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Sample records for soviet anthem low-key

  1. National Anthem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A montage of video clips over the years, footage shows the spacecrews, launch, and landing for different orbiters and missions. Clips include the Endeavour and Atlantis Orbiters and are shown to the music of the American National Anthem.

  2. National anthems and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2011-02-01

    In a sample of 18 European nations, suicide rates were positively associated with the proportion of low notes in the national anthems and, albeit less strongly, with students' ratings of how gloomy and how sad the anthems sounded, supporting a hypothesis proposed by Rihmer. PMID:21526589

  3. Schools Celebrate National Anthem Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Roger Lacher, instrumental music director at Murray Middle School in Ridgecrest, California, spearheaded a celebration of the national anthem attended by a descendant of Francis Scott Key. In a press release Lacher sent to the local media, he wrote: "Murray Middle School celebrated this event. We are blessed with having the great, great, great,…

  4. Lyrics of national anthems and suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Gunn, John F

    2011-08-01

    The suicide rates of 18 European nations were associated with the proportion of sad words in the lyrics of their national anthems as well as the gloominess of the music. It is suggested that a possible suicide prevention tactic might involve changing the music and lyrics of national anthems. PMID:22049655

  5. ANTHEM simulation of plasma opening switches

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.; Jones, M.E.; Bergman, C.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Opening Switches have been examined numerically with the aid of the ANTHEM plasma simulation model. A generic bi-cylindrical switch is studied. The switching of generator pulses ranging from 50 ns to 1 /mu/sec is reviewed, for a variety of plasma fill lengths and densities, and for a range of resistive loads. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  6. The Israeli anthem and its dental connection.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2009-01-01

    In 1892 an article on dentistry among the ancient Israelites appeared in the popular dental journal Items of Interest. It was written by Naphthali Herz Imber, an obscure wandering poet and writer who had traveled through most of the world, but achieved immortality for having written the poem Ha Tikva, or The Hope, which became the national anthem of the State of Israel. However, searches through biographies of Imber show no indication that he had any interest or attachment to dentistry. PMID:19537488

  7. Teaching Social Studies with National Anthems Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Many national anthem lyrics focus on struggle and war between nations. Some, such as "The Star Spangled Banner," focus on a single battle or incident, like the War of 1812. Others stress the bravery, strength, and courage of the soldiers and sometimes the entire nation. Other anthems, such as Brazil's, focus on the beauty and…

  8. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... on September 3, 2010 (75 FR 54187). The workers supply claims processing services and customer... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc... Adjustment Assistance (TAA), applicable to workers and former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield,...

  9. Soviet union.

    PubMed

    1987-12-19

    While Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev was last week holding Star Wars talks with Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan, nurses in the USSR have received large pay rises to combat recruitment problems. PMID:27319527

  10. Singing the national anthem at major league baseball stadiums raises awareness of ALS.

    PubMed

    Herreria, J

    1998-01-01

    Mark Reiman, diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), is raising awareness of the disease, better known as Lou Gehrig's disease, by singing the national anthem at all the major league baseball stadiums in the U.S. PMID:10186395

  11. Anthem simulational studies of the plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    For a deeper understanding of the physical processes governing the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) we use the ANTHEM 2D implicit simulation code to study: (1) ion dynamical effects on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) waves propagating along steep density interfaces in the switch plasmas. At radial interfaces where the density jumps toward the anode, these waves can drive a finger of magnetic field into the plasma toward the load. Ion dynamics can open the rear of such fingers into a wedge-like density gap. Then: (2) we examine ion effects in uniform switch plasmas. These first develop potential hill structures at the drive edge of the cathode from the competition between electron velocity advection and EHD magnetic exclusion waves. Magnetic pressure gradients at the hill periphery and EHD effects then establish a density gap propagating along the cathode with radial electron emission from its tip. Similar results are obtained under both multi-fluid and PIC modeling of the plasma components.

  12. Anthem simulational studies of the plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    For a deeper understanding of the physical processes governing the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) we use the ANTHEM 2D implicit simulation code to study: (1) ion dynamical effects on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) waves propagating along steep density interfaces in the switch plasmas. At radial interfaces where the density jumps toward the anode, these waves can drive a finger of magnetic field into the plasma toward the load. Ion dynamics can open the rear of such fingers into a wedge-like density gap. Then: (2) we examine ion effects in uniform switch plasmas. These first develop potential hill structures at the drive edge of the cathode from the competition between electron velocity advection and EHD magnetic exclusion waves. Magnetic pressure gradients at the hill periphery and EHD effects then establish a density gap propagating along the cathode with radial electron emission from its tip. Similar results are obtained under both multi-fluid and PIC modeling of the plasma components.

  13. Soviet Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Elizabeth

    Recent social and political changes in the USSR have made available some 60 previously unreleased films, which were produced during the last 20 years and withheld from release by the Union of Soviet Filmmakers. In 1986, much of this group's leadership was removed leading to an atmosphere more favorable to wider distribution. Some of these films…

  14. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... was published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). The certification was amended...., D/B/A/Anthem East, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Manchester, New Hampshire TA-W-74,895J...,895G), Wellpoint, Inc., d/b/a Anthem East, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team, Manchester,...

  15. 76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended.../Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased...

  16. Modern Tools of Propaganda: Television Treatments of National Anthems in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    Because of the close proximity of countries in the Middle East, broadcast signals freely cross national boundaries, bringing not always friendly endemic populations into contact with each other through radio and television programming--a fact that has not been lost on the governments which fund broadcasting facilities. National anthems are…

  17. O Say, They Can Sing! Teachers Share Their Tips for Teaching the National Anthem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Teresa K.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers who have made "The Star-Spangled Banner" a central part of their students' repertoire have found that students can learn it and take pride in staging this familiar song that even their parents consider too difficult. Many teachers recognize that the first obstacle in teaching the anthem is that students do not know the words or understand…

  18. Eureka! Students Lead Sports Crowd in Anthem Singing: Helping Promote Music Education in Our Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehr, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    On March 10, 2005, MENC launched The National Anthem Project: Restoring America's Voice, which was nationally televised on Good Morning America from the U.S. Capitol grounds. If one goes to the project Web site, www.thenationalanthemproject.org, one will find ample evidence that music educators are already getting across the message of the…

  19. ANTHEM: a two-dimensional multicomponent self-consistent hydro-electron transport code for laser-matter interaction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The ANTHEM code for the study of CO/sub 2/-laser-generated transport is outlined. ANTHEM treats the background plasma as coupled Eulerian thermal and ion fluids, and the suprathermal electrons as either a third fluid or a body of evolving collisional PIC particles. The electrons scatter off the ions; the suprathermals drag against the thermal background. Self-consistent E- and B-fields are computed by the Implicit Moment Method. The current status of the code is described. Typical output from ANTHEM is discussed with special application to Augmented-Return-Current CO/sub 2/-laser-driven targets.

  20. Trickle-down theory. Anthem's expensive acquisition of Trigon Healthcare raises question of whether local providers may end up with the bill.

    PubMed

    Benko, Laura B

    2002-08-12

    Anthem's acquisition of Trigon Healthcare, its largest deal to date at $4 billion in cash and stock, gives the insurer a sturdy foothold in the Southeast while rewarding Trigon's shareholders with a profit. Anthem CEO Larry Glasscock (right) and Trigon CEO Thomas Snead expect a smooth transition. Anthem has taken a pricey step toward becoming the No. 1 Blues plan consolidator. But will local providers end up footing much of the bill? PMID:12224117

  1. Developments in Soviet Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Studies the news values, practices, and role of journalists in the Soviet Union. Claims that, although the Soviet press currently resembles a corporate public relations department, there are signs of change because of public demands. States that journalistic practices in the U.S. and Soviet Union are similar in their reliance on routine and…

  2. Soviet scientists speak out

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D. )

    1993-05-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb.

  3. Outlook for soviet oil.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, T

    1982-07-23

    Public debate about Soviet oil has become more widespread in the past 5 years, but during this period Soviet petroleum exports have ceased to be made available by volume. Soviet oil consumption has usually been estimated by deducting exports from total production. This article takes the alternative approach, using Soviet statistics from a variety of sources, to build up a sectoral pattern of Soviet oil demand and to consider this in the broader context of total Comecon energy supply and demand. From this focus future prospects for the Comecon energy balance are analyzed. PMID:17791503

  4. The Soviet Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhirst, Martin, Ed.; Farrell, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains the proceedings of a symposium which are intended to be a general survey on the nature of Soviet censorship, its effect on literature in the USSR, and the role of such censorship in the intellectual life of a large part of the world. Contents include: "What Is the Soviet Censorship?" which is an attempt to define the way in…

  5. The Soviet calculus of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkowicz, R.; Mickiewicz, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons policy in the USSR. Topics considered include contemporary Soviet military policy, Soviet strategic planning, ballistic missile defense, Soviet arms control decision making since Brezhnev, Soviet positions on strategic arms control, negotiating with the Soviets, the slowdown of Soviet defense spending, weapons acquisition in the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union and the East European militaries.

  6. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  7. Soviet phase conjugation research

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.A.; Boyd, R.W.; Klein, M.B.; Kurnit, N.A.; Milonni, P.W.; Rockwell, D.A.; Yeh, P.

    1990-09-01

    Optical phase conjugation is a Soviet-discovered technique that applies nonlinear optical effects to automatically manipulate laser beams while automatically correcting for arbitrary distortions. Optical phase conjugation can aid in providing improved configurations for average-power and high-peak-power laser systems; it can provide nearly automatic pointing and tracking laser systems; and it can provide many other practical applications (both military and nonmilitary). Here it is important to note that 100- to 1000-watt systems are also of significant importance, not just ultra-high-energy or high-power lasers designed to do significant structural damage at significant distances. One class of phase conjugation techniques, namely, stimulated Brillouin scattering, along with its four-wave mixing counterpart, Brillioun-enhanced four-wave mixing, has been the hallmark of the Soviet effort -- with nearly all contributions (both theoretical and experimental) arising from the Soviet Union. Both stimulated Brillouin scattering and Brillouin-enhanced four-wave mixing arise from the same electrostrictive nonlinearity, where the presence of a gradient in the optical intensity produces a force on the fluid. Scientists in the United States started studying optical phase conjugation approximately five years after Soviet scientists, and initially concentrated on areas quite different from those of Soviet emphasis.

  8. Soviet uranium supply capability

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    For many years, only limited information concerning uranium deposits in the USSR has been available from Soviet sources. The Soviet Union has, however, cooperated in some past efforts to promote interaction with the international scientific community. For example, in 1984 the Soviet Union hosted the 27th International Geological Congress (IGC). The uranium portion included 50 papers, primarily on uranium deposits in sandstone and metamorphic rocks, presented to about 300 members. The IGC sponsored almost 400 geology field trips, the most noteworthy of which was a five-day trip to the Krivoi Rog iron and uranium district in the south-central Ukraine, including visits to two open-pit iron mines and the underground Novaya uranium mine in Zholtye Vody. That conference was reported in detail on the October 1984 NUEXCO Monthly Report. Some other information that has been made available over the years is contained in the April 1985 Report discussion of uranium deposit classifications. Advanced processing technology, low-cost labor, by-product and co-product recovery, and the large existing production capacity enable MAEI to produce nuclear fuel at low cost. The Soviet Union`s reserve base, technological development, and production experience make it one of the world`s leading producers of nuclear fuel. As additional information is made available for publication, NUEXCO will present updated reports on the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Soviet Union.

  9. ANTHEM simulations of the early time magnetic field penetration of the plasma surrounding a high density Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The early time penetration of magnetic field into the low density coronal plasma of a Z-pinch fiber is studied with the implict plasma simulation code ANTHEM. Calculations show the emission of electrons from the cathode, pinching of the electron flow, magnetic insulation of the electrons near the anode, and low density ion blow off. PIC-particle ion calculations show a late time clumping of the ion density not seen with a fluid ion treatment.

  10. ANTHEM simulation of the early time magnetic field penetration of the plasma surrounding a high density Z-pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The early time penetration of magnetic field into the low density coronal plasma of a Z-pinch fiber is studied with the implicit plasma simulation code ANTHEM. Calculations show the emission of electrons from the cathode, pinching of the electron flow, magnetic insulation of the electrons near the anode, and low density ion blow off. PIC-particle ion calculations show a late time clumping of the ion density not seen with a fluid ion treatment. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Soviet optical processing research

    SciTech Connect

    VanderLugt, A.; Attard, A.E.; Cronin-Golomb, M.; Hartman, R.L.; Lee, J.N.; Morris, G.M.; Rhodes, W.T.

