Star Wars talks with Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan, nurses in the USSR have received large pay rises to combat recruitment problems. PMID:27319527

  10. Singing the national anthem at major league baseball stadiums raises awareness of ALS.

    PubMed

    Herreria, J

    1998-01-01

    Mark Reiman, diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), is raising awareness of the disease, better known as Lou Gehrig's disease, by singing the national anthem at all the major league baseball stadiums in the U.S. PMID:10186395

  11. Anthem simulational studies of the plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    For a deeper understanding of the physical processes governing the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) we use the ANTHEM 2D implicit simulation code to study: (1) ion dynamical effects on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) waves propagating along steep density interfaces in the switch plasmas. At radial interfaces where the density jumps toward the anode, these waves can drive a finger of magnetic field into the plasma toward the load. Ion dynamics can open the rear of such fingers into a wedge-like density gap. Then: (2) we examine ion effects in uniform switch plasmas. These first develop potential hill structures at the drive edge of the cathode from the competition between electron velocity advection and EHD magnetic exclusion waves. Magnetic pressure gradients at the hill periphery and EHD effects then establish a density gap propagating along the cathode with radial electron emission from its tip. Similar results are obtained under both multi-fluid and PIC modeling of the plasma components.

  12. Anthem simulational studies of the plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    For a deeper understanding of the physical processes governing the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) we use the ANTHEM 2D implicit simulation code to study: (1) ion dynamical effects on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) waves propagating along steep density interfaces in the switch plasmas. At radial interfaces where the density jumps toward the anode, these waves can drive a finger of magnetic field into the plasma toward the load. Ion dynamics can open the rear of such fingers into a wedge-like density gap. Then: (2) we examine ion effects in uniform switch plasmas. These first develop potential hill structures at the drive edge of the cathode from the competition between electron velocity advection and EHD magnetic exclusion waves. Magnetic pressure gradients at the hill periphery and EHD effects then establish a density gap propagating along the cathode with radial electron emission from its tip. Similar results are obtained under both multi-fluid and PIC modeling of the plasma components.

  13. Soviet Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    Recent social and political changes in the USSR have made available some 60 previously unreleased films, which were produced during the last 20 years and withheld from release by the Union of Soviet Filmmakers. In 1986, much of this group's leadership was removed leading to an atmosphere more favorable to wider distribution. Some of these films…

  14. 76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended.../Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased...

  15. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... was published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). The certification was amended...., D/B/A/Anthem East, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Manchester, New Hampshire TA-W-74,895J...,895G), Wellpoint, Inc., d/b/a Anthem East, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Manchester,...

  16. Modern Tools of Propaganda: Television Treatments of National Anthems in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    Because of the close proximity of countries in the Middle East, broadcast signals freely cross national boundaries, bringing not always friendly endemic populations into contact with each other through radio and television programming--a fact that has not been lost on the governments which fund broadcasting facilities. National anthems are…

  17. O Say, They Can Sing! Teachers Share Their Tips for Teaching the National Anthem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Teresa K.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers who have made "The Star-Spangled Banner" a central part of their students' repertoire have found that students can learn it and take pride in staging this familiar song that even their parents consider too difficult. Many teachers recognize that the first obstacle in teaching the anthem is that students do not know the words or understand…

  18. Eureka! Students Lead Sports Crowd in Anthem Singing: Helping Promote Music Education in Our Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    On March 10, 2005, MENC launched The National Anthem Project: Restoring America's Voice, which was nationally televised on Good Morning America from the U.S. Capitol grounds. If one goes to the project Web site, www.thenationalanthemproject.org, one will find ample evidence that music educators are already getting across the message of the…

  19. ANTHEM: a two-dimensional multicomponent self-consistent hydro-electron transport code for laser-matter interaction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The ANTHEM code for the study of CO/sub 2/-laser-generated transport is outlined. ANTHEM treats the background plasma as coupled Eulerian thermal and ion fluids, and the suprathermal electrons as either a third fluid or a body of evolving collisional PIC particles. The electrons scatter off the ions; the suprathermals drag against the thermal background. Self-consistent E- and B-fields are computed by the Implicit Moment Method. The current status of the code is described. Typical output from ANTHEM is discussed with special application to Augmented-Return-Current CO/sub 2/-laser-driven targets.

  20. Trickle-down theory. Anthem's expensive acquisition of Trigon Healthcare raises question of whether local providers may end up with the bill.

    PubMed

    Benko, Laura B

    2002-08-12

    Anthem's acquisition of Trigon Healthcare, its largest deal to date at $4 billion in cash and stock, gives the insurer a sturdy foothold in the Southeast while rewarding Trigon's shareholders with a profit. Anthem CEO Larry Glasscock (right) and Trigon CEO Thomas Snead expect a smooth transition. Anthem has taken a pricey step toward becoming the No. 1 Blues plan consolidator. But will local providers end up footing much of the bill? PMID:12224117

  1. Developments in Soviet Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Studies the news values, practices, and role of journalists in the Soviet Union. Claims that, although the Soviet press currently resembles a corporate public relations department, there are signs of change because of public demands. States that journalistic practices in the U.S. and Soviet Union are similar in their reliance on routine and…

  2. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. )

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  3. Outlook for soviet oil.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, T

    1982-07-23

    Public debate about Soviet oil has become more widespread in the past 5 years, but during this period Soviet petroleum exports have ceased to be made available by volume. Soviet oil consumption has usually been estimated by deducting exports from total production. This article takes the alternative approach, using Soviet statistics from a variety of sources, to build up a sectoral pattern of Soviet oil demand and to consider this in the broader context of total Comecon energy supply and demand. From this focus future prospects for the Comecon energy balance are analyzed. PMID:17791503

  4. The Soviet Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhirst, Martin, Ed.; Farrell, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium which are intended to be a general survey on the nature of Soviet censorship, its effect on literature in the USSR, and the role of such censorship in the intellectual life of a large part of the world. Contents include: "What Is the Soviet Censorship?" which is an attempt to define the way in…

  5. The Soviet calculus of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkowicz, R.; Mickiewicz, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons policy in the USSR. Topics considered include contemporary Soviet military policy, Soviet strategic planning, ballistic missile defense, Soviet arms control decision making since Brezhnev, Soviet positions on strategic arms control, negotiating with the Soviets, the slowdown of Soviet defense spending, weapons acquisition in the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union and the East European militaries.

  6. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  7. Soviet phase conjugation research

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.A.; Boyd, R.W.; Klein, M.B.; Kurnit, N.A.; Milonni, P.W.; Rockwell, D.A.; Yeh, P.

    1990-09-01

    Optical phase conjugation is a Soviet-discovered technique that applies nonlinear optical effects to automatically manipulate laser beams while automatically correcting for arbitrary distortions. Optical phase conjugation can aid in providing improved configurations for average-power and high-peak-power laser systems; it can provide nearly automatic pointing and tracking laser systems; and it can provide many other practical applications (both military and nonmilitary). Here it is important to note that 100- to 1000-watt systems are also of significant importance, not just ultra-high-energy or high-power lasers designed to do significant structural damage at significant distances. One class of phase conjugation techniques, namely, stimulated Brillouin scattering, along with its four-wave mixing counterpart, Brillioun-enhanced four-wave mixing, has been the hallmark of the Soviet effort -- with nearly all contributions (both theoretical and experimental) arising from the Soviet Union. Both stimulated Brillouin scattering and Brillouin-enhanced four-wave mixing arise from the same electrostrictive nonlinearity, where the presence of a gradient in the optical intensity produces a force on the fluid. Scientists in the United States started studying optical phase conjugation approximately five years after Soviet scientists, and initially concentrated on areas quite different from those of Soviet emphasis.

  8. Soviet uranium supply capability

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    For many years, only limited information concerning uranium deposits in the USSR has been available from Soviet sources. The Soviet Union has, however, cooperated in some past efforts to promote interaction with the international scientific community. For example, in 1984 the Soviet Union hosted the 27th International Geological Congress (IGC). The uranium portion included 50 papers, primarily on uranium deposits in sandstone and metamorphic rocks, presented to about 300 members. The IGC sponsored almost 400 geology field trips, the most noteworthy of which was a five-day trip to the Krivoi Rog iron and uranium district in the south-central Ukraine, including visits to two open-pit iron mines and the underground Novaya uranium mine in Zholtye Vody. That conference was reported in detail on the October 1984 NUEXCO Monthly Report. Some other information that has been made available over the years is contained in the April 1985 Report discussion of uranium deposit classifications. Advanced processing technology, low-cost labor, by-product and co-product recovery, and the large existing production capacity enable MAEI to produce nuclear fuel at low cost. The Soviet Union`s reserve base, technological development, and production experience make it one of the world`s leading producers of nuclear fuel. As additional information is made available for publication, NUEXCO will present updated reports on the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Soviet Union.

  9. ANTHEM simulations of the early time magnetic field penetration of the plasma surrounding a high density Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The early time penetration of magnetic field into the low density coronal plasma of a Z-pinch fiber is studied with the implict plasma simulation code ANTHEM. Calculations show the emission of electrons from the cathode, pinching of the electron flow, magnetic insulation of the electrons near the anode, and low density ion blow off. PIC-particle ion calculations show a late time clumping of the ion density not seen with a fluid ion treatment.

  10. ANTHEM simulation of the early time magnetic field penetration of the plasma surrounding a high density Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The early time penetration of magnetic field into the low density coronal plasma of a Z-pinch fiber is studied with the implicit plasma simulation code ANTHEM. Calculations show the emission of electrons from the cathode, pinching of the electron flow, magnetic insulation of the electrons near the anode, and low density ion blow off. PIC-particle ion calculations show a late time clumping of the ion density not seen with a fluid ion treatment. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Soviet optical processing research

    SciTech Connect

    VanderLugt, A.; Attard, A.E.; Cronin-Golomb, M.; Hartman, R.L.; Lee, J.N.; Morris, G.M.; Rhodes, W.T.

    1991-04-01

    Optical processing techniques are used to transform, manipulate, or transmit information. The Soviet Union has vigorously pursued optical processing since the 1960s. This report summarizes Soviet capabilities in hardware, particularly in materials and devices, as well as their capability in applications such as image processing and signal processing/computing. Soviet work in optical signal processing may be characterized as follows: good in terms of fundamental science of materials; capable of producing good materials (often on a par with the West); curious lack of activity with ferroelectric liquid crystals; unique capability in biochrome materials; good capabilities in waveguide devices; good research on spatial light modulators using electro-optic materials; lacking in fabrication techniques for devices; good in terms of statistical analysis of expected system performance; lacking in microelectronic support capabilities; and general lack of innovation for new signal processing architectures. 400 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  13. SOVIET NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOLLANDER, GAYLE DURHAM

    AS TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTENSIVE RADIO AND TELEVISION NETWORK IN THE SOVIET UNION, MASS COMMUNICATIONS CONTINUED TO BE DOMINATED BY THE HEAVILY POLITICIZED NEWSPAPERS, WITH PRAVDA, THE PARTY DAILY, REMAINING THE MOST AUTHORITATIVE SOURCE FOR INFORMATION AND INTERPRETATION. FOREIGN RADIO BROADCASTS TO THE SOVIET…

  14. Soviet Education Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajda, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Marxist-Leninist ethics were related to Communist morality in practice by surveying Soviet students' values and perceptions of the influence of parents, schools, and mass media. The content of moral education, history, and social studies curricula, and the structure of youth organizations (Octobrists, Pioneers, and Komsomal) were examined.…

  15. Quantum cryptography and authentication with low key-consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, A.; Pacher, C.; Lorünser, T.; Larsson, J.-Å.; Peev, M.

    2011-11-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD - also referred to as Quantum Cryptography) is a technique for secret key agreement. It has been shown that QKD rigged with Information-Theoretic Secure (ITS) authentication (using secret key) of the classical messages transmitted during the key distribution protocol is also ITS. Note, QKD without any authentication can trivially be broken by man-in-the-middle attacks. Here, we study an authentication method that was originally proposed because of its low key consumption; a two-step authentication that uses a publicly known hash function, followed by a secret strongly universal2 hash function, which is exchanged each round. This two-step authentication is not information-theoretically secure but it was argued that nevertheless it does not compromise the security of QKD. In the current contribution we study intrinsic weaknesses of this approach under the common assumption that the QKD adversary has access to unlimited resources including quantum memories. We consider one implementation of Quantum Cryptographic protocols that use such authentication and demonstrate an attack that fully extract the secret key. Even including the final key from the protocol in the authentication does not rule out the possibility of these attacks. To rectify the situation, we propose a countermeasure that, while not information-theoretically secure, restores the need for very large computing power for the attack to work. Finally, we specify conditions that must be satisfied by the two-step authentication in order to restore information-theoretic security.

  16. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  17. Soviets seek scientific exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GEOS-A, associated with the Soviet Union's Institute of Earth Physics, is seeking to promote exchange between Soviet and Western geophysicists. GEOS-A is a nonprofit, private organization formed by specialists from the U.S.S.R. Academy of Scientists.GEOS-A aims to promote the transfer of academic research results to industry and education. It also seeks to stimulate international scientific exchange and to support independent nongovernmental programs and expertise in geophysics and ecology. The organization would like to cooperate with Western universities in exchanging students and young scientists and in building scientific relationships between the two countries. This would include inviting students and young specialists for collaborative scientific research, consultations, language practice, and graduate study in any institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Participants would live in rented private apartments in downtown Moscow for approximately one week to several months. All living expenses would be covered at a rate higher than the academy's standard one (unfortunately travel to and from the Soviet Union cannot be covered).

  18. The Soviet Union and ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-01-01

    In recent debate over strategic defense, the Soviet dimension has not been adequately examined. Based on an analysis of Soviet statements and Soviet weaponry, the study surveys Soviet perceptions of the shifting relationship between the superpowers and the effect of BMD on that relationship. The author then traces the evolution of Soviet policies toward ballistic missile defense and the introduction of weapons into space. After exploring the internal budgetary debates that will affect future Soviet decisions on BMD and space systems, the book outlines Soviet responses, political as well as military, to the Strategic Defense Initiative and concludes with recommendations for U.S. policy toward BMD and arms negotiations. Contents: The Central Issues; Soviet Views of the Geopolitical Context; Soviet Policy Toward Soviet BMD and the Military Uses of Space; The resource Allocation Debate and Soviet BMD Decisions; Soviet Responses to the Strategic Defense Initiative; U.S. Policy and the Future of the Superpower Arms Competition.

  19. A Soviet space odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, J. K.

    1985-10-01

    A mission history and sensor telemetry evaluation is presented for the two Vega balloon/lander Venus probes that began their descent into the Venus atmosphere on June 10, 1985; attention is also given to the ground station monitoring functions fulfilled by the Soviet Academy of Sciences' Institute for Space Research. The sensor package carried by Vega encompassed a meteorology unit, an aerosol analyzer, gamma-ray, X-ray UV and mass spectrometers, a hygrometer, and a mass chromatograph. Balloon experiments conducted at altitudes of 31-34 miles employed temperature and pressure sensors, a nephelometer, a photometer, and VLBI tracking to determine the location and drift velocity of the balloon. The VLBI device is a joint development of the Soviet Union, the U.S., and France. After deployment, immersed in sulfuric acid clouds, the two Vega balloons drifted in 150 mph winds in an east-to-west direction over Venus' equatorial region. The Vega landers came to rest on soft soil, after a parachute descent.

  20. Restructuring of Soviet foreign policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, A.

    1988-03-01

    Viewed historically, current Soviet attitudes toward foreign affairs, which suggest a more realistic Soviet adaptation to the international environment, may be interpreted as confirmation of a patient Western policy combining military strength and political flexibility. Ironically, many of the contemporary Soviet statements on mutual security and interdependence echo prevailing Western views of the early 1970s. In response to a series of aggressive projections of political-military power by the Soviets in the mid-to-late 1970s which culminated in the invasion of Afghanistan, the West - and especially the United States - quickly shed this rhetoric and downplayed arms control and collaborative security approaches. While the West remains transfixed by a late-1970s image of Soviet power, the Soviets are adopting approaches comparable to those widespread in the West in the early 1970s. To break this cycle, both sides must adapt creatively to the break that Gorbachev is making with important aspects of the Soviet past. The West can test the seriousness of Soviet initiatives by encouraging Moscow to continue developing negotiable proposals and practical approaches to issues of common security. 5 references

  1. Soviet military strategy in space

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

  2. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  3. Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

  4. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    PubMed

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective. PMID:12339937

  5. Soviet health care and perestroika.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

    1990-01-01

    Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064

  6. Soviet health care and perestroika.

    PubMed

    Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

    1990-02-01

    Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064

  7. Ozone mapper survives Soviet coup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-06

    NASA's latest satellite-borne monitor of the Earth's protective ozone layer went operational a little earlier than planned last month. The unprecedented launch - on a Soviet weather satellite - of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) took place on 15 August. Three days later so did the coup that has shaken the Soviet Union to its foundations. So, instead of waiting weeks to let the instrument adjust to space conditions, NASA engineers, who were in Moscow to monitor the launch, turned TOMS on before going home - just 5 days post-launch. No problems resulted, and the orbiting instrument, which for the first 2 months of its 2-year mission will track the formation of this year's Antarctic ozone hole, is now returning data to both US and Soviet ground stations. The launch of a new TOMS was an urgent imperative for US atmospheric researchers. The old one, now approaching its 13th year in orbit on the NASA satellite Nimbus-7, was showing its age and threatened to quit working. Because of the tight launch schedules following the Challenger disaster, NASA sought outside help to get TOMS off the ground. The Soviet Union turned out to be the best partner: it is developing a new network of Meteor meteorology satellites, and the 1987 US/USSR space cooperation agreement allowed the Soviet Cyclone booster to become the Americans' savior.

  8. Notes on Soviet space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberg, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Soviet space programs intended for making astronomical observations are reviewed. The Cosmos, Intercosmos, and Prognoz satellites designed for astronomical measurements are identified, and unmanned lunar and planetary missions are discussed, including the Luna, Lunokhod, Mars, and Venera programs. The Salyut 4 space station is described in detail along with the following major astronomical instruments: the Orbiting Solar Telescope 1, the infrared telescope spectrometer, the two solar spectrometers, the light-nuclei mass spectrometer, and the Filin and RT-4 X-ray telescopes. The future of Soviet space astronomy is assessed, particularly the tasks of the Salyut 5 station and the scheduled launch of Salyut 6.

  9. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  10. Soviet Media in the Age of Glasnost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; And Others

    A study analyzed the content of "Pravda," the major newspaper of the Soviet Communist Party and "Vremya," the main evening news program of Soviet television for changes that could be attributed to Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev's policy of "glasnost" (openness). The "Pravda" sample consisted of 18 editions drawn systematically from the first…

  11. Soviet KIROV class strike cruiser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, J.W.; Brower, K.S.; Meier, H.A.

    1981-04-01

    The major design concepts and basic characteristics of the Soviet KIROV Class ship, an impressive nuclear-powered Strike Cruiser which recently appeared while undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, are discussed. Highlights are presented of the KIROV's hull form, the weapons, electronics and aviation systems, machinery, as well as the cruiser's speed and range.

  12. The phenomenon of Soviet science.

    PubMed

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    The grand "Soviet experiment" constituted an attempt to greatly accelerate and even shortcut the gradual course of historical development on the assumption of presumed knowledge of the general laws of history. This paper discusses the parts of that experiment that directly concerned scientific research and, in fact, anticipated or helped define important global changes in the functioning of science as a profession and an institution during the twentieth century. The phenomenon of Soviet, or socialist, science is analyzed here from the comparative international perspective, with attention to similarities and reciprocal influences, rather than to the contrasts and dichotomies that have traditionally interested cold war-type historiography. The problem is considered at several levels: philosophical (Soviet thought on the relationship between science and society and the social construction of scientific knowledge); institutional (the state recognition of research as a separate profession, the rise of big science and scientific research institutes); demographic (science becoming a mass profession, with ethnic and gender diversity among scientists); and political (Soviet-inspired influences on the practice of science in Europe and the United States through the social relations of science movement of the 1930s and the Sputnik shock of the 1950s). PMID:18831319

  13. [Rehabilitative physiotherapy in Soviet medicine].

    PubMed

    Solimene, U; Sirtori, P G; Balsamo, V; Miani, A; Pirola, V

    There are three different levels of rehabilitational physical therapy in heart diseases in the Soviet Union. Natural methods are used such as climate therapy, baths, sunshine and physiotherapy as well as artificial methods including laser, electric and mechanical energy, etc. Artificially produced mineral waters which are identical to natural ones are also applied. All these methods yield good results in myocardial infarction, cerebral ictus, coronary diseases, cerebral ischemia, hypothyroidism, etc. PMID:1837254

  14. Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

  15. The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikofski, Joyce

    This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

  16. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-03-19

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs.

  17. Soviet Involvement in the Korean War: A New View from the Soviet-era Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the Soviet Union's role in the Korean War using the resources of the Soviet-era archives in Russia. Provides historical background about the pre-Korean War era, the start of the war, the Soviet-Chinese relationship, the air and ground battles, and the reasons for ending the Korean War. (CMK)

  18. Technology and Soviet energy availability: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The course Soviet energy production will take if present policies in the West and the USSR remain unchanged is investigated. Opportunities and problems in the five primary Soviet energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power; equipment and technology requirements; and the implications of providing or withholding assistance are addressed.

  19. Whither Soviet Studies: Back to Basics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1981-01-01

    The author traces changes in American social studies teaching about the Soviet Union over the past 30 years. He finds that these changes parallel shifts in the political mentality from the Cold War, through detente, to America's renewed suspicion following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (SJL)

  20. War, Militarism and the Soviet State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, David

    This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

  1. Soviet radio telescopes and solar radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Gel'Freikh, Georgii B.; Zaitsev, Valerii V.; Iliasov, Iurii P.; Kaidanovskii, N. L.

    Soviet radio telescopes of different type and purpose are described, with particular emphasis on very long baseline interferometry. Soviet radio-astronomy studies of solar radio emission and the interplanetary medium are also discussed, with particular attention given to the investigation of the sun's supercorona and the interplanetary plasma.

  2. The Impact of "Perestroika" on Soviet Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodinsky, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Proponents of Perestroika" and "glasnost" are tirelessly seeking to remold Soviet teaching and learning. Innovations and "corrections" are being fed by numerous articles in professional journals and by pedagogical leaders in academies and universities. Teaching in Soviet classrooms remains a teacher-centered, one-way process. Curriculum revision…

  3. Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semenov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

  4. Technology and Soviet energy availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    This study addresses in detail the significance of American petroleum equipment and technology to the U.S.S.R. and the resulting options for U.S. policy. It examines the problems and opportunities that confront the U.S.S.R. in its five primary energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power. It discusses plausible prospects for these industries in the next ten years; identifies the equipment and technology most important to the U.S.S.R.. In these areas; evaluates the extent to which the United States is the sole or preferred supplier of such items and analyzes the implications for both the entire Soviet bloc and the Western alliance of either providing or withholding Western equipment and technology.

  5. Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sloss, L. Associates, Washington, DC )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

  6. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  7. Soviet free-electron laser research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassel, S.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate free-electron laser (FEL) research and development in the Soviet Union and to compare it with the corresponding activity in the U.S. In presenting this material, the intention is to acquaint U.S. researchers with the objectives, techniques, and results of their Soviet counterparts, as well as to provide the broad context of this area of Soviet R&D that consists of the organization, facilities, personalities, and leadership involved. The U.S. Soviet comparison has focused on the experimental programs, the most important area of this new technology. Section 2 compares individual experiments conducted by the USSR and the United States. In Section 3 the history of the theoretical development of FEL is presented, providing an insight into the conceptual issues that shaped FEL research in both countries. The remainder of the report is devoted primarily to the Soviet side of FEL research. Section 4 describes the organizational features of this research in terms of the performer institutes and leadership, focusing on the role of the Academy of Sciences, USSR. Section 5 analyzes the scientific objectives of Soviet FEL research, for the most part as discussed by Soviet reviewers of their research program. Section 6 presents conclusions.

  8. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  9. Feedback, Surveys, and Soviet Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickiewicz, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Reports on how traditional feedback channels in the Soviet Union work and how public opinion surveys have caused Communist party leaders to assess and expand their feedback channels, particularly in the area of letters from private citizens. (PD)

  10. The Soviet Road to Olympus. Theory and Practice of Soviet Physical Culture and Sport. Occasional Papers/19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, N. Norman

    Serving as an introduction to Soviet physical education which endeavors to give a concise outline of the organizational structure and the theoretical foundatons of Soviet sport, this book attempts to discuss Soviet physical education in relation to Soviet education and culture generally and to examine critically the practical applications of the…

  11. U.S.-Soviet Scientific Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last month the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Soviet Academy of Sciences signed a tentative agreement to resume scientific exchanges. Scientific symposia involving both nations, first negotiated in the late 1950s, were suspended in 1980 after the exile of Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov. Individual scientist exchanges were not suspended and have continued without formal agreement between the two nations.

  12. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Soviet development of gyrotrons. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Kassel

    1986-05-01

    This report surveys the development of high power cyclotron-resonance masers (CRM) and gyrotrons in the Soviet Union, based on Soviet open-source literature. It deals with the nature and history of relativistic CRM devices; provides a sequence of the most important issues of gyrotron research and develoment as perceived by Soviet authors; and discusses individual Soviet research groups, the basic organizational units responsible for the CRM and gyrotron research and development. The study suggests, among other things, that high-power relativistic microwave electronics is one of the most successful areas of Soviet RandD. It has maintained a consistent record of significant achievements; it has managed to overcome the systemic weakness of the Soviet RandD system in being able to translate effectively the results of advanced research into production of practical equipment; and it has become the fastest growing area of application of pulsed-power technology, which itself has been for many years the subject of priority development in the USSR.

  14. The Soviet maps of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. F.

    1990-02-01

    The USSR began mapping parts of Venus almost six years ago and have published a series of scientific results, reaching a few limited conclusions about Venus. While based on the traditional second generation Venera orbiter design, Veneras 15 and 16 carried Polyus-V sidelooking synthetic-aperture radars which used the orbiter's motion over Venus to 'synthesize' an antenna of far larger size than could practically be carried to the planet. The resolution and coverage achieved is better than one kilometer over most of the surface compared with one tenth of a kilometer partial cover expected from the Venus Radar Mapper. The radar data will take years to analyze completely, but initial results have been released and the Soviet Union has compiled an atlas of radar images. Cartographers named two craters after American astronauts Judith Resnik and Sharon Christa McAuliffe. One of the conclusions is that Venus is not a 'single plate' planet, like the earth's moon or Mercury; its crust is distinctly broken into individual blocks with independent movements. It appears that extensive volcanism is a universal factor in the evolution of planets in the inner solar system.