    1991-04-01

    Optical processing techniques are used to transform, manipulate, or transmit information. The Soviet Union has vigorously pursued optical processing since the 1960s. This report summarizes Soviet capabilities in hardware, particularly in materials and devices, as well as their capability in applications such as image processing and signal processing/computing. Soviet work in optical signal processing may be characterized as follows: good in terms of fundamental science of materials; capable of producing good materials (often on a par with the West); curious lack of activity with ferroelectric liquid crystals; unique capability in biochrome materials; good capabilities in waveguide devices; good research on spatial light modulators using electro-optic materials; lacking in fabrication techniques for devices; good in terms of statistical analysis of expected system performance; lacking in microelectronic support capabilities; and general lack of innovation for new signal processing architectures. 400 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  13. SOVIET NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOLLANDER, GAYLE DURHAM

    AS TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXTENSIVE RADIO AND TELEVISION NETWORK IN THE SOVIET UNION, MASS COMMUNICATIONS CONTINUED TO BE DOMINATED BY THE HEAVILY POLITICIZED NEWSPAPERS, WITH PRAVDA, THE PARTY DAILY, REMAINING THE MOST AUTHORITATIVE SOURCE FOR INFORMATION AND INTERPRETATION. FOREIGN RADIO BROADCASTS TO THE SOVIET…

  14. Soviet Education Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajda, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Marxist-Leninist ethics were related to Communist morality in practice by surveying Soviet students' values and perceptions of the influence of parents, schools, and mass media. The content of moral education, history, and social studies curricula, and the structure of youth organizations (Octobrists, Pioneers, and Komsomal) were examined.…

  15. Quantum cryptography and authentication with low key-consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, A.; Pacher, C.; Lorünser, T.; Larsson, J.-Å.; Peev, M.

    2011-11-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD - also referred to as Quantum Cryptography) is a technique for secret key agreement. It has been shown that QKD rigged with Information-Theoretic Secure (ITS) authentication (using secret key) of the classical messages transmitted during the key distribution protocol is also ITS. Note, QKD without any authentication can trivially be broken by man-in-the-middle attacks. Here, we study an authentication method that was originally proposed because of its low key consumption; a two-step authentication that uses a publicly known hash function, followed by a secret strongly universal2 hash function, which is exchanged each round. This two-step authentication is not information-theoretically secure but it was argued that nevertheless it does not compromise the security of QKD. In the current contribution we study intrinsic weaknesses of this approach under the common assumption that the QKD adversary has access to unlimited resources including quantum memories. We consider one implementation of Quantum Cryptographic protocols that use such authentication and demonstrate an attack that fully extract the secret key. Even including the final key from the protocol in the authentication does not rule out the possibility of these attacks. To rectify the situation, we propose a countermeasure that, while not information-theoretically secure, restores the need for very large computing power for the attack to work. Finally, we specify conditions that must be satisfied by the two-step authentication in order to restore information-theoretic security.

  16. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  17. Soviets seek scientific exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GEOS-A, associated with the Soviet Union's Institute of Earth Physics, is seeking to promote exchange between Soviet and Western geophysicists. GEOS-A is a nonprofit, private organization formed by specialists from the U.S.S.R. Academy of Scientists.GEOS-A aims to promote the transfer of academic research results to industry and education. It also seeks to stimulate international scientific exchange and to support independent nongovernmental programs and expertise in geophysics and ecology. The organization would like to cooperate with Western universities in exchanging students and young scientists and in building scientific relationships between the two countries. This would include inviting students and young specialists for collaborative scientific research, consultations, language practice, and graduate study in any institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Participants would live in rented private apartments in downtown Moscow for approximately one week to several months. All living expenses would be covered at a rate higher than the academy's standard one (unfortunately travel to and from the Soviet Union cannot be covered).

  18. The Soviet Union and ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-01-01

    In recent debate over strategic defense, the Soviet dimension has not been adequately examined. Based on an analysis of Soviet statements and Soviet weaponry, the study surveys Soviet perceptions of the shifting relationship between the superpowers and the effect of BMD on that relationship. The author then traces the evolution of Soviet policies toward ballistic missile defense and the introduction of weapons into space. After exploring the internal budgetary debates that will affect future Soviet decisions on BMD and space systems, the book outlines Soviet responses, political as well as military, to the Strategic Defense Initiative and concludes with recommendations for U.S. policy toward BMD and arms negotiations. Contents: The Central Issues; Soviet Views of the Geopolitical Context; Soviet Policy Toward Soviet BMD and the Military Uses of Space; The resource Allocation Debate and Soviet BMD Decisions; Soviet Responses to the Strategic Defense Initiative; U.S. Policy and the Future of the Superpower Arms Competition.

  19. A Soviet space odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, J. K.

    1985-10-01

    A mission history and sensor telemetry evaluation is presented for the two Vega balloon/lander Venus probes that began their descent into the Venus atmosphere on June 10, 1985; attention is also given to the ground station monitoring functions fulfilled by the Soviet Academy of Sciences' Institute for Space Research. The sensor package carried by Vega encompassed a meteorology unit, an aerosol analyzer, gamma-ray, X-ray UV and mass spectrometers, a hygrometer, and a mass chromatograph. Balloon experiments conducted at altitudes of 31-34 miles employed temperature and pressure sensors, a nephelometer, a photometer, and VLBI tracking to determine the location and drift velocity of the balloon. The VLBI device is a joint development of the Soviet Union, the U.S., and France. After deployment, immersed in sulfuric acid clouds, the two Vega balloons drifted in 150 mph winds in an east-to-west direction over Venus' equatorial region. The Vega landers came to rest on soft soil, after a parachute descent.

  20. Soviet military strategy in space

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the Soviet military space effort from its infancy in the 1950s to the spy craft and anti-satellite systems of today. It describes in detail the Soviet equivalents of the U.S. Star Wars program and explains technical and political issues in laymen's terms. A full text of major arms control agreements completes the volume.

  1. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  2. Restructuring of Soviet foreign policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, A.

    1988-03-01

    Viewed historically, current Soviet attitudes toward foreign affairs, which suggest a more realistic Soviet adaptation to the international environment, may be interpreted as confirmation of a patient Western policy combining military strength and political flexibility. Ironically, many of the contemporary Soviet statements on mutual security and interdependence echo prevailing Western views of the early 1970s. In response to a series of aggressive projections of political-military power by the Soviets in the mid-to-late 1970s which culminated in the invasion of Afghanistan, the West - and especially the United States - quickly shed this rhetoric and downplayed arms control and collaborative security approaches. While the West remains transfixed by a late-1970s image of Soviet power, the Soviets are adopting approaches comparable to those widespread in the West in the early 1970s. To break this cycle, both sides must adapt creatively to the break that Gorbachev is making with important aspects of the Soviet past. The West can test the seriousness of Soviet initiatives by encouraging Moscow to continue developing negotiable proposals and practical approaches to issues of common security. 5 references

  3. Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

  4. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    PubMed

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective. PMID:12339937

  5. Soviet health care and perestroika.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

    1990-01-01

    Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064

  6. Soviet health care and perestroika.

    PubMed

    Schultz, D S; Rafferty, M P

    1990-02-01

    Health and health care in the Soviet Union are drawing special attention during these first years of perestroika, Mikhail Gorbachev's reform of Soviet political and economic life. This report briefly describes the current state of Soviet health and medical care, Gorbachev's plans for reform, and the prospects for success. In recent years the Soviet Union has experienced a rising infant mortality rate and declining life expectancy. The health care system has been increasingly criticized for its uncaring providers, low quality of care, and unequal access. The proposed measures will increase by 50 percent the state's contribution to health care financing, encourage private medicine on a small scale, and begin experimentation with capitation financing. It seems unlikely that the government will be able to finance its share of planned health improvements, or that private medicine, constrained by the government's tight control, will contribute much in the near term. Recovery of the Soviet economy in general as well as the ability of health care institutions to gain access to Western materials will largely determine the success of reform of the Soviet health care system. PMID:2297064

  7. Ozone mapper survives Soviet coup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-06

    NASA's latest satellite-borne monitor of the Earth's protective ozone layer went operational a little earlier than planned last month. The unprecedented launch - on a Soviet weather satellite - of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) took place on 15 August. Three days later so did the coup that has shaken the Soviet Union to its foundations. So, instead of waiting weeks to let the instrument adjust to space conditions, NASA engineers, who were in Moscow to monitor the launch, turned TOMS on before going home - just 5 days post-launch. No problems resulted, and the orbiting instrument, which for the first 2 months of its 2-year mission will track the formation of this year's Antarctic ozone hole, is now returning data to both US and Soviet ground stations. The launch of a new TOMS was an urgent imperative for US atmospheric researchers. The old one, now approaching its 13th year in orbit on the NASA satellite Nimbus-7, was showing its age and threatened to quit working. Because of the tight launch schedules following the Challenger disaster, NASA sought outside help to get TOMS off the ground. The Soviet Union turned out to be the best partner: it is developing a new network of Meteor meteorology satellites, and the 1987 US/USSR space cooperation agreement allowed the Soviet Cyclone booster to become the Americans' savior.

  8. Notes on Soviet space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberg, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Soviet space programs intended for making astronomical observations are reviewed. The Cosmos, Intercosmos, and Prognoz satellites designed for astronomical measurements are identified, and unmanned lunar and planetary missions are discussed, including the Luna, Lunokhod, Mars, and Venera programs. The Salyut 4 space station is described in detail along with the following major astronomical instruments: the Orbiting Solar Telescope 1, the infrared telescope spectrometer, the two solar spectrometers, the light-nuclei mass spectrometer, and the Filin and RT-4 X-ray telescopes. The future of Soviet space astronomy is assessed, particularly the tasks of the Salyut 5 station and the scheduled launch of Salyut 6.

  9. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  10. Soviet Media in the Age of Glasnost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; And Others

    A study analyzed the content of "Pravda," the major newspaper of the Soviet Communist Party and "Vremya," the main evening news program of Soviet television for changes that could be attributed to Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev's policy of "glasnost" (openness). The "Pravda" sample consisted of 18 editions drawn systematically from the first…

  11. The phenomenon of Soviet science.

    PubMed

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    The grand "Soviet experiment" constituted an attempt to greatly accelerate and even shortcut the gradual course of historical development on the assumption of presumed knowledge of the general laws of history. This paper discusses the parts of that experiment that directly concerned scientific research and, in fact, anticipated or helped define important global changes in the functioning of science as a profession and an institution during the twentieth century. The phenomenon of Soviet, or socialist, science is analyzed here from the comparative international perspective, with attention to similarities and reciprocal influences, rather than to the contrasts and dichotomies that have traditionally interested cold war-type historiography. The problem is considered at several levels: philosophical (Soviet thought on the relationship between science and society and the social construction of scientific knowledge); institutional (the state recognition of research as a separate profession, the rise of big science and scientific research institutes); demographic (science becoming a mass profession, with ethnic and gender diversity among scientists); and political (Soviet-inspired influences on the practice of science in Europe and the United States through the social relations of science movement of the 1930s and the Sputnik shock of the 1950s). PMID:18831319

  12. Soviet KIROV class strike cruiser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, J.W.; Brower, K.S.; Meier, H.A.

    1981-04-01

    The major design concepts and basic characteristics of the Soviet KIROV Class ship, an impressive nuclear-powered Strike Cruiser which recently appeared while undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, are discussed. Highlights are presented of the KIROV's hull form, the weapons, electronics and aviation systems, machinery, as well as the cruiser's speed and range.

  13. [Rehabilitative physiotherapy in Soviet medicine].

    PubMed

    Solimene, U; Sirtori, P G; Balsamo, V; Miani, A; Pirola, V

    There are three different levels of rehabilitational physical therapy in heart diseases in the Soviet Union. Natural methods are used such as climate therapy, baths, sunshine and physiotherapy as well as artificial methods including laser, electric and mechanical energy, etc. Artificially produced mineral waters which are identical to natural ones are also applied. All these methods yield good results in myocardial infarction, cerebral ictus, coronary diseases, cerebral ischemia, hypothyroidism, etc. PMID:1837254

  14. Soviet military power: an assessment of the threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Contents include: the nature of the Soviet threat--Soviet national-security policies; Soviet foreign policy under Gorbachev; military resources allocation; Soviet strategic programs and space forces; Soviet conventional forces; an assessment of the threat--the strategic balance; regional and functional balances; research and development: the technological competition; collective security: our risks and responsibilities.

  15. The People of the Soviet Union. Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikofski, Joyce

    This sixth grade teaching unit covers Soviet propaganda, communism, relations with the United States, Soviet geography, Soviet arts, and Soviet life. Unit goals address the above content areas, map skills, and an attitudinal goal of helping students to develop a sense of respect for the life of Soviet citizens. Behavioral objectives are keyed to…

  16. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-03-19

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs.

  17. Soviet Involvement in the Korean War: A New View from the Soviet-era Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the Soviet Union's role in the Korean War using the resources of the Soviet-era archives in Russia. Provides historical background about the pre-Korean War era, the start of the war, the Soviet-Chinese relationship, the air and ground battles, and the reasons for ending the Korean War. (CMK)

  18. Whither Soviet Studies: Back to Basics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    1981-01-01

    The author traces changes in American social studies teaching about the Soviet Union over the past 30 years. He finds that these changes parallel shifts in the political mentality from the Cold War, through detente, to America's renewed suspicion following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (SJL)

  19. War, Militarism and the Soviet State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, David

    This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

  20. Technology and Soviet energy availability: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    The course Soviet energy production will take if present policies in the West and the USSR remain unchanged is investigated. Opportunities and problems in the five primary Soviet energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power; equipment and technology requirements; and the implications of providing or withholding assistance are addressed.