  15. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  16. Soviet Cybernetics Technology: XII. Time-Sharing in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doncov, Boris

    The only operational Soviet time-sharing systems are incorporated in special-purpose, fixed-application installations, most of which are intended for industrial applications of process control or management information. Despite the peculiar suitability of time-sharing to the Soviet economic system, with its heavy reliance on centralized planning…

  17. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  18. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1988-05-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:11589234

  19. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1989-07-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:2764853

  20. Waning soviet threat: Implications for detente

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Soviet military has experienced unprecedented turmoil since Gorbachev entered office in March 1985. Indeed, it is fair to say that the High Command is facing its most profound institutional crisis in the 72 years of its existence. The indicators of this change are well known to any attentive reader of the newspaper. They include a shift to a more defensive orientation in the USSR's military doctrine; an end to the Soviet military involvement in Afghanistan; Gorbachev's announced unilateral cut of a half-million Soviet troops; associated moves to scale back weapons production and shift a sizeable portion of the defense industry to the civilian sector; and a general effort across a broad front to forge a more agreeable East-West relationship.

  1. Soviet Space Stations as Analogs, Second Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.; Helppie, Martha

    1986-01-01

    The available literature that discusses the various aspects of the Soviet Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 space staions are examined as related to human productivity. The methodology for this analog was a search of unclassified literature. Additional information was obtained in interviews with the cosmonauts and some Soviet space personnel. Topics include: general layout and design of the spacecraft system; cosmonauts role in maintenance and repair; general layout and design of the Mir complex; effects of the environment on personnel; information and computer systems; organization systems; personality systems; and physical conditin of the cosmonaut.

  2. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  3. Problems of Soviet Law and Socialist Legality in Legalistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoshchenko, I. S.

    1978-01-01

    Notes that Soviet youth must be educated about Soviet law and their obligations as citizens to work, respect labor discipline, and defend the motherland. Lists functions of Soviet law as (1) shaping, mediating for, and protecting the middle class, (2) reinforcing socialist principles and the emancipation of women, and (3) guaranteeing…

  4. Adult Education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rita L.; Goetz, Douglas N.

    The Soviet government has consistently relied upon the country's educational system, including adult education, to advance its ideological, social, and economic goals. In the Soviet Union, education has been used to promote Soviet identity, minimize the impact of religion, advance the status of women, and help increase worker productivity. Adult…

  5. Soviet concepts of ballistic missile defense. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seavey, K.P.

    1988-06-01

    This thesis characterizes the Soviet concept of ballistic missile defense (BMD) in order to better understand and predict future Soviet BMD decision making. The Soviet concept of BMD is fundamentally different from that in the West. Soviet BMD is clearly an integral component of a much larger Soviet strategic defense effort which consists of strategic air defense as well as passive measures, such as mobility, deep underground command and control facilities, and civil defense. As the Soviet military literature demonstrates, Soviet strategic air defense encompasses defense against a continuum of threats -- from aircraft to ballistic missiles to satellites to 'space-strike weapons'. Soviet strategic air defense weapons therefore appear optimized to counter a wide range of airborne threats. In the Soviet view, surface-to-air missiles may be a primary tactical BMD weapon. Additionally, Soviet strategic BMD weapons may be a primary Soviet anti-satellite weapon. Furthermore, manned space platforms play a particularly significant role in Soviet thinking about the future of BMD and space warfare.

  6. Teaching about the Soviet Union. ERIC Digest No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citti, Lori A.

    Given the global significance of Soviet-U.S. relations, elementary and secondary school students should learn about the Soviet Union, but most students graduate from high school with little knowledge and many misconceptions about this country. It is important to teach about the Soviet Union because of: (1) its emphasis in the U.S. media; (2) its…

  7. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  8. Speaking "Common Sense" about the Soviet Threat: Reagan's Rhetorical Stance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Robert L.

    Although for the 15 years preceding his election as President of the United States Ronald Reagan muted his anti-Soviet rhetoric in order to achieve political power, since his election he has returned to anti-Sovietism in an effort to redirect American foreign policy against the Soviets. At the same time, however, he employs a rhetorical strategy…

  9. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

  10. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book. PMID:6248014

  11. The Soviet School System under Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaeva, Anna

    1990-01-01

    Describes changes at the three levels of the Soviet educational system (primary, basic, and secondary) brought about by Perestroika. The basic level offers a compulsive general studies program while a differentiated secondary curriculum offers more electives. Discusses the teacher's role and the establishment of public governing councils. (SLM)

  12. Nature of Soviet operational art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soviet operational art today provides a framework for, studying, understanding, preparing for, and conducting war. Together with strategy and tactics, it makes the study of war an academic discipline requiring intense research and scholarship on the part of those who write about and who would have to conduct war. As such, operational art performs distinct tasks associated with the conduct of war.

  13. Soviet bloc, energy, and Western security

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies face difficult economic-policy decisions on energy. In order to reduce the energy intensities of the bloc economies, Moscow must bring about either a marked improvement in energy-use efficiencies or a structural change away from fuel- and materials-intensive processes and sectors. The author examines why the Soviet bloc lacks the capability or willingness to effect such changes, and what the implications of this indecision portend for both the East bloc and the West. Using primary source material in translation, he concentrates on the entire energy sector and not just on oil. His analysis covers contradictory Soviet fuel choices and personnel problems, the natural gas market in Europe, and the dispute between the US Defense Intelligence Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency on the degree of seriousness of the Soviet energy dilemma. The analysis concludes with positive recommendations on how the alliance can repair the discord of the pipeline controversy. The author raises questions about the institutional viability of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to meet the Eastern bloc's energy challenges, and warns that a failure to thoroughly examine a number of other policy issues could imperil the future of the West. 184 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

  14. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Soviet Security in Flux. Occasional Paper 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgotch, Nish, Jr.

    If U.S. foreign policy is to be prudent and effective, it must cease relying on the doctrinaire images and cold war rhetoric of the past and take into account five intactable problems, none of them specifically military, that the Soviet Union faces. These problems are: (1) unabating deficiencies in its economy; (2) a precarious battle with…

  16. The father of Soviet Hydrogen Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Yu. A.

    1990-08-01

    The creation of Soviet Hydrogen bomb has been described.The main participants to the Physical and Computational parts of the projects were shown. The "Sloika " part of the Project, concerned to neutrons kinetic has been discussed. The contribution by A.D. Sakharov to main achievements has been ponted out.

  17. Glasnost in Soviet Libraries: Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmage, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    Describes changes in Soviet research libraries as a possible indicator of the success of glasnost. Topics covered include open access to resources, improved library services, and the use of information technologies. A special report on the 1988 U.S.-U.S.S.R. library seminar is provided. (12 references) (CLB)

  18. "Krokodil"--Satire for the Soviets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehowski, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Describes features of the successful Soviet humor magazine "Krokodil" and concludes that the secret of its success is that it has evolved a strong, recognizable, appealing character over the years, maintaining its familiar identity while also being innovative and fresh. (GT)

  19. Squaring Soviet Theory with American Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Matthew

    1991-01-01

    Soviet scholar Lev Vygotsky identified the most common cause of miseducation: failure to convert the classroom into a community of discursive inquiry. The USSR's Academy of Pedagogical Science is collaborating with Montclair State College (New Jersey) to introduce "Philosophy for Children," an American critical thinking program compatible with…

  20. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  1. Suggestopedia and Soviet Sleep-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper examines the parallels between suggestopedia and Soviet sleep-learning for learning foreign languages. Both systems are based on the idea that the acquisition of information can occur in states below the optimal level of consciousness. Hypnopedia makes use of the period of paradoxical or light sleep that usually occurs just as one is…

  2. Soviet oil production begins to falter

    SciTech Connect

    Fueg, J.C

    1989-08-01

    Soviet industry managers are warning that a new oil production slump may be on the way, especially in the crucial West Siberian industry. The USSR's global energy balance will depend on accelerating natural gas development. In the rest of Eastern Europe, Albania, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia all showed significant declines in oil production.

  3. Environmental Management in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of literature focusing on the effects of the centrally planned Soviet economy on the environment. Twenty-six documents are classified in three categories: English-language sources, Russian-language sources, and Russian-language ecologically oriented newspapers, newsletters, and journals. (MDH)

  4. Current Priorities of Soviet School Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Six articles discuss top priorities of Soviet education policy. Topics discussed include labor training, revision of the curriculum for the 10-year general education program, quantitative v qualitative demands on the educational system, and extended-day programs for the children of working mothers. (DB)

  5. Undoing the Legacy of the Soviet Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sochocky, Christine M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the changes that have taken place in librarianship in the former Soviet Union. The discussion covers the advantages and disadvantages of centralized planning, the reorganization of library systems in Russia and the Ukraine, the effects of democratization on organization and librarian attitudes, and the remnants of Russification in…

  6. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  7. For the State: Soviet Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Wayne M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes vocational education in the Soviet Union. Goals are accomplished by such methods as a standard national curriculum, including sophisticated polytechnical programs, by a system of school-supported youth programs that promote patriotism and group loyalty, and by a media campaign emphasizing the importance of the worker. (Author/JOW)

  8. Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

  9. Perestroika: The Prospects for Soviet Economic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alastair

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of the Soviet economy during the period of perestroika. Includes the level of output, rate of inflation, privatization, and proposals for economic reform. Assesses the stabilization program and possibilities of restructuring. Concludes that neither Mikhail Gorbachev nor perestroika are likely to survive the trials of inflation,…

  10. Economic Demise of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, San Francisco, CA.

    This series of lesson plans and activities deals with the economic demise of the now-defunct Soviet Union. Each of the five lessons and six activities addresses identified standards and benchmarks from the Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics. The lesson plans also address the National History Content Standards, in terms of both the…

  11. Soviet Cybernetics Review, Volume 3, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    Soviet efforts in designing third-generation computers are discussed in two featured articles which describe (1) the development and production of integrated circuits, and their role in computers; and (2) the use of amorphous chalcogenide glass in lasers, infrared devices, and semiconductors. Other articles discuss production-oriented branch…

  12. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  13. Russian/Soviet weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.

    1993-04-01

    Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy has opened a museum at the Arzamas-16 nuclear weapon design laboratory with an exhibit on some early weapons. This exhibit and recent articles in the Russian press provide previously unknown details on the early Soviet nuclear program. This article compiles some of this information to provide a refined record of the development of the H-bomb.

  14. Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research

    SciTech Connect

    Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    PubMed

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology. PMID:24548071

  16. Adopted children from the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question One of the families in my practice is considering adoption of a 2-year-old child from the former Soviet Union. The family has been reassured by the agency that a doctor will examine the child to rule out developmental delays. However, my understanding from your previous articles is that one cannot rule out fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) at that age. Are these children at increased risk of developing FASD? Answer You are correct: FASD cannot be ruled out at 2 years of age. The risk of FASD, neglect, and abuse among children in orphanages in the former Soviet Union is high. While adoption of children with known developmental delays should be encouraged and supported, most families seek to adopt with the assumption that these children will be healthy. PMID:24130279

  17. French participation in the Soviet PHOBOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocard, F.; Barat, C.; Bertaux, J. L.; Blamont, J. E.; Bibring, J. P.

    1989-10-01

    The soviet mission to Phobos and Mars was launched in July, 1988. It carries some 30 experiments on board, designed on a broad international basis, devoted to studying the planet Mars and its vicinity, its natural satellite Phobos, the sun and the interplanetary medium. France, through its laboratories (participating in a number of experiments) and the CNES Space Center at Toulouse (participating in the Phobos spacecraft navigation operations), is the main partner of the Soviet Union in the Phobos mission. Different experiments on the spacecraft are described (ISM, Auguste, IPHIR, PWS, LILAS and Apex, and the active DION and LIMA-D experiments) as well as the French participation in the long-term automated lander DAS (cameras, Stenopee). The first scientific results are presented. The CNES contributions to the international cooperation for Phobos navigation are also described (methods and results).

  18. French participation in the Soviet Phobos mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocard, F.; Barat, C.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bibring, J. P.; Blamont, J. E.; Bonneau, F.; Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Hamelin, M.; Trotignon, J. G.

    The soviet mission to Phobos and Mars was launched in July 88. It carries some thirty experiments on board, designed on a broad international basis, devoted to studying the planet Mars and its viscinity, its natural satellite Phobos, the Sun and the Interplanetary Medium. France, through its laboratories participating in a number of experiments and the CNES Space Center at Toulouse in the Phobos spacecraft navigation operations, is the main partner of the Soviet Union in the Phobos mission. Different experiments on the spacecraft are discribed (ISM, AUGUSTE, IPHIR, PWS, LILAS and APEX, the active DION and LIMA-D experiments) as well as the French participation in the long-term automated lander: DAS (cameras, STENOPEE). The first scientific results are presented. The CNES contribution to the international cooperation for Phobos navigation are also described (methods and results).

  19. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  20. Soviet and American flight directors for ASTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    These two men are flight directors for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission scheduled for July 1975. Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Yeliseyev (left) is the Soviet ASTP senior flight director; and M. P. Frank is the American ASTP senior flight director. They are seated beside a Docking Module training mock-up in bldg 35 at JSC. Cosmonaut Yeliseyev was head of a delegation of USSR flight controllers who were at JSC for two weeks of ASTP training.

  1. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  2. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  3. Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P

    1983-06-01

    At this time Soviet demographic scientists maintain the position that population problems may in fact exist temporarily under socialism but that the planning principle will allow society to resolve population problems, through the use of the administrative, moral, and economic levers (subsidies, government policies, propaganda, education) emphasized by Urlanis (1974) and others. For planners to deal effectively with population management, the determinants of fertility and labor force participation must be established. The foundations of Soviet theories of human capital and fertility were laid by several writers. For the sake of simplicity, these are referred to as the Urlanis-Strumilin model, named after 2 pioneer researchers in Soviet demography and manpower economics. The formulations are based upon the writings of Strumlin (1964) and Urlanis (1974), supplemented by writings of numerous other Soviet researchers. Although their models avoid neoclassical terms such as marginal utility and income and price elasticities, they clearly employ these concepts. The Urlanis-Strumilin model, reduced to its basic elements, is a direct household utility maximizing model. The husband and wife, the household decision makers, must select optimal levels of child "quantity," child "quality," leisure, their own human capital (further education and training), and other goods. The Soviet theory recognizes that an increase in household income will increase relatively the demands for income elastic goods. The model postulates that the demand for child quality is inversely related to the price of children. The price of children is the opportunity cost of children, the major element of which is the income foregone by the mother in the course of childbearing and childrearing. The child quantity demand schedule has elastic and inelastic portions. The marginal utility of the 1st child is great. The marginal utilities of higher order children decline substantially. Families with at least 1

  4. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.C. )

    1991-04-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield An unanswerable first strike When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means.

  5. Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

  6. Astronauts Stafford and Slayton visit Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, left, NASA ASTP crew commander, and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot, visit the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft during the joint phase of the ASTP mission. They hold Soviet containers of borsh (beet soup) over which vodka labels have been pasted. This was the crew's way of toasting each other. The photo was taken in the Orbital Module portion of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The hatch to the Soyuz Descent Vehicle is in center background.

  7. Reading for the Masses: Popular Soviet Fiction, 1976-80. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Maurice

    Noting that Soviet prose, drama, and poetry reveal the nuances of the moods and policies fostered by the Soviet government while reflecting the Soviet reading public's interests and aspirations, this report describes a study of the values and attitudes by which the Soviets live as reflected in the literature published in Soviet literary magazines…

  8. Soviet offensive ground doctrine since 1945. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Since the end of World War II, Soviet offensive concepts have evolved in consonance with technological changes and changing geopolitical relationships. While adjusting to inevitable change, the Soviets have repeatedly tapped as a source of inspiration and knowledge their rich World War II experiences. Thus, the Soviets have altered their operational and tactical concepts by blending the lessons of the past with the realities of the present. Only combat can prove the validity of these changes. However, it is worthwhile to review the salient features of evolving Soviet operational and tactical concepts, if only better to understand the capabilities and potentialities of our major foe.

  9. Soviet research on crystal channeling of charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassel, S.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents an overview of Soviet research in charged particle beam channeling in crystals from 1972 to the present, and the resulting electromagnetic emission, including Soviet proposals for channeling emission lasers in the X-ray region of the spectrum. It analyzes Soviet attitudes toward crystal channeling of charged particles as a subject of research, describes performers of the research, and indicates the level of effort involved. It presents a brief history of crystal channeling research, the differences between channeling and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation, the definition of the main research issues, and estimates of the potential capabilities of channeling radiation, all based on the Soviet viewpoint. It then describes Soviet proposals for laser systems utilizing the channeling radiation mechanism, and analyzes Soviet experimental work involving the observation and measurement of channeling radiation. The author concludes that the outstanding feature of Soviet research in this area is the optimistic belief of Soviet specialists in the technological potential of this research, but finds that the role of the laser proposals in Soviet planning is ambiguous.

  10. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  11. FASAC Technical Assessment Report: Soviet Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Henry, Richard C.; Klein, Harold P.; Masursky, Harold; Paulikas, George A.; Scaf, Frederick L.; Soffen, Gerald A.; Terzian, Yervant

    1986-01-01

    This report is the work of a panel of eight US scientists who surveyed and assessed Soviet research in the spare sciences. All of the panelists were very familiar with Soviet research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and personal contacts with Soviet and other foreign colleagues. In addition, all of the panelists reviewed considerable additional open literature--scientific, and popular, including news releases. The specific disciplines of Soviet space science research examined in detail for the report were: solar-terrestrial research, lunar and planetary research, space astronomy and astrophysics, and, life sciences. The Soviet Union has in the past carried out an ambitious program in lunar exploration and, more recently, in studies of the inner planets, Mars and especially Venus. The Soviets have provided scientific data about the latter planet which has been crucial for studies of the planet's evolution. Future programs envision an encounter with Halley's Comet, in March 1986, and missions to Mars and asteroids. The Soviet programs in the life sciences and solar-terrestrial research have been long-lasting and systematically pursued. Much of the ground-based and space-based research in these two disciplines appears to be motivated by the requirement to establish long-term human habitation in near-Earth space. The Soviet contributions to new discoveries and understanding in observational space astronomy and astrophysics have been few. This is in significant contrast to the very excellent theoretical work contributed by Soviet scientists in this discipline.

  12. A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

  13. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  14. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  15. Understanding the Special Needs of Former Soviet Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bonkareva, Ella

    1992-01-01

    Describes characteristics of immigrant children from the former Soviet Union and implications of these characteristics for U.S. teachers. Considers differences between U.S. and Soviet schools in scheduling practices, bathroom routines, racial composition, meals, languages, clothing, naps, and parent/school relationships. (LB)

  16. The Food Connection: Transforming the U.S.-Soviet Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1982-01-01

    The increased dependence of the USSR on United States food exports may signal a major shift in the balance of power between the two nations. The impact of this shift on U.S.-Soviet relations, the Soviet agricultural system, and the world economic system is examined. (AM)

  17. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  18. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  19. Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreindler, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

  20. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Underground Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Elliot S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the Soviet Government's handling of two samizdat (self-publication) publications, and suggests that dissent in Russia is handled selectively and that the Soviet authorities are not interested in eliminating all dissent, only the dissent that they find challenging to their rule. (JMF)

  1. Joint Soviet-American experiment on hypokinesia: Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burovskiy, N. N.

    1979-01-01

    Comprehensive results are reported from the Soviet portion of a joint Soviet-American experiment involving hypokinesia. The main emphases are on chemical analyses of blood and urine, functional tests, and examination of the cardiovascular system by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and plethysmography.

  2. The Soviet Union and Its People. Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sherri

    This third grade teaching unit on the USSR covers an introduction to the Soviet Union and its people, its government, daily lifestyles, folk culture, and geography. Skill goals deal with telling the difference between facts and opinions, comparing cultures, and integrating and applying information from various topics about the Soviet Union to…

  3. Extraordinary Longevity in the Soviet Union: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Garson, Lea Keil

    1986-01-01

    Describes an analysis of Soviet mortality and census data from 1959 and 1970, which provides significant evidence effectively negating previous claims of extraordinary Soviet longevity. Strongly suggests that the true number of centenarians is but a small fraction of that reported. (Author/ABB)

  4. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This guide was produced to provide K-12 teachers with basic materials on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, because U.S. textbooks frequently ignore this part of the world. These units about the Soviet Union include information on geography, education, lifestyles, government, the Communist Party, economics, and religion. Suggestions for…

  5. The development of Soviet rocket engines (For strategic missiles)

    SciTech Connect

    Bolonkin, A.

    1991-01-01

    A first-hand account of developments in the Soviet rocket industry is presented. The organization and leadership of the rocket and missile industry are traced from its beginning in the 1920s. The development of the Glushko Experimental Design Bureau, where the majority of Soviet rocket engines were created, is related. The evolution of Soviet rocket engines is traced in regard to both their technical improvement and their application in missiles and space vehicles. Improved Glushko engines and specialized Isaev and Kosberg engines are discussed. The difficulties faced by the Soviet missile and space program, such as the pre-Sputnik failures, the oscillation problem of 1965/1966, which exposed a weakness in Soviet ICBM missiles, and the Nedelin disaster of 1960, which cost the lives of more than 200 scientists and engineers, as well as the Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Rocket Forces, Marshall Nedelin, are examined. 122 refs.

  6. About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war

    SciTech Connect

    MccGwire, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

  7. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  8. Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

  9. Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

  10. A social History of Soviet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilin, K. A.

    The archive includes a great number of archive materials, recollections, interviews, letters, diaries, bibliography, internet sources concerning history of bolshevik and stalinist purges against scientists in the USSR since 1917 till 1968. The archive is categorized by few divisions: scientists, university teachers, associate professors, professors, members of the Academy of Science of the USSR, Corresponding-Members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A great number of research articles and recollections by purged are included. The articles are written not only by historians of science but by scientists also. A great role by P.L. Kapitza in the saving of Soviet science from purges is underlined. The project was realized under the support by SOROS foundation (2000), Russian Foundation for fundamental Research (2002-2004) and Russian State National Foundation (2007).

  11. Soviet women and the autonomous family.

    PubMed

    Imbrogno, S; Imbrogno, N I

    1989-01-01

    "The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union." PMID:12281908

  12. [Medicine in the Soviet labor camps].

    PubMed

    Supady, J

    1998-01-01

    The existence of medical attention in Soviet labour camps was dictated not by humane reasons but by economical motives. It was just a wish to regenerate physical strength of some labour camp's slaves in order to exploit them to work out definite production as well as ideological plans. However, despite the lack of medicines, equipment, proper housing conditions and qualified staff, employed in labour camp's medical service people--doctors, hospital attendants, nurses, etc.--that were mostly recruited from amongst prisoners, showed a great deal of kindness and did their best to come to unwell and ill patients' assistance. Prisoners' lives were not uncommonly saved through exemption from work by a doctor's decision sending to hospital or transfer to another health category. In comparison with gehenna of labour camp's slave everyday life a sojourn in camp hospital seemed a paradise and a rescue from death to prisoners. PMID:10216383

  13. The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to have been asked by Louis Rosen to tell you about the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). This undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. Its purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for international collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy neutrino flux. This paper reviews this experiment. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Current Soviet exploration plays: Success and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Soviet hydrocarbon exploration in the 1980s took four distinct directions. First was extension exploration and the search for smaller new fields in discrete traps in traditional producing regions, such as the Apsheron Peninsula, North Caucasus, and Volga-Urals. This strategy produced a large number of small discoveries close to established infrastructure. Second was new field exploration in West Siberia in the stratigraphically complex Jurassic and the lower Neocomian sections. Third was expansion of the prolific gas plays in northern West Siberia. Exploratory success in West Siberia has created a backlog of several hundred discoveries awaiting full delineation and development. Most of these fields are distant from the established oil production center in the Middle Ob region and, therefore, may remain in inventory. Fourth was initial tests of new exploration frontiers, most important, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic plays of the Barents and Kara seas and the subsalt plays of the North Caspian basin. While these plays have yielded very important discoveries, significant technological barriers impede their development. The outlook for Soviet oil exploration in the 1990s is for significant opportunities for discovery of large volumes of oil, but at radically increasing exploration and production costs. In established regions, these costs arise from small field sizes and low well productivities. In frontier regions, exploitation of new fields will require technology not currently available in the USSR. The outlook for gas exploration continues to be very bright, as the onshore northern West Siberia is not fully explored and initial results from the Barents and Kara seas promise more very large gas discoveries.

  15. Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.C.

    1987-08-01

    Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.

  16. A National Anthem Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molotsky, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    Presents the story of the Star-Spangled Banner, explaining that Francis Scott Key's poem is not mere patriotic rhetoric, but is rooted in an important moment in U.S. history and in the joy that Key felt when the dawn revealed the American flag still flying over Fort McHenry following the destruction of Washington, D.C. and attack on Baltimore. (SM)

  17. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  18. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Reproduces chapter 1 ("The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy") from Ele Isaench Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Traces early history of Soviet Union. Reviews foundations of Soviet educational system, highlighting influences of Vladimir…

  19. The Kopenhagen operation of the Soviet KGB. The Kopenahagen interview of Niels Bohr by a Soviet scientist and KGB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Kozhevnikov, A. B.; Yavelov, Boris E.

    The authors describes the Soveit KGB operation of interviewing Niels Bohr by soviet scientist Yakov. P. Terletskii(1912-1993) and KGB kolonel Lev Petrovich Vasilevskii (b. 1903) on 24 september 1945-20 november 1945 concerning the American Nuclear weapons (Manhattan project)undertaken under the project of the Soviet KGB Lieder Lavrentij P. Berija and supervised by Soviet KGB generals Pavel A. Sudoplatov (b. 1907) and Nikolay S. Sazykin (1910-1985) after the detailed magnetophone interview of Professor Ya. P. Terletskij before his die in Moscow.