  1. Soviet radio telescopes and solar radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Gel'Freikh, Georgii B.; Zaitsev, Valerii V.; Iliasov, Iurii P.; Kaidanovskii, N. L.

    Soviet radio telescopes of different type and purpose are described, with particular emphasis on very long baseline interferometry. Soviet radio-astronomy studies of solar radio emission and the interplanetary medium are also discussed, with particular attention given to the investigation of the sun's supercorona and the interplanetary plasma.

  2. The Impact of "Perestroika" on Soviet Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodinsky, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Proponents of Perestroika" and "glasnost" are tirelessly seeking to remold Soviet teaching and learning. Innovations and "corrections" are being fed by numerous articles in professional journals and by pedagogical leaders in academies and universities. Teaching in Soviet classrooms remains a teacher-centered, one-way process. Curriculum revision…

  3. Industrial Safety Training for Soviet Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semenov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Various forms of worker training in industrial safety in the Soviet Union are described by a Soviet labor inspector, with special "industrial safety rooms" the principal means of inplant instruction. Safety education in vocational schools and "people's universities" is also touched on. (MF)

  4. Technology and Soviet energy availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    This study addresses in detail the significance of American petroleum equipment and technology to the U.S.S.R. and the resulting options for U.S. policy. It examines the problems and opportunities that confront the U.S.S.R. in its five primary energy industries: oil, gas, coal, nuclear, and electric power. It discusses plausible prospects for these industries in the next ten years; identifies the equipment and technology most important to the U.S.S.R.. In these areas; evaluates the extent to which the United States is the sole or preferred supplier of such items and analyzes the implications for both the entire Soviet bloc and the Western alliance of either providing or withholding Western equipment and technology.

  5. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  6. Soviet free-electron laser research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassel, S.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate free-electron laser (FEL) research and development in the Soviet Union and to compare it with the corresponding activity in the U.S. In presenting this material, the intention is to acquaint U.S. researchers with the objectives, techniques, and results of their Soviet counterparts, as well as to provide the broad context of this area of Soviet R&D that consists of the organization, facilities, personalities, and leadership involved. The U.S. Soviet comparison has focused on the experimental programs, the most important area of this new technology. Section 2 compares individual experiments conducted by the USSR and the United States. In Section 3 the history of the theoretical development of FEL is presented, providing an insight into the conceptual issues that shaped FEL research in both countries. The remainder of the report is devoted primarily to the Soviet side of FEL research. Section 4 describes the organizational features of this research in terms of the performer institutes and leadership, focusing on the role of the Academy of Sciences, USSR. Section 5 analyzes the scientific objectives of Soviet FEL research, for the most part as discussed by Soviet reviewers of their research program. Section 6 presents conclusions.

  7. Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Sloss, L. Associates, Washington, DC )

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

  8. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  9. Feedback, Surveys, and Soviet Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickiewicz, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Reports on how traditional feedback channels in the Soviet Union work and how public opinion surveys have caused Communist party leaders to assess and expand their feedback channels, particularly in the area of letters from private citizens. (PD)

  10. The Soviet Road to Olympus. Theory and Practice of Soviet Physical Culture and Sport. Occasional Papers/19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, N. Norman

    Serving as an introduction to Soviet physical education which endeavors to give a concise outline of the organizational structure and the theoretical foundatons of Soviet sport, this book attempts to discuss Soviet physical education in relation to Soviet education and culture generally and to examine critically the practical applications of the…

  11. U.S.-Soviet Scientific Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last month the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Soviet Academy of Sciences signed a tentative agreement to resume scientific exchanges. Scientific symposia involving both nations, first negotiated in the late 1950s, were suspended in 1980 after the exile of Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov. Individual scientist exchanges were not suspended and have continued without formal agreement between the two nations.

  12. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Soviet development of gyrotrons. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Kassel

    1986-05-01

    This report surveys the development of high power cyclotron-resonance masers (CRM) and gyrotrons in the Soviet Union, based on Soviet open-source literature. It deals with the nature and history of relativistic CRM devices; provides a sequence of the most important issues of gyrotron research and develoment as perceived by Soviet authors; and discusses individual Soviet research groups, the basic organizational units responsible for the CRM and gyrotron research and development. The study suggests, among other things, that high-power relativistic microwave electronics is one of the most successful areas of Soviet RandD. It has maintained a consistent record of significant achievements; it has managed to overcome the systemic weakness of the Soviet RandD system in being able to translate effectively the results of advanced research into production of practical equipment; and it has become the fastest growing area of application of pulsed-power technology, which itself has been for many years the subject of priority development in the USSR.

  14. The Soviet maps of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, D. F.

    1990-02-01

    The USSR began mapping parts of Venus almost six years ago and have published a series of scientific results, reaching a few limited conclusions about Venus. While based on the traditional second generation Venera orbiter design, Veneras 15 and 16 carried Polyus-V sidelooking synthetic-aperture radars which used the orbiter's motion over Venus to 'synthesize' an antenna of far larger size than could practically be carried to the planet. The resolution and coverage achieved is better than one kilometer over most of the surface compared with one tenth of a kilometer partial cover expected from the Venus Radar Mapper. The radar data will take years to analyze completely, but initial results have been released and the Soviet Union has compiled an atlas of radar images. Cartographers named two craters after American astronauts Judith Resnik and Sharon Christa McAuliffe. One of the conclusions is that Venus is not a 'single plate' planet, like the earth's moon or Mercury; its crust is distinctly broken into individual blocks with independent movements. It appears that extensive volcanism is a universal factor in the evolution of planets in the inner solar system.

  15. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  16. Revisiting Soviet oil subsidies to East Europe: System maintenance in the Soviet hegemony, 1970--1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark Andrew

    Throughout the 1970s and 1980s the Soviet Union sold oil shipments to the member-states of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) at a fraction of the world market price (wmp). Contrary to arguments made by previous scholars that it paid a subsidy, namely the difference between the wmp and the CMEA price, either as a reward for material contributions to Soviet foreign policy objectives or as a consequence of membership in a customs union, the Soviet Union provided subsidized oil shipments as a form of economic assistance in maintaining its hegemony. Using non-parametric statistical analysis of previous scholars' data and comparative case studies based on interviews of Soviet decision-makers and on archival research, this study shows that the Soviet Union acted as a hegemon, which created a protectionist trade regime, used oil policy as means of hegemonic maintenance. The CMEA, the embodiment of values espoused in the Soviet trade regime identified as "embedded supranationalism", stood as the institutional antithesis of a customs unions, which embodied the values of the Western liberal trade regime. Soviet leaders did not use oil subsidies or trade relations in general as means of calibrating CMEA member-states' domestic or foreign policy behavior. Soviet leaders used subsidized oil as a means of supporting East European national economic development with the ultimate goal of creating politically legitimate governments thereby ensuring political stability in its cordon sanitaire with the West.

  17. Soviet Cybernetics Technology: XII. Time-Sharing in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doncov, Boris

    The only operational Soviet time-sharing systems are incorporated in special-purpose, fixed-application installations, most of which are intended for industrial applications of process control or management information. Despite the peculiar suitability of time-sharing to the Soviet economic system, with its heavy reliance on centralized planning…

  18. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1988-05-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 days) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight ito the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:11589234

  19. Soviet space flight: the human element.

    PubMed

    Garshnek, V

    1989-07-01

    Building on past experience and knowledge, the Soviet manned space flight effort has become broad, comprehensive, and forward-looking. Their long-running space station program has provided the capabilities to investigate long-term effects of microgravity on human physiology and behavior, and test various countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Since the beginning of Soviet manned space flight, the biomedical training and preparation of cosmonauts has evolved from a process that increased human tolerance to space flight factors, to a system of interrelated measures to prepare cosmonauts physically and psychologically to live and work in space. Currently, the Soviet Union is constructing a multimodular space station, the Mir. With the emergence of dedicated laboratory modules, the Soviets have begun the transition from small-scale experimental research to large-scale production activities and specialized scientific work in space. In the future, additional laboratory modules will be added, including one dedicated to biomedical research, called the "Medilab." The longest manned space flight to date (326 d) has been completed by the Soviets. The biomedical effects of previous long-duration flights, and perhaps those of still greater length, may contribute important insight into the possibility of extended missions beyond Earth, such as a voyage to Mars. PMID:2764853

  20. Waning soviet threat: Implications for detente

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Soviet military has experienced unprecedented turmoil since Gorbachev entered office in March 1985. Indeed, it is fair to say that the High Command is facing its most profound institutional crisis in the 72 years of its existence. The indicators of this change are well known to any attentive reader of the newspaper. They include a shift to a more defensive orientation in the USSR's military doctrine; an end to the Soviet military involvement in Afghanistan; Gorbachev's announced unilateral cut of a half-million Soviet troops; associated moves to scale back weapons production and shift a sizeable portion of the defense industry to the civilian sector; and a general effort across a broad front to forge a more agreeable East-West relationship.

  1. Soviet Space Stations as Analogs, Second Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluth, B. J.; Helppie, Martha

    1986-01-01

    The available literature that discusses the various aspects of the Soviet Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 space staions are examined as related to human productivity. The methodology for this analog was a search of unclassified literature. Additional information was obtained in interviews with the cosmonauts and some Soviet space personnel. Topics include: general layout and design of the spacecraft system; cosmonauts role in maintenance and repair; general layout and design of the Mir complex; effects of the environment on personnel; information and computer systems; organization systems; personality systems; and physical conditin of the cosmonaut.

  2. Perestroika and Its Impact on the Soviet Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Discusses two books, "Restructuring the Soviet Economy: In Search of the Market" and "In Search of Flexibility: The New Soviet Labour Market," that assess the success of perestroika and the transition to a market-based economy. (JOW)

  3. Adult Education in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rita L.; Goetz, Douglas N.

    The Soviet government has consistently relied upon the country's educational system, including adult education, to advance its ideological, social, and economic goals. In the Soviet Union, education has been used to promote Soviet identity, minimize the impact of religion, advance the status of women, and help increase worker productivity. Adult…

  4. Problems of Soviet Law and Socialist Legality in Legalistic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samoshchenko, I. S.

    1978-01-01

    Notes that Soviet youth must be educated about Soviet law and their obligations as citizens to work, respect labor discipline, and defend the motherland. Lists functions of Soviet law as (1) shaping, mediating for, and protecting the middle class, (2) reinforcing socialist principles and the emancipation of women, and (3) guaranteeing…

  5. The Soviet Chemical Industry and the Gorbachev Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the reform of the industrial structure of the Soviet Union. Emphasizes the influence of the communist party on chemical production, research and education. Surveys the problems facing the Soviet chemical industry. Lists important officials in the Soviet chemical industry. Discusses joint ventures between the United States and the Soviet…

  6. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

  7. Teaching about the Soviet Union. ERIC Digest No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citti, Lori A.

    Given the global significance of Soviet-U.S. relations, elementary and secondary school students should learn about the Soviet Union, but most students graduate from high school with little knowledge and many misconceptions about this country. It is important to teach about the Soviet Union because of: (1) its emphasis in the U.S. media; (2) its…

  8. Soviet concepts of ballistic missile defense. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seavey, K.P.

    1988-06-01

    This thesis characterizes the Soviet concept of ballistic missile defense (BMD) in order to better understand and predict future Soviet BMD decision making. The Soviet concept of BMD is fundamentally different from that in the West. Soviet BMD is clearly an integral component of a much larger Soviet strategic defense effort which consists of strategic air defense as well as passive measures, such as mobility, deep underground command and control facilities, and civil defense. As the Soviet military literature demonstrates, Soviet strategic air defense encompasses defense against a continuum of threats -- from aircraft to ballistic missiles to satellites to 'space-strike weapons'. Soviet strategic air defense weapons therefore appear optimized to counter a wide range of airborne threats. In the Soviet view, surface-to-air missiles may be a primary tactical BMD weapon. Additionally, Soviet strategic BMD weapons may be a primary Soviet anti-satellite weapon. Furthermore, manned space platforms play a particularly significant role in Soviet thinking about the future of BMD and space warfare.

  9. Speaking "Common Sense" about the Soviet Threat: Reagan's Rhetorical Stance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Robert L.

    Although for the 15 years preceding his election as President of the United States Ronald Reagan muted his anti-Soviet rhetoric in order to achieve political power, since his election he has returned to anti-Sovietism in an effort to redirect American foreign policy against the Soviets. At the same time, however, he employs a rhetorical strategy…

  10. Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

  11. "Krokodil"--Satire for the Soviets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehowski, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Describes features of the successful Soviet humor magazine "Krokodil" and concludes that the secret of its success is that it has evolved a strong, recognizable, appealing character over the years, maintaining its familiar identity while also being innovative and fresh. (GT)

  12. Squaring Soviet Theory with American Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Matthew

    1991-01-01

    Soviet scholar Lev Vygotsky identified the most common cause of miseducation: failure to convert the classroom into a community of discursive inquiry. The USSR's Academy of Pedagogical Science is collaborating with Montclair State College (New Jersey) to introduce "Philosophy for Children," an American critical thinking program compatible with…

  13. Soviet Women Respond to Glasnost and Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Martha C.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that Westerners tend to think of glasnost and perestroika in global, abstract terms when in actuality, they affect individual people in many ways. Profiles five Soviet women (Moscow Intourist guide, editor of women's magazine, concert pianist, college graduate, and worker at Chernobyl) and their differing responses to the changes sweeping…

  14. Suggestopedia and Soviet Sleep-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper examines the parallels between suggestopedia and Soviet sleep-learning for learning foreign languages. Both systems are based on the idea that the acquisition of information can occur in states below the optimal level of consciousness. Hypnopedia makes use of the period of paradoxical or light sleep that usually occurs just as one is…

  15. Soviet oil production begins to falter

    SciTech Connect

    Fueg, J.C

    1989-08-01

    Soviet industry managers are warning that a new oil production slump may be on the way, especially in the crucial West Siberian industry. The USSR's global energy balance will depend on accelerating natural gas development. In the rest of Eastern Europe, Albania, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia all showed significant declines in oil production.

  16. Agricultural aviation medicine in the Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R

    1980-05-01

    The Soviet Union has developed one of the world's most sophisticated civil aviation medicine programs. The program gives specific attention to aerial application operations and includes special preflight pilot medical examinations, aircraft with specialized protective airflow systems for the pilots, minimum flight altitude spraying limit of 5 m, and the use of a "chemical log book" by each pilot in addition to the flight log book. These and additional steps--i.e. limiting a pilot's daily agricultural flights to 4-6 h--have led to a reported USSR agricultural aviation annual accident rate near zero. The Soviet workhorse aircraft, the Antonov AN-2, can serve multipurpose roles since, when not used for application flights, it can be rapidly converted to executive, courier, cargo, or air taxi, or air ambulance use. A new, single-engine turbojet biplane, the Polish M-15, is undergoing evaluation in the Soviet Union as a replacement for the AN-2. Countries with very high agricultural aircraft accident rates may wish to study the Soviet approach, especially the use by the pilot of a chemical log book. PMID:6248014

  17. The Soviet School System under Perestroika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaeva, Anna

    1990-01-01

    Describes changes at the three levels of the Soviet educational system (primary, basic, and secondary) brought about by Perestroika. The basic level offers a compulsive general studies program while a differentiated secondary curriculum offers more electives. Discusses the teacher's role and the establishment of public governing councils. (SLM)

  18. Nature of Soviet operational art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soviet operational art today provides a framework for, studying, understanding, preparing for, and conducting war. Together with strategy and tactics, it makes the study of war an academic discipline requiring intense research and scholarship on the part of those who write about and who would have to conduct war. As such, operational art performs distinct tasks associated with the conduct of war.

  19. Soviet bloc, energy, and Western security

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies face difficult economic-policy decisions on energy. In order to reduce the energy intensities of the bloc economies, Moscow must bring about either a marked improvement in energy-use efficiencies or a structural change away from fuel- and materials-intensive processes and sectors. The author examines why the Soviet bloc lacks the capability or willingness to effect such changes, and what the implications of this indecision portend for both the East bloc and the West. Using primary source material in translation, he concentrates on the entire energy sector and not just on oil. His analysis covers contradictory Soviet fuel choices and personnel problems, the natural gas market in Europe, and the dispute between the US Defense Intelligence Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency on the degree of seriousness of the Soviet energy dilemma. The analysis concludes with positive recommendations on how the alliance can repair the discord of the pipeline controversy. The author raises questions about the institutional viability of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to meet the Eastern bloc's energy challenges, and warns that a failure to thoroughly examine a number of other policy issues could imperil the future of the West. 184 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

  20. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Soviet Security in Flux. Occasional Paper 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgotch, Nish, Jr.

    If U.S. foreign policy is to be prudent and effective, it must cease relying on the doctrinaire images and cold war rhetoric of the past and take into account five intactable problems, none of them specifically military, that the Soviet Union faces. These problems are: (1) unabating deficiencies in its economy; (2) a precarious battle with…

  2. The father of Soviet Hydrogen Bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Yu. A.

    1990-08-01

    The creation of Soviet Hydrogen bomb has been described.The main participants to the Physical and Computational parts of the projects were shown. The "Sloika " part of the Project, concerned to neutrons kinetic has been discussed. The contribution by A.D. Sakharov to main achievements has been ponted out.

  3. Glasnost in Soviet Libraries: Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmage, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    Describes changes in Soviet research libraries as a possible indicator of the success of glasnost. Topics covered include open access to resources, improved library services, and the use of information technologies. A special report on the 1988 U.S.-U.S.S.R. library seminar is provided. (12 references) (CLB)

  4. Soviet Cybernetics Review, Volume 3, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wade B.

    Soviet efforts in designing third-generation computers are discussed in two featured articles which describe (1) the development and production of integrated circuits, and their role in computers; and (2) the use of amorphous chalcogenide glass in lasers, infrared devices, and semiconductors. Other articles discuss production-oriented branch…

  5. Russian/Soviet weapons secrets revealed

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.S.

    1993-04-01

    Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy has opened a museum at the Arzamas-16 nuclear weapon design laboratory with an exhibit on some early weapons. This exhibit and recent articles in the Russian press provide previously unknown details on the early Soviet nuclear program. This article compiles some of this information to provide a refined record of the development of the H-bomb.

  6. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  7. Inside the World of the Soviet Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a fall 1986 journey of Carl Rogers to the U.S.S.R. during which Rogers conducted lectures and workshops on humanistic psychology. Elaborates on workshop sessions with Russian psychologists and therapists. Concludes with general observations about what the workshops may have accomplished and on the Soviet lifestyle in general. (BR)

  8. For the State: Soviet Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Wayne M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes vocational education in the Soviet Union. Goals are accomplished by such methods as a standard national curriculum, including sophisticated polytechnical programs, by a system of school-supported youth programs that promote patriotism and group loyalty, and by a media campaign emphasizing the importance of the worker. (Author/JOW)

  9. Perestroika: The Prospects for Soviet Economic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, Alastair

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of the Soviet economy during the period of perestroika. Includes the level of output, rate of inflation, privatization, and proposals for economic reform. Assesses the stabilization program and possibilities of restructuring. Concludes that neither Mikhail Gorbachev nor perestroika are likely to survive the trials of inflation,…

  10. Economic Demise of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, San Francisco, CA.

    This series of lesson plans and activities deals with the economic demise of the now-defunct Soviet Union. Each of the five lessons and six activities addresses identified standards and benchmarks from the Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics. The lesson plans also address the National History Content Standards, in terms of both the…

  11. Environmental Management in the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of literature focusing on the effects of the centrally planned Soviet economy on the environment. Twenty-six documents are classified in three categories: English-language sources, Russian-language sources, and Russian-language ecologically oriented newspapers, newsletters, and journals. (MDH)

  12. Current Priorities of Soviet School Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soviet Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Six articles discuss top priorities of Soviet education policy. Topics discussed include labor training, revision of the curriculum for the 10-year general education program, quantitative v qualitative demands on the educational system, and extended-day programs for the children of working mothers. (DB)

  13. Undoing the Legacy of the Soviet Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sochocky, Christine M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the changes that have taken place in librarianship in the former Soviet Union. The discussion covers the advantages and disadvantages of centralized planning, the reorganization of library systems in Russia and the Ukraine, the effects of democratization on organization and librarian attitudes, and the remnants of Russification in…

  14. Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research

    SciTech Connect

    Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    PubMed

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology. PMID:24548071

  16. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  17. Adopted children from the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question One of the families in my practice is considering adoption of a 2-year-old child from the former Soviet Union. The family has been reassured by the agency that a doctor will examine the child to rule out developmental delays. However, my understanding from your previous articles is that one cannot rule out fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) at that age. Are these children at increased risk of developing FASD? Answer You are correct: FASD cannot be ruled out at 2 years of age. The risk of FASD, neglect, and abuse among children in orphanages in the former Soviet Union is high. While adoption of children with known developmental delays should be encouraged and supported, most families seek to adopt with the assumption that these children will be healthy. PMID:24130279

  18. French participation in the Soviet PHOBOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocard, F.; Barat, C.; Bertaux, J. L.; Blamont, J. E.; Bibring, J. P.

    1989-10-01

    The soviet mission to Phobos and Mars was launched in July, 1988. It carries some 30 experiments on board, designed on a broad international basis, devoted to studying the planet Mars and its vicinity, its natural satellite Phobos, the sun and the interplanetary medium. France, through its laboratories (participating in a number of experiments) and the CNES Space Center at Toulouse (participating in the Phobos spacecraft navigation operations), is the main partner of the Soviet Union in the Phobos mission. Different experiments on the spacecraft are described (ISM, Auguste, IPHIR, PWS, LILAS and Apex, and the active DION and LIMA-D experiments) as well as the French participation in the long-term automated lander DAS (cameras, Stenopee). The first scientific results are presented. The CNES contributions to the international cooperation for Phobos navigation are also described (methods and results).

  19. French participation in the Soviet Phobos mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocard, F.; Barat, C.; Bertaux, J. L.; Bibring, J. P.; Blamont, J. E.; Bonneau, F.; Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Hamelin, M.; Trotignon, J. G.

    The soviet mission to Phobos and Mars was launched in July 88. It carries some thirty experiments on board, designed on a broad international basis, devoted to studying the planet Mars and its viscinity, its natural satellite Phobos, the Sun and the Interplanetary Medium. France, through its laboratories participating in a number of experiments and the CNES Space Center at Toulouse in the Phobos spacecraft navigation operations, is the main partner of the Soviet Union in the Phobos mission. Different experiments on the spacecraft are discribed (ISM, AUGUSTE, IPHIR, PWS, LILAS and APEX, the active DION and LIMA-D experiments) as well as the French participation in the long-term automated lander: DAS (cameras, STENOPEE). The first scientific results are presented. The CNES contribution to the international cooperation for Phobos navigation are also described (methods and results).

  20. Soviet and American flight directors for ASTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    These two men are flight directors for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission scheduled for July 1975. Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Yeliseyev (left) is the Soviet ASTP senior flight director; and M. P. Frank is the American ASTP senior flight director. They are seated beside a Docking Module training mock-up in bldg 35 at JSC. Cosmonaut Yeliseyev was head of a delegation of USSR flight controllers who were at JSC for two weeks of ASTP training.

  1. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  2. Soviet/Russian-American space cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karash, Yuri Y.

    This dissertation seeks to answer two questions: (1) what are the necessary conditions for the emergence of meaningful space cooperation between Russia and the United States, and (2) might this cooperation continue developing on its own merit, contributing to the further rapprochement between the two countries, even if the conditions that originated the cooperation were to change? The study examines the entire space era up to this point, 1957 to 1997, from the first satellite launch through the joint U.S.-Russian work on the ISS project. It focuses on the analysis of three distinct periods of possible and real cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russia. The first possibility for a limited Soviet-American cooperation in space emerged in the late 1950s, together with the space age, and continued until the mid-1960s. The major potential joint project of this period was a human expedition to the Moon. The global competition/confrontation between the two countries prevented actual cooperation. The second period was from the late 1960s until 1985 with consideration of experimental docking missions, including the docking of a reusable U.S. shuttle to a Soviet Salyut-type station. The global U.S.-Soviet competition still continued, but the confrontation was replaced by detente for a brief period of time lasting from the end of 1960s until mid-1970s. Detente gave the first example of U.S.-Soviet cooperation in space---the Apollo-Soyuz joint space flight (ASTP) which took place in 1975. However, the lack of interest of political leaderships in continuation of broad-scale cooperation between the two countries, and the end of detente, removed ASTP-like projects out of question at least until 1985. The third period started together with Mikhail Gorbachev's Perestroika in 1985 and continues until now. It involves almost a hundred of joint space projects both at the governmental and at the private sectors levels. The mainstream of the joint activities

  3. Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P

    1983-06-01

    At this time Soviet demographic scientists maintain the position that population problems may in fact exist temporarily under socialism but that the planning principle will allow society to resolve population problems, through the use of the administrative, moral, and economic levers (subsidies, government policies, propaganda, education) emphasized by Urlanis (1974) and others. For planners to deal effectively with population management, the determinants of fertility and labor force participation must be established. The foundations of Soviet theories of human capital and fertility were laid by several writers. For the sake of simplicity, these are referred to as the Urlanis-Strumilin model, named after 2 pioneer researchers in Soviet demography and manpower economics. The formulations are based upon the writings of Strumlin (1964) and Urlanis (1974), supplemented by writings of numerous other Soviet researchers. Although their models avoid neoclassical terms such as marginal utility and income and price elasticities, they clearly employ these concepts. The Urlanis-Strumilin model, reduced to its basic elements, is a direct household utility maximizing model. The husband and wife, the household decision makers, must select optimal levels of child "quantity," child "quality," leisure, their own human capital (further education and training), and other goods. The Soviet theory recognizes that an increase in household income will increase relatively the demands for income elastic goods. The model postulates that the demand for child quality is inversely related to the price of children. The price of children is the opportunity cost of children, the major element of which is the income foregone by the mother in the course of childbearing and childrearing. The child quantity demand schedule has elastic and inelastic portions. The marginal utility of the 1st child is great. The marginal utilities of higher order children decline substantially. Families with at least 1

  4. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.C. )

    1991-04-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield An unanswerable first strike When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means.