  20. Estimates of demand for abortion among Soviet immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, more than 185,000 Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel, increasing Israel's population by 4 percent; 148,000 more arrived in 1991. Given the fertility and abortion patterns prevailing among Soviet women in their native country, this article inquires about the short-range expected increase in abortion demand in Israel engendered by this large migratory inflow. Estimation techniques based on the abortion experience of an earlier wave of Soviet-born immigrants in Israel reveal that the increase in requests for abortion brought about by the 1990 immigrants may reach up to 14 percent, and as high as 24 percent for the combined immigration waves of 1990 and 1991. The expanded demand for abortions in Israel engendered by the new Soviet immigrants necessitates an expansion of both family planning services and of the medical committees entitled to grant a legal abortion. A failure in these fields would benefit illegal abortion. PMID:1412599

  1. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Analysis Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (Water-cooled, Water-moderated Energy Reactor). The principle objective of this undertaking is to provide a basis to better understand the safety related features of the Soviet designed VVERs to be better prepared to respond domestically in the event of an accident at such a unit. The USDOE Team's analyses are presented together with supporting and background information. The report is structured to allow the reader to develop an understanding of safety related features of Soviet designed VVERs (as well as the probable behavior of these units under a variety of off normal conditions), to understand the USDOE Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs, and to formulate informed opinions.

  2. ChE at the Erevan Polytechnic Institute Soviet Armenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanesian, Deran

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on Soviet Armenia and the Erevan Polytechnic Institute (EPI) located in this republic of the USSR. Also provides a description of chemical engineering programs and courses and faculty at the EPI. (JN)

  3. Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

  4. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  5. Soviet design for roasting zinc concentrates in a fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, M. S.; Hodov, N. V.; Serebrennikova, E. Ja.; Grinberg, A. E.; Khripin, V. D.; Doverman, A. I.

    1992-04-01

    Although many zinc plants attempt to increase a fluidized bed roaster's capacity by employing an oxygen-enriched air blast, work in the former Soviet Union shows the advantages of redesigning the roasting complex to optimize concentrate flow and process hydrodynamics. A redesigned furnace in operation for five years demonstrates, as compared to conventional Soviet furnaces, greater versatility, improved charge capacity, better heat recovery, ease of control, and operational stability.

  6. Emerging technology in the Soviet Union: Selected papers with analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on emerging Soviet technology are presented. The topics addressed are: economic considerations of emerging technology; aviation, motor, and space designs; new materials and components for IR lasers; electroslag technology for smelting high quality metals from scrap and for preparing ingots with differential properties; computer design and application in the USSR; advances in tribology: slideway design and unloading systems; analysis of emerging Soviet technology.

  7. The persistent dream - Soviet plans for manned lunar missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Abeelen, L.

    Soviet hopes of achieving the supreme space `first' were crushed in July 1969 when an American became the first human on the Moon. Following the four unsuccessful flight tests of the N1 lunar booster, the Soviet manned lunar landing effort was officially suspended, but even as the Russians were denying they had ever planned to land a cosmonaut on the moon, NPO Energia was designing craft for a long-term scientific, even semi-industrial presence on the lunar surface.

  8. Soviet short-range nuclear forces: flexible response or flexible aggression. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.R.

    1987-03-23

    This essay takes a critical look at Soviet short-range nuclear forces in an effort to identify Soviet capabilities to fight a limited nuclear war with NATO. From an analysis of Soviet military art, weapon-system capabilities and tactics, the author concludes that the Soviets have developed a viable limited-nuclear-attack option. Unless NATO reacts to this option, the limited nuclear attack may become favored Soviet option and result in the rapid defeat of NATO.

  9. Ingroup biases and the US-Soviet conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    International tension and the nuclear arms race are constant threats to human civilization, and the distrust that infects U.S.-Soviet relations has undermined the peace process. From a social-psychological viewpoint, this distrust may originate with people's tendency to derogate and stereotype the group they are in conflict with. Ingroup biases may lead to the selective processing of information according to preexisting cognitive categories and may consequently lead people to perceive and encode only that information which confirms the stereotype. In this way, people find justification for their defensive actions. These hypotheses were investigated in a survey research study, conducted with a sample of American community college adults. The results of the data analyses confirmed the hypothesis that U.S. citizens favor their country, over the Soviet Union and tend to interpret government actions in ways that preserve their positive views of the U.S. and negative views of the U.S.S.R. Americans' perceptions of the Soviets were found to influence how Soviet actions were interpreted and the interpretation of Soviet actions was related to policy support with more negative interpretations of Soviet actions being associated with greater support for the Strategic Defense Initiative and increased U.S. defense spending.

  10. Signs of a Soviet shift: conventional forces in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.V.

    1987-12-01

    What should NATO do in anticipation of a possible Soviet unilateral withdrawal of armor. As yet, only NATO Secretary General Lord Carrington and the British and West German governments seem to be taking the Soviet signals seriously. Many in NATO seem to console themselves with the hope that since Soviet unilateral reductions might jeopardize control over Eastern Europe they will never happen. That is especially inappropriate in view of domestic political, manpower, and budgetary constraints within NATO that are likely to inhibit conventional force improvements. Instead of taking refuge in denial or defensiveness, NATO could get out ahead of any Soviet initiative by proposing to eliminate NATO's battlefield nuclear weapons and constrain aircraft modernization in return for a substantial withdrawal and demobilization of Soviet armor and elimination of Soviet battlefield nuclear weapons. Or NATO might prepare to reciprocate any unilateral move by the East with a gesture of its own, for instance, withdrawing another 1000 short-range nuclear weapons from Europe or modestly reducing conventional forces and delaying some planned improvements. That would help NATO regain the political high ground. It might also give the West time to assess the military implications of various reduction schemes and prepare a negotiating position of its own. 8 references.

  11. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  12. Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

  13. Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Z. Ts.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    In the winter of 1983/1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project ``Winter in Northern Europe'' of the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP/WINE). Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron density in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratospheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during stratospheric warmings the westerly wind in wintertime becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron density and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  14. Assessment of potential Soviet responses to evolving theater nuclear systems. Master's thesis August 1986-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, R.O.

    1987-06-05

    This study focuses on the Soviet perceptions and decision-making processes that influence Soviet reaction to US initiatives in modernizing or developing theater nuclear systems. Beginning with a discussion about the consequences of previous U.S. misperceptions of Soviet intentions, the study supports the need for ongoing analysis of Soviet actions from the Soviet perspective. The Soviet view of the world is examined in terms of Marxist-Leninist ideology, Soviet fears of encirclement and invasion, and the Soviet perception of world power relationships or correlation of forces . The affect of Soviet military theory on reactions and responses to the subject of U.S. military developments is assessed, specifically in the areas of military doctrine and military science. The influence of military art is discussed with emphasis on strategy and operational art. The Party political controls on Soviet military matters are described, including a breakdown of the military decision making process. Soviet responses to U.S. nuclear weapons initiatives, including the Pershing II, Ground Launched Cruise Missile and Enhanced Radiation Weapons, are discussed in terms of military and political reactions. Soviet use of propaganda is highlighted. The importance of superiority and technology as an integral part of that superiority are examined, as is the Soviet use of technology transfer. This study hypothesizes that any Soviet reaction to U.S. action is based upon unique Soviet perceptions which are strongly influenced by Marxist-Leninist ideology, insecurity, military theory, Party bureaucracy, and world correlation of forces.

  15. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  16. Soviet policy toward male homosexuality: its origins and historical roots.

    PubMed

    Englestein, L

    1995-01-01

    Sodomy was a crime under tsarist criminal law. Having abrogated the tsarist legal codes in the name of socialist justice, the new Soviet regime did not at first impose criminal sanctions on sodomy. It was only in 1934, after Stalin had consolidated power, that an anti-sodomy statute was added to the Soviet criminal code. Although Russian radicals had never been friendly to variant sexual practices, which they viewed as the product of capitalist decadence, Soviet sexologists in the 1920s participated in the international movement for sexual reform and criminologists deplored the use of penal sanctions to censor private sexual conduct. The 1934 return to legal prosecution represented the recovery of two traditions: the radicals' disregard for issues of sexual freedom and tsarist legal custom. It was not, however, a clear reversal of the seemingly enlightened legal practice of the 1920s. This essay examines the trial of a group of homosexual men and the investigation of a lesbian couple, both from 1922, which show that Soviet courts tried to repress sexual variation even when homosexuality was not a crime. These cases and the status of homosexuality in general reflect on the murky status of the law and on the ambiguities of Soviet politics in the early years of the new regime. PMID:8666753

  17. Penetration mechanics research in the former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbell, W. M.; Anderson, C. E.; Asay, J. R.; Bless, S. J.; Grady, D. E.

    1992-09-01

    Recently published papers by scientists from the former Soviet Union reveal to Western researchers a mature body of highly inventive and dedicated research. To analyze and assess this work, a group of six internationally recognized U.S. experts in the field of penetration mechanics and hypervelocity impact reviewed hundreds of unclassified documents. Five broad, sometimes overlapping, research areas were chosen for assessment: hypervelocity impact capabilities; penetration mechanics experiments at ordnance velocities; analytical penetration mechanics; material response to high-velocity impact and penetration; and numerical simulations of penetration physics. Both similarities and differences between Soviet and Western research were noted and characterized, with particular attention paid to potential breakthrough technologies. Leading Soviet scientists and their organizations were identified, as were areas of potentially fruitful collaboration between researchers from the former Soviet Union and the United States. Soviet breakthroughs in penetration mechanics technology that far out-distanced Western efforts were not found, though potential breakthroughs were noted in several areas, including penetration models of brittle materials (principally ceramics), superdeep penetration of particles, and very-high-velocity electromagnetic launchers.

  18. Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

  19. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  20. Soviet and American ASTP crew sample candidate food items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Candidate food items being considered for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission are sampled by three ASTP crewmen in bldg 4 at JSC. They are, left to right, Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew; and Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP crew. Kubasov is marking a food rating chart on which the crewmen mark their choices, likes and dislikes of the food being sampled. Brand is drinking orange juice from an accordian-like dispenser. Leonov is eating butter cookies.

  1. World Opinion and the Soviet Satellite: A Preliminary Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    Less than two weeks after the launch of Sputnik I, the United States Information Agency conducted an informal analysis of public opinion on this subject. The analysis yielded four clear conclusions: (1) Soviet claims of scientific and technological superiority were widely accepted in the United States; (2) U.S. allies were concerned about a shift in the balance of military power; (3) the overall credibility of Soviet propaganda was greatly strengthened; and (4) American prestige was dealt a severe blow. The report also concluded that the near-hysteria in the United States in turn increased the level of concern in countries friendly to the United States. An evaluation is presented.

  2. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 88, March - April 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-03-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March-April 1987, and is No. 88 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical laser components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  3. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 64, March -April 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-03-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March-April 1983, and is No. 64 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  4. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 65, May - June 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-05-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for May-June 1983, and is No. 65 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashot pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy, beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  5. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments: January - February 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-02-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for January and February 1988, and is No. 93 in a continuing series on Soviet Laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  6. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, September-October 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-10-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for September to October 1987, and is No. 91 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  7. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 83, May - June 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-09-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for May-June 1986, and is No. 83 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  8. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 87, January - February 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-12-01

    This Soviet Laser Bibliography is no. 87 in a continuing series on Soviet Laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  9. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, no. 62, November - December 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-10-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for November-December 1982, and is No. 62 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurements of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  10. Pushkin to Shukshin: Complementary Strands in the Texture of Soviet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevin, Patricia Ernenwein

    1980-01-01

    Discusses English reading texts used in the Soviet Union, which are English translations of Russian literature. Notes that such literature divides attention between the traditional and the progressive elements of Soviet culture. (DF)

  11. Soviet Higher Education: An Alternative Construct to the Western University Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuraev, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the university was an alien establishment for Russia, reflecting the political ambition of its leadership, not the organic impetus of Russian society. In Soviet academia, the notion of university education was replaced by the concept of vocational-technical training. As a creation of the Soviet government, Soviet higher education…

  12. Teaching the Canon? Nation-Building and Post-Soviet Kazakhstan's Literature Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanova, Jazira

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses Kazakhstan's new generation literature textbooks for Kazakh-medium schools, with a focus on national identity and citizenship constructs that the revised textbooks promote. By comparing the literature textbooks of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, the paper discusses Soviet institutional and cultural legacies that continue to…

  13. Structure and Decision-Making in Soviet Education. Bulletin, 1964, No. 2. OE-14094

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudman, Herbert C.

    1964-01-01

    The study and analysis of Soviet political, social, and economic systems is as old as the Soviet Union itself, but an intensive study of its educational system is a recent development. Many scholars have turned their attention to the Soviet Union's educational system and have studied the curriculums, teaching methods, textbooks, and other…

  14. Trouble in the Backyard: Soviet Media Reporting on the Afghanistan Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of Soviet media coverage of Afghanistan from 1979 to 1986, showing that several familiar themes, from unpopular guerrillas to national security, are used to justify the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. Compares Soviet press coverage of Afghanistan with U.S. coverage of El Salvador, revealing several parallels. (ARH)

  15. Soviet Rural-Urban Integration through Mass Media Use: A Dependency Model Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Jo Ellen

    A review of policy statements made in the past 10 years in Soviet academic journals and Communist Party newspapers indicates that integrating rural and urban populations has become a concern of academics, government officials, and policymakers in the Soviet Union. One means by which the rural segment of Soviet society could be pushed or helped…

  16. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

    2010-01-01

    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  17. U.S.-Soviet Relations: Testing Gorbachev's "New Thinking." Current Policy No. 985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armacost, Michael H.

    Forty years ago, George F. Kennan advanced the doctrine of containment against Soviet encroachment throughout the world. The Soviet Union has evolved from a Eurasian land power into a global superpower. In an effort to create an international environment congenial to domestic reforms, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has sought greater tranquility…

  18. The Soviet System of Education. A PIER World Education Series Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovych, Erika; Levin-Stankevich, Brian

    This volume endeavors to provide comprehensive factual information on the Soviet system of education. Chapter 1 offers basic information on the Soviet Republics. Chapter 2 describes the foundations of Soviet Education. Chapter 3 describes preschool through upper secondary education including academic calendars and curriculum. Chapter 4,…

  19. Bacteriophages as Therapeutic and Prophylactic Means: Summary of the Soviet and Post Soviet Experiences.

    PubMed

    Chanishvili, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage (from 'bacteria' and Greek φαγεῖν phagein "to devour" or bacterial eaters) are bacterial viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Bacteriophages (shortly "phages") are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. The estimated number of phages on earth is about 1032. Bacteriophages are often isolated from environmental sources, such as water samples, etc. Felix d'Herelle, one of the discoverers of bacteriophages, was the one who suggested them for therapy of human and animal bacterial infections. This idea was very popular in the world until the advent of antibiotics commercial after which production of therapeutic phages ceased in most of the Western countries, but not in the former Soviet Union. The application of antibiotics in the clinical practice, besides the well-known side effects, entails, in addition, the appearance of the forms of bacteria, resistant to newly synthesized preparations. It was concluded that a European and global strategy to address this gap is urgently needed. Now, faced with the alarming growth of a variety of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, Western researchers and governments are giving phages a serious look. The phages nowadays are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. The therapeutic action of bacteriophages significantly differs from antibiotics, which makes them still active against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. Bacteriophages have a number of other advantages in comparison with antibiotics. First of all, they are efficient against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the past and current experiences in the field of phage therapy in the countries where it has been traditionally applied in the clinical practice. Although the style and quality of old Soviet scientific publications dedicated to phage therapy are not challenging the international standards, there is still valuable information which

  20. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  1. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  2. Drawing of American ASTP crewmen searching for Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The American Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen search the skies for the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in this humorous artwork by Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov. Astronauts Vance D. Brand, Donald K. Slayton and Thomas P. Stafford (left to right) sit astride the Apollo spacecraft and Docking Module ready to lasso Soyuz. Leonov, an accomplished artist, specializes in painting on space subjects.

  3. Higher Education Correspondence Study in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Alexander J.

    Soviet education is designed not only to produce specialists whose skills will be more useful to the State, but also to reshape the character of the person so that it is compatible with Communist ideology. The study attempts to investigate and describe the development of higher education correspondence study in the U.S.S.R. Subproblems…

  4. Soviet School Literature Teaching about World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Beatrice Beach

    1986-01-01

    This issue is a collection of recently written Russian literature commemorating the end of World War II. Included are diary excerpts, poems and photos along with suggestions for how this literature should be used in schools to help celebrate the Soviets' victory in what they term "the Great Patriotic War." (JDH)

  5. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  6. The Press of the Soviet Union: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergethon, Bruce; And Others

    Compiled in response to the need for more information on the differences between the press systems of the United States and the Soviet Union, this bibliography contains 240 entries. Consisting of newspaper articles, journal articles, books, and pamphlets, the bibliography provides an overview of the different journalistic philosophies of the two…

  7. Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kitty D.

    The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

  8. Three Historical Subcultures in Post-Soviet Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sogrin, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching and public dissemination of Russian history in post-Soviet historiography has been shaped by a variety of approaches, including state-sponsored interpretations, views expressed in mass culture, and the work of academic historians. In this article, the author employs a specific method of differentiation to distinguish his present…

  9. Planning of Map and Atlas Work in Soviet Scientific Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslova, A. V.; Kodes, I. I.

    The cartography departments of the leading Soviet libraries--the Lenin State Library of the USSR, the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, and the Library of the USSR Academy of Sciences--perform a wide range of operations on cartographic works for reader service and for the development of reference tools and techniques to be used by other…

  10. Face to Face: U.S.-Soviet Summitry. Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Allen, Ed.

    This document is the discussion guide for a four part video/print series designed to contribute to the understanding of the U.S.-Soviet relationship and the summitry process which has become such a visible part of it. Each of the four 30-minute programs interweaves archival material with informal discussions by distinguished scholars about…

  11. Perestroyka in the Soviet Union. Occasional Paper No. 128.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhmoutov, Mirza Ismail

    This document presents the point of view that although socialism has produced benefits for the USSR, Soviet society has undertaken its own radical reconstruction. History shows that the natural basis of changes in every society tends to be objective technological revolutions. The first technological revolution was agrarian. The second was…

  12. Redefining Glasnost in the Soviet Media: The Recontextualization of Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marilyn J.; Launer, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrates that a review of news coverage and an analysis of two documentary films in the context of Soviet cultural values and political stakes suggests that the rhetorical reconstruction of Chernobyl contributed to the legitimation of nuclear power and the environment as public issues. (PRA)

  13. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE SOVIET OIL/DEBRIS SKIMMER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluation of a Soviet oil skimmer was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank in 1979. The skimmer was provided by the Black Sea Central Planning and Designing Bureau, Odessa. The ...

  14. U.S.-Soviet Cooperation in Space. A Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report consists of an executive summary and five chapters. Chapter 1, an introduction, discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of cooperation in space. Chapter 2 outlines the history of United States-Soviet cooperation in space, and the policy debates which have taken place in the U.S. since the beginning of the space age. It…

  15. Operating margin of Soviet RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.M.; Robinson, G.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hochreiter, L.E. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on a coupled thermal- hydraulic analysis that is performed for the Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactor to assess the operating margin to critical heat flux (CHF); the Chernobyl-4 reactor serves as the principal model for this study. Calculations are performed using a simplified subchannel analysis. The overall analysis involves an iterative search to determine the individual subchannel flow rates, and a boiling transition analysis is performed to obtain a measure of the core operating margin. The operating margin is determined via two distinct methods. The first involves a calculation of the core critical power ratio (CPR) using an empirically derived correlation that the Soviets developed expressly for the RBMK-1000. Additionally, various subchannel CHF correlations typical of those used in the design of nuclear-powered reactors in the United States are also employed. When the Soviet critical power correlation is used, the calculations carried out for both normal operating and reference overpower conditions result in CPRs of 1.115 and 1.019, respectively. In most cases, the subchannel CHF correlations indicate that additional operating margin over that calculated by the Soviet critical power correlation exists for this design.

  16. Potential Soviet compromise on ballistic missile defense. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.P.

    1989-11-01

    The body of this research memorandum was written before the Baker-Shevardnadze meeting in Wyoming. It presented evidence suggesting that the Soviet Union might agree to a compromise at the Wyoming meeting that defers the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) negotiations to a later stage in arms reductions, thus facilitating a first-stage cut in offensive arms without an explicit Soviet endorsement of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Through this compromise, offensive arms reductions should first be delinked from an agreement on BMD, and then be relinked during the second stage of deeper cuts. Therefore, negotiations on limiting BMD systems, though deterred, are deemed inevitable if the U.S. persists in deploying a strategic defense system (SDS). Moreover, some Soviet arms controllers already look beyond the first stage to the prospect of negotiated transition into a strategic defense environment (i.e., a reliance on defensive deterrence). In this approach, Wyoming, then, was expected to be only a first move in the Soviet negotiating strategy for a grand compromise on strategic defense. As explained in the afterword added to the paper, the actual events at Wyoming seem consistent with that interpretation.

  17. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorovitch, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet…

  18. The Soviet Successor States and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This document is a guide to provide teachers and curriculum consultants with an up to date overview of the histories, cultures, and current issues concerning the region of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is not intended as an in depth study of the area or people. The guide is divided into two parts. The first discusses the Soviet…

  19. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  20. Soviet SDI Rhetoric: The "Evil Empire" Vision of Mikhail Gorbachev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Colleen E.

    The symbolic presence of Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) has been and continues to be the pivot point in all summitry rhetoric between the American President and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. To examine some of the rhetorical choices made by Gorbachev to dramatize his vision of why Ronald Reagan refuses to…

  1. Visa Problems and Study Tours of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes the "study tour of the Soviet Union," for several years a feature of the three-week interim term at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Discusses tour organization, related orientation activities and itineraries, dwelling at length on problems encountered, especially recent last-minute denials of visa to group leaders. (MES)

  2. Yessis Review of Soviet Physical Education and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yessis, Michael, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The following articles on athletics in the Soviet Union are edited and translated for American readers: (1) "Isokinetic Exercises"; (2) "Breathing During the Execution of Precise Motor Acts"; (3) "Investigation of the Running of Pre-School Age Children"; (4) "Al Feuerback and V. Voikin in the Shot Put"; (5) "The Influence of Anthropometric…

  3. U.S.-Soviet Relations. Close Up Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet, part of a video and print educational unit consisting of a student text, a teacher's guide, and four 30-minute videotapes, focuses on the U.S.-Soviet relationship, attempting to distinguish what guides each nation's actions in the world as a whole and with each other. Chapter 1, "Differing World Views," examines how differing…

  4. U.S.-Soviet Relations Teacher's Guide: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibucos, Pamela E.

    This teacher's guide provides student objectives, motivational devices, terms and concepts to know, student activities, evaluation ideas, and suggestions for using an accompanying four-part videotape series. An activity for chapter 1, "Differing World Views," divides the class into groups that list U.S.-Soviet differences in economic systems,…

  5. Detecting the Soviet bomb: Joe-1 in a rain barrel

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Lockhart, L.B.; Blifford, I.H.

    1996-11-01

    The Soviet Union made not announcement after its first atomic bomb test in 1949{endash}but the US did. This is the hitherto untold story of how the secret was extracted from rainwater. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. SOVIET POLITICAL SCHOOLS, THE COMMUNIST PARTY ADULT INSTRUCTION SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MICKIEWICZ, ELLEN PROPPER

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF SOVIET ADULT POLITICAL EDUCATION MAINLY AS IT APPLIES TO RUSSIAN URBAN AREAS, WHERE THE SYSTEM IS MOST HIGHLY DEVELOPED. THIS SYSTEM, AN AGENCY FOR TRANSMITTING POLITICAL DOCTRINE, FORMS A PART OF THE VAST NETWORK OF FORMAL POLITICAL COMMUNICATION, WHICH INCLUDES THE MASS MEDIA, AGITATION, AND COMMUNIST PARTY LEADERSHIP…

  7. American News Media and Soviet Diplomacy, 1934-41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Thomas R.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the coverage given by 35 newspapers to United States-Soviet Union relations during 1934-41 reveals that newspapers with the most interest in foreign affairs expressed the opinion that Stalin had abandoned the idea of world revolution, while those with less interest viewed him as an imperialist. (FL)

  8. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  9. Soviet Pedagogical Innovations, 1960s through 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gireva, L. D.

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes the period in Soviet Russia from the late 1950s to the early 1990s as one marked by socioeconomic change and Communist Party restructuring. Discusses the effect this turmoil had on the educational system. Reforms instituted during this time formed the basis for many of the changes implemented with perestroika. (MJP)

  10. Education in the Soviet Union: Has "Perestroika" Met Its Match?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Gerald Howard

    1989-01-01

    In late 1988, the Soviet Union's "perestroika" entered a new stage aimed at developing human resources and fostering democratic processes. Educators' and parents' discontent with the centralized bureaucracy and rigid educational administrative structure will press officials to formulate a comprehensive new education theory to achieve 19 future…

  11. Continuity and Change in Soviet Education under Gorbachev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Delbert H.

    1990-01-01

    The implications for Soviet education of "glasnost,""perestroika," and the other interrelated concepts of Gorbachev's reform program are examined. The manner in which Gorbachev's concept of restructuring has shaped the efforts of schools to promote communist ethics, the human factor, and independent thinking is considered. (SLD)

  12. Resources for Russian Education: Soviet Strategies in Historical Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examines Soviet strategies for education during its first four decades as they may be deduced from the resources put at its disposal. Despite the political importance for education and for proletarian empowerment at the workplace ("vydvizhenie"), the total enrolment ratio was only one-third higher than in the Tsarist period, although…

  13. Soviet Cinema and State Control: Lenin's Nationalization Decree Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepley, Vance, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a revisionist account of the immediate conditions and consequences of the 1919 Soviet cinema nationalization decree. Argues that nationalization was the least successful of a set of stop-gap measures; that it dispersed and diluted control; and that it actually retarded the growth of the film industry. (KEH)

  14. Analysis of VET in Ukraine Since the Soviet Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinser, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational education and training (VET) in Ukraine has changed since the Soviet era; and to determine its structure, successes, and challenges. Design/methodology/approach: The author conducted interviews and tours at 15 vocational schools in seven cities in Ukraine. Findings: Ukraine is…

  15. Glasnost and the Business Information Sector: Soviet Problems and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konn, Tania

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of glasnost on the availability of business information from the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe highlights online services.These include general information sources, specialized business services, industry-specific services, new services, and forthcoming developments. Problems in dealing with the increased availability of…

  16. How Valuable are Scientific Exchanges with the Soviet Union?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Loren R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the scope of present cooperation in science and technology between the United States and the Soviet Union. Also summarizes the most important results of the recent evaluations of the programs and suggests ways in which the programs can be made more effective. (HM)

  17. Soviet books and publications on hydrology (continental) and hydrogeology: titles and some notes on obtaining Soviet monographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.

    1966-01-01

    A common method of publication for Soviet scientists, which partly supplants periodicals, is the publication of a collection of articles on a general area of research, frequently by members of a given institution. An extensive sampling of world geologic literature for 1961 (Hawkes, 1966) showed that 33 percent of Soviet titles appeared in periodicals whereas 55 percent of North American and 70 percent of Western European literature appeared in this form. The Soviet predilection for symposia and collections of papers makes searching for information on a given subject more difficult for Westerners because the monographs in question are often not included in exchange agreements (except informal personal ones) with Western libraries and institutions, because they may be primed in small editions, and because such publications frequently escape the notice of Western abstract journals. Unless one is fortunate enough to have many personal contacts in the Soviet Union, there seems to be little alternative to at least a rudimentary knowledge of Russian in order to stay abreast of work published as monographs and in collections.

  18. The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    2000-07-26

    During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

  19. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries.

    PubMed

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. PMID:26796744

  20. The changing face of environmentalism in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Igor Izodorovich Altshuler and Ruben Artyomovich Mnatsakanyan are scientific researchers in the department of geography at Moscow State University and cofounders of the Association for the Support of Ecological initiatives established by the Soviet Foundation for Social Innovations. They authored a report on glasnost and ecology in the Soviet Union published in the December 1988 ENVIRONMENT. Recently, Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan visited ENVIRONMENT's offices in Washington, D.C., and talked at length about environmental problems and issues in the USSR. This paper presents excerpts of an interview of Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan conducted by Barbara Richman, managing editor of ENVIRONMENT. They discuss environmental problems, global climate change, agriculture, lack of information on the biggest polluters, transboundary pollution, impact of recent elections on environmental policy, the use of environmental impact assessments, public information about the environment, training of reporters, environmental organizations, and lack of money and political obstacles to environmental improvements.

  1. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  2. Nuclear energy safety challenges in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Fifteen nuclear reactors of the type that exploded at Chernobyl in April 1986 are still operating in Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. The West, concerned about safety of operations, wants these reactors shut down, but the host nations refuse. The electricity these reactors supply is nuch too important for their economies, so the argument goes. The report defines policy options and procedures to implement those options for the acceptable resolution of the nuclear power safety issues facing the former Soviet Union.

  3. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. PMID:25969502

  4. Troubled lands: The legacy of Soviet environmental destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents a picture of daily life and environmental conditions in the former Soviet Union, based on the personal contacts of the author and on local media coverage. The challenges of living with contaminated food, drinking water, land, and air are described. Also examined are developments in the region's environmental policy and politics and what the long-term effects could be. Information on environmental conditions in other regions of the world are given for comparison.

  5. THE NEW FIVE-DAY WORKWEEK IN THE SOVIET UNION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASH, EDMUND

    IT WAS ESTIMATED BY THE SOVIET PRESS THAT, AS A RESULT OF A MARCH 1967 DECREE, ABOUT 82 PERCENT OF THE COUNTRY'S 80 MILLION WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS WOULD MOVE FROM THE TRADITIONAL 6 TO THE 5-DAY WORKWEEK BY NOVEMBER OF THE SAME YEAR. UNDER CERTAIN PRODUCTION AND WORKING CONDITIONS, THE PREVIOUS PATTERN OF A 7-HOUR WEEKDAY AND A 6-HOUR SATURDAY WAS…

  6. Post-Soviet transition: improving health services delivery and management.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Joseph; Phillips, Frank; Johnson, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    During the post-Soviet transition of the last 2 decades, ex-Communist countries of the Eastern Bloc, including eastern and central Europe, the Soviet Union, and its satellite and aligned states, have undergone major health system reforms. Many health systems of those countries--previously adopting a Soviet-type Semashko model--are currently called "in transition," as reform agendas, such as shifting to a Bismarck, Beveridge, or mixed financing scheme or adopting new health delivery management policies, are still in development. In this article, we first review common characteristics of Semashko health systems (the predominant health system of Communist countries during the Soviet era) and then discuss the "new public management" principles that ex-Communist countries have recently started to adopt with various degrees of success. We then illustrate experiences with these principles using 2 case studies, from Russia and Albania, and propose health policy options for both cases. Based on a review of the literature and on the our work experience in Russia and Albania, we found that the 2 ex-Semashko systems have not fully capitalized on expected positive outcomes of new public management principles due to low local healthcare financing levels, depreciated healthcare infrastructure and operational capacities, overlapping and contradicting ideology and policies of the former and newer health systems, and finally, lack of leadership that has successful experience with these principles. In the case of pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement, and access in Russia, we show how a well-intentioned but suboptimally designed and managed pharmaceutical coverage scheme has suffered moral hazard and adverse selection and has adversely impacted the new public management promise of efficient medicine coverage. In the case of Albania, the delayed investment in human resource reform within a depreciated and underfinanced delivery system has adversely affected the implementation of new

  7. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  8. Crisis in environmental management of the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabibullov, Marat

    1991-11-01

    The prevailing system of environmental management strongly depends on the economic and political structures of a country and is influenced by the current condition of them. Environmental degradation in the Soviet Union has been caused mainly by the political and economic misconceptions listed in this article. With the transformation of its state order to the model of Western democracies, the Soviet Union is experiencing a deep economic crisis of restructuring, reflected in a parallel crisis in its system of environmental management, which is manifest in the form of rapid transformation. This is characterized by the contradiction of the state’s old administrative institutions, which still exist, with the efforts to use market mechanisms of environmental control. Such methods include various fees and payments for the use of natural resources or for pollution and creation of specialized regional funds and banks to finance environmental programs. All these occur in the context of the strengthening of regional sovereignty, the introduction of self-accounting for economic units, the adoption of comprehensive legal enactments, and the setting up of an efficient administrative system of their enforcement. Public activism, as one of the principal actors in this structure, also has undergone quick maturation. Nevertheless the future development of the new Soviet system of environmental control remains uncertain because of the present unpredictability of the overall situation in the short run.

  9. Globalization, marine regime shifts and the Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Österblom, Henrik; Folke, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts have been observed in marine ecosystems around the world, with climate and fishing suggested as major drivers of such shifts. The global and regional dynamics of the climate system have been studied in this context, and efforts to develop an analogous understanding of fishing activities are developing. Here, we investigate the timing of pelagic marine regime shifts in relation to the emergence of regional and global fishing activities of the Soviet Union. Our investigation of official catch statistics reflects that the Soviet Union was a major fishing actor in all large marine ecosystems where regime shifts have been documented, including in ecosystems where overfishing has been established as a key driver of these changes (in the Baltic and Black Seas and the Scotian Shelf). Globalization of Soviet Union fishing activities pushed exploitation to radically new levels and triggered regional and global governance responses for improved management. Since then, exploitation levels have remained and increased with new actors involved. Based on our exploratory work, we propose that a deeper understanding of the role of global fishing actors is central for improved management of marine ecosystems.

  10. Soviet exploitation of the nuclear winter hypothesis. Technical report, 8 May 1984-4 June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-05

    This study, which is based entirely on open Soviet sources, examines and analyzes Soviet views on and uses made by Soviet scientists of the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. In particular, the study seeks to ascertain whether Soviet scientists have in fact independently confirmed the TTAPS prediction of a Nuclear Winter phenomenon or have contributed independent data or scenarios to it. The findings of the study are that the Soviets view the Nuclear Winter hypothesis as a political and propaganda opportunity to influence Western scientific and public opinion and to restrain U.S. defense programs. Analysis of Soviet publications shows that, in fact, Soviet scientists have made no independent or new contributions to the study of the Nuclear Winter phenomenon, but have uncritically made use of the worst-case scenarios, parameters, and values published in the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio 1982) and the TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies, as well as models of atmospheric circulation borrowed from Western sources. Furthermore, current Soviet directives to scientists call for work on the further strengthening of the Soviet Union's military might, while it is also explained that the dire predictions of the possible consequences of a nuclear war in no way diminish the utility of the Soviet civil defense program and the need for its further improvement.

  11. American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

  12. The Soviet Far East military buildup: Nuclear dilemmas and Asian security

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, R.H.; Kosaka, M.

    1986-01-01

    The growing nuclearization of the Soviet military presence in the Far East has been of increasing concern to the United States and its Asian-Pacific allies. This volume brings together the diverse perspectives of multinational groups of defense and foreign policy experts associated with the Security Conference on Asia and the Pacific. Topics considered include the problems of coalition defense; strategic issues for the Soviet Union; motives and prospects; thinking about the nuclear balance; Soviet military deployments: Implications for China's security; the Soviet military buildup in Japan; theater nuclear weapons and Japan's defense policy; the Soviet military buildup in the Far East and South Korea; ANZAC perspectives on Soviet power in the Pacific; prospects for a new Korean War; Indochina, 1982-1985; links between Asian and European security; The European theater nuclear force; and European and Japanese Experiences.

  13. The Difficult Road to Mars: A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perminov, V. G.

    1999-01-01

    Perminov was the leading designer for Mars and Venus spacecraft at the Soviet Lavochkin design bureau in the early days of Martian exploration. In addition to competing with the U.S. to get to the Moon, the Soviets also struggled to beat the U.S. to Mars during the Cold War. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets attempted to send a number of robotic probes to Mars, but for a variety of reasons, most of these missions ended in failure. Despite these overall failures, the Soviets garnered a great deal of scientific and technical knowledge through these efforts. This monograph tells some fascinating, but little-known, stories.

  14. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  15. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations. PMID:21485454

  16. The political economy of oil in post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarova, Saule Tarikhovna

    This dissertation examines the way in which the Kazakhstani state redefined its role in managing oil and gas resources between 1992 and 1998. The governments of hydrocarbon-rich post-Soviet republics such as Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan faced the common challenge of restructuring their petroleum industries to boost the export of oil and gas. This study argues that by 1998 three patterns have emerged, ranging from a more radical state retrenchment in Russia, to reinforced state monopoly in Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, to a "mixed" pattern of state participation in Kazakhstan, consisting of both large-scale privatization of oil assets and the formation of a fully state-owned national oil company, Kazakhoil. This dissertation analyzes the process of restructuring Kazakhstan's oil sector through comparison with the Russian petroleum industry. In Russia, several private, vertically integrated oil companies (VICs) were formed on the basis of existing oil-producing units and soon emerged as essential players in the Russian oil sector. By contrast, Kazakhstan's marginalized status within the Soviet system of oil production resulted in the absence of organizationally strong sectoral interests capable of claiming control over the industry after the independence. Privatization of Kazakhstan's oil enterprises, conducted by the government in spite of the resistance from local oil managers, transferred controlling stakes to foreign investors and further weakened domestic oil interests. Unencumbered state autonomy allowed the increasingly authoritarian Kazakhstani government to adopt relatively modern and investor-friendly petroleum legislation by decree. In Russia, the government's efforts to reform oil-related legislation were blocked by the leftist-dominated Duma, the democratically elected lower chamber of the Russian parliament. On the basis of these findings, this dissertation concludes that the dynamics of state withdrawal from the oil sector in post-Soviet

  17. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, March-April 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March to April 1988. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear; optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography, laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  18. High-Energy Astrophysics. American and Soviet Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, Walter H. G. (Editor); Clark, George W. (Editor); Sunyaev, Rashid A. (Editor); Trivers, Kathleen Kearney (Editor); Abramson, David M. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the American-Soviet high energy astrophysics workshop, which was held at the Institute for Space Research in Moscow and the Abastumani Laboratory and Observatory in the republic of Georgia from June 18 to July 1, 1989, is presented. Topics discussed at the workshop include the inflationary universe; the large scale structure of the universe, the diffuse x-ray background; gravitational lenses, quasars, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs); infrared galaxies (results from IRAS); Supernova 1987A; millisecond radio pulsars; quasi-periodic oscillations in the x-ray flux of low mass X-ray binaries; and gamma ray bursts.

  19. First results from the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, A.I.; Abdurashitov, D.N.; Anosov, O.L.; Eroshkina, L.A.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mezentseva, S.A.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.I.; Petukhov, V.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Revzin, N.Y.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zakharov, Y.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhandarov, V.I. . Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij); Bowl

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment is the first experiment able to measure the dominant flux of low energy p-p solar neutrinos. Four extractions made during January to May 1990 from 30 tons of gallium have been counted and indicate that the flux is consistent with 0 SNU and is less than 72 SNU (68% CL) and less than 138 SNU (95% CL). This is to be compared with the flux of 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The current family planning debate in Soviet Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Watters, K

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the debate that occurred in the press of the Soviet Central Asian republics during 1988 and 1989 on the issue of family planning. The author identifies three basic opinion groups, those in favor of family planning, those in favor of family planning with certain reservations, and those opposed to family planning. The role this debate has played in bringing into the open a number of political, cultural, economic, and social issues, together with data to support the positions taken that are now possible with glasnost, is noted. PMID:12343037

  1. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra

    2012-02-01

    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  2. Impact of GRM: New evidence from the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity information released by the Soviet Union allows the quantitative assessment of how the geopotential research mission (GRM) mission might effect the ability to use global gravity data for continental tectonic interpretation. The information is of an isostatic response spectra for eight individual tectonic units in the USSR. The regions examined include the Caroathians, Caucasus, Urals, Pamirs, Tien-Shan, Altal, Chersky Ridge, and East Siberian Platform. The 1 deg x 1 deg gravity data are used to calculate the admittances are used in two different sorts of tectonic studies of mountain belts in the USSR: (1) interpretation of isostatic responses in terms of plate models of compensation for mountainous terrain. Using geologic information concerning time of the orogeny, lithospheric plates involved, and polarity of subduction in collision zones, they convert the best-fitting flexural rigidity to an elastic plate thickness for the lithospheric plate inferred to underlie the mountains; the isostatic admittance functions is an attempt to directly model gravity and topography data for a few select regions in the Soviet Union. By knowing the value of the expected correlation between topography and gravity from the admittances, the Artemjev's map in mountainous areas can be calibrated, and the maps are converted back to Bouguer gravity. This procedure is applied to the Caucasus and southern Urals.

  3. Health world views of post-Soviet citizens.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Pamela A; Turmov, Sergei; Wallace, Claire

    2006-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union has had an adverse impact on the lives of the peoples of Russia and Ukraine. This paper reports on qualitative case studies including interviews, focus groups and children's essays from Russia and Ukraine, on the topics of everyday understanding of health and the factors influencing it. The majority report poor health and difficult material circumstances. Their understandings of health and illness are multifactorial and include emotional as well as descriptive elements. Whilst the most frequently cited definition of health is of people with/without health problems, it is evident that health is seen positively, as more than the absence of debilitating illness. There is a strong emphasis on individual responsibility for health and evidence that people are thought to have a moral responsibility to strive to be healthy. However, there is also a strong awareness that the major factors which cause ill health are beyond their control. The findings provide additional support for the health lifestyles theory that has been developed to provide a sociological understanding of the mortality crisis in the former Soviet Union. PMID:16005557

  4. The joint Austro-Soviet space project AUSTROMIR-91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedler, W.

    1993-03-01

    After more than 20 years of successful cooperation between Austria and the Soviet Union in the field of unmanned space research, an Austrian cosmonaut Franz Viehbock was launched on 2 October 1991 from Baikonur for a 1-week's stay at the Space Station Mir, thus highlighting this very efficient joint research work. For this flight, out of 34 scientific experiments 14 could be chosen to be performed by the cosmonaut, mainly in the field of life sciences, but also in physics, material science and remote sensing. All of them performed extremely well and the mission can be considered a full success. While final analysis is still underway, preliminary data to be reported in subsequent papers show very interesting results. The responsibility for this project was with the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Research, Vienna, which entrusted the Joanneum Research, Graz, with the full operational and technical management, as far as the Austrian side was concerned. The cooperation with the Soviet scientists and engineers was an extremely cordial and efficient one, a fact which - along with the outstanding performance of the crew - contributed very much to the success of the mission.

  5. Policy and Model Analysis: The Case of Soviet Immigrant Teacher Re-Training in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geva-May, Iris

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates the largely successful retraining program for immigrant science teachers from the former Soviet Union to Israel in 1990-91 following the mass Soviet immigration. A list of policy recommendations is offered. The retraining considerations and models from this study might be applied in other countries experiencing major social changes. (SLD)

  6. News Media Use and Adolescents, Information about Nuclear Issues: A Soviet-American Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyenkov, Vladimir; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the extent of teenagers' news media exposure in the Soviet Union and America and its apparent impact on their information about nuclear issues. Finds that the Soviet teenagers were much more knowledgeable than American students about issues having to do with nuclear war. (MS)

  7. News Media Use and Adolescents' Attitudes about Nuclear Issues: An American-Soviet Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, John P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines linkages between media use and attitudes from a survey of Soviet and American teenagers. Finds that all youths show a great concern about the possible effects of nuclear war, with heavy media users in both countries more optimistic, but the relation was stronger among Soviet students. (MS)

  8. The Evolving Soviet Approach to Human Rights. Current Policy No. 929.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Warren

    The Soviet Union (USSR) is a different place from what it was two years ago. The essential nature of these differences is, however, not obvious and the picture remains mixed. Recent developments involving political prisoners, freedom to travel and emigrate, broadcast jamming, and Czechoslovak relations seem to indicate that the Soviet society is…

  9. American and Soviet Adolescent Archetypal Heroes of the Cold War. Professional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    This study explores the value-oriented behaviors associated with membership in prominent youth organizations in the Soviet Union and the United States of America during the Cold War. The archetypal heroic ideals and values of the Soviet Octoberists and Pioneers and the U.S. Boy Scout and Girl Scout organizations were examined. Key political,…

  10. Shaping Science and Math Curriculum in the Age of Glasnost: Reports from Soviet Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoloff, David L.

    This paper describes the changes in the science and mathematics curriculum in Soviet classrooms since the 1984 reforms and the "glasnostic" climate. The first section discusses the trends in Soviet education including the humanist, national, moral and materialistic trends. The second section examines variations in the science curriculum since the…

  11. Making a New and Pliable Professor: American and Soviet Transformations in German Universities, 1945-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the history of American and Soviet transformations in German universities during the period of the Cold War, 1945-1990. Both American and Soviet policies were resisted by the university community, particularly by the conservative German professoriate, in both parts of the divided Germany. The article shows how and why both…

  12. Soviet Education Programs: Foundations; Curriculums, Teacher Preparation. Bulletin, 1960, No. 17. OE-14037. [Chapter V - Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, William K.; Lindquist, Clarence B.; Schmitt, Marshall L.

    1960-01-01

    The continuing interest which American educators and other citizens have attached to Soviet schools and their development has served to encourage the U.S. Office of Education in its efforts to provide the most complete and verified information obtainable on the subject. As expressed in "Soviet Commitment to Education, Report of the First Official…

  13. Soviet Education Programs: Foundations; Curriculums, Teacher Preparation. Bulletin, 1960, No. 17. OE-14037. [Foreword - Chapter II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, William K.; Lindquist, Clarence B.; Schmitt, Marshall L.

    1960-01-01

    The continuing interest which American educators and other citizens have attached to Soviet schools and their development has served to encourage the U.S. Office of Education in its efforts to provide the most complete and verified information obtainable on the subject. As expressed in "Soviet Commitment to Education, Report of the First Official…

  14. The Soviet political campaign against the U. S. Strategic Defense Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis of this dissertation is that the Soviet political campaign against the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is designed to prevent the United States from deploying a ballistic missile defense (BMD) system capable of reducing the imbalance in U.S.-Soviet strategic nuclear force (SNF) vulnerabilities. The thesis is examined in two parts: (1) background on Soviet capabilities for political operations; and (2) the political campaign against SDI. The preferred Soviet objective in opposing SDI has remained for the U.S. to reach a decision on its own to suspend deployment of BMD, and to restrict and reduce the SDI research and development program. Soviet arms control proposals on SDI that asymmetrically affect U.S. and Soviet strategic defense programs are examined. U.S. concessions to extreme Soviet proposals have altered the original rationale for SDI. Rather than being a non-negotiable instrument to bring about a defense-dominant deterrence regime, SDI subsequently became insurance, after an agreement has been reached on reducing or eliminating ballistic missiles, against accidental or unauthorized launches. Finally, two case studies that impact SDI are examined. Soviet efforts to use the ABM Treaty interpretation dispute and violations issues to its advantage against SDI are considered.

  15. Soviet Applications of Microcomputers in Education: Developments in Research and Practice during the Gorbachev Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Stephen T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the current plan to introduce computer literacy into Soviet schools; examines the resources needed (hardware, software, personnel) to carry out the plan; examines the directions Soviet research on educational applications of computers is likely to take; and looks at factors that may influence the success of the program. (EM)

  16. Updating Teaching Lessons on the Soviet Union: Entering the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Explains how social studies teachers can help students understand perestroika, glasnost, and other current events in the Soviet Union. Describes strategies that teach how to analyze periodical and newspaper articles dealing with the Soviet Union. Lists resource materials for updating information on the USSR. Outlines a sample lesson on the 1989…

  17. The U.S.-Soviet Relationship: Time to Come in from the Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    1989-01-01

    Students are often served up a "simplistic stew" that reinforces news media and political pronouncements about the Soviet Union. It's time to remove the "enemy" label and build positively on American and Soviet shared humanity by providing accurate information about both countries. Includes one reference. (MLH)

  18. Sets of Mathematics Teaching Aids. Soviet Studies in Mathematics Education. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonovskii, M. Ya; And Others

    This is volume 1 of the series of translations of books from the Soviet literature on research in the psychology of mathematics instruction and on teaching methods influenced by the research. An introduction on Soviet education and mathematics education is provided. The purposes of this volume are to show how instructional media should be…

  19. The Presentation of American Cultural Events in the Soviet Press (1977-1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Katherine A.

    A content analysis of selected Soviet newspapers and magazines was conducted to examine what cultural events from the United States were featured in the Soviet press, whether the event or artist was presented favorably or unfavorably, and whether the stories were used to make an ideological statement. Nine publications were examined over a…

  20. Calculations of upper-mantle velocity from published Soviet earthquake data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriquez, Robert G.

    1965-01-01

    The lack of information on mantle velocities and crustal structure of the U.S.S.R. has led to a preliminary examination of published Soviet earthquake bulletins in the hope of deriving useful velocity and structure information from the data they contain. Mantle velocities deduced from earthquake data on several Russian earthquakes are in excellent agreement with results of Soviet deep seismic sounding.

  1. The "New Russian Literature" and Soviet Literature in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekic, Maria

    It is widely believed that poetry in the Soviet Union has lost its place to newspapers and periodicals that have robbed literature of its readers. Prior to glasnost, non-official literature in the Soviet Union was more than a literary event; it was often the only mode of political discourse available to the literate public. This paper suggests…

  2. Russia and the Other Former Soviet Republics in Transition. An Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Brown, Christopher; Johnson-White, Julia; Moffitt, Louisa; Papp, Daniel

    This instructional guide is intended to be used with the six-part videotape "Russia and the Other Former Soviet Republics in Transition." The guide comprises essays that provide critical background information needed to understand the issues and events under discussion, which are the new countries that have grown out of the former Soviet Union;…

  3. Multilingualism in Post-Soviet Countries: Language Revival, Language Removal, and Sociolinguistic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Since the post-Soviet context is not particularly well known to the majority of readers, the author uses this introduction to provide a general background against which developments in particular post-Soviet countries can be better understood. The author begins by placing these developments in the sociohistoric context of language policies of the…

  4. Getting Acquainted: Thinking about the Soviet Union. Elementary Teaching Activities: Days of Dialogue, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Charlotte; And Others

    This guide is designed to replace the ignorance, misinformation, and negative stereotypes that many students hold about the Soviet Union and its peoples with a reasoned and rational outlook based on critical thinking and class activities. The introduction to these activities provides background and a rationale for teaching about the Soviet Union.…

  5. Soviet Anti-Poverty Policy 1955-1975. Discussion Papers 402-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alastair

    This paper assesses the nature and extent of poverty in the USSR in the post-Stalin period, primarily in the decade after 1958. The author describes Soviet anti-poverty policies and discusses their impact. He notes that the Soviet government's ability to influence economic welfare and income distribution lies in its control over wage and salary…

  6. Physiological-behavioral coupling research in the Soviet science of higher nervous activity: a visitation report.

    PubMed

    Ray, R D

    1977-01-01

    Behavioral research paradigms presently used by Soviet scientists to explore relations between behavioral and physiological activities are discussed. Each laboratory represented was physically visited by the author during a six month exhange visit to the Soviet Union. Research ranging from central concommitants of language and meaning to biofeedback and peripheral autonomic functions are described. PMID:854371

  7. Eastern Europe: Former Soviet Union, Humpty Dumpty still on its fall. [Petroleum and natural gas exploration and development in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Khartukov, E.M. ); Vinogradova, O.V.

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews the oil and gas exploration and development activities in the former Soviet Union on a republic by republic basis. It gives figures on new well drilling activities (footage and numbers of new wells), locations of this activity, and production. The paper concentrates on the effects of the Soviet Union break-up on the availability of supplies and markets and the associated logistical headaches which resulted. The paper also briefly discusses activities in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, and Slovenia.

  8. Energy in Soviet Policy. A study of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Different estimates of future Soviet oil production are examined. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is generally viewed as having the most-pessimistic assessment, foreseeing a gradual decline. If the CIA is correct, Soviet-bloc countries may become net energy importers later in this decade. The added pressure on world oil prices could then increase our own inflationary problems. Reduced Soviet energy production may lessen its hold on eastern Europe and heighten its interest in Middle Eastern supplies. At the optimistic extreme, the Economic Commission of Europe foresees steady or possibly somewhat increased Soviet oil production throughout the 80s. If the Commission is correct, the US will face another set of challenges and opportunities. The Soviets would not add to existing demand on the world petroleum market, but an exportable surplus of oil and gas could give them a powerful diplomatic tool. 22 references. (DCK)

  9. Anti-Soviet ideology, trade goals at odds on Russian pipeline deal

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, C.

    1981-08-22

    US foreign policy opposes a Soviet-European natural gas pipeline that will increase European dependence on Soviet energy at the same time the US is approving the sale of Caterpillar pipelayers to the Soviet Union. The contradiction illustrates the complexities of using export controls to achieve foreign policy goals. Europeans do not share US concerns that the Soviet Union will compete for Persian Gulf oil if it sells its domestic gas or that Soviet energy supplies and economic ties will make Europe more vulnerable. Influencing the policy debate are hardliners who want to freeze East-West economic relations and moderates who argue that the US will only strain its relationships with Europe by opposing the Yamal pipeline. (DCK)

  10. Technology and society: ideological implications of information and computer technologies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Weigle, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the impact of technology on the USSR's social system from the perspective of Soviet ideological development. The analysis of information and computer technologies within this framework de-emphasizes both modernization theories and those that assume unchallenged Communist Party control over technological development. Previous studies have examined the level of Soviet technological achievements and the gap between this level and those in the West, many referring to ideological boundaries of Soviet technological development without, however, systematically analyzing the resulting implications for the Soviet ideology of Marxism-Leninism. This study develops a framework for analyzing the impact of new technologies in the USSR in the fields of technology, ideology, and the scientific and technological revolution. On the basis of this framework, examination turns to the relevant Soviet theoretical and technical literature and debates among Soviety elites, concluding that the introduction of information and computer technologies and the organization of computer networks has exacerbated tensions in Soviety Marxism-Leninism.