  5. Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

  6. Astronauts Stafford and Slayton visit Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, left, NASA ASTP crew commander, and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot, visit the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft during the joint phase of the ASTP mission. They hold Soviet containers of borsh (beet soup) over which vodka labels have been pasted. This was the crew's way of toasting each other. The photo was taken in the Orbital Module portion of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The hatch to the Soyuz Descent Vehicle is in center background.

  7. Reading for the Masses: Popular Soviet Fiction, 1976-80. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Maurice

    Noting that Soviet prose, drama, and poetry reveal the nuances of the moods and policies fostered by the Soviet government while reflecting the Soviet reading public's interests and aspirations, this report describes a study of the values and attitudes by which the Soviets live as reflected in the literature published in Soviet literary magazines…

  8. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  9. Soviet offensive ground doctrine since 1945. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Since the end of World War II, Soviet offensive concepts have evolved in consonance with technological changes and changing geopolitical relationships. While adjusting to inevitable change, the Soviets have repeatedly tapped as a source of inspiration and knowledge their rich World War II experiences. Thus, the Soviets have altered their operational and tactical concepts by blending the lessons of the past with the realities of the present. Only combat can prove the validity of these changes. However, it is worthwhile to review the salient features of evolving Soviet operational and tactical concepts, if only better to understand the capabilities and potentialities of our major foe.

  10. FASAC Technical Assessment Report: Soviet Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Henry, Richard C.; Klein, Harold P.; Masursky, Harold; Paulikas, George A.; Scaf, Frederick L.; Soffen, Gerald A.; Terzian, Yervant

    1986-01-01

    This report is the work of a panel of eight US scientists who surveyed and assessed Soviet research in the spare sciences. All of the panelists were very familiar with Soviet research through their knowledge of the published scientific literature and personal contacts with Soviet and other foreign colleagues. In addition, all of the panelists reviewed considerable additional open literature--scientific, and popular, including news releases. The specific disciplines of Soviet space science research examined in detail for the report were: solar-terrestrial research, lunar and planetary research, space astronomy and astrophysics, and, life sciences. The Soviet Union has in the past carried out an ambitious program in lunar exploration and, more recently, in studies of the inner planets, Mars and especially Venus. The Soviets have provided scientific data about the latter planet which has been crucial for studies of the planet's evolution. Future programs envision an encounter with Halley's Comet, in March 1986, and missions to Mars and asteroids. The Soviet programs in the life sciences and solar-terrestrial research have been long-lasting and systematically pursued. Much of the ground-based and space-based research in these two disciplines appears to be motivated by the requirement to establish long-term human habitation in near-Earth space. The Soviet contributions to new discoveries and understanding in observational space astronomy and astrophysics have been few. This is in significant contrast to the very excellent theoretical work contributed by Soviet scientists in this discipline.

  11. Soviet research on crystal channeling of charged particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassel, S.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents an overview of Soviet research in charged particle beam channeling in crystals from 1972 to the present, and the resulting electromagnetic emission, including Soviet proposals for channeling emission lasers in the X-ray region of the spectrum. It analyzes Soviet attitudes toward crystal channeling of charged particles as a subject of research, describes performers of the research, and indicates the level of effort involved. It presents a brief history of crystal channeling research, the differences between channeling and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation, the definition of the main research issues, and estimates of the potential capabilities of channeling radiation, all based on the Soviet viewpoint. It then describes Soviet proposals for laser systems utilizing the channeling radiation mechanism, and analyzes Soviet experimental work involving the observation and measurement of channeling radiation. The author concludes that the outstanding feature of Soviet research in this area is the optimistic belief of Soviet specialists in the technological potential of this research, but finds that the role of the laser proposals in Soviet planning is ambiguous.

  12. A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

  13. Vospitanie and Regime Change: Teacher-Education Textbooks in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogachenko, Tatiana; Perry, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical dimension of vospitanie, or character formation, in communist and post-communist education. It explores how vospitanie is conceptualized in two teacher-education textbooks--one from each period--in Ukraine, a post-Soviet country. Comparative analysis shows how conceptualizations of vospitanie have evolved over…

  14. The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

  15. Joint Soviet-American experiment on hypokinesia: Experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burovskiy, N. N.

    1979-01-01

    Comprehensive results are reported from the Soviet portion of a joint Soviet-American experiment involving hypokinesia. The main emphases are on chemical analyses of blood and urine, functional tests, and examination of the cardiovascular system by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and plethysmography.

  16. The Food Connection: Transforming the U.S.-Soviet Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1982-01-01

    The increased dependence of the USSR on United States food exports may signal a major shift in the balance of power between the two nations. The impact of this shift on U.S.-Soviet relations, the Soviet agricultural system, and the world economic system is examined. (AM)

  17. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  18. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  19. The Soviet Union and Its People. Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sherri

    This third grade teaching unit on the USSR covers an introduction to the Soviet Union and its people, its government, daily lifestyles, folk culture, and geography. Skill goals deal with telling the difference between facts and opinions, comparing cultures, and integrating and applying information from various topics about the Soviet Union to…

  20. Understanding the Special Needs of Former Soviet Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bonkareva, Ella

    1992-01-01

    Describes characteristics of immigrant children from the former Soviet Union and implications of these characteristics for U.S. teachers. Considers differences between U.S. and Soviet schools in scheduling practices, bathroom routines, racial composition, meals, languages, clothing, naps, and parent/school relationships. (LB)

  1. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This guide was produced to provide K-12 teachers with basic materials on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, because U.S. textbooks frequently ignore this part of the world. These units about the Soviet Union include information on geography, education, lifestyles, government, the Communist Party, economics, and religion. Suggestions for…

  2. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Underground Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Elliot S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the Soviet Government's handling of two samizdat (self-publication) publications, and suggests that dissent in Russia is handled selectively and that the Soviet authorities are not interested in eliminating all dissent, only the dissent that they find challenging to their rule. (JMF)

  3. Extraordinary Longevity in the Soviet Union: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Garson, Lea Keil

    1986-01-01

    Describes an analysis of Soviet mortality and census data from 1959 and 1970, which provides significant evidence effectively negating previous claims of extraordinary Soviet longevity. Strongly suggests that the true number of centenarians is but a small fraction of that reported. (Author/ABB)

  4. Multilingualism in the Successor States of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreindler, Isabelle

    1997-01-01

    Major common language problems arising in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet bloc are outlined, as identified in recent literature, and pressing language-related issues in specific former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan,…

  5. The development of Soviet rocket engines (For strategic missiles)

    SciTech Connect

    Bolonkin, A.

    1991-01-01

    A first-hand account of developments in the Soviet rocket industry is presented. The organization and leadership of the rocket and missile industry are traced from its beginning in the 1920s. The development of the Glushko Experimental Design Bureau, where the majority of Soviet rocket engines were created, is related. The evolution of Soviet rocket engines is traced in regard to both their technical improvement and their application in missiles and space vehicles. Improved Glushko engines and specialized Isaev and Kosberg engines are discussed. The difficulties faced by the Soviet missile and space program, such as the pre-Sputnik failures, the oscillation problem of 1965/1966, which exposed a weakness in Soviet ICBM missiles, and the Nedelin disaster of 1960, which cost the lives of more than 200 scientists and engineers, as well as the Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Rocket Forces, Marshall Nedelin, are examined. 122 refs.

  6. About face; How the Soviets stopped planning for world war

    SciTech Connect

    MccGwire, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Since 1985, when Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the Soviet Union has embarked on a series of unprecedented foreign-policy initiatives. Most of them would have been unthinkable five years ago. They include the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the December 1988 announcement of unilateral cuts of 500,000 Soviet troops within two years, and a readiness to accept heavily asymmetrical cuts in Warsaw Pact conventional forces in Europe. Skeptics can no longer dismiss these initiatives as empty propaganda. Nevertheless, according to the author, the response of the Western political-military establishment has been ambivalent. This article addresses the Soviet approach to war, outlining the evolution of Soviet military doctrine since WWII. The recent military cuts by the U.S.S.R. are discussed, and an analysis is made of the West's reaction to the Soviet initiatives.

  7. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  8. Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

  9. Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

  10. [Medicine in the Soviet labor camps].

    PubMed

    Supady, J

    1998-01-01

    The existence of medical attention in Soviet labour camps was dictated not by humane reasons but by economical motives. It was just a wish to regenerate physical strength of some labour camp's slaves in order to exploit them to work out definite production as well as ideological plans. However, despite the lack of medicines, equipment, proper housing conditions and qualified staff, employed in labour camp's medical service people--doctors, hospital attendants, nurses, etc.--that were mostly recruited from amongst prisoners, showed a great deal of kindness and did their best to come to unwell and ill patients' assistance. Prisoners' lives were not uncommonly saved through exemption from work by a doctor's decision sending to hospital or transfer to another health category. In comparison with gehenna of labour camp's slave everyday life a sojourn in camp hospital seemed a paradise and a rescue from death to prisoners. PMID:10216383

  11. A social History of Soviet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilin, K. A.

    The archive includes a great number of archive materials, recollections, interviews, letters, diaries, bibliography, internet sources concerning history of bolshevik and stalinist purges against scientists in the USSR since 1917 till 1968. The archive is categorized by few divisions: scientists, university teachers, associate professors, professors, members of the Academy of Science of the USSR, Corresponding-Members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A great number of research articles and recollections by purged are included. The articles are written not only by historians of science but by scientists also. A great role by P.L. Kapitza in the saving of Soviet science from purges is underlined. The project was realized under the support by SOROS foundation (2000), Russian Foundation for fundamental Research (2002-2004) and Russian State National Foundation (2007).

  12. Soviet women and the autonomous family.

    PubMed

    Imbrogno, S; Imbrogno, N I

    1989-01-01

    "The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union." PMID:12281908

  13. The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to have been asked by Louis Rosen to tell you about the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). This undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. Its purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for international collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy neutrino flux. This paper reviews this experiment. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Current Soviet exploration plays: Success and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Soviet hydrocarbon exploration in the 1980s took four distinct directions. First was extension exploration and the search for smaller new fields in discrete traps in traditional producing regions, such as the Apsheron Peninsula, North Caucasus, and Volga-Urals. This strategy produced a large number of small discoveries close to established infrastructure. Second was new field exploration in West Siberia in the stratigraphically complex Jurassic and the lower Neocomian sections. Third was expansion of the prolific gas plays in northern West Siberia. Exploratory success in West Siberia has created a backlog of several hundred discoveries awaiting full delineation and development. Most of these fields are distant from the established oil production center in the Middle Ob region and, therefore, may remain in inventory. Fourth was initial tests of new exploration frontiers, most important, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic plays of the Barents and Kara seas and the subsalt plays of the North Caspian basin. While these plays have yielded very important discoveries, significant technological barriers impede their development. The outlook for Soviet oil exploration in the 1990s is for significant opportunities for discovery of large volumes of oil, but at radically increasing exploration and production costs. In established regions, these costs arise from small field sizes and low well productivities. In frontier regions, exploitation of new fields will require technology not currently available in the USSR. The outlook for gas exploration continues to be very bright, as the onshore northern West Siberia is not fully explored and initial results from the Barents and Kara seas promise more very large gas discoveries.

  15. Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, M.C.

    1987-08-01

    Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.

  16. A National Anthem Is Born.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molotsky, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    Presents the story of the Star-Spangled Banner, explaining that Francis Scott Key's poem is not mere patriotic rhetoric, but is rooted in an important moment in U.S. history and in the joy that Key felt when the dawn revealed the American flag still flying over Fort McHenry following the destruction of Washington, D.C. and attack on Baltimore. (SM)

  17. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Reproduces chapter 1 ("The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy") from Ele Isaench Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Traces early history of Soviet Union. Reviews foundations of Soviet educational system, highlighting influences of Vladimir…

  18. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  19. The Kopenhagen operation of the Soviet KGB. The Kopenahagen interview of Niels Bohr by a Soviet scientist and KGB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Kozhevnikov, A. B.; Yavelov, Boris E.

    The authors describes the Soveit KGB operation of interviewing Niels Bohr by soviet scientist Yakov. P. Terletskii(1912-1993) and KGB kolonel Lev Petrovich Vasilevskii (b. 1903) on 24 september 1945-20 november 1945 concerning the American Nuclear weapons (Manhattan project)undertaken under the project of the Soviet KGB Lieder Lavrentij P. Berija and supervised by Soviet KGB generals Pavel A. Sudoplatov (b. 1907) and Nikolay S. Sazykin (1910-1985) after the detailed magnetophone interview of Professor Ya. P. Terletskij before his die in Moscow.