  11. Soviet objectives in the INF negotiations and European security. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgardner, H.J.

    1987-12-01

    On 12 December 1979, NATO officials announced the decision to deploy 108 Pershing II nuclear missiles and 464 Ground Launched Cruise Missiles, in response to the Soviet deployment of SS-20 nuclear missiles. The NATO decision was met by a determined Soviet effort to prevent the deployment of the new missiles. The Soviet effort consisted of negotiations, diplomatic propaganda, and covert measures. When it was clear that the deployment was not going to be stopped, the Soviets agreed to formal INF arms-reduction talks. It is this author's opinion that the Soviet negotiation tactics, during the INF talks, supported the long-range goal of reducing the military effectiveness of NATO, and also supported the goal of reducing U.S. influence in Europe.

  12. Hostage to revolution: Gorbachev and Soviet Security Policy 1985-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Blacker, C.D.

    1993-12-31

    The authors analysis is based on three major propositions: (1) that the urgent need to revitalize the Soviet economy led Gorbachev to reappraise Soviet security requirements and to seek far-reaching reforms in both military doctrine and the armed forces; (2) that the scope of and nature of the domestic change proposed by Gorbachev could only be undertaken without endangering Soviet security by containing the political and military rivalry with the West: and (3) that Gorbachev and his reforms fell victim to the failure of perestroika to spark an economic recovery and to the increasing radicalization of the soviet domestic political scene. The forces of reform that Gorbachev unleased failed to spark the Soviet Unions` economic recovery but did insure its collapse.

  13. Soviet perceptions of the oil factor in U. S. foreign policy: The Middle East-Gulf Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    How Soviet leaders perceive U.S. intentions, capabilities, and actions plays an important role in the formulation of the Soviet Union's foreign policy and its relations with the United States. This book focuses on one such set of Soviet perceptions - how the oil factor and subsequent developments have influenced U.S. policy in the Middle East-Gulf region and what the implications of that policy are for the Soviet Union.

  14. Student Video Stimulus and Changing Images of the Soviet Union: An Experimental Pilot Study of Video in Teaching International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, William J.

    1978-01-01

    In an experiment on the effects of video in teaching international relations, two classes were given video stimuli related to the Soviet Union and one class was given none. Findings indicate that exposure to video stimulus produced strong attitude change toward the Soviet Union and ability to understand and express Soviet perspectives. (Author/DB)

  15. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  16. Space radiation dosimetry on US and Soviet manned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Benton, E. V.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation measurements obtained on board U.S. and Soviet spacecraft are presented and discussed. A considerable amount of data has now been collected and analyzed from measurements with a variety of detector types in low-Earth orbit. The objectives of these measurements have been to investigate the dose and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra within the complex shielding of large spacecraft. The shielding modifies the external radiation (trapped protons, electrons, cosmic ray nuclei) which, in turn, is quite dependent on orbital parameters (altitude, inclination). For manned flights, these measurements provide a crew exposure record and a data base for future spacecraft design and flight planning. For the scientific community they provide useful information for planning and analyzing data from experiments with high sensitivity to radiation. In this paper, results of measurements by both passive and active detectors are described. High-LET spectra measurements were obtained by means of plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's) while thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) measured the dose.

  17. Astronomy and astronomical education in the FSU (Former Soviet Union)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, Nikolai G.

    The current situation in astronomy and astronomical education over the territory of the Former Soviet Union is traced. New facilities for radioastronomy are being put into work - the most important of them being the 2 coupled 32-m dishes, VLBI network "Quasar"; a number of observatories are acquiring an international status (in the frame of CIS); INTERNET is becoming available for an increasing number of astronomical institutions. Azerbaijan astronomers have overcome their isolation from the rest of the world and cooperate actively with the astronomical community. All-Russia and international olympics in astronomy for high school students are held and attract participants from increasing number of regions of Russia and other states. The outcome of the 9th JENAM in Moscow and of the events attached to the Meeting is presented.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations based on Soviet design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of several missile concepts are examined. The configurations, which are based on some typical Soviet design concepts, include fixed-wing missiles with either forward- or aft-tail controls, and wing-control missiles with fixed aft stabilizing surfaces. The conceptual missions include air-to-air, surface-to-air, air-to-surface, and surface-to-surface. Analytical and experimental results indicate that through the proper shaping and location of components, and through the exploitation of local flow fields, the concepts provide generally good stability characteristics, high control effectiveness, and low control hinge moments. In addition, in the case of some cruise-type missions, there are indications of the application of area ruling as a means of improving the aerodynamic efficiency. In general, a point-design philosophy is indicated whereby a particular configuration is developed for performing a particular mission.

  19. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  20. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs.

  1. The Soviet-American gallium experiment at Baksan

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, A. I.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Anosov, O. L.; Danshin, S. N.; Eroshkina, L. A.; Faizov, E. L.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Knodel, T. V.; Knyshenko, I. I.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Mezentseva, S. A.; Mirmov, I. N.; Ostrinsky, A. I.; Petukhov, V. V; Pshukov, A. M.; Revzin, N. Ye; Shikhin, A. A.; Slyusareva, Ye. D.; Timofeyev, P. V.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Vermul, V. M.; Yantz, V. E.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zhandarov, V. I.

    1990-01-01

    A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to the full range of the solar neutrino spectrum, including the low-energy neutrinos from the fundamental proton-proton fusion reaction. If neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed {sup 8}B flux measured by the Homestake {sup 37}Cl experiment and the Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector, then a comparison of the gallium, chlorine, and water results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 30-ton gallium detector is currently operating in the Baksan laboratory in the Soviet Union, with a ratio of expected solar signal to measured background (during the first one to two {sup 71}Ge half lives) of approximately one. 28 refs.

  2. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former

  3. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  4. Climate and the Soviet Grain Crisis of 1928

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation tests the premise that peasant hoarding of surplus grain supplies and the refusal of the rural Soviet peasants to sell grain to state procurement apparatus during the late New Economic Policy period, caused the Grain Crisis of 1928. The peasants' reluctance to sell grain and claims of peasant hoarding could only occur if sufficient grain surpluses existed during this period. The existence of these assumed grain surpluses is shown to be highly improbable. First, the large but inconsistent body of 1920s grain statistics was evaluated per se and related to two periods of pre-WWI data, the Witte and Stolypin years, on a practical comparison whenever possible. For both these pre-World War I periods, intensive links between rapid industrialization and agriculture had been established similar to the conditions of the 1920s. The climatic conditions of the two imperial and one Soviet period in the 1920s, especially drought in 1927, was analyzed, and its impact on grain production estimated and interpreted. The conclusion was reached that the cause of drop in grain production in 1927 was due to a long-term and persistent trend of regional drought affecting spring wheat yields, especially in the areas of the Middle Volga and Kazakhstan. Second, the resultant conclusion was reached that there was insufficient bread grain on a national basis in 1927 to meet the essential needs of the rural peasants, much less the increasing demands of the government procurements. Third, the government's 1927 policy of monopolizing all available "surpluses" on the grain market under the false assumption that these surpluses were abundant, demonstrated either naivete and incompetence, or political expediency. This monopolization contributed to a breakdown in the marketing distribution of available grain, and generally exacerbated the poor procurement situation which was publically and incorrectly blamed on the peasants' hoarding.

  5. Seismic Source Characteristics of Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. R.; Kitov, I. O.; Barker, B. W.; Sultanov, D. D.

    - During the period 1965 to 1988, the former Soviet Union (FSU) conducted over 120 peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) at locations widely dispersed throughout the territories of the FSU. These explosions sample a much wider range of source conditions than do the historical explosions at the known nuclear test sites and, therefore, seismic data recorded from these PNE tests provide a unique resource for use in deriving improved quantitative bounds on the ranges of seismic signal characteristics which may require consideration in global monitoring of the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In this paper we summarize the results of a detailed statistical analysis of broadband seismic data recorded at the Borovoye Geophysical Observatory from 21 of these PNE tests at regional distances extending from about 7 to 19 degrees, as well as the results of theoretical waveform simulation analyses of near-regional (Δ<25km) seismic data observed from a selected sample of nine of these PNE tests. The results of these analyses have been found to be consistent with those of previous teleseismic investigations in that they indicate that the seismic source coupling efficiencies are very similar for explosions in a wide variety of hardrock and water-saturated media, while explosions in water-saturated clay are observed to have significantly higher coupling efficiencies. Moreover, the scaling of the seismic source function with explosion yield and depth of burial inferred from these analyses of the Soviet PNE data are shown to be generally consistent with the predictions of the Mueller/Murphy source model. These results suggest that the Mueller/Murphy source model can provide a reasonable basis for estimating the expected variation in regional phase spectral composition over a wide range of nuclear source conditions of potential interest in CTBT monitoring.

  6. Recent trends of the population in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Kono, S

    1990-10-01

    The author, who attended a UN seminar held in the USSR, reports on the recent trends of population dynamics in the host country, the 3rd most populous nation in the world. In 1989, the USSR's population was 286.72 million, up from 262.44 million in 1979. 51.4% of the population lives in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, an intriguing fact considering that there are a total of 15 republics in the USSR. Moreover, 3 republics (Russia, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia) account for 73.2% of the country's total population. The author questions reports that the Ukraine is seeking independence, noting the similarity in ethnicity and language between the Ukrainians and Russians. However, the author acknowledges cultural differences between Russia and the Baltic republics (latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia). Differences also exist between republics concerning fertility rates. While Russia, Byelorussia, and the Baltic states have a total fertility of 2.1 (net replacement fertility), minority republics in the southern region have dramatically higher fertility rates: 5.5 for Tajik, 4.7 for Uzbek and Turkemia, and 4.1 in Kyrgyz. Another significant fact of the USSR's population dynamics is its stagnant, or even retarded, life expectancy. Between 1960-70, life expectancy was 64.4 for men and 73.4 for women. Between 1979-80, these figures dropped to 62.2 and 72.5, respectively. They somewhat recovered during 1985-86, increasing to 64.2 for men and 73.3 for women. Throughout the USSR, but especially in Russia, there is a wide disparity in the life expectancy between men and women (as high as 11.5 years in Russia from (1979-80). In his visit, the author found that Soviet demographers and statisticians spoke candidly and openly, reflecting the changes brought about by perestroika and glasnost. PMID:12316754

  7. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    SciTech Connect

    Trifan, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  8. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  9. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

  10. Soviet Integration into the World Economy. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Since coming to power, Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has undertaken an ambitious program to reform the Soviet economy. Perestroika touches every aspect of Soviet economic life, including relations with the international economy. Soviet specialists and international economists must find common ground so that they can successfully…

  11. Large oil resource awaits exploitation in former Soviet Union's Muslim republics

    SciTech Connect

    Riva, J.P. Jr. )

    1993-01-04

    Throughout the dramatic breakup of the Soviet Union, most of the attention was focused on the Russian federation. This paper reports that less notice was paid to the republics of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, and Tadzhikistan that are located along the Soviet southern fringe. This region was known as the Northern Tier (of the Middle East) when the six republics were forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union by the Red Army after the revolution. The Russians were considered colonial rulers by the inhabitants of these Muslim states, whereas the Azeris, Turkmen, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Tajiks, Kyrgyzs, etc., were often regarded as backward by the Russians and given little autonomy. The Soviets, while proclaiming their efforts to improve public health and protect nature, relentlessly degraded both.

  12. Space activities in the Soviet Union, Japan, and the People's Republic of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezell, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    The space programs of the Soviet Union, Japan, and China are discussed. The types of launch vehicles they used and the classes of spacecraft they launched are examined. The political motivations of these nations are analyzed.

  13. [Analysis of patenting vaccine-serum preparations in the Soviet Union].

    PubMed

    Shepelev, N P; Dzagurov, S G; Korovkin, V I

    1976-11-01

    Patenting practice of vaccine-serum preparations in the Soviet Union is not uniform. A compelx maintenance of the object, i.e. patenting of the preparation proper and the method of its production is of interest. PMID:1007724

  14. Mutations in Soviet public health science: post-Lysenko medical genetics, 1969-1991.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This paper traces the integration of human genetics with Soviet public health science after the Lysenko era. For nearly three decades, USSR biology pursued its own version of anti-bourgeois, Soviet 'creative Darwinism', departing from western, post-WWII scientific developments. After Lysenko was suspended, research niches of immunology, biophysics and mutation research formed the basis of new departments at the Institute of Medical Genetics, which was founded in 1969 as part of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Focussing on early research activities and collaborations at the institute, I show how the concept of mutagenesis, a pivotal issue during the Cold War, became mobilized from Drosophila genetics to human heredity and to society as a whole. This mode of scaling up and down through population studies shaped not only Soviet human biology and genetics; it also brought about changes in clinical practice and public health as well as in the monitoring and regulation of mutagenic agents in the environment. PMID:24947269

  15. Observations of the snow cover in the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefedeva, Y. A.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the snow cover, as a function of various natural factors, in sectors of the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic were examined. The thawing process is also discussed.

  16. Soviet perceptions of the oil factor in US foreign policy: the Middle East-Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this book is to understand Moscow's convictions regarding recent events in the Middle East-Persian Gulf region and the motivations underlying US policy there. It identifies and analyzes the Soviet view of how America's energy problem has influenced US-Soviet relations in that area. Some attention also goes to the implications for American policy in the region. Key topics include Soviet perceptions of American foreign policy aims, US goals in the Middle East, US-Iranian relations during the Shah's region and after his fall, and the negative aspects of the energy problems for Moscow. Some speculative remarks are made regarding likely future directions of Soviet policies and the implications of such policies for the US. 95 references.

  17. Energy conservation: The main factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bashmakov, I.A.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1991-12-01

    The energy intensity of the former Soviet Union is more than twice that of other market economics in similar stages of economic development. Low energy efficiency in the Soviet Union has contributed significantly to global carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions. The technological potential for energy conservation in the former Soviet Union is the largest in the world. The inefficiencies of the previously command-system economy, however, have provided little incentive for conserving energy. The present transition to a market-based economy should encourage the incorporation of energy-efficiency improvements in order for the former Soviet Union to successfully lower its energy intensity. There are several obstacles that limit implementing energy conservation: for example, energy prices and discount rates influence the volume of investment in energy efficiency. Nevertheless, cost-effective measures for energy conservative do exist even in the most energy-intensive sectors of the Soviet economy and should form the core of any energy conservation program. The overall cost-effective potential for carbon savings in the former Soviet Union is estimated to be 280 to 367 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2005, or 23 to 29 percent of 1988 energy-related emissions.

  18. Nuclear winter: implications for US and Soviet nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, P.J.

    1984-12-01

    In November 1983 Dr. Carl Sagan and his colleagues reported to press on the results of their study of the atmospheric consequences of nuclear war. The TTAPS study found that for a wide range of possible U.S. -Soviet nuclear exchanges, including relatively small ones, the fires from nuclear detonations would inject into the stratosphere quantities of dust and soot that would obscure sunlight for months. Under the cloud, which would spread over most of the Northern Hemisphere, temperatures might drop scores of degrees, well below the freezing point of water; thus, nuclear winter. The TTAPS team's findings suggested that the consequences of a nuclear war might be even more gruesome than previously supposed, and the long-term climatic and biological results might be nearly as severe for a war of 100 megatons as for 5,000. From the point of view of informing policymakers and the public concerning the consequences of wars involving nuclear weapons, the politicization of the nuclear winter issue is unfortunate. We can hope that in the next few years the criticism and defense of the initial TTAPS work will give rise to significant additional analyses, to illuminate the question. Realistically, further study will probably include both confirmations and contradictions of the original findings, without necessarily resolving the issue. Sadly, the surrounding political atmosphere may obstruct sober consideration of the policy implications of the possibility of nuclear winter.

  19. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-05-09

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  20. Soviets pin big energy hopes on natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-09

    The USSR hopes to boost its gas production to at least 35.3 trillion CF/yr by 2000, with some 2.5-2.8 TCF/yr possibly going to West European markets. Prospects are good that Soviet gas flow will equal the present US production rate of 20 TCF/yr by late 1984 and will exceed 25 TCF by 1990. Total gas exports are expected to reach 2 TCF in 1980 and perhaps surpass 5 TCF/yr by 2000. The basis for these projections is the huge reserves of western Siberia: The supergiant Urengoiskoye field, which went into production in 1978, is slated to reach an output of 2.1 TCF/yr in 1980 and ultimately peak at 7.1-8.8 TCF/yr. To ensure the transmission of these large volumes of gas from remote fields to distribution centers, pipeline designers have concentrated on developing high-strength pipe (capable of sustaining operating pressures of 1469-1763 psi) and methods of cooling the gas to increase the capacity of 56-in. lines. A unique double-walled pipe - with concrete filling its annular space - should solve pipeline-flotation problems in the swampy areas of Siberia while satisfying insulation needs in permafrost regions.

  1. US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.

  2. Space radiation dosimetry on US and Soviet manned missions

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, T.A.; Benton, E.V.

    1995-03-01

    Radiation measurements obtained on board U.S. and Soviet spacecraft are presented and discussed. A considerable amount of data has now been collected and analyzed from measurements with a variety of detector types in low-Earth orbit. The objectives of these measurements have been to investigate the dose and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra within the complex shielding of large spacecraft. The shielding modifies the external radiation (trapped protons, electrons, cosmic ray nuclei) which, in turn, is quite dependent on orbital parameters (altitude, inclination). For manned flights, these measurements provide a crew exposure record and a data base for future spacecraft design and flight planning. For the scientific community they provide useful information for planning and analyzing data from experiments with high sensitivity to radiation. In this paper, results of measurements by both passive and active detectors are described. High-LET spectra measurements were obtained by means of plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD`s) while thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD`s) measured the dose.

  3. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of "space-strike weapons" - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: "I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery." "I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics," said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  4. [Treatment of the sputum with Soviet-produced chlorhexidine bigluconicum].

    PubMed

    Golyshevskaia, V I; Makarevich, N M

    1990-01-01

    Soviet chlorhexedin bigluconicum (CHBG) was used for sputum treatment. 129 sputum specimens were investigated. Among them 45 specimens were bacterioscopically negative. The rest contained low, moderate and high numbers of tubercle bacilli. The sputum was incubated on the Löwenstein-Jensen and Finn-II media. Comparison of two treatment methods (with Na3PO4 and CHBG) showed that CHBG had a more sparing effect on tubercle bacilli. The most marked effect was observed with incubation of oligobacillar materials and materials containing low numbers of tubercle bacilli. The highest differences were revealed when the materials were incubated on the Löwenstein-Jensen medium. It was shown that isolation of the cultures from oligobacillar materials increased by 4-14.3 per cent. The growth intensity and rate were higher. The majority of the cultures grew in 3-4 weeks whereas with using Na3PO4 part of the cultures grew during the period between the 6th and the 8th weeks. When the number of tubercle bacilli was high irrespective of the treatment procedure the number of the grown cultures was the same. The germination level was low and amounted to 3.9 per cent after treatment with Na3PO4 and to 2.3 per cent after treatment with CHBG. The method using CHBG is simple, economic and valuable in laboratory practice. PMID:2114642

  5. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  6. History of the unconscious in Soviet Russia: from its origins to the fall of the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Alberto

    2008-04-01

    Russia accepted the notion of the unconscious and psychoanalysis before many Western countries. The first Russian Psychoanalytic Society was established in 1911. After World War I and the Russian Revolution, for a short happy period, the following psychoanalysts were active: Sabina Spielrein, Tatiana Rosenthal, Moshe Wulff, Nikolai Osipov and Ivan Ermakov. Scholars associated with Soviet ideas participated too, including Aleksandr Luria, Michail Rejsner and Pavel Blonskij. Lev Vygotskij himself dealt with the unconscious. A second psychoanalytical society was set up in Kazan. Unfortunately, at the end of the 1920s, repression dissolved the psychoanalytic movement. Even the word 'psychoanalysis' was banned for decades. Nonetheless, interest in the unconscious, as distinct from psychoanalytic theory, survived in the work of the Georgian leader D. Uznadze. His followers organized the 1979 International Symposium on the Unconscious, in Tbilisi, Georgia, which marked the breaking of an ideological barrier. Since then, many medical, psychological, philosophical and sociological scholars have taken an interest in the unconscious, a subject both feared, for its ideological implications, and desired. Since the 1980s, psychoanalytic ideas have been published in the scientific press and have spread in society. The fall of the USSR in 1991 liberalized the scientific and institutional development of psychoanalysis. PMID:18405289

  7. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

    2003-07-27

    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of

  8. Explosion Source Phenomena Using Soviet, Test-Era, Waveform Data

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul G.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Phillips, W. Scott

    2006-04-12

    During the nuclear testing era, the former Soviet Union carried out extensive observations of underground nuclear explosions, recording both their own shots and those of foreign nuclear states. Between 1961 and 1989, the Soviet Complex Seismological Expedition deployed seismometers at time-varying subsets of over 150 sites to record explosions at regional distances from the Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor test sites and from the shot points of peaceful nuclear explosions. This data set included recordings from broadband, multi-channel ChISS seismometers that produced a series of narrow band outputs, which could then be measured to perform spectral studies. [ChISS is the Russian abbreviation for multichannel spectral seismometer. In this instrument the signal from the seismometer is passed through a system of narrow bandpass filters and recorded on photo paper. ChISS instruments have from 8 to 16 channels in the frequency range from 100 sec to 40 Hz. We used data mostly from 7 channels, ranging from 0.08 to 5 Hz.] Quantitative, pre-digital era investigations of high-frequency source scaling relied on this type of data. To augment data sets of central Central Asia explosions, we have measured and compiled 537 ChISS coda envelopes for 124 events recorded at Talgar, Kazakhstan, at a distance of about 750 km from Semipalatinsk. Envelopes and calibration levels were measured manually from photo paper records for seven bands between 0.08 and 5 Hz. We obtained from 2 to 10 coda envelope measurements per event, depending on the event size and instrument magnification. Coda lengths varied from 250 to 1400 s. For small events, only bands between 0.6 and 2.5 Hz could be measured. Envelope levels were interpolated or extrapolated to 500 s and we have obtained the dependence of this quantity on magnitude. Coda Q was estimated and found to increase from 232 at 0.08 Hz to 1270 at 5 Hz. These relationships were used to construct an average scaling law of coda spectra for Semipalatinsk

  9. Physical protection cooperation with Former Soviet Union countries

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of physical protection cooperation activities between Sandia (SNL) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) regarding Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) responsibilities. Begun four years ago as part of the Safe, Secure Dismantlement Program, this project is intended to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a goal shared by both Russia and the United States: to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This will be accomplished by strengthening the MPC&A systems in both, countries. This new program (US Department of Energy Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC&A program) is designed to complement Government-to-Government programs sponsored by US Senators Nunn and Lugar. US and Russian representatives exchange visits and discuss physical protection philosophies. Russian representatives have received formal training in the US process of system design and analysis to include the design of an effective physical protection system, determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, evaluation of the design, and often redesign or refinement of the existing system. Some Russian organizations have philosophies similar to those of the United States, but when they differ, the US and Russian representatives must negotiate. Other Russian organizations, because of heavy reliance on guard forces, have not developed a systematic design process. Cooperative work between US national laboratories and Russian counterparts has resulted in major physical protection enhancements at a Russian demonstration site and other advancements for Laboratory-to-Laboratory projects.

  10. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. PMID:24128434

  11. Science, technology, and industrial policy in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The conference was intended to give members of the American government and business communities a better understanding of the changes taking place in science, technology and industry in the Former Soviet Union. Science and technology issues were accorded a prominent place in the program of perestroika. In the six turbulent years of perestroika great strides were made in identifying problems, shortcomings and difficult relationships. But implementation of solutions to the problems has been far more modest. The science and technology community has been affected by the turmoil in the country, and continues to search for a viable and productive future. The objective of the conference was to examine the current state of science, technology and industry in Russia and the other states of the Commonwealth, and consider its possible future development. The specific topics and questions conference speakers were asked to address included: Analyze current science, technology and industrial policy. What is the new legal framework for science, technology and industry How are property rights and intellectual property rights being handled What has been done to insure individual rights and freedoms What are the organizational and management structures at the national level and at lower levels What impact is decentralization having on priorities and funding What industries are being de-nationalized What will be the relationship between private and government sponsored research To what extent will reductions in the budget for military R D affect non-defense S T funding How will reductions in military R D affect the long-term outlook for research How serious has the brain-drain become in the military R D sector. What has been the effect of glasnost on the R D community. How might improved international contacts affect S T What economic forecasting, if any, is feasible

  12. Science, technology, and industrial policy in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The conference was intended to give members of the American government and business communities a better understanding of the changes taking place in science, technology and industry in the Former Soviet Union. Science and technology issues were accorded a prominent place in the program of perestroika. In the six turbulent years of perestroika great strides were made in identifying problems, shortcomings and difficult relationships. But implementation of solutions to the problems has been far more modest. The science and technology community has been affected by the turmoil in the country, and continues to search for a viable and productive future. The objective of the conference was to examine the current state of science, technology and industry in Russia and the other states of the Commonwealth, and consider its possible future development. The specific topics and questions conference speakers were asked to address included: Analyze current science, technology and industrial policy. What is the new legal framework for science, technology and industry? How are property rights and intellectual property rights being handled? What has been done to insure individual rights and freedoms? What are the organizational and management structures at the national level and at lower levels? What impact is decentralization having on priorities and funding? What industries are being de-nationalized? What will be the relationship between private and government sponsored research? To what extent will reductions in the budget for military R&D affect non-defense S&T funding? How will reductions in military R&D affect the long-term outlook for research? How serious has the brain-drain become in the military R&D sector. What has been the effect of glasnost on the R&D community. How might improved international contacts affect S&T? What economic forecasting, if any, is feasible?