  20. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Analysis Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (Water-cooled, Water-moderated Energy Reactor). The principle objective of this undertaking is to provide a basis to better understand the safety related features of the Soviet designed VVERs to be better prepared to respond domestically in the event of an accident at such a unit. The USDOE Team's analyses are presented together with supporting and background information. The report is structured to allow the reader to develop an understanding of safety related features of Soviet designed VVERs (as well as the probable behavior of these units under a variety of off normal conditions), to understand the USDOE Team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs, and to formulate informed opinions.

  1. ChE at the Erevan Polytechnic Institute Soviet Armenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanesian, Deran

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on Soviet Armenia and the Erevan Polytechnic Institute (EPI) located in this republic of the USSR. Also provides a description of chemical engineering programs and courses and faculty at the EPI. (JN)

  2. Estimates of demand for abortion among Soviet immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, E F

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, more than 185,000 Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel, increasing Israel's population by 4 percent; 148,000 more arrived in 1991. Given the fertility and abortion patterns prevailing among Soviet women in their native country, this article inquires about the short-range expected increase in abortion demand in Israel engendered by this large migratory inflow. Estimation techniques based on the abortion experience of an earlier wave of Soviet-born immigrants in Israel reveal that the increase in requests for abortion brought about by the 1990 immigrants may reach up to 14 percent, and as high as 24 percent for the combined immigration waves of 1990 and 1991. The expanded demand for abortions in Israel engendered by the new Soviet immigrants necessitates an expansion of both family planning services and of the medical committees entitled to grant a legal abortion. A failure in these fields would benefit illegal abortion. PMID:1412599

  3. Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

  4. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  5. Soviet design for roasting zinc concentrates in a fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, M. S.; Hodov, N. V.; Serebrennikova, E. Ja.; Grinberg, A. E.; Khripin, V. D.; Doverman, A. I.

    1992-04-01

    Although many zinc plants attempt to increase a fluidized bed roaster's capacity by employing an oxygen-enriched air blast, work in the former Soviet Union shows the advantages of redesigning the roasting complex to optimize concentrate flow and process hydrodynamics. A redesigned furnace in operation for five years demonstrates, as compared to conventional Soviet furnaces, greater versatility, improved charge capacity, better heat recovery, ease of control, and operational stability.

  6. Emerging technology in the Soviet Union: Selected papers with analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on emerging Soviet technology are presented. The topics addressed are: economic considerations of emerging technology; aviation, motor, and space designs; new materials and components for IR lasers; electroslag technology for smelting high quality metals from scrap and for preparing ingots with differential properties; computer design and application in the USSR; advances in tribology: slideway design and unloading systems; analysis of emerging Soviet technology.

  7. The persistent dream - Soviet plans for manned lunar missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Abeelen, L.

    Soviet hopes of achieving the supreme space `first' were crushed in July 1969 when an American became the first human on the Moon. Following the four unsuccessful flight tests of the N1 lunar booster, the Soviet manned lunar landing effort was officially suspended, but even as the Russians were denying they had ever planned to land a cosmonaut on the moon, NPO Energia was designing craft for a long-term scientific, even semi-industrial presence on the lunar surface.

  8. Soviet short-range nuclear forces: flexible response or flexible aggression. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.R.

    1987-03-23

    This essay takes a critical look at Soviet short-range nuclear forces in an effort to identify Soviet capabilities to fight a limited nuclear war with NATO. From an analysis of Soviet military art, weapon-system capabilities and tactics, the author concludes that the Soviets have developed a viable limited-nuclear-attack option. Unless NATO reacts to this option, the limited nuclear attack may become favored Soviet option and result in the rapid defeat of NATO.

  9. Ingroup biases and the US-Soviet conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    International tension and the nuclear arms race are constant threats to human civilization, and the distrust that infects U.S.-Soviet relations has undermined the peace process. From a social-psychological viewpoint, this distrust may originate with people's tendency to derogate and stereotype the group they are in conflict with. Ingroup biases may lead to the selective processing of information according to preexisting cognitive categories and may consequently lead people to perceive and encode only that information which confirms the stereotype. In this way, people find justification for their defensive actions. These hypotheses were investigated in a survey research study, conducted with a sample of American community college adults. The results of the data analyses confirmed the hypothesis that U.S. citizens favor their country, over the Soviet Union and tend to interpret government actions in ways that preserve their positive views of the U.S. and negative views of the U.S.S.R. Americans' perceptions of the Soviets were found to influence how Soviet actions were interpreted and the interpretation of Soviet actions was related to policy support with more negative interpretations of Soviet actions being associated with greater support for the Strategic Defense Initiative and increased U.S. defense spending.

  10. Signs of a Soviet shift: conventional forces in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.V.

    1987-12-01

    What should NATO do in anticipation of a possible Soviet unilateral withdrawal of armor. As yet, only NATO Secretary General Lord Carrington and the British and West German governments seem to be taking the Soviet signals seriously. Many in NATO seem to console themselves with the hope that since Soviet unilateral reductions might jeopardize control over Eastern Europe they will never happen. That is especially inappropriate in view of domestic political, manpower, and budgetary constraints within NATO that are likely to inhibit conventional force improvements. Instead of taking refuge in denial or defensiveness, NATO could get out ahead of any Soviet initiative by proposing to eliminate NATO's battlefield nuclear weapons and constrain aircraft modernization in return for a substantial withdrawal and demobilization of Soviet armor and elimination of Soviet battlefield nuclear weapons. Or NATO might prepare to reciprocate any unilateral move by the East with a gesture of its own, for instance, withdrawing another 1000 short-range nuclear weapons from Europe or modestly reducing conventional forces and delaying some planned improvements. That would help NATO regain the political high ground. It might also give the West time to assess the military implications of various reduction schemes and prepare a negotiating position of its own. 8 references.

  11. The Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapoport, Z. TA.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    In the winter of 1983 to 1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE) of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron concentration in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratopheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during the stratospheric warmings the western wind in winter time becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron concentration and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  12. Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

  13. Soviet contributions towards MAP/WINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Z. Ts.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    In the winter of 1983/1984, the research institutes of the Soviet Union took an active part in the accomplishment of the project ``Winter in Northern Europe'' of the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP/WINE). Different methods were used to measure temperature, direction and velocity of wind, turbulence, electron density in the lower ionosphere, and radio wave absorption. The study of the stratospheric warmings and the related changes in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere was considered of special importance. The analysis of the obtained data has shown, in particular, that during stratospheric warmings the westerly wind in wintertime becomes weaker and even reverses. At the same time period the electron density and the radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere are often reduced. It is also observed that the high absorption zones move from west to east. These results confirm the concept about the role of the cyclonic circumpolar vortex in the transport of the auroral air to temperate latitudes and about the appearance of conditions for the winter anomalous radio wave absorption.

  14. Assessment of potential Soviet responses to evolving theater nuclear systems. Master's thesis August 1986-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wightman, R.O.

    1987-06-05

    This study focuses on the Soviet perceptions and decision-making processes that influence Soviet reaction to US initiatives in modernizing or developing theater nuclear systems. Beginning with a discussion about the consequences of previous U.S. misperceptions of Soviet intentions, the study supports the need for ongoing analysis of Soviet actions from the Soviet perspective. The Soviet view of the world is examined in terms of Marxist-Leninist ideology, Soviet fears of encirclement and invasion, and the Soviet perception of world power relationships or correlation of forces . The affect of Soviet military theory on reactions and responses to the subject of U.S. military developments is assessed, specifically in the areas of military doctrine and military science. The influence of military art is discussed with emphasis on strategy and operational art. The Party political controls on Soviet military matters are described, including a breakdown of the military decision making process. Soviet responses to U.S. nuclear weapons initiatives, including the Pershing II, Ground Launched Cruise Missile and Enhanced Radiation Weapons, are discussed in terms of military and political reactions. Soviet use of propaganda is highlighted. The importance of superiority and technology as an integral part of that superiority are examined, as is the Soviet use of technology transfer. This study hypothesizes that any Soviet reaction to U.S. action is based upon unique Soviet perceptions which are strongly influenced by Marxist-Leninist ideology, insecurity, military theory, Party bureaucracy, and world correlation of forces.

  15. Soviet policy toward male homosexuality: its origins and historical roots.

    PubMed

    Englestein, L

    1995-01-01

    Sodomy was a crime under tsarist criminal law. Having abrogated the tsarist legal codes in the name of socialist justice, the new Soviet regime did not at first impose criminal sanctions on sodomy. It was only in 1934, after Stalin had consolidated power, that an anti-sodomy statute was added to the Soviet criminal code. Although Russian radicals had never been friendly to variant sexual practices, which they viewed as the product of capitalist decadence, Soviet sexologists in the 1920s participated in the international movement for sexual reform and criminologists deplored the use of penal sanctions to censor private sexual conduct. The 1934 return to legal prosecution represented the recovery of two traditions: the radicals' disregard for issues of sexual freedom and tsarist legal custom. It was not, however, a clear reversal of the seemingly enlightened legal practice of the 1920s. This essay examines the trial of a group of homosexual men and the investigation of a lesbian couple, both from 1922, which show that Soviet courts tried to repress sexual variation even when homosexuality was not a crime. These cases and the status of homosexuality in general reflect on the murky status of the law and on the ambiguities of Soviet politics in the early years of the new regime. PMID:8666753

  16. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  17. Penetration mechanics research in the former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbell, W. M.; Anderson, C. E.; Asay, J. R.; Bless, S. J.; Grady, D. E.

    1992-09-01

    Recently published papers by scientists from the former Soviet Union reveal to Western researchers a mature body of highly inventive and dedicated research. To analyze and assess this work, a group of six internationally recognized U.S. experts in the field of penetration mechanics and hypervelocity impact reviewed hundreds of unclassified documents. Five broad, sometimes overlapping, research areas were chosen for assessment: hypervelocity impact capabilities; penetration mechanics experiments at ordnance velocities; analytical penetration mechanics; material response to high-velocity impact and penetration; and numerical simulations of penetration physics. Both similarities and differences between Soviet and Western research were noted and characterized, with particular attention paid to potential breakthrough technologies. Leading Soviet scientists and their organizations were identified, as were areas of potentially fruitful collaboration between researchers from the former Soviet Union and the United States. Soviet breakthroughs in penetration mechanics technology that far out-distanced Western efforts were not found, though potential breakthroughs were noted in several areas, including penetration models of brittle materials (principally ceramics), superdeep penetration of particles, and very-high-velocity electromagnetic launchers.

  18. Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet scientific migration: history and patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant scientists from other European countries (predominantly German) were crucial in establishing the tradition of modern science in the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since the 1860s, however, outgoing waves of scientific migration started originating in Russia, bringing important innovations to international science. The scale and patterns of migration varied greatly with the turbulent time. The talk will describe several landmark stages of the proceess and their cultural consequences: from opening higher education possibilities for women during the late 19th century, to post-1917 academic refugees and Soviet defectors, to the 1960s brain drain provoked by the launch of Sputnik, and to what can be called the first truly global scientific diaspora of Russophone scientists after 1990.

  19. Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Selina

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.

  20. World Opinion and the Soviet Satellite: A Preliminary Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    Less than two weeks after the launch of Sputnik I, the United States Information Agency conducted an informal analysis of public opinion on this subject. The analysis yielded four clear conclusions: (1) Soviet claims of scientific and technological superiority were widely accepted in the United States; (2) U.S. allies were concerned about a shift in the balance of military power; (3) the overall credibility of Soviet propaganda was greatly strengthened; and (4) American prestige was dealt a severe blow. The report also concluded that the near-hysteria in the United States in turn increased the level of concern in countries friendly to the United States. An evaluation is presented.

  1. Soviet and American ASTP crew sample candidate food items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Candidate food items being considered for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission are sampled by three ASTP crewmen in bldg 4 at JSC. They are, left to right, Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew; and Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP crew. Kubasov is marking a food rating chart on which the crewmen mark their choices, likes and dislikes of the food being sampled. Brand is drinking orange juice from an accordian-like dispenser. Leonov is eating butter cookies.

  2. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 88, March - April 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-03-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March-April 1987, and is No. 88 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical laser components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  3. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 64, March -April 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-03-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for March-April 1983, and is No. 64 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  4. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 65, May - June 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-05-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for May-June 1983, and is No. 65 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashot pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy, beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  5. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments: January - February 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-02-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for January and February 1988, and is No. 93 in a continuing series on Soviet Laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  6. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, September-October 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-10-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for September to October 1987, and is No. 91 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; crystal growing; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  7. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 83, May - June 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-09-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for May-June 1986, and is No. 83 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  8. Bibliography of Soviet laser developments, number 87, January - February 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-12-01

    This Soviet Laser Bibliography is no. 87 in a continuing series on Soviet Laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications systems; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser induced chemical reactions; measurement of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  9. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, no. 62, November - December 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-10-01

    This is the Soviet Laser Bibliography for November-December 1982, and is No. 62 in a continuing series on Soviet laser developments. The coverage includes basic research on solid state, liquid, gas, and chemical lasers; components; nonlinear optics; spectroscopy of laser materials; ultrashort pulse generation; theoretical aspects of advanced lasers; and general laser theory. Laser applications are listed under biological effects; communications; beam propagation; adaptive optics; computer technology; holography; laser-induced chemical reactions; measurements of laser parameters; laser measurement applications; laser-excited optical effects; laser spectroscopy; beam-target interaction; and plasma generation and diagnostics.

  10. Pushkin to Shukshin: Complementary Strands in the Texture of Soviet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevin, Patricia Ernenwein

    1980-01-01

    Discusses English reading texts used in the Soviet Union, which are English translations of Russian literature. Notes that such literature divides attention between the traditional and the progressive elements of Soviet culture. (DF)

  11. Teaching the Canon? Nation-Building and Post-Soviet Kazakhstan's Literature Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanova, Jazira

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses Kazakhstan's new generation literature textbooks for Kazakh-medium schools, with a focus on national identity and citizenship constructs that the revised textbooks promote. By comparing the literature textbooks of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, the paper discusses Soviet institutional and cultural legacies that continue to…

  12. Ideologies of Civic Participation in Central Asia: Liberal Arts in the Post-Soviet Democratic Ethos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.

    2010-01-01

    Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…

  13. Soviet Higher Education: An Alternative Construct to the Western University Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuraev, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the university was an alien establishment for Russia, reflecting the political ambition of its leadership, not the organic impetus of Russian society. In Soviet academia, the notion of university education was replaced by the concept of vocational-technical training. As a creation of the Soviet government, Soviet higher education…

  14. The Soviet System of Education. A PIER World Education Series Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovych, Erika; Levin-Stankevich, Brian

    This volume endeavors to provide comprehensive factual information on the Soviet system of education. Chapter 1 offers basic information on the Soviet Republics. Chapter 2 describes the foundations of Soviet Education. Chapter 3 describes preschool through upper secondary education including academic calendars and curriculum. Chapter 4,…

  15. Structure and Decision-Making in Soviet Education. Bulletin, 1964, No. 2. OE-14094

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudman, Herbert C.

    1964-01-01

    The study and analysis of Soviet political, social, and economic systems is as old as the Soviet Union itself, but an intensive study of its educational system is a recent development. Many scholars have turned their attention to the Soviet Union's educational system and have studied the curriculums, teaching methods, textbooks, and other…

  16. Trouble in the Backyard: Soviet Media Reporting on the Afghanistan Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of Soviet media coverage of Afghanistan from 1979 to 1986, showing that several familiar themes, from unpopular guerrillas to national security, are used to justify the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. Compares Soviet press coverage of Afghanistan with U.S. coverage of El Salvador, revealing several parallels. (ARH)

  17. Soviet Rural-Urban Integration through Mass Media Use: A Dependency Model Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Jo Ellen

    A review of policy statements made in the past 10 years in Soviet academic journals and Communist Party newspapers indicates that integrating rural and urban populations has become a concern of academics, government officials, and policymakers in the Soviet Union. One means by which the rural segment of Soviet society could be pushed or helped…

  18. U.S.-Soviet Relations: Testing Gorbachev's "New Thinking." Current Policy No. 985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armacost, Michael H.

    Forty years ago, George F. Kennan advanced the doctrine of containment against Soviet encroachment throughout the world. The Soviet Union has evolved from a Eurasian land power into a global superpower. In an effort to create an international environment congenial to domestic reforms, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has sought greater tranquility…

  19. Bacteriophages as Therapeutic and Prophylactic Means: Summary of the Soviet and Post Soviet Experiences.

    PubMed

    Chanishvili, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage (from 'bacteria' and Greek φαγεῖν phagein "to devour" or bacterial eaters) are bacterial viruses that infect and kill bacteria. Bacteriophages (shortly "phages") are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. The estimated number of phages on earth is about 1032. Bacteriophages are often isolated from environmental sources, such as water samples, etc. Felix d'Herelle, one of the discoverers of bacteriophages, was the one who suggested them for therapy of human and animal bacterial infections. This idea was very popular in the world until the advent of antibiotics commercial after which production of therapeutic phages ceased in most of the Western countries, but not in the former Soviet Union. The application of antibiotics in the clinical practice, besides the well-known side effects, entails, in addition, the appearance of the forms of bacteria, resistant to newly synthesized preparations. It was concluded that a European and global strategy to address this gap is urgently needed. Now, faced with the alarming growth of a variety of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, Western researchers and governments are giving phages a serious look. The phages nowadays are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. The therapeutic action of bacteriophages significantly differs from antibiotics, which makes them still active against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. Bacteriophages have a number of other advantages in comparison with antibiotics. First of all, they are efficient against multi-drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the past and current experiences in the field of phage therapy in the countries where it has been traditionally applied in the clinical practice. Although the style and quality of old Soviet scientific publications dedicated to phage therapy are not challenging the international standards, there is still valuable information which

  20. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known.

  1. Three Historical Subcultures in Post-Soviet Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sogrin, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching and public dissemination of Russian history in post-Soviet historiography has been shaped by a variety of approaches, including state-sponsored interpretations, views expressed in mass culture, and the work of academic historians. In this article, the author employs a specific method of differentiation to distinguish his present…

  2. Planning of Map and Atlas Work in Soviet Scientific Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslova, A. V.; Kodes, I. I.

    The cartography departments of the leading Soviet libraries--the Lenin State Library of the USSR, the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, and the Library of the USSR Academy of Sciences--perform a wide range of operations on cartographic works for reader service and for the development of reference tools and techniques to be used by other…

  3. Face to Face: U.S.-Soviet Summitry. Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Allen, Ed.

    This document is the discussion guide for a four part video/print series designed to contribute to the understanding of the U.S.-Soviet relationship and the summitry process which has become such a visible part of it. Each of the four 30-minute programs interweaves archival material with informal discussions by distinguished scholars about…

  4. Perestroyka in the Soviet Union. Occasional Paper No. 128.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhmoutov, Mirza Ismail

    This document presents the point of view that although socialism has produced benefits for the USSR, Soviet society has undertaken its own radical reconstruction. History shows that the natural basis of changes in every society tends to be objective technological revolutions. The first technological revolution was agrarian. The second was…

  5. Redefining Glasnost in the Soviet Media: The Recontextualization of Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marilyn J.; Launer, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    Demonstrates that a review of news coverage and an analysis of two documentary films in the context of Soviet cultural values and political stakes suggests that the rhetorical reconstruction of Chernobyl contributed to the legitimation of nuclear power and the environment as public issues. (PRA)

  6. PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE SOVIET OIL/DEBRIS SKIMMER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluation of a Soviet oil skimmer was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank in 1979. The skimmer was provided by the Black Sea Central Planning and Designing Bureau, Odessa. The ...

  7. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  8. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  9. Drawing of American ASTP crewmen searching for Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The American Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen search the skies for the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in this humorous artwork by Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov. Astronauts Vance D. Brand, Donald K. Slayton and Thomas P. Stafford (left to right) sit astride the Apollo spacecraft and Docking Module ready to lasso Soyuz. Leonov, an accomplished artist, specializes in painting on space subjects.

  10. Higher Education Correspondence Study in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Alexander J.

    Soviet education is designed not only to produce specialists whose skills will be more useful to the State, but also to reshape the character of the person so that it is compatible with Communist ideology. The study attempts to investigate and describe the development of higher education correspondence study in the U.S.S.R. Subproblems…

  11. Soviet School Literature Teaching about World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Beatrice Beach

    1986-01-01

    This issue is a collection of recently written Russian literature commemorating the end of World War II. Included are diary excerpts, poems and photos along with suggestions for how this literature should be used in schools to help celebrate the Soviets' victory in what they term "the Great Patriotic War." (JDH)

  12. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  13. The Press of the Soviet Union: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergethon, Bruce; And Others

    Compiled in response to the need for more information on the differences between the press systems of the United States and the Soviet Union, this bibliography contains 240 entries. Consisting of newspaper articles, journal articles, books, and pamphlets, the bibliography provides an overview of the different journalistic philosophies of the two…

  14. Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kitty D.

    The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

  15. Resources for Russian Education: Soviet Strategies in Historical Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examines Soviet strategies for education during its first four decades as they may be deduced from the resources put at its disposal. Despite the political importance for education and for proletarian empowerment at the workplace ("vydvizhenie"), the total enrolment ratio was only one-third higher than in the Tsarist period, although…

  16. Soviet Cinema and State Control: Lenin's Nationalization Decree Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepley, Vance, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a revisionist account of the immediate conditions and consequences of the 1919 Soviet cinema nationalization decree. Argues that nationalization was the least successful of a set of stop-gap measures; that it dispersed and diluted control; and that it actually retarded the growth of the film industry. (KEH)

  17. U.S.-Soviet Relations. Close Up Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet, part of a video and print educational unit consisting of a student text, a teacher's guide, and four 30-minute videotapes, focuses on the U.S.-Soviet relationship, attempting to distinguish what guides each nation's actions in the world as a whole and with each other. Chapter 1, "Differing World Views," examines how differing…

  18. U.S.-Soviet Relations Teacher's Guide: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibucos, Pamela E.

    This teacher's guide provides student objectives, motivational devices, terms and concepts to know, student activities, evaluation ideas, and suggestions for using an accompanying four-part videotape series. An activity for chapter 1, "Differing World Views," divides the class into groups that list U.S.-Soviet differences in economic systems,…

  19. Detecting the Soviet bomb: Joe-1 in a rain barrel

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Lockhart, L.B.; Blifford, I.H.

    1996-11-01

    The Soviet Union made not announcement after its first atomic bomb test in 1949{endash}but the US did. This is the hitherto untold story of how the secret was extracted from rainwater. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. SOVIET POLITICAL SCHOOLS, THE COMMUNIST PARTY ADULT INSTRUCTION SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MICKIEWICZ, ELLEN PROPPER

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF SOVIET ADULT POLITICAL EDUCATION MAINLY AS IT APPLIES TO RUSSIAN URBAN AREAS, WHERE THE SYSTEM IS MOST HIGHLY DEVELOPED. THIS SYSTEM, AN AGENCY FOR TRANSMITTING POLITICAL DOCTRINE, FORMS A PART OF THE VAST NETWORK OF FORMAL POLITICAL COMMUNICATION, WHICH INCLUDES THE MASS MEDIA, AGITATION, AND COMMUNIST PARTY LEADERSHIP…

  1. American News Media and Soviet Diplomacy, 1934-41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Thomas R.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the coverage given by 35 newspapers to United States-Soviet Union relations during 1934-41 reveals that newspapers with the most interest in foreign affairs expressed the opinion that Stalin had abandoned the idea of world revolution, while those with less interest viewed him as an imperialist. (FL)

  2. Soviet Pedagogical Innovations, 1960s through 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gireva, L. D.

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes the period in Soviet Russia from the late 1950s to the early 1990s as one marked by socioeconomic change and Communist Party restructuring. Discusses the effect this turmoil had on the educational system. Reforms instituted during this time formed the basis for many of the changes implemented with perestroika. (MJP)

  3. Education in the Soviet Union: Has "Perestroika" Met Its Match?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Gerald Howard

    1989-01-01

    In late 1988, the Soviet Union's "perestroika" entered a new stage aimed at developing human resources and fostering democratic processes. Educators' and parents' discontent with the centralized bureaucracy and rigid educational administrative structure will press officials to formulate a comprehensive new education theory to achieve 19 future…

  4. Continuity and Change in Soviet Education under Gorbachev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Delbert H.

    1990-01-01

    The implications for Soviet education of "glasnost,""perestroika," and the other interrelated concepts of Gorbachev's reform program are examined. The manner in which Gorbachev's concept of restructuring has shaped the efforts of schools to promote communist ethics, the human factor, and independent thinking is considered. (SLD)

  5. Potential Soviet compromise on ballistic missile defense. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.P.

    1989-11-01

    The body of this research memorandum was written before the Baker-Shevardnadze meeting in Wyoming. It presented evidence suggesting that the Soviet Union might agree to a compromise at the Wyoming meeting that defers the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) negotiations to a later stage in arms reductions, thus facilitating a first-stage cut in offensive arms without an explicit Soviet endorsement of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Through this compromise, offensive arms reductions should first be delinked from an agreement on BMD, and then be relinked during the second stage of deeper cuts. Therefore, negotiations on limiting BMD systems, though deterred, are deemed inevitable if the U.S. persists in deploying a strategic defense system (SDS). Moreover, some Soviet arms controllers already look beyond the first stage to the prospect of negotiated transition into a strategic defense environment (i.e., a reliance on defensive deterrence). In this approach, Wyoming, then, was expected to be only a first move in the Soviet negotiating strategy for a grand compromise on strategic defense. As explained in the afterword added to the paper, the actual events at Wyoming seem consistent with that interpretation.

  6. Soviet SDI Rhetoric: The "Evil Empire" Vision of Mikhail Gorbachev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Colleen E.