  13. Soviet reactions to follow-on-to-Lance (FOTL). Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, R.O.

    1989-03-26

    One of the most controversial areas of US military planning for the 1990s is Battlefield Nuclear Weapons (BNW) modernization. The current dilemma has been created in part by Soviet 'public relations' activities in the area of troop reduction and arms control at a time when NATO must decide whether to modernize nuclear weapon systems currently deployed in Western Europe. This paper focuses on the FOTL, which will modernize the soon-to-be-obsolete Lance system. It identifies why NATO needs the new system, why the Soviets want to prevent its deployment, and how the political environment in Western Europe and the US will impact the decision for or against development. The paper also discusses the Soviet frame of reference for reacting to US/NATO initiatives ideology, insecurity, and the correlation of forces. It describes past Soviet reactions to nuclear weapons modernizations (Pershing IIs, Ground Launched Cruise Missiles, and Enhanced Radiation Weapons), and then postulates how the Soviets may respond politically and militarily to a FOTL deployment.

  14. Family planning, obstetrical and gynecological health care provision in the Soviet Far East.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, R J

    1992-01-01

    The Soviet model for both obstetrical and gynecological care and family planning provision seems entrenched in the Soviet Far East as found during a July 1991 visit to the Magadan and Chukotka Regions. Modern birth control is minimally practiced, but does include use of the older Soviet Loop intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD), recent introduction of the new Soviet Copper-T IUD and sporadic availability of condoms and foreign made birth control pills. Without male or female surgical sterilizations being performed, the consequence is that the major form of family planning is first trimester abortion. During this visit, I introduced the use of the NORPLANT Subdermal Contraceptive System and the Copper-T380A IUD to physicians at Anadry and Pevek regional hospitals. Gynecological surgery was also performed and fairly typical ob-gyn care units were toured. Ob-Gyn physicians in the Soviet Far East were found to be highly motivated. They look to the West for help in upgrading family planning and ob-gyn health care in the face of severe shortages after a half decade of perestroika. PMID:1605341

  15. Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2001-10-01

    Human spaceflight was one of the great physiological and engineering triumphs of the 20th century. Although the history of the United States manned space program is well known, the Soviet program was shrouded in secrecy until recently. Konstantin Edvardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was an extraordinary Russian visionary who made remarkable predictions about space travel in the late 19th century. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) was the brilliant "Chief Designer" who was responsible for many of the Soviet firsts, including the first artificial satellite and the first human being in space. The dramatic flight of Sputnik 1 was followed within a month by the launch of the dog Laika, the first living creature in space. Remarkably, the engineering work for this payload was all done in less than 4 wk. Korolev's greatest triumph was the flight of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) on April 12, 1961. Another extraordinary feat was the first extravehicular activity by Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (1934-) using a flexible airlock that emphasized the entrepreneurial attitude of the Soviet engineers. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet program was overtaken by the United States program and attempts to launch a manned mission to the Moon failed. However, the early Soviet manned space program has a preeminent place in the history of space physiology. PMID:11568130

  16. The Soviet health care system: Glasnost, Perestroika, and health problems of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Moody, L E

    1992-03-01

    Worsening economic conditions and political turmoil in the Soviet Union have led to significant health care problems in the 90s. The Soviet people are calling for reforms of education and the health care system that extend beyond the unsuccessful program of glasnost and perestroika. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the health care system in the Soviet Union, (b) highlight health issues and concerns of the Soviet people, (c) describe the education of physicians and nurses, and (d) compare and contrast common and unique factors about Soviet health care with health care in the West. The data base for the article was collected from observational site visits, on-site focused interviews with key informants in Kiev and Moscow, and extensive computerized and manual literature searches. Data were also gathered from questionnaires distributed to a convenience sample of 17 nurses in Moscow. Study results include demographic information and the state of nursing education and research, including availability and access to resources to conduct nursing research in Moscow. PMID:1293203

  17. The specter of post-communism: women and alcohol in eight post-Soviet states.

    PubMed

    Hinote, Brian Philip; Cockerham, William C; Abbott, Pamela

    2009-04-01

    Because men have borne the heaviest burden of premature mortality in the former Soviet Union, women have for the most part been overlooked in studies of the health crisis in this part of the world. A considerable body of research points to alcohol consumption among males as a primary lifestyle cause of premature mortality. However, the extent to which alcohol use has penetrated the female population following the collapse of communism and how this consumption is associated with other social factors is less well-understood. Accordingly, this paper investigates alcohol consumption in eight republics of the former USSR - Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine using data collected in 2001. More specifically, discussion of gender role transformations and the historical experiences of women during the Soviet era emphasize two potentially important social influences examined in this analysis: psychological distress and Soviet political ideology. Findings suggest that distress is only weakly statistically associated with frequent drinking behavior among women, but results for political ideology show that this factor is statistically and significantly associated with drinking behaviors. Alcohol consumption was not particularly common among women under communism, but trends have been changing. Our discussion suggests that, after the collapse of the Soviet state, women are more able to embrace behavioral practices related to alcohol, and many may do so as an overt rejection of traditional Soviet norms and values. Findings are also discussed within the context of current epidemiological trends and future research directions in these eight republics. PMID:19233533

  18. Research and analytical evaluation of the Soviet Union and modernization of nuclear weapons forces in Europe. Final report, 15 May 80-30 Mar 82

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, M.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides an indepth of the Soviet campaign against NATO nuclear modernization. It examines the background of Soviet efforts against NATO since its inception, with particular emphasis on precursor Soviet campaigns against NATO nuclear armaments. It surveys in detail Soviet views and actions against the 1979 NATO decision on deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles in Europe, analyzes Soviet concerns about the possibility of such deployment, and explores likely Soviet countermoves before, immediately after and for an extended period following implementation of the NATO decision.

  19. MENC and the National Anthem: From the Early 1900s to Today's National Anthem Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontiff, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the history of the United States, music educators have played an important role in building national unity by teaching students to sing the songs of their country. Beginning with the entire May-June 1942 issue of "Music Educators Journal" devoted to the nation's war effort following the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, MENC set the…

  20. DE-Sovietizing educational systems, learning from past policy and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Cathy C.

    1994-03-01

    All 21st century societies face the dilemma of reforming educational systems to meet changing social demands. In order to enable new beginnings to be made, this article examines the ending of reform efforts in the former Soviet Union immediately prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Educational policy had followed a shifting course under changing Soviet leadership, much supposed reform consisting of little more than reworked statements of intent. In the second half of the 1980's, more serious attempts were made to raise enrollment of six-year olds, to upgrade instructional materials and teaching quality, and to redesign vocational education. Inadequate facilities and resources, lack of trained personnel, promotion on non-educational grounds, economic hardship and bureaucratic resistance hindered these reforms. As successor states to the Soviet Union — and others — face structural change, knowledge of why certain reforms were previously resisted will help future planning.

  1. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-06-04

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

  2. Soviet political objectives in the Federal Republic of Germany: instruments and assessments. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, S.E.

    1988-06-01

    This thesis examines apparent Soviet attempts to use its detente policy to exploit the Federal Republic of Germany's membership in NATO and thereby expand its influence in the FRG and Europe as a whole. It is hypothesized that the Soviet Union chooses to exploit the FRG's position in NATO by cultivating a special relationship with it and thereby accessing the U.S. and NATO as a whole, rather than making overt efforts to force a near-term split between West Germany and the U.S. The thesis focuses on the instruments the Soviet Union uses to maximize its influence in the FRG and the region. These instruments include West Germany's concerns regarding nuclear war in Europe, Ostpolitik and German-German relations.

  3. Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

  4. Effect of Soviet cancellation of petrochemical plant projects on east and west Europe and Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, P.

    1985-02-01

    The Soviet Union has scaled down plans to build four petrochemical projects, each worth more than US $1 billion, over the next five years because it is giving priority to the re-equipment of plants. The project to build a polyvinyl plant on the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia has been cancelled. Another scheme to build a nylon plant at Kursk has been delayed, but might still be resurrected during the present five-year plan (1986-1990). The two projects still going ahead, or which British companies are bidding, are a polyolefin plant in the north Caucasus and a polyester plant in the Urals. Despite the investment priority given by the Soviet leadership to high technology and re-equipment, diplomats in Moscow do not expect a surge of orders for Western companies. They say there are two reasons for this; Moscow wants to rely as much as possible on imports of machinery from Eastern Europe, notably East Germany and Czechoslovakia, in return for its exports of oil and gas. Senior officials say that where they cannot obtain high technology from West because of restrictive legislation they will not be prepared to accept less efficient equipment. The level of Soviet imports from hard currency supplies will be limited by the fall in Soviet exports revenues. These have been hit by a decline of some four per cent in oil exports last year and the drop in the world oil price. The Soviet Union needs to keep its customers for gas which has given increased leverage to consumers such as West Germany, Italy and France in the award of contracts. This was exemplified by the visit of Mme. Edith Cresson, the French Foreign Trade Minister, to Moscow to discuss increasing trade. Paris wants the Soviet Union to redress the adverse trade balance with France with amounted to 4.5 billion francs (L 410 million) in the first 11 months of last year.

  5. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. PMID:22208726

  6. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 84, July-August 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for July-August 1986, and is No. 84 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  7. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 77, May-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for May-June 1985, and is No. 77 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  8. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 83, May-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for May-June 1986, and is No. 83 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  9. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 86, November-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for November-December 1986, and is No. 86 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  10. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 75, January-February 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for January-February 1985, and is No. 75 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  11. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 76, March-April 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March-April 1985, and is No. 76 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  12. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 85, September-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for September-October 1986, and is No. 85 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  13. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 82, March-April 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March-April 1986, and is No. 82 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  14. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 78, July-August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for July-August 1985, and is No. 78 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  15. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 79, September-October 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for September-October 1985, and is No. 79 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  16. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 74, November-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for November-December 1984, and is No. 74 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  17. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 80, November-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for November-December 1985, and is No. 80 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid-state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  18. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 63, January-February 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-02-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for January-February 1983, and is No. 63 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashot pulse generations; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  19. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 67, September-October 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for September-October 1983, and is No. 67 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  20. Red star over the red planet - Soviets plan 15-year series of Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Andrew; Bulloch, Chris

    The unmanned-spacecraft mission schedule announced by the Soviet Space Rsearch Institute for the 1988-2002 period begins with the use of orbiters to map the entire planet and a detailed investigation of Phobos. It then proceeds to detailed on-site investigations of selected areas, using landers that will deploy surface rovers, free-floating balloons, and surface penetrators. The ultimate medium-term objective is the return of soil and rock samples to earth for detailed analysis. All of these missions will involve invitations for foreign participation; some non-Soviet experiments are currently being integrated into the Phobos probes.

  1. Effects of the Cosmos 1129 Soviet paste diet on body composition in the growing rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.; Pitts, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Six Simonsen albino rats (45 days of age) were placed on a regimen of 40 g/day the semipurified Soviet paste diet used in the 18.5 day Cosmos 1129 spacecraft was to support the rats for various experiments on the physiological effects of weightlessness. The animals were maintained on the Soviet paste diet for 35 days, metabolic rate was measured and body composition was determined by direct analysis. The results were compared with a control group of rates of the same age, which had been kept on a standard commercial grain diet during the same period of time.

  2. A comparative study of soviet versus western helicopters. Part 2: Evaluation of weight, maintainability and design aspects of major components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Shinn, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed comparative insight into design and operational philosophies of Soviet vs. Western helicopters is provided. This is accomplished by examining conceptual approaches, productibility and maintainability, and weight trends/prediction methodology. Extensive use of Soviet methodology (Tishchenko) to various weight classes of helicopters is compared to the results of using Western based methodology.

  3. The Russian Identity and Values in the Post-Soviet Era: Learning from the Past to Reinvent the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.; Herman, Bryan K.; Sanatullova-Allison, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    This paper employed a psychological-historical framework for an analytical examination of the Russian identity during the Soviet period through the fall of the Soviet Union and the transitional period that led to an establishment of the Russian Federation. A theoretical model is provided for the analysis of Russian identity that can be generalized…

  4. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

  5. Dosimetric investigations of cosmic radiation aboard the Kosmos-936 AES (joint Soviet-American experiment K-206)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Kovalyev, Y. Y.; Dudkin, V. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The Soviet and American parts of the experiment are described separately. Particular attention was given to the following problems: placement of the detectors; study of neutron radiation within the biosatellite; and studies of fragmentation of heavy nuclei on accelerators. Unified methods were developed for the calibration of Soviet and American detectors.

  6. Initial stages of the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet union (60 years from the Invention of the Transistor)

    SciTech Connect

    Stafeev, V. I.

    2010-05-15

    The most important results of the early work of Soviet scientists in the research and development in the fields of semiconductors and semiconductor devices are reported, including results that are almost unknown now but played an important role in the development of semiconductor electronics in the Soviet Union.

  7. Soviet Education Programs: Foundations; Curriculums, Teacher Preparation. Bulletin, 1960, No. 17. OE-14037. [Chapter III - Chapter IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, William K.; Lindquist, Clarence B.; Schmitt, Marshall L.

    1960-01-01

    The continuing interest which American educators and other citizens have attached to Soviet schools and their development has served to encourage the U.S. Office of Education in its efforts to provide the most complete and verified information obtainable on the subject. As expressed in "Soviet Commitment to Education, Report of the First Official…

  8. "Least Known to Americans": Content Materials about the Soviet Union in the 1940s and 1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Anatoli

    2006-01-01

    In December 1984 when the Soviet Union still was an "evil empire" and the United States "encroached on the achievements of Socialism," Ira Jay Winn wrote, "students who scream "Kill the Russkies" or who believe that the Soviets fought against us in World War II... are not simply ignorant of historical facts or the power of words; they are living…

  9. Teaching a Course on the Soviet Press: Some Pedagogical Applications and Recommendations for Increasing our Russian Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kevin J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes benefits of teaching a course on the Soviet press to Russian language students, including the opportunity to integrate practical considerations of reading and conversation skills with theoretical considerations of philosophy and principles of mass communication in the Soviet Union. (Author/BK)

  10. An Analysis of Soviet and Chinese Media Broadcasts Concerning U.S. Involvement in the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Birthney; Hall, James L.

    In order to discover whether there were any differences in negative attitude intensity between the Soviets and Chinese toward United States involvement in the Vietnam war, the Soviet and Chinese English language media broadcasts concerning United States war participation were subjected to a content analysis. The focus of the study was on two…

  11. Four Goals of School Reform in the Soviet Union, 1984-1989: A Bumpy Journey for "Perestroika".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Joan B.

    Examined is the progress of four major goals of school reform in the Soviet Union as an integral part of Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev's call for a monumental restructuring (perestroika) of society. With the adoption of Fundamental Directions of General Education and Vocational School Reform (1984), four important goals were set in motion;…

  12. Value Socialization in Families of Israeli-Born and Soviet-Born Adolescents in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of immigration on parent-adolescent value similarity, consistency of parents' value messages, and value transmission processes. Data from Soviet immigrant families in Israel and matched Israeli families indicated that immigrant adolescents resembled native-born adolescents more that they resembled their parents in value…

  13. Identity Loss and Recovery in the Life Stories of Soviet World War II Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Peter G.; Podolskij, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the adjustment to societal change following the fall of communism in a group of Soviet war veterans from Russia and the Ukraine. The focus of the study was on the dynamics of identity development, and especially generativity, in a period of intense social upheaval. Design and Methods: We administered measures of self-esteem,…

  14. The Antifascist Classroom: Denazification in Soviet-Occupied Germany, 1945-1949

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blessing, Benita

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the history of the "new school" that developed in the immediate postwar period and its role in communicating antifascism to young people in the Soviet zone. Blessing traces how the decisions about how to educate young people after twelve years of a National Socialist dictatorship became part of a broader discussion about the…

  15. The Development of Elementary Mathematical Concepts in Preschool Children. Soviet Studies in Mathematics Education. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leushina, A. M.

    This is volume 4 of the series of translations of books from the Soviet literature on research in the psychology of mathematics instruction and on teaching methods influenced by the research. The introduction to this English language translation highlights the fact that significant advances have been made in the understanding of both the…

  16. The Influence of Western Radio on the Democratization of Soviet Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manaev, Oleg

    1991-01-01

    Finds that the openness toward broadcasts from Radio Liberty and other Western stations during perestroika has only increased the level of distrust of the Soviet media by those teenagers who tend to be poorly adapted to the established social activities of their peers. (PRA)

  17. The position effect and gene theory in the studies of Soviet geneticists in the 1930s

    SciTech Connect

    Panshin, I.B.

    1995-11-01

    An overview of the studies performed by Soviet geneticists in the 1930s in the field of gene position effect is presented. Evidence of this phenomenon, the role of heterochromatin in the position effect, and the influence of gene position on mutability are discussed. 45 refs., 1 fig.

  18. English-Language Sources for Reference Questions Related to Soviet Science (With an Emphasis on Chemistry).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Gary

    The vast majority of science librarians and chemists in the United States do not have a sufficient command of the Russian language to effectively utilize Russian scientific literature in the original. Nevertheless, it is both desirable and necessary that the scientific community keep aware of developments in the Soviet Union. To meet this need, a…

  19. BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND RESEARCH AIDS IN SOVIET STUDIES--A SUMMARY REPORT OF THE GREYSTON CONFERENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUIST, ELEANOR

    IN AN ATTEMPT TO REVIEW THE CURRENT STATE OF LIBRARY AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENTS IN SOVIET STUDIES, TO ASSESS MAJOR DEFICIENCIES AND NEEDS, AND TO RECOMMEND NEW SOLUTIONS AND PROGRAMS FOR THE FUTURE, 40 ACADEMIC AND GOVERNMENT SPECIALISTS, LIBRARIANS, AND FOUNDATION OFFICIALS WERE BROUGHT TOGETHER IN A CONFERENCE IN NEW YORK IN NOVEMBER, 1966.…

  20. Soviet Education Policy 1917-1935: From Ideology to Bureaucratic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Examining early Soviet educational policy, Lauglo analyzes the initial expression of Marxist humanist values, popular participation, and the value of productive work for general education. Discusses the routinization into a Stalinist pattern of bureaucratically controlled utilitarianism and comments briefly on recent indications of change in…

  1. Non-Formal Education and Civil Society in Post-Soviet Russia: What Is the Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, W. John; Kliucharev, Grigori A.

    2011-01-01

    The article describes collaborative research into the relationship between non-formal education and civil society in post-Soviet Russia. It shows how through social survey data and case studies of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other civil society organisations (CSOs), using a combination of social science perspectives, much can be…

  2. Soviet Russian Literature in English: A Checklist Bibliography. Cornell Research Papers in International Studies, VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibian, George

    Selected works in translation currently available by and about 33 Soviet Russian authors comprise the major portion of this annotated bibliography. Approximately 850 items published between 1920 and 1966 are included. Materials relating to Sholokhov, Leonov, and Esenin are especially well represented. Separate sections provide references to…

  3. Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

    Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

  4. Acculturation, School Context, and School Outcomes: Adaptation of Refugee Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickett, Edison J.; Birman, Dina

    2005-01-01

    A differentiated model of acculturation was used to assess the relationship of acculturative styles to school adaptation among a group of 110 refugee adolescents from the former Soviet Union. Acculturation was assessed with respect to both American and Russian cultures and, within each culture, distinguished among language competence, behavior,…

  5. CLIMATE WARMING AND THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE PERMAFROST ZONE OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The continuous permafrost zone of the former Soviet Union occupies 5% of the land surface area of the earth and stores a significant amount of carbon. limate warming could disrupt the balance between carbon (C) accumulation and decomposition processes within the permafrost zone. ...

  6. When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

    Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

  7. A Precarious Position of Power: Soviet School Directors in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In September 1931, the Communist Party Central Committee, the highest political authority in the Soviet Union, declared that "single person rule" ("edinonachalie") should prevail in the administration of schools. The history of approximately 100,000 school directors in the 1930s was shaped by a rapid expansion in numbers as well as fundamental…

  8. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  9. Teacher Collaboration, Mentorship, and Intergenerational Gap in Post-Soviet Ukrainian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the interconnections between mentoring and teacher collaboration in view of the intergenerational gap between experienced and novice educators in the post-Soviet Ukraine. The conceptual framework utilized a constructive postmodern perspective as an analytical lens and examined mentorship as a collaborative form of teacher…

  10. Space Race Propaganda: U.S. Coverage of the Soviet Sputniks in 1957.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, Cheryl L.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes coverage of the Soviet Sputniks in 1957 by three news magazines--"U.S.News and World Report,""Newsweek," and "Time." Reports that "Time" and "U.S. News" covered the issue in Cold War terms, whereas "Newsweek" put emphasis on the prospects for space exploration. (MM)

  11. Sandia National Laboratories interactions with organizations in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, G.H.; Nokes, K.D.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes Sandia National Laboratories involvement with scientists and engineers at various organizations within the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of these interactions is twofold: first, to acquire technical information to enhance United States technology and second, to assist FSU states in converting their defense-oriented industry to civilian, market- oriented business.

  12. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  13. Redefining Schooling and Community in Post-Soviet Kazakstan: Tokash Bokin and the School at Aikkanar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.; Nadirbekyzy, Bakhytkul

    Since the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991, the schools of the new Republic of Kazakstan have focused on rediscovering national history and culture, while the form and structure of schooling have also undergone major changes. This paper describes the current situation at a rural school--Tokash Bokin--in the context of the history of Russian and…

  14. From Brezhnev Doctrine to New Thinking: Soviet Reforms and European Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaszewski, Witold J.

    Mikhail Gorbachev has drastically altered the foreign policy of the Soviet Union, and in so doing has also brought about a new international political reality for all of Europe. This paper contrasts Gorbachev's "New Thinking" in foreign policy with the Brezhnev Doctrine (an approach associated with former USSR leader Leonid Brezhnev that…

  15. Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

  16. Naming Patterns of Recent Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union to Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Edwin D.; Glushkovskaya, Irina

    To identify patterns of first names over three generations, two samples of 100 Jewish families representing over 1,400 individuals from the former Soviet Union were interviewed. Sample 1 came mainly from Ukraine and European Russia; Sample 2 came from Uzbekistan and Tadzhikistan. Individuals in the samples were born between 1886 and 1992. Both…

  17. A Comment on the Changes in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    At the time of their independence, the structure of higher education, curriculum content, governance, and admissions procedures were more or less identical across the fifteen republics of the former Soviet Union. Since independence there have been multiple changes, but often these have been quite similar in nature. There has been a move toward…

  18. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

  19. Some Historical Aspects of Educational Change in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anweiler, Oskar

    1992-01-01

    Reviews developments in the educational systems of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe since the end of the Cold War. Contends that nationalism and religion have had an important impact on education. Asserts that former beliefs and structures of the old system will continue to influence education for many years. (CFR)

  20. Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

  1. Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Hilary F.

    The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

  2. Internationalization of Higher Education in Post-Soviet Small States: Realities and Perspectives of Moldova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnarenko, Valentyna; Cojocari, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education has become a priority for many universities in post-Soviet small states. Focusing on international communication networks, student mobility, or international curriculum development, universities invest human and financial resources to prepare graduates to meet global challenges. Globalization and…

  3. National Security and U.S.-Soviet Relations. Occasional Paper 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Walter C., Jr.

    This paper provides an analytical look at the evolving relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The author explores the prospects for international security and advocates a number of policies which would benefit both societies. The first section in the booklet discusses how U.S. security cannot be assured even if the Congress…

  4. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  5. Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: State of the Environment. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    This guide offers a guide to the literature in the collections of the Library of Congress on the state of the environment in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the nations of Eastern Europe. Although only English-language sources are listed, references to other materials in other languages can also be traced by means of the subject…

  6. Library Education and Research in the Soviet Union Compared with Scandinavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaisen, Johan L.

    1987-01-01

    Compares the philosophy of librarianship in the Soviet Union, where libraries are subordinate to the goals of the Communist party, and Scandinavia, where libraries maintain political neutrality. A brief history of library education in both countries is given and the current state of library education and research is described. (CLB)

  7. Psychological Abilities of Primary School Children in Learning Mathematics. Soviet Studies in Mathematics Education. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydov, V. V., Ed.

    This is volume 6 of the series of translations of books from the Soviet literature on research in the psychology of mathematics instruction and on teaching methods influenced by the research. This book contains both a theoretical examination of the connection between instruction and the development of children, and experimental data on a definite…

  8. CARBON SOURCES AND SINKS IN THE FOREST BIOMES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes hall been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. owever, an equilibrium analysis does no...

  9. Critical Thinking as Culture: Teaching Post-Soviet Teachers in Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering…

  10. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

  11. Progressive Educational Actions in a Post-Soviet Republic: Meaningful Collaborations and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnisch, Delywn L.; Guetterman, Timothy C.; Samofalova, Olga; Kussis, Yelena

    2013-01-01

    As the last Soviet republic to become an independent nation, Kazakhstan has worked diligently to transform and develop its educational system including systemic changes related to decentralization, financing changes, and the shift to a credit system. A professional health sciences education workshop delivered in Kazakhstan exemplifies progressive…

  12. On the history of the development of solid-propellant rockets in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pobedonostsev, Y. A.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-World War II Soviet solid-propellant rocket technology is reviewed. Research and development regarding solid composite preparations of pyroxyline TNT powder is described, as well as early work on rocket loading calculations, problems of flight stability, and aircraft rocket launching and ground rocket launching capabilities.