    The symbolic presence of Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) has been and continues to be the pivot point in all summitry rhetoric between the American President and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. To examine some of the rhetorical choices made by Gorbachev to dramatize his vision of why Ronald Reagan refuses to…

  7. Visa Problems and Study Tours of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes the "study tour of the Soviet Union," for several years a feature of the three-week interim term at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Discusses tour organization, related orientation activities and itineraries, dwelling at length on problems encountered, especially recent last-minute denials of visa to group leaders. (MES)

  8. Yessis Review of Soviet Physical Education and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yessis, Michael, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The following articles on athletics in the Soviet Union are edited and translated for American readers: (1) "Isokinetic Exercises"; (2) "Breathing During the Execution of Precise Motor Acts"; (3) "Investigation of the Running of Pre-School Age Children"; (4) "Al Feuerback and V. Voikin in the Shot Put"; (5) "The Influence of Anthropometric…

  9. U.S.-Soviet Cooperation in Space. A Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report consists of an executive summary and five chapters. Chapter 1, an introduction, discusses the potential advantages and disadvantages of cooperation in space. Chapter 2 outlines the history of United States-Soviet cooperation in space, and the policy debates which have taken place in the U.S. since the beginning of the space age. It…

  10. Operating margin of Soviet RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.M.; Robinson, G.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hochreiter, L.E. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on a coupled thermal- hydraulic analysis that is performed for the Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear power reactor to assess the operating margin to critical heat flux (CHF); the Chernobyl-4 reactor serves as the principal model for this study. Calculations are performed using a simplified subchannel analysis. The overall analysis involves an iterative search to determine the individual subchannel flow rates, and a boiling transition analysis is performed to obtain a measure of the core operating margin. The operating margin is determined via two distinct methods. The first involves a calculation of the core critical power ratio (CPR) using an empirically derived correlation that the Soviets developed expressly for the RBMK-1000. Additionally, various subchannel CHF correlations typical of those used in the design of nuclear-powered reactors in the United States are also employed. When the Soviet critical power correlation is used, the calculations carried out for both normal operating and reference overpower conditions result in CPRs of 1.115 and 1.019, respectively. In most cases, the subchannel CHF correlations indicate that additional operating margin over that calculated by the Soviet critical power correlation exists for this design.

  11. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorovitch, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet…

  12. The Soviet Successor States and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    This document is a guide to provide teachers and curriculum consultants with an up to date overview of the histories, cultures, and current issues concerning the region of the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It is not intended as an in depth study of the area or people. The guide is divided into two parts. The first discusses the Soviet…

  13. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  14. Analysis of VET in Ukraine Since the Soviet Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinser, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational education and training (VET) in Ukraine has changed since the Soviet era; and to determine its structure, successes, and challenges. Design/methodology/approach: The author conducted interviews and tours at 15 vocational schools in seven cities in Ukraine. Findings: Ukraine is…

  15. Glasnost and the Business Information Sector: Soviet Problems and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konn, Tania

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of glasnost on the availability of business information from the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe highlights online services.These include general information sources, specialized business services, industry-specific services, new services, and forthcoming developments. Problems in dealing with the increased availability of…

  16. How Valuable are Scientific Exchanges with the Soviet Union?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Loren R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the scope of present cooperation in science and technology between the United States and the Soviet Union. Also summarizes the most important results of the recent evaluations of the programs and suggests ways in which the programs can be made more effective. (HM)

  17. Soviet books and publications on hydrology (continental) and hydrogeology: titles and some notes on obtaining Soviet monographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.

    1966-01-01

    A common method of publication for Soviet scientists, which partly supplants periodicals, is the publication of a collection of articles on a general area of research, frequently by members of a given institution. An extensive sampling of world geologic literature for 1961 (Hawkes, 1966) showed that 33 percent of Soviet titles appeared in periodicals whereas 55 percent of North American and 70 percent of Western European literature appeared in this form. The Soviet predilection for symposia and collections of papers makes searching for information on a given subject more difficult for Westerners because the monographs in question are often not included in exchange agreements (except informal personal ones) with Western libraries and institutions, because they may be primed in small editions, and because such publications frequently escape the notice of Western abstract journals. Unless one is fortunate enough to have many personal contacts in the Soviet Union, there seems to be little alternative to at least a rudimentary knowledge of Russian in order to stay abreast of work published as monographs and in collections.

  18. The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordyke, M.D.

    2000-07-26

    During a period of some 23 years between 1965 and 1988, the Soviet Union's ''Program for the Utilization of Nuclear Explosions in the National Economy'' carried out 122 nuclear explosions to study and put into industrial use some 13 applications. In all, 128 explosives with yields ranging from 0.01 to 140 kt were used, with the vast majority being between 2 and 20 kt. Most peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the Soviet PNE Program were explored in depth with a number of tests, but unfortunately little has been reported on the technical results other than general outcomes. Two applications, deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle and the creation of underground cavities in salt for the storage of gas condensate, found widespread use, representing over 50% of all the explosions. Explosions to explore the technical possibilities of stimulating the production of oil and gas reservoirs accounted for an additional 17%.

  19. The prevalence of toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries.

    PubMed

    Sharov, Petr; Dowling, Russell; Gogishvili, Megi; Jones, Barbara; Caravanos, Jack; McCartor, Andrew; Kashdan, Zachary; Fuller, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Using a global database of contaminated sites, toxic hotspots in eight former Soviet countries were analyzed to identify the prevalence, types and sources of toxic pollution, as well as their associated potential public health impacts. For this analysis, polluted sites in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan were compiled and analyzed. The levels of contamination of seven key pollutants were assessed in each country. 424 contaminated sites were identified using data from Blacksmith Institute. Pesticides, lead (Pb), radioactive metals, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) were the most commonly identified key pollutants. Collectively, these sites pose health risks to an estimated 6.2 million residents. The existing data on toxic hotspots in former Soviet countries likely captures only a small percentage of actual contaminated sites, but suggests potentially severe public health consequences. Additional assessments are needed to understand the risks posed by toxic pollution in the region. PMID:26796744

  20. The changing face of environmentalism in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Igor Izodorovich Altshuler and Ruben Artyomovich Mnatsakanyan are scientific researchers in the department of geography at Moscow State University and cofounders of the Association for the Support of Ecological initiatives established by the Soviet Foundation for Social Innovations. They authored a report on glasnost and ecology in the Soviet Union published in the December 1988 ENVIRONMENT. Recently, Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan visited ENVIRONMENT's offices in Washington, D.C., and talked at length about environmental problems and issues in the USSR. This paper presents excerpts of an interview of Altshuler and Mnatsakanyan conducted by Barbara Richman, managing editor of ENVIRONMENT. They discuss environmental problems, global climate change, agriculture, lack of information on the biggest polluters, transboundary pollution, impact of recent elections on environmental policy, the use of environmental impact assessments, public information about the environment, training of reporters, environmental organizations, and lack of money and political obstacles to environmental improvements.

  1. THE NEW FIVE-DAY WORKWEEK IN THE SOVIET UNION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASH, EDMUND

    IT WAS ESTIMATED BY THE SOVIET PRESS THAT, AS A RESULT OF A MARCH 1967 DECREE, ABOUT 82 PERCENT OF THE COUNTRY'S 80 MILLION WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS WOULD MOVE FROM THE TRADITIONAL 6 TO THE 5-DAY WORKWEEK BY NOVEMBER OF THE SAME YEAR. UNDER CERTAIN PRODUCTION AND WORKING CONDITIONS, THE PREVIOUS PATTERN OF A 7-HOUR WEEKDAY AND A 6-HOUR SATURDAY WAS…

  2. Post-Soviet transition: improving health services delivery and management.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Joseph; Phillips, Frank; Johnson, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    During the post-Soviet transition of the last 2 decades, ex-Communist countries of the Eastern Bloc, including eastern and central Europe, the Soviet Union, and its satellite and aligned states, have undergone major health system reforms. Many health systems of those countries--previously adopting a Soviet-type Semashko model--are currently called "in transition," as reform agendas, such as shifting to a Bismarck, Beveridge, or mixed financing scheme or adopting new health delivery management policies, are still in development. In this article, we first review common characteristics of Semashko health systems (the predominant health system of Communist countries during the Soviet era) and then discuss the "new public management" principles that ex-Communist countries have recently started to adopt with various degrees of success. We then illustrate experiences with these principles using 2 case studies, from Russia and Albania, and propose health policy options for both cases. Based on a review of the literature and on the our work experience in Russia and Albania, we found that the 2 ex-Semashko systems have not fully capitalized on expected positive outcomes of new public management principles due to low local healthcare financing levels, depreciated healthcare infrastructure and operational capacities, overlapping and contradicting ideology and policies of the former and newer health systems, and finally, lack of leadership that has successful experience with these principles. In the case of pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement, and access in Russia, we show how a well-intentioned but suboptimally designed and managed pharmaceutical coverage scheme has suffered moral hazard and adverse selection and has adversely impacted the new public management promise of efficient medicine coverage. In the case of Albania, the delayed investment in human resource reform within a depreciated and underfinanced delivery system has adversely affected the implementation of new

  3. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. PMID:25969502

  4. Troubled lands: The legacy of Soviet environmental destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents a picture of daily life and environmental conditions in the former Soviet Union, based on the personal contacts of the author and on local media coverage. The challenges of living with contaminated food, drinking water, land, and air are described. Also examined are developments in the region's environmental policy and politics and what the long-term effects could be. Information on environmental conditions in other regions of the world are given for comparison.

  5. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  6. Nuclear energy safety challenges in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Fifteen nuclear reactors of the type that exploded at Chernobyl in April 1986 are still operating in Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. The West, concerned about safety of operations, wants these reactors shut down, but the host nations refuse. The electricity these reactors supply is nuch too important for their economies, so the argument goes. The report defines policy options and procedures to implement those options for the acceptable resolution of the nuclear power safety issues facing the former Soviet Union.

  7. Globalization, marine regime shifts and the Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Österblom, Henrik; Folke, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts have been observed in marine ecosystems around the world, with climate and fishing suggested as major drivers of such shifts. The global and regional dynamics of the climate system have been studied in this context, and efforts to develop an analogous understanding of fishing activities are developing. Here, we investigate the timing of pelagic marine regime shifts in relation to the emergence of regional and global fishing activities of the Soviet Union. Our investigation of official catch statistics reflects that the Soviet Union was a major fishing actor in all large marine ecosystems where regime shifts have been documented, including in ecosystems where overfishing has been established as a key driver of these changes (in the Baltic and Black Seas and the Scotian Shelf). Globalization of Soviet Union fishing activities pushed exploitation to radically new levels and triggered regional and global governance responses for improved management. Since then, exploitation levels have remained and increased with new actors involved. Based on our exploratory work, we propose that a deeper understanding of the role of global fishing actors is central for improved management of marine ecosystems.

  8. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  9. Crisis in environmental management of the Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabibullov, Marat

    1991-11-01

    The prevailing system of environmental management strongly depends on the economic and political structures of a country and is influenced by the current condition of them. Environmental degradation in the Soviet Union has been caused mainly by the political and economic misconceptions listed in this article. With the transformation of its state order to the model of Western democracies, the Soviet Union is experiencing a deep economic crisis of restructuring, reflected in a parallel crisis in its system of environmental management, which is manifest in the form of rapid transformation. This is characterized by the contradiction of the state’s old administrative institutions, which still exist, with the efforts to use market mechanisms of environmental control. Such methods include various fees and payments for the use of natural resources or for pollution and creation of specialized regional funds and banks to finance environmental programs. All these occur in the context of the strengthening of regional sovereignty, the introduction of self-accounting for economic units, the adoption of comprehensive legal enactments, and the setting up of an efficient administrative system of their enforcement. Public activism, as one of the principal actors in this structure, also has undergone quick maturation. Nevertheless the future development of the new Soviet system of environmental control remains uncertain because of the present unpredictability of the overall situation in the short run.

  10. Soviet exploitation of the nuclear winter hypothesis. Technical report, 8 May 1984-4 June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-05

    This study, which is based entirely on open Soviet sources, examines and analyzes Soviet views on and uses made by Soviet scientists of the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. In particular, the study seeks to ascertain whether Soviet scientists have in fact independently confirmed the TTAPS prediction of a Nuclear Winter phenomenon or have contributed independent data or scenarios to it. The findings of the study are that the Soviets view the Nuclear Winter hypothesis as a political and propaganda opportunity to influence Western scientific and public opinion and to restrain U.S. defense programs. Analysis of Soviet publications shows that, in fact, Soviet scientists have made no independent or new contributions to the study of the Nuclear Winter phenomenon, but have uncritically made use of the worst-case scenarios, parameters, and values published in the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio 1982) and the TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies, as well as models of atmospheric circulation borrowed from Western sources. Furthermore, current Soviet directives to scientists call for work on the further strengthening of the Soviet Union's military might, while it is also explained that the dire predictions of the possible consequences of a nuclear war in no way diminish the utility of the Soviet civil defense program and the need for its further improvement.