  13. Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers. Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    This supplement updates the 1985 "Russia/Soviet Union: A Guide to Print Materials for Teachers," a guide to literature for middle and high school teachers. Each entry includes author, title, pages, a physical description, identifying numbers, imprint, price, and a brief evaluative summary. Section 1, "Reference Books," contains six items of a…

  14. The United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1965. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Ira

    Intended for college-preparatory students at the high school level, this unit investigates the changing tides in U.S.-Soviet diplomatic relations and the reasons for the change. The focus of the unit is on a series of particular episodes such as the questions of famine relief in the 1920's, diplomatic recognition in the 1930's, World War II, the…

  15. Issues in Post-Soviet Secondary School Reform: The Case of Kazakstan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.; Balzhan, Suzhikova

    The Republic of Kazakstan--the world's ninth largest country--is one of five central Asian nations created in 1991 upon the demise of the former Soviet Union. Never a separate political state in the past, Kazakstan now faces a myriad of curricular and educational organization problems related to contemporary economic and political developments, as…

  16. Suicide in Inmates in Nazis and Soviet Concentration Camps: Historical Overview and Critique

    PubMed Central

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Cuerda-Galindo, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty), while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover-up the murder victims as suicides. Most of the suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment, and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behaviors when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed wire fences) or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison). In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment, and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors, such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die, have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain. PMID:27303312

  17. Nurses across borders: displaced Russian and Soviet nurses after World War I and World War II.

    PubMed

    Grant, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Russian and Soviet nurse refugees faced myriad challenges attempting to become registered nurses in North America and elsewhere after the World War II. By drawing primarily on International Council of Nurses refugee files, a picture can be pieced together of the fate that befell many of those women who left Russia and later the Soviet Union because of revolution and war in the years after 1917. The history of first (after World War I) and second (after World War II) wave émigré nurses, integrated into the broader historical narrative, reveals that professional identity was just as important to these women as national identity. This became especially so after World War II, when Russian and Soviet refugee nurses resettled in the West. Individual accounts become interwoven on an international canvas that brings together a wide range of personal experiences from women based in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, Yugoslavia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere. The commonality of experience among Russian nurses as they attempted to establish their professional identities highlights, through the prism of Russia, the importance of the history of the displaced nurse experience in the wider context of international migration history. PMID:24032234

  18. Teaching Place, Assembling the Nation: Local Studies in Soviet Ukrainian Schools during the 1920s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauly, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the Soviet introduction of local studies to Ukrainian schools during the 1920s. It argues that, through their efforts at pedagogical reform, educational planners sought a fundamental re-imagining of place. The Ukrainian Commissariat of Education asked teachers and their students to engage the "productive" world surrounding…

  19. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

  20. The Crisis of the Post-Soviet Teaching Profession in the Caucasus and Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2009-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the teaching profession has begun to erode in the Caucasus and Central Asia as evidenced in such indicators as a teacher shortage, the feminization of the profession, an over-aged teaching force, a low transition rate from teacher education graduation to professional service, and a…

  1. Establishing Authentic Lithuanian Culture and Values in Post-Soviet Educational Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephen E.; Gray, Philip

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the role of culture in establishing a program of educational reform in Lithuania, a former Soviet Bloc state. Specifically, through a comparative analysis of survey information from an international cross-section of individuals involved with educational reform programs in Lithuania at the local, regional, and national…

  2. Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

    2004-01-01

    Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

  3. Values Education in the Soviet State: The Lasting Contribution of V. A. Sukhomlinsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockerill, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Vasily Sukhomlinsky (1918-1970) was arguably the most influential Soviet educator of the post-war period. He was a practising teacher, and from 1947 to 1970 was principal of a school in the Ukrainian village of Pavlysh. One of Sukhomlinsky's primary concerns was to inculcate in his students the values of compassion and service, combined with…

  4. Education in the Soviet Zone of Germany. Bulletin, 1959, No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenman, Paul S.

    1959-01-01

    The Office of Education frequently receives requests for information regarding the educational developments in the Soviet Zone of Germany. This bulletin is issued by the Office of Education as another in its longstanding series of international education publications. Unlike most bulletins in this series that are based on firsthand interviews and…

  5. Suicide in Inmates in Nazis and Soviet Concentration Camps: Historical Overview and Critique.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Cuerda-Galindo, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty), while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover-up the murder victims as suicides. Most of the suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment, and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behaviors when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed wire fences) or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison). In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment, and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors, such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die, have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain. PMID:27303312

  6. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to reproduce or transform…

  7. An Enigmatic Embrace: Problems of Regulating the Effects of New Communication Technologies in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Eric

    The telecommunication revolution in the USSR is creating structural change in the culture, encompassing media, societal, and ideological systems. In the process, it is replacing traditional Soviet collectivist values with individualist, western values. Increasingly easy access to western ideas through VCRs, direct broadcast satellites (DBS), and…

  8. The Role of the Mass Media in the Teaching of History in Soviet Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poltorak, David I.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the importance of television in history and citizenship education in Soviet schools. Describes studies dealing with the effects of mass communications media on the educational process. Urges the integration of subject matter conveyed to students via television with that acquired in the classroom to foster development of theoretical…

  9. From Communist Control to "Glastnost" and Back?: Media Freedom and Control in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Denise P.

    1998-01-01

    Frames the role of public relations in a self-governing society. Discusses three environmental factors that affect the practice of socially responsible public relations. Reviews the historical media philosophy of eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Examines media practice occurring during the region's transformation and implications for…

  10. Objectivity as Ideology: A Comparison of the American and Soviet Concepts of News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Yung-Ho

    The concept of "objectivity" suggests that facts are selected and constructed according to formal rules by professional journalists. A comparison of American and Soviet concepts of news leads to the observation that both share similar claims to objectivity. The similarity defies whether objectivity assumes the form of facts detached from values in…

  11. Microfossils in Conophyton from the Soviet Union and their bearing on Precambrian biostratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.; Sovetov, Iu. K.

    1976-01-01

    Silicified specimens of the Vendian (late Precambrian) 'index fossil' Conophyton gaubitza from South Kazakstan contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved cyanophytic and apparently eukaryotic algae, the first stromatolitic microbiota to be reported from the Soviet Union. Unlike the stromatolites in which they occur, the microorganisms that apparently built this form of Conophyton did not become extinct at the end of the Precambrian.

  12. The Changing Role of the Soviet Secondary School Principal under Perestroika. A "Bulletin" Special.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodinsky, Ben

    1991-01-01

    When Gorbachev came to power in 1985, he and his supporters signaled educators that schools were free to concentrate on education instead of enforcing dogma. Soviet secondary school principals are discarding old Bolshevist roles, including those of Marxist-Leninist-Communist watchdog and carrier of Communist command directives. Principals also…

  13. Early Grammatical Development in Several Languages, with Special Attention to Soviet Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobin, Dan I.

    The purpose of this paper is to review recent Soviet research on the child's development of Russian grammar, with detailed information on valuable methods for investigating this process. Cross-linguistic comparisons are made where applicable in view of their relevance for the study of universal aspects of language acquisition and linguistic…

  14. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  15. Emigrant physicians evaluate the health care system of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J H; Shuval, J T

    1994-02-01

    This study is a retrospective evaluation of the Soviet health care system by 1,100 Jewish physicians who immigrated to Israel in 1990, but were professionally active in the former Soviet Union before and during the Gorbachev era. Medical education and the process of specialization; gender differences within the medical profession; sources of work satisfaction and dissatisfaction; self-evaluations of professional behavior; and assessments of patient behavior are included in this empirical study. Although high levels of dissatisfaction were found regarding instrumental aspects of work, the physicians reported high levels of satisfaction with their relationships with colleagues and patients. The recent emigrants assessed their own role behavior and that of their patients more critically than did physicians who left the Soviet Union in 1972, and who answered identical questions in 1975. Among the recent emigrants, men, older physicians, and those with higher status within the profession tended to be more satisfied with their work and less critical about their own and their patients' behavior than their female, younger and lower status colleagues. The subjective perceptions of former "insiders," which complement the reports that have appeared in recent years in the medical literature, are discussed in terms of the impact of glasnost and perestroika on reporting behavior and on the real deterioration that occurred in the health care system of the former Soviet Union. PMID:8302106

  16. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  17. POOLS AND FLUXES OF BIOGENIC CARBON IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The former Soviet union (FSU) was the largest country in the world. t occupied one-sixth of the land surface of the Earth. n understanding of the pools and f luxes of biogenic carbon in the FSU is essential to the development of international strategies aimed at mitigation of the...

  18. The Soviet Library System and Its Planning. Reaction Paper by Alphonse F. Trezza.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serov, V. V.

    The mechanics of the Soviet library system, the availability of libraries to the citizenry, organizational components, and the development and planning principles of librarianship as they follow Leninist national policy are discussed in this paper by V.V. Serov, Head of the Main Library Directorate, USSR Ministry of Culture. A program of library…

  19. Understanding Revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union through History and Literature, 50 Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Donald, Ed.; And Others

    This resource book provides 50 learning activities with background materials for teaching about tsarist Russia and the emergence of the Soviet Union. Use of literature, history, geography, primary sources, various learning strategies are all included. The lessons provide study of 19th and 20th century events to Mikhail Gorbachev and perestroika.…

  20. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: Moscow State University physics alumni and the Soviet Atomic Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, Gennadii V.

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, two closely related themes are addressed: (1) the role that M V Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU) played in training specialists in physics for the Soviet Atomic Project, and (2) what its alumni contributed to the development of thermonuclear weapons. In its earlier stages, the Soviet Atomic Project was in acute need of qualified personnel, without whom building nuclear and thermonuclear weapons would be an impossible task, and MSU became a key higher educational institution grappled with the training problem. The first part of the paper discusses the efforts of the leading Soviet scientists and leaders of FMD (First Main Directorate) to organize the training of specialists in nuclear physics at the MSU Physics Department and, on the other hand, to create a new Physics and Technology Department at the university. As a result, a number of Soviet Government's resolutions were prepared and issued, part of which are presented in the paper and give an idea of the large-scale challenges this sphere of education was facing at the time. Information is presented for the first time on the early MSU Physics Department graduates in the structure of matter, being employed in the FMD organizations and enterprises from 1948 to 1951. The second part discusses the contribution to the development of thermonuclear weapons by the teams of scientists led by Academicians I E Tamm, A N Tikhonov, and I M Frank, and including MSU physics alumni. The paper will be useful to anyone interested in the history of Russian physics.

  1. ESTIMATING THE TERRESTIAL CARBON POOLS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CONTERMINOUS U.S., AND BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial-carbon (C) pool sizes are of interest in relation to quantifying current sources and sinks of C, and evaluating the possibilities for future C sequestration or release by the biosphere. In this study, the C pools in the terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Unio...

  2. Difficulties Encountered by Soviet Immigrant Children in Adapting to Secondary Schools in Their New Homeland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Roberta L.

    1980-01-01

    Interviews with 207 Soviet immigrant adolescents reveal the adjustment difficulties they have in Canadian schools because of the different school system and changes in their socioeconomic status. The school and community must cooperate in facilitating the adaption of these students to the educational system. (PMJ)

  3. Feasibility study of a long duration balloon flight with NASA/GSFC and Soviet Space Agency Gamma Ray Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, William E.; Knoll, Glenn

    1989-01-01

    A feasibility study of conducting a joint NASA/GSFC and Soviet Space Agency long duration balloon flight at the Antarctic in Jan. 1993 is reported. The objective of the mission is the verification and calibration of gamma ray and neutron remote sensing instruments which can be used to obtain geochemical maps of the surface of planetary bodies. The gamma ray instruments in question are the GRAD and the Soviet Phobos prototype. The neutron detectors are supplied by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Soviet Phobos prototype. These are to be carried aboard a gondola that supplies the data and supplies the power for the period of up to two weeks.

  4. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  5. Transmission functions for various models of the atmosphere for channels of Soviet and American radiometers (15 micron CO2 band)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Listed are various graphs and tables for illustrations related to Point IX of a list of works conducted by the USSR in accordance with the Joint Soviet-American Research Program on improving methods of thermal sounding from satellites.

  6. Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Occupational Choice: The Selection of a Nursing Career by Ex-Soviet Immigrant Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagy, Shifra; Liberman, Orly

    1997-01-01

    Data from 136 Soviet immigrants to Israel identified the sociocultural factors that influenced the choice of nursing as a career. Gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnic origin had less influence than parents, peers, and academic achievement. (JOW)

  7. Declassified American Government Documents Show a Broad and In-Depth Interest in Soviet Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesavento, P.

    Back in 1993, when this author was able to acquire one of the first US National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) documents declassified on the Soviet Space Program [1], there was a dearth of materials concerning the USSR's space activities from a US intelligence perspective. Now, a decade on, the situation has dramatically changed. As a plethora of US government agencies labor to disgorge their materials from the era of the Cold War, space historians and observers now have access to many new documents, which shed both exciting and new light on Soviet space activities, and how the US viewed as well as interpreted them. Coupled with the fact that many of these are now available to be read via the Internet, and with most of the documents available only recently, a new era in space history research is now in hand. This article is intended to provide a broad overview of what is now available, and mention some highlights.

  8. "Abortion will deprive you of happiness!": Soviet reproductive politics in the post-Stalin era.

    PubMed

    Randall, Amy E

    2011-01-01

    This article examines Soviet reproductive politics after the Communist regime legalized abortion in 1955. The regime's new abortion policy did not result in an end to the condemnation of abortion in official discourse. The government instead launched an extensive campaign against abortion. Why did authorities bother legalizing the procedure if they still disapproved of it so strongly? Using archival sources, public health materials, and medical as well as popular journals to investigate the antiabortion campaign, this article argues that the Soviet government sought to regulate gender and sexuality through medical intervention and health "education" rather than prohibition and force in the post-Stalin era. It also explores how the antiabortion public health campaign produced "knowledge" not only about the procedure and its effects, but also about gender and sexuality, subjecting both women and men to new pressures and regulatory norms. PMID:22145180

  9. Tectonic and geodynamic setting of oil and gas basins of the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Khain, V.E.; Sokolov, B.A. ); Kleshchev, K.A.; Shein, V.S. )

    1991-02-01

    Within the territory of the Soviet Union and its off-shore economic zone are about 70 sedimentary basins containing oil and gas. The basins include almost all basin types described in present-day plate-tectonic classifications, namely (1) intracontinental and pericontinental rifts, suprarift syneclises, and zones of pericratonic downwarps; (2) ancient passive margins of continents with adjacent overthrust fold system; (3) modern passive margins of continents; (4) zones of convergence of lithospheric plates (i.e., zones of subduction of oceanic plates below continental plates); and (5) zones of collision of continental lithospheric plates. So, far, the only type of basin not identified within the territory of the Soviet Union is the pull-apart basin. The location and distribution of oil and gas deposits in the section of a basin, prevailing types of traps, and scale of potential resources are all features influenced by the geodynamic type of the basin.

  10. Learning disabilities theory and Soviet psychology: a comparison of basic assumptions.

    PubMed

    Coles, G S

    1982-09-01

    Critics both within and outside the Learning Disabilities (LD) field have pointed to the weaknesses of LD theory. Beginning with the premise that a significant problem of LD theory has been its failure to explore fully its fundamental assumptions, this paper examines a number of these assumptions about individual and social development, cognition, and learning. These assumptions are compared with a contrasting body of premises found in Soviet psychology, particularly in the works of Vygotsky, Leontiev, and Luria. An examination of the basic assumptions of LD theory and Soviet psychology shows that a major difference lies in their respective nondialectical and dialectical interpretation of the relationship of social factors and cognition, learning, and neurological development. PMID:7142423

  11. Comparison of seismic and hydrodynamic yield determinations for the Soviet joint verification experiment of 1988

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Lynn R.; Ekström, Göran

    1989-01-01

    Seismic magnitudes determined from surface and body waves for the Soviet underground nuclear explosion of September 14, 1988, are used to calculate the yield of that event from previously derived calibration curves. The yield obtained by combining the two seismic estimates is 113 kilotons, which is very close to those obtained by hydrodynamic measurements made on-site. This comparison substantiates previous conclusions about the sizes of past Soviet weapons tests and compliance with the Threshold Test Ban Treaty. The factor of uncertainty in the combined seismic yield is 1.28 at the 68% and 1.62 at the 95% confidence levels, demonstrating that accuracies considerably better than a factor of 2 can be obtained by combining seismic determinations of yield. PMID:16594040

  12. Before the long journey: Development of Soviet space biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazenko, O. G.

    1978-01-01

    Academician O. Gazenko, Chief of the Institute of Biomedical Problems, USSR Ministry of Public Health, reviewed the short but intense history of Soviet research in space biology and medicine. The solid academic approach of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in giving a good start at the very beginning of the space age is stressed and key people and institutions who initiated these studies are named. The basic feature of the first period of space biology is seen as the search for answers to a few fundamental questions of survival in space. It is pointed out that the initiated investigations were replaced by refined, in-depth studies of the biological, biophysical, and biochemical processes in human organism in the space environment and the search for methods which should enable cosmonaut crews to live in space for several years during interplanetary journeys. Discussing the typical problems of this effort, Gazenko each time showed how they benefit medical science and practice in general.

  13. Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is based on the assumption that the annual carbon increment in forest biomes equals the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere through respiration. A non-equilibrium analysis accounts for carbon sequestration during specific stages of forest ecosystem development. Sources and sinks of carbon and the sequestration potential of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union are assessed in the present study under non-equilibrium conditions by considering (1) net ecosystem productivity of different age forest stands and their actual coverage, (2) carbon flux related to forest fires, (3) the rate of peat accumulation, and (4) anthropogenic influences.

  14. The Soviet legacy in diagnosis and treatment: Implications for population health.

    PubMed

    Rechel, Boika; Kennedy, Colin; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd

    2011-08-01

    This article reviews diagnosis and treatment in the Commonwealth of Independent States in three clinical areas: tuberculosis, substance misuse, and neurological disorders in children. While the specific problems in each of these areas differ greatly, commonalities emerge, pointing to the continued influence of the Soviet past. Although progress in developing evidence-based medicine is being made, the isolation of Soviet science from Western developments has resulted in the widespread use of outdated diagnostic procedures and treatment protocols, while finance mechanisms still encourage unnecessary hospitalizations and treatments. A hierarchical medical system, as well as underdeveloped patient rights and medical ethics, mean that patients have little information and ability to participate in decision-making. The continued use of outdated approaches to diagnosis and treatment contributes to poor population health outcomes in the region. PMID:21808248

  15. Soviet Jews in the United States: an analysis of their linguistic and economic adjustment.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R

    1993-01-01

    "This article reviews the literature and analyzes 1980 Census data to study English language fluency and earnings among Soviet Jews [in the United States]. The literature review reveals: 1) the importance of employment and attaining premigration occupational status for self-esteem; 2) the difficulty of adjusting to the wide range of choices in the United States; 3) the greater difficulty and economic importance of learning English; and 4) the rapid linguistic and economic mobility. The multivariate analysis supports the latter two points. Soviet Jews have a difficult initial adjustment, but after five years in the United States they achieve parity in English fluency and earnings with other European immigrants, ceteris paribus." PMID:12318146

  16. Cooperation between health professionals from the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Conclusions from a trip to the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Storey, P B; Freymann, J G; Macfadyen, D M

    1990-12-01

    The United States has long made its academic medical resources available to foreign medical graduates. Conspicuously absent from the number of foreign nationals, however, have been physicians, scientists, and educators from the Soviet Union. Under the new conditions of perestroika, Soviet medical professionals are seeking ways in which to open up broad collaboration with their American counterparts. Agreements are being sought between national organizations, between academic medical institutions, and for the exchange of individual scholars. Cooperation in the area of medical education is one of the distinctive bridges on the path to mutual understanding that will represent a strong link in the public diplomacy of the two superpowers. We recently had the opportunity to discuss in Moscow some of the issues with the U.S.S.R. Minister of Health and with the Pro-rector for International Programs of the Central Institute for Advanced Medical Studies, as well as with faculty members, young medical scientists, and medical students of the Moscow Medical Institutes. We describe briefly many of the similarities and some of the dissonances between our two health systems and set forth ideas for an exchange program in medical education. PMID:2240902

  17. A comparative study of Soviet versus Western helicopters. Part 1: General comparison of designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.

    1983-01-01

    This document provides a general comparison of the state of the art of Soviet helicopter design vs. that of the West (U.S. in particular). It includes both commonalities and differences in conceptual design philosophies by addressing design parameters and design effectiveness according to accepted criteria. The baseline for comparison is by design gross weight which is presented in four categories: under 12,000 lb, 30-100,000 lb, and greater than 100,000 lb.

  18. U.S.-Soviet seismology research funds switched to air force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Department of Defense funding for seismology research has seen some changes in both amount and administration. While Congress increased the budget of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) by almost $1.4 billion this year, about 13% over last year (as reported October 30 in the Washington Post), it also rescinded DARPA's authority to manage funding of the Soviet Union program of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS).

  19. American and Soviet engineers examine Soyuz docking system prior to tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Three Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) engineers look over a Soyuz spacecraft docking system prior to an ASTP docking mechanism fitness test conducted in bldg 13 at JSC. They are, left to right, Robert White, Vladimir Syromyatnikov and Yevgeniy Bobrov. White is the American Chairman of ASTP Working Group No.3, and Syromyatnikov is his Soviet counterpart. Bobrov is a junior researcher with the Institute of Machine Building.

  20. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ulikpan, Anar; Mirzoev, Tolib; Jimenez, Eliana; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS) countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context. The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development

  1. Gamma-ray measurements of a soviet cruise-missile warhead.

    PubMed

    Fetter, S; Cochran, T B; Grodzins, L; Lynch, H L; Zucker, M S

    1990-05-18

    A portable germanium detector was used to detect gamma-ray emissions from a nuclear warhead aboard the Soviet cruiser Slava. Measurements taken on the missile launch tube indicated the presence of uranium-235 and plutonium-239-the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons. With the use of this equipment, these isotopes probably could have been identified at a distance of 4 meters from the warhead. Such inspections do not reveal detailed information about the design of the warhead. PMID:17811831

  2. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: L D Landau in the Soviet Atomic Project: a documentary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, G. V.

    2008-09-01

    The article presents information about the participation of Academician L D Landau in the Soviet Atomic Project and is based on a study of archive documents of the First Main Directorate. Their analysis points to L D Landau's important contribution to the development of the theory of heterogeneous nuclear reactors and to the computational justification of the first designs of atomic and hydrogen bombs. Many of the quoted documents have never been published before.

  3. The Level of Education in Post-Soviet Russia: A Contradictory Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkevich, Mikhail Nikolaevich

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the development of the level of education of the inhabitants of Russia is analyzed based on the materials of "post-Soviet Russia," in which there are two clearly marked different stages: the 1990s and the beginning of the present century. On the whole, this period has to be seen as one in which "capitalism was restored" in Russia.…

  4. Hungary's experience: Soviet military leaves hazardous reminder in Central and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, P.I.; Biczo, I.L.; Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Since the breakup of the former Soviet Union, thousands of abandoned Soviet military installations, including troop bases and airfields, have been returned to their host countries. These installations present serious, widespread environmental problems for the governments of Central and Eastern Europe. In the West, where approximately 130 military installations also are being realigned from military to civilian uses, similar environmental contamination problems exist. Expertise gained by US and Western European engineering firms at such sites may be applied to the cleanup of contaminated sites in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 1,000 former Soviet military installations exist in eastern Germany alone, with additional sites in Hungary, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and Poland. These sites pose critical contamination problems that will require a variety of remedial activities, including engineering, consulting, design and environmental assessment services; instrumentation and laboratory capabilities; groundwater and surface water treatment technologies; leaking underground storage tank (UST) removal and replacement techniques; mobile incinerators; and bioremediation and soil desorption technologies.

  5. Teaching evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Telen, Marilyn J

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named "eminence-based medicine." After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

  6. The Soviet-Russian space suits a historical overview of the 1960's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Abramov, Isaac P.; Stoklitsky, Anatoly Y.; Doodnik, Michail N.

    2002-07-01

    The development of protective suits for space use started with the Vostok-suit SK-1, first used by Yu. Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and then used on all subsequent Vostok-flights. The technical background for the design of these suits was the work on full pressure protective suits for military pilots and stratospheric flights in the 1930's through 50's. The Soviet-Russian space programme contains a large number of 'firsts', and one of the most well known is the first EVA by Leonov in 1965. This event is also the starting point for a long series of space suit development for Extravehicular Activities over the last 35 years. The next step to come was the transfer in void space of crew members between the two spacecraft Soyuz 4 and 5 in 1969. As has later become known this was an essential element in the planned Soviet lunar exploration programme, which in itself required a new space suit After the termination of the lunar programme in 1972, the space suit development concentrated on suits applicable to zero-gravity work around the manned space stations Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and MIR. These suits have become known as the ORLAN-family of suits, and an advanced version of this suit (ORLAN-M) will be used on the International Space Station together with the American EMU. This paper covers the space suit development in the Soviet Union in the 1960's and the experience used from the pre-space era.

  7. Teaching Evidence-Based Medicine in The Former Soviet Union: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Telen, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, I taught principles of evidence-based medicine and clinical research in Russia, Tatarstan, Moldova, and Kazakhstan. The Soviet Union left a medical legacy characterized by balkanization of top tier medicine in highly specialized centers, so there was little capability for multidiscipinary care. In addition, the authoritarian government led to a persistently top-down tradition of medical education and practice, which one of my Russian colleagues aptly named “eminence-based medicine.” After the fall of the Soviet Union, funding for science and medical research was drastically cut, leading to a struggle for resources and politicization of resource decisions. At present, prejudices and beliefs about disease and treatment persist untested, limited English language competency impedes acquisition of new knowledge, and restriction of resources cripples innovation. Yet none of these conditions are unknown to us in the United States. Physicians may resist evidence that challenges long-held beliefs, and patients want us to make decisions based on their individual case, not evidence arising from studying other people. As physicians, we need to understand how to communicate with and frame our arguments so that they can be understood and received favorably. Can we draw lessons from trying to teach evidence-based medicine in the former Soviet Union? PMID:25125721

  8. Elder knowledge and sustainable livelihoods in post-Soviet Russia: finding dialogue across the generations.

    PubMed

    Crate, Susan A

    2006-01-01

    Russia's indigenous peoples have been struggling with economic, environmental, and socio-cultural dislocation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In northern rural areas, the end of the Soviet Union most often meant the end of agro-industrial state farm operations that employed and fed surrounding rural populations. Most communities adapted to this loss by reinstating some form of pre-Soviet household-level food production based on hunting, fishing, and/or herding. However, mass media, globalization, and modernity challenge the intergenerational knowledge exchange that grounds subsistence practices. Parts of the circumpolar north have been relatively successful in valuing and integrating elder knowledge within their communities. This has not been the case in Russia. This article presents results of an elder knowledge project in northeast Siberia, Russia that shows how rural communities can both document and use elder knowledge to bolster local definitions of sustainability and, at the same time, initiate new modes of communication between village youth and elders. PMID:21847844

  9. [Survey of the perceived quality of healthcare in some countries of the former Soviet block].

    PubMed

    Pancoha, Marycica; Bonvini, Daniele; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    The health systems of countries of the Former Soviet Union are all based on Semashko's system, which is no longer active since 1991 when the fall of communism occurred. Post-soviet states have tried to create new healthcare systems that maintain universal access to care. The goal of this descriptive study, conducted from August 2009 to June 2012, was to investigate the perceived quality of healthcare services in selected post-Soviet states. A questionnaire was administered by trained staff, to samples of adult healthcare service users in five countries (Belarus, Moldova, the Baltic States, Romania, and Ukraine), to investigate different aspects of the health care systems in these countries. Results were analysed by gender, profession, age and country of origin. Overall, 470 subjects participated in the study. Perceived quality of healthcare varied among different countries but an overall negative and pessimistic view of the future was identified. Gender, age group and profession were found to be determinants of perceived quality (p <0.05). The observed variations do not seem to be directly explained by the model of healthcare system adopted, rather by respondents' different socioeconomic and demographical standings. PMID:24091846

  10. A preliminary study of the Soviet civil space program. Volume 1: Organization and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, Elizabeth K.

    1990-01-01

    The organization, planning, and personnel is focused of Soviet space, advantage is taken of glasnost and improved foreign relations to explore a hitherto obscure subject. The way in which the civil space program obtains approval and funding is altered. Missions must be approved before the Supreme Soviet, and public opinion is beginning to play a greater role in the legislature's budget decision. The Soviet civil space program remains a collection of disparate elements, not unified by any national, centralized space agency. An attempt was made to catalog and delineate the relationships between the components proves helpful. There is little or no coordination of independent associations' efforts, and the planning process relied on previously to set priorities and allocate resources appears to be currently inoperative or in a state of flux. The civil space program is moving in new directions: toward budget tautness, more international interactions, an emphasis on civilian over military applications, commercialization, and fiscal accountability. This study is a snapshot of a dynamic subject, but hopefully on which has highlighted the critical elements to track.

  11. Planetary Contamination II: Soviet and U.S. Practices and Policies.

    PubMed

    Murray, B C; Davies, M E; Eckman, P K

    1967-03-24

    The accompanying article of Horo witz et al. concluded with the view that the COSPAR recommendations re garding Mars should be adjusted to re flect new environmental information. Specifically, it was concluded that viable terrestrial microorganisms which are transported to Mars inside solid components in sealed spaces have a low probability of being released to the sur face or atmosphere, and that, if any are released, they are not likely to in fect the planet. We suggest, in addition, that both the COSPAR recommenda tions and U.S. planetary quarantine policy should be altered to take into account past and continuing Soviet prac tice regarding the. exploration of Mars and Venus. No amount of analysis by COSPAR, or of costly, self-imposed restrictions by the U.S. on its own planetary exploration program, can reduce the probability of contamination of either Venus or Mars below what the Soviets have already made it, or will make it as they continue their large planetary effort. All that U.S. policy can accomplish is to insure that U.S. efforts do not significantly increase the probability above that level. Any rec ommended policy which would require the U.S. to apply significantly more stringent restrictions is illogical in that, in effect, the U.S. would be asked to increase greatly the cost and complexity of its planetary program without achieving any significant reduction in the probability of actual contamination. There exists some parallelism be tween the problem of planetary quaran tine and that of radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear testing, al though the desirable solution to the quarantine problem is not merely to stop all activity. Both are multilateral problems, and individual national policy necessarily must reflect the policy of other nations. Thus, the real questions that must be faced by COSPAR, and by the U.S., are, (i) What is the prob able number of viable terrestrial micro organisms alreadyr transported to Venus and to Mars? and (ii) What

  12. Update of Soviet research on and exploitation of nuclear winter, 1984-1986. Technical report, 1 June 1984-16 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Goure, L.

    1986-09-16

    The analysis of Soviet source materials shows that Soviet scientists have made only minimal contributions to nuclear winter research and that much of the published work has continued to be based on worst-case war scenarios, parameters and values, and projection of climatic changes derived from seriously flawed 1983 models and computations in the U.S. and Soviet Union. For political and propaganda reasons, most Soviet open sources on nuclear winter have continued to ignore new Western and even some Soviet projections of more-moderate climatic effects. It appears that Soviet efforts to model nuclear winter have run their course and that more emphasis will be placed on the synergistic effects of nuclear war on the ecology and atmosphere.

  13. A major challenge. Entrepreneurship characterizes the work of the Soviet Family Health Association.

    PubMed

    Manuilova, I A

    1991-09-01

    The work of the Soviet Family Health Association (SFHA) is described. Created in January, 1989, the organization boasts 25 state-paid workers, and as of June 1991, membership of 15,000 corporate and individual members. Individual annual membership fee is 5 rubles, and entitles members to counseling and family planning (FP) services. The SFHA works in cooperation with the Commission on Family Planning Problems of the USSR's Academy of Sciences, and has been a member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) since 1990. Association activities include lectures for students, newly-weds, adolescents, and working women on modern contraceptive methods; research on attitude regarding sex, sex behaviors, and the perceived need for effective contraception; clinical trials of contraceptive suitability for women; and the training of doctors in FP and contraceptives. Problems central to the SFHA's operations include insufficient service and examination equipment, a shortage of hard currency, and the small number of FP specialists in the country. Solutions to these obstacles are sought through collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations in the Soviet Union, and international groups. The SFHA has a series of activities planned for 1991 designed to foster wider acceptance of FP. Increased FP services at industrial enterprises, establishing more FP centers throughout the Soviet Union, and studying FP programs in other countries are among Association targets for the year. Research on and promotion of contraceptives has been virtually stagnant since abortion was declared illegal in 1936. Catching up on these lost decades and remaining self-reliant are challenges to the SPHA. PMID:12284294

  14. Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon storage potential in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, P.; Kuemmerle, T.; Baumann, M.; Radeloff, V. C.; Woodcock, C. E.; Hostert, P.

    2010-12-01

    Land use is a critical factor in the global carbon cycle, but land use effects on carbon fluxes are poorly understood in many regions. One such region is the former Eastern Bloc, where land use intensity decreased substantially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, resulting in widespread farmland abandonment and forest regrowth. The aim of this study was to examine how land use trends altered net carbon fluxes in Western Ukraine (57,000 km2) for the communist (1945-1991) and the post-communist period (1991-2007), and to assess the regions’ future carbon sequestration potential. Forest disturbance and farmland abandonment between 1988 to 2007 was estimated from Landsat imagery in former study. Historical land use change rates were obtained from forest inventories to reconstruct forest trends back to the mid-1800s. Using a carbon book-keeping model, we quantified net carbon fluxes from land use change and assessed potential future carbon fluxes for a range of reforestation and logging scenarios. Our results suggest that the low-point in forest cover occurred in the 1920s. Forest expansion in the second half of the 20th century turned the region from a carbon source to a sink, despite heavy logging during Soviet times. The current land-use related sink strength is about 1.5 Tg of carbon per year. Sequestration potential on abandoned farmland is enormous, even when assuming that only a minor fraction of the currently abandoned land will revert to forests. Beyond our study area, farmland abandonment has been widespread throughout Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, suggesting that a substantial proportion of the regions’ industrial carbon emissions may be offset by reforesting farmland.

  15. Structure for a knowledge-based system to estimate Soviet tactics in the air-land battle. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.M.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to build a prototype decision aid that can use knowledge about Soviet military doctrine and tactics to infer when, where, and how the Soviet Army plans to attack NATO defenses given intelligence data about Soviet (Red) military units, terrain data, and the positions of the NATO (Blue) defenses. Issues are raised that must be resolved before such a decision aid, which is part of the Rapid Application of Air Power concept, can become operational. First examined is the need to shorten the C2 decision cycle in order for the ATOC staff to keep pace with the tempo of modern warfare. The Rapid Application of Air Power is a concept that includes automating various steps in the decision cycle to allow air power to be applied proactively to stop Soviet forces before they obtain critical objectives. A structure is presented for automating the second step in the decision cycle, assessing and clarifying the situation, through a knowledge-based decision aid for interpreting intelligence data from the perspective of Soviet (Red) doctrine and estimating future Red tactical objectives and maneuvers.

  16. Evidence and ideology as a rationale for light-therapy in Russia: from the Soviet Union to the present day

    PubMed Central

    Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Light therapy is still used to treat a number of common diseases in Russia. The practice is firmly anchored in history: Soviet clinical practice was divorced from the emerging field of evidence-based medicine. Medical researchers were cut off from international medical research and scientific literature, with much Soviet scientific activity based on a particular socialist ideology. In this study, the use of light therapy serves as a case study to explore tensions between international evidence-based medicine and practices developed in isolation under the Soviet Union, the legacy of which is to the detriment of many patients today. We used four different search methods to uncover scientific and grey literature, both historical and contemporary. We assessed the changing frequency of publications over time and contrasted the volume of literature on light therapy with more orthodox treatments such as statins and painkillers. Our search found an increasing number and comparatively large body of scientific publications on light therapy in the Russian language, and many publications emanating from prestigious Russian institutions. Combined with our analysis of the historical literature and our appraisal of 22 full text articles, this leads us to suggest that light therapy entered mainstream Soviet medical practice before the Stalinist period and still occupies an important position in contemporary Russian clinical practice. We propose that this outdated treatment survives in Russia in part due to the political, economic and social forces that helped to popularize it during Soviet times, and by the seeming justification offered by poorly executed studies. PMID:24040492

  17. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants. PMID:24009398

  18. Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kaazik, P.B.; Kostyuchenko, V.N.; Kuznetsov, O.P.; Nedoshivin, N.I.; Rubinshtein, K.D.; Sultanov, D.D.

    1995-04-01

    The report is carried out by the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres, Russian Academy of Sciences under contract NB280344 with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California. The work includes investigation of seismic waves generation and propagation from Soviet peaceful underground nuclear explosions in salt based on the data from temporary and permanent seismic stations. The explosions were conducted at the sites Azgir and Vega within the territory of the Caspian depression of the Russian platform. The data used were obtained in the following conditions of conduction: epicentral distance range from 0 to 60 degrees, yields from 1 to 65 kt and depths of burial from 160 to 1500 m.

  19. Summary of radiation dosimetry results on U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Benton, E V

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the radiation environment aboard U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft are reviewed and summarized. Data obtained mostly from passive and some active radiation detectors now exist for the case of low Earth-orbit missions. Major uncertainties still exist for space exposure in high altitude, high inclination, geostationary orbits, in connection with solar effects and that of shielding. Data from active detectors flown in Spacelabs 1 and 2 suggest that a variety of phenomena must be understood before the effects of long-term exposure at the space-station type of orbit and shielding can be properly assessed. PMID:11537239

  20. Evolution of EVA capabilities for space station construction and maintenance: Soviet and American experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Cathy D.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of both Soviet and American Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is discussed. A qualitative review evaluates each EVA with respect to risk, criticality, complexity, and duration. Graphics summarizing increase and rate of increase in productivity emphasize related advancements in the space suits, EVA tools, and equipment technology. Specifics that demonstrated ingenuity in accomplishing unplanned activities which required man's direct manipulation of large payloads and structures are presented. Accumulated EVA successes allow an effective, flexible, recommended approach for construction and maintenance of Space Station to be given in conclusion.

  1. Compilation of seismic-refraction crustal data in the Soviet Union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Robert; Durbin, William P., Jr.; Healy, J.H.; Warren, David H.

    1964-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is preparing a series of terrain atlases of the Sino-Soviet bloc of nations for use in a possible nuclear-test detection program. Part of this project is concerned with the compilation and evaluation of crustal-structure data. To date, a compilation has been made of data from Russian publications that discuss seismic refraction and gravity studies of crustal structure. Although this compilation deals mainly with explosion seismic-refraction measurements, some results from earthquake studies are also included. None of the data have been evaluated.

  2. Intentions and capabilities: Estimates on soviet strategic forces, 1950-1983

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The documents in this volume -- a selection of 41 National Intelligence Estimates on Soviet strategic capabilities and intentions from the 1950s until 1983 -- pertain to the US Intelligence Community`s performance of its most critical mission during the Cold War. The purpose in producing the volume is simply to make more readily accessible to scholars, and to the public, records that shed light on the history of American intelligence and foreign policy as well as on the history of the USSR and Russia.

  3. The anti-plague system and the Soviet biological warfare program.

    PubMed

    Zilinskas, Raymond A

    2006-01-01

    The USSR possessed a unique national public health system that included an agency named "anti-plague system." Its mission was to protect the country from highly dangerous diseases of either natural or laboratory etiology. During the 1960s, the anti-plague system became the lead agency of a program to defend against biological warfare, codenamed Project 5. This responsibility grew and by the middle 1970s came to include undertaking tasks for the offensive biological warfare program, codenamed Ferment. This article describes the anti-plague system's activities relevant to both aspects of the Soviet Union's biological warfare program, offense and defense, and analyzes its contributions to each. PMID:16610337

  4. The trial of the new woman: citizens-in-training in the new Soviet Republic.

    PubMed

    Wood, E A

    2001-01-01

    This essay examines the texts of Soviet plays from the 1920s known as agitation trials that deal with issues of women's emancipation and participation in the public sphere. It argues that, far from showing women to be men's equals (the ostensible purpose of the plays), the trials give a shocking portrayal of their heroines' faults, from passivity and meddling to gossip and lack of discipline. Given these weaknesses, the women delegates are supposed to recognise their need for tutelage from the new authorities. Their citizenship is thus held, at best, on contingent approval from those authorities. PMID:18271131

  5. The Role of Human Intelligence in the USAs 1960s Efforts to Understand Soviet Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesavento, P.

    Recent declassification of material from the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) and the archives of the US State Department provide several new insights into US intelligence's knowledge of Soviet Space Activities and sources of that knowledge. It is apparent that there was a significant human intelligence source providing information on subjects such as the USSR's Voskhod 3 mission and manned lunar program activities. This new understanding shows that US intelligence was employing the complete panoply of intelligence tools and that human intelligence appears to have provided many key understandings

  6. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, Number 66, July-August 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography is the 66th in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical laser; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy, beam-target interaction, and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  7. Flux stability and power control in the Soviet RBMK-1000 reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Meriwether, G.H.; McNeece, J.P.

    1993-08-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident, the Soviets have studied and implemented various design changes to improve the safety of the RBMK reactors. The safety measurements include modifications of the control rod configuration, fuel enrichment increase from 2.0 to 2.4 weight percent U-235, and installation of additional supplemental absorbers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of increased fuel enrichment, different control rod positions, and supplemental absorber loadings on reactivity control, power distribution within the large RBMK core, and relative stability against power oscillations.

  8. Diphtheria in the former Soviet Union: reemergence of a pandemic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vitek, C. R.; Wharton, M.

    1998-01-01

    The massive reemergence of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union marked the first large-scale diphtheria epidemic in industrialized countries in 3 decades. Factors contributing to the epidemic included a large population of susceptible adults; decreased childhood immunization, which compromised what had been a well-established childhood vaccination program; suboptimal socioeconomic conditions; and high population movement. The role of a change in the predominant circulating strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in this epidemic remains uncertain. Massive, well-coordinated international assistance and unprecedented efforts to vaccinate adults were needed to control the epidemic. PMID:9866730

  9. Environmental conditions in the Rudnaya River watershed--a compilation of Soviet and post-Soviet era sampling around a lead smelter in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Kachur, Anatoly N; Arzhanova, Valentina S; Yelpatyevsky, Pavel V; von Braun, Margrit C; von Lindern, Ian H

    2003-02-15

    The Rudnaya River valley in the Russian Far East contains a rich reserve of lead, zinc and boron and has been mined for nearly 100 years. Environmental contamination related to the area's mines and lead smelter was studied for over 30 years during the Soviet era, by members of the Pacific Geographic Institute (PGI). Due to government restrictions, much of the sampling focused on contamination of the river, the air, forests, vegetation, agricultural products and soil. Source-specific samples, such as stack emissions from the smelter, and blood lead levels from the residents and smelter workers could not be obtained or were classified as State secrets. However, the data do describe the extent and severity of the environmental contamination and related public health concerns. Water discharged from the smelter averages 2900 m(3)/day (containing 100 kg of lead (Pb) and 20 kg of arsenic (As)) and leachate from area mine dumps and other industrial processes contaminates the Rudnaya River. Annual air emissions include 85 tonnes of particulates (containing 50 tonnes of Pb and 0.5 tonnes of As) and 250000 m(3) of gases high in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)). Vegetative stress is severe and much of this area is denuded. Pb and other metals in agricultural products suggest local produce may be dangerous for human consumption, although it is a major food source for the community. Public and occupational health indicators of basophilic stippling, respiratory disease and hair lead levels further suggest the severity of the problem. Although, descriptions of complete methodologies and procedures are often lacking, these data describe how sampling was conducted during the Soviet era and document a site with severe heavy metals contamination, especially lead, and the likelihood of related public health problems. They are relevant today as investigators employ state-of-the-art-sampling techniques and explore cleanup options under a new

  10. Soviet Nordic nuclear-weapon free-zone proposal. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsden, C.A.

    1990-06-01

    This thesis examines the Soviet proposal and its ramifications for the United States and the West. The central theme running through each Soviet proposal has been removal of American nuclear guarantees. Preservation of US national security interests and hence US ability to extend its forward defense would be gravely threatened by such a NWFZ. However, unilateral agreement on a NWFZ is unlikely by the anticipated members of the Nordic NWFZ the US, USSR, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, and Sweden. The US has military installations in Iceland and Greenland and banning of nuclear weapons during wartime is inconceivable. The question then arises as to which nation or groups of nations will dominate and which will acquiesce. Inevitably the debate breaks down to a tug of war between the two superpowers. It is really the politics surrounding the nuclear weapons that is the heart of the nuclear-free-zone debate. Changing world politics demand that the West develop a unified strategy toward the USSR. Through NATO it must preserve its vital economic political and military objectives in the Northern Flank. Flexible naval forces and strong political and economic ties to the governments of the nations bordering the Baltic are essential. Strong NATO naval forces operating in the Baltic Sea must be seen as guarantors of the West's strategic aims and interests. A Nordic NWFZ would prevent this.

  11. Critical thinking as culture: Teaching post-Soviet teachers in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering competitiveness, intolerance and other hostile behaviours antithetical to critical thinking and an open, democratic society. While educational reform can have profound effects on a nation, education is but one system in a complex network of governmental and cultural systems, and change must be borne by many. This paper reviews literature and presents qualitative data gathered through interviews with Soviet-trained teachers. The authors recommend that teachers should embrace student-centred techniques and critical thinking methodologies, as well as shift from a fear-based, authoritarian, top-down system of relating to students and colleagues to one of cooperation, openness and fairness. Such a reform will take repetitive, intensive and experiential training as well as regular assessments of progress.

  12. In situ radiation measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, W.J.

    1996-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, during the period of July 21-30, 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at selected areas on the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. The survey was part of a cooperative effort between the United States team and teams of radiation scientists from the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. In addition to in situ radiation measurements made by the United States and Russian teams, soil samples were collected and analyzed by the Russian and Kazakhstani teams. All teams conducted their measurements at ten locations within the test site. The United States team also made a number of additional measurements to locate and verify the positions of three potential fallout plumes containing plutonium contamination from nonnuclear tests. In addition, the United States team made several measurements in Kurchatov City, the housing area used by personnel and their families who work(ed) at the test sites. Comparisons between the United States and Russian in situ measurements and the soil sample results are presented as well as comparisons with a Soviet aerial survey conducted in 1990-1991. The agreement between the different types of measurements made by all three countries was quite good.

  13. Migrant Selection and the Health of U.S. Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.

    2012-01-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000–2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50–84). Our findings suggest an “epidemiologic paradox” in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970–1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987–2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites. PMID:22421810

  14. Epidemic of tuberculosis in the former Soviet Union: social and biological reasons.

    PubMed

    Toungoussova, Olga S; Bjune, Gunnar; Caugant, Dominique A

    2006-01-01

    The tuberculosis epidemic was evidenced in the states of the former Soviet Union at the end of the 20th century. The increase of epidemiological indicators for tuberculosis was accelerated by socio-economic changes in the society. Laboratory analysis also revealed new biological properties of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the region, in particular the high level of resistance to antibiotics. Tuberculosis in Russia and the other newly independent states has been caused by M. tuberculosis strains of the W-Beijing family in recent years. These bacteria have rapidly developed resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs, as a result of prolonged exposure of the patients to inappropriate treatment. The epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis caused by the W-Beijing strains represents an important threat to the health of the populations in the newly independent states. It may also adversely affect the global trends in tuberculosis, as there is a clear risk that these drug-resistant strains can spread to other communities outside the former Soviet Union. PMID:16256436

  15. Regional discrimination research and methodology implementation: Analyses of CDSN and Soviet IRIS data. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, T.J.; Scheimer, J.F.; Campanella, A.K.; Murphy, J.R.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the capability of regional stations in discrimination of underground nuclear explosions from earthquakes and non-nuclear explosions. Efforts during the first year of this program have focused on studies of regional data from the Chinese Digital Seismic Network(CDSN) and Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology(IRIS) stations in the Soviet Union. A previous report described observations from the CDSN station at WMQ which indicated differences in relative spectral content of Lg versus regional P for explosions and earthquakes. In the current research we used different spectral analyses to study the signals from a larger event sample including 27 East Kazakh explosions and 32 regional earthquakes. Lg/P ratios for regional earthquakes were found to be enriched at high frequencies compared to similar explosions. In comparing explosions from Shagan River and Degelen Mountain areas it was found that regional P signals are relatively stronger from SR than from DM explosions with similar Lg signals. Analysis of East Kazakh explosion signals recorded at Soviet IRIS stations indicates that regional signals are observable down to very low magnitudes. Lg magnitude residuals from these stations have been used to derive effective Q values for these paths.

  16. [Neurosciences and the ravings of the Soviet era. Spanish Republican physicians, a set of privileged witnesses].

    PubMed

    Marco-Igual, Miguel

    2011-08-16

    This study analyses the links between the Russian and Soviet neurosciences and their Spanish counterpart, especially with regard to the experiences of the Spanish Republican physicians exiled in the USSR. The Russian neurosciences, which date back to the second half of the 19th century, followed a path that ran parallel to the discipline throughout the rest of Europe and finally displayed signs of being influenced by the German and French schools. Important figures include Alexei Kojevnikov and Vladimir Bekhterev in neurology, Sergei Korsakov in psychiatry, Ivan Pavlov and his disciple Piotr Anojin in neurophysiology, Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria in neuropsychology, and Nikolai Burdenko in neurosurgery. When the Bolsheviks came to power, they brought with them a progressive conception of health care, which was modified during the Stalinist era to serve political interests, above all in the case of psychiatry. During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish scientists became interested in Pavlov's reflexology and the Soviets took a similar interest in Spanish histology. Among the 4500 Spanish Republicans who emigrated to the USSR because of the Spanish Civil War, there were several dozen physicians who were privileged witnesses of the madness that shook the science and the health care of that period. Relevant names worth citing here from the field of the neurosciences include Juan Planelles and Ramon Alvarez-Buylla in neurophysiology, Federico Pascual and Florencio Villa Landa in psychiatry, Angel Escobio and Maria Perez in neurology, Julian Fuster in neurosurgery and Manuel Arce in neuroimaging. PMID:21780075

  17. Innovation and the diffusion of new production technologies in Soviet industry

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Chapter one of the dissertation describes the institutions and mechanisms involved in the innovation process in Soviet industry and surveys empirical research on this process. A distinction is drawn between the decentralized and centralized procedures which the Soviets employ to diffuse new production technologies. This chapter also critiques some of the analyses of the innovation process put forward by Western analysts. Chapter two examines the system of financial incentives designed to induce enterprises to adopt new production technologies and the effects which the regulation of enterprise incomes has on the payoffs to new technology adoption. A formal model is developed in which a regulator periodically reviews the distribution of incomes of two enterprises comprising an industry and redistributes incomes between them to control this distribution. Chapter three examines the important role which authorities superior to the enterprises play in planning the diffusion of new technologies. An optimal planning problem is formulated in which an industrial planner, who is responsible for producing some output, must determine the diffusion path of a process innovation.

  18. Bibliography on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Smallidge, E.R.

    1997-08-01

    In 1993 a pilot project between the Defense Technical Information Center and the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory resulted in a proposal to conduct a state-of-the-art review of technology and techniques for building, operating, and maintaining arctic natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines in the former Soviet Union. The objectives of the pipeline review were to (1) Review the design, construction, operation, and maintenance procedures of oil and gas pipelines in the permafrost areas of eastern and western Siberia. (2) Assemble data on the evolution of Siberian pipelines, reflecting changes in size, modes of construction, and age. (3) Assemble data on maintenance procedures and practices, including inspection techniques with respect to corrosion, pipe wrinkling, and metal fatigue. (4) Assemble data on pipeline failures and attempt to predict life expectancy of different pipelines under the harsh arctic environment. (5) Evaluate the environmental impact of different pipeline construction techniques and relate it to ruptures and breaks. In conjunction with the study objectives, a literature search was conducted on northern pipelines in the former Soviet Union. References were compiled on dates of construction, location, route conditions, design, construction, maintenance, environmental impact, accidents, production management, and other pertinent facts. In the resulting bibliography, references are separated into three categories: Oil and Gas Pipelines, Construction, and Accidents. There is some repetition of references between the categories because some are relevant to more than one of the subject categories.

  19. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The development of the first Soviet atomic bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, German A.; Ryabev, Lev D.

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1930s and early 1940s, two remarkable physical phenomena — the fission of heavy nuclei and the chain fission reaction — were discovered, implying that a new powerful source of energy (nuclear fission energy) might become a practical possibility for mankind. At that time, however, the political situation in the world made the development of the atomic bomb the main objective of nuclear energy research in the countries involved. The first atomic bombs, notoriously used in the war against Japan, were produced by the United States of America only six and a half years after the discovery of fission. Four years later, the first Soviet atomic bomb was tested. This was a major step toward the establishment of nuclear parity which led to stability and global peace and thus greatly influenced the destiny of human kind. Based on documentary materials covering the period from 1939 to 1949, this paper traces the origin and evolution of the physical ideas behind the first Soviet atomic bomb and discusses the most important events associated with the project.

  20. A study of positrons from Soviet nuclear powered satellites as tracers for magnetospheric research

    SciTech Connect

    Hones, E.W. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    Two Soviet satellites carrying nuclear reactors operated in circular 790 km orbits (65{degree} inclination) in 1987 and 1988. Positrons generated in the satellites' surfaces by the intense reactor gamma radiation escaped and were trapped for periods of minutes to hours in the geomagnetic field. These positrons have been observed on many occasions by gamma ray sensors on the SMM satellite (in 500 km orbit) which identify the positrons by the 511 keV gamma rays created when they annihilate in the satellite surface. The SMM detector provides a time resolution of 64 milliseconds. It has recorded positron rise-times of less than 0.5 second (corresponding to about 1 positron gyroradius) on many occasions as it encounters the low-L edge of positrons injected by the Soviet satellites as far as half-way around the earth. We are studying the potential of these sharply defined positron shells as magnetospheric tracers and as a means for examining particle diffusion and loss processes. 3 refs., 5 figs.